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246 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

Static
pressure
Total holes
Flow head Flow
A B
tube
C

p p0 p

p0
(a) Total head tube used (b) Pitot-static tube
with wall static tap
Fig. 6.4 Simultaneous measurement of stagnation and static pressures.

as shown. (The stem of the total head tube is placed downstream from the mea-
surement location to minimize disturbance of the local flow.)
Two probes often are combined, as in the pitot-static tube shown in Fig. 6.4b. The
inner tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure at point B, while the static
pressure at C is sensed using the small holes in the outer tube. In flow fields where the
static pressure variation in the streamwise direction is small, the pitot-static tube may
be used to infer the speed at point B in the flow by assuming pB 5 pC and using
Eq. 6.12. (Note that when pB 6 pC, this procedure will give erroneous results.)
Remember that the Bernoulli equation applies only for incompressible flow (Mach
number M # 0.3). The definition and calculation of the stagnation pressure for
compressible flow will be discussed in Section 12.3.

E
xample 6.2 PITOT TUBE
A pitot tube is inserted in an air flow (at STP) to measure the flow speed. The tube is inserted so that it points
upstream into the flow and the pressure sensed by the tube is the stagnation pressure. The static pressure is measured
at the same location in the flow, using a wall pressure tap. If the pressure difference is 30 mm of mercury, determine
the flow speed.

Given: A pitot tube inserted in a flow as shown. The flowing fluid is air and the manometer liquid is mercury.
Find: The flow speed.
Solution:
p V2
Governing equation: 1 1 gz 5 constant Air flow
2
Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.
(2) Incompressible flow.
(3) Flow along a streamline.
(4) Frictionless deceleration along stagnation streamline. 30 mm

Writing Bernoullis equation along the stagnation streamline (with z 5 0) yields


Mercury
2
p0 p V
5 1
2

p0 is the stagnation pressure at the tube opening where the speed has been reduced, without friction, to zero. Solving
for V gives
s
2p0 2 p
V5
air
6.3 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Eulers Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 247

From the diagram,


This prob
p0 2 p 5 Hg gh 5 H2 O ghSGHg lem illus
tube to d tra
etermine tes use of a pito
pitot-sta flow spe t
tic) ed. Pitot
and the exteri tubes are often (or
or of airc placed o
s speed re raft to in n
2H2 O ghSGHg lative to dicate air
V5 hence air the aircra
craft spe ft, and
air ed relati
ve to the
v air.
u
u kg m m3 1m
5 t2 3 1000 3 3 9:81 2 3 30 mm 3 13:6 3 3
m s 1:23 kg 1000 mm

V 5 80:8 m=s
V

At T 5 20 C, the speed of sound in air is 343 m/s. Hence, M 5 0.236 and the assumption of incompressible
flow is valid.

Applications
The Bernoulli equation can be applied between any two points on a streamline
provided that the other three restrictions are satisfied. The result is

p1 V2 p2 V2
1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2 6:13
2 2

where subscripts 1 and 2 represent any two points on a streamline. Applications of


Eqs. 6.8 and 6.13 to typical flow problems are illustrated in Examples 6.3 through 6.5.
In some situations, the flow appears unsteady from one reference frame, but steady
from another, which translates with the flow. Since the Bernoulli equation was derived
by integrating Newtons second law for a fluid particle, it can be applied in any inertial
reference frame (see the discussion of translating frames in Section 4.4). The proce-
dure is illustrated in Example 6.6.

E
xample 6.3 NOZZLE FLOW
Air flows steadily at low speed through a horizontal nozzle (by definition a device for accelerating a flow), dis-
charging to atmosphere. The area at the nozzle inlet is 0.1 m2. At the nozzle exit, the area is 0.02 m2. Determine the
gage pressure required at the nozzle inlet to produce an outlet speed of 50 m/s.

Given: Flow through a nozzle, as shown.


Find: p1 2 patm.
CV
Solution:
p2 = patm
Governing equations: 1
V2 = 50 m/s
Streamline A2 = 0.02 m2
2
p1 V2 p2 V2 A1 = 0.1 m2
1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2 6:13
2 2

Continuity for incompressible and uniform flow:


X
V ~50
~A 4:13b
CS
248 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.


(2) Incompressible flow.
(3) Frictionless flow.
(4) Flow along a streamline.
(5) z 1 5 z2.
(6) Uniform flow at sections 1 and 2 .
The maximum speed of 50 m/s is well below 100 m/s, which corresponds to Mach number M  0.3 in standard air.
Hence, the flow may be treated as incompressible.
Apply the Bernoulli equation along a streamline between points 1 and 2 to evaluate p1. Then

p1 2 patm 5 p1 2 p2 5 V22 2 V12
2
Apply the continuity equation to determine V1,

2V1 A1 1 V2 A2 5 0 or V1 A1 5 V2 A2
Notes:
This p
so that roblem il
applicati lustrates
on a typical
A2 m 0:02 m2 equation of the Bernoulli
V1 5 V2 5 50 3 5 10 m=s .
A1 s 0:1 m2 The str
eamlines
at the in must be
let straig
For air at standard conditions, 5 1.23 kg/m3. Then have unif and exit in order ht
orm pres to
2 locations sures at
. those
p1 2 patm 5 V 2 V12
2 2
 
1 kg m2 m2 N  s2
5 3 1:23 3 502 2 2 102 2
2 m s s kg  m
p1 2 patm
p1 2 patm 5 1:48 kPa

E
xample 6.4 FLOW THROUGH A SIPHON
A U-tube acts as a water siphon. The bend in the tube is 1 m above the water surface; the tube outlet is 7 m below the
water surface. The water issues from the bottom of the siphon as a free jet at atmospheric pressure. Determine (after
listing the necessary assumptions) the speed of the free jet and the minimum absolute pressure of the water in the
bend.

Given: Water flowing through a siphon as shown. A

Find: (a) Speed of water leaving as a free jet. z


(b) Pressure at point A (the minimum pressure point) in the flow. 1m
1 z=0
Solution:
p V2
Governing equation: 1 1 gz 5 constant
2 8m

Assumptions: (1) Neglect friction.


(2) Steady flow.
(3) Incompressible flow.
(4) Flow along a streamline. 2
(5) Reservoir is large compared with pipe.
Apply the Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 .
6.3 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Eulers Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 249

p1 V2 p2 V2
1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2
2 2

Since areareservoir c areapipe, then V1  0. Also p1 5 p2 5 patm, so

V22
gz1 5 1 gz2 and V22 5 2gz1 2 z2
2
s
p m
V2 5 2gz1 2 z2 5 2 3 9:81 2 3 7 m Notes:
s
This p
roblem il
5 11:7 m=s V2 tion of th lustrates
e Bernou an ap
lli equati plica-

includes on that
To determine the pressure at location A , we write the Bernoulli It is in elevation change
teresting s.
equation between 1 and A . the Bern to n
oulli equ ote that when
between atio
V2 V2 a reservo n applies
p1 pA that it fe ir and a
1 1 1 gz1 5 1 A 1 gzA eds free jet
2 2 the reserv at a location h
oirpsu rface, below
will be V
Again V1  0 and from conservation of mass VA 5 V2. Hence 5 2 gh the jet speed
velocity ; this is th
a drople
without t (or ston e same
friction fr e)
pA
5
p1 V2
1 gz1 2 2 2 gzA 5
p1 V2
1 gz1 2 zA 2 2 level wou om the re falling
ld serv
2 2 h. Can yo attain if it fell a d oir
Alway u explain w istance
s take ca hy?
V22 friction in re when
pA 5 p1 1 gz1 2 zA 2 any intern neglectin
problem, a g
neglectin l flow. In this
2
sonable g
if the pip friction is rea-
N kg m N  s2 surfaced e is smo
5 1:01 3 105 1 999 3 3 9:81 2 3 21 m and is re oth-
Chapter la
kg  m 8 we wil tively short. In
m2 m s
effects in l study fr
internal ictional
1 kg m2 N  s2 flows.
2 3 999 3 3 11:72 2 3
2 m s kg  m
pA
pA 5 22.8 kPa (abs) or 278.5 kPa (gage)

E
xample 6.5 FLOW UNDER A SLUICE GATE
Water flows under a sluice gate on a horizontal bed at the inlet to a flume. Upstream from the gate, the water depth is
1.5 ft and the speed is negligible. At the vena contracta downstream from the gate, the flow streamlines are straight
and the depth is 2 in. Determine the flow speed downstream from the gate and the discharge in cubic feet per second
per foot of width.

Given: Flow of water under a sluice gate.


Find: (a) V2. Sluice gate g
(b) Q in ft3/s/ft of width.
V1 ~
0 Vena contracta
z D1 = 1.5 ft
Solution: D2 = 2 in.
V2
Under the assumptions listed below, the flow satisfies all
conditions necessary to apply the Bernoulli equation. The
1 2
question is, what streamline do we use?
250 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

p1 V2 p2 V2
Governing equation: 1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2
2 2
Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.
(2) Incompressible flow.
(3) Frictionless flow.
(4) Flow along a streamline.
(5) Uniform flow at each section.
(6) Hydrostatic pressure distribution (at each location, pressure increases linearly with depth).
If we consider the streamline that runs along the bottom of the channel (z 5 0), because of assumption 6 the
pressures at 1 and 2 are
p1 5 patm 1 gD1 and p2 5 patm 1 gD2

so that the Bernoulli equation for this streamline is

patm 1 gD1 V12 patm 1 gD2 V22


1 5 1
2 2

or
V12 V2
1 gD1 5 2 1 gD2 1
2 2
On the other hand, consider the streamline that runs along the free surface on both sides and down the inner surface
of the gate. For this streamline

patm V2 patm V2
1 1 1 gD1 5 1 2 1 gD2
2 2

or
V12 V2
1 gD1 5 2 1 gD2 1
2 2
We have arrived at the same equation (Eq. 1) for the streamline at the bottom and the streamline at the free surface,
implying the Bernoulli constant is the same for both streamlines. We will see in Section 6.6 that this flow is one of a
family of flows for which this is the case. Solving for V2 yields
q
V2 5 2gD1 2 D2 1 V12

But V12  0, so
v
0 1
u
u
p u ft ft A
V2 5 2gD1 2 D2 5 t2 3 32:2 2 3 @1:5 ft 2 2 in: 3
s 12 in:

V2 5 9:27 ft=s
V2

For uniform flow, Q 5 VA 5 VDw, or

Q ft ft
5 VD 5 V2 D2 5 9:27 1 2 in: 3 5 1:55 ft2=s
w s 12 in:
Q
Q w
5 1:55 ft3 =s=foot of width
w
6.3 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Eulers Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 251

E
xample 6.6 BERNOULLI EQUATION IN TRANSLATING REFERENCE FRAME
A light plane flies at 150 km/hr in standard air at an altitude of 1000 m. Determine the stagnation pressure at the
leading edge of the wing. At a certain point close to the wing, the air speed relative to the wing is 60 m/s. Compute
the pressure at this point.

Given: Aircraft in flight at 150 km/hr at 1000 m altitude in standard air.

Vair = 0
pair @ 1000 m
VB = 60 m/s Observer
A B (relative to wing)
Vw = 150 km/hr

Find: Stagnation pressure, p0A, at point A and static pressure, pB, at point B.
Solution:
Flow is unsteady when observed from a fixed frame, that is, by an observer on the ground. However, an observer on
the wing sees the following steady flow:

Observer
B VB = 60 m/s
A
pair @ 1000 m
Vair = Vw = 150 km/hr

At z 5 1000 m in standard air, the temperature is 281 K and the speed of sound is 336 m/s. Hence at point B,
MB 5 VB/c 5 0.178. This is less than 0.3, so the flow may be treated as incompressible. Thus the Bernoulli equation
can be applied along a streamline in the moving observers inertial reference frame.
pair V2 pA V2 pB V2
Governing equation: 1 air 1 gzair 5 1 A 1 gzA 5 1 B 1 gzB
2 2 2
Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.
(2) Incompressible flow (V , 100 m/s).
(3) Frictionless flow.
(4) Flow along a streamline.
(5) Neglect z.
Values for pressure and density may be found from Table A.3. Thus, at 1000 m, p/pSL 5 0.8870 and /SL 5 0.9075.
Consequently,
N
p 5 0:8870pSL 5 0:8870 3 1:01 3 105 5 8:96 3 104 N=m2
m2
and

kg
5 0:9075SL 5 0:9075 3 1:23 5 1:12 kg=m3
m3
Since the speed is VA 5 0 at the stagnation point,

1 2
p0A 5 pair 1 V
2 air
 2
N 1 kg km m hr N  s2
5 8:96 3 10 2 1 3 1:12 3 150
4
3 1000 3 3
m 2 m hr km 3600 s kg  m
p0A
p0A 5 90:6 kPaabs
252 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

Solving for the static pressure at B, we obtain


This prob
lem gives
wing gen a
erates lift hint as to how a
1
pB 5 pair 1 Vair
2
2 VB2 . The inco
2 a velocity ming
and acce air 5 150 km=hr 5 air has
V
 2 lerates to 41:7 m=s
N 1 kg km m hr surface. 60 m/s o
pB 5 8:96 3 10 2 1 3 1:12 3
4
3 1000 3 This lead n the upp
150 Bernoulli s, throug er
m 2 m hr km 3600 s equation h the
1 kPa (fro , to a press
 m8 ure
m 2 N  s2 out that th 9.6 kPa to 88.6 kP drop of
2
2 60 2 e flow de a). It turn
lower surf ce s
s kg  m ace, lead lerates on the
of about in
1 kPa. He g to a pressure ris
pB ences a n nce e
pB 5 88:6 kPaabs
et upward , the wing experi-
of about pressure
2 kPa, a
significan difference
t effect.

Cautions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation


In Examples 6.3 through 6.6, we have seen several situations where the Bernoulli
equation may be applied because the restrictions on its use led to a reasonable flow
model. However, in some situations you might be tempted to apply the Bernoulli
equation where the restrictions are not satisfied. Some subtle cases that violate the
restrictions are discussed briefly in this section.
Example 6.3 examined flow in a nozzle. In a subsonic nozzle (a converging section)
the pressure drops, accelerating a flow. Because the pressure drops and the walls
of the nozzle converge, there is no flow separation from the walls and the boundary
layer remains thin. In addition, a nozzle is usually relatively short so frictional effects
are not significant. All of this leads to the conclusion that the Bernoulli equation is
suitable for use for subsonic nozzles.
CLASSIC VIDEO Sometimes we need to decelerate a flow. This can be accomplished using a subsonic
diffuser (a diverging section), or by using a sudden expansion (e.g., from a pipe into a
Flow Visualization. reservoir). In these devices the flow decelerates because of an adverse pressure gra-
dient. As we discussed in Section 2.6, an adverse pressure gradient tends to lead to
rapid growth of the boundary layer and its separation. Hence, we should be careful in
applying the Bernoulli equation in such devicesat best, it will be an approximation.
Because of area blockage caused by boundary-layer growth, pressure rise in actual
diffusers always is less than that predicted for inviscid one-dimensional flow.
The Bernoulli equation was a reasonable model for the siphon of Example 6.4
because the entrance was well rounded, the bends were gentle, and the overall length
was short. Flow separation, which can occur at inlets with sharp corners and in abrupt
bends, causes the flow to depart from that predicted by a one-dimensional model and the
Bernoulli equation. Frictional effects would not be negligible if the tube were long.
Example 6.5 presented an open-channel flow analogous to that in a nozzle, for
which the Bernoulli equation is a good flow model. The hydraulic jump is an example
of an open-channel flow with adverse pressure gradient. Flow through a hydraulic
jump is mixed violently, making it impossible to identify streamlines. Thus the Ber-
noulli equation cannot be used to model flow through a hydraulic jump. We will see a
more detailed presentation of open channel flows in Chapter 11.
The Bernoulli equation cannot be applied through a machine such as a propeller,
pump, turbine, or windmill. The equation was derived by integrating along a stream
6.4 The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation 255

It looks like we needed restriction (7) to finally transform the energy equation into the
Bernoulli equation. In fact, we didnt! It turns out that for an incompressible and fric-
tionless flow [restriction (6), and the fact we are looking only at flows with no shear
forces], restriction (7) is automatically satisfied, as we will demonstrate in Example 6.7.

E
xample 6.7 INTERNAL ENERGY AND HEAT TRANSFER IN FRICTIONLESS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
Consider frictionless, incompressible flow with heat transfer. Show that

Q
u2 2 u1 5
dm

Given: Frictionless, incompressible flow with heat transfer.


Q
Show: u2 2 u1 5 .
dm
Solution:
In general, internal energy can be expressed as u 5 u(T, v). For incompressible flow, v 5 constant, and u 5 u(T). Thus
the thermodynamic state of the fluid is determined by the single thermodynamic property, T. For any process, the
internal energy change, u2 2 u1, depends only on the temperatures at the end states.
From the Gibbs equation, Tds 5 du 1 dv, valid for a pure substance undergoing any process, we obtain

Tds 5 du

for incompressible flow, since dv 5 0. Since the internal energy change, du, between specified end states, is inde-
pendent of the process, we take a reversible process, for which Tds 5 d(Q/dm) 5 du. Therefore,

Q
u2 2 u 1 5
dm

For the steady, frictionless, and incompressible flow considered in this section, it is
true that the first law of thermodynamics reduces to the Bernoulli equation. Each term
in Eq. 6.15 has dimensions of energy per unit mass (we sometimes refer to the three
terms in the equation as the pressure energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy per
unit mass of the fluid). It is not surprising that Eq. 6.15 contains energy termsafter all,
we used the first law of thermodynamics in deriving it. How did we end up with
the same energy-like terms in the Bernoulli equation, which we derived from the
momentum equation? The answer is because we integrated the momentum equation
(which involves force terms) along a streamline (which involves distance), and by doing
so ended up with work or energy terms (work being defined as force times distance):
The work of gravity and pressure forces leads to a kinetic energy change (which came
from integrating momentum over distance). In this context, we can think of the Ber-
noulli equation as a mechanical energy balancethe mechanical energy (pressure
plus potential plus kinetic) will be constant. We must always bear in mind that for the
Bernoulli equation to be valid along a streamline requires an incompressible inviscid
flow, in addition to steady flow. Its interesting that these two properties of the flowits
compressibility and frictionare what link thermodynamic and mechanical energies.
If a fluid is compressible, any flow-induced pressure changes will compress or expand
the fluid, thereby doing work and changing the particle thermal energy; and friction, as
we know from everyday experience, always converts mechanical to thermal energy.
Their absence, therefore, breaks the link between the mechanical and thermal energies,
and they are independentits as if theyre in parallel universes!
256 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

In summary, when the conditions are satisfied for the Bernoulli equation to be
valid, we can consider separately the mechanical energy and the internal thermal
energy of a fluid particle (this is illustrated in Example 6.8); when they are not
satisfied, there will be an interaction between these energies, the Bernoulli equation
becomes invalid, and we must use the full first law of thermodynamics.

E
xample 6.8 FRICTIONLESS FLOW WITH HEAT TRANSFER
Water flows steadily from a large open reservoir through a short length of pipe and a nozzle with cross-sectional area
A 5 0.864 in.2 A well-insulated 10 kW heater surrounds the pipe. Find the temperature rise of the water.

Given: Water flows from a large reservoir through the system shown and
discharges to atmospheric pressure. The heater is 10 kW; A4 5 0.864 in.2 3
1 2
Find: The temperature rise of the water between points 1 and 2 . 10 ft
4
Solution:
p V2
Governing equations: 1 1 gz 5 constant 6:8
2 CV
Heater
X
~A
V ~50 4:13b
CS

 0(4)  0(4)  0(1)

Q  Ws  Wshear 
t
CV
e  dV  (
CS
u  pv 
V2
2 )
 gz V  dA 4:56

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.


(2) Frictionless flow.
(3) Incompressible flow.
(4) No shaft work, no shear work.
(5) Flow along a streamline.
(6) Uniform flow at each section [a consequence of assumption (2)].
Under the assumptions listed, the first law of thermodynamics for the CV shown becomes
Z  
V2 ~
Q_ 5 u 1 pv 1 ~  dA
1 gz V
CS 2
Z   Z  
V2 ~1
~  dA V2 ~
~  dA
5 u 1 pv 1 1 gz V u 1 pv 1 1 gz V
A1 2 A2 2

For uniform properties at 1 and 2


   
_ V12 V22
Q 5 2V1 A1 u1 1 p1 v 1 1 gz1 1 V2 A2 u2 1 p2 v 1 1 gz2
2 2
 ; so
From conservation of mass, V1 A1 5 V2 A2 5 m
  2
  2

 u 2 u 1 p2 1 V2 1 gz 2 p1 1 V1 1 gz
Q_ 5 m 2 1 2 1
2 2
6.5 Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line 257

For frictionless, incompressible, steady flow, along a streamline,

p V2
1 1 gz 5 constant
2
Therefore,
 u 2 u
Q_ 5 m 2 1

Since, for an incompressible fluid, u2 2 u1 5 c(T2 2 T1), then

Q_
T2 2 T1 5 
mc
From continuity,
 5 V A
m 4 4

To find V4, write the Bernoulli equation between the free surface at 3 and point 4 .

p3 V2 p4 V2
1 3 1 gz3 5 1 4 1 gz4
2 2
Since p3 5 p4 and V3  0, then
r
p ft
V4 5 2gz3 2 z4 5 2 3 32:2 2 3 10 ft 5 25:4 ft=s
s
and
2
 5 V A 5 1:94 slug 3 25:4 ft 3 0:864 in:2 3 ft
m 5 0:296 slug=s
4 4
ft3 s 144 in:2 This prob
lem illus
In gen trates th
Assuming no heat loss to the surroundings, we obtain at:
eral, the
dynamic first law
Q_ s an of therm
T2 2 T1 5  5 10 kW 3 3413
Btu
3
hr are indep d the Bernoulli e o-
mc kW  hr 3600 s For an e n d e n t equatio q u a ti on
incompre ns.
s slug lbm  R the intern ssible, in
3 3 3 al therm viscid flo
changed al w
0:296 slug 32:2 lbm 1 Btu by a hea energy is only
and is in t transfe
T2 2 T1 depende rp
T2 2 T1 5 0:995  R mechanic nt of the rocess,
fluid

s.

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line 6.5


We have learned that for a steady, incompressible, frictionless flow, we may use the
Bernoulli equation (Eq. 6.8), derived from the momentum equation, and also Eq.
6.15, derived from the energy equation:

p V2
1 1 gz 5 constant 6:15
2

We also interpreted the three terms comprised of pressure, kinetic, and potential
energies to make up the total mechanical energy, per unit mass, of the fluid. If we
divide Eq. 6.15 by g, we obtain another form,
6.7 Irrotational Flow 263

Table 6.1
Definitions of and , and Conditions Necessary for Satisfying Laplaces Equation
Satisfies Laplace equation . . .
@ 2 @ 2
1 5 r2 5 0
Definition Always satisfies . . . @x2 @y2

Stream function . . . incompressibility: . . . only if irrotational:


@ @ @u @v @ @ 2 2
@v @u @2 @2
u5 v 52 1 5 2 0 2 52 2 50
@y @x @x @y @x@y @y@x @x @y @x@x @y@y
Velocity potential . . . irrotationality: . . . only if incompressible:
@ @ @v @u @ @ 2 2
@u @v @2 @2
u 52 v 52 2 52 2 0 1 52 2 50
@x @y @x @y @x@y @y@x @x @y @x@x @y@y

and

@ 1 @
Vr 5 2 and V 5 2 6:33
@r r @

In Section 5.2 we showed that the stream function is constant along any
streamline. For 5 constant, d 5 0 and
@ @
d 5 dx 1 dy 5 0
@x @y
The slope of a streamlinea line of constant is given by

dy @=dx 2v v
52 52 5 6:34
dx @x=@y u u

Along a line of constant , d 5 0 and


@ @
d 5 dx 1 dy 5 0
@x @y
Consequently, the slope of a potential line a line of constant is given by

dy @=@x u
52 52 6:35
dx @=@y v

(The last equality of Eq. 6.35 follows from use of Eq. 6.29.)
Comparing Eqs. 6.34 and 6.35, we see that the slope of a constant line at any
point is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the constant line at that point; this
means that lines of constant and constant are orthogonal. This property of
potential lines and streamlines is useful in graphical analyses of flow fields.

E
xample 6.10 VELOCITY POTENTIAL
Consider the flow field given by 5 ax2 2 ay2, where a 5 3 s21. Show that the flow is irrotational. Determine the
velocity potential for this flow.

Given: Incompressible flow field with 5 ax2 2 ay2, where a 5 3 s21.


Find: (a) Whether or not the flow is irrotational.
(b) The velocity potential for this flow.
264 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

Solution: If the flow is irrotational, r2 5 0. Checking for the given flow,

@2 @2
r2 5 ax 2
2 ay 2
1 ax2 2 ay2 5 2a 2 2a 5 0
@x2 @y2

so that the flow is irrotational. As an alternative proof, we can compute the fluid particle rotation (in the xy plane,
the only component of rotation is z):

@v @u @ @
2z 5 2 and u5 v 52
@x @y @y @x

then

@ @
u5 ax2 2 ay2 5 22ay and v 52 ax2 2 ay2 5 22ax
@y @x

so

@v @u @ @ 2z
2z 5 2 5 22ax2 22ay 5 22a 1 2a 5 0
@x @y @x @y

Once again, we conclude that the flow is irrotational. Because it is irrotational, must exist, and

@ @
u 52 and v 52
@x @y

@ @
Consequently, u 5 2 5 22ay and 5 2ay. Integrating with respect to x gives 5 2axy 1 f(y), where f(y) is an
@x @x
arbitrary function of y. Then

@ @
v 5 22ax 5 2 5 2 2axy 1 f y
@y @x
@f y df df
Therefore, 2 2ax 5 22ax 2 5 22ax 2 ; so 5 0 and f 5 constant. Thus
@y dy dy
5 2axy 1 constant
This prob
lem illus
We also can show that lines of constant and constant are orthogonal. a mong th trates th
e stream e re
potential, function, lations
a nd veloc velocity
5 ax2 2 ay2 and 5 2axy T h ity field.
 e s tream
dy x velocity p function and
For 5 constant, d 5 0 5 2axdx 2 2aydy; hence 5 the Exce otential
dx 5 c y l workbo are show
 equation ok. n in
dy y s for an By entering the
For 5 constant, d 5 0 5 2aydx 1 2axdy; hence 52 be plotte d , othe
d. r fields c
dx 5c x an
The slopes of lines of constant and constant are negative reciprocals.
Therefore lines of constant are orthogonal to lines of constant .

Elementary Plane Flows


The and functions for five elementary two-dimensional flowsa uniform flow, a
source, a sink, a vortex, and a doubletare summarized in Table 6.2. The and
functions can be obtained from the velocity field for each elementary flow. (We saw in
Example 6.10 that we can obtain from u and v.)
6.7 Irrotational Flow 271

Much of this analytical work was done centuries ago, when it was called hydro-
dynamics instead of potential theory. A list of famous contributors includes Ber-
noulli, Lagrange, dAlembert, Cauchy, Rankine, and Euler [11]. As we discussed in
Section 2.6, the theory immediately ran into difficulties: In an ideal fluid flow no body
experiences dragthe dAlembert paradox of 1752a result completely counter
to experience. Prandtl, in 1904, resolved this discrepancy by describing how real flows
may be essentially inviscid almost everywhere, but there is always a boundary layer
adjacent to the body. In this layer significant viscous effects occur, and the no-slip
condition is satisfied (in potential flow theory the no-slip condition is not satisfied).
Development of this concept, and the Wright brothers historic first human flight, led
to rapid developments in aeronautics starting in the 1900s. We will study boundary
layers in detail in Chapter 9, where we will see that their existence leads to drag on
bodies, and also affects the lift of bodies.
An alternative superposition approach is the inverse method in which distributions
of objects such as sources, sinks, and vortices are used to model a body [12]. It is called
inverse because the body shape is deduced based on a desired pressure distribution.
Both the direct and inverse methods, including three-dimensional space, are today
mostly analyzed using computer applications such as Fluent [13] and STAR-CD [14].

E
xample 6.11 FLOW OVER A CYLINDER: SUPERPOSITION OF DOUBLET AND UNIFORM FLOW
For two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow, the superposition of a doublet and a uniform flow represents
flow around a circular cylinder. Obtain the stream function and velocity potential for this flow pattern. Find the
velocity field, locate the stagnation points and the cylinder surface, and obtain the surface pressure distribution.
Integrate the pressure distribution to obtain the drag and lift forces on the circular cylinder.

Given: Two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow formed from superposition of a doublet and
a uniform flow.
Find: (a) Stream function and velocity potential.
(b) Velocity field.
(c) Stagnation points.
(d) Cylinder surface.
(e) Surface pressure distribution.
(f) Drag force on the circular cylinder.
(g) Lift force on the circular cylinder.
Solution: Stream functions may be added because the flow field is incompressible and irrotational. Thus from Table
6.2, the stream function for the combination is

sin
5 d 1 uf 5 2 1 Ur sin
r
The velocity potential is

cos
5 d 1 uf 5 2 2 Ur cos
r
The corresponding velocity components are obtained using Eqs. 6.30 as

@ cos
Vr 5 2 52 1 U cos
@r r2

1 @ sin
V 5 2 52 2 U sin
r @ r2
272 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

The velocity field is


   
~ 5 Vr er 1 V e 5 2 cos 1 U cos er 1 2 sin 2 U sin e ~
V
V
r2 r2
~ 5 Vr er 1 V e 5 0
Stagnation points are where V
 
cos
Vr 5 2 1 U cos 5 cos U 2 2
r2 r
r

Thus Vr 5 0 when r 5 5 a: Also,
U
 
sin
V 5 2 2 U sin 5 2sin U 1 2
r2 r

Thus V 5 0 when 5 0, .
Stagnation points are r; 5 a; 0; a; : Stagnation points
Note that Vr 5 0 along r 5 a, so this represents flow around a circular cylinder, as shown in Table 6.3. Flow is
irrotational, so the Bernoulli equation may be applied between any two points. Applying the equation between a
point far upstream and a point on the surface of the cylinder (neglecting elevation differences), we obtain

pN U2 p V2
1 5 1
2 2

Thus,

1
p 2 pN 5 U 2 2 V 2
2
Along the surface, r 5 a, and
 2

V 5
2
V2 5 2 2 2 U sin2 5 4U 2 sin2
a

since 5 Ua2. Substituting yields

1 1
p 2 pN 5 U 2 2 4U 2 sin2 5 U 2 1 2 4 sin2
2 2
or

Pressure
p 2 pN distribution
5 1 2 4 sin2
1
U 2
2 p dA
Drag is the force component parallel to the freestream flow direction.
The drag force is given by U
Z Z 2 p
FD 5 2p dA cos 5 2pa d b cos
A 0
a
since dA 5 a d b, where b is the length of the cylinder normal to the diagram.
1
Substituting p 5 pN 1 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 ,
2
6.7 Irrotational Flow 273

Z 2 Z 2
1
FD 5 2 pN ab cos d 12 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 ab cos d
0 0 2
2 2 2
1 1 4
5 2pN ab sin 2 U 2 ab sin 1 pU 2 ab sin3
0 2 0 2 3 0

FD
FD 5 0

Lift is the force component normal to the freestream flow direction. (By convention, positive lift is an upward force.)
The lift force is given by
This prob
Z Z 2 lem illus
How e trates:
FL 5 p dA2sin 5 2 pa d b sin lementary
combine plane flo
A 0
d to gen ws can b
and usefu e rate inte e
l fl ow patte resting
Substituting for p gives dAlem rns.
berts pa
Z 2 Z 2 flows ov radox, th
er a bod at poten
1 drag. y do not tial
FL 5 2 pN ab sin d 2 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 ab sin d generate
0 0 2
2 2  2 The strea
1 1 4 cos3 m functio
s ure distr n an
5 pN a b cos 1 U ab cos 1 U ab 2 4 cos ution are d pres-
2 2
th e ib
0 2 0 2 3 0 E x c e l workbo plotted in
ok.
FL
FL 5 0

E
xample 6.12 FLOW OVER A CYLINDER WITH CIRCULATION: SUPERPOSITION OF DOUBLET,
UNIFORM FLOW, AND CLOCKWISE FREE VORTEX
For two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow, the superposition of a doublet, a uniform flow, and a free
vortex represents the flow around a circular cylinder with circulation. Obtain the stream function and velocity
potential for this flow pattern, using a clockwise free vortex. Find the velocity field, locate the stagnation points and
the cylinder surface, and obtain the surface pressure distribution. Integrate the pressure distribution to obtain the
drag and lift forces on the circular cylinder. Relate the lift force on the cylinder to the circulation of the free vortex.

Given: Two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow formed from superposition of a doublet, a uniform flow,
and a clockwise free vortex.
Find: (a) Stream function and velocity potential.
(b) Velocity field.
(c) Stagnation points.
(d) Cylinder surface.
(e) Surface pressure distribution.
(f) Drag force on the circular cylinder.
(g) Lift force on the circular cylinder.
(h) Lift force in terms of circulation of the free vortex.
Solution:
Stream functions may be added because the flow field is incompressible and irrotational. From Table 6.2, the stream
function and velocity potential for a clockwise free vortex are
274 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

K K
f v 5 ln r f v 5
2 2
Using the results of Example 6.11, the stream function for the combination is
5 d 1 uf 1 f v

sin K
52 1 Ur sin 1 ln r
r 2

The velocity potential for the combination is


5 d 1 uf 1 f v

cos K
52 2 Ur cos 1
r 2

The corresponding velocity components are obtained using Eqs. 6.30 as

@ cos
Vr 5 2 52 1 U cos 1
@r r2

1 @ sin K
V 5 2 52 2 U sin 2 2
r @ r2 2r
The velocity field is

~ 5 Vr er 1 V e
V
   
~ cos sin K ~
V
V 5 2 1 U cos er 1 2 2 U sin 2 e
r2 r 2r

Stagnation points are located where V~ 5 Vr er 1 V e 5 0. From Eq. 1,


 
cos
Vr 5 2 1 U cos 5 cos U 2
r2 r2
p Cylinder surface
Thus Vr 5 0 when r 5 =U 5 a
The stagnation points are located on r 5 a. Substituting into Eq. 2 with r 5 a,

sin K
V 5 2 2 U sin 2
a2 2a
sin K
52 2 U sin 2
=U 2a
K
V 5 22U sin 2
2a
Thus V 5 0 along r 5 a when
 
K 21 2K
sin 5 2 or 5 sin
4Ua 4Ua
 
21 2 K Stagnation points
Stagnation points: r5a 5 sin
4Ua
As in Example 6.11, Vr 5 0 along r 5 a, so this flow field once again represents flow around a circular cylinder, as
shown in Table 6.3. For K 5 0 the solution is identical to that of Example 6.11.
6.7 Irrotational Flow 275

The presence of the free vortex (K . 0) moves the stagnation points below the center of the cylinder. Thus the
free vortex alters the vertical symmetry of the flow field. The flow field has two stagnation points for a range of vortex
strengths between K 5 0 and K 5 4Ua.
A single stagnation point is located at 5 2/2 when K 5 4Ua.
Even with the free vortex present, the flow field is irrotational, so the Bernoulli equation may be applied between
any two points. Applying the equation between a point far upstream and a point on the surface of the cylinder we
obtain
V
2 2 p
pN U p V
1 1 gz 5 1 1 gz U
2 2
p
a
Thus, neglecting elevation differences,
"  2 #
1 1 U
p 2 pN 5 U 2 V 5 U 1 2
2 2 2
2 2 V

Along the surface r 5 a and Vr 5 0, so


 
K 2
V 5
2
V2 5 22U sin 2
2a
and
 2
V 2K K2
5 4 sin2 1 sin 1 2 2 2
U Ua 4 U a

Thus
 
1 2K K2 p
p 5 pN 1 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 2 sin 2 2 2 2
2 Ua 4 U a

Drag is the force component parallel to the freestream flow direction. As in Example 6.11, the drag force is given by
Z Z 2
FD 5 2p dA cos 5 2pa db cos
A 0

since dA 5 a d b, where b is the length of the cylinder normal to the diagram.


Comparing pressure distributions, the free vortex contributes only to the terms containing the factor K. The
contribution of these terms to the drag force is

Z 2  
FD f v 2K K2
5 sin 1 2 2 2 ab cos d 3
1 Ua 4 U a
U 2 0
2

32
2
FD f v 2K sin 7
2
K2 FD
5 ab 5 1 2 2 2 ab sin 50
1 Ua 2 4 U a
U 2 0
2 0

Lift is the force component normal to the freestream flow direction. (Upward force is defined as positive lift.) The
lift force is given by
Z Z 2
FL 5 2p dA sin 5 2pa d bsin
A 0
276 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

Comparing pressure distributions, the free vortex contributes only to the terms containing the factor K. The con-
tribution of these terms to the lift force is
0 1
Z 2 2
FLf v 2K K
5 @ sin 1 2 2 2 A ab sin d
1 Ua 4 U a
U 2 0
2
Z 2 Z 2
2K K2
5 ab sin2 d 1 ab sin d
Ua 0 4 U 2 a2
2
0

2 32
2
2Kb 4 sin 5 K2 b 2
5 2 2 2 2 cos
U 2 4 4 U a 0
0
2 3
FLf v 2Kb 425 2Kb
5 5
1 U 2 U
U 2
2

Then FLfv 5 UKb FL

The circulation is defined by Eq. 5.18 as


I
 ~  d~
V s

On the cylinder surface, r 5 a, and V ~ 5 V e ; so


0 1
Z 2
@22U sin 2 K Ae  a d e
5
2a
0
This prob
lem illus
Z 2 Z 2 Once trates:
K again dA
52 2Ua sin d 2 d that pote lembe
0 0 2 ntial flow rts paradox,
drag on s do not
a body. generate
Circulation That th
5 2K e lift per
It turns o unit leng
ut th is 2
Substituting into the expression for lift, lift is the that this express U.
sa ion for
ideal fluid me for all bodie
flow, reg s in an
FL 5 UKb 5 U2b 5 2U b ardless o
The strea f shape!
m functio
or the lift force per unit length of cylinder is sure distr n and pre
the Exce ibuti s-
FL l workbo on are plotted in
ok.
FL b
5 2U
b

6.8 Summary and Useful Equations


In this chapter we have:
Derived Eulers equations in vector form and in rectangular, cylindrical, and streamline coordinates.
Obtained Bernoullis equation by integrating Eulers equation along a steady-flow streamline, and discussed its restrictions. We
have also seen how for a steady, incompressible flow through a stream tube the first law of thermodynamics reduces to the
Bernoulli equation if certain restrictions apply.