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Static

pressure

Total holes

Flow head Flow

A B

tube

C

p p0 p

p0

(a) Total head tube used (b) Pitot-static tube

with wall static tap

Fig. 6.4 Simultaneous measurement of stagnation and static pressures.

as shown. (The stem of the total head tube is placed downstream from the mea-

surement location to minimize disturbance of the local flow.)

Two probes often are combined, as in the pitot-static tube shown in Fig. 6.4b. The

inner tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure at point B, while the static

pressure at C is sensed using the small holes in the outer tube. In flow fields where the

static pressure variation in the streamwise direction is small, the pitot-static tube may

be used to infer the speed at point B in the flow by assuming pB 5 pC and using

Eq. 6.12. (Note that when pB 6 pC, this procedure will give erroneous results.)

Remember that the Bernoulli equation applies only for incompressible flow (Mach

number M # 0.3). The definition and calculation of the stagnation pressure for

compressible flow will be discussed in Section 12.3.

E

xample 6.2 PITOT TUBE

A pitot tube is inserted in an air flow (at STP) to measure the flow speed. The tube is inserted so that it points

upstream into the flow and the pressure sensed by the tube is the stagnation pressure. The static pressure is measured

at the same location in the flow, using a wall pressure tap. If the pressure difference is 30 mm of mercury, determine

the flow speed.

Given: A pitot tube inserted in a flow as shown. The flowing fluid is air and the manometer liquid is mercury.

Find: The flow speed.

Solution:

p V2

Governing equation: 1 1 gz 5 constant Air flow

2

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.

(2) Incompressible flow.

(3) Flow along a streamline.

(4) Frictionless deceleration along stagnation streamline. 30 mm

Mercury

2

p0 p V

5 1

2

p0 is the stagnation pressure at the tube opening where the speed has been reduced, without friction, to zero. Solving

for V gives

s

2p0 2 p

V5

air

6.3 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Eulers Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 247

This prob

p0 2 p 5 Hg gh 5 H2 O ghSGHg lem illus

tube to d tra

etermine tes use of a pito

pitot-sta flow spe t

tic) ed. Pitot

and the exteri tubes are often (or

or of airc placed o

s speed re raft to in n

2H2 O ghSGHg lative to dicate air

V5 hence air the aircra

craft spe ft, and

air ed relati

ve to the

v air.

u

u kg m m3 1m

5 t2 3 1000 3 3 9:81 2 3 30 mm 3 13:6 3 3

m s 1:23 kg 1000 mm

V 5 80:8 m=s

V

At T 5 20 C, the speed of sound in air is 343 m/s. Hence, M 5 0.236 and the assumption of incompressible

flow is valid.

Applications

The Bernoulli equation can be applied between any two points on a streamline

provided that the other three restrictions are satisfied. The result is

p1 V2 p2 V2

1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2 6:13

2 2

Eqs. 6.8 and 6.13 to typical flow problems are illustrated in Examples 6.3 through 6.5.

In some situations, the flow appears unsteady from one reference frame, but steady

from another, which translates with the flow. Since the Bernoulli equation was derived

by integrating Newtons second law for a fluid particle, it can be applied in any inertial

reference frame (see the discussion of translating frames in Section 4.4). The proce-

dure is illustrated in Example 6.6.

E

xample 6.3 NOZZLE FLOW

Air flows steadily at low speed through a horizontal nozzle (by definition a device for accelerating a flow), dis-

charging to atmosphere. The area at the nozzle inlet is 0.1 m2. At the nozzle exit, the area is 0.02 m2. Determine the

gage pressure required at the nozzle inlet to produce an outlet speed of 50 m/s.

Find: p1 2 patm.

CV

Solution:

p2 = patm

Governing equations: 1

V2 = 50 m/s

Streamline A2 = 0.02 m2

2

p1 V2 p2 V2 A1 = 0.1 m2

1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2 6:13

2 2

X

V ~50

~A 4:13b

CS

248 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

(2) Incompressible flow.

(3) Frictionless flow.

(4) Flow along a streamline.

(5) z 1 5 z2.

(6) Uniform flow at sections 1 and 2 .

The maximum speed of 50 m/s is well below 100 m/s, which corresponds to Mach number M 0.3 in standard air.

Hence, the flow may be treated as incompressible.

Apply the Bernoulli equation along a streamline between points 1 and 2 to evaluate p1. Then

p1 2 patm 5 p1 2 p2 5 V22 2 V12

2

Apply the continuity equation to determine V1,

2V1 A1 1 V2 A2 5 0 or V1 A1 5 V2 A2

Notes:

This p

so that roblem il

applicati lustrates

on a typical

A2 m 0:02 m2 equation of the Bernoulli

V1 5 V2 5 50 3 5 10 m=s .

A1 s 0:1 m2 The str

eamlines

at the in must be

let straig

For air at standard conditions, 5 1.23 kg/m3. Then have unif and exit in order ht

orm pres to

2 locations sures at

. those

p1 2 patm 5 V 2 V12

2 2

1 kg m2 m2 N s2

5 3 1:23 3 502 2 2 102 2

2 m s s kg m

p1 2 patm

p1 2 patm 5 1:48 kPa

E

xample 6.4 FLOW THROUGH A SIPHON

A U-tube acts as a water siphon. The bend in the tube is 1 m above the water surface; the tube outlet is 7 m below the

water surface. The water issues from the bottom of the siphon as a free jet at atmospheric pressure. Determine (after

listing the necessary assumptions) the speed of the free jet and the minimum absolute pressure of the water in the

bend.

(b) Pressure at point A (the minimum pressure point) in the flow. 1m

1 z=0

Solution:

p V2

Governing equation: 1 1 gz 5 constant

2 8m

(2) Steady flow.

(3) Incompressible flow.

(4) Flow along a streamline. 2

(5) Reservoir is large compared with pipe.

Apply the Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 .

6.3 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Eulers Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 249

p1 V2 p2 V2

1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2

2 2

V22

gz1 5 1 gz2 and V22 5 2gz1 2 z2

2

s

p m

V2 5 2gz1 2 z2 5 2 3 9:81 2 3 7 m Notes:

s

This p

roblem il

5 11:7 m=s V2 tion of th lustrates

e Bernou an ap

lli equati plica-

includes on that

To determine the pressure at location A , we write the Bernoulli It is in elevation change

teresting s.

equation between 1 and A . the Bern to n

oulli equ ote that when

between atio

V2 V2 a reservo n applies

p1 pA that it fe ir and a

1 1 1 gz1 5 1 A 1 gzA eds free jet

2 2 the reserv at a location h

oirpsu rface, below

will be V

Again V1 0 and from conservation of mass VA 5 V2. Hence 5 2 gh the jet speed

velocity ; this is th

a drople

without t (or ston e same

friction fr e)

pA

5

p1 V2

1 gz1 2 2 2 gzA 5

p1 V2

1 gz1 2 zA 2 2 level wou om the re falling

ld serv

2 2 h. Can yo attain if it fell a d oir

Alway u explain w istance

s take ca hy?

V22 friction in re when

pA 5 p1 1 gz1 2 zA 2 any intern neglectin

problem, a g

neglectin l flow. In this

2

sonable g

if the pip friction is rea-

N kg m N s2 surfaced e is smo

5 1:01 3 105 1 999 3 3 9:81 2 3 21 m and is re oth-

Chapter la

kg m 8 we wil tively short. In

m2 m s

effects in l study fr

internal ictional

1 kg m2 N s2 flows.

2 3 999 3 3 11:72 2 3

2 m s kg m

pA

pA 5 22.8 kPa (abs) or 278.5 kPa (gage)

E

xample 6.5 FLOW UNDER A SLUICE GATE

Water flows under a sluice gate on a horizontal bed at the inlet to a flume. Upstream from the gate, the water depth is

1.5 ft and the speed is negligible. At the vena contracta downstream from the gate, the flow streamlines are straight

and the depth is 2 in. Determine the flow speed downstream from the gate and the discharge in cubic feet per second

per foot of width.

Find: (a) V2. Sluice gate g

(b) Q in ft3/s/ft of width.

V1 ~

0 Vena contracta

z D1 = 1.5 ft

Solution: D2 = 2 in.

V2

Under the assumptions listed below, the flow satisfies all

conditions necessary to apply the Bernoulli equation. The

1 2

question is, what streamline do we use?

250 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

p1 V2 p2 V2

Governing equation: 1 1 1 gz1 5 1 2 1 gz2

2 2

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.

(2) Incompressible flow.

(3) Frictionless flow.

(4) Flow along a streamline.

(5) Uniform flow at each section.

(6) Hydrostatic pressure distribution (at each location, pressure increases linearly with depth).

If we consider the streamline that runs along the bottom of the channel (z 5 0), because of assumption 6 the

pressures at 1 and 2 are

p1 5 patm 1 gD1 and p2 5 patm 1 gD2

1 5 1

2 2

or

V12 V2

1 gD1 5 2 1 gD2 1

2 2

On the other hand, consider the streamline that runs along the free surface on both sides and down the inner surface

of the gate. For this streamline

patm V2 patm V2

1 1 1 gD1 5 1 2 1 gD2

2 2

or

V12 V2

1 gD1 5 2 1 gD2 1

2 2

We have arrived at the same equation (Eq. 1) for the streamline at the bottom and the streamline at the free surface,

implying the Bernoulli constant is the same for both streamlines. We will see in Section 6.6 that this flow is one of a

family of flows for which this is the case. Solving for V2 yields

q

V2 5 2gD1 2 D2 1 V12

But V12 0, so

v

0 1

u

u

p u ft ft A

V2 5 2gD1 2 D2 5 t2 3 32:2 2 3 @1:5 ft 2 2 in: 3

s 12 in:

V2 5 9:27 ft=s

V2

Q ft ft

5 VD 5 V2 D2 5 9:27 1 2 in: 3 5 1:55 ft2=s

w s 12 in:

Q

Q w

5 1:55 ft3 =s=foot of width

w

6.3 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Eulers Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 251

E

xample 6.6 BERNOULLI EQUATION IN TRANSLATING REFERENCE FRAME

A light plane flies at 150 km/hr in standard air at an altitude of 1000 m. Determine the stagnation pressure at the

leading edge of the wing. At a certain point close to the wing, the air speed relative to the wing is 60 m/s. Compute

the pressure at this point.

Vair = 0

pair @ 1000 m

VB = 60 m/s Observer

A B (relative to wing)

Vw = 150 km/hr

Find: Stagnation pressure, p0A, at point A and static pressure, pB, at point B.

Solution:

Flow is unsteady when observed from a fixed frame, that is, by an observer on the ground. However, an observer on

the wing sees the following steady flow:

Observer

B VB = 60 m/s

A

pair @ 1000 m

Vair = Vw = 150 km/hr

At z 5 1000 m in standard air, the temperature is 281 K and the speed of sound is 336 m/s. Hence at point B,

MB 5 VB/c 5 0.178. This is less than 0.3, so the flow may be treated as incompressible. Thus the Bernoulli equation

can be applied along a streamline in the moving observers inertial reference frame.

pair V2 pA V2 pB V2

Governing equation: 1 air 1 gzair 5 1 A 1 gzA 5 1 B 1 gzB

2 2 2

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow.

(2) Incompressible flow (V , 100 m/s).

(3) Frictionless flow.

(4) Flow along a streamline.

(5) Neglect z.

Values for pressure and density may be found from Table A.3. Thus, at 1000 m, p/pSL 5 0.8870 and /SL 5 0.9075.

Consequently,

N

p 5 0:8870pSL 5 0:8870 3 1:01 3 105 5 8:96 3 104 N=m2

m2

and

kg

5 0:9075SL 5 0:9075 3 1:23 5 1:12 kg=m3

m3

Since the speed is VA 5 0 at the stagnation point,

1 2

p0A 5 pair 1 V

2 air

2

N 1 kg km m hr N s2

5 8:96 3 10 2 1 3 1:12 3 150

4

3 1000 3 3

m 2 m hr km 3600 s kg m

p0A

p0A 5 90:6 kPaabs

252 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

This prob

lem gives

wing gen a

erates lift hint as to how a

1

pB 5 pair 1 Vair

2

2 VB2 . The inco

2 a velocity ming

and acce air 5 150 km=hr 5 air has

V

2 lerates to 41:7 m=s

N 1 kg km m hr surface. 60 m/s o

pB 5 8:96 3 10 2 1 3 1:12 3

4

3 1000 3 This lead n the upp

150 Bernoulli s, throug er

m 2 m hr km 3600 s equation h the

1 kPa (fro , to a press

m8 ure

m 2 N s2 out that th 9.6 kPa to 88.6 kP drop of

2

2 60 2 e flow de a). It turn

lower surf ce s

s kg m ace, lead lerates on the

of about in

1 kPa. He g to a pressure ris

pB ences a n nce e

pB 5 88:6 kPaabs

et upward , the wing experi-

of about pressure

2 kPa, a

significan difference

t effect.

In Examples 6.3 through 6.6, we have seen several situations where the Bernoulli

equation may be applied because the restrictions on its use led to a reasonable flow

model. However, in some situations you might be tempted to apply the Bernoulli

equation where the restrictions are not satisfied. Some subtle cases that violate the

restrictions are discussed briefly in this section.

Example 6.3 examined flow in a nozzle. In a subsonic nozzle (a converging section)

the pressure drops, accelerating a flow. Because the pressure drops and the walls

of the nozzle converge, there is no flow separation from the walls and the boundary

layer remains thin. In addition, a nozzle is usually relatively short so frictional effects

are not significant. All of this leads to the conclusion that the Bernoulli equation is

suitable for use for subsonic nozzles.

CLASSIC VIDEO Sometimes we need to decelerate a flow. This can be accomplished using a subsonic

diffuser (a diverging section), or by using a sudden expansion (e.g., from a pipe into a

Flow Visualization. reservoir). In these devices the flow decelerates because of an adverse pressure gra-

dient. As we discussed in Section 2.6, an adverse pressure gradient tends to lead to

rapid growth of the boundary layer and its separation. Hence, we should be careful in

applying the Bernoulli equation in such devicesat best, it will be an approximation.

Because of area blockage caused by boundary-layer growth, pressure rise in actual

diffusers always is less than that predicted for inviscid one-dimensional flow.

The Bernoulli equation was a reasonable model for the siphon of Example 6.4

because the entrance was well rounded, the bends were gentle, and the overall length

was short. Flow separation, which can occur at inlets with sharp corners and in abrupt

bends, causes the flow to depart from that predicted by a one-dimensional model and the

Bernoulli equation. Frictional effects would not be negligible if the tube were long.

Example 6.5 presented an open-channel flow analogous to that in a nozzle, for

which the Bernoulli equation is a good flow model. The hydraulic jump is an example

of an open-channel flow with adverse pressure gradient. Flow through a hydraulic

jump is mixed violently, making it impossible to identify streamlines. Thus the Ber-

noulli equation cannot be used to model flow through a hydraulic jump. We will see a

more detailed presentation of open channel flows in Chapter 11.

The Bernoulli equation cannot be applied through a machine such as a propeller,

pump, turbine, or windmill. The equation was derived by integrating along a stream

6.4 The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation 255

It looks like we needed restriction (7) to finally transform the energy equation into the

Bernoulli equation. In fact, we didnt! It turns out that for an incompressible and fric-

tionless flow [restriction (6), and the fact we are looking only at flows with no shear

forces], restriction (7) is automatically satisfied, as we will demonstrate in Example 6.7.

E

xample 6.7 INTERNAL ENERGY AND HEAT TRANSFER IN FRICTIONLESS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Consider frictionless, incompressible flow with heat transfer. Show that

Q

u2 2 u1 5

dm

Q

Show: u2 2 u1 5 .

dm

Solution:

In general, internal energy can be expressed as u 5 u(T, v). For incompressible flow, v 5 constant, and u 5 u(T). Thus

the thermodynamic state of the fluid is determined by the single thermodynamic property, T. For any process, the

internal energy change, u2 2 u1, depends only on the temperatures at the end states.

From the Gibbs equation, Tds 5 du 1 dv, valid for a pure substance undergoing any process, we obtain

Tds 5 du

for incompressible flow, since dv 5 0. Since the internal energy change, du, between specified end states, is inde-

pendent of the process, we take a reversible process, for which Tds 5 d(Q/dm) 5 du. Therefore,

Q

u2 2 u 1 5

dm

For the steady, frictionless, and incompressible flow considered in this section, it is

true that the first law of thermodynamics reduces to the Bernoulli equation. Each term

in Eq. 6.15 has dimensions of energy per unit mass (we sometimes refer to the three

terms in the equation as the pressure energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy per

unit mass of the fluid). It is not surprising that Eq. 6.15 contains energy termsafter all,

we used the first law of thermodynamics in deriving it. How did we end up with

the same energy-like terms in the Bernoulli equation, which we derived from the

momentum equation? The answer is because we integrated the momentum equation

(which involves force terms) along a streamline (which involves distance), and by doing

so ended up with work or energy terms (work being defined as force times distance):

The work of gravity and pressure forces leads to a kinetic energy change (which came

from integrating momentum over distance). In this context, we can think of the Ber-

noulli equation as a mechanical energy balancethe mechanical energy (pressure

plus potential plus kinetic) will be constant. We must always bear in mind that for the

Bernoulli equation to be valid along a streamline requires an incompressible inviscid

flow, in addition to steady flow. Its interesting that these two properties of the flowits

compressibility and frictionare what link thermodynamic and mechanical energies.

If a fluid is compressible, any flow-induced pressure changes will compress or expand

the fluid, thereby doing work and changing the particle thermal energy; and friction, as

we know from everyday experience, always converts mechanical to thermal energy.

Their absence, therefore, breaks the link between the mechanical and thermal energies,

and they are independentits as if theyre in parallel universes!

256 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

In summary, when the conditions are satisfied for the Bernoulli equation to be

valid, we can consider separately the mechanical energy and the internal thermal

energy of a fluid particle (this is illustrated in Example 6.8); when they are not

satisfied, there will be an interaction between these energies, the Bernoulli equation

becomes invalid, and we must use the full first law of thermodynamics.

E

xample 6.8 FRICTIONLESS FLOW WITH HEAT TRANSFER

Water flows steadily from a large open reservoir through a short length of pipe and a nozzle with cross-sectional area

A 5 0.864 in.2 A well-insulated 10 kW heater surrounds the pipe. Find the temperature rise of the water.

Given: Water flows from a large reservoir through the system shown and

discharges to atmospheric pressure. The heater is 10 kW; A4 5 0.864 in.2 3

1 2

Find: The temperature rise of the water between points 1 and 2 . 10 ft

4

Solution:

p V2

Governing equations: 1 1 gz 5 constant 6:8

2 CV

Heater

X

~A

V ~50 4:13b

CS

Q Ws Wshear

t

CV

e dV (

CS

u pv

V2

2 )

gz V dA 4:56

(2) Frictionless flow.

(3) Incompressible flow.

(4) No shaft work, no shear work.

(5) Flow along a streamline.

(6) Uniform flow at each section [a consequence of assumption (2)].

Under the assumptions listed, the first law of thermodynamics for the CV shown becomes

Z

V2 ~

Q_ 5 u 1 pv 1 ~ dA

1 gz V

CS 2

Z Z

V2 ~1

~ dA V2 ~

~ dA

5 u 1 pv 1 1 gz V u 1 pv 1 1 gz V

A1 2 A2 2

_ V12 V22

Q 5 2V1 A1 u1 1 p1 v 1 1 gz1 1 V2 A2 u2 1 p2 v 1 1 gz2

2 2

; so

From conservation of mass, V1 A1 5 V2 A2 5 m

2

2

u 2 u 1 p2 1 V2 1 gz 2 p1 1 V1 1 gz

Q_ 5 m 2 1 2 1

2 2

6.5 Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line 257

p V2

1 1 gz 5 constant

2

Therefore,

u 2 u

Q_ 5 m 2 1

Q_

T2 2 T1 5

mc

From continuity,

5 V A

m 4 4

To find V4, write the Bernoulli equation between the free surface at 3 and point 4 .

p3 V2 p4 V2

1 3 1 gz3 5 1 4 1 gz4

2 2

Since p3 5 p4 and V3 0, then

r

p ft

V4 5 2gz3 2 z4 5 2 3 32:2 2 3 10 ft 5 25:4 ft=s

s

and

2

5 V A 5 1:94 slug 3 25:4 ft 3 0:864 in:2 3 ft

m 5 0:296 slug=s

4 4

ft3 s 144 in:2 This prob

lem illus

In gen trates th

Assuming no heat loss to the surroundings, we obtain at:

eral, the

dynamic first law

Q_ s an of therm

T2 2 T1 5 5 10 kW 3 3413

Btu

3

hr are indep d the Bernoulli e o-

mc kW hr 3600 s For an e n d e n t equatio q u a ti on

incompre ns.

s slug lbm R the intern ssible, in

3 3 3 al therm viscid flo

changed al w

0:296 slug 32:2 lbm 1 Btu by a hea energy is only

and is in t transfe

T2 2 T1 depende rp

T2 2 T1 5 0:995 R mechanic nt of the rocess,

fluid

s.

We have learned that for a steady, incompressible, frictionless flow, we may use the

Bernoulli equation (Eq. 6.8), derived from the momentum equation, and also Eq.

6.15, derived from the energy equation:

p V2

1 1 gz 5 constant 6:15

2

We also interpreted the three terms comprised of pressure, kinetic, and potential

energies to make up the total mechanical energy, per unit mass, of the fluid. If we

divide Eq. 6.15 by g, we obtain another form,

6.7 Irrotational Flow 263

Table 6.1

Definitions of and , and Conditions Necessary for Satisfying Laplaces Equation

Satisfies Laplace equation . . .

@ 2 @ 2

1 5 r2 5 0

Definition Always satisfies . . . @x2 @y2

@ @ @u @v @ @ 2 2

@v @u @2 @2

u5 v 52 1 5 2 0 2 52 2 50

@y @x @x @y @x@y @y@x @x @y @x@x @y@y

Velocity potential . . . irrotationality: . . . only if incompressible:

@ @ @v @u @ @ 2 2

@u @v @2 @2

u 52 v 52 2 52 2 0 1 52 2 50

@x @y @x @y @x@y @y@x @x @y @x@x @y@y

and

@ 1 @

Vr 5 2 and V 5 2 6:33

@r r @

In Section 5.2 we showed that the stream function is constant along any

streamline. For 5 constant, d 5 0 and

@ @

d 5 dx 1 dy 5 0

@x @y

The slope of a streamlinea line of constant is given by

dy @=dx 2v v

52 52 5 6:34

dx @x=@y u u

@ @

d 5 dx 1 dy 5 0

@x @y

Consequently, the slope of a potential line a line of constant is given by

dy @=@x u

52 52 6:35

dx @=@y v

(The last equality of Eq. 6.35 follows from use of Eq. 6.29.)

Comparing Eqs. 6.34 and 6.35, we see that the slope of a constant line at any

point is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the constant line at that point; this

means that lines of constant and constant are orthogonal. This property of

potential lines and streamlines is useful in graphical analyses of flow fields.

E

xample 6.10 VELOCITY POTENTIAL

Consider the flow field given by 5 ax2 2 ay2, where a 5 3 s21. Show that the flow is irrotational. Determine the

velocity potential for this flow.

Find: (a) Whether or not the flow is irrotational.

(b) The velocity potential for this flow.

264 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

@2 @2

r2 5 ax 2

2 ay 2

1 ax2 2 ay2 5 2a 2 2a 5 0

@x2 @y2

so that the flow is irrotational. As an alternative proof, we can compute the fluid particle rotation (in the xy plane,

the only component of rotation is z):

@v @u @ @

2z 5 2 and u5 v 52

@x @y @y @x

then

@ @

u5 ax2 2 ay2 5 22ay and v 52 ax2 2 ay2 5 22ax

@y @x

so

@v @u @ @ 2z

2z 5 2 5 22ax2 22ay 5 22a 1 2a 5 0

@x @y @x @y

Once again, we conclude that the flow is irrotational. Because it is irrotational, must exist, and

@ @

u 52 and v 52

@x @y

@ @

Consequently, u 5 2 5 22ay and 5 2ay. Integrating with respect to x gives 5 2axy 1 f(y), where f(y) is an

@x @x

arbitrary function of y. Then

@ @

v 5 22ax 5 2 5 2 2axy 1 f y

@y @x

@f y df df

Therefore, 2 2ax 5 22ax 2 5 22ax 2 ; so 5 0 and f 5 constant. Thus

@y dy dy

5 2axy 1 constant

This prob

lem illus

We also can show that lines of constant and constant are orthogonal. a mong th trates th

e stream e re

potential, function, lations

a nd veloc velocity

5 ax2 2 ay2 and 5 2axy T h ity field.

e s tream

dy x velocity p function and

For 5 constant, d 5 0 5 2axdx 2 2aydy; hence 5 the Exce otential

dx 5 c y l workbo are show

equation ok. n in

dy y s for an By entering the

For 5 constant, d 5 0 5 2aydx 1 2axdy; hence 52 be plotte d , othe

d. r fields c

dx 5c x an

The slopes of lines of constant and constant are negative reciprocals.

Therefore lines of constant are orthogonal to lines of constant .

The and functions for five elementary two-dimensional flowsa uniform flow, a

source, a sink, a vortex, and a doubletare summarized in Table 6.2. The and

functions can be obtained from the velocity field for each elementary flow. (We saw in

Example 6.10 that we can obtain from u and v.)

6.7 Irrotational Flow 271

Much of this analytical work was done centuries ago, when it was called hydro-

dynamics instead of potential theory. A list of famous contributors includes Ber-

noulli, Lagrange, dAlembert, Cauchy, Rankine, and Euler [11]. As we discussed in

Section 2.6, the theory immediately ran into difficulties: In an ideal fluid flow no body

experiences dragthe dAlembert paradox of 1752a result completely counter

to experience. Prandtl, in 1904, resolved this discrepancy by describing how real flows

may be essentially inviscid almost everywhere, but there is always a boundary layer

adjacent to the body. In this layer significant viscous effects occur, and the no-slip

condition is satisfied (in potential flow theory the no-slip condition is not satisfied).

Development of this concept, and the Wright brothers historic first human flight, led

to rapid developments in aeronautics starting in the 1900s. We will study boundary

layers in detail in Chapter 9, where we will see that their existence leads to drag on

bodies, and also affects the lift of bodies.

An alternative superposition approach is the inverse method in which distributions

of objects such as sources, sinks, and vortices are used to model a body [12]. It is called

inverse because the body shape is deduced based on a desired pressure distribution.

Both the direct and inverse methods, including three-dimensional space, are today

mostly analyzed using computer applications such as Fluent [13] and STAR-CD [14].

E

xample 6.11 FLOW OVER A CYLINDER: SUPERPOSITION OF DOUBLET AND UNIFORM FLOW

For two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow, the superposition of a doublet and a uniform flow represents

flow around a circular cylinder. Obtain the stream function and velocity potential for this flow pattern. Find the

velocity field, locate the stagnation points and the cylinder surface, and obtain the surface pressure distribution.

Integrate the pressure distribution to obtain the drag and lift forces on the circular cylinder.

Given: Two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow formed from superposition of a doublet and

a uniform flow.

Find: (a) Stream function and velocity potential.

(b) Velocity field.

(c) Stagnation points.

(d) Cylinder surface.

(e) Surface pressure distribution.

(f) Drag force on the circular cylinder.

(g) Lift force on the circular cylinder.

Solution: Stream functions may be added because the flow field is incompressible and irrotational. Thus from Table

6.2, the stream function for the combination is

sin

5 d 1 uf 5 2 1 Ur sin

r

The velocity potential is

cos

5 d 1 uf 5 2 2 Ur cos

r

The corresponding velocity components are obtained using Eqs. 6.30 as

@ cos

Vr 5 2 52 1 U cos

@r r2

1 @ sin

V 5 2 52 2 U sin

r @ r2

272 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

~ 5 Vr er 1 V e 5 2 cos 1 U cos er 1 2 sin 2 U sin e ~

V

V

r2 r2

~ 5 Vr er 1 V e 5 0

Stagnation points are where V

cos

Vr 5 2 1 U cos 5 cos U 2 2

r2 r

r

Thus Vr 5 0 when r 5 5 a: Also,

U

sin

V 5 2 2 U sin 5 2sin U 1 2

r2 r

Thus V 5 0 when 5 0, .

Stagnation points are r; 5 a; 0; a; : Stagnation points

Note that Vr 5 0 along r 5 a, so this represents flow around a circular cylinder, as shown in Table 6.3. Flow is

irrotational, so the Bernoulli equation may be applied between any two points. Applying the equation between a

point far upstream and a point on the surface of the cylinder (neglecting elevation differences), we obtain

pN U2 p V2

1 5 1

2 2

Thus,

1

p 2 pN 5 U 2 2 V 2

2

Along the surface, r 5 a, and

2

V 5

2

V2 5 2 2 2 U sin2 5 4U 2 sin2

a

1 1

p 2 pN 5 U 2 2 4U 2 sin2 5 U 2 1 2 4 sin2

2 2

or

Pressure

p 2 pN distribution

5 1 2 4 sin2

1

U 2

2 p dA

Drag is the force component parallel to the freestream flow direction.

The drag force is given by U

Z Z 2 p

FD 5 2p dA cos 5 2pa d b cos

A 0

a

since dA 5 a d b, where b is the length of the cylinder normal to the diagram.

1

Substituting p 5 pN 1 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 ,

2

6.7 Irrotational Flow 273

Z 2 Z 2

1

FD 5 2 pN ab cos d 12 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 ab cos d

0 0 2

2 2 2

1 1 4

5 2pN ab sin 2 U 2 ab sin 1 pU 2 ab sin3

0 2 0 2 3 0

FD

FD 5 0

Lift is the force component normal to the freestream flow direction. (By convention, positive lift is an upward force.)

The lift force is given by

This prob

Z Z 2 lem illus

How e trates:

FL 5 p dA2sin 5 2 pa d b sin lementary

combine plane flo

A 0

d to gen ws can b

and usefu e rate inte e

l fl ow patte resting

Substituting for p gives dAlem rns.

berts pa

Z 2 Z 2 flows ov radox, th

er a bod at poten

1 drag. y do not tial

FL 5 2 pN ab sin d 2 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 ab sin d generate

0 0 2

2 2 2 The strea

1 1 4 cos3 m functio

s ure distr n an

5 pN a b cos 1 U ab cos 1 U ab 2 4 cos ution are d pres-

2 2

th e ib

0 2 0 2 3 0 E x c e l workbo plotted in

ok.

FL

FL 5 0

E

xample 6.12 FLOW OVER A CYLINDER WITH CIRCULATION: SUPERPOSITION OF DOUBLET,

UNIFORM FLOW, AND CLOCKWISE FREE VORTEX

For two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow, the superposition of a doublet, a uniform flow, and a free

vortex represents the flow around a circular cylinder with circulation. Obtain the stream function and velocity

potential for this flow pattern, using a clockwise free vortex. Find the velocity field, locate the stagnation points and

the cylinder surface, and obtain the surface pressure distribution. Integrate the pressure distribution to obtain the

drag and lift forces on the circular cylinder. Relate the lift force on the cylinder to the circulation of the free vortex.

Given: Two-dimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow formed from superposition of a doublet, a uniform flow,

and a clockwise free vortex.

Find: (a) Stream function and velocity potential.

(b) Velocity field.

(c) Stagnation points.

(d) Cylinder surface.

(e) Surface pressure distribution.

(f) Drag force on the circular cylinder.

(g) Lift force on the circular cylinder.

(h) Lift force in terms of circulation of the free vortex.

Solution:

Stream functions may be added because the flow field is incompressible and irrotational. From Table 6.2, the stream

function and velocity potential for a clockwise free vortex are

274 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

K K

f v 5 ln r f v 5

2 2

Using the results of Example 6.11, the stream function for the combination is

5 d 1 uf 1 f v

sin K

52 1 Ur sin 1 ln r

r 2

5 d 1 uf 1 f v

cos K

52 2 Ur cos 1

r 2

@ cos

Vr 5 2 52 1 U cos 1

@r r2

1 @ sin K

V 5 2 52 2 U sin 2 2

r @ r2 2r

The velocity field is

~ 5 Vr er 1 V e

V

~ cos sin K ~

V

V 5 2 1 U cos er 1 2 2 U sin 2 e

r2 r 2r

cos

Vr 5 2 1 U cos 5 cos U 2

r2 r2

p Cylinder surface

Thus Vr 5 0 when r 5 =U 5 a

The stagnation points are located on r 5 a. Substituting into Eq. 2 with r 5 a,

sin K

V 5 2 2 U sin 2

a2 2a

sin K

52 2 U sin 2

=U 2a

K

V 5 22U sin 2

2a

Thus V 5 0 along r 5 a when

K 21 2K

sin 5 2 or 5 sin

4Ua 4Ua

21 2 K Stagnation points

Stagnation points: r5a 5 sin

4Ua

As in Example 6.11, Vr 5 0 along r 5 a, so this flow field once again represents flow around a circular cylinder, as

shown in Table 6.3. For K 5 0 the solution is identical to that of Example 6.11.

6.7 Irrotational Flow 275

The presence of the free vortex (K . 0) moves the stagnation points below the center of the cylinder. Thus the

free vortex alters the vertical symmetry of the flow field. The flow field has two stagnation points for a range of vortex

strengths between K 5 0 and K 5 4Ua.

A single stagnation point is located at 5 2/2 when K 5 4Ua.

Even with the free vortex present, the flow field is irrotational, so the Bernoulli equation may be applied between

any two points. Applying the equation between a point far upstream and a point on the surface of the cylinder we

obtain

V

2 2 p

pN U p V

1 1 gz 5 1 1 gz U

2 2

p

a

Thus, neglecting elevation differences,

" 2 #

1 1 U

p 2 pN 5 U 2 V 5 U 1 2

2 2 2

2 2 V

K 2

V 5

2

V2 5 22U sin 2

2a

and

2

V 2K K2

5 4 sin2 1 sin 1 2 2 2

U Ua 4 U a

Thus

1 2K K2 p

p 5 pN 1 U 2 1 2 4 sin2 2 sin 2 2 2 2

2 Ua 4 U a

Drag is the force component parallel to the freestream flow direction. As in Example 6.11, the drag force is given by

Z Z 2

FD 5 2p dA cos 5 2pa db cos

A 0

Comparing pressure distributions, the free vortex contributes only to the terms containing the factor K. The

contribution of these terms to the drag force is

Z 2

FD f v 2K K2

5 sin 1 2 2 2 ab cos d 3

1 Ua 4 U a

U 2 0

2

32

2

FD f v 2K sin 7

2

K2 FD

5 ab 5 1 2 2 2 ab sin 50

1 Ua 2 4 U a

U 2 0

2 0

Lift is the force component normal to the freestream flow direction. (Upward force is defined as positive lift.) The

lift force is given by

Z Z 2

FL 5 2p dA sin 5 2pa d bsin

A 0

276 Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow

Comparing pressure distributions, the free vortex contributes only to the terms containing the factor K. The con-

tribution of these terms to the lift force is

0 1

Z 2 2

FLf v 2K K

5 @ sin 1 2 2 2 A ab sin d

1 Ua 4 U a

U 2 0

2

Z 2 Z 2

2K K2

5 ab sin2 d 1 ab sin d

Ua 0 4 U 2 a2

2

0

2 32

2

2Kb 4 sin 5 K2 b 2

5 2 2 2 2 cos

U 2 4 4 U a 0

0

2 3

FLf v 2Kb 425 2Kb

5 5

1 U 2 U

U 2

2

I

~ d~

V s

0 1

Z 2

@22U sin 2 K Ae a d e

5

2a

0

This prob

lem illus

Z 2 Z 2 Once trates:

K again dA

52 2Ua sin d 2 d that pote lembe

0 0 2 ntial flow rts paradox,

drag on s do not

a body. generate

Circulation That th

5 2K e lift per

It turns o unit leng

ut th is 2

Substituting into the expression for lift, lift is the that this express U.

sa ion for

ideal fluid me for all bodie

flow, reg s in an

FL 5 UKb 5 U2b 5 2U b ardless o

The strea f shape!

m functio

or the lift force per unit length of cylinder is sure distr n and pre

the Exce ibuti s-

FL l workbo on are plotted in

ok.

FL b

5 2U

b

In this chapter we have:

Derived Eulers equations in vector form and in rectangular, cylindrical, and streamline coordinates.

Obtained Bernoullis equation by integrating Eulers equation along a steady-flow streamline, and discussed its restrictions. We

have also seen how for a steady, incompressible flow through a stream tube the first law of thermodynamics reduces to the

Bernoulli equation if certain restrictions apply.

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