-In this paper an attempt is made to study
about Fuzzy Topological Graph Theory and the trivial
fuzzy topologies of the set of fuzzy graphs. The
Suspension and Amalgamation of two fuzzy topological
graphs are explained. Furthermore a discussion is made
on Bouquets of circle. Various properties of edge
contraction and connectivity of Fuzzy Topological Graph
are established.

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-In this paper an attempt is made to study
about Fuzzy Topological Graph Theory and the trivial
fuzzy topologies of the set of fuzzy graphs. The
Suspension and Amalgamation of two fuzzy topological
graphs are explained. Furthermore a discussion is made
on Bouquets of circle. Various properties of edge
contraction and connectivity of Fuzzy Topological Graph
are established.

© All Rights Reserved

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P.Jayalakshmi, N.Ramya Priya,

Assistant Professor in Mathematics, Research Scholar in Mathematics,

Sri GVG Visalakshi College for Women (Autonomous), Sri GVG Visalakshi College for Women (Autonomous),

Udumalpet, Udumalpet

about Fuzzy Topological Graph Theory and the trivial

fuzzy topologies of the set of fuzzy graphs. The A fuzzy graph is a pair G : , where is a fuzzy

Suspension and Amalgamation of two fuzzy topological

graphs are explained. Furthermore a discussion is made subset of S, is a symmetric fuzzy relation on . The

on Bouquets of circle. Various properties of edge elements of S are called the nodes or vertices of G and the

contraction and connectivity of Fuzzy Topological Graph pair of vertices edges in G.

are established.

C. Fuzzy Cut Node

Keywords:-Fuzzy Topological Graph, Trivial Fuzzy

Topologies, Suspension, Amalgamation, Bouquets of Circle. A node is a fuzzy cut node of G : , if removal of it

I. INTRODUCTION reduces the strength of connectedness between some other

pair of nodes.

In 1965, Zadeh introduced the notion of fuzzy set which is

characterized by a membership function that assigns a grade III. TRIVIAL TOPOLOGIES OF THE SET OF

of membership ranging from 0 to 1to each of its objects. FUZZY GRAPHS

The first definition of fuzzy graph was introduced by

Kaufmann (1973), based on Zadehs fuzzy relations (1971). A. Fuzzy Topological Graph

The extension of the concepts of ordinary topological space

is the fuzzy topology was introduced by C.L.Chang in 1968. Let G be a fuzzy topological graph and I the unit interval.

A family of I of fuzzy graphs is called a fuzzy

Fuzzy topological graph is an important concept in the field G

of graph theory dealing with uncertainty. This paper is

topological graph of G. If it satisfies the following

focused on trivial fuzzy topology of the set of fuzzy

conditions.

i) [0, 1]

graphs.In section 2, the classical and basic definitions of

fuzzy graph is reviewed. Section 3 deals with the definitions

of Trivial topologies of the set of fuzzy graphs. In section 4 ii) For every , ui ,v j u , v

,a study is made on discrete and indiscrete fuzzy topological

graph. In Section 5 the concepts such as Amalgamations,

edge contraction, connectivity and bouquet of circle of fuzzy

graphs are generalized.

II. PRELIMINARIES

A. Fuzzy Topology

for X if it satisfies the following three axioms

1. I , .

2.A, B A, A B .

3.( Aj ) jJ jJ Aj . B. Open And Closed of Fuzzy Graphs

The pair (X, ) is called a fuzzy topological space or fts,

A fuzzy topological graph in are called open fuzzy

for short. The elements of are called fuzzy open sets. A

fuzzy set K is called fuzzy closed set if K .

c topological graph. A fuzzy topological graph I G is

called closed if and only if c is open.

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

__

C. Closure And Interior of Fuzzy Graphs From the above graph 0.5 & 1

The closure and interior of fuzzy topological graph IG D. Intersection of A Fuzzy Topological Graph

are defined respectively as, Two fuzzy topological graphs H and F in G are said to be

inf vi : vi vi , v j ; vi

c

intersecting if and only if there exists a vi G such

H F vi 0 then,

sup vi : vi vi , v j ; vi

that H and F intersect at

vi

'

graph G of is called a fuzzy topological sub graph if

(i.e.) if ' vi vi for every u V and

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

G + G .Its vertex set is

vi max vi , vi'

The suspension of a fuzzy topological graph G from a fuzzy and the edge set

topological graph

'

G is obtained by adjoining every vertex

'

vi , v j vi , v j ' vi , v j vi vi'

of G to every vertex of G and is denoted as

FUZZY GRAPHS

A. Introduction:

mathematics.

There are two kinds of trivial topologies

1. Discrete topology

2. Indiscrete topology

For a given non-empty set (ui , v j ) & be a family of all To verify that the class is a discrete fuzzy topology graph

and ( , ) is a fuzzy topological graph it is enough to

subsets defined over the edge set ( , ) is fuzzy

show that the axioms of topology are satisfied.

topological graph in IG as is a fuzzy topology on

(ui , v j ) in IG Axiom 1

Example The null edge set and complete edge set (ui , v j ) must

Let (ui , v j ) { (u1 , u 2 ), (u1 , u 3 )} be an edge set. belong to the topology .

show that is a class of all the edges subsets of the set

{0, ,{ (u1 , u 2 )},{ (u1, u 3 )}, (u i , v j ),1}

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

In figure G1

(u1 , u2 ) (u2 , u3 ) (u1 , u3 ) 0 and Similarly the union of the edge set (ui , v j ) with any set

In figure G2 will be the set (ui , v j ) itself.

(u1 , u2 ) 0.3, (u2 , u3 ) 0.5, (u1, u3 ) 0.4 Hence,

As , (ui , v j ) , { (u1 , u2 )} (ui , j ) ,

first axiom of topology is satisfies. { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) ,

Axiom 2 { (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) .

To satisfy this axiom of topology, we have to check that the

We shall check using diagram whether

union of all the sub sets of the class lies in itself.

It is quite obvious that the union of a null edge set to any

{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )}.

other edge set is the edge set it. Belongs to Or not.

{ (u1 , u2 )} , { (u1 , u3 )} ,

{ (ui , j )} ,

{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) .

Axiom 3 The intersection of any edge set with the edge set

(ui , v j ) is the set itself.

We have to show that the intersection of all the subsets must

lie in itself. { (u1 , u2 )} (ui , j ) ,

The intersection of null edge set to any other edge subsets is { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) ,

a edge set. Hence G must lie in the class itself.

{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) .

{ (u1 , u2 )} , { (u1 , u3 )} ,

We now show that

{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} ,

{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) . { (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )}

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

Hence intersection on subsets of lies in itself. (ui , v j ) is always a topology on (ui , v j ) called

indiscrete fuzzy topological graph.

Therefore, the class D is discrete topology on the edge set

The pair ( (ui , v j ), ) is called an indiscrete fuzzy

(ui , v j ) and ( (ui , v j ), ) is a discrete fuzzy

topological graph.

topological graph.

Example

B. In Discrete Topology

Given edge set

(ui , v j ) { (u1 , v2 ), (u1, v3 ), (u4 , v5 )}

Let (ui , v j ) be any edge set, then the class

And a topology on it { , (ui , v j )}

{ , (ui , v j )} consisting of the empty set and the set

graph.(i.e.) it satisfies all the axioms of topology.

Axiom 1

It is satisfied as the null edge set, (i.e) and the complete

edge set (ui , v j ) belongs to the .

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

Axiom 2

It is also satisfied as the union of all the edge subsets of lies in itself.

Axiom 3

The last axiom of topology also holds true (i.e.) the intersection of all the edge subsets also lies in itself.

V. AMALGAMATIONS,EDGE CONTRACTION, sub graph H and G to a fuzzy topological sub graph H ' of

CONNECTIVITY AND BOUQUET OF CIRCLE

OF FUZZY GRAPHS G ' . The amalgamation G * f G ' is obtained from the

union of the vertex set

vi 1 vi 2 v j and

vi , v j 1 vi , v j 2 vi , v j

Lets G and G ' be two fuzzy topological graphs and let

f : H H' be an isomorphism from a fuzzy topological

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

Theorem

Let the fuzzy topological graphs A and B are imbedded

Let A and B be two planar fuzzy topological planar graphs. disjointly in the plane. Hence, both the copies of vertex

Then the fuzzy topological graph obtained by amalgamating (vi ) or of the edges (ui , v j ) lie on the exterior region.

A and B either at a single vertex v or along a single edge

It would be easy to construct a planar imbedding of the

(ui , v j ) is planar. amalgamation for a vertex amalgamation, by pulling each

Proof: copy of the vertex (vi ) of the fuzzy graph A and B. Then

the amalgamation of the fuzzy topological graphs A and B

by the vertices forms a new fuzzy topological graph H.

H is the combination of two cycles and it is planar.

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

Let the value of the amalgamation vertex be Hence, the amalgamation of two edges of the fuzzy

(v) ( (vi ) (v j )) topological graphs A and B forms a new fuzzy topological

graph K.

For an edge amalgamation of each copy of an edge Therefore, K is also planar.

(ui , v j ) does the same pulling away as with a vertex.

B. Edge Contraction And Connectivity of Fuzzy Graphs

To get the respective copies of (ui , v j ) to the exterior

region, let A and B be first imbedded in separate copies of Suppose that the fuzzy topological graph G is obtained

'

the 2-cycle, and select in each copy a region that contains from the fuzzy topological graph G by contracting the edges

(ui , u j ) & (vi , v j ) on its boundary. Then paste the two vi , v j with end points u and v to the single

resulting cycles together by the edges. Thereby forming a

new 2-cycle in which the graphs A and B are imbedded so

vertex v ' .

that both copies of (ui , u j ) & (vi , v j ) lie on the

boundary of the same region.

or K3,3. Contradicting the hypothesis for the original fuzzy

Let G be a fuzzy topological graph that contains no topological graph G. Then the sub graph H is homeomorphic

homeomorphic of k5 or k3,3 , and let (ui , v j ) be any edge to K5 or K3,3.

Therefore, G ' contains no homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3.

in G. Then the result of simplicially (simple graph)

contracting the fuzzy topological graph G an edge

Theorem

(ui , v j ) is a graph G ' that contains no homeomorphic of

K5 or of K3,3. Let G be a connected fuzzy topological graph with five or

more vertices. Then there is some edge u i , v j of G such

Proof

Let G be a fuzzy topological graph that contains no

homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3. We would imbed G in the

that the fuzzy topological graph G / u i , v j obtained by

plane, then simplicially contract (ui , v j ) within the contracting u i , v j is also connected.

imbedding and there by obtain an imbedding of the

contracted fuzzy topological graph G ' . Now let us take a Proof

Suppose by way of contradiction that, for every edge

contradiction suppose that the contracted fuzzy topological

graph G ' contains a homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3. Then G u i , v j the contradiction fuzzy topological graph G /

,

u i , v j has a set of two vertices that disconnects it.

would contain a fuzzy topological sub graph H such the

contraction of a single edge (ui , v j ) of H produces a

homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3.

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

One of those two vertices must be the vertex obtained by are adjacent. Deleting an edge and contraction of the

identifying the two end points of the edge u i , v j ; vertices vk to ui with all the edges related to

otherwise, the same set of two vertices would also vk of G gives a new fuzzy topological graph H. This

disconnect G, there by contradicting the connectivity of G.

ui , v j

will reduces the strength of the connectedness of G.

Thus for an edge the end points Therefore H is also connected.

ui ) & (vk of ui , v j together with the vertex Example

ui will give a new fuzzy topological graph H.

A connected fuzzy topological graph G with five or more

Let us choose an edge ui , v j and a vertex ui such vertices then contraction of any edge to the fuzzy

topological graph G is also connected.

that the largest component k of the graph

G { ui ), (v j } is the largest possible for any Solution

disconnecting set consisting of two vertices, two of which

Let G be a connected fuzzy topological graph with seven If (u, v) v5 , v6 then the strength of the

vertices let the vertex set be

connectedness will not be changed.

V {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 , v6 , v7 } C. Minor of A Fuzzy Topological Graph

Now the contraction of edge v5 , v7 at the vertex

A fuzzy topological graph H is a minor of a fuzzy

v5 will form a new fuzzy topological graph H. Let us topological graph G if a copy of H can be obtained from G

calculate the strength of the connectedness. by deleting or contracting edges of G.

v1 , v6 0.4; v2 , v3 0.4; v2 , v4 0.4; v2 , v5 0.5;

v2 , v6 0.5; v3 , v4 0.3; v3 , v5 0.8; v3 , v6 0.6;

v4 , v5 0.3; v4 , v6 0.3; v5 , v6 0.6.

u, v 0.8 0

Therefore H is connected.

From that we conclude,

If (u, v) v5 , v6 then the strength of the

connectedness will be changed.

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

Theorem

A fuzzy topological graph G is planar if and only if neither

K5 nor K3,3 is a minor of G

Proof

Let G be planar and K5 nor K3,3

Suppose K5 or K3,3 is a minor of G

We know that,If a fuzzy graph G is planar if and only it does

not contain a sub graph which is homeomorphic from K5 or

K3,3

G does not contains neither K5 or K3,3 as a minor of G

Conversely

contain K5 or K3,3 as a minor.

If a fuzzy graph G is planar if and only it does not contain a

sub graph which is homeomorphic from K5 or K3,3

Therefore, G is planar.

Hence the theorem. VI. OBSERVATIONS

D. Bouquets of Circles of Fuzzy Graphs Every complement of a fuzzy topological graph is open,

A Bouquet of n circles is a fuzzy topological graph with The complete fuzzy topological graph Kn+1 is

one vertex and n loops. The standard model is denoted Bn. isomorphic to the suspension of the complete fuzzy

topological graph Kn from the fuzzy topological graph

K1.

The suspension of two complete fuzzy topological

graph will become a complete bipartite fuzzy

topological graph.

(i.e.) Km + Kn = Kmn

(Km + Kn)C = Kmn (Membership value become 0)

((Km + Kn)C )C = Kmn.

Suspension of two fuzzy topological planar graphs need

not be a planar fuzzy topological graph.

Amalgamation of two fuzzy topological planar graphs

will be afuzzy topological planar graph.

The edge complement K nC of the complete fuzzy

topological graph has no edges at all but has n vertices

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Example Internation Journal of Engineering Technology and

Advanced Engineering Mar 2015.

The bouquet Bn+k is an amalgamation of the bouquets Bn and [2]. John N.Mordeson, Prem Chand S.Nair, Fuzzy Graphs

Bk at a vertex. and Fuzzy Hypergraphs, Physica-Verlag, A Springer

Verlag Company.

[3]. Jonathan L.Gross , Thomas W.Tucker, Topological

Graph Theory, Wiley Inter science series in Discrete

Mathematics and Optimization, 1987.

[4]. N.Palaniappan, Fuzzy Topology, Second Edition,

Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.

[5]. Ruchiragoel, Prashant Agarwal and Minakshi Gaur,

Trivial Topologies of the Set of Graphs, April 2008.

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

A Survey, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Sep

2013.

[7]. D.Venugopalam, Naga Maruthi Kumari, M.Vijaya

Kumar, Operations on Fuzzy Graphs, South Asian

Journal of Mathematics 2013.

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