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# Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

## Trivial Fuzzy Topology of the Set of Fuzzy Graphs

1 2
P.Jayalakshmi, N.Ramya Priya,
Assistant Professor in Mathematics, Research Scholar in Mathematics,
Sri GVG Visalakshi College for Women (Autonomous), Sri GVG Visalakshi College for Women (Autonomous),
Udumalpet, Udumalpet

## Abstract:-In this paper an attempt is made to study B. Fuzzy Graph

about Fuzzy Topological Graph Theory and the trivial
fuzzy topologies of the set of fuzzy graphs. The A fuzzy graph is a pair G : , where is a fuzzy
Suspension and Amalgamation of two fuzzy topological
graphs are explained. Furthermore a discussion is made subset of S, is a symmetric fuzzy relation on . The
on Bouquets of circle. Various properties of edge elements of S are called the nodes or vertices of G and the
contraction and connectivity of Fuzzy Topological Graph pair of vertices edges in G.
are established.
C. Fuzzy Cut Node
Keywords:-Fuzzy Topological Graph, Trivial Fuzzy
Topologies, Suspension, Amalgamation, Bouquets of Circle. A node is a fuzzy cut node of G : , if removal of it
I. INTRODUCTION reduces the strength of connectedness between some other
pair of nodes.
In 1965, Zadeh introduced the notion of fuzzy set which is
characterized by a membership function that assigns a grade III. TRIVIAL TOPOLOGIES OF THE SET OF
of membership ranging from 0 to 1to each of its objects. FUZZY GRAPHS
The first definition of fuzzy graph was introduced by
Kaufmann (1973), based on Zadehs fuzzy relations (1971). A. Fuzzy Topological Graph
The extension of the concepts of ordinary topological space
is the fuzzy topology was introduced by C.L.Chang in 1968. Let G be a fuzzy topological graph and I the unit interval.
A family of I of fuzzy graphs is called a fuzzy
Fuzzy topological graph is an important concept in the field G
of graph theory dealing with uncertainty. This paper is
topological graph of G. If it satisfies the following
focused on trivial fuzzy topology of the set of fuzzy
conditions.
i) [0, 1]
graphs.In section 2, the classical and basic definitions of
fuzzy graph is reviewed. Section 3 deals with the definitions
of Trivial topologies of the set of fuzzy graphs. In section 4 ii) For every , ui ,v j u , v
,a study is made on discrete and indiscrete fuzzy topological
graph. In Section 5 the concepts such as Amalgamations,
edge contraction, connectivity and bouquet of circle of fuzzy
graphs are generalized.

II. PRELIMINARIES

A. Fuzzy Topology

## A family I X of fuzzy sets is called a fuzzy topology

for X if it satisfies the following three axioms
1. I , .
2.A, B A, A B .
3.( Aj ) jJ jJ Aj . B. Open And Closed of Fuzzy Graphs
The pair (X, ) is called a fuzzy topological space or fts,
A fuzzy topological graph in are called open fuzzy
for short. The elements of are called fuzzy open sets. A
fuzzy set K is called fuzzy closed set if K .
c topological graph. A fuzzy topological graph I G is
called closed if and only if c is open.

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

## ISSN No:-2456 2165

__
C. Closure And Interior of Fuzzy Graphs From the above graph 0.5 & 1

The closure and interior of fuzzy topological graph IG D. Intersection of A Fuzzy Topological Graph
are defined respectively as, Two fuzzy topological graphs H and F in G are said to be

inf vi : vi vi , v j ; vi
c
intersecting if and only if there exists a vi G such

H F vi 0 then,

sup vi : vi vi , v j ; vi
that H and F intersect at
vi

## Let G, be a fuzzy topological sub graph. A fuzzy sub

'
graph G of is called a fuzzy topological sub graph if

## ' vi vi and ' ui ,v j u i , v j

(i.e.) if ' vi vi for every u V and

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

## F. Suspension of Fuzzy Graphs '

G + G .Its vertex set is
vi max vi , vi'
The suspension of a fuzzy topological graph G from a fuzzy and the edge set
topological graph
'
G is obtained by adjoining every vertex
'

vi , v j vi , v j ' vi , v j vi vi'
of G to every vertex of G and is denoted as

FUZZY GRAPHS

A. Introduction:

## Topological ideas are present in almost all areas of todays

mathematics.
There are two kinds of trivial topologies
1. Discrete topology
2. Indiscrete topology

## a). Discrete Topology

For a given non-empty set (ui , v j ) & be a family of all To verify that the class is a discrete fuzzy topology graph
and ( , ) is a fuzzy topological graph it is enough to
subsets defined over the edge set ( , ) is fuzzy
show that the axioms of topology are satisfied.
topological graph in IG as is a fuzzy topology on
(ui , v j ) in IG Axiom 1
Example The null edge set and complete edge set (ui , v j ) must
Let (ui , v j ) { (u1 , u 2 ), (u1 , u 3 )} be an edge set. belong to the topology .
show that is a class of all the edges subsets of the set
{0, ,{ (u1 , u 2 )},{ (u1, u 3 )}, (u i , v j ),1}

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In figure G1
(u1 , u2 ) (u2 , u3 ) (u1 , u3 ) 0 and Similarly the union of the edge set (ui , v j ) with any set
In figure G2 will be the set (ui , v j ) itself.
(u1 , u2 ) 0.3, (u2 , u3 ) 0.5, (u1, u3 ) 0.4 Hence,
As , (ui , v j ) , { (u1 , u2 )} (ui , j ) ,
first axiom of topology is satisfies. { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) ,
Axiom 2 { (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) .
To satisfy this axiom of topology, we have to check that the
We shall check using diagram whether
union of all the sub sets of the class lies in itself.
It is quite obvious that the union of a null edge set to any
{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )}.
other edge set is the edge set it. Belongs to Or not.

{ (u1 , u2 )} , { (u1 , u3 )} ,
{ (ui , j )} ,
{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) .

Axiom 3 The intersection of any edge set with the edge set
(ui , v j ) is the set itself.
We have to show that the intersection of all the subsets must
lie in itself. { (u1 , u2 )} (ui , j ) ,
The intersection of null edge set to any other edge subsets is { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) ,
a edge set. Hence G must lie in the class itself.
{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) .
{ (u1 , u2 )} , { (u1 , u3 )} ,
We now show that
{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} ,
{ (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )} (ui , j ) . { (u1 , u2 )} { (u1 , u3 )}

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Hence intersection on subsets of lies in itself. (ui , v j ) is always a topology on (ui , v j ) called
indiscrete fuzzy topological graph.
Therefore, the class D is discrete topology on the edge set
The pair ( (ui , v j ), ) is called an indiscrete fuzzy
(ui , v j ) and ( (ui , v j ), ) is a discrete fuzzy
topological graph.
topological graph.
Example
B. In Discrete Topology
Given edge set
(ui , v j ) { (u1 , v2 ), (u1, v3 ), (u4 , v5 )}
Let (ui , v j ) be any edge set, then the class
And a topology on it { , (ui , v j )}
{ , (ui , v j )} consisting of the empty set and the set

## To verify that is an indiscrete fuzzy topological

graph.(i.e.) it satisfies all the axioms of topology.

Axiom 1
It is satisfied as the null edge set, (i.e) and the complete
edge set (ui , v j ) belongs to the .

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## ISSN No:-2456 2165

Axiom 2
It is also satisfied as the union of all the edge subsets of lies in itself.

Axiom 3
The last axiom of topology also holds true (i.e.) the intersection of all the edge subsets also lies in itself.

V. AMALGAMATIONS,EDGE CONTRACTION, sub graph H and G to a fuzzy topological sub graph H ' of
CONNECTIVITY AND BOUQUET OF CIRCLE
OF FUZZY GRAPHS G ' . The amalgamation G * f G ' is obtained from the

## A. Amalgamations of Fuzzy Graphs

union of the vertex set
vi 1 vi 2 v j and
vi , v j 1 vi , v j 2 vi , v j
Lets G and G ' be two fuzzy topological graphs and let
f : H H' be an isomorphism from a fuzzy topological

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Theorem
Let the fuzzy topological graphs A and B are imbedded
Let A and B be two planar fuzzy topological planar graphs. disjointly in the plane. Hence, both the copies of vertex
Then the fuzzy topological graph obtained by amalgamating (vi ) or of the edges (ui , v j ) lie on the exterior region.
A and B either at a single vertex v or along a single edge
It would be easy to construct a planar imbedding of the
(ui , v j ) is planar. amalgamation for a vertex amalgamation, by pulling each
Proof: copy of the vertex (vi ) of the fuzzy graph A and B. Then
the amalgamation of the fuzzy topological graphs A and B
by the vertices forms a new fuzzy topological graph H.
H is the combination of two cycles and it is planar.

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Let the value of the amalgamation vertex be Hence, the amalgamation of two edges of the fuzzy
(v) ( (vi ) (v j )) topological graphs A and B forms a new fuzzy topological
graph K.
For an edge amalgamation of each copy of an edge Therefore, K is also planar.
(ui , v j ) does the same pulling away as with a vertex.
B. Edge Contraction And Connectivity of Fuzzy Graphs
To get the respective copies of (ui , v j ) to the exterior
region, let A and B be first imbedded in separate copies of Suppose that the fuzzy topological graph G is obtained
'
the 2-cycle, and select in each copy a region that contains from the fuzzy topological graph G by contracting the edges
(ui , u j ) & (vi , v j ) on its boundary. Then paste the two vi , v j with end points u and v to the single
resulting cycles together by the edges. Thereby forming a
new 2-cycle in which the graphs A and B are imbedded so
vertex v ' .
that both copies of (ui , u j ) & (vi , v j ) lie on the
boundary of the same region.

## Theorem The fuzzy sub graph H itself contains a homeomorphic of K5

or K3,3. Contradicting the hypothesis for the original fuzzy
Let G be a fuzzy topological graph that contains no topological graph G. Then the sub graph H is homeomorphic
homeomorphic of k5 or k3,3 , and let (ui , v j ) be any edge to K5 or K3,3.
Therefore, G ' contains no homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3.
in G. Then the result of simplicially (simple graph)
contracting the fuzzy topological graph G an edge
Theorem
(ui , v j ) is a graph G ' that contains no homeomorphic of
K5 or of K3,3. Let G be a connected fuzzy topological graph with five or
more vertices. Then there is some edge u i , v j of G such
Proof
Let G be a fuzzy topological graph that contains no
homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3. We would imbed G in the
that the fuzzy topological graph G / u i , v j obtained by
plane, then simplicially contract (ui , v j ) within the contracting u i , v j is also connected.
imbedding and there by obtain an imbedding of the
contracted fuzzy topological graph G ' . Now let us take a Proof
Suppose by way of contradiction that, for every edge
contradiction suppose that the contracted fuzzy topological
graph G ' contains a homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3. Then G u i , v j the contradiction fuzzy topological graph G /
,
u i , v j has a set of two vertices that disconnects it.
would contain a fuzzy topological sub graph H such the
contraction of a single edge (ui , v j ) of H produces a
homeomorphic of K5 or K3,3.

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

## ISSN No:-2456 2165

One of those two vertices must be the vertex obtained by are adjacent. Deleting an edge and contraction of the
identifying the two end points of the edge u i , v j ; vertices vk to ui with all the edges related to
otherwise, the same set of two vertices would also vk of G gives a new fuzzy topological graph H. This
disconnect G, there by contradicting the connectivity of G.
ui , v j
will reduces the strength of the connectedness of G.
Thus for an edge the end points Therefore H is also connected.
ui ) & (vk of ui , v j together with the vertex Example
ui will give a new fuzzy topological graph H.
A connected fuzzy topological graph G with five or more
Let us choose an edge ui , v j and a vertex ui such vertices then contraction of any edge to the fuzzy
topological graph G is also connected.
that the largest component k of the graph
G { ui ), (v j } is the largest possible for any Solution
disconnecting set consisting of two vertices, two of which

Let G be a connected fuzzy topological graph with seven If (u, v) v5 , v6 then the strength of the
vertices let the vertex set be
connectedness will not be changed.
V {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 , v6 , v7 } C. Minor of A Fuzzy Topological Graph
Now the contraction of edge v5 , v7 at the vertex
A fuzzy topological graph H is a minor of a fuzzy
v5 will form a new fuzzy topological graph H. Let us topological graph G if a copy of H can be obtained from G
calculate the strength of the connectedness. by deleting or contracting edges of G.

## v1 , v2 0.5; v1 , v3 0.7; v1 , v4 0.3; v1 , v5 0.7;

v1 , v6 0.4; v2 , v3 0.4; v2 , v4 0.4; v2 , v5 0.5;
v2 , v6 0.5; v3 , v4 0.3; v3 , v5 0.8; v3 , v6 0.6;
v4 , v5 0.3; v4 , v6 0.3; v5 , v6 0.6.

u, v 0.8 0
Therefore H is connected.
From that we conclude,
If (u, v) v5 , v6 then the strength of the
connectedness will be changed.

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

## ISSN No:-2456 2165

Theorem
A fuzzy topological graph G is planar if and only if neither
K5 nor K3,3 is a minor of G

Proof
Let G be planar and K5 nor K3,3
Suppose K5 or K3,3 is a minor of G
We know that,If a fuzzy graph G is planar if and only it does
not contain a sub graph which is homeomorphic from K5 or
K3,3

## Which is a contradiction to G is planar

G does not contains neither K5 or K3,3 as a minor of G
Conversely

## Assume on the contrary that let G be a graph that does not

contain K5 or K3,3 as a minor.
If a fuzzy graph G is planar if and only it does not contain a
sub graph which is homeomorphic from K5 or K3,3
Therefore, G is planar.
Hence the theorem. VI. OBSERVATIONS

D. Bouquets of Circles of Fuzzy Graphs Every complement of a fuzzy topological graph is open,

A Bouquet of n circles is a fuzzy topological graph with The complete fuzzy topological graph Kn+1 is
one vertex and n loops. The standard model is denoted Bn. isomorphic to the suspension of the complete fuzzy
topological graph Kn from the fuzzy topological graph
K1.
The suspension of two complete fuzzy topological
graph will become a complete bipartite fuzzy
topological graph.
(i.e.) Km + Kn = Kmn
(Km + Kn)C = Kmn (Membership value become 0)
((Km + Kn)C )C = Kmn.
Suspension of two fuzzy topological planar graphs need
not be a planar fuzzy topological graph.
Amalgamation of two fuzzy topological planar graphs
will be afuzzy topological planar graph.
The edge complement K nC of the complete fuzzy
topological graph has no edges at all but has n vertices

BIBLIOGRAPHY

## [1]. K.Arjunan, C.Subramani, Notes on Fuzzy Graph,

Example Internation Journal of Engineering Technology and
The bouquet Bn+k is an amalgamation of the bouquets Bn and [2]. John N.Mordeson, Prem Chand S.Nair, Fuzzy Graphs
Bk at a vertex. and Fuzzy Hypergraphs, Physica-Verlag, A Springer
Verlag Company.
[3]. Jonathan L.Gross , Thomas W.Tucker, Topological
Graph Theory, Wiley Inter science series in Discrete
Mathematics and Optimization, 1987.
[4]. N.Palaniappan, Fuzzy Topology, Second Edition,
Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
[5]. Ruchiragoel, Prashant Agarwal and Minakshi Gaur,
Trivial Topologies of the Set of Graphs, April 2008.

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Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

## [6]. M.S.Sunitha and Sunil Mathew, Fuzzy Graph Theory:

A Survey, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Sep
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[7]. D.Venugopalam, Naga Maruthi Kumari, M.Vijaya
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