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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Automatic Automatic Dependent Dependent Surveillance Surveillance Broadcast Broadcast

(ADS-B) (ADS-B)

Flight Flight Operations Operations Information Information Package Package

Version 2.0 28 Mar, 2007

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

About this information package

ADS-B can provide a highly accurate and effective means for air traffic controllers to provide air traffic surveillance services outside of radar coverage, however it also invokes some changes from long standing procedures, techniques and phraseologies.

The objective of this interactive package is to provide information to assist in the development of the pilot and dispatcher training programs necessary to receive Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) services in Australia.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

About this information package

While Airservices Australia has taken reasonable steps to ensure the accuracy of this information, Airservices Australia makes no warranty or representation that it is accurate.

Information required for operational or commercial purposes must be checked against the appropriate sources.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

About this information package

For convenience,this information package contains a number of links to websites where more relevant information can be obtained.

If running this program online, or from CD or hard drive whilst connected to the internet, clicking these links will take you out of this package and directly to the relevant web page.

Some linked pages are not under the control of Airservices Australia. Airservices Australia is not responsible for the content of any external linked site, or any changes or updates to such sites.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Additional ADS-B Education Material

An additional source of ADS-B education material is an information booklet published by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA).

This booklet has been mailed to every pilot in Australia and may be ordered from:

been mailed t o ev ery pilot in Australia and may be o rder ed from:

www.casa.gov.au/manuals/store.htm

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

ADS-B Flight Operations Information Package

Part 1 – Overview

Part 2 – Operating Procedures and Services

Select a section above or Next to start from the beginning.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Part 1 - Overview

How ADS-B Works

Avionics Overview

ATC System Overview

Upper Airspace Program Overview

ADS-B Services Overview

Transition Strategy

Avionics Requirements

Applying for ADS-B Services

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

How ADS-B Works

An aircraft with ADS-B determines its position using GPS.

ADS-B Upper Airspace Program How ADS-B Works An aircraft with ADS-B determines its position using GPS.
ADS-B Upper Airspace Program How ADS-B Works An aircraft with ADS-B determines its position using GPS.

ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

How ADS-B Works

An aircraft with ADS-B determines its position using GPS.

A suitable transmitter then broadcasts that position at rapid intervals, along with identity, altitude, velocity and other data.

Dedicated ADS-B ground stations can receive the broadcasts and relay the information to air traffic control for precise tracking of the aircraft.

the broadcasts and relay the information to air traffic control for precise tracking of the aircraft.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

How ADS-B Works

ADS-B data is broadcast every half-second on a 1090 MHz, digital data link and, like radar, is limited to “line-of-sight.” The ability of a ground station to receive a signal depends on altitude, distance from the site and obstructing terrain.

The maximum range of each ground station can exceed 250 nautical miles. In airspace immediately surrounding each ground station, surveillance coverage will extend to near the surface.

~ 500 Nautical Miles Ground Station Previous Next
~ 500 Nautical Miles
Ground Station
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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Avionics Overview

In most installations today, ADS-B transmissions are a function of the aircraft’s transponder(s). Only transponders with the appropriate software, and connections to the GPS receiver (and FMS if so fitted) can transmit ADS-B data.

ADS-B transmissions are automatically activated when the transponder is activated.

Selection of IDENT provides an identification indication in the ADS-B message. Selection of Standby Mode inhibits ADS-B transmissions as well as SSR interrogation replies.

of Standby Mode inhibits ADS-B transmissions as well as SSR interrogation replies. Indicative only Previous Next

Indicative only

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Avionics Overview

Some future ADS-B installations may not share controls with the SSR transponder, meaning that independent operation of the two systems may be required.

Refer to relevant operator manuals for correct operation.

the two systems may be required. Refer to relevant operator manuals for correct operation. Indicative only
the two systems may be required. Refer to relevant operator manuals for correct operation. Indicative only

Indicative only

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Avionics Overview

The ADS-B transmitter autonomously broadcasts various aircraft parameters every half-second which may include:

• Flight Identification (flight number callsign or call sign)

• ICAO 24-bit Aircraft Address (globally unique airframe code)

• Position (latitude/longitude)

• Position Integrity/Accuracy (GPS horizontal protection limit)

• Barometric and Geometric Altitudes

• Vertical Rate (rate of climb/descent)

• Track Angle and Ground Speed (velocity)

• Emergency Indication (when emergency code selected)

• Special Position Identification (when IDENT selected)

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

ATC System Overview

ADS-B processing and display functions have been integrated into The Australian Advanced Air Traffic System (TAAATS).

TAAATS receives position and altitude information from a number of sources. Radar, ADS-B, ADS-C (FANS1/A) and pilot position reports can all be used to track the flight.

The shape of the position symbol is an indication to the controller of the source of the position information being used to track the flight.

TAAATS Integrated Air Situation Display
TAAATS Integrated Air Situation Display

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

What the Air Traffic Controller Sees

Integrated air situation display.

Positions from ADS-B and other sources displayed on a single screen.

ADS-B derived position RADAR derived position
ADS-B derived
position
RADAR derived
position
Computer predicted position based on pilot position reports
Computer
predicted position
based on pilot
position reports

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Correlation with ATS Flight Plan

The ATC system uses the flight identification (flight number) broadcast by the avionics to correlate ADS-B position to information contained in a stored ATS flight plan.

It is therefore important that the Flight ID or flight number entered in the avionics exactly matches the Aircraft Identification in the ATS flight plan.

For airline flights, this is typically the ICAO 3 letter airline designator plus flight number.

flights, this is typically the ICAO 3 letter airline designator plus flight number. Indicative only Previous

Indicative only

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Upper Airspace Program Overview

Airservices Australia is expanding its air traffic surveillance capabilities using a network of 28 Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) ground stations.

The ground stations will be strategically located across the continent to complement existing radar coverage resulting in nationwide ATC surveillance capability above 30,000 feet.

ADS-B Ground Station
ADS-B Ground Station
ATC surveillance c apability above 30,000 feet. ADS-B Ground Station Integrated Air Situation Display Previous Next
Integrated Air Situation Display
Integrated Air Situation Display

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Combined Existing Radar Radar and ADS-B Coverage Coverage

30,000 feet
30,000 feet

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

ADS-B Services Overview

ADS-B will also be used to deliver mid-level and low-level surveillance services, including radar-like traffic advisories in uncontrolled airspace, at selected remote locations where coverage exists.

Warning: ADS-B equipage is not mandatory. Pilots must be aware that aircraft without ADS-B and not under air traffic control responsibility may be operating in some classes of airspace and will not be visible or known to ATC.

ADS-B derived traffic advisory services can only be provided in respect to other ADS-B equipped aircraft.

ADS-B derived traffic advisory services can only be provided in respect to other ADS-B equipped aircraft.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Transition Strategy

The transition to nationwide ADS-B services is being conducted in 3 stages over a 24 month period.

Stage 1: ADS-B Operational Trial – COMPLETED 28.06.06 The trial was used to gain operational
Stage 1: ADS-B Operational Trial – COMPLETED
28.06.06
The trial was used to gain operational and technical
experience in the new technology.

An operational trial of ADS-B services for a limited number of airline and general aviation aircraft was conducted near Bundaberg in Eastern Queensland.

ADS-B services were available only to operators of aircraft authorised to participate in the trial.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Transition Strategy

Stage 2: Limited ADS-B Services – Current Stage

The progressive rollout of ADS-B ground stations across Australia commenced on 28 June 2006 and will continue until nationwide coverage is achieved in 2008.

Limited ADS-B services are being introduced in selected geographic areas as ground stations are brought online.

The geographic areas in which ADS-B services are being provided during this stage will be defined in an AIP Supplement and updated by NOTAM.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Transition Strategy

ADS-B services during Stage 2 of the transition include:

• ADS-B data used in the application of procedural separation

- ADS-B used to monitor procedural separation standards

- Identification and altitude verification based on ADS-B derived data

- Automatic position reporting (pilot position reports not required)

• Within ATS surveillance system coverage, identified aircraft receive

priority over non-identified aircraft as per AIP ENR 1.4. para 10.1(j)

• Automated flight monitoring and safety alerting

10.1(j) • Automated flight monitoring and safety alerting - Route and altitude conformance monitoring - Dangerous

- Route and altitude conformance monitoring

- Dangerous area infringement warning

- ADS-B derived conflict alerting

• Radar-like traffic advisories

- between ADS-B equipped aircraft only

• VFR flight following upon request

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Transition Strategy

Stage 3: Full ADS-B Services

The transition to full ADS-B services, including the application of 5 Nm minimum separation standards, will take place when all 28 ground stations are operating.

Use of the 5 Nm separation standard by air traffic control outside of radar coverage is applicable only between approved ADS-B equipped aircraft and is conditional on a GPS constellation geometry that will ensure GNSS position accuracy.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Transition Strategy

ADS-B services during Stage 3 of the transition include:

• Radar-like surveillance services within ADS-B coverage

- 5 Nm minimum separation distance between ADS-B equipped aircraft

• Automated flight monitoring and safety alerting

- Route and altitude conformance monitoring - Dangerous area infringement warning

- ADS-B derived conflict alerting

• Radar-like traffic advisories

- between ADS-B equipped aircraft only

VFR flight following upon request

traffic advisories - between ADS-B equipped aircraft only • VFR flight following upon request Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Avionics Requirements

A small number of ADS-B installations do not meet the requirements for ADS-B derived air traffic services in Australia.

Because of this, aircraft operators who wish to take advantage of ADS-B services must confirm that aircraft avionics meet standards specified by the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) as part of an ADS-B operations authorisation process .

For more information, see draft Advisory Circular 21-45 at:

http://rrp.casa.gov.au/archive/timelines/07_021.asp

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Applying for ADS-B Services

Airservices Australia will administer the ADS-B approval process. Aircraft operators must submit an application that details the avionics configuration of each ADS-B equipped aircraft in the fleet. Airservices will then confirm that the avionics meet the standards required for ADS-B services.

See: www.airservicesaustralia.com/adsb/operations

Following avionics approval and prior to receiving ADS-B services, operators must advise Airservices Australia in writing that pilots and dispatchers/operations officers (if applicable) have completed relevant ADS-B training.

that pilots and dispatchers/operations officers (if applicable) have completed relevant ADS-B training. Previous Next

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that pilots and dispatchers/operations officers (if applicable) have completed relevant ADS-B training. Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Maintaining Approved Aircraft Information

Avionics approval is based on individual avionics packages for each ADS-B equipped aircraft. Airservices Australia and CASA keep a detailed register of all approved ADS- B equipped aircraft.

In order to ensure that we only provide services to approved aircraft, aircraft operators need to advise Airservices if any of the following events occur:

1. If any changes are made to the avionics for any approved aircraft (for example, the

replacement of equipment (e.g. transponder or MMR/GPS Receiver) with another part

that does not have an identical part number).

2. If your approved aircraft is sold or reregistered.

3. If you take delivery of new airframes, or retrofit any existing aircraft and would like

to gain approval for them to also receive ADS-B services.

Part of the approval process also requires all crew operating ADS-B approved aircraft to have undertaken appropriate training and are familiar with ADS-B operations in Australia. Aircraft Operators should ensure that all new crew have received relevant ADS-B training prior to operating approved ADS-B equipped aircraft.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

End of Part 1

This concludes Part 1 of the Airservices Australia ADS-B flight operations information package. For more information on the ADS-B Project, visit the ADS-B website at www.airservicesaustralia.com/adsb.

Click here to go to Part 2 – Operating Procedures and Services

Click here to review Part 1

We welcome your feedback. Please submit questions or comments through the ADS-B website at:

www.airservicesaustralia.com/pilotcentre/projects/adsb/feedback.asp

(Direct link if connected to the internet)

tcentre/projects/adsb/feedback.asp (Direct link if connected to the internet) Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Automatic Automatic Dependent Dependent Surveillance Surveillance Broadcast Broadcast

(ADS-B) (ADS-B)

Flight Flight Operations Operations Information Information Program Program

Part Part 2 2 Operating Operating Procedures Procedures and and Services Services

Template Last Updated: 3 June 2005

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Part 2 – Operating Procedures and Services

Overview

Pre-flight

In-flight

Phraseology

Separation Services

Traffic Advisory Services

Emergencies

Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

ADS-B Operating Procedures and Services

ADS-B is part of a hierarchy of surveillance data sources, with primary and secondary radar having the highest priority in the ATS surveillance system.

ADS-B will be used as a source of aircraft position and altitude information when an equipped aircraft is beyond or below radar coverage within the service volume of an ADS-B ground station (a line of sight facility).

of an ADS-B ground station (a line of sight facility). In general, ADS-B services and procedures

In general, ADS-B services and procedures are identical to those provided within radar coverage. Some changes to phraseology and terminology in AIP have been made to remove specific references to “radar.”

AIP have been made to remove specific references to “radar.” ADS-B only used outside of radar

ADS-B only used outside of radar coverage

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Pre-flight: Flight Notification Procedures

Operators who meet the Australian requirements for ADS- B operations must indicate ADS-B capability in the flight notification (ATS flight plan) when planning to operate in Australian airspace.

This is indicated by entering the letters “ADSB” as the first element following RMK/ in Item 18 of the ATS flight plan.

Example:

(FPL-ABC123-IS

-B738/M-SDHIRWZ/S

-YSSY0105

-N0453F370 DCT SY H185 ENTRA Y245 BANDA H185 CG/N0452F360 Q69 ITIDE DCT HBA DCT

-YHBA0116

-EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQBF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C NAV/RNP10 GPSRNAV RMK/ADSB)

HBA DCT -YHBA0116 -EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQ BF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C NAV/RNP10 GPSRNAV RMK/ADSB) Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Pre-flight: Flight Notification Procedures

If there is a requirement to include additional remarks in Item 18, then ‘ADSB’ should be entered as the first element following RMK/ with any additional comments separated by a space.

Example:

(FPL-ABC123-IS

-B738/M-SDHIRWZ/S

-YSSY0105

-N0453F370 DCT SY H185 ENTRA Y245 BANDA H185 CG/N0452F360 Q69 ITIDE DCT HBA DCT

-YHBA0116

Y245 BANDA H185 CG/N0452F360 Q69 ITIDE DCT HBA DCT -YHBA0116 -EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQBF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C

-EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQBF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C NAV/RNP10 GPSRNAV RMK/ADSB TCAS EQUIPPED ACARS EQUIPPED )

The inclusion of multiple RMK/ fields in Item 18 may cause flight plans to reject in some automated ATC systems.

(FPL-ABC123-IS

-B738/M-SDHIRWZ/S

-YSSY0105

-N0453F370 DCT SY H185 ENTRA Y245 BANDA H185 CG/N0452F360 Q69 ITIDE DCT HBA DCT

-YHBA0116

Y245 BANDA H185 CG/N0452F360 Q69 ITIDE DCT HBA DCT -YHBA0116 -EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQBF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C

-EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQBF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C NAV/RNP10 GPSRNAV RMK/ADSB RMK/TCAS EQUIPPED ACARS EQUIPPED )

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Pre-flight: Flight Notification Procedures

Note: Inclusion of “RMK/ADSB” is an indication to ATC that the aircraft is equipped and approved for ADS-B operations and the flight crew has undertaken the necessary training.

For any ADS-B equipped flight in Australian airspace where this is not the case, omit ADSB from remarks.

? ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE, TRANSMIT A-D-S-B ALTITUDE
?
ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE,
TRANSMIT A-D-S-B ALTITUDE

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Pre-flight: Entry of Flight Identification (FLTID)

ADS-B avionics transmit the Flight Identification (flight number) set in the avionics or flight management system.

The ATC system uses that identification to correlate ADS-B position with the information contained in a stored flight plan.

When entering the Flight Identification (flight number), pilots should ensure it exactly matches the Aircraft Identification (ACID) in the ATS flight plan.

the Aircraft Identification (ACID) in the ATS flight plan. (FPL-ABC123-IS -B738/M-SDHIRWZ/S -YSSY0105 Indicative only

(FPL-ABC123-IS

-B738/M-SDHIRWZ/S

-YSSY0105

Identification (ACID) in the ATS flight plan. (FPL-ABC123-IS -B738/M-SDHIRWZ/S -YSSY0105 Indicative only Previous Next

Indicative only

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Common ERRORS when entering Flight ID

The following are some commonly seen Flight ID entry errors seen by ATC:

Using IATA 2 letter airline designator, instead of ICAO 3 letter airline designator (AB123 instead of ABC123) Entering of wrong flight number (eg from a previous leg) (ABC122 instead of ABC123)

( AB 123 instead of ABC123) Entering of wrong flight number (eg from a previous leg)

Entering leading zeros (ABC0123 instead of ABC123)

Entering spaces (ABC_123 instead of ABC123)

Entering departure/destination points/alternate (BNEMEL)

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Pre-flight: Entry of Flight Identification

If, for operational or equipment limitation reasons, the flight identification cannot match the aircraft identification in the flight plan, the ICAO 24-bit Aircraft Address (24 bit code) must be entered in Item 18 of the flight notification preceded by “CODE/”

The Aircraft Address is a globally unique, digital identification for the aircraft which is also broadcast and is expressed as a 6- character alphanumeric code as shown in the example below.

(FPL-ABC123-IS

-B738/M-SDHIRWZ/S

-YSSY0105

-N0453F370 DCT SY H185 ENTRA Y245 BANDA H185 CG/N0452F360 Q69 ITIDE DCT HBA DCT

-YHBA0116

-EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQBF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C NAV/RNP10 GPSRNAV CODE/7C3A21 RMK/ADSB)

-EET/YBBB0009 REG/VHABC SEL/MQ BF OPR/ABACUS AIRLINES PER/C NAV/RNP10 GPSRNAV CODE/7C3A21 RMK/ADSB) Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Pre-flight: Knowledge of Aircraft Capabilities

It is likely that only a portion of the aircraft in an aircraft operator’s fleet are ADS-B equipped. It is therefore important for flight planning and operational reasons that dispatchers and pilots know which aircraft are equipped and approved for ADS-B operations in Australia.

Operators should have processes in place to ensure dispatchers and flight crew are aware of fleet ADS-B capability, operational approval status and ICAO aircraft address if applicable.

capability, operational approval status and ICAO aircraft address if applicable. Are we ADS-B equipped? Previous Next
Are we ADS-B equipped? Previous Next
Are we ADS-B
equipped?
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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Correction of Flight ID in Flight

• If Flight ID has been entered incorrectly, ATC will instruct the pilot to RE-ENTER ADS-B

AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION

• If able, the pilot must then re-set the FLTID to exactly match the Aircraft Identification in the ATS flight notification.

If the pilot is unable to re-set the FLTID in flight (eg some Airbus crew) then advise ATC that you are

UNABLE TO COMPLY.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

In-flight: Identification

Approved aircraft operating in an ADS-B service environment will be identified using the same techniques used in radar identification. The phrase IDENTIFIED is used for both ADS- B and radar identification.

Some avionics installations may have a separate control panel for ADS-B and SSR functions. Therefore, the phrase SQUAWK IDENT will continue to be used in radar coverage with the phrase TRANSMIT A-D-S-B IDENT used in ADS-B coverage.

the phrase TRANSMIT A-D-S-B IDENT used in ADS-B coverage. ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE, TRANSMIT A-D-S-B IDENT
ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE, TRANSMIT A-D-S-B IDENT
ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE,
TRANSMIT A-D-S-B IDENT

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

In-flight: Termination of Surveillance Services

The generic phrase, IDENTIFICATION TERMINATED will now be used to advise termination of both radar and ADS-B derived surveillance services.

The phrase RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED may continue to be used within radar coverage for a period during the transition but will eventually be phased out altogether.

transition but will eventually be phased out altogether. ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE, IDENTIFICATION TERMINATED,
ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE, IDENTIFICATION TERMINATED, FREQUENCY CHANGE APPROVED
ABACUS ONE TWENTY THREE,
IDENTIFICATION TERMINATED,
FREQUENCY CHANGE APPROVED

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Phraseology

With the following exceptions, the phraseologies defined for radar in AIP GEN 3.4 - 5.13 will be used in the provision of ADS-B services.

Circumstance

Radar Phraseology

ADS-B Phraseology

Radar or ADS-B ground equipment unserviceability

SECONDARY RADAR OUT OF SERVICE (appropriate information as necessary) Or PRIMARY RADAR OUT OF SERVICE (appropriate information as necessary)

ADS-B OUT OF SERVICE (appropriate information as necessary)

(appropriate information as necessary) ADS-B OUT OF SERVICE (appropriate information as necessary) Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Phraseology

Circumstance

Radar Phraseology

ADS-B Phraseology

To request an aircraft’s SSR or ADS-B capability

ADVISE TRANSPONDER CAPABILITY

ADVISE ADS-B CAPABILITY

To advise the aircraft’s SSR or ADS-B capability

TRANSPONDER (ALPHA, CHARLIE or SIERRA etc. as shown in the Flight Plan) Or NEGATIVE TRANSPONDER

ADS-B TRANSMITTER (TEN NINETY DATALINK) or ADS-B RECEIVER (TEN NINETY DATALINK) or NEGATIVE ADS-B

ADS-B TRANSMITTER (TEN NINETY DATALINK) or ADS-B RECEIVER (TEN NINETY DATALINK) or NEGATIVE ADS-B Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Phraseology

Circumstance

Radar Phraseology

ADS-B Phraseology

To request reselection of FLT ID*

RE-ENTER MODE S AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION

RE-ENTER ADS-B AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION

To request the operation of the IDENT feature*

SQUAWK [(code) AND] IDENT

TRANSMIT ADS-B IDENT

To request termination of SSR transponder or ADS-B transmitter operation*

STOP SQUAWK [TRANSMIT ADS-B ONLY]

STOP ADS-B TRANSMISSION [SQUAWK (code) ONLY]

operation* STOP SQUAWK [TRANSMIT ADS-B ONLY] STOP ADS-B TRANSMISSION [SQUAWK (code) ONLY] Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Phraseology

Circumstance

Radar Phraseology

ADS-B Phraseology

To request transmission of pressure altitude*

SQUAWK CHARLIE

TRANSMIT ADS-B ALTITUDE

To request termination of pressure altitude transmission due to faulty operation*

STOP SQUAWK CHARLIE WRONG INDICATION

STOP ADS-B ALTITUDE TRANSMISSION [(WRONG INDICATION or reason)]

* Note that some ADS-B installations may not provide for entry of Flight ID, transmission of IDENT or isolation of pressure altitude by the pilot. Most ADS-B installations share controls with the SSR transponder, meaning that independent operation of the two systems is not possible. If it is not possible to comply with a particular instruction simply advise ATC and request alternative instructions.

possible to comply with a particular instruction simply advise ATC and request alternative instructions. Previous Next

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Separation Services (Stage 2)

During the transition period when ground stations are being deployed across the country, ADS-B will be used to monitor and verify procedural separation standards and provide automatic flight monitoring and safety alerting where coverage exists.

Although procedural standards will be used, position reporting will not be required whilst an aircraft is identified.

ADS-B

be required whilst an aircraft is identified . A D S - B ADS-B Procedural Separation
ADS-B
ADS-B

Procedural Separation Standard

. A D S - B ADS-B Procedural Separation Standard Procedural Separation Standard Non ADS-B Previous

Procedural Separation Standard

. A D S - B ADS-B Procedural Separation Standard Procedural Separation Standard Non ADS-B Previous
Non ADS-B Previous
Non ADS-B
Previous
ADS-B
ADS-B

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Separation Services (Stage 3)

When the ADS-B ground station rollout is complete in 2008 ADS-B will be used almost identically to radar.

Like radar, a 5 NM minimum separation standard may also apply between approved ADS-B aircraft.

Procedural separation will continue to be applied between ADS-B and non-ADS-B aircraft outside of radar coverage.

ADS-B

non-ADS-B aircraft outside of radar coverage. A D S - B ADS-B 5 Nm ADS-B Procedural

ADS-B

aircraft outside of radar coverage. A D S - B ADS-B 5 Nm ADS-B Procedural Separation

5 Nm

aircraft outside of radar coverage. A D S - B ADS-B 5 Nm ADS-B Procedural Separation
ADS-B
ADS-B

Procedural Separation Standard

aircraft outside of radar coverage. A D S - B ADS-B 5 Nm ADS-B Procedural Separation
Non ADS-B Previous
Non ADS-B
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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Impact of Satellite Geometry on Separation

The position information provided to air traffic control in an ADS-B message is derived from
The position information provided to air traffic control in an
ADS-B message is derived from the aircraft’s GPS receiver
and includes a position integrity value based on satellite
geometry.
For ATC to apply 5 NM separation to an
ADS-B position, the integrity value must
effectively guarantee the aircraft is within
0.5 miles of where it reports it is.
If an ADS-B report shows
low position integrity,
procedural separation
must be used.
If the integrity value provided by the
avionics falls below that value, the
controller must revert to procedural
separation.
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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Impact of Satellite Geometry on Separation

The predicted satellite geometry over Australia is monitored by an Airservices Australia ground system.

This system provides a warning to air traffic controllers if the predicted satellite geometry indicates that GPS-derived positions in a particular area may not have the “guaranteed” accuracy required for 5 NM separation services.

Controllers will temporarily suspend 5 NM separation services in areas where these circumstances occur.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Traffic Advisory Services

Air traffic controllers will provide Radar/ADS-B Information Service (RIS) in Class E and G airspace at selected locations such as Bundaberg, Queensland where ADS-B equipped aircraft regularly operate.

Warning: Pilots must be aware that regardless of the source of surveillance (radar or ADS-B), aircraft may be operating in Class E and G airspace that are not be visible to ATC.

ADS-B derived traffic advisory services can only be provided in respect to other ADS-B equipped aircraft.

ADS-B derived traffic advisory services can only be provided in respect to other ADS-B equipped aircraft.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Emergencies

Selection of an emergency transponder code, e.g. 7600, automatically generates an emergency indication in the ADS- B message, however, many transponders only transmit a generic ADS-B emergency indication.

That means the specific type of emergency, e.g. communications failure, may not be conveyed to controllers in an ADS-B environment for some avionics installations.

Note: Some general aviation installations may not broadcast any form of ADS-B emergency indication.

7600
7600

Indicative only

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Emergencies

Selection of an emergency transponder code, e.g. 7600, automatically generates an emergency indication in the ADS- B message, however, many transponders only transmit a generic ADS-B emergency indication.

That means the specific type of emergency, e.g. communications failure, is not always conveyed to controllers in an ADS-B environment.

EMG ABC123 M 330 330 46 Indicative only Previous Next
EMG
ABC123 M
330 330 46
Indicative only
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The controller may receive only a generic EMG indication regardless of the code selected.

ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Emergencies

Due to the emergency processing limitations of many ADS-B transmitters, the following procedure shall apply.

If an emergency indication is received from an aircraft in ADS-B airspace and the flight crew does not verbally communicate the nature of the emergency, the controller will initiate procedures for suspected unlawful interference.

Phraseology: <call sign> CONFIRM SQUAWKING ASSIGNED CODE

If no response from the pilot is received within a reasonable time, the controller will assume the possibility of unlawful interference.

Note: Some transponders cannot transmit an ADS-B “IDENT” (SPI) while an emergency transponder code is selected.

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

Some aircraft may have ADS-B derived traffic information capabilities on a cockpit multi-function display.

Because regulations and standards for the use of cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) do not yet exist, pilots must not use displayed traffic information to presume control instructions or to self separate in any class of airspace.

to presume control instructions or to self separate in any class of airspace. Indicative only Previous

Indicative only

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ADS-B Upper Airspace Program

Conclusion

This concludes Part 2 of the Airservices Australia ADS-B flight operations information program. For more information on the ADS-B Project, visit the ADS-B website at www.airservicesaustralia.com/adsb .

Click here to review Part 2

Click here to review Part 1 - Overview

We welcome your feedback. Please submit questions or comments through the ADS-B website at:

www.airservicesaustralia.com/pilotcentre/projects/adsb/feedback.asp

(Direct link if connected to the internet)

tcentre/projects/adsb/feedback.asp (Direct link if connected to the internet) Previous Exit

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