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CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY (BLD 510)

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF BURJ DUBAI

Burj Khalifa known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration is


a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and the tallest man-made structure ever
built, at 828 m (2,717 ft). Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of
the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January
2010, and is part of the new 2 km2 (490-acre) flagship development called Downtown
Dubai at the 'First Interchange' along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai's main business
district.

The tower's architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings,


and Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith (now at his own firm) as chief architect,
and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer. The primary contractor was Samsung
C&T of South Korea. In June 2010, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of the 2010 Best Tall
Building Middle East & Africa award by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

The total cost for the project was about US$1.5 billion; and for the entire
'Downtown Dubai', US$20 billion. In March 2009, Mohamed Ali Alabbar,Chairman of
the project's developer, Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa
reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m2) and the Armani Residences, also
in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m2).

The project's completion coincided with the global financial crisis of 2007–2010,
and with vast overbuilding in the country, led to high vacancies and foreclosures. With
Dubai mired in debt from its huge ambitions, the government was forced to seek multi-
billion dollar bailouts from its oil-rich neighbor Abu Dhabi. Subsequently, in a surprise
move at its opening ceremony, the tower was renamed Burj Khalifa, said to honor the
UAE President,Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan for his crucial support.

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1.2 CONCEPTION

Burj Khalifa has been designed to be the centrepiece of a large-scale, mixed-use


development that will include 30,000 homes, nine hotels such as The Address
Downtown Dubai, 3 hectares (7.4 acres) of parkland, at least 19 residential towers,
the Dubai Mall, and the 12-hectare (30-acre) man-made Burj Khalifa Lake.

The building has returned the location of Earth's tallest free-standing structure to
the Middle East — where the Great Pyramid of Giza claimed this achievement for
almost four millennia before being surpassed in 1311 by Lincoln Cathedral in England.

The decision to build Burj Khalifa is reportedly based on the government's


decision to diversify from an oil-based economy to one that is service- and tourism-
oriented. According to officials, it is necessary for projects like Burj Khalifa to be built in
the city to garner more international recognition, and hence investment. "He
(Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum) wanted to put Dubai on the map with
something really sensational," said Jacqui Josephson, a tourism and VIP delegations
executive at Nakheel Properties.

1.3 HEIGHT

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 Tallest skyscraper to top of spire: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Taipei 101 –
509.2 m/1,671 ft)
 Tallest structure ever built: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Warsaw radio mast –
646.38 m/2,121 ft)
 Tallest extant structure: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously KVLY-TV mast – 628.8 m/2,063 ft)
 Tallest freestanding structure: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously CN Tower – 553.3 m/1,815 ft)
 Building with most floors: 160 (previously Willis Tower – 108)
 World's highest elevator installation, situated inside a rod at the very top of the building
 World's fastest elevators at speed of 64 km/h (40 mph) or 18 m/s (59 ft/s) (previously
Taipei 101 – 16.83 m/s)
 Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m (1,988 ft) (previously Taipei
101 – 449.2 m/1,474 ft)
 Highest vertical concrete pumping (for any construction): 606 m
(1,988 ft) (previously Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant – 532 m/1,745 ft
 The first world's tallest structure in history to include residential space
 Highest outdoor observation deck in the world (124th floor) at 442 m (1,450 ft)
 World's highest mosque (located on the 158th floor)
 World's highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade, at a height of 512 m
(1,680 ft)
 World's highest swimming pool (76th floor)

2.0 CRITERIA OF SKYCRAPER

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2.1 MOBILITY IN BUILDING

Equitable Building- Going Up! (43m). initially by tall buildings incorporates stairs
in its function, and evolves into elevator. Early stairs was dark and high, if a lawyer had
an office at 5th floor, he may not have any customers. Some people may climb up to 7th
floor and that’s it. The builders realize before they can build taller, they must let people
climb higher. Introduction of elevator change the course of history. But, the initially,
elevator had one deadly fault; nothing will stop it from falling down if the cable or rope
snaps!

Later on, in 1854, a mechanic from Vermont, a state in the New England region
of the northeastern United States of America comes with ingenious solutions that
ensure the elevator safety. He was Elisha G. Otis, demonstrated his invention at
World’s Fair that was held that year. He stand on a platform, hung up in the air,
obviously hanging by a strand of rope. He told the stunned audients that the rope was
about to be cut. As the rope been cut, nothing happened! He merely moved few inch
before stopped by his genius solution on elevator safety. Reportedly, he pulls off his hat,
and bow to the audience, “All save gentlemen! All save!”. It was the first fully automatic
safety system for elevator, yet a simple solution.

The elevator car was secured by powerful wagon spring mounted at the top of
the car. The spring connected to the set of metal prom located at the either side of the
elevator. The prom guide through the rail along side of the elevator shaft. If the rope
snaps, it will trigger a chain reaction that will cause the prom locked at the guided rails.
It was a truly engineering breakthrough.

Introduction of the elevator changed the way people look and use the tall
buildings later on. It change the urban landscape, from the top floors was the less
favorable to the most desired. The phenomenon started at a busy street corner, at
downtown New York in 1870, Cider Street to be exact. As a logical mind would say,
without elevator, skyscrapers would be impossible. The builders of Equitable Building
knew the upper floor, which receive more light, fresh air and far from noise of traffic

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were the most desirable. What they did was, they occupied the lower floor of the
building and rent it out at the highest rate possible thus started the craze of occupying
the higher ever of the building.

What differs Equitable Building and Burj Khalifa was Equitable Building only has
7 and half floors while the Burj Khalifa consist more than 160 floors. To move in and out
people which size of a small town (around 35,000 people) is the ultimate challenge for
the elevators. Designers put 53 different elevators, speeds up to 35kmh when travelling
up and down, and climb 120 floors in under 50 seconds. The biggest lift can
accommodate 46 passengers; thanks to double elevator car stack on top another. Thus,
giving the new sets of challenges; how to stop 30-40 tonnes of moving mass without
wears the brakes out. In a case of emergency, a set of mechanical brakes will clamp on
the guiderails and generate enough stopping power to halt the moving elevator.

2.2 MATERIAL USED

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Monadnock Building in Chicago was build at 1893, a living fossil in skyscraper


world. At that time, this 16-storey building was the largest office block but it pushes the
usage and capability of the stone to the limit. The wall at the bottom were 2meters thick,
to bear the weight of Monadnock. As the building use stone as it material, the self-
weight of the building was enormous, so enormous that the building itself settled half
meter down through the soft Chicago soil! It just a living proof stone was not a
skyscraper material.

When the architect of Monadnock, Daniel Hudson Burnham was planning the
Fuller Flatiron Building in New York, the narrow configuration of the plot only allows him
to design the building in triangular. Burnham knew that using stone, as construction
material will cause the wall to be so thick, that would reduce the area of ground floor.
Wasting that valuable space in a skyscraper cannot be compromise, thus stone was not
favorable.

Burnham made the 22-storey, Fuller Flatiron Buildingusing steel columns and
beams, creating a strong, rigid skeletal frame. This allows the skeletal steel frame
designed thinner and lighter, yet capable to withstand the loads in the structure itself.

Figure 1: Fuller Flatiron Building plan.

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To protect the steel from weather, Burnham just cover the structure with masonry
façade, like a curtain. Burj Khalifa use more than 30000 tonnes of steel, embedded in a
manmade stone which is concrete. This strong building materials act as the back bone
of Burj Khalifa, and use high-tech curtain wall consist of steel and glass to isolate the
inner part of the building from the raging desert wind, sand storm and other ferocious
natural elements. This new breed of curtain wall undergone rigorous test from the
designer and manufacturer before a single panel installed at the soaring high Burj
Khalifa. If these USD 100 Million fails when confronting the natural elements, the result
would be unthinkable. “Better safe than sorry”

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2.3 HEAT

United Nations Headquarters (163m)

Glass would allow not only natural light into the building, but also steaming heat.
Only make the building cooler will eliminate this heat problem. In 1947 when UN wants
to build new HQ in New York, they face a dilemma. The usage of glass as the face will
flood the building with precious natural lighting, but the downside is it will let heat enter
the building and turn the building into 39-storey greenhouse. Glass let the light and solar
radiation pass through the panels and heat the building up.

Artificial cooling allows the building to work. An American engineer, Willis


Haviland Carrier invented a cooling system. He invented a machine that can cool and
dry hot, moist air by making it wet. First, a mist sprayed in a chamber, and hot, soggy
air sucked through this mist. Thermal reaction happens when hot air meets the old mist,
releasing the heat away. The air was cooled and dry, in a single step. This is the
perfect solution for heat problem in skyscrapers.

Temperature at Burj Khalifa easily soar 50 Celsius in shade, with relative


humidity exceed 90%; air conditioning is crucial here, its not an option. Burj Khalifa
incorporated shielding or coating technology in its glass. The outer layer coated with
thin layer of metal. As the outer façade deflects heat from hot radiant Sun, the inner
coating (thin layer of silver) deflects infrared radiation from this mega-skyscraper.

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2.4 SPEED OF CONSTRUCTION

The World Trade Center (WTC) – (417m )in New York was build using the
section that was prefabricated at the factory or on site. Each section arrived at the site
right on time it needed, either hauled on land or towed in barge or boat in the nearby
river. Than, a heavy-duty, 50 tonnes capacity tower crane will hoist the section upwards
to the part of the building which needed. This special tower crane, called kangaroo
crane was a engineering breakthrough from Australia. It called ‘ kangaroo crane’ as it
can elevate itself up three storey high whenever needed. Combination of kangaroo
crane and prefabricated section speeds up the construction and at one time they can
build one storey at every two days. In 1973, WTC Tower 1 was the highest structure in
the world.

Burj Khalifa still incorporate kangaroo crane usage in its construction. This type
of crane was proven reliable and fast. To speed up the construction pace, the engineers
use the new technology called ‘jump forming’. The process starts at the lower part of
the building as the workers prepared steel cages as the backbone of the concrete walls
and floors that will be poured later on. Kangaroo crane hoist the steel cages up, and
put it between a special molds called jump forms. Concrete pours in and 12 hour later
after the concrete sets, the form lift upward by a series of hydraulics pistons. The
process repeated until complete. In this way, Burj Khalifa cast in place, layer by layer.

Burj Khalifa pumped concrete higher than ever before. It took 40 minutes for
concrete to reach from pump station to 155th floor. The process of pumping the
concrete was combine ingenuity of raw machine power and delicate chemistry. If the
concrete paste too thin, it will segregate, causing uneven distribution of aggregates. If
the paste too thick, it will clog the pipes and may lead to burst.

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2.5 WIND

The skyscraper enemy that exploited every weakness is a wind. Therefore, sears
are build at windy city. Sears are over 100st tall a height that exposed to a huge wind
forces. The Traditional Steel skeleton are more susceptible to bending in high wind as it
get taller as gust at lake Michigan that could reach up to 80 miles pH. The upper floor
that causing to sway like the motion of the ship give sense similar to sea sicknesses.

The solution of Burj Khalifa is not rigid exoskeleton frame but by a highly
advance aerodynamics. This building is kept a test at wind tunnel. Wind is very
dangerous at high speed for skyscraper as the air rushes around the building and form
vortices. This area of low pressure suck the building sideway and the taller of the
building is the more danger the vortices come.

So that Burj Dubai rather than to fight the wind , it is design to flow with the wind.
The shape is unpredictable with each section is design to deflect the wind in different
way. This would disrupt the power of vortices and breaks of the wind.

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2.6 EARTHQUAKE

Earthquake is much stronger than wind. Taipei is built by flexibility to comply with the
earthquake. A flexible structure could withstand the earthquake better than the rigid
building. Burj Dubai can withstand earthquake of up to 6 Ritcher scale because of it is
massive reinforce concrete skeleton. But the problem is building a super tall building on
desert sand.

At the Burj Dubai ground formation it has a very shallow rock but it’s very weak and
fragile and contain ground water which would cause the bore hole to cave in. The
special measure the engineers are adopting is by applying a space age technology of
viscous polymer slurry which would pushes the ground water and rock fragments at the
age of the borehole and keeps it open.

The nature of the slurry is very viscous because of its very long molecule of chain and
denser than water but it is lighter than concrete. Concrete would displaces the slurry
and eventually harden to form the formation it required. The borehole are also dug up to
50m deep into the rock to reach a more stable ground to support the structure and for
Burj Dubai it needs 200 of this pile to work together to stop half a million tone structure
from sinking down.

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2.7 EVACUATION

The Burj Khalifa is equipped with state of the art emergency facilities. The tower
was designed with nine refuge rooms in case of any emergency. They are constructed
with layers of reinforce concrete and fireproof sheeting that can withstand the heat of a
fire for two hours. Each room receives a special supply of oxygen pumped in through
fire resistant pipes. Every room is enclosed with fireproof doors to ensure no smoke will
leak in.

The tower is also outfitted with a fire early warning system that is activated by
smoke detectors. In the case of a fire occurring, sprinklers will be activated and high-
powered fans, located in the stairwells, kick in to clear evacuation routes of smoke. The
fans pump in cool air through fire resistant ducts.

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2.8 BUILDING USAGE

A tall “building” can be classed as such (as opposed to a


telecommunications/observation tower) and is eligible for the "Tallest” lists if at least
50% of its height is occupied by usable floor area. A single-function tall building is
defined as one where 85% or more of its total floor area is dedicated to a single usage.
A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the
functions occupy a significant proportion7 of the tower’s total space. Support areas such
as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions.
Functions are denoted on CTBUH “Tallest” lists in descending order, e.g., “hotel/office”
indicates hotel function above office function.

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2.9 ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN

Subsequent to the original design by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, Emaar


Properties chose Hyder Consulting to be the supervising engineer. Hyder was selected
for its expertise in structural and MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing)
engineering. Hyder Consulting's role was to supervise construction, certify SOM's
design, and be the engineer and architect of record to the UAE authorities. Emaar
Properties also engaged GHD, an international multidisciplinary consulting firm, to act
as an independent verification and testing authority for concrete and steelwork.

The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied


in Islamic architecture. According to the structural engineer, Bill Baker of SOM, the
building's design incorporates cultural and historical elements particular to the region.
The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing
maximum outward views and inward natural light. The design architect, Adrian Smith,
has said the triple-lobed footprint of the building was inspired by the
flower Hymenocallis. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a
central core. As the tower rises from the flat desert base,setbacks occur at each
element in an upward spiralling pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as it
reaches toward the sky. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Persian Gulf.
Viewed from above or from the base, the form also evokes the onion domes of Islamic
architecture. During the design process, engineers rotated the building 120 degrees
from its original layout to reduce stress from prevailing winds.

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2.10 COOLING SYSTEM AND HVAC

EMAAR also instigated an ambitious project to build three district cooling plants
(DCP), designed by Allied Consultants, at the Burj Dubai site. These support a
sophisticated system that offers a total capacity of 145,000t of refrigeration. An
estimated 41,000t of air conditioning equipment will be involved in servicing the Burj
Dubai tower and The Dubai Mall.

Due to the height of the Burj Dubai, in order to achieve design temperatures at
the top of the tower, they decided to use special low-temperature chillers. The ice
storage also serves as a back-up cooling system in case of a major failure.

The central cooling plant uses the latest technology, based on low-temperature
chillers run on a special glycol solution, to deliver chilled water to the buildings. Emaar
District Cooling, a newly established company, operates and manages these central
plants. The Burj Dubai's water system supplies an average of about 946,000l
(250,000gal) of water a day.

The tower will also have a condensate collection system, which will use the hot
and humid outside air, combined with the cooling requirements of the building and will
result in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. The condensed
water will be collected and drained into a holding tank located in the basement car
park. This water will then be pumped into the site irrigation system for use on the
tower's landscape plantings. This system will provide about 15 million gallons of
supplemental water per year, equivalent to nearly 20 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

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2.11 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

The Burj Khalifa's water system supplies an average of 946,000 l (250,000 USgal) of
water per day. At the peak cooling times, the tower requires cooling equivalent to that
provided by 10,000 t (22,000,000 lb) of melting ice in one day. The building has a
condensate collection system, which uses the hot and humid outside air, combined with
the cooling requirements of the building and results in a significant amount of
condensation of moisture from the air. The condensed water is collected and drained
into a holding tank located in the basement car park, this water is then pumped into the
site irrigation system for use on the Burj Khalifa park

2.12 MAINTENANCE

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To wash the 24,348 windows, a horizontal track has been installed on the
exterior of Burj Khalifa at levels 40, 73 and 109. Each track holds a 1,500 kg (3,300 lb)
bucket machine which moves horizontally and then vertically using heavy cables. Above
level 109, up to tier 27 traditional cradles from davits are used. The top of the spire,
however, is reserved for specialist window cleaners, who brave the heights and high
winds dangling by ropes to clean and inspect the top of the pinnacle. Under normal
conditions, when all building maintenance units will be operational, it will take 36
workers three to four months to clean the entire exterior facade. Unmanned machines
will clean the top 27 additional tiers and the glass spire. The cleaning system was
developed in Australia at a cost of A$8 million.

3.0 FEATURES

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3.1 THE DUBAI FOUNTAIN

Outside, and at a cost of Dh 800 million (US$217 million), a record-setting fountain


system was designed by WET Design, the California-based company responsible for
the fountains at the Bellagio Hotel Lake in Las Vegas. Illuminated by 6,600 lights and 50
coloured projectors, it is 275 m (902 ft) long and shoots water 150 m (490 ft) into the air,
accompanied by a range of classical to contemporary Arabic and world music. On 26
October 2008 Emaar announced that based on results of a naming contest the fountain
would be called the Dubai Fountain.

DUBAI FOUNTAIN

3.2 OBSERVATION DECK

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An outdoor observation deck, named At the Top, opened on 5 January 2010 on


the 124th floor. It is the third highest observation deck in the world and the highest
outdoor observation deck in the world, at 442 m (1,450 ft). To manage the daily rush of
sightseers, Emaar Properties offers advance purchase tickets for a specific date and
time at a 75% discount over tickets purchased on the spot

On 8 February 2010, the observation deck was closed to the public after power supply
problems caused an elevator to become stuck between floors, trapping a group of
tourists for 45 minutes. Despite rumours of the observation deck reopening for St.
Valentines Day (14 February), it remained closed until 4 April 2010.

3.3 BURJ KHALIFA PARK

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Burj Khalifa is surrounded by an 11 ha (27-acre) park designed by landscape


architects SWA Group. The design of the park is also inspired by the core design
concepts of Burj Khalifa which is based on the symmetries of the desert
flower, Hymenocallis. The park has six water features, gardens, palm lined walkways,
and flowering trees. At the centre of the park and the base of Burj Khalifa is the water
room, which is a series of pools and water jet fountains. In addition the railing, benches
and signs incorporate images of Burj Khalifa and the Hymenocallis flower.

The plants and the shrubbery will be watered by the buildings's condensation
collection system,that uses water from the cooling system. The system will provide
68,000,000 L (15,000,000 imp gal) annually. WET designers, who also developed
the Dubai Fountain, developed the park's six water features

3.4 FLOOR PLANS

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The following is a breakdown of floors

Floors Use

160 and
Mechanical
above

Communication and
156–159
broadcast

155 Mechanical

139–154 Corporate suites

136–138 Mechanical

125–135 Corporate suites

124 At the Top observatory

123 Sky lobby

122 At.mosphere restaurant

111–121 Corporate suites

109–110 Mechanical

77–108 Residential

76 Sky lobby

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73–75 Mechanical

44–72 Residential

43 Sky lobby

40–42 Mechanical

38–39 Armani Hotel suites

19–37 Armani Residences

17–18 Mechanical

9–16 Armani Residences

1–8 Armani Hotel

Ground Armani Hotel

Concourse Armani Hotel

B1–B2 Parking, mechanical

4.0 CONSTRUCTION

4.1 CONSTRUCT

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The tower was constructed by South Korean company, Samsung Engineering &
Construction, which also did work on the Petronas Twin Towers and Taipei
101. Samsung Engineering & Construction built the tower in a joint venture
with Besix from Belgium and Arabtec from UAE. Turner is the Project Manager on the
main construction contract. Under UAE law, the Contractor and the Engineer of
Record, Hyder Consulting, is jointly and severally liable for the performance of Burj
Khalifa.

The primary structural system of Burj Khalifa is reinforced concrete. Over


45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000tonnes (120,000 ST;
110,000 LT) were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features
192 piles, with each pile is 1.5 metre diameter x 43 metre long buried more than 50 m
(164 ft) deep. Burj Khalifa's construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete
and 55,000 tonnes of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours. A high
density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations of Burj Khalifa.
A cathodic protection system under the mat is used to minimize any detrimental effects
from corrosive chemicals in local ground water.

The previous record for pumping concrete on any project was set during the
extension of the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in Italy in 1994, when
concrete was pumped to a height of 532 m (1,745 ft). Burj Khalifa exceeded this height
on 19 August 2007, and as of May 2008 concrete was pumped to a delivery height of
606 m (1,988 ft), the 156th floor. The remaining structure above is built of lighter steel.

Burj Khalifa is highly compartmentalised. Pressurized, air-conditioned refuge


floors are located approximately every 35 floors where people can shelter on their long
walk down to safety in case of an emergency or fire.

Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the
massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch
of concrete used was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures.

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The consistency of the concrete used in the project was essential. It was difficult
to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on
it and Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 °C (122 °F). To combat this problem,
the concrete was not poured during the day. Instead, during the summer months ice
was added to the mixture and it was poured at night when the air is cooler and the
humidity is higher. A cooler concrete mixture cures evenly throughout and is therefore
less likely to set too quickly and crack. Any significant cracks could have put the entire
project in jeopardy.

The unique design and engineering challenges of building Burj Khalifa have been
featured in a number of television documentaries, including the Big, Bigger,
Biggest series on the National Geographic and Five channels, and the Mega
Builders series on the Discovery Channel.

4.2 OFFICAL LAUNCH CEREMONY

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The opening of Burj Khalifa was held on 4 January 2010. The ceremony featured
a display of 10,000 fireworks, light beams projected on and around the tower, and
further sound, light and water effects. Using the 868 powerful stroboscope lights that are
integrated into the facade and spire of the tower, different lighting sequences were
choreographed, together with more than 50 different combinations of the other effects.

The event began with a short film which depicted the story of Dubai and the
evolution of Burj Khalifa. The displays of sound, light, water and fireworks followed. The
portion of the show consisting of the various pyrotechnic, lighting, water and sound
effects was divided into three. The first part was primarily a light and sound show, which
took as its theme the link between desert flowers and the new tower, and was co-
ordinated with the Dubai Fountain and pyrotechnics. The second portion, called 'Heart
Beat', represented the construction of the tower in a dynamic light show with the help of
300 projectors which generated a shadow-like image of the tower. In the third act, sky
tracers and space cannons enveloped the tower in a halo of white light, which expanded
as the lighting rig on the spire activated.

The ceremony was relayed live on a giant screen on Burj Park Island, as well as
several television screens placed across the Downtown Dubai development. Hundreds
of media outlets from around the world reported live from the scene. In addition to the
media presence, 6,000 guests were expected.

5.0 CONCLUSION

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As a conclusion in construct a skyscraper there are 12 main criteria must be


considered. Innovative and creative design by the architect and fully functioning
machinery also important. Although there are an idea in build skyscraper, without proper
method or design and structure the idea will just an idea. This criteria must be combine
to make sure the structure construct can fulfill its need. The Burj Khalifa really push the
human ingenuity and capability on building tall building, that soar high, scrapping the
sky.

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CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY (BLD 510)

6.0 REFERENCES

1. http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Flatiron_Building.html Accessed 29 July 2010


2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willis_Carrier Accessed 29 July 2010
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burj_dubai
4. Lecture Note BLD 510

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