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International Conference of Ecosystems (ICE) Tirana, Albania, May 31- June 5, 2013

Proceeding Book ICE _2013


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PAPER 125

THE STUDY OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS DURING DYNAMICS OF OLIVE


FRUITS (OLEA EUROPAEA L.) GROWTH

Erta Dodona1, Hairi Ismaili2


1
Agricultural University of Tirana, Dept. Plant Production
2
Genetic BankAUT, Koder-Kamez, Tirana

Email: ertad2000@yahoo.it

ABSTRACT

During three years (2008-2011), from August to February, in 15-day intervals, were taken samples of fruit and
leaves on cv. Ulliri i Zi, in over 10 randomized olive trees in Gerbllesh, Tirana. The analysis consisted in statistics
estimates according diagnostics and multivariate correlation analysis for: fruit weight, percentage of oil, the
humidity in leaves and fruit, acidity and peroxides no. too determinate physiological correlations. After bonding,
fruits have increased rapidly until endocarp sclerification 17.3 mg/day. In August and September fruits and leaves
are dehydrated (withered), and fruits growth was lower, 11.1 mg/day. Reduction of water in the fruit to 50%
correlates linearly with the leafy content 55%, (r=0.92). As a result, the photosynthesis was reduced, and therefore
oil daily assimilation rate was 0.11%, in linear correlation with leafy moisture (r =0.86). After strong dehydration a
part of leaves and fruits were falling down. By recreating of turgor, growth of mesocarps fruit was 17.1 mg/day, at
the same time as oil synthesis in fruit 0.18 %/day, (r=0.87). At the beginning of December fruits weight=2.31g
(maximum weight) and oil percentage of 19.2% considering the biological correlation. After dehydration of fruit as
a result of further maturation, and decreased weight 18.6 mg/day, while the % of oil has resulted in an increase of
0.1%/day and between these phenomena has been negative correlation (r =-0.17). At this stage the humidity of the
leaves is normal while the value of acidity, and peroxides no. has been associated with the maturity of the fruit.

Key word: olea europaea; pericarp; percentage; olive oil; dehydration.

INTRODUCTION

Following the period of maturation, chemical transformations occur inside the olive fruit. The formation, growth of
fruit and oil synthesis requires more time that lasts 130-210 days and biological characteristics that are specific
according to varietal. During the dynamics of growth, the fruit is in competition with vegetative growth for water
and food element. Olive differentiates many flowers but their connection and the number of grains at the time of
maturation is very small. This disorder has been the subject of various researches, which have experimented with
some aspects of nitrogenous food, and analyzing the needs of fruit for water during its growth dynamics. Many other
authors consider as a limited biology factor, pollen quality, nutritional status, the needs for water, etc. Based on this,
we have studied correlations overview that can occur in fruit growth and formation of oil in relation to physiological
factors, especially the water content in the leaf tissue and reciprocal influences.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

During three years (2008-2011), from August to February, in 15-day intervals, were taken samples of fruit and
leaves on cv. Ulliri i Zi, in over 10 randomized olive trees in Gerbllesh, Tirana. The analysis consisted in statistics
estimates according diagnostics and multivariate correlation analysis for: fruit weight, percentage of oil, the
humidity in leaves and fruit, acidity and peroxides no. too determinate physiological correlations. In 4 flowers
branches in every tree was monitored: flowering, number of fruits and linking up until February (expressed in %),
vegetative growth, based on 20 sprig of each tree measured every 15 days, fruit characteristics, we calculated the
average weight of 100 fruits for each tree for each time period. Oil analysis is performed by the endocarp
sclerification time until the end of January. Oil extraction was carried out through the soxhlet method in high
temperature through ether petroleum as an organic solvent (according to IKU), oil percentage compared to fresh
matter and in % of dried matter, peroxide analysis, acidity.

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International Conference of Ecosystems (ICE) Tirana, Albania, May 31- June 5, 2013
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Definition of acidity (%): 5-10 ml oil is dissolved in 50-150 ml (ether petroleum + ethyl alcohol), some drops of
phenolphthalein with alcoholic dip of KOH 0,1N until the pink colour remains for 30 sec. The percentage of acidity
was calculated through the formula:

a 0.0282 100
X
p

where: (a)- the quality of the alcoholic dip of KOH 0,1 N (ml), (0.0282)- the quantity in grams of the oleic acid,
which corresponds to 1ml dip KOH 0,1N, (p)- weight of the sample in grams.
Number of peroxides: 5 ml of oil was dissolved in 30 ml dip of acetyl chloroform and was added to 0.5 ml saturated
dip of KJ. After 1 min, 30 ml of warm H 2O was added, titled with Na2S2O3 0,1N and mixed until the yellow colour
disappeared, because O/kg was calculated:

S N 1000
Np
p

(S)-0,1N, (N)- normality of Na2S2O3 (P)- sample weight (gram)

Water content of leaves was measured by the method of determining the humidity with Denver Instrument; grinding
100 g of leaves and the paste obtained in 8-10g, 5-10 min to 130C
Statisticall Analysis Monitoring of biological processes is associated with statistical modeling of variability tests
(alpha = 0.05 level)
Two-factorial analysis for the statistic estimates the relations between the boundaries of the main indicators and
extent of mutual influence. PCA correlation is determined by the amount of impact to the variability of independent
factors and the importance of correlative factors.

RESULTS

Ulliri Zi i Tiranes, realize some reproductive processes conducted by its thermal constants (Kt = t-t). Development
of biological processes, differentiation, flowering, and linking up to the fruit ripening, required temperatures above
2417C biological zero (t-t). Vegetative sprig of previous year has been the biological basis of flower induction
and sugar formation (hydrates). Bloom is differentiated on these main stages, green flowers which have
differentiated the flowers in floors. After flowering and physiological fall in June, fruit developments have been
passed by three important stages: (i) July, the fruit makes an intensive growth and endocarp sclerification. (ii)
August, growth is restrained because of the embryogenesis and becomes the start of pulp formation (iii) September
fruit is growing up again, the pulp is still increasing too as well as the, pericarpic cells volume.
The size of the pulp increased faster achieving fruit caliber D = 21.8mm, 16.2mm, d = D/d = 1:34.
Increasing fruit and oil formation were carried out on different thermal and biological processes were in unity or
contradictions in different stages. In early October, we can see the change of color, red-green-yellow. Fruit
maturation we can see by end October-December. Fruits take the violet color until black.

Vegetation, flowering and fruit formation. As is seen in Tab-1 vegetative growth started in March and lasts until
30 November at constant 2417 C (t-t) to 186 mm, and is characterized for variability between each stage of LM
(HSD lsd.1.78 Tukey-Cramer), Tab-1 and Fig-4. After differentiation of the stitch, a sprig has grown rapidly and has
reduced the rhythm of growth at the time of fruit formation. Vegetative growth has been dominant in two periods:
from March to May (110 mm) and after the endocarp sclerifications (76 mm).
There is no interference between vegetative growth and flowering with each other having r = 0.864, while the
growth of the fruit were competing expressed strong negative correlation coefficient (r = -0103). Biological
processes of vegetative growth and flowering have performed without impeding each other up in linking of flowers
(r = 0.88).

Table 1. Some datas for Ullirin e Zi of Tirana

Period 100 Fruit Oil (%) Acid Peroxides H2O in Flower- Vegetative
(gr) Fresh (%) leaf (%) Fruits Growth

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International Conference of Ecosystems (ICE) Tirana, Albania, May 31- June 5, 2013
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Weight % (mm)
15/03 - - - - 58 0 2
15/04 - - - - 60 0 37
15/05 - - - - 61 100 71
15/06 - - - - 56 32.3 26
1/07 7 0.1 n - - - - -
15/07 31 0.8 n - - 54 - 9
1/08 58 2.2 m - - 40 - -
15/08 78 3.4 l 5.34 - 39 1.45 6
1/09 113 6.7 k - - - -
15.09 113 7.6 j 3.89 - 38 1.23 20
1.10 128 8.4 I - - - -
15.10 187 15.1 h 1.12 - 50 1.02 14
1.11 207 16.6 g - - - -
15.11 222 17.4 f 0.87 7.63 55 1.00 2
1.12 231 19.2 e - - - 0
15.12 226 20.1 d 0.78 9.47 56 0.99 0
1.01 196 22.2 c - - - 0
15.01 148 23.4 b 2.23 11.1 56 0.78 0
1/02 112 h 25 a 4.5 - - - -

Then, the processes did not favorite the vegetative growth from the first stages of fruit growth until the endocarp
sclerification, due to a competition for water and high average temperature, expressed with weak coefficient (r =
0.234). From August to 15 September, the temperature was very high (<35C) fruits and leaves were dehydrated
(withered), and increase of fruit was very slow (11.1 mg/day).
Reduction of water in the fruit until 50% goes linearly to the leaf content and 38% (r = 0.92) Fig 4 and 5. As a
result, photosynthesis was reduced, and the rate of oil daily assimilation was 0:11%. At this time, to maintain the
state of turgor, part of the leaves and fruits are felled down (Ismail, H.,et. Al, 2012).
After recreating the water content in leaves (<50%), has begun a very fast pericarpic cells growth and it resumes the
strengthened relationship (r = 0.445), oil formation becomes active, and the weak link becomes detrimental to
vegetative growth until the ripening of fruit (r = 0.123).
As it shown in table-1, the period from April to May is characterized from the dominant vegetative growth 1.8
mm/day, then has slowed to zero following the July to August period 0.25mm/day, Table-1 and Fig-4. The growth
became dominating again in September (3 decade) 0.66 mm/day and was later characterized for minimal increase to
zero in December. Includes thermal and constantly vegetation period 1 March to 30 November and t-t = 2417C.

Figure 4 and Figure 5.


Graphical representation of temperature, vegetation and the percentage increase of water in leaf

Increasing fruit and oil formation. There was interdependence between the numbers of grains, fruit weight and
percentage of oil. Comparing the relations between values (0.80 - 0.90), the amount of oil has increased in parallel
with the growth of the fruit. This rule continued until a "peak" when the fruit takes maximum weight Graf-6.
Fruits on the tree, after the moment of meeting peak-oil percentage weight, have lost weight and some oxidation
phenomena have increased the acidity. Percentage of oil when the fruit takes maximum weight constitutes biological

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International Conference of Ecosystems (ICE) Tirana, Albania, May 31- June 5, 2013
Proceeding Book ICE _2013
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content. After this peak moment, its obvious that fruit weight reduction while increasing the percentage of oil is a
result of dehydration of fruit. Bio physiological correlations between increased of fruit and the quantity of oil and
water content in the leaves have been different correlative value. Oil quantity and weight of the fruit has been in
function of the number of fruits, water percentage in the leaf and air temperature. The process of formation of oil
within the fruit has come in strong connection with the growth of fruit (R = 0.86), but in contradiction with the
water content in leaf (r = - 0.612) Fig-6. Three physiological correlations are fixed: (i) The relationship of the fruit
until endocarp sclerification; fruit makes intensive growth and forms completely endocarp but synthesis of low oil
formation occur at temperatures average 24.6C (ii) After endocarp sclerification: fruits and leaves are withered, the
increase of fruit was small (or zero) because the water content i leaf was below 45%, as a result, was reduced
photosynthesis of trees. (iii) the growth of the fruit pulp until maturation was accompanied by progressive rates % of
oil and fruit increased up to a limit of connectivity (r = 0.881). (iv) the maximum weight of the fruit is characteristic
corresponds oil percentage (19.2%). This level of ripeness of the fruit means that in its oil ratio between oleic acid
and linoleic acid = 10, the quality is better than at any other stage Tombesi A, et al. 1986. After this time the weight
of the fruit is reduced while the rate of oil rises further due to fruit maturation and dehydration.
As shown in the graph-6 and Table-1, at the first phase, the fruits are grown 17mlg/day, oil 0.07% /day, when the
water content of leaves was about 40% and vegetative growth 0.3-0.9 mm/day. Among these processes has been the
correlation coefficient (r = -0233). Thermal constant of this phenological stage was 470C (t-t) Fig-7.
While in second phase, 11.6 mg increase fruit/day, 0.07% of oil/day and vegetative growth 0:46 mm/day with a
thermal constant 423C (t-t) Table-1.
At the third phase, oil added 0.17%/day, while 15.7 mg progressively fruit/day, and were made with thermal
constant 516C (t-t). In the fourth phase oil added 0.09% /day while fruit lose weight steadily 19.8mlg/day. In this
phase, vegetative growth of fruit becomes zero, dehydration tissue water coming down in weight, while increasing
the percentage of oil was added as a result of dry matter.

Fig.6. Dynamics of fruit growth and oil Fig.7.Thermal Constants in.Ulliri Zi Tirana

Triglycerides start to degrade, (after the peak moment), fatty acids that make them are cracking different mass and
circulating freely in oil, so they are called free acid, and oleic acid is expressed in grams per 100 grams of free oil.
The lowest percentage of free acids in olive oil has been the period of technical ripeness (0.7-0.8%), before and after
this range of acidity percentage is higher. After fruit maturation peroxide number had a negative value because of
decomposition testified about the increase of triglycerides.
With the first rains in September the water level rises and begins to regulate the formation of new cells and to
balance fructification and vegetation. Water traumatic stress reduced synthetic activity, because for higher level of
assimilation have a large amount of water in the leaf level, guaranteeing physiologically effective state of trees, El
Khawaga. AS. 2007 Tombesi A, et al. 1986.
In 15 of September was monitored that oils the percentage in fruits have been 7.6% and its synthesis has been
increased by the end of November. After this time the synthesis of oil was slowly. Fruits are grown in caliber and
weight until the end of November and then lost weight respectively; 19.8 mg/day. There was a linear correlation
between fresh weight, oil percentage and fruit dry matter. Percentage of oil is increasing in parallel with the dry
matter and fresh weight of the fruit until November 30, then went fruit weight reduction due to the over maturation
of fruits and moisture loss, dry substance is added in parallel with the percentage of oil.
Correlations and statistical significance of physiological processes. Biological processes that occur in the fruit,
formation of oil and relations between vegetative growth and some reports have determined bio-physiological

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International Conference of Ecosystems (ICE) Tirana, Albania, May 31- June 5, 2013
Proceeding Book ICE _2013
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raports: vegetative growth, differentiation; Vegetative-growth-fructification/linking up - growth, vegetative growth-


endocarp sclerification, vegetative growth - pulp/fruit ripening.
The impact of X factor (vegetative growth) over Y (inputs) is measured by the regression coefficient R, which is
0.70 on average, and which shows how far the group has influence on vegetative growth factorial. The regression
coefficient between moisture content of the leaves (the dependent variable), has affected the weight of the fruit and
respectively the increase of plant production.

Figure 8 and figure 9


Bivariate Fit of Fruit (g)/Vaji (%) and Lognormal Results Statistics Estimates

According to the Diagnostics Cox-Snell analysis residual P-P Plot, Fig.8 and 9, the data of the equation oil/fruit =
0.3753577 + 0.1079574 * Oil (%) - 0.0117441 * (oil (%) -15.3722) ^ 2 - 0.0010027 * (oil (%) -15.3722) ^ 3), and
balances showed physiological links between fruit weight, oil percentage, water content in tissues, acidity etc.. In
Figure 8 and 9 seem that the oil formation started when the fruit is 0.63g and has moved up in weight 2.31g linear
progression (maximum weight of the fruit), then the linear model is regressive. Range that includes all the positive
qualities of oil begins when the fruit is 11.7% to 19.3% oil by oil according to acceptable levels of quality. Variables
line represents the average distribution of biological processes within the deviation value r = 0.942.

CONCLUSIONS

During dynamic growth, fruits represent some physiological correlations, for different processes, the oil formation,
acidity, fruit weight, etc. in linear models for water content and temperature of the environment. Each stage is
characterized for a constant thermal characteristic and different, while the effective temperature sum of the
biological cycle is 2417C
Water content in tissues and turgor situation has an impact on the size of the fruit mesocarp and, at the same time in
oil synthesis and quality indicators.
In early December Ulliri Zi has maximum weight and oil percentage characteristic, regarded as biological
correlation. Then fruits have increased the percentage of oil because they reduce the effect of weight loss of water.
After this phase is normal moisture leaves, while the value of acidity, and have had negative peroxide number which
testified the increasing decomposition of triglycerides.

REFERENCE

Boulouha B. 1994: Croissance, fructification et leur interaction sur la production chez la Picholine Marocaine
1986. Olea. Pp. 41-49
Cimato A., Fiorino P. 1986: Influence of fruit bearing on flower induction and differentiation in olive. Olea pp 55-
61
Damigella, P. 1960: Variabilit dei caratteri biometrici dell'olivo e impiego delle funzioni discriminanti. La Riv.
Scientifica 4:522-530.
El Khawaga. AS. 2007: Inproving growth and productivity of manzanilla olive trees with foliar application of some
nutritients and girdling under sandy soil. Journal of Applied Science Research 3(9): 818-828
Koppen, W. 1923 : Die Klimate der Erde. De Gruyter. pp. 83-123

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Ismaili, H., Veshaj Z., Cakalli A., Xhelili L., 2012: Study of Correlations among vegetative growth, fruit and oil
synthesis in the olive. Yahorina, Sarayeve.
Martin G, Ferguson L, Polito V. 1994: Flowering, Pollination, Fruiting, Alternate Bearing, and Abscission. The
olive trees and fruit pp.51-57
SAS users guide 2008; SAS/STAT, version 2008. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C.
Soltani A. 2007: Application of SAS in statistical analysis. Mashad Jahadedaneshgahi press. page 182.
Tombesi A, Proietti P, Nottiani G. 1986: Effect of water stress on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomata resistance
and carbohydrate level in olive tress. Olea. Pp. 35-41
Vilemur P., Delmas J.M. 1978: Croissance, development et alternance de production. Sem.Oleicole. Mahdia
(Tunisie) 3-7/7-7-1978
William H. Krueger. 1994: Carbohidrate and Nitrogen assimilation. The olive trees and fruit. Pp. 39-43

PAPER 132

SOLID WASTE AND ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION CAUSED BY THEM: PROBLEMS AND SOME
OPTIONS TO REDUCE THE POLLUTION

Majlinda ALCANI, Altin Dorri, Angjelin SHTJEFNI

Department of Energy, FIM, UPT

Email: malcani@fim.edu.al

ABSTRACT

One of the causes of atmospheric pollution is solid waste (SW), mainly those generated in urban areas, which
accounts for the major share of the total SW generated in our country. This pollution depends on the amount of SW
generated and its composition, as well as treatment and final disposal methods. Therefore improving SW
management and by introducing advanced technologies for better handling the atmospheric emissions belonging to
this sector will be reduced considerably. To pass the idea of the degree of atmospheric pollution associated with this
sector, we would like to mention the fact that everything produced today, will be a waste tomorrow and the main
feature of a waste is that it is temporarily in the state of use. One issue regarding this problem is the amount of
municipality solid waste (MSW) generated and on the other hand the different substances which form various
products for which the nature reacts in different ways.

INTRODUCTION

The state of treatment of MSW in our country


In our country the only way of dealing with MSW is to deposit them in dumpsites, except Sharra landfill in Tirana
firstly, in which since 2008 waste is being deposited in a sanitary landfill parcel type, meanwhile work has
continued on constructing other parcels according to engineering requirements, and, secondly, in Bushat and other
projects are in process [1]. These landfill sites are often located in close proximity to residential areas. Atmospheric
pollution, due to landfill sites, is mostly from anaerobic decomposition of waste associated with the production and
release into the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide, etc... Another cause is the
burning of waste, often spontaneous caused by the gases produced through decomposition process, but also from
fires deliberately set by people who collect specific fractions of recyclable materials in order to benefit
economically, which is an unauthorized practice in the Sharra landfill. A lot of other materials are included iIn this
burning process, and other pollutants are discharged into the atmosphere, some of which are much more harmful
than those above. Some of the gases are greenhouse effect, for which the contribution from waste has been
increasing [1]. One factor that helps the development of these chemical processes is our country's weather
conditions (climate, generally warm and humid, which accelerates these processes).

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International Conference of Ecosystems (ICE) Tirana, Albania, May 31- June 5, 2013
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MSW improved management can only be achieved through integrated waste management systems consists of a
number of coordinated actions to recover material and energy and to minimize environmental impact, in the context
of sustainable development, which means considering all phases of management, from reducing the source up to
final treatment, including in the scheme all waste streams, all treatment options and all entities that generate waste.
No treatment method, no matter how advanced, can solve the complex problem of MSW by itself [3]. Thus,
improving the management of MSW through integrated waste management systems, one of the expected results is
the reduction of gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. This new conception of waste management is summarized
in the philosophy of 4R-s: reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, which can be found in the list of objectives,
intended to be achieved through integrated solid waste management in the Environmental Management Plans (EMP)
for the period 2013 to 2020 in our country [1]:
Disposal of waste that go into landfills in the amount of 45%;
Recycling of urban waste to the extent 55%;
Regional waste management plans and the development of regional landfills.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

2. Quantity and Characterization of MSW generated in our country


The bases of study in any given field are the initial data, which in the case of MSW are: quantity and composition of
MSW.
MSW (t)

MSW for all the country

MSW for Tirana

Year

Fig. 1 MSW generated over the years for the whole country and the Municipality of Tirana. [2].

From these data it seems that the tendency of MSW generation is growing for the whole country and the city of
Tirana too, although the figures for the amount of MSW are not yet stable in this sector [1]. A good base for stable
data for the quantity and composition of MSW generated are the initial data, necessary to conduct accurate studies
for various aspects associated with the problem in the management of SW, which can be helpful for authorities
decision making in drafting regional and national plans. The chart shows the weight of the MSW amount generated
in Tirana municipality compared to the total of MSW for all the country. This fact shows that the problems to cope
with their management in this area are larger. But, on the other hand, there are opportunities to implement advanced
technology in order to achieve economies of scale.
Regarding the composition, we are referring to the data for this indication for Tirana. The graph (fig. 2) seems that
composition varies each year for a variety of objective reasons; therefore the composition must therefore be
determined in different specified intervals. There is an increase (in percent by weight of each constituent of collected
MSW ) of the paper and cellulose faction (from 9 to 16.4%), plastics (from 11 to 17.73%), glass and solid materials,
as well as a reduction in the wood and textiles faction, metals (which the latter indicates that these materials are
separated from the rest of the waste beforehand), and a reduction in food waste fraction (from 58 to 44%). Even

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International Conference of Ecosystems (ICE) Tirana, Albania, May 31- June 5, 2013
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though this faction has seen a fall, its absolute value represents a considerable share of the total generated MSW in
Tirana: about 350 tons of such waste is deposited in the dumpsite every day.

60% 58
2001
Viti 2001
2009
Viti 2009
50
44.1

40

30

20 16.4 17.73
12 11
9 9.41
10 6.34 6
4 4.96
1.06 0
0
paper dhe wood
leter & dru dhe& plastic
plastika glass
qelq dhe & metale
metals organic
mbeturina the others
te tjera
celulo ze textile
tekstile materiale ushqimo re
cellulose inert fraction
te fo rta
material

Fig. 2 Percent by weight of each waste constituent of MSW for Municipality


of Tirana compared for two different years: 2001 and 2009 [2]

RESULTS

3. Problems caused by some specific fractions of SW


3.1 Biodegradable organic waste
Such waste as food waste, paper, cardboard, etc constitute the largest amount of flow MSW sent to landfill, taking
part directly in the anaerobic decomposition of waste and generation of atmospheric pollutant emissions. One of the
methods for their treatment after their selective collection or separation before final disposal is composting, a
process of aerobic biodegradation, whose product is manure. But this treatment method, widely used in many
countries, carries with some limitations, such as [5]:
It is difficult to achieve a selective collection of this faction, separating them at the source, so that it would require a
special plant in the field of storage to be allocated, but by doing so the cost of operating the plant would exceed the
profit would be generated from selling the fertilizer produced;
Public acceptability of this type of fertilizer is generally low; farmers make a sort of resistance towards products
originating from waste products;
The values are limited compared to chemical fertilizers; this compost can be used only for public parks and
according to some certain rules. Lack of demand for this product would cause serious trouble for the manufacturing
company;
A relevant legal framework should be built for this type of product, in order to avoid anomalies that may arise from
its inadequate use. These are some reasons that should be studied very carefully in order to use this method of
treatment for different regions of our country.
Another treatment method more widespread today in many European countries is mechanical-biological treatment of
this faction, in the respective plants in order to produce biogas, a treatment technique in which energy power is
gained and is associated with a lower environmental impact. However the cost of this technique is higher.
3.2. Plastic Fraction
It representative about 17% by weight of waste collected, at 50 to 50 share - thin and thick plastics, which are not
biodegradable naturally. In order to solve the problem of disposing this and other types of SW, we need to think of
solutions that encompass all aspects of materials policy, introducing modifications and corrections, with the
prospect of renewing these policies, starting from manufacturing. The goal is that for every material the most
important features and characteristics are best put to use in order to avoid losses and improper usage.
Plastic is produced by a costly resource like oil which also is more polluting. But it seems that in this case, its
irreplaceable characteristics such as elasticity, plastic, insulation, impenetrability of water, long life are best utilized
in order to produce solid objects. However it is irrational to be used it to produce bags and packaging which arent

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assimilated naturally and fast by nature, intended to be a complete waste after being used briefly to transport
products purchased with them. The second case is more widespread and in this case its best characteristics like being
not biodegradable is not best put to use. Instead other biodegradable materials may be used (as they have begun to
be used for some products which come from natural materials and not from oil, such as wood, paper, etc.).

3.3. Dry fraction: (aluminium, glass, metals, etc.).


Another case is the use of a costly packaging material for beverages as aluminium, which seeks 10 times more
energy to produce than glass and more than three times than plastic [4]. The disadvantage in comparison with plastic
is clear, but also in comparison with glass.
By selecting an appropriate policy for packaging (by attributing responsibility to manufacturing and distribution
companies), by the experience of other countries is seen that in a period of several years (up to 10 years), the amount
of generated MSW is reduced. Likewise we can justify the waste glass, which is increased, and in the majority of
cases are packing.
Currently, the practice is still preserved for glass packaging restitution to any manufacturer, which should be
encouraged and further extended. While aluminium packaging, as well as dry faction: paper, glass, plastics, metals
separate from the rest of MSW in the field of their storage before they undergo depositing in landfill. This process
also affects the reduction of the MSW quantity deposited in landfill [2].

3.4. Used tires


One type of waste, which has often been the subject of concern in some areas of our country, are used tires and their
use as fuels in lime kilns. The tires are produced with petrochemical products, such as styrene and butadiene, which
are classified as carcinogenic to man. Their combustion is accompanied by the release of styrene, butadiene and
some benzene compounds. Some older type of tires may also contain cloropren, with a high probability to produce
dioxins [4]. Some other aromatic compounds, used to give flexibility to tires, are quite carcinogenic and very
difficult to be destroyed by burning, except in very high temperatures, with greater oxygen flow and very long
residence time, and these conditions are difficult to achieve in common burns in lime kilns. In these conditions, large
amounts of combustion products resulting fully unburned, showing that complete combustion is not ever achieved.
In addition, it is difficult to achieve a sufficient flow of oxygen and a uniform distribution of temperature in any part
of the furnace, because of the large amount of solids present during combustion (as in lime kilns) [4].
Another disadvantage of using tires as fuel in cement kilns and lime, is the fact that the material obtained can result
contaminated by heavy metals and, currently, there are no adequate studies on the quality and mechanical
characteristics, physico-chemical product obtained. Another problem is the high amount of lead contained in old
tires, or even other heavy metals.
The process of combustion in the furnace can be done in such conditions that lead to unexpected peak of emission
and can not be detected or captured by normal monitoring techniques and it is difficult to control with standard
techniques used by these kilns, whether are equipped with them. Although a number of measures have been taken by
central and local authorities for their abstinence, this problem still continues to be present in some areas.
3.4.1. Burning tires, leading to a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases?
Theoretically, the use of tires as fuel leads to saving of fossil fuels. But doesnt happen in the same way related to
emissions, i.e. not lead to a reduction of greenhouse gases. In addition, the use of this waste material as fuel, does
not allow optimization of the combustion process. For the production of synthetic rubber is required more than three
times fossil fuel than can be saved by burning them [4].
What solutions can be used for used tires?
These tires can be used to produce: the recovered tires, special bituminous conglomerates, impermeable
membranes, acoustic barriers, road bases against noise, as materials for foundations (or bases) special insulating
material for building enevelopes, layers for sidewalks for pedestrians, antistatic suports for electrical and electronic
equipment, bases for shoes, parts for industrial machines, conveyor belts, packaging, like plastic material mixed
with other subsoil for sports fields, etc. ..
3.5. Electrical & electronic waste
A different kind of garbage that is put in the focus of planning policies in European countries, are also electrical-
electronic waste, although in the analysis of MSW characterization of Tirana city, this kind of waste currently
occupies a negligible weight (only 0.5% by weight). But the rapid rate of customer requirements changing for these
products, have caused that this kind of waste represents today the fastest growing in Europe, 35% per year (by
weight), which means a doubling every 1215 years.

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On average, an IT equipment changes every three years and the average for other electrical and electronics products
is about five years. These obsolete equipment ends up as waste with a complex composition materials and hazardous
substances, posing a risk to the environment. About 70% of heavy metals in landfills come directly from these
wastes [4]. To these facts should be added too tha fact that production of electrical and electronic equipment requires
10 times the weight of physical natural resources (especially crude oil): a TV set, weighing about 50 kg, consumes
about 500 kg of raw materials. So, according to specialists, sending of electronic waste in landfill sites is an
"environmental crime". Therefore, various countries in Europe and the world too react and develop relevant
legislation. In this framework, in our country this problem is one of the objectives of fulfillment of legislation in
this field and the relevant practices, which will lead to the treatment of this type of waste in an ecological way.
This legislation should provide an intelligent organization of the cycle of waste treatment, collection, dismantling,
extraction and recycling of materials. Currently, private companies do collect electrical and electronic equipment
disposed, but the lack of data for this sector prevents making a thorough analysis of the present situation and
organization of this sector in the future.
Another group of waste are hazardous waste (produced by industries and domestic too) whose management system
is not safe [1]. Their management is very poor and covered by the private sector, with a lack of information on the
quantities and types of new industrial waste generated by this sector since 1992.
4. Policies for MSW technologies
The main conditions to realize the implementation of new technologies for waste treatment and recycling, are:
First, a co-ordinated approach across the country to improve sustainability in waste management practices;
Secondly, the establishment of national standards for the design and management of landfill emissions.
Public awareness on waste management which is currently at low levels.
Referring to legislation on waste and mainly EMP 2013-2020 [1] in the field of waste, seems that these goals have
priority, focusing, firstly, in developing regional sanitary landfills, secondly, sealing and stabilizing existing
municipal landfills and, thirdly, to the transposition of European Community directives for solid waste by setting
targets and deadlines for disposal of waste that go into landfills and recycling, anticipating for 2020 that 45% of
MSW (by weight) to go to landfill and 55% for recycling, planned this objective in years. This target is an ambitious
goal for our country, given the conditions in which MSW management system is, as well as financial support, one of
the main factors for implementation of environmental technologies, required to achieve such a level of management.
This problem requires that managers and decision makers of this sector to have a better understanding of waste
treatment technologies by:
identify emerging innovations, trends and opportunities for waste and resource recovery;
identify market and market barriers for implementation of new technologies and innovations.
However, the application of certain technologies depends on a number of issues, such as the characteristics of
various waste streams, creating markets for these substances recovered, the distance to markets, the financial
situation of local governments and the amount of waste.

4.1. The adapting of the technology to local conditions


Recognizing the experience of other countries, it was noted that some technology used in some places are not
appropriate for use in other locations. This is due to different economic environments, regulatory, technical and
environmental conditions.
So, in Germany there is a very strict law on biological stability of materials sent to landfill (the strongest in Europe)
[7] and also is prohibited to dispose in landfill sites the material with high heating value. This leads to great efforts
to prevent waste disposal in landfills with high heating value and untreated biowaste.
In England, there is a fine punishment law to local authorities that exceed a predetermined amount of waste that are
sending to landfill. This reason and a system of grants to regional councils, have led to the development of a number
of new alternative technologies for waste [6].
Concerns about air emissions from thermal plants in Germany, have directed efforts towards technologies
mechanical-biological treatment, but while there is an active sector "Waste to Energy" that relies on Refuse Derived
Fuel (RDF) instead of mass incineration of waste [7].
On the other hand, the rising cost of landfill, community pressure, too. to avoid landfills and increase of the quantity
of resource recovery - are the driving force for innovation in waste management in some countries. In assessing the
applicability of technologies in the local context, should be taken into consideration not only the particular local
situation to market their output, but also coping and adjustment options of collection and disposal systems
concerned.

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Production of RDF (from paper and paperboard used, plus plastics that are not suitable for use in the highest degree-
recycling, textiles and wood), has been very successful in Germany [7]. RDF can be used being burned along with
other fuel in cement factories, power plants and industrial factories such as paper ones, which require large amounts
of steam and hot water. The data on the composition characterization of Tirana MSW shows that these fractions
have a considerable weight, which favors this treatment technique, but has a high cost relatively treatment other
techniques.

5. Regulations and policies


Even in developed countries constantly are being doing changes in the regulatory environment in order to
incorporate new advances in applied technologies in waste management and to adapt to new conditions of the
current situation; it means to stop treatment and facilities associated with environmental pollution and including
those with lower environmental impact and resource recovery. Thus, in this planning area through the feedback
process, undergoing changes to meet the requirements and objectives in the future, foreseeing any possible surprise.

5.1. Barriers to innovation in waste treatment


One of the most significant barriers to innovation in waste management in our country is low waste cost landfilling
and this phenomenon has happenned and happens in many countries. But this low cost often results mostly because
the engineering requirements for MSW treatment in landfills are not respected and the result of this are the
environmental pollution consequences.
Another important barrier is the lack of an integrated cooperation between different groups of interest, related to
these problems, a distrust of new and untested technologies, the fears and reservations about the technologies that
require a long term commitment, during which it is thought these technologies could become obsolete and
inadequate.
Benefits from economies of scale, i.e the construction of a plant for the region and not for individual municipalities,
makes it possible to cope the problem of MSW disposal with the costs associated with the implementation of new
technologies in waste management. This is typically the case in our country, where excluding Tirana municipality
and some other one, all the other cities can not afford the construction and use of engineering landfill, but only as
cooperating regions, as indicated in the Strategy and National Plan of Integrated Waste Management (EMP) [1].
Innovative new treatments focus on waste management, prevention, minimization, seperate collection at source and
specific technologies for the treatment of specific waste streams. Separation at source is more effective in preserving
resources than rely solely on technologies of the last part of the management chain, which are more complex and
costly to manage growing amounts of mixed waste streams and more heterogeneous. This can be achieved by
providing incentives for efficient collection and transport of materials in locations where they are reproces, to
develop local market and export recovered materials and to encourage the business and community to participate in
these schemes too.
Objectives related to the amount of selective collection and recycling of separate factions, should be in line with
market opportunities to absorb them or to be exported. The experience of MSW selective collection in some cities
(e.g. as in Copenhagen) with special baskets, was originally used only to sensitize the community, because all those
fractions finished together in landfills. This practice is also being used in some cities of our country as in Lezhe,
Pogradec, etc.
Whereas in other countries now are working to improve the materials recovery and reprocessing technologies, in our
country, I think, the main challenge is to create access to these technologies, beginning from the collection and
transportation of waste to respective sites. Another novelty is needed in terms of economic incentives and regulatory
mechanisms to cope with the current obstacles to build or establish new advanced technology in the vicinity of
residential areas that generate waste.
Another element, no less important, is innovative thinking, except waste awareness campaigns, which are needed to
encourage and strengthen the behavioral change in business and personal level.

6. Implementation of technologies locally


Waste management practices to local conditions should be flexible, but not limited only to environmental
conditions, such as hydrology and host environments, but also socio-economic existing models, regulatory
framework (legal) and existing infrastructure.
Technologies that can be applied, must be resolved in accordance with recycling infrastructure, technologies and
management structure for recovered materials, reagents and residues from processes as potentially valuable material.

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But not everything is technological innovation, because we have also considered the role of community related to
recovery models and reuse of waste.
MSW sustainable management through integrated waste management system is accompanied with the relevant
costs, which should be borne by the principle: "who pollutes, pays", i.e by responsible individuals and business But
it is noticed a lack of public information and recognition with the problems arising from mismanagement of MSW.
Therefore, research is needed on:
Attitude of the public and leaders of local authorities related to waste management. Through that study are obtained
and studied community opinions about the consequences of MSW mismanagement, the opinions of people living
near waste landfills compared with opinions of the ones who dont live close to them. These studies should be made
from time to time to see how attitudes of population evolve related to this problem. That study should focus on the
issue of public knowledge regarding the management of waste, such as:
- Which is the method of waste disposal,
- Cost of waste management,
- Possibilities of recycling and waste treatment plants,
- Recognition by local authorities about the MSW amount generated in the future, problems with space available for
landfills, forecast rates of recycling over the years to meet the national targets set in the strategic plan.
These issues should be accompanied by high-level campaigns for awareness of the population.
All these belong to the phase of waste reduction at the source and, on the other hand, with the public participation in
solving such difficult problem in order to pass the "waste" from the end of the product life cycle in its beginning, by
integrating it into the production process of goods, which are destined to become waste as a result of their use,.
A very important issue is the feedback phase in the implementation of a strategic plan set. In this context we are
passing through briefly some facts from the Italian experience related to MSW management.

6.1. The failure of Italian policy regarding MSW


It was thought that the waste problem could be resolved, as was determined by a series of decrees, setting targets for
selective collection and recycling of recoverable materials at rates set and by facilitating and encouraging by any
means the combustion of rest, but these predictions had failed somehow [8].
Thus, the goal set by the year 1995 law to collect and recycle recoverable materials such as glass, paper, plastic,
metals, used oils, was not respected within the set deadline. The following different governments since 1998 had
extended and adapted several times this law also. In addition, the decree "Ronchi" in 1996 decided that the selective
collection to be achived 35%, while the average achived about 8% by weight.
The recycling target for 15% of MSW in 1999 was only achieved by four regions, four others went to near enough,
but the others were too far (from the total of 20 regions).
Further, the target for 25% in 2001 was achieved only by two regions. In 2000, the MSW selective collection was
14.4% by weight (average), whereas the recycling didnt exceed 10% of the materials collected in many cases. In
most of these cases the collected seperated waste ended into RDF scheme to burn further because of lack of a market
for them.
These facts showed that national and regional plans for waste management should be pursued and evolve
continuously, in accordance with the situation of the country, adapting the corresponding actual conditions.

7. Recovery and reuse of objects and materials


Recovery and reduction, in contrast to source reduction, constitute intervention to reduce post-harvest waste. The
experience of other countries shows that although these processes occur after production of waste, those may result
as an incentive for source reduction. A necessary condition for recovery and reuse of MSW is organization and
stabilization of selective collection.
But organizing of a selective collection system, finalized with objects and materials reuse, is certainly more complex
than to realize a waste disposal plant. This is because the system requires a commitment for coordinated planning of
all stakeholders, such as producers, distributors, planners, collection enterprises, the administrators, etc.. But if one
of these entities does not work correctly then the system fails economically.
The fact is that with careful planning, ie the creation of secondary raw materials market, this system offers great
benefits such as environmental management and economically ones, compared with any technological solution to
waste disposal.
In Sweden 98% of PET bottles for beverages are sterilized and reused and due to this practic there are regions in the
world today where half of the amount of MSW is generated [9].

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8. Technologies for the treatment of MNU


Waste processing technologies ranging from composting processes (which consumed energy) to anaerobic
decomposition processes where energy is obtained. Many of these technologies are mature and respective plants are
present in many countries.
The implementation of certain technologies depends on a number of issues, such as waste flow characteristics,
distance to markets, financial situation of local governments and the amount of MSW.
Above we talked about the problems that accompany the process of composting. Besides those, the processing of
mixed waste carries a greater risk than if the organic fraction is collected and treated in a seperated way (food
waste, etc.).
While anaerobic decomposition appears technically more complex than composting because is associated with a
higher cost, but through it is obtained green energy [10].
The alternative of MSW combustion treatment in our country, and especially in Tirana, is considered in strategic
management plans of MSW by authorities as an option to improve the situation in this field, reducing significantly
the amount of waste after treatment [1]. Plants of alternative technologies for the treatment of MSW and recovery of
materials from waste, have a lower environmental impact than landfill and much more against uncontrolled
dumpsites, as happens in almost all over our country. It is proved that in the case of the waste incineration furnace,
equipped with appropriate facilities to reduce emissions, the atmospheric emissions emitted by the combustion of
MSW has been reduced up to 90 99%, resulting in lower emissions also than any power plant with conventional
fuels. There is certainly a higher cost than waste landfilling and, generally, this technology could be implemented
after an integrated management system of MSW has been stabilized.

CONCLUSIONS

Some forms of waste technological innovations, which include "Waste to energy" are associated with some policy
areas, such as waste, energy, the environment and the reduction of carbon dioxide. The current legal framework in
our country promotes some of these technologies, but without addressing in detail, while that is needed to be
improved and developed instruments dealing with plants "Waste to Energy" in particular.
Sustainability of resource recovery options and management, and innovative technological options too, is influenced
by knowledge and information of the public concerning:
- Trend in world goods prices,
- Trend in the prices of environmental assets,
- Landfilling prices for solid waste,
- Access to land and resources.

MSW uncontrolled dumpsites actually cause a serious environmental impact on human health firstly, because of
leichate formation (the polluted effect of which lasts up to 300 years in MSW landfills [11], and, secondly, because
of the biogas generated during decomposition of organic waste. The most common problems encountered in these
cases are: visual pollution, air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, spread of waste, disease and odors.
Therefore the sanitary stabilization of existing dumpsites and closure of some of them, is currently an important
issue to control these negative effects, but this process has of course its cost.
Problems associated with a landfill, even sanitary type, do not end with its closure. It requires attention, care and
cost to meet the problems that accompany it a few years after its closure.
Despite the fact that rehabilitation should be included in regional and national plans of waste management, this
activity also needs a study and a guide on how to be effectively rehabilitated according to engineering requirements,
in order to minimize emissions from leichate and gases generated in landfills.

REFERENCES

[1] MEFWA: State of the Environment Report for: 2001-2010


[2] www.tirana.gov.al
[3] Alcani M, Shtjefni A: "Recovery of energy from combustion treatment of solid urban waste in Tirana-Durres
area: evaluation and comparison of different indicators of alternative strategies", The fifth Conference of the
Thermotechnics Albanian Association, Pristina, 22-23 October 2010.
[4] DEWHA, 2009: Waste Technology and Innovation Study, Final Report.

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[5] M. Alcani et al.: Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Tirana: Problems and Challenges. Technical Gazette,
No. 4, December 2010
[6] www.defra.gov.uk: Review of Environmental and Health Effects of Waste Management: Municipal Solid Waste
and Similar Wastes, 2011
[7] www.bmu.de / wastemanagement: Municipal Solid Waste management report 2006
[8] Alberto Naples: RACCOLTA differenziata in Italy. ANC CONAI: (http://www.conai.org/hpm00.asp)
[9] Pat Franklin: Plastic Water Bottles Should no longer became a wasted resource, May-June 2006 Waste
Management World.
[10] Coelho, Suani Teixeira et al., Landfill Biogas and Its Use for Energy Generation, International Farcross
Scietific of Mechanical Engineering (MEC CO. 2006) [11] Hjelmar et al., 1994)

PAPER 138

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS ON THE


NITRITATION IN A SUBMERGED BIOFILTER

Sukru Aslan*, Ugur Savas Topcu, Hasan Bayrak, Ramazan Aydn

Department of Environmental Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas, Turkey

* E-mail: saslan@cumhuriyet.edu.tr;

ABSTRACT

This experimental study focused on the effects of DO concentrations and temperature on the ratio of NO 2-N/NOx-N
and NH4-N removal efficiency in the submerged biofilter. The highest NO2-N/NOx-N ratio was achieved at the
temperature of 350C. At the DO concentrations of 4.5 mg/L, the removal efficiency of NH 4-N and NO2-N/NOx-N
ratios were about 91% and 0.52, respectively. Decreasing the DO concentration to about 4.0 mg/L, the removal
efficiency of NH4-N dropped to 73%. However, the ratio NO2-N/NOx-N increased to about 0.62. Increasing the DO
concentrations at the top of the biofilm reactor, enhance the activity of nitrobacter species and NO 2-N was further
oxidized to NO3-N. The highest NO2-N production (0.386 Kg NO2-N/m3.day) and NH4-N removal rate (0.750 Kg
NH4-N/m3.day) were obtained at the DO concentrations and temperature 4.0 mg/L and 35 0C, respectively.

Keywords: Dissolved Oxygen, nitritation, NO2-N/NOx-N ratio, temperature

INTRODUCTION

The discharge of nitrogen compounds (NHx) into the water body causes oxygen depletions and excess amount of
ammonia are toxic to aquatic life. This type of wastewater should not be discharged into the environment without
treatment. There are many methods to remove nitrogen compounds in the wastewaters.
Biological nitrogen removal (nitrification and denitrification) is the most studied process in the wastewater treatment
facilities. Ammonium is oxidized into nitrite during the first step by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and
nitrite is oxidized into nitrate during the second step by nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In the denitrification
process, nitrate is converted into nitrite, then into nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions (Bock et al., 1986, Bock et
al., 1992).
Biological systems for nitrogen removal (BNR) can be improved by separate treatment of highly concentrated
waters which contains high concentrations of ammonium. Recirculated supernatant produced from an anaerobic
sludge digester contributes to 1520% of the influent nitrogen load of the wastewater treatment plants. The nitrogen
fraction in the organic matter of the digester supernatant is converted to soluble ammonia concentration can vary
between 0.5 and 1.5 g/L (Van Kempen et al., 2001) and it is 20 to 30 times stronger than that of the influent of the
wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (Gee et al., 2004). This high level of ammonium makes it difficult to be

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biologically nitrified. Therefore it is desirable to treat ammonium rich supernatant before returning to the head of
WWTP.
Due to the cost disadvantages of the conventional BNR process (oxygen and carbon requirements for nitrification
and denitrification, respectively), one of the novel biological nitrogen elimination methods nitritation and
denitritation have been investigated during the last three decades (Aslan and Dahab; 2008; Fux et al., 2006; Gee et
al., 2004; Jenicek et al., 2004; Ruiz et al., 2003; Ruiz et al., 2006).
Nitritation and denitritation are based on the facts that, since nitrite and nitrate are intermediary compounds in the
BNR processes, the nitritation to nitrite and denitritation from accumulated nitrite, instead from nitrate would be
feasible [8]. The oxygen consumption for nitritation and carbon requirements for denitritation are lower than the
classical BNR processes (Hwang et al., 2006) and the denitritation rates with NO 2-N are 1.5-2 times greater than
with NO3-N (Abeling and Seyfried, 1992).
Nitritation and denitritation processes are carried out with controlling the nitrite oxidation without affecting the
AOB and denitrifying microorganisms must be adapted to high concentrations of nitrite. Due to the NOB has lower
affinity for oxygen than the AOB (Hunik et al ., 1993; Picioreanu et al., 1997; Wiesmann, 1994), NO 2-N
accumulation can be determined by controlling the DO concentrations in the reactor (Aslan et al., 2009; Ciudad et
al., 2005; Jenicek et al., 2004; Jianlong and Ning, 2004; Ruiz et al., 2006).
The maximum specific growth rate of NOB is approximately half of that for the AOB at elevated temperature
(Hunik et al., 1993) and the accumulation of NO2-N could be determined by operating the biological reaction at high
temperature (Bae et al., 2002; Ciudad et al., 2005; Ruiz et al.,2006). Other factors that could be used for control of
nitrite oxidation were pH (Bae et al., 2002; Cecen and Gonenc, 1994; Jianlong and Ning, 2004) sludge retention
time (SRT) (Aslan et al., 2009; Pollice et al., 2002).
Due to the nitrifiers are chemolithotrophs and obligate aerobes (Rittmann and McCarty, 2001), they have slower
growth rates and a relatively long SRT is required to prevent biomass washout from the biological reactor. The
attached growth process provides long retention time and it is more resistant to the shock loadings or shortterm
disturbing effects as compared to suspended growth in flocs (Sudarno et al., 2011; Zaitsev et al., 2008).
The present work describes a laboratory-scale investigation on the role of temperature and DO concentrations for the
NH4-N oxidation and NO2-N accumulation in a submerged biofilter (SB).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Wastewater composition. The synthetic wastewaters contained necessary elements to maintain bacterial growth
was used in the experimental studies. The inorganic medium contained request macro and micronutrients (in mg/L):
(NH4)2SO4 (849), Na2EDTA (4.83), CuSO4 (0.0046), ZnSO4.7H2O (0.023), CoCl2.6H2O (0.0119), Na2MoO4.2H2O
(0.066), MgSO4.7H2O (36.97), NaHCO3 (226), CaCl2.2H2O (36.74), H3BO3 (1.0), FeCl3.6H2O (0.316), and KH2PO4
(1920).
The SB set-up and operation. The experimental set-up of SB consisted of a cylindrical stainless steel, 10 cm in
inner diameter and 20 cm in height, completely submerged and operating in an upward flow mode (Fig. 1A). The
SB had a liquid volume of 1.4 L (total volume 1.5 L) and it was filled with 20 mm diameter pieces of plastic coils
(Fig. 1B) which provided 0.35 m2 resulting in 233 m2 surface area/m3 for bacterial growth. The synthetic wastewater
was pumped continuously to the bottom of experimental set-up using a peristaltic pump (Watson Marlow 520) and
discharged to the effluent tank. An air diffuser was installed directly at the bottom and the DO concentration was
measured periodically at the top of SB by using the DO meter (HACH HQd101). The influent synthetic solution
was stored in 30 l plastic container at room temperature. The outer surfaces of the container and tubes were wrapped
with aluminum foil and transfer tube was washed with acidic solution weekly to prevent microbial growth. The
influent synthetic solution was prepared two times in a week.
Effects of the DO on NO2-N accumulation and NH4-N oxidations were tested at various DO concentrations of 3.5,
4.0, and 4.5 mg O2/L at the temperature of 35 0C 1. The SB was operated at various temperatures of 25, 30, and 35
0
C 1 at the DO concentration of 4.5 mg/L.
Analytical Methods. Samples were withdrawn daily from the SB effluents and filtered using 0.45 m, white, 47
mm radius filters. Samples were analyzed in triplicates and average values were reported in the study.
Concentrations of NH4-N, NO3-N and NO2-N in the clear samples were determined with the Merck photometer
(Nova 60 Model) using analytical kits; NH 4-N (14752), NO2-N (14776) and NO3-N (14773) at an ambient
temperature. The initial pH of feeding wastewaters were adjusted to 7.5 with 10 N NaOH solutions by using the
Cybersan pH meter. The experimental studies were carried out at least one month for each parameters and the data

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used in the figures was taken at the steady state conditions. NH4-N concentrations in the inlet wastewater were
measured daily.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the SB and growth media

RESULTS

Operation of the SB. The SB was operated about five years in order to determine the effects of various operational
conditions such as nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and hydraulic retention times (HRT) on the nitritation (Aslan and
Gurbuz, 2011; Aslan and Simsek 2012) at the temperature of 351 0C. Experimental results show that the highest
NO2-N/NOx-N ratio could be achieved at the HRT and NLR of 5.2 hour (flow rate of 6.9 L/day) and 830 g NH 4-
N/m3.day (initial concentrations of 180 mg NH4-N/L), respectively.
After determining the optimal operational conditions in the previous studies, the effects of temperatures and DO
concentrations on the nitritation was investigated in this study. Operational conditions of the SB were adjusted to the
HRT and NLR of 5.2 hour and 830 g NH4-N/m3.day, respectively.
Effects of DO concentrations on nitritation
During the experimental studies, the initial pH and temperature in the reactor were kept constant at the value of 7.5
and 35 0C, respectively. In order to determine the effects of DO concentrations on the NO 2-N accumulations, the DO
level at the top of SB were gradually increased. The effluent concentrations of nitrogen compounds and NO2-
N/NOx-N ratio are presented in Fig. 2.
At the level of 3.5 mg O2/L, the removal efficiency of NH4-N and the NO2-N/NOx-N ratio were 59% and 0.56,
respectively. High concentrations of the DO in the biofilm reactors are necessary to enhance the activity of nitrifying
bacteria. Increasing the DO level to 4.0 mg/L, the NO2-N concentrations in the effluents and NH4-N removal
efficiencies achieved to 81 mg/L and 73%, respectively. The highest NO 2-N/NOx-N ratio of 0.62 was observed at
the DO concentration of 4.0 mg/L under the operational conditions. When the DO concentration was increased from
4.0 to 4.5 mg/L, the NH4-N removal efficiency improved to about 91%. While the effluent water included about 50
mg NO3-N/L and 81 mg NO2-N/L at the DO concentration of 4.0 mg/L, at the DO level of 4.5 mg/L, the
concentrations of NO3-N and NO2-N increased to about 79 and 84 mg/L, respectively. However, the ratio of NO 2-
N/NOx-N drastically dropped to 0.52, suggesting that a 17% reduction of the NO2-N/NOx-N ratio occurred. Results
indicated that Nitrobacter species are stimulated at high DO concentrations and NO2-N is further oxidized to NO3-
N.
Effects of the DO concentration on the NO2-N accumulation in the effluent water were reported for various reactor
configurations. Denac et al., (1993) about 34 % of NO 2-N accumulation and 40 % of NH4-N oxidation was reported
in a fluidized bed reactor. Garrido et al.(1997) achieved about 50% NO 2-N accumulation at the DO concentration
between 1-2 mg/L in an airlift suspension reactor. About 72 % of NO 2-N/NOx-N ratio was achieved in a fluidized-
bed biofilm reactor by operating at high DO concentrations (4-6 mg/L) (Aslan and Dahab, 2008). Considerable
NO2-N/NOx-N ratio and NH4-N removal efficiencies were observed in the SB.

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0.64 100
NO2-N/NOx-N ratio NH4-N removal eff. (%)
0.62 95

90
0.6

85

NH 4 -N removal eff. (%)


0.58

NO 2-N/NO x-N
80
0.56
75
0.54
70
0.52
65

0.5
60

0.48 55

0.46 50
3.5 4 4.5
DO (mg/L)

Fig. 2. Effects of DO concentrations on the NO2-N/NOx-N ratio and NH4-N removal efficiencies

The highest NO2-N production (386 g NO2-N/m3.day, 1.19 g/m2.day) and NH4-N removal rates (750 g NH4-
N/m3.day, 3.38 g NH4-N/m3.day) were obtained under the NLR and SLR of 830 g NH 4-N /m3.day and 3.55
g/m2.day, respectively (Fig. 3).
Results confirmed that the partial nitrification was predominant under the operational conditions in the SB. The
previous partial nitrification experimental studies carried out at the biofilm systems were confirmed this results
(Aslan and Dahab, 2008; Aslan and Gurbuz, 2011; Garrido et al., 1997; Joo et al., 2000; Zafarzadeh et al., 2011).

800
g NH4-N/m3.day g NO2-N/m3.day
700
g /m3.day (NH 4-N and NO 2-N)

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
3.5 4 4.5
DO (mg/L)

Fig. 3. NO2-N productions and NH4-N consumptions at various DO concentrations

Effects of temperature on nitritation. The AOB grow faster than the NOB at elevated temperatures and the AOB
is effectively compete with the NOB at temperatures above 25 0C (Brouwer et al., 1996; Hunik et al., 1993). At the
operational temperature of 35 0C, the maximum specific growth rate of NOB is approximately half of that for the
AOB (Hunik et al., 1993). At normal temperatures in the WWTP (5-20 0C) NOB grow faster than AOB which
means that NH4-N is completely oxidized to NO3-N (Hellinga et al., 1998).
The effects of temperature on the NO2-N/NOx-N ratio and NH4-N removal efficiencies are presented in Fig. 4. As
can be seen in Figure, the average NH4-N removal efficiency of 92% was obtained at the temperatures of 25, 30, and
35 0C. However, the ratio of NO2-N/NOx-N was significantly affected from the temperatures. The NO 2-N/NOx-N
ratio was about 0.14 at the temperature of 25 1 0C. Gradually increase the temperature from 25 to 35 0C, The NO2-
N/NOx-N ratio increased to about 0.5.
The NO2-N production rate of about 368 g NO2-N/m3.day (1.66 g/m2.day) and about 750 g NH4-N/m3.day (3.38 g
NH4-N/m3.day) were obtained under the NLR and SLR of 830 g NH 4-N /m3.day and 3.55 g/m2.day, respectively

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(Fig. 5).The nitrification rates reported in the literature for attached growth reactors were between 0.47- 1.6 kg NH4-
Nm3- day for down-flow hanging sponge reactor (Chuang et al., 2007) and 0.9 kg NH4-Nm3- day for the FBBR
(Aslan and Dahab, 2008). The nitrification rate of 0.75 kg NH4-Nm3-day was observed at the temperature of 35 0C
in the SB. Anthonisen et al. (1976) reported that the AOB and NOB were inhibited 10-150 mg/L and 0.1-1.0 mg/L
of FA, respectively and all nitrifying bacteria were inhibited above 0.2 mg/L of FNA. The quantity of free ammonia
(FA) and free nitric acid (FNA) (HNO2) are a function of pH and temperature and could be calculated using the
equation 1 and 2 (Anthonisen et al. 1976).

17 NH 4 N (mg / L) 10 pH (1) 47 NO2 N (mg / L) 2)


FA(mg / L) 6344
HNO2 (mg / L) 2300
14 14
e ( 273T ) 10 pH exp 273T 10 pH

The calculated FA concentrations in the influents were between about 4-8 mg/L which should be favorable to the
NO2-N accumulation throughout the experimental study. The previous experimental results support that the NO 2-N
accumulation was determined by controlling the FA. However, the FA concentration is not the only factor for the
NO2-N accumulation (Aslan et al., 2009). Sinha and Annachhatre (2007) and Kim et al., (2005) reported that the pH
value could not be used on a long term key parameter for NO 2-N accumulation. Because the experimental set-up
was operated about 5 years in the previous experimental studies (Aslan and Gurbuz, 2011; Aslan and Simsek, 2012),
the accumulation of NO2-N could not be solely attributed to the NH3 concentrations in this study.
The NO2-N accumulation in the biofilter effluents cannot be attributed to the FNA, because the observed FNA
concentration was lower than 0.2 mg/L in the effluents waters throughout the experiments.

0.6 100
NO2-N /NOx-N NH4-N removal eff. (%)

0.5 95

NH 4-N removal eff. (%)


0.4 90
NO2-N/NOx-N

0.3 85

0.2 80

0.1 75

0 70
25 30 35
0
temperature ( C)

Fig. 4. Effects of temperature on the NO2-N/NOx-N ratio and NH4-N removal efficiencies

Figure 5. NO2-N productions and NH4-N consumptions at various temperatures

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CONCLUSION

Experimental results showed that the SB was efficiently used to remove high concentrations of ammonium in the
wastewater. In order to achieve considerable NO2-N/NOx-N ratio, the biological reactor should be operated at an
optimal temperature and DO concentrations. Due to the fact that NOB is positively affected by the DO
concentrations, optimal DO concentrations should be determined for the biological reactor. The effluents of partial
nitrification reactor can be connected to the ANAMMOX or denitritation process in order to achieve complete
nitrogen removal.
Acknowledgements: This study was supported by The Research Fund of Cumhuriyet University (CUBAP) under
Grant No. M-395, Sivas, Turkey.

REFERENCES

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Anthonisen AC, Loehr RC, Prakasam TBS, Srinath EG. (1976) Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous
acid. J. Water Pollut. Control Feder 48, 835.
Aslan S., Dahab, M. (20089 Nitritation and denitritation of ammonium-rich wastewater busing fluidized-bed biofilm
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Aslan S., Gurbuz B. (2011) Influence of operational parameters and low nickel concentrations on partial nitrification
in a submerged biofilter, Appl. Biochem. Biotech 165, 15431555.
Aslan, S., Simsek, E. (2012) Influence of salinity on partial nitrification in a submerged biofilter, Bioresource
Technol 118, 24-29.
Aslan, S., Dahab, M., Miller, L. (2009) Ammonium oxidation via nitrite accumulation under limited oxygen
concentration, Bioresource Technol 100, 659-664.
Bae, W, Baek, S., Chung, J., Lee, Y. (2002) Optimal operational factors for nitrite accumulation in batch reactors,
Biodegradation, 12, 359366.
Bock E, Koops HP, Harns H. (1986) Cell biology of nitrifying bacteria. In: Prosser JI (ed) Nitrification. IRL Press,
Oxford, 1738.
Bock E, Koops HP, Ahlers B, Harns H. (1992) Oxidation of inorganic nitrogen compounds as energy source. In:
Balows A, Tru per HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer KH (eds) The prokaryotes: a handbook on biology of
bacteria: ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p 414430.
Brouwer M, van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ. (1996) One reactor system for ammonium removal via nitrite.
STOWA Report. 96-01. Utrecht (The Netherlands): STOWA, (ISBN 90 74476 55 4).
Cecen F., Gonenc I. E. (1994) Nitrogen removal characteristics of nitrification and denitrification fillters. Water Sci
Technol 29, 10-11, 409-416.
Chuang, H.P., Ohashi, A., Imachi, H., Tandukar, M., Harad, H. (2007) Effective partial nitrification to nitrite by
down-flow hanging sponge reactor under limited oxygen condition Water Research, 41, 2, 295302
Ciudad G, Rubilar O, Munoz P, Ruiz G, Chamy R, Vergara C, Jeison D. (2005) Partial nitrification of high
ammonia concentration wastewater as a part of a shortcut biological nitrogen removal process. Process Biochem 40,
17151719.
Denac M, Uzman S, Tanaka H, Dunn I.J. (1983) Modeling of experiments on biofilm penetration effects in a
fluidized bed nitrification reactor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 25, 1841.
Fux, C., Velten, S., Carozzi, V, Solley, D., Keller, J. (2006) Efficient and stable nitritation and denitritation of
ammonium-rich sludge dewatering liquor using an SBR with continuous loading. Water Research, 40, 2765 2775.
Garrido, J. M. Van Benthum, W. A. J., Van Loosdrecht, M. C. M., Heijnen, J. J. (1997) Influence of dissolved
oxygen concentration on nitrite accumulation in a biofilm airlift suspension reactor. Biotechnology and
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Gee, C.S. Kim, J.S. (2004) Nitrite accumulation followed by denitrification using sequencing batch reactor. Water
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Hellinga,C., Schellen, A.A.J.C., Mulder, J.W., Van Lossdrecht, M.C.M, Heijnen, J.J. (1998) The Sharon Process:
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Hunik, J. H. Meijer, H. J. G., Tramper, J., (1993) Kinetics of nitrobacter agilis at extreme substrate, product and salt
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Hwang, S., Jang, K., Jang, H., Song, J., Bae, W. (2006) Factors affecting nitrous oxide production: a comparison of
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Zafarzadeh, A., Bina, B., Nikaeen, M., Attar, M. H., Haji, M., Khiadani, M. H. (2011) Effect of dissolved oxygen
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Zaitsev, Z., Mettanen, T., Langwaldt, J. (2008) Removal of ammonium and nitrate from cold inorganic mine water
by fixed-bed biofilm reactors. Miner. Eng. 21, 1015.

PAPER 140

GAS SENSING PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT CALIXARENE DERIVATIVES

Farabi Temel*, Gulsevil Gok, Ayse Gul Ture, Mustafa Tabakci

Seluk University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 42075, Konya, Turkey

*Email:farabitemel42@hotmail.com;gul_sevil-88@hotmail.com;ayse_gul_ture@hotmail.com; mtabakci@secuk.edu.tr

ABSTRACT

This report describes the evaluation of gas sensing activities of some calix[4]arene based films such as 5,11,17,23-
Tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene(1)5,11,17,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(4-propargyl)-26,28-
dihydroxycalix[4] arene (2)5,11,17,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(4-nitrobenzyloxy)-26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene
(3) towards volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calix[4]arene based films were fabricated using drop-casting
method on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)s gold electrode. The results indicated that current calix[4]arene
based films have a great potential for sensing of organic vapors at room temperature conditions.

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Keywords: Calix[4]arene; VOCs; QCM; Gas sensor

INTRODUCTION

In the field of supramolecular chemistry, calixarenes have generated increasing interest both in fundamental and
applied chemistry. These macrocycles have been used for catalysis, molecular recognition or ion separation, and
sensors (Gutsche, 1998). They are synthetic macrocycles readily available by condensation of p-tert-butylphenol
with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions. From these starting materials, a large number of sophisticated
compounds have been prepared (Erdemir et al., 2007). Calixarenes after crown ethers and cyclodextrins are an
important class of macrocycles widely used in supramolecular chemistry as useful basic skeleton and an excellent
platform for the design of receptor sites for the specific recognition of guests (Memon et al., 2005). The functional
groups at the upper and lower rims of calixarene define their selectivity in hostguest interactions and physical
properties (Ohira et al., 2009; Tabakci et al., 2005). They are promising materials for sensor applications due to their
zeolite-like capacity and selectivity. Thin films of calixarenes have been widely used in chemical sensors. These
materials can be also used as sensor towards gas or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (Filenko et al., 2004;
Richardson et al., 2006; Filenko et al., 2005).
Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) has been applied widely in toxic gas and organic vapors detection owing to its
extreme sensitivity and simplicity (Zhou et al., 1997). Sensor applications of calixarenes have been reported for a
few transducer types such as QCM (Hartmann et al., 1996; Kalchenko et al., 2002; Koshets et al., 2005). QCM
technique can be widely studied for the determination of a variant of acoustic wave micro sensors that are capable of
ultrasensitive mass measurements. Additionally, this technique is a excellent for determining the sensing properties
of materials before manufacturing a sensor device (Okur et al., 2010). In this study, we investigated that the sensor
behaviors of various calix[4]arene molecules towards some VOCs via QCM apparatus.
QCM is based on frequency shift of coated quartz crystal with sensing element due to adsorption of humidity atoms
on the surface of the sensing material. QCM measurement technique is the relation between mass change (m) onto
the quartz surface and frequency change (f). In a simple case it can be described by the Sauerbrey equation
(Sauerbrey, 1959).

(1)

where f = frequency, m = mass, = density of quartz, = shear modulus of quarts and A = active electrode area.
According to the Sauerbrey equation, the frequency shift is directly proportional to the adsorbed mass on gold QCM
electrodes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials and equipments. Calix[4]arene derivatives (Fig. 1) were prepared according to previously published
procedure (Gutsche et al., 1986; Asfari et al., 2004; Tabakci et al., 2004). A time-resolved electrochemical quartz
crystal microbalance (EQCM) was used to measure the frequency change of quartz crystals between gold electrodes
with the model of CHI400B Series from CH Instruments (Austin, USA). Used EQCM in this work is shown in
Fig.2. The oscillation frequencies of QCM changes between 7.995MHz and 7.950 MHz. The density () of the
crystal is 2.684 g/cm3, and the shear modulus () of quartz is 2.9471011 g/cm s2. Using a crystal with a 7.995-MHz
fundamental frequency, a net change of 1 Hz corresponds to 1.34 ng of materials adsorbed or desorbed onto the
crystal surface of an area of 0.196 cm2.

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Fig. 1. Molecular structure of calix[4]arenes

Fig. 2. Schematic representation of a typical EQCM instrument. The quartz crystal has a fundamental frequency of
7.995 MHz and is coated with thin gold films on both sides. The gold disk deposited on the top side of the crystal is
in contact with the electrolyte solution and used as the working electrode.

Preparation of calix[4]arene based films. Calix[4]arene based films have been prepared by following procedures:
To prepare 1mM calixarene solutions, calix[4]arene derivatives were dissolved completely in chloroform. Gold
coated quartz crystal electrodes were cleaned by acetone and ethanol liquids, respectively and then dried with high
purity nitrogen. Finally, 5l calixarene solutions were dropped on gold surface of quartz crystal electrodes by using
drop casting method and calixarene-coated electrodes heated at 60oC to ensure dryness of them.

Measurements of VOC vapors. Gas sensing properties of calix[4]arene based films towards VOCs were performed
by using a home-made system (Fig. 2). In experimental studies, calix[4]arene molecules coated crystal was placed to
its chamber to gain frequencies responses vs. time. Placed crystal in chamber was subjected to fresh air and VOCs
by 150s time intervals respectively up to 750s. After measurements, coated crystals is subjected to pure nitrogen due
to performing desorption of calix[4]arenes molecules on crystal about 30s. Before passing second measurements,
frequency responses of calix[4]arene-coated crystal should show about zero. After applying of pure nitrogen,
calix[4]arene-coated crystal should be waited some minutes in fresh air to reach steady state if there is big
oscillation.

RESULTS

It is well known from the literature that the various calixarene derivatives have been used as sensor material
(Talanov et al., 2007; Evans and Nicholson, 2005; Echabaane et al., 2012; Chen and Chen, 2005; Costa et al., 2012).

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In this work, sensitive and selective features of different calix[4]arene derivatives towards VOCs has been examined
via QCM method.
Figure 3 represents the frequency responses of three QCM sensors coated with calix[4]arene (1, 2 and 3) films
during the adsorption and desorption processes under VOCs. As it seen in Fig. 3a, 1 gives similar response towards
acetone and methanol but it gives a few more response to toluene. Sensor 2 gives similar and big frequency
responses towards acetone and toluene exception others, while the response of sensor 3 towards acetone differs from
others significantly. As it seen, parent calix[4]arene 1 is slightly effective as a sensor in comparison to 2 and 3.

a b

Acetone DMF Methanol Toluene

Fig. 3. Frequency responses of calix[4]arene based sensors towards acetone, DMF, methanol and toluene (a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 during the adsorption and desorption processes.

Figure 4 expresses that the frequency responses of QCM sensors coated with 1, 2 and 3 towards same volatiles. As it
is shown in Fig. 4a, 3 exhibits a remarkably difference when it compare with the others for acetone. This may be
attributed to its more rigid functional groups (p-nitrobenzyles) that helps to trap the acetone. This indicates that 3 is
a selective sensor for acetone molecules. On the other hand, Fig. 4b shows that 3 does not give remarkably
responses towards to DMF unlike others. However, 2 gives a bit more frequency responses by comparison with 3.
Fig. 4c and 4d indicates that 3 presents the biggest frequency responses for methanol and toluene volatiles,
respectively.

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a b

Calix 1 Calix 2 Calix 3

c d

Fig. 4. Frequency responses towards (a) acetone (b) DMF (c) methanol (d) toluene of sensors coated with
calix[4]arene based films.

CONCLUSIONS

In this work, three calix[4]arene derivatives has been used as the coating materials to form a film plate on gold
coated quartz crystal electrode by using drop casting method. The results indicates that calix[4]arene molecules are
very promising materials which can be used as sensors for VOCs. Among used calix[4]arene derivatives in current
work, calix[4]arene containing functional p-nitrobenzyl groups 3 can be used as a selective sensor for acetone.

Acknowledgments. The authors thank the Research Foundation of Seluk University, Konya, Turkey for financial
support (Grant Number: 13701142) of this work produced from Farabi Temels Master Thesis.

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Tabakci, M., Tabakci, B., Yilmaz, M. (2005) Design and synthesis of new chiral calix[4]arenes as liquid phase
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PAPER 142

THE ROLE OF PROHEXADIONE-CALCIUM(REGALIS) ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH IN PEAR VAR.


PASSE CRASSANE

Maxhun Shehaj1, Ptrit Rama2, Bari Hodaj 2


1
CNV, Kosoovo
2
Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Email: agro36@hotmail.com; ramapetrit@yahoo.gr;

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ABSTRACT

Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis) is a shoot growth retardant that inhibits gibberellins biosynthesis The aim of this
study was to evaluate the efficacy of applying Regalis by foliar applications in Pass Crassane pear orchards to
reduce tree vigor or shoot growth, to improve the structure of the canopy, to accelerate the earliness of fruit bearing
and to control the alternate fruit production. Three different dosages were tested: 50ppm, 100ppm 150ppm. Regalis
treatments ranging from 50 to 150 ppm were compared with control, without treatments. The first treatment was
applied 7days after petal fall and the others every 10 days after the first treatment. The data was collected at the end
of the vegetation period on 10 October.The growth vigor of the shoots and the shoot length of node was significantly
difference after the treatment of 150 ppm than the application of 100ppm and 50ppm. The mean number of nodes
per shoot percentage was not significantly different between different treatment (50ppm, 100ppm and 150ppm). The
length of the shoots for non- treated trees was higher than for treated ones.

Key words: prohexadione-Ca, Regalis, Growth retardant. Passe Crassane

INTRODUCTION
Several techniques have been employed to avoid excessive shoot growth as different types of dwarfing rootstocks,
dormant and summer pruning, root pruning, root restriction, stem girdling or sawing, limb bending, breaking or
wounding and restrictive fertilization and irrigation. However, any of these methods is cost-intensive and bears a
high risk of failure. Furthermore, part of trees assimilates are lost.
Alternatively or additionally, plant regulator may be employed for the reduction of shoot growth (7)
Plant growth regulators that inhibit the development and growth of shoots have been used to reduce the amount of
shoot growth and subsequently increase yield. Plant growth regulators modify growth and development in various
ways. They can be well integrated into orchard production systems gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors have one key
role in cell elongation (5,8).The most used growth retardant is the Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis that has low
toxicity and persistence in the plant.)
The inhibitory effect of Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis) lead on the formation of growth-active gibberellin (8) leads
to a reduction of longitudinal shoot growth
There are a number of applications of plant hormones in agriculture, horticulture, and biotechnology. Trials with
Prohexadione-calcium to control vegetative growth of apple, pear and plum trees were demonstrated by other
authors (1,8). Prohexadione-calcium is a new generation gibberellins biosynthesis inhibitor that has low toxicity and
persistence in the plant.
The objective of this research was to quantify the efficacy Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis) at three different
concentrations, on three treatment times, on pear cultivar Passe Crassane.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Investigations of (Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis) effect on pear tree var.Passe Crassane were carried out at the
region o Peja , municipality of Kline, Republic of Kosova. The orchard was planted in the spring of 2009.Planting
distance were 3x1,5m.Trees were trained as slender spindle A randomized complete block with four replications,
four treatments and two trees per experimental unit was used as the experimental design.
Regalis ranging of treatments were as follow:
Control without treatment
Treatment with 50ppm (a.s) Regalis
Treatment with 100ppm (a.s) Regalis
Treatment with 150ppm (a.s) Regalis
The first treatment was applied 7 days after the petal fall
The second 10 days after the first treatment
The third 10 days after the second treatment
The length of shoots, the number of the nodes, the length of internodes and number of leaves of new growth (current
growing season) on 15 randomly selected extension shoots (selected randomly on each tree) was measured at end of
growing season, on10 October. Differences between means of each treatment were analyzed by the Duncan multiple
range test (P < 0. 05).

RESULTS

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Vegetative growth is the parameter most obviously affected by (Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis) applications. The
inhibitory effect of the (Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis) formation of growth-active gibberelline (8) leads to a
reduction of longitudinal shoot growth .
As a general result, a successful use of (Prohexadione-calcium (Regalis) in pear was more difficult to achieve than
in apple (3,4)
Table 1summarises the results of several experiments with Passe Crassanethe widespread pear cultivar in Kosova,
in which the effects of different dosages of application had been evaluated. Final shoot length was generally reduced
by treatments by approximately 14.5% to 22 % as compared to untreated trees. The length of the shoots was not
significantly different between 50ppm and 100ppm. Our results that the successful use of Regalis in pear was
difficult to achieve have been confirmed by other researchers (3).The treatment of the pome with Regalis both a
single application of 250 g ha1 (a.s). or a split treatment with 2 x 125 g ha1(a.s). led to an average reduction of
shoot growth by approximately 40 %(9).

Table1. Effect of Prohexadione calcium (Regalis) on length of shoot

Treatments r1 r2 r3 r4 Means
V0(control ) 27,536 26,370 27,240 31,545 28,4228c *+
V1 25,818 22,870 23,080 24,042 23,9525a
V2 23,857 26,556 19,500 26,053 23,7415a
V3 24,233 21,500 18,667 21,183 21,3956 b
Means 24,61109 24,07387 21,62167 25,70559 96,01222

* Separation by Duncans multiple range tests, at P< 0.05(+Mean of four replications)


F= 5,567772, F ref= 3,490295

Tab 2 shows that number of nodes was not significantly difference between non-treated trees and treated trees, while
the increase in shoot length in absolute terms was different between treatments. This means that the treatment with
Regalis inhibits growth of the shoots but did not prevent the formation of the buds. For this reason the average
number of the buds is equal in treated trees with Prohexadione-calcium and untreated ones.

Table2. The mean number of internodes per shoot

Treatments r1 r2 r3 r4 Means
V0(control) 7,010 8,507 8,513 8,013 7,898
V1 7,594 7,290 7,360 6,869 7,278
V2 7,455 8,047 6,167 8,684 7,588
V3 8,078 7,414 6,667 7,845 7,501
Means 7,534 7,814 7,176 8,103 30,628
F= 0,707664. F ref= 3,490295
Evaluation of the data of Table 1 with Table 3 shows that the increase of the shoot length is proportional to the
increase of internodes length. This means that the buds formed on the trees treated with Regalis have less
competition from the apical dominance of the growing shoot. Consequently, the possibility of their differentiation in
flowering must be greater. This has been confirmed by other authors. Excessive vigor could be considered to
competitively inhibit flowering through hormonal control (6)
Table3.The mean length of internodes(cm)

Treatments P1 P2 P3 P4 Means

V0 3,5 3,1 3,2 3,5 3,970a*+


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V1 3,4 3 3 3,5 3,225b


V2 3,2 3,3 3 3 3,125 b
V3 3 2,9 2,8 2,7 2,850 b
Means 3,275 3,075 3 3,175 12,525
* Separation by Duncans multiple range tests, at P< 0.05 (+Mean of four replications)
F=4, 436464 F ref =3.490295

As can be seen in Tab.4 the numbers of the leaves were almost equal in all the treated and untreated trees.
Analyzing Tables 1 2 3 and 4 found that the effect of Regalis was not significantly in the number of nodes and
consequently in the number of buds and in the number of leaves. This confirms that only shoot growth and
internodes length may be controlled by Regalis application.

Table.4 the mean number of leaves per shoot

Treatment s r1 r2 r3 r4 Means
V0 15,699 16,564 15,995 20,991 17,3121
V1 17,870 18,412 16,102 16,999 17,3458
V2 15,975 19,351 12,624 18,907 16,7142
V3 16,611 16,574 15,475 17,386 16,5113
Means 16,539 17,725 14,799 18,821 67,8835

F= 0,163039. F ref= 3,490295

CONCLUSIONS

The use of Regalis reduces the apical dominance of the growth of the shoots and may be promotes the
differentiation of flowers on the lateral buds

REFERENCES

Basak A, Rademacher W: Growth regulation of pome and stone fruit trees by use of Proxadione-Ca: Acta
Horticulturae 2000, (514): 4150.
Buban T, Foldes L, Kormany A, Hauptmann S, Stammler G, Rademacher W:
Prohexadione-Ca in apple trees: Control of shoot growth and reduction of fire blight incidence in blossoms and
shoots: Journal of applied botany 2003. (77): 95102
Costa , C. Andreotti, F. Bucchi, E. Sabatini, C.Bazzi, S. Mallaguti and W. Rademacher: Prohexadione-Ca
(Apogee), growth regulation and reduced fireblight incidence in pear: HortScienc ,2001,( 36:931933.
Costa. G, E. Sabatini, F. Spinelli, C. Andreoti, G Spada and F. Mazzini: Prohexadione-Ca controls vegetative
growth and cropping performance in pear.
Acta Hort: 2004,( 653): 127132.
Luckwill,L.C:.The control of growth and fruitfulness of apple trees: Physiology of Tree Fruit Crops 1970, 237254
Mandemaker,A.J. Dixon.J : Effect of Prohexadione-ca on shoot growth, fruit set and retention in 'hass' avocado in
New Zealand: New Zealand Avocado Growers Association Annual Research Report.
(5) 35 - 42
Miller, S.S: Plant bio regulators in apple and pear culture : Hort. Rev. 1988,(10): 309401
Rademacher,W. 2000. Growth retardants: Effects on gibberellin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways: Annual
Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 2000,( 51): 501531
Rademacher, K. Van Saarloos, J. A. Garuz Porte, F. Riera Forcades, Y. Senechal, C. Andreotti, F: Impact of
Prohexadione-Ca on the Vegetative and Reproductive Performance of Apple and Pear Trees. Europ.J.Hort.Sci
2004,( 69):221228.

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PAPER 143

THE ROLE OF CYTOKININS (BENZYLAMINOPURINE, BAP) ON ROOT INDUCTION IN OLEA


EUROPEA L.

Adhurim Lazaj1, Petrit Rama2, Bari Hodaj2, Edlira Kukali2


1
Centre of Agricultural Technology Transfer (ATTC), Vlore, Albania
2
Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Email: adhurimlazaj@yahoo.com; ramapetrit@yahoo.gr;

ABSTRACT

Olive, var. Kokrr Madhi I Beratitis an important table variety for Albania. Also this is one of the major
difficulties with respect to vegetative propagation from leafy stem cuttings. Leafy stem cuttings of olive cv. Kokr
Madhi i Beratit were obtained from 1-year-old olive shoots sampled on 25 April during the 2012 growing season.
The shoots were collected at the same height of crown of the tree to avoid the effect of juvenility on root induction.
To improve the rooting of olive cuttings, different concentrations of BAP (6-Benzyl aminopurine),100ppm, 150ppm,
200ppm and250ppm were tested in combination with IBA (Indol Butiric Acid)4000ppm. After treatments the stem
cuttings were planted in greenhouse equipped with an automatic mist system. At 50 days after the beginning of
rooting treatments, cuttings were scored for the presence of callus, percentage of rooted cuttings, root number per
cutting and root length. BAP inhibits adventitious root formation, but adding it to IBA in a small ratio (1:30-1:40)
improved the rooting. The combination of IBA 4000ppm + 100ppm (40:1) and IBA 4000ppm+150ppm BAP
modified significantly higher rooting of cuttings. Those combinations of growth stimulators induce also a higher
number of roots per cutting in comparison with those treated with IBA alone.

Key words: olive, root, shoot, Benzylaminopurine, Indol Butyric Acid

INTRODUCTION

The propagation of the olive up to now has been realized by various ways, such as seeds, hardwood cuttings, leafy
stem cuttings, spheroblasts, etc. Propagation with leafy stem cuttings, under mist system is the most accepted
method in the world. Olive, var. Kokerr Madhi I Beratit is one of the major difficulties with respect to vegetative
propagation from leafy stem cuttings. This experiment aimed at increasing the rooting ability of olive cuttings cv.
Kokrr Madhi I Beratit using IBA with different concentrations of BAP. GA 3 and BAP inhibits adventitious root
formation, but in some cases stimulate it (7,6.8)
Auxins play a central role during lateral root development (1). Also, has been reported that cytokinins are important
endogenous regulators of lateral root initiation(4).Cytokinins and auxins have been implicated in the regulation of
root development, being the principal players(3). Cytokinins regulate root meristem activity via modulation of the
polar auxin transport. They regulate root meristem activity via modulation of the polar auxin transport. Auxins and
cytokinins modulate the root meristem size, but they differ in concentration range at which they can act either in a
stimulatory or an inhibitory mode (3). The phytohormones auxins and cytokinins are important regulators of the
developmental fate of pluripotent plant cells (5).Cytokinins influence cell-to-cell auxin transport by modification of
expression of several auxin transport components and thus modulate auxin distribution important for regulation of
activity and size of the root meristem (3).
The study reported in this paper was carried out to examine any possible interaction between IBA and BAP which
might influence the rooting activity of stem cuttings in Qlea europea, cv. Kokrr Madhi i Beratit.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Leafy stem cuttings (15-20cm long each) from one year old olive shoots ofKokrr Madhi I Beratit, grown in
Levan village (Fieri district) were conducted to examine the influence of the combination IBA with BAP on the root
initiation. The shoots were sampled in spring (25 Appril) during the 2012 growing season. Leafy stem cuttings with

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four leaves are prepared in the morning and their bases were dipped for 7 sec in solution of 4000ppm IBA, the
appropriate concentration on rooting of olive stems, in combination with different treatment of BAP as follows:
Experiment one:
1st treatment 0ppm IBA
2nd treatment 2000ppmIBA
3rd treatment 4000ppmIBA
4th treatment 6000ppmIBA
5th treatment 10000ppmIBA
Experiment two:
1st treatment 4000ppm IBA+0BAP
2nd treatment 4000ppm IBA+100ppm BAP
3rd treatment 4000ppm IBA+150ppm BAP
4th treatment 4000ppm IBA+200ppm BAP
5th treatment 4000ppm IBA+250ppm BAP
After treatments, the stem cuttings were planted in greenhouse equipped with an automatic mist system. The layout
of experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replications of 100 cuttings per treatment. Cuttings were
evaluated 50 days after planting for percentage of rooted cuttings, primary root number and mean primary root
length. Differences between means of each treatment were analyzed by the Duncan multiple range test (P < 0. 05).
3. Results and discussion
As it can be seen in Table1 the olive var. Koker Madhi i Beratit is one of the major difficulties with respect to
vegetative propagation from leafy stem cuttings. The percentage of rooting without IBA and with different
concentrations of IBA was very low (6,75% maximum). The percentage of rooting was higher in the treatment of
4000ppm IBA, but the difference was not significant however, we supposed the concentration of 4000ppm IBA as
the best, and we used this concentration of IBA in combination with different concentrations of BAP to see the
interaction of these two hormones on the root induction of the olive var. Kokerr Madhi i Berati.

Table 1. Effect of IBA on rooting of Kokerr Madhi I Beratit olive cuttings

Treatments/Replications R1 R2 R3 R4 Means
0%IBA 0 2 1 4 1,75a
2000ppmIBA 4 11 1 7 5,75a
4000ppmIBA 5 6 7 9 6,75a
6000ppmIBA 0 1 8 3 3,00a
10000ppmIBA 5 2 0 1 2,00a

The number (percentage) of rooted cuttings, using of IBA alone and in combination with BAP on rooting of Kokerr
Madhi i Beratit olive cuttings are summarized in Table2.In determining the optimum of benzylaminopurine (BAP)
requirements for rooting, the best result was obtained when 4000 ppm IBA (control) was combined with 100 ppm
and 150ppm BAP (respectively,22% and 24,75 higher than the control).The percentage of rooting was decreased
considerably by increasing the BAP concentration to 200 and 250 ppm. This means that auxins and cytokinins
modulate the root meristem size, but they differ in concentration range at which they can act either in a stimulatory
or an inhibitory mode [3]. The promotion of BAP on rooting appears to be due to stimulation of juvenility in tissues
of cuttings, or perhaps cytokinin regulates root meristem activity via modulation of the polar auxin transport [3].
Also, may be, BAP increased the sprouting buds, and consequently, the synthesis of any rooting cofactor. The
stimulation of rooting by combination of IBA with BAP reported in this paper is shows that the stem cuttings of
olive var, Kokr Madh i Beratit has little or has not at all BAB.
To promote root induction of leafy stem cuttings of olive var.Kokrr Madhi i Beratit must used as root induction
hormones the combination of auxins and cytokinins at appropriate concentration.

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Figure-1: Cuttings planted in mist propagation(40 days after planting) Left (IBA+BAP). Right( IBA)
Table 2. Effect of IBA alone and in combination with BAP on rooting
of Kokrr Madhi i Beratit olive cuttings

Variants?Replication R1 R2 R3 R4 Mean
4000pppmIBA+0BAP 6 7 9 8 7,5a
4000ppmIBA+100ppmBAP 49 36 15 18 29,5b
4000ppmIBA+150ppmBAP 38 16 45 30 32,25b
4000ppmIBA+200ppmBAP 16 9 21 11 14,25c
4000ppmIBA+250ppmBAP 25 3 29 2 14,75c
* Separation by Duncans multiple range test,
at P< 0. 05, +Mean of three replications

(a) (b)

Figure-2: Rooted cuttings(50 days after planting; a- (IBA+BAP) b-(IBA)

CONCLUSION

The stimulation of rooting by combination of IBA with BAP reported in this paper is shows that the stem cuttings of
olive var.Kokr rmadhi i Beratit has little or has not at all cytokinins.
To promote root induction of leafy stem cuttings of olive var.Kokrr Madhi i Beratit must used as root induction
hormones the combination of auxins and cytokinins at appropriate concentration

REFERENCES

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Casimiro I, Beeckam T, Graham N, Bhalerao R,Zhang H, Casero P,Sandberg G, and Bennett M: Dissecting
Arabidopsis lateral root development. Trends Plant Sci.(2003),8:165-171
Goodwin P.B and Morris S: Application of phytohormones to pea roots after removal of the apex, effect on lateral
root production. Aust. J. Plant Physiol.(1979), 6: 195200.
Ruzicka K, Simaskova M, Duclercqa J, Petrasek J, Zasimalova E, Simon S, Frimla J, Montagua V, Benkov: E:
Cytokinin regulates root meristem activity via modulation of the polar auxin transport. Procedings of the National
Academy of the United States of America(2009), 106(11): 42844289
Laplaze L, Benkova E, Casimiro I, Maes L, Vanneste S, Swarup R, Weijers D, Calvo V, Parizot B, Herrera-
Rodriguez MB, Offringa R, Graham N, Doumas P, Friml J, Bogusz D, Beeckman T, Bennett M: Cytokinins act
directly on lateral root founder cells to inhibit root initiation. Plant Cell.(2007), 19(12):3889-3900..
Pernisova M, Klima P, Horaka J, Valkova M, Malbec J, Soucek P: Cytokinins modulate auxin-induced
organogenesis in plants via regulation of the auxin efflux. Procedings of the National Academy of the United
(2008),106(9):36093614
Pawlicki N, Welander M: The effects of benzyladenine and gibberellic acid on adventitious root formation in apple
stem discs. Agronomi 1992,12 (10): 783-788
Rama P, Kukali E: Interactionof GibberelicI Acid (GA3) and Naphtalene Acetic Acid on root induction Olea
Europea: Albanian Journal of Agricultural (2010),9 (3): 39-43
Reeves D. W, Couvillon G. A, Horton B. D: Effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on elongation and rooting of St. Julien
A rootstock in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae 1985,26(3): 253-259
Wightman F, Schneider E.A and Thimann K.V: Effects of exogenous factors on lateral root formation in Pea Roots.
Physiol. Plant (1980), 49: 304314.

PAPER 146

THE ANALYSIS OF METHYLENE BLUE ADSORPTION WITH USING FACTORIAL DESIGN

A. Ceyhan1, E. zbay1*, O. Baytar1, M. Akaslan1


1
Selcuk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Konya, Turkey, 42031;

Email: eozbayirtibat@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In this study, methylene blue adsorptions were investigated statistically by using Aegnus Angustifalia seeds treated
with formaldehyde for color immobilization. Single and multi-factors effects of the pH of solution, time,
temperature, initial concentration of dye and the amount of adsorbents were analyzed with 2 5 factorial designs.
Regression analysis and ANOVA results were obtained by MATLAB. In this two level five factors design the
effects of parameters, the coefficient of model, values of standard deviation, the model equations and the interaction
graphs were yielded. As a result of the study, the parameters affected on methylene blue adsorption were indicated.

Key Words: Factorial design, Anova, Aegnus angustifalia seeds, Methylene blue adsorption

INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the basic compounds for living creatures. Water pollution can be defined as mixing up organic,
inorganic, biological and radioactive materials with water. Agricultural activities, industrialization and urbanization
are the main sources of water pollution. Statistics shows us quantity of water used in the industry is higher than other
areas. Mixing the toxic industrial waste to seas, rivers and lakes cause significantly water pollution. In recent years,
developments of new techniques for purification of water studied in order to solve this pollution are increasing
(Yaln, 1995).

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Active carbon is an amorphous material which is widely used in water purification and it has large internal surface
area and pore volume. Active carbon can adsorb molecular from both gas and liquid phase. The surface area, the
dimension of pore distribution and the characteristic of chemical surface play a significant role in determining the
usage area of carbon adsorbent (Benaddi and friends, 2000).
At the beginning of the study, attribute of performance should be determined to produce the conditions for getting
the best results in active carbon adsorption process. The factors affected to this attribute are considered and the
effects of these factors on performance attribute are examined. Then experiments are performed in order to identify
the factor or factors that have the most distinctive impact and to find the optimum combination of factors, also
uncontrollable factors should be taken into consideration. As a result of experiments, the obtained performance
indicator from the experiments are being evaluated and tried to find out optimum conditions (Scheffler, 1997).
Analysis of the experimental design is a technique which is used in process that measuring the effects of
independent factors also known as a reason of change in dependent factor (Soylak, 2000).
Analysis of experimental design plays a significant role in design of processes and products, improvement of the
production processes. By using statistical methods, the minimization of information belongs to parameters that have
effects on optimization problems which are time consuming and high cost is the main purpose of DOE (Rahman,
2003).
In this study in formaldehyde for adsorption of methylene blue which was modified is examined. Determining the
effects of parameters which has effect on process were examined by analysis of experimental design.

MATERIAL and METHOD

At the beginning of the study spindle beans were ground (Retsch SR 300) and classified according to sizes (Retsch,
AS 200). And then spindle beans were stood up in a %1 formaldehyde solution for 24 hours to provide colour
immobilization and to send away water soluble substances. And then spindle beans were separated by filtration and
washed with hot distilled water in order to remove formaldehyde. Washed spindle beans were dried at 80 for
24hours (Saka and Sahin, 2011). 1000 mg.L-1 stock solution was prepared for methylene blue colouring substance
which was used in experiments. Colouring substance solutions on study concentrations were prepared by diluting
this stock solution. pH adjustments were made with using 0,1m NaOH and 0,1m HCI. At the end of the transaction,
concentration of the solution was determined with measuring the wavelength 664nm by UV-Vis spectrophotometer
(Hitachi U-0080D).
To examine the effects of parameters affecting the adsorption of methylene blue, two level five factorial
experimental designs used. The examined parameters are selected as the solution pH, the initial concentration of
methylene blue, time, media temperature and amount of adsorbent. Upper and lower values of these parameters are
given in Table 1.

Table 1: Examined parameters and values


Factor Symbol Subvalue Top value
pH A 2 10
Initial concentration of methylene blue (mg.L-1) B 50 150
Amount of adsorbent (g) C 0,1 0,3
Time (min.) D 10 120
Media temperature (oC) E 30 50

Adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is calculated with using the following equation 1 (Saka and Sahin, 2011).
q e= eq.1
In the equation 1 the term V shows volume of solution (L), the term M shows the amount of adsorbent (g), and the
term qe shows the adsorbent capacity (mg.g-1) of adsorption. Ci and Ce respectively were determined with the
percentage of dye adsorbed. (%R) equation 2 is the initial and equilibrium concentrations of methylene blue dyestuff
(Saka and Sahin, 2011).
R (%) = eq.2
RESULTS

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The optimum conditions for the adsorption of methylene blue dye have been determined and the results are given in
Table 2.
Table 2: The optimum conditions for the adsorption of methylene blue dye

Symbol A B C D E qe %R
Value 10 50 0,3 120 30 29,95 99,7

Analysis of variance was conducted for parameter optimization. As a result of analysis, five factors which were
examined have effects on the experiment (Table 3).

Table 3: Anova Table


Analysis of Variance
Source Sum Sq. d.f Mean Sq. F Prob>F
time 1258.8 1 1258.83 2.73 0.3466
pH 3.7 1 3.73 0.01 0.9429
temperature 9099.6 1 9099.63 19.71 0.141
adsorbent 4980.4 1 4980.41 10.79 0.1881
concentration 2166.4 1 2166.44 4.69 0.2753
time*pH 39.2 1 19.17 0.08 0.8195
time*temperature 168.6 1 168.62 0.37 0.6539
time*adsorbent 18.5 1 18.52 0.04 0.8741
time*concentration 385.1 1 385.07 0.83 0.5288
pH*temperature 480.7 1 480.71 1.04 0.4936
pH*adsorbent 0 1 0.03 0 0.9947
pH*concentration 247.1 1 247.1 0.54 0.5979
temperature*adsorbent 483.1 1 483.12 1.05 0.4928
temperature*concentration 26.1 1 26.05 0.06 0.8515
adsorbent*concentration 218.5 1 218.46 0.47 0.6164
time*pH*temperature 101.1 1 101.1 0.22 0.7213
time*pH*adsorbent 186.7 1 186.72 0.4 0.6394
time*pH*concentration 271.6 1 271.64 0.59 0.5834
time*temperature*adsorbent 1325.2 1 1325.19 2.87 0.3394
time*temperature*concentration 7.4 1 7.45 0.02 0.9196
time*adsorbent*concentration 347 1 346.98 0.75 0.5453
pH*temperature*adsorbent 288 1 288.02 0.62 0.5744
pH*temperature*concentration 1699.7 1 1699.72 3.68 0.3058
pH*adsorbent*adsorbent 143.6 1 143.6 0.31 0.6761
temperature*adsorbent*concentration 664.6 1 664.56 1.44 0.4423
time*pH*temperature*adsorbent 474.6 1 474.59 1.03 0.4956
time*pH*temperature*concentration 194.9 1 194.88 0.42 0.6332
time*pH*adsorbent*concentration 20.5 1 20.47 0.04 0.8679
time*temperature*adsorbent*concentration 1623 1 1623.02 3.52 0.3119
pH*temperature*adsorbent*concentration 70.6 1 70.64 0.15 0.7626
Error 461.6 1 461.62
Total 27456.1 31

CONCLUSIONS

The dual and triple interactions among parameters were examined and it is indicated that there are interactions
among them. It shows that when similar experiments are conducted parameters cannot be selected independent of
each other. In this type of experiments, while selecting parameters they are considered that variance analysis should
be done and the most suitable parameter set should be selected according to interactions of parameters.

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REFERENCES

Scheffler, E., 1997. Statische versychplaning und austwertung, Eine Einfhrung in die Praxis der statistichen
Versuchplanunug, Deutscher Verlog fr Grund staffindustrie Stuttgard, ISBN 3-342-00366-9, 1-50.
Rahman, A., 2003. Supply chain models for an assembly system with preprocessing of raw materials, PhD Thesis,
Louisiana State University
Soylak, M., Kalite gelistirmede deneysel tasarm ve Taguchi yntemi, Erciyes niversitesi yksek lisans tezi,
Kayseri, 2000
Benaddi, H., Bandosz, T. J., Jagiello, J., Schwarz, J. A., Rouzaud, L. N., Legras, D. And Beguin, F., 2000, Surface
functionality and porosity of activated carbons obtained from chemical activation of wood, Carbon, 38, 669-674.
Yaln, Hayri, (1995), Su Teknolojileri, Gazi niversitesi Mhendislik- Mimarlk Yaynlar, Ankara.
Saka, C. and ahin, ., 2011 Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions by using cold plasma and
formaldehyde treated onion skins Coloration Technology. 127, 246-255.

PAPER 147

THE CHURCH OF SAINT KOLLI IN SHELCAN, ELBASAN-A SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLE OF THE


POST-BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE

Laura Shumka

Faculty of Forestry Sciences, Agricultural university of Tirana, Albania

Email: microprespa@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper we are presenting the detailed description of the architecture, state and conservation demands of the
Church Saint Kolli in village Shelcan of Elbasan. The church itself represents a spectacular example of the Post-
Byzantine architecture. Following the specific typology, particularly longitudinal basilica the church is reflecting
some similarities with other constructions in different parts of the south east Albania. The long time existence and
influence of the weathering conditions. We are highlighting the demands for undertaking the conservation actions in
order to prevent the destruction of valuable cultural elements for the wider area of Elbasan District.

Keywords: Post-Byzantine, Saint Kolli, Elbasan, conservation, architecture

INTRODUCTION

The first examples of this typology (longitudinal basilica) were found on Albanian territory in the area of Sarande
(at the beginning of the XVI century) and in Berat (1526), followed subsequently by the Churches of Saint Kollit in
Kurjan of Fieri (1570) and Saint Todrits Church in S. Todrit and Saint Denises of Vllahernes Church in the Kalaja
of Berati (1578). Further to that in the parallel to these figures some examples of the domed basilica were
constructed, especially in the area of Gjirokaster (Meksi, 1974 and Meksi, 1979).
Against the backdrop of these events the construction of two important Christian churches, the Shn Koll in Shelcan
and the Shn Premt in Valesh, was carried out in 1554. These are two significant examples of post-Byzantine
architecture that were made precious by the extraordinary
artistic participation of the painter Onufri18, who frescoed the insides. The two buildings are modest in size and fall
into the typology of one-aisle basilicaI structures with a wooden apse and covering.
They are in full compliance with the constructive principals of Byzantine architecture. This is the case even though
they are reorganized according to a freer interpretation of models and shapes which should be analyzed within the
context of the limited economic possibilities of the setting in which they were built. On the other hand the internal
decorative display is abundant. It surpasses the Byzantine stereotypes and engineers a real and actual revolution
within the Albanian cultural sphere.

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MATERIAL AND METHOD

The methodological approach is in line with the treatment of churches by space plane conception that is quite
valuable in case after receiving also good indications for the doors and windows as its functional elements of the
interiors. The comparative analyses are based on literature review.
The field visits and literature review are also followed by the documentations by photographing and plan sketches.

RESULTS

The Church of Saint Koll in Shelcan, which was built in 1554 incorporating the pre-existing XIVcentury structures,
constitutes one of the first examples of the basilical typology in post-Byzantine Albanian architecture. The pictorial
frescoed decoration inside the church evolves over different levels and bears the signature of Onufri, perhaps the
most important Albanian painter of the XVI century. In Albania, in Shelcan in fact, the first fresco painting of the
iconostasis wall plan was realized by Onufri. The wall iconostasis displays a superior, uninterrupted, crowning
achievement evolving across its entire width in which Jesus and the twelve apostles are represented in half bust.
The growing role of the Christian community in Elbasan was manifested by the construction of
the Church of Saint Mary of the Dormition inside the kal. It was built in the central area to the north of the Royal
Route, almost pendantly to the not so distant mosque. The first post-Byzantine churches, which were built far from
the city, are basilical models. The Church of Saint Mary of the Dormition, in its present configuration which is the
result of the 19th century reconstruction, is laid out in a longitudinal basilica form covered by domes and vaults, as
well as flanked by porticos on two sides.
This church is remembered as building operating between 1656 and 166122. The actual church of the Dormizione of
Saint Mary that was reconstructed during 1826-33 represents from the architectural point of view, a particularly
interesting example of the Post-Byzantine architecture. But the merits of this building are not immediately
perceivable: it is inserted in the urban layout adapting itself to the closed fronts of the Ottoman residences, timidly
leans out on the road with a rustic stone wall only pierced by some opening, hiding so its true architectural shape
and not disclosing the beauty and the internal articulation with any sign. Also manifesting the identity of the entire
architectural solution (expressed for instance in the porticos, in the supporting roofing of the inside spaces and in the
architectural and artistic decoration), the building clearly presents connections with the eighteenth-century basilicas
of Gjirokaster, Berat and Korca and especially Voskopoje, where the basilicas represent the most meaningful
realizations in the area. It singles out for their dimensions, for the spherical calotte and the artistic decorations.

Figure 1. The Church of St. Koll in Shelcan (Elbasan) and the schemes of church

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Considering the classification commonly used by the researchers of Post-Byzantine architecture which is found on
the plans and on the spatial compositions, we can list the church of Elbasan under the group of the longitudinal
basilicas covered by hemispherical domes and other shapes of vaulted roofs. As a whole, the architecture is
characterized by the simplicity to the outside and the generous use of vaulted structures to the inside: a prismatic
volume, standing out on two sides by the porticos, completely hides the complex articulation of the internal space,
unifying the spaces that compose the parts of the chamber, of the narthex, of the altar area under a single roof.
Typically for the Post-Byzantine architecture the attention is focused on the treatment of the internal space that are
characterized here by a high artistic level. The true shapes and dimensions
are perceived only inside and the generosity of the bent structures and the to show off of the architectural, pictorial
and sculptural decorations. A harmony of the whole is obtained thanks to the application of similar decorative
patterns for the architectural and ornamental parts. The internal space is conceived as an internal world that plays
with the shapes and colors. Symbolic values play a special role in the distribution of space. In short we are in the
presence of a place which represents the eternal Civitas Dei where high-level of Post-Byzantine architectural
manufactured articles joins the preciousness of sculptural and pictorial items.
The longitudinal types of basilicas covered by domes and vaulted roofs was also supposed to be applied in another
church in Elbasan, the Shen Kollit Church. Its original shape, which we only know from a 1942 pictorial depiction,
was recently replaced by a structure that is completely different. Other churches in the city are also buildings from
the last century. The Orthodox Church of St. Thanas, built after 1912, in brick and inside the area of the cemeteries
complex on the spot of the altar of that same Saint, reveals a neo-Byzantine, Greek-type eclecticism. However the
Byzantine Catholic Church of Saint Peter, built during the first decades of the 20th century, freely and with a
modern feel interprets the styles of the Catholic churches, inspired mainly by elements that are characteristic of the
medieval period.

Figure 2. The Church of St. Koll plant, sections

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion following the individuality of architectural solutions, in its configuration of the arcades, the
supporting coverings of the inside space, and in its architectural and artistic decoration, the Church of Saint Mary of
the Dormition constitutes an especially interesting example.

REFERENCES

Dhamo, Dh. 1974: Piktura murale e mesjets n Shqipri, Tirana, p. 14;


Kosta, C., Cikopano,U. 1974: Basilica e Tepes n Elbasan, in Monument, 18, p. 157;
Meksi,A. 1974: Arkitektura palokristiane n Shqipri, in Monument 2, 1985, pp. 13-44;
Meksi,A. 1979: Disa Kapela Bizantine t vendit ton, in Monument, 10, p.83;
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Meksi, A., Ceka, N. 1971: Basilica e Tepes, Buletini Archeologjik, pp. 184-190;
Nallbani, H. 1977: T dhna t reja pr veprimtarin e piktor Onufri t prftuga gjate restaurinit, in Monument,
13, pp. 85-91;

PAPER 148

HE EFFECTS OF FISH DISEASE AND PARTICULARLY SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP ON


COMMERCIAL FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE IN ALBANIA

Enkeleda Berberi

Agriculture University of Tirana, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Albania

Email: berberi_enkeleda@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

It has been recognized that the Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is an acute systemic viral infection caused by
Rhabdovirus carpio (RVC) virus. The disease was known as infections dropsy of carp till the isolation of the virus
from common carp. There is no studies relation the damages that caused fish disease in general Spring viremia of
carp. The principal purpose of this paper is to highlight the effects of the disease on the freshwater aquaculture and
quantify the damage to the local producers economy. Following various data the commercial freshwater
aquaculture in Albania started at the end of sixties. Warm water freshwater species (originally based on common
carp, to which Chinese carps were introduced at the beginning of seventies) represent the major aquaculture
production in our country. Cold water salmonides, principally Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo letnica are another
important group for aquaculture production in Albania. In the last period of two decades, because of economical and
political changes the production in general declined, while in the last years there is a revitalization trend. Until 1990
the fish farming areas has reached to a total surface area of 215 ha, the production of fingerlings for restocking
purpose arrived at more than 32 millions fingerlings of about 8 - 10 g, each. On the other hand, part of these
fingerlings was used as stocking material in the fattening ponds of the semi-intensive fish farming. There were about
200 ha in, all fattening ponds and the average yield was 2 - 2.5 ton/ ha with a maximum of 5 ton/ha. In 2001, the
carp production was 15 t fish and 5 million fingerlings. Following our analyses in several fish ponds in Elbasan,
Korca, Fier and Shkodra, there is also in between 10-20% of the production that affects local incomes and threaten
the health security of fish systems itself and human population as well.

Key words: Spring Carp Viremia, common carp, fish farming, stocking, disease

INTRODUCTION

Our study was mainly focus on the effect of viral disease and especially the role SVC in aquaculture. During spring
2013 we have visited mainly carp ( or other cyprinid ) aquaculture systems in different region of Albania. So we
have visited fish pond in Elbasan, Shkodra, Fier etc which also have an historical background in aquaculture. Based
on this historical background, FAO date on Fishery and aquaculture in Albania and mainly on what we observed and
samples that we collect we conclude that the total mass of fish infected was approximately 10-20 %. The mortality
rate can reach up to 60% of the infected carp. Our result about the rate of viral infected fish and rate of mortality in a
aquaculture systems match with the date of the literature.
Albania has a long tradition in carp farming and now-days its the most widespread aquaculture practice. According
to FAO Fishery Statistics before 1990 the surface area of fish farming center all over the country was nearly 800 ha
and also the production of fingerlings was more than 32 million fingerlings about 8-10 g each. Furthermore part of
these fingerlings was used as stocking material in the fattening ponds of the semi-intensive fish farming. There were
about 200 ha in, all fattening ponds and the average yield was 2 - 2.5 ton/ ha with a maximum of 5 ton/ha. In 2001,
the carp production was 15 t fish and 5 million fingerlings.

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MATERIAL AND METHODS

Mortality caused by SVC in juvenile carp can reach up to 70% during spring outbreaks. It has been reported that the
disease has a significant impact on yearling carp in Europe, with estimated losses of 1015% for 1-year-old carp,
equivalent to approximately 4,000 metric tons annually (Ahne et al., 2002).
During our work which includes the period spring summer 2013 we have visited different water bodies including
those of aquaculture. Most of the systems are populated by polycultures with domination of common carp, grass
carp and Chinese carp. The site visits and documentation was based on the interviews and observation after
indications for the presence of SVC.
The method was followed with detailed review of historical data in the Albanian fishery and aquaculture, National
action plan for the fishery and aquaculture and FAO reports published periodically for the different countries. The
analyses were primarily focused in several fish ponds in Elbasan, Korca, Fier and Shkodra. We collected samples
from these ponds which mainly consist in Cyprinus carpio species. We observed symptoms like hemorrhages of the
gills and skin, internal hemorrhages of swim bladder wall etc.

RESULTS

Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is an acute systemic and contagious disease affecting cyprinids (Bootsma and Ebregt,
1983; Wolf, 1988; Ahne et al., 2002 and Saad 2005 ), mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. It is an important
disease because it has a high rate of mortality in affected carp and also for its world-wide distribution. Outbreaks of
the disease are observed during spring and autumn when the temperature of the water is approximately 15-210C. The
disease of SVC was firstly discovered in Yugoslavia 1969 (Fijan et al., 1971), then Czechoslovakia (Tesarcik et al.,
1977), Scotland (Richards and Buchanon, 1978), Malaysia (Armstrong and Ferguson, 1989), Spain (Lupiani et al.,
1989), Indonesia (Glazebrook et al., 1990), Russia (Oreshkova et al., 1995), Brazil (Alexandrino et al., 1998),
Hawaii (Johnson et al.,1999), Northern Ireland (Rowley et al., 2001), United States in North Carolina and Virginia
(APHIS, 2003), China (Liu et al., 2004), Egypt (Saad et al., 2005), Canada (Garver et al., 2007) and Iran (Haghighi
et al., 2008). Affected fish with Rhabdovirus show anatomical and physiological symptoms such as the destruction
of tissues in different organs mainly in kidney, spleen and liver which lead to hemorrhage and loss of water-salt
balance. Furthermore not only carp but even other members of cyprinid family and non cyprinid species are also
affected including Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), Grass carp
(Ctenopharyngodon idella), Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Sheatfish, (Silurus glanis), Orfe (Leuciscus
idus), Tench (Tinca tinca) and Roach (Rutilus rutilus) as stated by Haenen & Davidse (1993), and Oreochromis
niloticus (Abo, E 2008). SVCV causes a high mortalities among carp especially among young carp leading in this
way to a severe economic losses (Richenbach-Klinke, 1973; Oreshkova et al.,1995; Bjrklund et al., 1996; Siwicki
et al., 2003) in countries where aquaculture is an important factor in the economy. The graph below shows total
aquaculture production in Albania according to FAO statistics:

Figure 1: Reported aquaculture in Albania ( from 1950 ) according to FAO Fishery Statistics, Aquaculture
Production

During spring outbreaks when the temperature of the water is between 15-210C the total mass affected in these carp
farms was approximately 10-20 % of the production, that affects local incomes and threaten the health security of
fish systems itself. The mortality rates of affected carp can reach up to 60 %. In affected carp, as showed below
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(Figure 2), in general we can see similar symptoms such as destruction of liver and kidney tissue, swimming blander
tissue, hemorrhage, etc.

Figure 2: Clinical signs of SVC in Cyprinus carpio (sample taken from a carp pond in Shkodra )

The high rates of mortality lead to severe economic losses in aquaculture in Albania.

CONCLUSSION

SVC is a severe viral disease affecting member of cyprinid family mainly Cyprinus carpio . SVCV (spring viremia
of carp virus) has a high rate of mortality among fishes in aquaculture system. The rate of mortality can reach up to
60 % during spring when the temperature of the water in pond is 15-21oC. Causing in this way a great lost in
aquaculture system and a great economic lost especially for countries like Albania where fish farming is a very
widespread aquaculture practice. And for this reason when we have suspicion or we have diagnosed SVC in a pond
it is very important to report the disease to the state authorities. If SVCV is detected in a pond one of the things to do
is to destroy all forms of aquatics life because it is very difficult to eradicate the virus once established in a pond.
But to prevent a viral infection in aquaculture good bio-security and sanitation are very important. Bio-security
means that new fish stock for aquaculture should came from a secure source free of SVCV. Also it is necessary to
maintain a good sanitation of a fish pond which means that we should disinfect the pond, the equipment etc. The
chemical agent used to inactivate SVCV are NaOH (2% for 10 minutes), Benzalkonium chloride 100 mg/L for 20
minutes, Hydrogen peroxide 3 to 5% for 5 minutes, pH >10 for 15 minutes etc. Vaccines for SVCV are not yet
available but also its important to emphasize that there is no indication that SVC is a life threat to human population

REFERENCES

Abo, E., (2007): Some studies on the Spring Viremia of Carp in cultured freshwater fish. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine,Alexandria University.
Ahne, W., Bjrklund, H.V., Essbauer, S.,Fijan, N., Kurath, G., Winton, J.R., (2002):Spring viraemia of carp (SVC).
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 52:261-272.
Alexandrino, A.C., Ranzani-Paiva, M.J.T. and Romano, L.A. (1998): Identificacion de Viraemia primaveral de la
carpa (VPC) Carrassius auratus en San Pablo, Revista Ceres (Brasil).45:125-137.
APHIS, (2003): USA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Report. Washington, March 25, 2003.
Armstrong, R.D. and Ferguson, H.W. (1989): Systemic viral disease of the orange chromide cichlid Etropus
maculatus. Diseases of AquaticOrganisms. 7:155-157.
Bjrklund, H.V., Higman, K.H. and Kurath, G. (1996): The glycoprotein genes and gene junctions of the fish
rhadoviruses Spring Viraemia of Carp virus and Hirame rhabdovirus: analysis of relationships with other
rhabdoviruses. Virus Research. 42:65-80.
Bootsma, R. and Ebregt, D. (1983): Spring Viraemia of Carp. In: Anderson, D.P., Dorson, M. and Dubourget, P.
(eds) Antigens of Fish Pathogens. Collection Fondation Marcel Merieux, Lyons, France, pp. 81-86.
Fijan, N., Petrinec, Z., Sulimanovic, D. and Zwillenberg, L.O. (1971): Isolation of the viral causative agent from
the acute form of infectious dropsy of carp. Veterinarski Arhiv 41, 125-138.

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Garver, K.A., Dwilow,A.G., Richard, J., Booth, T.F., Beniac, D.R., and Souter, B.W., (2007): First detection and
confirmation of Spring Viraemia of Carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake
Ontario, Canada. Journal of Fish Diseases. 30:665-671.
Glazebrook, J.S., Heasmann, M.P. and DeBeer, S.M. (1990): Picorna like viral particles associated with mass
mortalities in larval barramundi, Lates calcarifer block. Journal of Fish Diseases. 12:245-249.
Haghighi, A., Asl, K., Bandehpour, M., Sharifnia, Z. and Kazemi, B. (2008): The First Report of Spring Viraemia of
Carp in Some Rainbow Trout Propagation and Breeding by Pathology and Molecular Techniques in Iran. Asian
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 3(4):263-268.
Haenen, O.L.M. and Davidse, A. (1993):Comparative pathogenicity of two strains of pikefry rhabdovirus and
Spring Viraemia of Carpvirus for young roach, common carp, grass carp and rainbow trout. Diseases of
AquaticOrganisms. 15:87-92.
Johnson, M.C., Maxwell, J.M., Loh, P.C. and Leong, J.A. (1999): Molecular characterization of the lycoproteins
from two warm water rhabdoviruses: snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) and rhabdovirus of penaeid shrimp (RPS)/
Spring Viraemia of Carp virus (SVCV). Virus Research. 64(2):95-106.
Liu, H. , L. Gao, X. Shi, T. Gu, Y. Jiang, H. Chen (2004): Isolation of Spring Viraemia of Carp virus (SVCV) from
cultured koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (C. carpio carpio) in P.R.China. Bulletin of European
Association of Fish Pathologists, 24(4): 194.
Lupiani, B., Dopazo, C.B., Ledo, A., Fouz, B., Barja, J.L., Hetrick, F.M. and Toranzo, A.E. (1989): New syndrome
of mixed bacterial and viral etiology in cultured turbot Scopthamus maximus. Journal of Aquatic Animal
Health.1:197-204.
Oreshkova, S.F., Tikunova, N.V., Shchelkunov, I.S. and Ilyichev, A.A. (1995): Detection of Spring Viraemia of
Carp virus by hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes. Veterinary Research. 26:533-537.
Richards and Buchanon. (1978): Studies on Herpesvirus scophthalmi infection of turbot scophthalmus maximus (L):
Histopathological observation. Journal of Fish Diseases.1:251-258.
Rowley, H., Graham, D.A., Campbell, S., Way, K., Stone, D.M., Curran, W.L. and Bryson, D.G. (2001): Isolation
and characterization of rhabdovirus from wild common bream Abramis brama, roach Rutilus, farmed brown trout
salmo trutta and rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss in Northern Ireland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.48 (1):7-
15.
Saad, T.T., (2005): Some Studies on the effects of Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus on cultured Life Science Journal,
2011;8(
Tesarck, J., Macura, B., Dedek, L., Valcek, D. and Smd, B. (1977): Isolation and electron microscopy of
rhabdovirus from the acute form of infectious dropsy of carp (Spring Viraemia of Carp). Zentralblatt fr
Veterinrmedizin (B) 24, 340343.
Wolf, K. (1988): Fish Viruses and Fish Viral Diseases. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

PAPER 149

HEAT WAVES AFFECTING WEATHER AND CLIMATE OVER ALBANIA

Tanja Porja

Meteoalb, Rr. Asim Vokshi, P. 33, Shk.2, Tirana, Albania

Email: tanjaporja@meteoalb.com

ABSTRACT

Many scientists investigate climate changes and try to predict changes up to several years or decades and the best
predictions considerate hindsight analyses and can be assessed on them. Good results are taken for changes on
annual mean air temperatures or rainfall meanwhile not enough studies were done about the past and present events
of extreme weather. In order to improve the future prediction, a better understanding of extreme weather is needed.

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It can be done by studying recent events and compare them with similar past events. Generally, extreme weather
includes severe or weather at the extremes of their historical distribution. The most used extreme weather definition
is based on extreme weather events distribution where extreme events occur at 5% or less of the time. During the
last decades, extreme weather often faced Albania and many countries. A less known of extreme weather is the heat
wave phenomena and analyses of it were done in this study over two important Albanian cities. As a first step,
periods of heat waves were distinguished from the daily temperature records and then analyses of atmospheric
patterns associated were done to point out the shapes of air circulation which bring hot and moist air toward
Albania. Then, analyses and comparison of atmospheric patterns were done for the days when air temperatures
exceed historical records and the results will be used as an attempt for extreme temperature prediction in the short
range forecasting.

Keywords: heat wave, extreme air temperature, atmospheric pattern.

INTRODUCTION

As part of Mediterranean area, Albania has a typical Mediterranean climate with soft and wet winters and hot and
dry summers. The annual mean of rainfall over Albanian territory stays around 1480 mm/year but the rainfall space
distribution shows a high variability from one area to another. The areas with the annual rainfall minimum are
located at the southeast of Albania while the abundant rainfall areas during are located on the Albanian Alps, where
the annual mean of rainfall reaches up to 3000 mm. The precipitations are mainly present during the cold period of
October - March (about 70%) with the richest rainfall month of November. In terms of air temperature, annual mean
air temperatures range from 7 C in mountain areas up to 15 C in the coast. The annual mean of maximum and
minimum temperatures ranges from 11.3C and -0.1C in the mountain areas up to 21.8C and 14.6C in the coastal
and lowland areas. After this normal climate picture, stays the picture of extreme weather events that deviate from
the above climatic features. This study is focused on the analysis of daily maximum temperatures during the hot
season, which very often have exceeded their normal values compared with daily maximum temperatures of the
normal climatic period (1961 1990). Detailed analyses were done for the episodes of several consecutive days
where the daily maximum temperature has exceeded with some degrees from the normal maximum temperature. In
other words, episodes with high temperatures are studied as a consequence of "heat waves" phenomenon. The aim of
this study is to obtain some statistical results about the heat wave episodes over Albania and the atmospheric
patterns associated to these episodes in order to attempt for the extreme high air temperature prediction.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

The data used consist on daily maximum air temperatures during the period of 1982 2012 observed for Shkodra
and Tirana locations. Also, the monthly mean maximum temperatures for the period of normal climate (1961 -
1990) are used to estimate the anomaly of daily maximum temperatures observed for the period under the study in
order to select the days affected by the heat wave phenomenon. The heat wave phenomenon is a less known
form of severe weather because it is not visible as other forms are like hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms
Sheridan (2002). The precise criterion for a heat wave is determined by the number of consecutive days with high
air temperatures, by the rate at which the temperature rises but both of criteria depend on the geographical region
and time of year Robinson (2001). But there is no universal definition of a heat wave because of the variation
within temperature values is different geographic locations. In some areas, a heat wave can be an extended period of
days with higher than normal temperatures or also a shorter period but with abnormally high temperatures. In
the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg a heat wave is defined as a period of at least 5 consecutive days with
maximum temperatures over than 25 C (recorded in De Bilt town) provided that on at least 3 days within this
period, the maximum temperature in De Bilt exceeds 30 C Huynen et al. (2001). In Denmark, a heat wave is
defined as a period of at least 3 consecutive days with average maximum temperature across more than fifty percent
of the country, exceeds 28 C while in Sweden, a heat wave is defined as at least 5 days in a row with a daily high
exceeding 25 C. In the US, definitions also vary by region to another but however, a heat wave is usually defined
as a period of at least two or more days of excessively hot weather Frich et al. (2002). In this study, the criterion
used for the heat wave phenomenon is the one recommended by World Meteorological Organization that says
the phenomenon happens when the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds by 5C
the average maximum temperature of the normal climate period. After the heat wave affected days are selected,

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analyses of the air mass circulation are done in order to found details and indices of the phenomena. The air mass
analyses are based on the shape of geopotential fields of 500 hPa level because this field shows the origin of air
masses flowing toward an area. Many studies are done by different authors who relate the shape of atmospheric
patterns of 500 hPa fields with the thermal picture Garcia et al. (2002). Nasrallah et al. (2004) examined circulation
patterns associated with heat waves in Kuwait, changes in regional circulation, specifically related to the
northward displacement of the Subtropical Jet Stream and a build up of a ridge of high pressure at the 500 hPa
levels, and were determined to be key factors. In addition, study of the temperature series of the Czech Republic
from Kysely at al. (2003), determined that heat waves that peaked in the 1940s to early 1950s and early 1990s,
were strongly linked to particular synoptic regimes, specifically with a ridge over Europe in the summer season. To
point out the shape of atmospheric patterns of each heat wave episode, the averaged geopotential fields of 500 hPa
level are analysed for each episode. The 500 hPa field are plotted from NCEP/NCAR re-analyses archive, for the
domain between 30N 60N and 15W 35E in order to considerate a major part of the western Mediterranean air
circulation, as it is responsible for at least 70 % of meteorological activity over Albania Porja (2011). The
NCEP/NCAR re-analyses are available four times in 24 hours whereas the averaged field of each episode depends
on the duration of the heat wave days. Averaged fields are good representatives of each single day air circulation
because of some known atmospheric patterns that maintain their shape for many consecutive days Kalnay at al.
(1996). The atmospheric patterns are then classified on southern and south-western origin depending on the
orientation of their symmetrical axis regarding to the Albanian territory location.

RESULTS

During the period 1982 2012, sixty-one heat wave episodes were identified in both Shkodra and Tirana cities
that imply a roughly average of 2 episodes per year and 569 days under the heat wave conditions during this
period (see Table 1).

Tab. 1. Phenomenon of heat wave over Albania, during period of 1982 2012

No. of HW events/month No. of HW days/month


Month Tira Shkod Tira Shkod
na ra na ra
May 5 6 53 49
June 10 12 93 126
July 3 6 25 52
August 6 13 42 129
Total 24 37 213 356

As it can be seen from Table 1 the heat wave phenomenon occurs mainly in June and August and consequently,
the highest number of heat wave days belongs to these months. For each heat wave episode, there are more than
five consecutive days with a daily maximum temperature that exceeds by more than 5C the average maximum
temperature of the normal climate period and many of the episodes, counter from 10 up to 15 or 16 days under the
heat wave conditions. Analyses of the phenomenon distribution during the thirty-one years period show that the
second half-period (after the 1996) is the richest period of heat wave phenomenon with 74% of the total cases. A
fact that shows the phenomenon became more frequent during the two last decades over the Albanian territory (see
figure 1).

Fig. 1. The sixty-one heat wave episodes recorded over Albania, during 1982 2012.

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If we analyse details of the phenomenon distribution for Tirana and Shkodra locations, during the study period, it is
a clear the same trend for both of cities, besides the fact that Shkodra in total counters more episodes (37 episodes)
than Tirana city (24 episodes).
To define the relationship between the air circulation patterns which bring hot and moist air and the heat wave
phenomenon over Albania, the averaged geopotential fields of 500 hPa level are analysed for each episode taking
into account the duration of the heat wave days. After the analyses, result two types of atmospheric patterns
associated with the sixty-one heat wave episodes observed over Albania (see figure 2).

Fig. 2. Types of atmospheric patterns associated with the heat wave episodes over Albania

The heat wave episodes over Albania, observed for the period of 1982 2012 are driven by the presence of ridges
of high pressure at the 500 hPa levels, a specific shape of air circulation that brings stable conditions over the
located area. A southern origin air circulation and a south-western were found to be linked to the heat wave
episodes observed (see Table 2).

Tab. 2. Types of atmospheric patterns associated with the sixty-one heat wave episodes

Type of Air Circulation Southern Type South-western Type


Tirana 33 % 67 %
Shkodra 46 % 54 %
Tirana & Shkodra 41 % 59 %

Following the Table 2, during the days of heat wave over Tirana, the most part of episodes are driven by a south-
western shape of the air circulation (67% of the total episodes). It means that the impact of a south-western pattern
on daily maximum air temperatures for Tirana is clearly bigger than the impact of a southern pattern because the air
masses trajectory over ground surfaces is larger than over sea surfaces. Air masses flowing over sea surfaces take
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water vapour that may increase the air humidity and consequently may decrease the air temperatures. Meanwhile for
Shkodra, the type of atmospheric patterns associated to the heat wave episodes play more or less the same role. A
fact that can be explained by the Shkodra position more in the north that leaves the city in many cases on the
periphery of the heat wave, especially heat wave driven by south-western atmospheric patterns. Looking for a
relation of atmospheric pattern type and the number of days under the heat wave conditions, results that majority
of days with extreme high air temperatures belongs to the south-western type of air circulation for both Tirana and
Shkodra (see Table 3).

Tab. 3. Number of days under heat wave condition in relation to the type of air circulation

Type of Air Circulation Southern Type South-western Type


Tirana (213 days) 28 % 72 %
Shkodra (356 days) 43 % 57 %
Tirana & Shkodra (569 days) 37% 63%

Going deeper into the analyses of atmospheric patterns associated with the heat wave phenomenon results that
extreme values of air temperatures for both Tirana and Shkodra location (respectively on 24 July of 2007, 41.6C
and on 7 August 2012, 42.4C) are observed when there is a presence of a south-western air circulation pattern (see
the Figure1, the right panel). The above extreme high temperatures became the historical records for both of the
cities because they exceeded the former record of 41.5C (on 18 July of 1973 recorded for Tirana and on 3 August
of 1981 recorded for Shkodra).
Comparing the difference between the daily maximum temperature during the phenomenon and the respective
average maximum temperature of the normal climate period, results that Tirana city registered on 25 June of 2007, a
daily maximum air temperature of 39.9C that is 12.6C over the average maximum temperature of the normal
climate period. Meanwhile Shkodra city registered on 7 August of 2012, a daily maximum air temperature of
42.4C that is 12.4C over the average maximum temperature of the normal climate period. The difference on
maximum air temperatures for both cities is clearly very high, more than twice of the difference needed to consider
the episode as a heat wave phenomenon. As a consequence, the south-western air circulation can be considered as
an atmospheric pattern that brings extreme high air temperatures over Tirana and Shkodra.

CONCLUSIONS

During a thirty-one years period, sixty-one heat wave episodes were identified in both Shkodra and Tirana cities,
around 2 episodes per year that counter 569 days under the heat wave conditions.
The heat wave distribution shows that heat wave phenomenon became more frequent during the last two
decades, with 74% of the total episodes, recorded after the year 1996.
The heat wave episodes over Albania are driven by a southern and a south-western shape of the air circulation.
The most part of the heat wave episodes and the highest number of days under the heat wave conditions over
Tirana and Shkodra are associated with a south-western type of atmospheric pattern.
Extremely high air temperatures, exceeding the historical records for both Tirana and Shkodra are reached when
there is a heat wave driven by a south-western air circulation pattern.
The presence of a south-western air circulation shape can be related to the extreme high air temperatures and may be
used as a tool to improve the forecasting of extremely high air temperatures.

REFERENCES

Frich, P., Alexander, L.V., Della-Marta, P., Gleason, B., Haylock, M., Tank, A.M.G.K. and Peterson, T. 2002:
Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research
19, 193212.
Garcia et al. (2002) Garcia, R., Prieto, L., Diaz, J., Hernandez, E. and Del Teso, T. 2002: Synoptic conditions
leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid. Annales Geophysicae 20, 23745.
Huynen, M., Martens, P., Schram, D., Weijenberg, M.P. and Kunst, A.E. 2001: The impact of heat waves and cold
spells on mortality rates in the Dutch population. Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 46370.

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Islami. B., Kamberi. M., Bruci. E., Fida. E., Karadumi. S., Bekteshi. P., Jana. A., Diku. A., Mulaj. T., Mucaj. L.,
Mustaqi. V., Ndini. M., Lako. Th., Laci, S., pendl. R., Zheku. O.: Komunikimi i Dyt Kombtar i Republiks s
Shqipris Drejtuar Konvents Kuadr t Kombeve t Bashkuara mbi Ndryshimet Klimatike, Tiran, Nntor 2009.
Kalnay. E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G.,
Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C.,
Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Jenne, R and Joseph, D.: The NCEPNCAR 40-year Reanalysis project, Bulletin of the
American Meteorological Society, 437471, 1996.
Kysely, J. 2003: Temporal fluctuations in heat waves at Prague-Klementinum, the Czech Republic, from 190197,
and their relationships to atmospheric circulation. International Journal of Climatology 22, 3350.
Nasrallah, H.A., Nieplova, E. and Ramadan, E. 2004: Warm season extreme temperature events in Kuwait. Journal
of Arid Environments 56, 35771.
Porja. T., Mustaqi. V.: Atmospheric Patterns and Predicting Heavy Rainfall in Albania: AJNTS, Albanian Journal of
Natural & Technical Sciences; 2011, Vol. 30 Issue 1, p23.
Robinson, P.J. 2001: On the definition of heat waves. Journal of Applied Meteorology 40,76275.
Sheridan, S. 2002: The redevelopment of a weather type classification scheme for North America. International
Journal of Climatology 22, 5168.

PAPER 153

DOES THE TROPHY STATE OF POLLUTED AREAS HAVE IMPACT ON THE PRESENCE OF
PICOPHYTOPLANKTON SPS ? CASE STUDY IN MARINE COASTAL WATERS OF DURRES BAY,
ALBANIA

Ariola Bacu, Laura Gjyli, Fatbardha Babani

University of Tirana, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biotechnology

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was the use of molecular tools for the determination of the presence of picophytoplankton
species, and the evaluation of their distribution in Bay of Durres, were sampling stations represent hot spots of
different origins of pollution, like urban waste waters, portual residues, fuels, etc. The cyanobacteria Synechococcus
and Prochlorococcus are two genera of photosynthetic prokaryotes evolving oxygen as a major component of
oceanic ecosystems. These organisms form phototrophic picoplankton (<3m). The presence of marine
Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Durres, Albania was examined through
PCR amplified intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) fragments. The sample stations were: Golem Beach, Channel of
Plepa, Hekurudha Beach, Ex-Fuel Quay in Marine Durres Harbour. Two more samples were taken outside Durres
Bay respectively at the Channel of Durres City Waters and Currila Beach. The distribution and ecology of
Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus were studied in relation to biotic and abiotic water factors. Total Chlorophyll a
(Chl a) (biotic factor) was used to classify the stations as oligotrophic, mesotrophic and/or eutrophic. Abiotic factors
as temperature, pH, phosphorous were used to explain the variability of the presence of marine cyanobacteria
populations in the waters of Bay of Durrs.

Key words: Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Durrs Bay,16-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer, biotic and
abiotic water factors.

INTRODUCTION

According to Lavin et al, 2008, in marine ecosystems, environmental clines exist in temperature, light intensity,
spectral composition, and nutrient availability that can affect the distribution, composition and diversity of

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organisms. Prochlorococcus and Syneccococus, the unicellular cyanobacteria, have ecotypes, which have
identifiable geographic ranges (Fuller et al., 2003). According to Lavin et al, 2008, they cooccur in many
oceanographic regions, but Synechococcus tolerates a broader temperature range, it has a broader latitudinal
distribution and usually is limited to shallower depths (less than 100 m). Along trophic gradients, Prochlococcus
abundance shows opposite patterns to Synechococcus abundance, becoming a less important component of the
carbon standing stock from oligo - to eutrophic conditions. The waters of the Bay of Durrs at chosen sampling
stations belong to this range of the level of trophy, and knowing that a lower salinity and higher temperatures
increase the abundance of Synechococcus (Ning et al. 2000), we believe that Synechococcus must dominate
Prochlorococcus in these area waters. Considering the fact that Prochlorococcus are about 0,6m and
Synechococcus 1-2 m (Partensky et al. 1999), the filtering of the sea water was conducted in filters with porosity
0,7 m in order to separate the two species, and presumably catch only the Synechococcus. The amplification of the
16-23S rDNA gene sequence was chosen to identify the presence of Synechococcus.
Considering the above, we aimed testing the presence of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus in the waters of Bay
of Durres, Albania were sampling stations represent hot spots of different origins of pollution, like urban waste
waters, portual residues, fuels, etc., which display an increased level of trophy. In order to explain the results, the
trophic state of the stations was evaluated based on physical and biological parameters. Chlorophyll a, total
phosphorus, total nitrogen and water clarity are generally used as indicators to measure biological productivity of
the water bodies or their capacity to support life. It is already reported a direct relationship between phosphorus
concentrations, chlorophyll a (algal biomass), and clarity of the waters because, phosphorus drives algal growth,
which then affects water clarity. Among the widely used parameters for the study of the trophic state and for a better
understanding of its dynamics, are also the temperature and pH of the waters. Usually the higher the temperatures
and pH values, the higher the level of trophy. In this paper, the phytoplankton nucleic acid content was also used as
an indicator of the level of trophy. According to Marcel J. W. Veldhuis, et al., 2008, the DNA content appears to be
a scaleable cell component covarying with the carbon and nitrogen contents of the phytoplankton cells. This
covariation allows the total DNA content to be used as an accurate, independent estimate of total cell carbon
biomass in unicellular pelagic phytoplankton. The fact that phytoplankton nucleic acid content distribution follows
the same order as the chlorophyll a, is already used to determine the level of trophy in albanian coastal waters
(A.Bacu et al., 2010).
In summary the goals of the current study were to
(1) use molecular analysis to detect the presence of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus in coastal waters of Bay of
Durres at six highly polluted sampling stations;
(2) examine the physical water properties (ph, temperature);
(3) examine the content of chlorophyll a and total phytoplakton gDNA to describe the conditions at six sampling
locations, and explain the results of molecular analysis;

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sampling period was May, June and July 2011. Sampling sites were six; Golemi Beach as intensive rural area, shore
where opens the channel of Plepa with black waters of city of Durrs, Intensive Beach Hekurudha, Ex-Fuel Quay in
Marine Durrs Harbour, shore near the channel of the drinkable waters of the city of Durrs, and Currilaan area
covered with inert building remains.
Samples were collected in a volume of three liters. Two water subsamples (1l) were directly filtered through
Whatman GF/F filter. The material retained on the filters was used for pigment analysis, and DNA extraction in a
1:1 ratio.
Content of chlorophyll a was determined according to the acetone trichromatic methods using the equations based
on the absorption maxima for each component respectively. All absorbance values are corrected taking in
consideration the turbidity of acetone extracts (Jarry & Legendre, 1991, Jeffrey & Humphrey, 1975, Lorenzen,
1967).
The phytoplankton DNA was extracted according to John Paul, 2008. The purity of the DNA was evaluated based
on Sambrook, et al., 1989.
To capture Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus were used filters GF/F with porosity 0,7 m, since they has
dimensions varying from 2-4m. The DNA extracted from the filter contains this way the phytoplanktonic species
of dimensions above 0,7m.
PCR for the determination of the presence of pikocyanobacteria was run on Eppendorf Master Cycler machine.
Primers used to amplify cyanobacterial rDNA were 16S-1247F and 16S-241R according to Rocap et al., 2002. PCR

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was run in a 20 ml solution. Sigma Taq polymerase (0.5U), MgCl2 (2mM,), buffer (1X), deoxynucleoside
triphosphates, and 100pmol of each primer.Temperature cycle was: 94C for 4 min, followed by 40 cycles of 94 C
for 1 min, 52 C for 1min, and 72C for 3minutes. Final step was a 10 min stretch at 72 C. DNA was checked by a
1% agarose gel.

RESULTS

The temperature of the sampling sites


The temperatures during May, June and July ranged from 15-26C.
The Ph of waters remains above 7 at all sampling sites, and is increasing from May to July 2011.
The phosphate content reached the maximum values in July.

Figure 1. Phosphate variations.

Stations from left to right: PG-Golemi Beach; KP-Channel of Plepa; PH-Hekurudha Beach; IPK-Marine Harbour-ex
Fuels Deposits; KUQD-Channel of the waters of the Durrs city; PC-Currila Beach

The examination of the content of chlorophyll a and total phytoplakton DNA showed that during the period May-
July 2011, the six stations under study have high values, which classify them at the eutrophy level, and that there
are considerable differences among stations each month. The only explanation of the situation may arise taking in
consideration the uncontrolled anthropogenic sources of pollution, which are present at the six stations during
different periods of the year. On the other side, were measured the total phytoplankton DNA content at the six
stations during May-July 2011. It results that (Figure 5) total DNA content is increasing from month to month, and
that there is variation from station to station.

Figure 2. Variation of the amount of total phytoplankton DNA during May 2011.

Stations from left to right: PG-Golemi Beach; KP-Channel of Plepa; PH-Hekurudha Beach; IPK-Marine Harbour-ex
Fuels Deposits; KUQD-Channel of the waters of the Durrs city; PC-Currila Beach.

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Figure 3. Variation of the amount of total phytoplankton DNA during June 2011.

Stations from left to right: PG-Golemi Beach; KP-Channel of Plepa; PH-Hekurudha Beach; IPK-Marine Harbour-ex
Fuels Deposits; KUQD-Channel of the waters of the Durrs city; PC-Currila Beach

Figure 4. Variation of the amount of total phytoplankton DNA during July 2011.

Stations from left to right: PG-Golemi Beach; KP-Channel of Plepa; PH-Hekurudha Beach; IPK-Marine Harbour-ex
Fuels Deposits; KUQD-Channel of the waters of the Durrs city; PC-Currila Beach

Figure 5. Comparison of the amount of total phytoplankton DNA during May-June-July 2011.

Stations from left to right: PG-Golemi Beach; KP-Channel of Plepa; PH-Hekurudha Beach; IPK-Marine Harbour-ex
Fuels Deposits; KUQD-Channel of the waters of the Durrs city; PC-Currila Beach

PCR amplification of the Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, using the species-specific primer for the
amplification of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA.

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Total phytoplanktonic DNA extracted from samples taken from the six stations under study were used as templates
for the amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (Figure 6).

Figure 6. The single product taken from all the samples (six stations), during May, June, July 2011.

CONCLUSIONS

This work aimed the use molecular analysis to detect the presence of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus in coastal
waters of Bay of Durres at six highly polluted sampling stations.
The results prove that these two species are present at sampling areas.The physical water properties (ph,
temperature) showed that the waters of Bay of Durrs are warm and slightly alkaline, which indicates favorable
conditions for the phyplanktonic blooming, expected to grow from month to month during summer time. The data
on the physical parameters of waters, are in accordance to the content of phosphate, chlorophyll a and total
phytoplakton gDNA, which grow at the six sampling points, from May to July. Since the level and sort of pollution
at sampling points differs, we expected also differences among the total phytoplanktonic DNA content, which is
reported from this work in quite identifiable amounts from station to station. In mean time, taking into consideration
a number of publications, which address the establishment of a correlation among the level of the pollution in waters
and the density of phytoplanctonic species, this work aimed the same.
Considering that, summer months (May, June, July) are favorable for the blooming of different genera of
phytoplakton, and that in these specific sampling stations there is also a complex situation of pollution sources
(anthropogenic, industrial, urban) other than natural, it was expected an elevated level of trophy, still remaining
possible the mispresence of picophytoplanktonic species. It seems, from the amplification of the 16S-23S ribosomal
DNA, that at least Synecchococcus and Prochloroccocus, which share a high level of genetic similarity, are present,
and from the results on the amount of chlorophyll a and total phytoplankton DNA that the pollution of the station
has not affected to the extinction the pico-species. Still remains to be further studied the ratio among the amplified
products belonging to each of the two species as well as a possible evaluation of the intraspecies variability. Another
important point to be studied remains the verification of the presence of hydrocarbons or heavy metals inside
picophytoplanktonic species at the sampling stations of Bay of Durres. R.H.Al-Hasan et al., 2001, report that
piccocyanobacteria accumulate hydrocarbons from the water body, but do not biodegrade these compounds. It is
assumed that hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were always found associated with all picocyanobacteria in nature, may
carry out the biodegradation of these compounds. Following these logics the presence of both species under study at
Bay of Durres, which has pollutants coming from fuel deposits and other sources, could be explained the same way.
Other discussions arrive from A.I. Kopylov et al, 2010, who report that the quantitative distribution and
relationships of picocyanobacteria and viruses were studied in the mesotrophic Sheksna and mesoeutrophic Rybinsk
reservoirs, and that the share of picocyanobacteria in the sum biomass and production of phytoplankton decreased
along with increase in the productivity in the waterbody. According to them, the abundance of virioplankton
increased in such conditions and the mortality in picocyanobacteria resulted from lysis by viruses, which increased
at the local parts where water was blooming with phytoplankton and at the parts affected by communal pollution.
Since, the sampling stations at Bay of Durres are heavely polluted by communal pollutions, we need to consider the
presence of virioplankton at this water body as another possible modifying factor of the quantity and distribution of
phytoplankton.
According to Weisse and Mindl, 2002, the abundance and photosynthetic activity of picocyanobacteria in the
oligotrophic alpine lake Traunsee, were measured at a station located close to the outlet of industrial soda waste and
at a mid-lake reference station during spring, 1999 through to autumn, 2000. Their results demonstrated that

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picocyanobacteria are highly sensitive bioindicators of contaminant stress, but the overall impact of the emissions
from the industrial outlet on the picocyanobacteria was, however, relatively minor. Another study on the presence of
picophytoplanktonic species at extreme conditions in Adriatic transitional waters shows, that the highest abundances
(close to 109 cells L1) were found at extremely high/low salinity values, even oxygen concentrations close to
hypoxia did not seem to negatively affect PC abundances. According to Paoli et al, 2007, because of their ability in
adapting to extreme conditions, PC may become the prevailing fraction of the phototrophic plankton in these sites
and their role in such ecosystems should not be underestimated.

REFERENCES

Anderson, D.M., D.M.Kulis, and E.M.Cosper. 1989. Immunoflorescent detection of the brown tide organism
Aureococcus anophagefferens, p.213-228 In E.M.Cosper, V.M.Bricejl, and E.J.Carpenter. Novel phytoplankton
blooms causses and impacts of recurrent brown tides and other unusual blooms. Lecture notes on coeastal and
estuarine studies. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
Bacu A., Babani F., Malollari I. 2010. A comparative study on the efficiency of use of different physical and
biological parameters for the evaluation of the level of trophy in the lagoon system of Kune-Vain, Albania.
International Conference on Fishery and Aquaculture-BENA, Galati, Romania. JEPE.
Doblin MA, Popels L.C., Coyne K.J., Hutchins DA., Cary S.C., Dobbs F.C. 2004. Transport of Harmfool bloom
alga Aureococcus anophagefferens by oceangoing ships and coastal boats. Applied Environmental Microbiology,
70(11); 6495-6500.
Gobler C. et al. 2011. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics. From the
Selected works of Steven Wilhelm. University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
http://works.bepress.com/steven_vilhelm/21.
Gobler, CJ., Lonsdale DJ., Boyer GL. 2005. A synthesis and review of causes and impact of harmful brown tide
blooms caused by the alga, Aureococcus anophagefferens. Estuaries 28:726-749.
Heisler J, et al. 2008; Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus. Harmful Algae, 8:3-13.
Jarry, V.; Frisoni, G. and Legendre, P. (1991), Organisation spatiale et modlisation cologique d'um peuplement
phytoplanctonique de lagune (tang de Thau, France). Oceanol. Acta, 14 : (5), 473-488.
Jeffrey S. W., Humphrey G. F. 1975. New spectrophotometric equation for determining chlorophyll a, b, c1 and c2.
Biochemistry of Plant Physiology, 167, 194-204.
John Paul. DNA extraction from seawater. Marine Microbiology. Textbook 2008.
Lorenzen C. J. 1967. Determination of chlorophyll and phaeopigments: spectrophotometric equations, Limnology
and Oceanography. No12.
Marcel J. W. Veldhuis, Terry L. Cucci, Michael E. Sieracki. 2008. Cellular DNA content of marine
phytoplankton using two new fluorochromes: taxonomic and ecological implications1. Journal of Phycology,
Volume 33 Issue 3, Pages 527 - 541
Sambrook,J.,Fritsch, E.F., and Maniatis,T. 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbour
Lab).
Sunda WG, Graneli E, Gobler CJ (2006); Positive feedback and the development and persistence of ecosystem
disruptive algal blooms. Journal of Phycology, 42:963-974.
A.I. Kopylov, D.B. Kosolapov, E.A. Zabotkina, V. Straskrabova, 2010. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya
Biologicheskaya, 2010, No. 6, pp. 661669.
R.H.Al-Hasan et al., 2001. Hydrocarbon accumulation by picocyanobacteria from the Arabian gulf. Journal of
Applied Microbiology, 2001, 91, 533-540.
Alessandro Paoli, Valeri, Chiara Larato, Andrea Bussani, Serena Fonda Umani, Maria Rosaria Vadrucci, Cristina
Mazziotti, Paola Del Negro, , Mauro Celussi. Picocyanobacteria in Adriatic transitional environments. Biodiversity
& Ecosystem Functioning in Coastal and Transitional Waters. Volume 75, Issues 12, October 2007, Pages 1320.

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PAPER 154

STATISTICAL STUDY ABOUT THE LUNG CANCER IN REGIONAL HOSPITAL OF SHKODRA


DURING 2008 - 2012

Zamira Shabani1, Lindita Dibra2, Arlinda Ramaj3


1
University Luigj Gurakuqi , Sheshi 2 Prilli, Shkodr;
2
Regional Hospital Of Shkodra, Shkodr, Department of Pneumology;
3
University of Tirana, Faculty of Medicine, Tirana.

Email: shabanizamira@yahoo.com; linditadibra@yahoo.com; ramajarlinda@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Primary carcinoma of the lung is a major health problem with a generally grim prognosis. The International Agency
for Research on Cancer estimates that there will be over 1.18 million deaths from lung cancer worldwide in 2007,
which will raise to 10 million deaths per year by 2030. Each year, primary carcinoma of the lung affects males and
females, making it the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Lung cancer accounts for 29% of all
cancer deaths (31% in men, 26% in women). Lung cancer is responsible for more deaths in the world each year than
breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer combined. More women die each year of lung cancer than of breast
cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of all the hospitalized cases with lung cancer at the
Regional Hospital of Shkodra during the period of 2008-2012. We have used a descriptive method and the data are
elaborated with Microsoft Word Excel 2007. In this article we have considered all hospitalized cases in Regional
Hospital of Shkodra, diagnosed with lung cancer. We conclude that the rate of lung cancer has increased. This
increase is related to the changed lifestyle of population (tobacco smoking, inappropriate nutrition) and the
improvement of diagnostic skills of doctors. On the other hand the improvement of methods and items in medicine
influenced in an easier discovery of these new cases.
Key words: asthma, cancer, diseases, health, lung.

INTRODUCTION

In 2002, 11 million new cancer cases and 7 million cancer deaths were estimated worldwide. When broken down by
region of the world, ~45% of cases were in Asia, 26% in Europe, 14.5% in North America, 7.1% in Central/South
America, 6% in Africa, and 1% in Australia/New Zealand . Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the most
common cause of cancer death in the world. Its incidence is highly variable, affecting only 2 per 100,000 African
women but as many as 61 per 100,000 North American men. (Kamangar F et al: 2006). It has been estimated that
nine modifiable risk factors are responsible for more than one-third of cancers worldwide. These include smoking,
alcohol consumption, obesity, physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, unsafe sex, air pollution,
indoor smoke from household fuels, and contaminated injections. In 2007, primary carcinoma of the lung affected
114,760 males and 98,620 females in the United States; 86% die within 5 years of diagnosis, making it the leading
cause of cancer death in both men and women. The incidence of lung cancer peaks between ages 55 and 65 years.
Lung cancer accounts for 29% of all cancer deaths (31% in men, 26% in women). (Jemal A et al 2007). The
International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that there will be over 1.18 million deaths from lung cancer
worldwide in 2007, which will rise to 10 million deaths per year by 2030. This represents one lung cancer case for
every 3 million cigarettes smoked. Thus, primary carcinoma of the lung is a major health problem with a generally
grim prognosis. (Jemal A et al: 2007).The degree of smoke exposure, meaning the number of cigarettes smoked per
day as well as the level of inhalation of cigarette smoke, is correlated with risk of lung cancer mortality. Those who
stop smoking have a 3050% lower 10-year lung cancer mortality rate compared to those who continue smoking,
despite the fact that some carcinogen-induced gene mutations persist for years after smoking cessation. Smoking
cessation and avoidance have the potential to save more lives than any other public health activity. The risk of
tobacco smoke is not limited to the smoker. Environmental tobacco smoke, known as second hand or passive smoke,
causes lung cancer and other cardiopulmonary diseases in nonsmokers. (Cinciripini PM 1997). Most lung cancers
are caused by carcinogens and tumor promoters inhaled via cigarette smoking. The relative risk of developing lung
cancer is increased about thirteen fold by active smoking and about 1.5-fold by long-term passive exposure to

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cigarette smoke. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is also smoking-related, further increases the risk of
developing lung cancer. The lung cancer death rate is related to the total amount (often expressed in "cigarette pack-
years") of cigarettes smoked, such that the risk is increased 60- to 70-fold for a man smoking two packs a day for 20
years as compared with a nonsmoker. Conversely, the chance of developing lung cancer decreases with cessation of
smoking but may never return to the nonsmoker level. The increase in lung cancer rate in women is also associated
with a rise in cigarette smoking. Women have a higher relative risk per given exposure than men (~1.5-fold higher).
This sex difference may be due to a greater susceptibility to tobacco carcinogens in women, although the data are
controversial. About 15% of lung cancers occur in individuals who have never smoked. The majority of these cases
are found in women. The reason for this sex difference is not known but may be related to hormonal factors.
Radiation is another environmental cause of lung cancer. People exposed to high levels of radon or receiving
thoracic radiation therapy have a higher than normal incidence of lung cancer, particularly if they smoke. (Karnath B
2002).

Table 1. Distribution of cancer incidence and deaths for 2007 (the five leading primary tumor) (WHO 2007)
Male Female
Sites % Number Sites % Number
Cancer Incidence
Prostate 29 218,890 Breast 26 178,480
Lung 15 114,760 Lung 15 98,620
Colorectal 10 79,130 Colorectal 11 74,630
Cancer Deaths
Lung 31 89,510 Lung 26 70,880
Prostate 9 27,050 Breast 15 40,460
Colorectal 9 26,000 Colorectal 10 26,180

Table 2. The three leading primary tumor sites for patients dying of cancer based on age and sex in 2004 (WHO
2004)
Rank All Ages Under 20 2039 4059 6079 >80
1 M Lung Leukemia Leukemia Lung Lung Lung
F Lung Leukemia Breast Breast Lung Lung
2 M Prostate CNS CNS Colorectal Colorectal Prostate
F Breast CNS Cervix Lung Breast Colorectal
3 M Colorectal Bone sarcoma Colorectal Pancreas Prostate Colorectal
F Colorectal Endocrine Leukemia Colorectal Colorectal Breast

MATHERIAL AND METHODS

The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of all the hospitalized cases with lung cancer at the Regional
Hospital of Shkodra during the period of 2008-2012. The morbidity of this disease is studied according selected age-
groups and gender . The data are collected at the Statistic Office of Hospital and Statistic Office of Public Health.
The method is simple, descriptive and evidences the incidence of cases. The data are elaborated with Microsoft word
excel 2007

RESULTS

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As we can see at the figure 1, the hospital morbidity per 100000 habitants of cancer diseases during 2008- 2012 in
Shkodra Regional Hospital is increased, on the other hand the number of cases with lung cancer is increased too.
(figure2)

Figure.1. Hospital morbidity rate / 100000 inhabitants of maligne diseases in Shkodra during the years 2008 2012

Figure. 2. The number of cases with lung cancer hospitalized during 2008-2012 in Shkodra Regional Hospital

Figure. 3. The distribution of cases with lung cancer according to gender.

In figure 3 we can clearly see that the most affected patients by this pathology are male. This fact is justified with
their life style: smoking and alcohol abuse. This is a big reason to encourage healthy habits and public education,
hoping to prevent and control this cancer. We are conscious that cigar smoking has increased in the past decade.
Efforts to get people to stop smoking are mandatory. However, smoking cessation is extremely difficult, because the
smoking habit represents a powerful addiction to nicotine (Harrison 2012). Smoking addiction is both biologic and
psychosocial. Heavy smokers may need an intensive broad-based cessation program that includes counseling,
behavioral strategies and pharmacologic adjuncts, such as nicotine replacement (gum, patches, sprays, lozenges and
inhalers) and bupropion. (Cinciripini PM. 1997)

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Figure. 4. The burden of lung cancer among all cancer diseases during 2008-2012 in Shkodra Regional Hospital

The burden of lung cancer among all cancers during 2008- 2012 in Shkodra Hospital is almost the same level in all
this period, but as we can see in figure 4 and in the table 1, according the data from WHO 2007, the burden of this
diseases is higher than the level in the world.

Figure. 5. The distribution of lung cancer according to the age groups

In figure 5 we can see that the most affected people by the lung cancer are they over 55 years old with a pick among
the people over 65 years old. Also in the figure 6, we have evidenced the incidence of lung cancer per 1000 cases
hospitalized. This figure shows the raise of incidence of lung cancer form 1.58 hospitalized cases in 2008 to
2.58 in 2012.

Figure. 6. The incidence of lung cancer per 1000 cases hospitalized during 2008-2012
in Shkodra Regional Hospital

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All these data that describe the situation of this disease underlines the problem of raising the education about health
care and the importance of smoking cessation since teenage. Preventing people from starting to smoke is thus very
important and this primary prevention effort needs to be targeted to children since most cigarette smoking addiction
occurs during the teenage years. Tobacco prevention is a pediatric issue. Counseling of adolescents and young adults
is critical to prevent smoking. A physician's simple advices to avoid starting smoking or to quit smoking and to see
at as a health benefit. Physicians should query patients on tobacco use on every office visit, record the answer with
the vital signs and ask smokers if they would like assistance in quitting. (Cinciripini PM. 1997). Deterring children
from taking up smoking and helping young adults stop smoking is likely to be the most effective lung cancer
prevention. Smoking cessation programs are successful in 5 to 20% of volunteers; the poor efficacy is because of the
nature of nicotine addiction. (Harrison 16th edition). Smoking-related illnesses, premature deaths, and economic
costs can be reduced if current smokers are able to successfully stop smoking and if smoking is not initiated by
children and youths. Because the nicotine in cigarettes is addicting, once daily smoking is initiated, stopping is very
difficult. Almost 90% of adult cigarette smokers began smoking by the time they were 18 years old (CDC 1994).
Public health efforts to reduce the health effects of cigarette smoking should include smoking cessation services, but
should focus on preventing initiation of tobacco use by children and youth. This should include active enforcement
of laws to prevent persons under 18 from purchasing tobacco products coupled with community-based efforts to
assure that this occurs. Laws should be modified to reduce access to tobacco products by children through banning
of tobacco vending machines, at least in places where children are allowed. Adults should band together with
children and youth at the community level to create healthy environments that are smoke-free and that support a
tobacco-free norm for our children and youth. Local communities should be allowed to adopt policies that support
such a tobacco-free norm. Comprehensive school health programs should provide high quality, factual information
to children at all levels. Children and youth should receive clear messages from parents, teachers, and other adults
that they should remain smoke free coupled with realistic information about how few of their peers smoke. Children
and youth should be taught to interpret advertising and promotional messages carefully and to make good personal
choices. Consideration should also be given to increasing tobacco excise taxes as a means to reduce tobacco use by
children and youth who have been shown to be more price-sensitive than adult smokers, and to recover some of the
medical care costs attributable to tobacco. Studies in Canada have shown that a 10% increase in the price of a pack
of cigarettes led to a 7.9% decrease in consumption (Lynch, S. 1994).

CONCLUSIONS

The hospital morbidity per 100000 habitants of cancer diseases during 2008- 2012 in Shkodra Regional Hospital is
increased. The most affected patients by this pathology are male and the patients over 55 years old with a pick
among the people over 65 years old. The incidence of lung cancer is increased from 1.58 hospitalized cases in
2008 to 2.58 in 2012, but the hospital mortality is not so high because the patients with cancer diseases prefer to
die at home. Since this cancer diseases is difficult to heal, we can try to prevent it. Prevention of smoking initiation
must begin early, preferably in the elementary school years. Physicians who treat adolescents should be sensitive to
the prevalence of this problem. Physicians should ask all adolescents whether they have experimented with tobacco
or currently use tobacco, reinforce the facts that most adolescents and adults do not smoke and explain that all forms
of tobacco are both addictive and harmful.Our intervention consist in: of legislation changes, education of the
population to avoid risk behavior and to accept healthy life styles, identification health risks, screening of deseases
at early stages in order to provide more efficient treatment and cure the malignant diseases.

REFERENCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the
Surgeon General. Washington, D.C.: USDHHS, 1994 .
Cinciripini PM, Hecht S, Henningfield JE et al: 1997. Tobacco addiction: Implications for treatment and cancer
prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:1852, 1997 [PMID: 9414173]
Harrison's Internal Medicine 2012 Chapter 78. Prevention and Early Detection of Cancer
Harrison's Internal Medicine 2012. Chapter 390. Nicotine Addiction
Jemal A et al: Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 57:43, 2007 [PMID: 17237035]
Kamangar F et al: 2006. Patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence across five continents: Defining
priorities to reduce cancer disparities in different geographic regions of the world. J Clin Oncol 24:2137, 2006
[PMID: 16682732]

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Karnath B:2002. Smoking cessation. Am J Med 112:399, 2002 [PMID: 11904115]


Lynch, S. And Bonnie, R.J., eds.1994. Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and
Youths, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994.

PAPER 157

BUDDING OF WALNUT ( JUGLANS REGIAL.)

Majlinda Kasmi1, Petrit Rama1, Bari Hodaj1, Edlira Kukali1, Albert Rabeta1
1
Agricultural of University of Tirana

ABSTRACT

The walnut is classified as a strategic species for human nutrition and is included in the FAO list of priority plants.
Walnut, (Juglans regia L.) propagation is more difficult, compared to most fruit species. Due to walnut
heterozygosity, propagation by seeds does not lead to inheritance of the characteristics of a certain varieties. That is
why the propagation technologies are being improved worldwide. The purpose of this experiment was to increase
the inoculation success of the walnut budding var.Franquete. Various methods, as patch budding and chip budding
have been employed. To find the most appropriate season of inoculation, June budding on 28 June (with buds taken
in the current season ), autumn budding on 28 August (with buds taken in the current season) and spring budding on
28 May(with buds collected from the winter dormant period), have been tested. As rootstocks for the June and
August budding, the seedlings of Juglans regia L.of the current year's growth have been employed. For the spring
inoculation the one year old scions have been used. Patch budding was the most successful budding method used for
walnuts. The success of the method of patch budding depends on the season of inoculation. Successful inoculation
percentage in patch budding (about 80%) was achieved by June budding (on 28 June). Cutting off the leaf, 20 days
before the buds were taken for budding, gave highest results (87%) The June budding of the patch method can be
implemented in the production of grafted young walnut trees.

Key words: walnut, budding, rootstock, inoculation

INTRODUCTION

Walnut is one of the main nut crops in Albania. Large populations of Juglans regia (144000 walnut trees exist in
Albania).(7) Most of them are seedlings and notably variable in production and nut quality. Due to walnut
heterozygosity, propagation by seeds does not lead to inheritance of the characteristics of a certain variety (1).
According to governments program, three million walnut trees should be planted in Albania during the years 2012-
2017 year.(7) Planting of the best walnut cultivars required by the market have increased interest in vegetative
propagation of this species. Walnut trees are more difficult to graft than most fruit trees (5). This is due to the
presence of high concentration of phenolic compounds in its tissues and their oxidation by wounding,(1). Many
different types of propagation are used in the walnut nursery industry to create finished propagated trees for orchard
planting including sexual propagation (rootstocks only), micro-propagation, cuttings, budding, and grafting(9).In
Albania for the walnut propagation are using seeds coming from valuable varieties. This type of propagation
produces a large number of plants with various characteristics into the walnut orchards (7).While the main method
for propagation of walnut in Bulgaria is the patch budding, where the grafted plants have grown in the nursery (1).
In Romania utilizing the whip and tongue grafting followed by callusing at the grafting point, the rate of success is
more then80% (2).The results of other researchers also suggest that patch budding produces better callusing, scion
growth and bud-take as compared chip budding (3). Patch budding is the most common budding method used for
walnuts, but to ensure the best buds, the budwood can be prepared by removing the leaves while still on the tree a
few weeks before use (9) Different types of grafting have different optimum time. The success of the method of
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patch budding depends on the season of inoculation (1). June budding creates a tree in only one year. Rootstocks to
be used in June budding are grown in very fertile conditions and typically reach budding size by June, coinciding
with the time current season scion buds develop to a condition suitable for use as budwood (walnut propagation).
Also genotype had highly significant effects on grafting success (6). In this research two type of budding (patch and
chip) and the time of budding were studied. The effect of cutting off the leaf several days before the buds were taken
for budding has been proved on budding success

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was conducted in a private nursery located in the Peze, a village, district of Tirana. The rootstocks were
Juglans regia seedlings, which had been direct sown on January (20-25 January).For the June and August budding,
the seedlings of the current year's growth have been employed. While for the spring budding (May budding) have
been used one-year old seedlings. Two weeks before budding, the stocks were selected for uniformity of girth
(approximately 10 mm diameter.) Scionwoods of Juglans regia var.Franquette were obtained from an7-years-old
orchard block on the day of budding.
Two budding techniques were employed: 1 -Patch budding. 2-Chip budding
Three budding times were selected at one month interval, as follow:
1-Spring budding, on 28 May (with buds, collected from the winter dormant period).
2-June budding on, 28 June (with buds, taken in the current season)
3-Autumn budding on, 28 August (with buds, taken in the current season).
To study the effect of cutting off the leaves before the buds were taken for budding two kinds of scionwoods had
been used:
a-Scionwoods with the leaves.
b-Scionwoods without leaves (The leaves were cut off three weeks before the buds were taken for budding
The influence of BAP (Benzyl Amino Purine) on budding success has been proved by spraying of the inoculations,
before tying, with 500 ppm BAP.
Experimental design was a randomised complete block with three replicates of each treatment. Each replicate
contained 20 stocks

RESULTS

According to the results, summarized in Tables 2 and 4, the patch budding method, performed during the growth
season has the higher percent of success, compared with chip budding. The high percentage of patch budding has
been reported and by other authors (3). The date of vaccination had highly significant effect on budding success.
Table 1, 2 and 4 shows that the patch budding, performed on 28 June, gave the highest success, of 86 per cent and
on 28 August, it was 29 per cent. Those results, reported in this paper are in accord with other researchers (4). June
budding success may be due to the equality of root pressure with the suction power of the leaves. This balance of the
pressures can avoid the scions damage of the scions from the many liquids coming from the root
Patch and chip budding, performed on 28 May had the lowest success, about 6%
Cutting off the leaf, 20 days before the buds were taken for budding, gave highest results, 87 per cent (Table 2). The
best success has been taken, when the remaining leaf stalks shrivel and fall away.
The lowest success of budding, which has taken place on 28 May (Table1), may be due to low activity of the
cambium of the scion, necessary to enhance the formation of callus of the wounded tissues.(8) As can be seen in
Table 2 and 3, the result of cut of the leaves before inoculation was very important for the success of patch budding.
The percentage of budding success using scions without leaves were significantly higher (87%) compared with those
made with leaves (50%) This can happen for the following reasons:
a-The removing of the leaves can reduce the presence of the high concentration of phenolic compounds in its
tissues and their oxidation by wounding.
b-The bark on the current year's wood is exceedingly tender, and the outer layers are very apt to be rubbed off in
handling, while the leaf removal does the bark of the buds more hard.
c-The removing of the leaves avoids distortion of the bark around the bud, prepared for budding. This helps to
better contact of the bud with the rootstock.

Table 1 Results of different budding performed on 28 May

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Patch budding Chip budding


Budded Budded Budded stocks Budded success
stocks success
With BAP 45 2 45 4
Without BAP 45 3 45 3

Table 2 Results of different budding performed on 28 July

Patch budding Chip budding


Without leaves With leaves Without leaves With leaves
With Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded
BAP stocks success stocks success stocks success stocks success
45 39 45 22 45 13 45 3
Without 45 37 45 19 45 15 45 5
BAP

Table 3 Effect of removing of the leaves on patch budding success

Replicates R1 R2 R3 S M
Treatments
Without leaves 12 15 12 39 13
(-BAP)
Without leaves 13 10 14 37 12,33
(+BAP)
With leaves 9 6 7 22 7,33
(-BAP)
With leaves 4 8 7 19 6,33
(+ BAP)
S 38 39 40 117

Oneway Anova

Analysis of Variance
Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Ratio Prob > F
Treatmens 3 104.25000 34.7500 9.9286 0.0045*
Error 8 28.00000 3.5000

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Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Ratio Prob > F


C. Total 11 132.25000

LSD Alpha
2.30600 0.05

Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different.

Level Mean
Without leaves(-BAP) A 13.000000
Without leaves(+BAP) A 12.333333
With leaves(-BAP) B 7.333333
With leaves(+BAP) B 6.333333

Table 4 Results of different budding performed on 28 August


Patch budding Chip budding

Without leaves With leaves Without leaves With leaves


With Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded Budded
BAP stocks success stocks succes stocks success stocks success
45 12 45 4 45 1 45 2
Without 45 13 45 6 45 3 45 -
BAP

CONCLUSION

The June budding of the patch method can be implemented in the production of grafted young walnut trees.
Cutting off the leaf, 20 days before the buds were taken for budding, gave highest results.

REFERENCES

Gandev.S: Budding and grafting of the walnut (Juglans regia L) and their effectiveness in Bulgaria. Bulg. J. Agric.
Sci 200,13: 683-689
G.H Achim, I.Botu:Results in walnut propagation by using different methods (ISHS),
Acta Horticulturae544: IV International Walnut Symposium
Ebrahim Aziz, Fatahi Moghadam, M.R,Vahadati. K: The effect of environmental conditions, method and time on
the success of budding walnut. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2008, 39: 9-18
M.K.Sharma, N.K.Joolka:Comparison of budding techniques in walnut (Juglans regia L) propagation. Ishs acta
horticulturae 696:VII International Symposium on Temperate Z one Fruits in the Tropics and Subtropics-Part Two
Okzka.A, Gumus. A: Effect of different application on grafting under controlled of walnut (Juglans regiaL.).Acta
Horticulturae 2001, 544:515-520
Solgi.M, Shahrjerdi.I,Ebadi.A: Effect of scion genotype, rootstock age and time of grafting of soft grafting method
in walnut Acta horticulturae 2012 (ISHS), 940:119-123
Rama. P: National Study on Actual Situation and Perspective of Nut Trees in Albania Study Summary 2011, Page
54
Rama. P, Kukali. E: Interaction of Gibberelic Acid (GA3) And Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA) on root induction in
Olea europea L. Albanian Journal of Agricultural Science 2010, 9(3):227-229
University of California Walnut propagation Agricultural and Natural resources.
December 28. 2012.

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PAPER 159

THE QUALITY OF THE SHARRI CHEESE IN THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL


ASPECT

Ilirjana Zymberaj1, Shabani, L., Elshani, M.1 , Jashari, B.1


1
Agency of Food and Veterinary, Pristina-Kosovo
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana, Albania

Email: Ilirjana_z@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Sharri cheese is called so because it is made in the earlier years of Sharr Mountains with an altitude of 800-
1200m. "This type of cheese is produced from a combination of half sheep milk and half cow's milk and the Sharr
flagrance or aroma". "Pathogenic microorganism, if present in untreated milk, thought to be present in the cheese if
the cheese is prepared several months before consuming. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of failure of
cheeses and other foods. The purpose of this paper is to check the microbiological quality of Sharri cheese in a
dairy licensed in the Republic of Kosovo. Work methodology: sampling, transport and analysis of samples in the
laboratory is done according to standards. Samples were taken during 2012. During 2012 samples were taken for the
analysis of physico-chemical microbiology. Our results speak in favor of that 8% of the samples resulted in bacterial
contamination, which is isolated: Escherichia coli, while after the implementation of HACCP no bacterial
contamination has been confirmed. All samples analyzed in terms of physico-chemical standards are in conformity
with what works IKSHP. Implementation of HACCP in the dairy has given satisfactory results. HACCP is an
immediate need to be implemented in all other subjects that deal with food activities.

Key words: sample, contamination, bacteria, hygiene, Sharri, HCCP.

INTRODUCTION

Food is an important factor which health and human life depends on. The term "safe food" food relate to items that
do not contain or contain to the tolerable amounts, pollutants originating biologically, chemically or radiological,
that are dangerous to human health. Food production requires maximum commitment and continuous checks at all
stages in order to prevent the possibility of contamination (2). The most common causes of food poisoning are
different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphyloccocus, Clostridiae, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, etc..,
Which are in the air, water, work tools, contaminated foodstuff, etc. (8). Sharri cheese is hard cheese which is made
in the region of Gora, Opoja and Shtrpce the Republic of Kosovo. (4). "This type of cheese is produced from
sheep's milk and cow's milk in amounts commensurate with aroma from the Sharr" . The purpose of this research
has been the control of hygiene and safety of Sharri cheese in the bacteriological sphere, in a licensed dairy
Republic of Kosovo, detection, isolation and identification of causes of poisonings with this dairy product, finding
more efficient ways to their prevention and control assessment of the importance of regular sanitary hygiene before
and after application of hygiene measures.
Purpose of the work. The purpose of this study was the quality control of microbiological and physico-chemical
parameters of Sharri cheese in a dairy licensed in the Republic of Kosovo.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

For the purpose of determining the hygienic condition and physico-chemical attributes of Sharri cheese in one milk
processing entities in Kosovo, where during 2012 Sharri cheese samples and swabs from work tools, work surfaces,
hands personnel and work uniforms were taken. Samples are taken regularly every month of the year, while swabs
in two stages - before and after the application of the recommended measures. Samples were obtained by standard
methodology for sampling within four hours and sent to the laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health in

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Pristina. Swabs and samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria that threaten human health (Escherichia coli,
Enterococcus, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Proteus spp.).
All samples were analyzed by standard microbiological methods. The collected data are processed in a descriptive
statistical method.

RESULTS

The results of this study are presented in three parts. In the first part we present the results of bacteriological
analyzes of samples of the cheese, in the second part we present the physico chemical results, while the third part
the swab results of arable land, working hand tools and staff uniforms. The results of the microbiological analysis of
Sharri cheese are presented in Chart 1 which shows that during the period when the survey was carried 25
samples were analyzed for bacterial contamination in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Coliform bacteria,
Mesophylic bacteria, Proteus spp., Listeria monocytogenes, of which 8% have resulted in contamination with
Escherichia coli, while others have resulted negative. For physical - chemical analysis , 12 samples were taken to
answer all norms and standards by which IKSHPK works according to. In terms of physico-chemical parameters,
the following were analyzed: water, salt, dry matter and fat-free dry matter (chart no. 2). The swabs first results
indicate bacterial contamination of 67%, while after the application of the recommended measures, 20% have
resulted in positive values.

Table nr. 1.
Mesophylic Escherichia Staphylococcus Listeria. Proteus Totally
Nr
bacteria coli aureus monocytogenes spp. samples
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
2 0 0 0 0 0 1
3 0 0 0 0 0 2
4 0 0 0 0 0 2
5 0 0 0 0 0 3
6 0 0 0 0 0 3
7 0 2 0 0 0 3
8 0 0 0 0 0 3
9 0 0 0 0 0 2
10 0 0 0 0 0 2
11 0 0 0 0 0 2
12 0 0 0 0 0 1
Totally 0 2 0 0 0 25
% 0 8 0 0 0 100

In the samples of Sharri cheese we have a fecal contamination with Escherichia coli (4000 cfu / ml) in June
samples, while other samples are without the presence of microorganisms.

Graph. 1. - Results of Sharri cheese samples expressed as a percentage

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Graphic. 1 shows that 8% of Sharri cheese samples resulted positive.

Table no. 2. - Physico-chemical attributes of Sharri cheese


Periudha Kripa Mbetja e Mbetja e that pa
Nr kohore H2O Yndyra % that yndyr
1 janar 62.21 21 1,45 37.79 16.79
2 shkurt 52.6 44 1.63 47.4 3.4
3 mars 71.18 44.5 1.35 73.32 28.82
4 prill 62.69 23.1 1.8 37.31 14.21
5 maj 53.23 28.2 2.34 47.77 3.77
6 qershor 65.28 27.3 1.65 34.72 7.42
7 korrik 61.59 25.4 1.66 38.41 13.01
8 gusht 63.25 28.3 1.88 36.75 8.45
9 shtator 62.58 29 1.65 37.42 8.42
10 tetor 63.59 28 1.86 36.41 8.41
11 nntor 64.55 24.2 1.86 35.45 11.25
12 dhjetor 63.25 25.6 1.87 36.75 11.15
Results of the parameters in the table respond to the norms.

Graph nr 2. Physico-Chemical attributes of Sharri cheese 2012

On the basis of physico-chemical laboratory values for Sharri cheese, which are presented in the table above, we
conclude that all the analyzed samples are in conformity with the standards which works IKSHP.

Graph nr 3. Screening results in the dairy

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From the analyzed swabs, 67% resulted positive with the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and
Staphylococcus aureus.

Graph nr 4

The contamination of the Escherichia coli was 45%, with Klebsiella spp. Staphylococcus aureus 11%. Due to the
large presence of Coliform bacteria was found, low levels of hygiene were found in the milk thus measures were
recommended to eliminate factors which favored the low level of hygiene and contamination of equipment, work
surfaces and items food.
The worst swabs were from the hands of the staff, which is the major risk factor with which one can transmit
pathogenic bacteria in food with contaminated hands or surfaces contaminated own gastrointestinal system (bacillus
locomotion) (1).

Graph nr 5. Screening results after the application of the measures

The application of the measures recommended has improved the situation which is observed from the results in
graph No. 5 where positive values are only 20%.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the results obtained, we conclude that:


In the licensed diaries in 2012, a of total 25 samples were taken of Sharri cheese and 36 smears of arable land,
vehicles, hand tools and uniforms work for bacteriological analysis personnel.
Sampling was planned, while swabs were taken at random.
Cheese sampling results indicate moderate contamination level of 8%.
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Results of the first swabs where 67% of them resulted in bacterial contamination indicating a low level of hygiene.
Swab results after application of the recommended measures, where 20% of them were positive, show an acceptable
condition.
As a result of the commencement of the implementation of HACCP, we observe a trend of improving results in the
diary.

REFERENCE

Cruickshank, J.G. (1990). Food Handlers and Food Poisoning. British Medical Journal 300, 208;
auevi, Mr, Smajic, A., Corbo, S. (1998): Hrant PROIZVODNJA animalnog porijekla. Drugo medjunarodno
savetovanje struno nauno-o-sigurne mogunostima proizvodnje zdravstveno Hrant. Zbornik radova. Umjetnosti
NAUKA Academy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bugojno. 99-109. Sarajevo;
Dedushaj, I. (2010): General Epidemiology - Principles and Practice. University of Prishtina.
Site.
Babe, A., Muteveli, A., Saric, M. (1992): Animalna PROIZVODNJA was funkciji osiguranja zdravstveno-sigurne
Hrant. Drugo medjunarodno savetovanje struno nauno-o-sigurne mogunostima proizvodnje zdravstveno Hrant.
Zbornik radova. Umjetnosti NAUKA Academy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bugojno.75-92. Sarajevo;
Law on Sanitary Inspection 2003/22;
Law on prevention and combating of infectious diseases 02/L-109 (2007). Pristina.
03/L-016 Food Law (2009). Pristina;
Samardzija, D., Podoreki, M., Sikora, S., Skelin, A., Pogai, T. (2007): organism - uzronici kvarenja mlijeka of
mlijenih proizvoda. Mljekarstvo 57 (4) 251-273;
Administrative Instruction no. 02/2005 on the way to acquire basic knowledge on safety and quality of food and
personal hygiene of people working in manufacturing and marketing of food. UNMIK.
Administrative Instruction no. 08/2005 on the technological standards, to be met by food manufacturing facilities.
UNMIK.;

PAPER 160

ELODEA CANADENSIS AS INVASIVE SPECIES IN LAKE OHRID

Alma Imeri1, Alfred Mullaj2, Sonja Trajanovska3, Marina Talevska3


1
Agricultural University of Tirana Department of Plant Production, Albania;
2
Faculty of Nature of Science, Tirana, Albania;
3
Hydrobiological Institute Ohrid, R.Macedonia;

Email: bioalma_79@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Invasive alien plants present a threat to diversity of native species. Evaluation of potential endangerment of invasive
alien plant species Elodea canadensis was made and results are presented in this paper. The study is based on
literature sources and field survey data, summarized in distribution maps over the time. From the 30 investigated
stations Elodea canadensis was present in 16 stations; it is the most abundant in the depth zone 0-2 meters and
rarely found in 4-10 m. The alien species E. canadensis express its invasive character in macrophyte
communities.The distribution of invasive aquatic plant species Elodea canadensis studied as an indicator of water
quality in Lake Ohrid was discussed. Habitat analysis of well-established stands of E. canadensis showed that its
preferred habitats watercourses flowing, more or less disturbed riparian zone, with moderate presence of retention
structures, and with fine organic matter.

Keywords: invasive alien plants, Elodea canadensis, habitats, Lake Ohrid.

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INTRODUCTION

Since the end of the 19th century the Canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis has spread over most of Europe, and
is known as invasive neophyte species in most of Europe except for the Arctic and most of the islands (Tutin et al.
1980). On the basis of the latest estimations, E. canadensis has established in 26 European countries (Lambdon et al.
2008). Due to their morphological similarities, similar habitat preferences and weedy growth, Elodea species have
been often misidentified (Simpson 1984, 1988; Bowmer et al. 1995), particularly in the early invasion phases. In
Ohrid Lake, it is assumed that the widespread E. canadensis is the only established species of the genus Elodea
being a successful invader. E. canadensis is well studied from various aspects such as the invasion success and
related competitive ability, responses to various environmental variables (Pagano & Titus 2004), ecological life
history (Nicols & Shaw 1986), growth in relation to temperature (Madsen & Brix 1997), phenotypic plasticity
(Simpson 1988), allelopathic activity (Ehrhard et al. 2004; Ehrhard & Gross 2006) and impacts on native aquatic
communities (Josefsson & Andersson 2001). E. canadensis had been accumulated over the last 20-years (Kashta
et.al, 1998; Mullaj A. et alt. 2007) as well as recently this plant species was present in 26 localities Lake Ohrid
(Talevska, 2011).Nevertheless, recently there had not been any published papers on its actual distribution and
habitat preferences in Ohrid Lake, although this could increase our understanding of the invasion phenomena and its
extent in the Ohrid Lake. Assuming the lack of knowledge on the invasion pattern of the particular species, the aim
of our study was to analyze the current spatial distribution, dynamics and habitat preferences of E. canadensis and to
discuss the suitability of this species as an indicator of water quality in Ohrid Lake.

Taxonomy and geographical distribution

The genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae Family) is taxonomically difficult in its native range. Phenotypic plasticity
and varying morphological characters are often observed; therefore flowers are necessary for a confident
identification. The American botanist H. St. John recognized 17 species of the genus Elodea in a series of papers
published between 1962 and 1965 (Simpson 1984), but later on his work proved to be unsatisfactory. Recent
revisions of the genus have reduced the number of species to five (Preston & Croft 2001). E. canadensis is a
submerged perennial aquatic plant with dioecious or with hermaphrodite flowers. It has green leaves up to 17 x 4
mm, but usually c. 10 x 2 mm, in whorls of 3 or the lowest opposite, oblong-linear, widest at middle, rounded at the
apex, minutely denticulate, more or less crowded. Sepals of female flowers are 2-2.7 mm; petals white or pale
purple; petals subequalling the sepals. In most parts of Europe male plants are rare or absent (Preston & Croft 2001),
including Ohrid Lake. Reproduction is mainly by vegetative means. Plants of E. canadensis die down in the winter,
regrowing from underground stems in spring. The plants fragment readily, and the fragments produce adventitious
roots (Preston & Croft 2001). E. canadensis is native in North America, where it is commonly occur in lakes, rivers
and canalsthroughout most of the temperate zone in the U.S. and frequent in southeast Canada (Simpson 1984),
mainly in base-rich waters (Bowmner et al.1995).
E. canadensis is first naturalized in Ireland in 1834 and on the continent in 1859 (Tutin et alt. Flora Europaea 1980).
Actually, this specie is naturalized almost throughout Europe, except for the Arctic and most of the islands.
E. canadensis grows rapidly in favorable conditions and can choke shallow canals, ponds and the margins of some
slow-flowing rivers. It was introduced into Ohrid Lake about 1957 through the channel Studencista , and later into
the waters of the river Drini i Zi and springs Tushemishti, Shen Naum, (Mullaj A. et alt. 2007).

Photo 1. Elodea canadensis

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MATERIAL AND METHODS

Data on the distribution and habitat types were obtained from following sources: herbaria of the University of
Tirana, Faculty of Nature and Science, Biology Department, literature and field survey data collected by the authors
of this paper. The collection of macrophyte vegetation has been performed in 15 localities, i.e. 10 along the
Macedonian and 5 along the Albanian coastline of Lake Ohrid.Plant communities evaluation is based on qualitative
and quantitative characteristics and are classified through principals of ZurichMontpellie school.
Machrophyte procedure occurred in five different depth zones: 01 m, 12 m, 24 m , 4-10 m, > 10m. By this
procedure depth preferences of single species and changes of maximal depth distribution of macrophytes along the
shoreline could both be evaluated. (Imeri et.al 2012). Within a mapping section and depth zone all macophyte
species (spermatophyta, bryophyta and charophyta) were recorded and abundance estimated on a five-point scale
following (Txen & Preising 1942), where 1=very rare, 2= infrequent, 3= common, 4= frequent and 5= abundant.

RESULTS

Invaded habitats

In Ohrid Lake, E. canadensis grows in different places, especially in Tusheshimsht on the Albania part. Our
observations suggest that the establishment and rapid spread of this invasive species, comes as a result of the lack of
competition of native aquatic plants. Our observations and some notes in herbaria materials suggest that it can form
dense mats and outcompeting native aquatic species, though it is not know whether it is capable to persist as
dominating species in a particular site over a longer time. In lakes, abundance of E. canadensis is limited by higher
competition of native species, water depths and light availability. In most cases, abundance varies from 13 in five-
point scale.

Fig. 1. Elodea canadensis (abundance per depth zone per station)

Fig. 2. Elodea canadensis (abundance, 2-4m)

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Fig. 3. Elodea canadensis (abundance, 0-2 m)

Factors controlling E. canadensis in lakes

In lake Ohrid E. Canadensis grows in alkaline water with pH ranging from 69.5. It can tolerates a wide range of
growing conditions from polluted, nutrient-rich to high quality waters.
In exceptional cases, the species had been found in humic waters suggesting that perhaps moderately acid to acid
environment, albeit not typical, is not limiting its establishment. Either the authors from various European countries
mention that E. canadensis are able to grow in different trophic and acidity conditions: euthrophic (e.g. Walter et al.
2005), calcareous (Bowmer et al. 1995) or even brackish waters of the Bothnian Gulf in the Baltic Sea (Streftaris et
al. 2005). The adaptability to euthropic waters is related to ability to purify water in metabolic process and
accumulate both organic and inorganic nitrogen, thus the species could be used in removing nutrients from
hypereuthropic waters (Kozhova & Izhboldina 1993; Ozimek et
al. 1993). The tolerance against various environmental conditions in a combination with its dispersal strategy had
assured its enormous success in the introduced range.
The above mentioned aspects allow us to propose that the behavior of E. canadensis is different in natural and
human-created or strongly affected aquatic environments. As an unpredictable and tolerant species it is not suitable
as an indicator of water quality though its high abundance and presence of monospecific stands is often related to
anthropogenic impacts. In Ohrid Lake, there is little knowledge on biotic factors which can be crucial in the spread
of the species such as grazing pressure and competition with other plant species.

Options for management

In some European countries, management of Elodea species is being practiced. The biomass can be temporarily
reduced by removing the stands, thus reducing their proliferation. It is advised to prevent the spread by creating
filters downstream before any mechanical treatment is carried out. It is essential to prevent the dissemination of
fragments after removal to avoid accidental introduction to other potentially suitable locations (e.g. Wittenberg
2005). Although attributed with weedy nature and monospecific dominance, thus largely affecting the water
ecosystems as an undesired competitor and producer of large biomass, E.canadensis is completely naturalized in
water ecosystems in Ohrid Lake, and its control in unrealistic and most probably impractical from both conservation
and economical point of view.

CONCLUSIONS

Though there is no evidence of other Elodea species in aquatic environments in Ohrid lake, the intensive trade of
pond ornamentals and aquaria plants might result in unintentional release of new highly invasive plants. The
invasion history of E. canadensis demonstrates the high capability of rapid establishment of some non-native
invaders into natural environments,

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therefore new introductions of risky non-native aquatic plants should be avoided.

REFERENCES

Barrat-Segretain M.-H. 2001. Invasive species in the Rhone River floodplain (France): replacement of Elodea
canadensis Michaux by E. nuttallii St. John in two former river channels. Archiv fr Hydrobiologie, 152(2): 237-
251.
Barrat-Segretain M.-H. 2004. Growth of Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii in monocultures and mixture under
different light and nutrient conditions. Archiv fr Hydrobiologie, 161(1): 133-144.
Barrat-Segretain M.-H. 2005. Competition between Invasive and Indigenous Species: Impact of Spatial Pattern and
Developmental Stage. Plant Ecology, 180(2): 153-160.
Bowmer K.H., Jacobs S.W.L., Sainty G.R. 1995. Identification, biology and management of Elodea canadensis,
Hydrocharitaceae. Journal of aquatic plant management, 33: 13- 19.
Erhard D., Gross E.M. 2006. Allelopathic activity of Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii against epiphytes and
phytoplankton. Aquatic Botany, 85: 203-211.
Erhard D., Pohnert G., Gross E. 2007. Chemical defence in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic
herbivorous Lepidoptera. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 33: 1646-1661.
Gudinskas Z. 1997. Conspectus of alien plant species of Lithuania. 1. Liliopsida (excluding Poaceae). Botanica
Lithuanica, 3(1): 3-23. Haynes R.R. Hydrocharitaceae. Flora of North America, 22, http://www.efloras.org (viewed
11.03.2009.).
Herder F. 1891. Botanisches Centralblatt. Referirendes Organ fr das Gesammtgebiet der Botanik des In- and
Ausland. 12. Jahrgang, pp. 4-5.
Hultn E., Fries M. 1986. Atlas of North European vascular plants: north of the Tropic of Cancer I-III. Koeltz
Scientific Books, Knigstein. Josefsson M., Andersson B. 2001. The environmental consequences of alien species in
the Swedish lakes Mwlaren,
Hjwlmaren, Vwnern and Vwttern. Ambio, 30(8): 514-521. Kozhova O.M., Izhnoldina L.A. 1993.
Spread of Elodea canadensis in Lake Baikal. Hydrobiologia, 259: 203-211.
Kukk T., Kull T., Lilleleht V., Ojaveer H. 2001. Vrliigid Eestis. Keskkonnaministeerium, Tallinn. Lambdon P.W.,
Pyek P., Basnou C., Hejda M., Arianoutsou M., Essl F., Jarok V., Pergl J. Winter M., Anastasiu P., Andriopoulos
P., Bazos I., Brundu G., Grapow-Celesti L., Delipetrou P., Josefsson M., Kark S., Klotz S., Kokkoris Y., Khn I.,
Merchante H., Perglova I., Pino J., Monserrat V., Zios A., Roy D., Hulme P.E. 2008. Alien flora of Europe: species
diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs. Preslia, 80: 101-149.
Lehmann E. 1895. Flora von Polnisch-Livland mit besonderer Bercksichtigung der Florengebiete Nordwest-
Russlands, des Ostbalticums, der Gouvernements Pskow und St. Petersburg sowie der Verbreitung der Pflanzen
durch Eisenbahnen. Jurjew (Dorpat).
Madsen T.V., Brix H. 1997. Growth, phytosynthesis and acclimation by two submerged macrophytes in relation to
temperature. Oecologia, 110: 320-327.
Mossberg B., Stenberg L. 1992. Den nordiska floran. Wahlstrm & Widstrand, 696 pp. (in Swedish) Nichols S.A.,
Shaw B.H. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton
crispus and Elodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia, 131: 3-21.
Mullaj A. et alt. (2007): Invasive Alien Species of Albania, Tirana
Ozimek T., van Donk E., Gulati R. 1993. Growth and nutrient uptake by two species of Elodea in experimental
condition and their role in nutrient accumulation in a macrophytedominated lake. Hydrobiologia, 251: 13-18.
Pagano A.M., Titus J.E. 2004. Submersed macrophyte growth at low pH: contrasting responses of three species to
dissolved inorganic carbon enrichment and sediment type. Aquatic botany, 79: 65-74.
Ptersone A. 1953. Elodejas Elodea L.C.Rich. Latvijas PSR flora, I, 128. lpp. (in Latvian).
Preston C.D., Croft J.M. 2001. Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester, Essex, 365 pp.
Rich T.C.G., Jermy A.C. 1998. Plant Crib 1998. BSBI, London, 391 pp.
Seezen E.L. 1866. Elodea canadensis. Am 13. December 1965. Correspondenzblatt des Naturforschenden Vereins
zu Riga, 15(8): 174-175.
Sili J. 1935. K ieviesuies msu dzimtenes retkie augi. Ventas Balss, 101, 5. lpp. (in Latvian).
Simpson D.A. 1984. Short history of the introduction and spread of Elodea Michx in the British Isles. Watsonia, 15:
1-9.
Simpson D.A. 1988. Phenotypic plasticity of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H.St.John and Elodea canadensis Michx in
the British Isles. Watsonia, 17: 121-132.

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Starcs K. 1937. Kandas elodejas 100 gadi Eirop. Daba un Zintne, 6: 193-196. (in Latvian).
Streftaris N., Zenetos A., Papathanassiou E. 2005. Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous
marine species across European seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43: 419-453.
Talevska M., 2011. Distribution of Elodea canadensis in Lake Ohrid. International Conference on Carstic water
bodies in Albania (Alblakes '11). Book of abstracts: 49. ISBN 978-99956-16-49-6
Tutin T.G., Chater A.O., Heywood V. H., Richardson I.B.K., Burges N. A., Valentine D. H., Walters S.M., Webb
D.A. 1980. Flora Europaea. 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (Monocotyledones): Alismataceae to Orchidaceae.
Cambridge University Press, pp. 4-5.
Walter J., Essl F., Englisch T., Kiehn M. 2005. Neophytes in Austria: Habitat preferences and ecological effects. In:
Nentwig W. et al. (eds.) Biological invasions from ecology to control. Neobiota, 6: 13-25.
Wittenberg R. (ed.) 2005. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland.
CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape.

PAPER 161

THE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF LAMBING THROUGHOUT A DAY IN AKKARAMAN EWES

Orhan ZALIK1, Ayhan ZTRK2


1
Provincial Directorate of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, 42040 Konya/Turkey
2
University of Seluk, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, 42075 Campus, Konya /Turkey

ABSTRACT

Diurnal distribution of the time of natural spontaneous births was studied in the native Akkaraman sheep kept under
the traditional management system. Data from 288 births were collected from a commercial farm during two
consecutive years to determine the influence of ewe age, year of birth, lamb sex and birth type on time of parturition
in ewes. Time of birth was categorized into 4 sub-groups within a day; namely, 22.00:04.00, 04.00:10.00,
10.00:16.00, and 16.00:22.00 hours. Chi-Square statistic was used in determining the association of birth time with
dam age, sex, birth type, and year at a significance level of 0.05. Over the course of two years, 156 male and 156
female lambs were born from 288 births. The numbers of single and twin born lambs were 264 and 24, respectively.
Generally, 31.2% of all the births were mainly between 16.00:22.00 hours, but 15.6% were between 22.00: 04:00
hours. In addition, 52.9% of sheep gave birth during the day between 06:00 to 18:00 hours and 47.1% gave birth in
the night hours between 18:00 to 06:00. The effects of dam age and birth year on birth time were significant
(P<0.05) but the effects of sex and birth type were insignificant.

Keywords: Sheep, Akkaraman, lambing time, lamb sex, type of birth

INTRODUCTION

Animals can give birth at any time of day. However, it has been reported that certain species can primarily give birth
uniformly thoroughout the day (such as sheep), the night (such as horses), or the daytime (such as goats) (Romano
ve Piaggio, 1999).
Lambing in sheep can be more frequent at certain times (nal and Akapnar, 1994, Aoki and ark., 2006) and the
distribution of births throughout the day has been shown to differ between breeds (George, 1969). For instance,
while lambing in Hampshire and Dorset Horn species are most likely to occur in the early hours of the day, in
Merinos species, lambing occurs typically during the afternoon (nal and Akapnar, 1994).
There is no information on the distribution of time of births throughout the day in Akkaraman species that make up
nearly half of Turkeys sheep population. The purpose of this study is to research the distribution of natural
spontaneous births throughout the day and the factors that influence this distribution.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

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The Akkaraman sheep used in this study were from a private farm in Konya's umra district, Taal village and
between the ages of 2-7 years during 2008 (106 births) and 2009 (182 births). The sheep were generally kept out in a
pasture to graze between the months of April and November, and sheltered in a pen during the other months. While
in a pen, they were fed 500-600 g barley meal, 600-700 g dried sugar beet pulp and as an ad-libitum wheat straw per
sheep. Clean drinking water was provided all day. Sheep were bred without any intervention, in which during the
breeding season of August through September, rams were kept with the herd and removed once breeding season was
over.
Lamb births took place between the months January-February. While the same person surveyed all births, lambs
showing signs of labor (sitting-standing, bleating, etc.) were taken to a lambing pen that was set up earlier.
Observations continued throughout the whole birthing process, after which the birth date, birth hour, birth type, sex
of lamb and age of ewe were all recorded. Unnatural, problematic births were not included in the study. Since the
number of lambs of ages six and seven were rather low (total 5), they were put under the same category.

In order to determine the most frequent time frame in which lambings occur, the day (24 hours) was divided into
four time frames: 22:00-04:00, 04:00-10:00, 10:00-16:00 and 16:00-22:00. The chi-square test ( ) was used to
determine whether the age of ewe, sex of lamb, birth type and the year have an affect on the time frame distribution
of lambings (Dzgne and ark., 1983).

RESULTS

During the two years of this study, 52.9% of sheep gave birth during the daytime (between the hours 06:00-18:00)
and 47.1% at night (between the hours 18:00-06:00). Thus, the majority the births took place in the daytime. A
similar result has been reported by Kaulfuss (2002) and Aleksiev (2007). The distribution of births in the four
different time frames is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. The distribution of lambings between the years of 2008 and 2009 according to different times of day
Time of Day
Year 22:00-04:00 04:00-10:00 10:00-16:00 16:00-22:00 Total
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
2008 23 21.7 34 32.1 16 15.1 33 31.1 106
2009 22 12.1 53 29.1 50 27.5 57 31.3 182
Total 45 15.6 87 30.2 66 22.9 90 31.3 288

As seen in Table 1, in the year 2008, 63.2% of 106 births were between the hours 4:00am-10:00am and 4:00pm-
10:00pm; in the year 2009, 60.4% of 182 births were between the hours 4:00am-10:00am and 4:00pm-10:00pm.
Statistically, the years effect on the number of births throughout different time frames show significant importance
in this study. There is currently no data in published literature on the effects of the various time frames throughout
the year on the number of births. Based on the chi-square test ( ) results, the distribution of births observed in
different time frames are statistically significant (P<0.01). Of the total 288 births that took place within a two year
time frame, many were observed to be between the hours of 16:00-22:00. While the second most frequent lambing
after the 16:00-22:00 time frame took place between the hours of 04:00-10:00, the least frequent lambing rate was
observed to be between the 22:00-04:00 time frame. This result shows that lambing in Akkaraman sheep occur most
frequently between specific hours. The various studies that have been made in other countries concerning the
distribution of births in different races and species of sheep throughout certain hours of the day, show similar results
(Lindahl 1964, Rossdale and Short 1967, Estes 1976, Holmes 1976, Tomar 1979, Hudgens and ark., 1986,
Alexander 1993, nal and Akapnar,1994).
The distribution of the frequency and ratio of births based on the age of distinct ewes by different time frames is
shown in Table 2.

Table 2. The distribution of the frequency and ratio of births based on the age of distinct ewes by different times of
Day
Time of Day
Age of 22:00-04:00 04:00-10:00 10:00-16:00 16:00-22:00 Total
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Ewes n % n % n % n %
2 3 13.64 4 18.18 8 36.36 7 31.82 22
3 12 16.67 15 20.83 13 18.06 32 44.44 72
4 20 16.67 27 22.50 34 28.33 39 32.50 120
5 7 10.94 35 54.69 10 15.63 12 18.75 64
6-7 5 14.71 14 41.18 6 17.65 9 26.47 34

As seen in Table 2, main lambing times for 2-year-old ewes, 3 and 4-year-old ewes, 5 and 6-7-year-old ewes were
observed to be between the hours 10:00-16:00, 16:00-22:00, and 04:00-10:00 respectively. Chi-square test statistics
demonstrate that the mother's age on the time of birth is statistically significant (P<0.01). No other research on the
dependence of birth time to the mother's age has been found in published literature, therefore, these results could not
be compared.
In the course of two years, from the 288 births, a total of 312 lambs were born, of which 156 were female and 156
male. The distribution of male and female births in ewes is shown in Table 3.

Table 3. The distribution of male and female births in ewes


Time of Day
Sex of Lamb 22:00-04:00 04:00-10:00 10:00-16:00 16:00-22:00 Total
n n n n
Male 23 48 37 48 156
Female 24 47 34 51 156
Total 47 95 71 99 312

As seen in Table 3, the frequency of the distribution of male and female births throughout the day show
similar results. The findings of this statistical analysis indicate that the sex of the lamb has no significant effect on
time of birth (P>0.05); the distribution of both male and female births within the different time frames throughout
the day were found to be homogenous. There has been no evidence in published literature on the effects of the
lamb's sex on time of birth.
In the first year (2008), 9 out of 106 births; and in the second year, 15 out of 182 births have been observed to be
twin births. In 2008, twin births occurred at a rate of 8.4%, whereas in 2009, it was 8.2%. The hourly distribution of
the type of births is shown in Table 4.

Table 4. The distribution of the type of births at different time intervals


Time of Day
Birth Type 22:00-04:00 04:00-10:00 10:00-16:00 16:00-22:00 Total
n n n n
Single 43 79 61 81 264
Twin 2 8 5 9 24
Total 45 87 66 90 288

As a result, statistically it has been shown that birth type does not have any significant effect on time of birth. This
result is similar to those of other studies (Younis and El-Gaboury, 1978; Aleksiev, 2007).

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the finding in this study, it has been determined that the normal, natural birth of Akkaraman sheep occur at
every hour of the day, but the majority occurs between the hours of 4:00am-10:00am and 4:00pm-10:00pm. When
ewes show first signs of labor, it is important to determine the exact time of birth so that breeders can be by the
animals side and intervene if necessary; this will enable breeders to provide better conditions for newborn lambs in
the shortest time possible. As a result, the vitality of lambs will increase, thereby, increasing profits for firms.

REFERENCES

Aleksiev, Y., 2007. Diurnal distrubition of the time of parturition in the Danube Fine Wool Breed of sheep. Bulg. J.
Agric. Sci., 13: 723-728.
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Alexander, G., 1993. The timing of birth in grazing Merino sheep. Aust. J. Exp. Agr., 33: 557-560.
Aoki, M. K. Kimura, Suziki,O., 2006. Influence of feedingregime on timing of parturition in beef cattle and the
relationship of vaginal temperature to parturition. Anim. Sci., J.,77:290-299.
Dzgne, O., Kesici, T., Grbz, F., 1983. statistik metodlar I. Ank. niv. Zir. Fak. Yay. Yay. No: 861, Ankara.
(Statistical methods. Ank. niv. Agric. Fac. Pub. Nu. 861, Ankara)
Estes, R. D. 1976., The significance of breeding synhcrony in the Wildbeest. East Afric. Wildlife J, 14: 135-156.
George,J., 1969. Variation in the time of parturition of Merino and Dorset Horn ewes. J. Agric.Sci.,73:295-299.
Holmes, R. J., 1976. Relationship of parturient behaviour to reproductive efficiency of Finn sheep. Anim. Prod., 36:
253-257.
Hudgens, R. E., Albright, J. L., Penningion, J. A., 1986. Influence of feeding time and diet on the time of parturition
in multiparous ewes. J. Anim. Sci., 63: 1036-1040.
Kaulfuss, K.H., 2002. Duration of pregnancy and diurnal distribution of lambing in sheep with different genotypes.
Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr, 109(1):3-7.
Lindahl, J. L., 1964. Time of parturition in ewes. Anim. Behav., 12: 231-234.
Romano,J., Piaggio,J., 1999. Time of parturition in Nubian Goats. Small Rum. Res., 33:285-288.
Rossdale, P. D., Short, R.V., 1967. The time of foaling of throughbreed mares. J. Rep. Fer., 13: 341-343.
Tomar, S. S., 1979. Time of parturition in sheep. Ind. J. Anim. Res., 13: 68-70.
nal, N., Akapnar, H., 1994. Koyunlarda davran. Hayv. Ara. Derg., 4 (2): 113-123. (Behaviour of sheep. J.
Anim. Res., 4 (2): 113-123)
Younis, A. A., Gaboury, L. A. H., 1978. On the diurnal variation in lambing and time for placenta expulsion in
Awassi ewes. J. Agric. Sci., 91: 757-760.

PAPER 162

MILK AND WOOL PRODUCTION TRAITS OF AKKARAMAN SHEEP RAISED UNDER SEMI
INTENSIVE CONDITIONS

Birol Da1
1
Seluk University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Animal Science, Konya/TURKEY

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine milk and wool production traits of Akkaraman sheep raised under semi
intensive conditions of TGEM Gzl State Farm in Konya province. Data were collected from 1043 lactation
records for milk production traits and 244 fleece records for wool production traits. Least squares means
respectively, were determined as 57.8 l for marketable milk yield (MMY), 157.8 days for lactation period (LP),
114.6 days for milking period (MP), 482.1 ml for average daily milk yield (ADMY), 684.0 ml for maximum daily
milk yield (MDMY), 2.24 kg for greasy fleece weight (GFW), 1.57 kg for clean fleece weight (CFW), 11.50 cm for
staple length (SL), 13.98 cm for fiber length (FL), 10.18 for average number of crimps over a length of 5 cm
(ANC), 31.35 for fiber diameter (FD), 6.06 % for medullated fiber ratio (MFR), 2.72 % for kemp fiber ratio
(KFR) and 65.34 % for wool yield (WY). Year had a significant effect on MMY, LP, CFW (p<0.05), ADMY,
MDMY, SL, FL and WY (p<0.01). Birth type had no significant effect on all milk production traits. Except for
ANC and KFR, age had a significant effect on the other traits (p<0.05; p<0.01). Effect of sex on GFW, CFW, SL,
FL (p<0.01) and WY (p<0.05) were significant. Repeatabilities were estimated as 0.276, 0.796, 0.765, 0.450, 0.474,
0.669, 0.710, 0.485, 0.586, 0.693, 0.831, 0.693, 0.816 and 0.651 for MMY, LP, MP, ADMY, MDMY, GFW, CFW,
SL, FL, ANC, FD, MFR, KFR and WY respectively.

Key words: Akkaraman, Lactation, Milk Yield, Fleece Weight, Repeatability

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INTRODUCTION

Sheep population of Turkey consists of about 24000000 heads (Anonymous, 2013). Akkaraman is one of the fat
tailed sheep breeds of Turkey. It has the largest population (above 40 % of the total sheep population) among the
sheep breeds of the country (Erturul, 1997). The Akkaraman breed is distributed throughout central Anatolia. It is
very hardy and strives well under poor feeding and extreme climatic conditions. The husbandry is typically
extensive, with animals kept in simple sheep-sheds during winter, when they are fed on straw. In some flocks,
animals receive some hay and limited amount of concentrates for a short period before and after lambing. Mating
takes place in September and October, with lambing in February and March. Lambs are weaned at about 2-3 months
of age, after which ewes are milked. The milking period is 2-3 months. Lactation milk yield is about 70-130 kg.
Body weights for mature ewes and rams are 50-70 kg and 72-100 kg respectively. Average greasy fleece weight is
about 2.0 kg. Tail weight generally changes from 4 to 6 kg.
Sheep milk is an important product for Turkey. Total milk production of Turkey is about 15 million tons.
Approximately 5.95 % of total milk production is produced by sheep (Anonymous, 2013). Total red meat production
of the country is approximately 943 thousand tons and the share of sheep meat is about 26.83 % (Anonymous,
2011). Akkaraman breed has an important share in these productions. There are few studies on the lactation milk
yields of native sheep breeds of Turkey. The lack of studies on the complete lactation of native sheep breed is
particularly due to the fact that in most sheep production systems are extensive. In these systems, lambs are allowed
to suck for at least 30 days post lambing. Milk recording is difficult and requires extra labor. Generally it is started
after weaning. However in some studies especially carried out in the state farms, milk recording was started at
beginning of the lactation in order to estimate whole lactation milk yield (Gney and Pekel 1981; Grsoy and zcan
1983; Vanl et al. 1984; Akbulut 1986; Dayolu and Akyurt 1988; Torun ve zcan 1991; Akmaz 1994).
Akkaraman sheep has carpet-wool type with a coarse, mixed wool fleeces with long straight outer coats and short
undercoats. Average fiber diameter changes from 29 to 35 microns (Batu and zcan, 1962; Pekel, 1968;
Sandkolu et al. 1968; Teke, 1973; Gney, 1979; Bapnar, 1985). Some of the fleeces is sold at low prices (1
USD/kg) and a small part of it, is used for handmade traditional products.
In recent years, Turkeys sheep husbandry has gradually changed from extensive to semi-intensive management
systems due to the decreasing grassland areas and impoverishment of pastures. Hence, there is a need for
determining the production traits of native sheep breeds of Turkey under raised both intensive and semi-intensive
management systems. This study was carried out to determine milk and wool production traits of Akkaraman sheep
raised under semi intensive conditions of TGEM Gzl State Farm in Konya province.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Data were collected from 1043 lactation records for milk production traits and 244 fleece records for wool
production traits of from a registered Akkaraman flock raised in the State Farm of Gzl in Konya province (38 o
27'N, 32o 22'E and 930 m above sea level). Ewes were classified in eight age groups as 1 (n=6), 2 (n=178), 3
(n=156), 4 (n=273), 5 (n=267) 6 (n=81), 7 (n=52) and 8 (n=30) years old. Mating starts September and lasts for 40
days. Lambing occurs between February and March. Ewes were hand milked twice daily and the first milk test was
performed within the first month after lambing in an attempt to describe the peak yield. All lambs sucked their dams
freely until first milk recordings. They were on a residual suckling regime until 75 days of age, when they were
weaned completely from milk. During the residual suckling period, lambs joined their dams after morning and
evening milking for residue suckling by a period of 30 minutes each. The lactating ewes were grazed from April to
December. They were kept and given food indoors through the winter. Milk yield was recorded fortnightly and
marketable milk yield (MMY) was calculated by using the Holland method; MMYi= /n ] x L where MMYi
is marketable milk yield of ith ewes, is daily milk yield of ith ewes at record i, n is record numbers in a year, L is
milking period of ith ewes.
Sheep were shorn once in a year at the beginning of summer. Fleece weights were measured by hand scales sensible
to 50 g and recorded after shearing. Wool samples were taken from shoulder, side and rump sections of each animal.
After that wool properties were determined (Doehner and Reumuth, 1964; zcan, 1990; Ertugrul, 1991).
Data were analyzed by the least square methods. Milk yield traits were analyzed using the following linear model:
Yijkl= +ai+bj+ck+eijkl where Yijkl: observation on ijklmth trait; : overall mean; ai: effect of ith year (i=1, 2, 3); bj:
effect of jth lambing type (i=1, 2) ck: effect of age (k=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8); eijkl: random error. This model is also
current for wool traits; but in there, bj states the effect of sex instead of lambing type. Differences between the
means were compared by Duncans Multiple Range Test using MSTAT-C Range Program (1989).
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Repeatabilities of milk and wool traits were estimated by Harveys (1987) Mixed Model Least Squares and
Maximum Likelihood Computer Program (LSMLMV.PC-1 Version).

RESULTS

Factors effecting milk production traits and least square means for marketable milk yield (MMY), lactation period
(LP), milking period (MP), average daily milk yield (ADMY) and maximum daily milk yield (MDMY) of
Akkaraman ewes were presented in Table 1.
In the study, marketable milk yield (MMY) of Akkaraman ewes raised under semi-intensive conditions of Gzl
State Farm located in central Anatolia were found as 57.8 kg for a milking period of 114.6 days. This value is higher
than the findings of Pekel and Gney (1974); (31.0 kg) and Gney (1979); (44.2 kg) related to MMY for the
Akkaraman breed raised in the same farm. It can be said that, there were small progresses achieved for the
management conditions. Lactation milk yield can be estimated as at least approximately 80 kg by taking into
consideration of LP, ADMY and MDMY. Lactation milk yields reported for unimproved Awassi sheep are
generally higher than the present studys findings (Gney,1979; Grsoy ve zcan, 1983; Akbulut, 1986; Dayolu,
1987; Grsoy et al., 1992). Values for the milk production traits given in Table1 were in general agreement with
those in the literature reported for Akkaraman and Morkaraman sheep (Yaln and Akta, 1969; Akta, 1970;
Akbulut, 1986).
Effects of year on milk production traits were statistically significant except for milking period. Because of milking
being a routine, it is an expected situation. Milk yield has increased over the years in the study by improving
management conditions. Effect of year on MMY was reported as significant in some studies (Vanl, 1974; Gney,
1979; Vanl et al., 1984; Akbulut, 1986; Rogdakis et al., 1989), but Dayolu (1987) stated otherwise. Although the
twin birth ewes produced 2.5 kg more milk than single birth ewes, the difference was not significant. Similar
findings reported by Akmaz (1994) for Konya Merino ewes. Usually it is reported that twin birth ewes give more
milk than single birth ewes (Rogdakis et al., 1989 in Karagouniko; Peeters et al.,1992 in Flemish, Suffolk, Texel;
Gabina et al., 1993 in Latxa ewes).

Table 1. Factors effecting milk production traits and least square means for marketable milk yield (MMY), lactation
period (LP), milking period (MP), average daily milk yield (ADMY) and maximum daily milk yield (MDMY)
Factors N MMY/l LP/day MP/day ADMY/ml MDMY/ ml
MeanSE MeanSE MeanSE MeanSE MeanSE
Year 1992 247 54.33.2b 160.73.7a 112.93.7 457.217.1B 622.628.5B
ab b AB
1993 541 57.82.8 154.63.3 115.23.3 482.751.1 721.025.2A
a ab A
1994 255 61.32.9 157.93.4 115.73.4 504.815.9 708.426.5A
Lambing Single 760 56.62.7 156.43.1 113.33.1 476.914.4 674.224.0
Type Twin 283 59.12.9 159.13.4 115.83.4 486.315.7 693.826.2
1 6 60.911.1abc 167.712.8a 125.512.8a 457.559.3c 697.598.9bc
e b e c
2 178 51.12.2 152.72.5 108.22.5 458.311.5 638.419.3c
de b e c
3 156 52.52.2 152.92.6 108.62.6 462.411.9 649.619.9bc
cde b ed bc
Age 4 273 54.91.7 154.42.0 110.62.0 477.39.3 662.215.5bc
bcd b cd abc
5 267 57.81.9 158.42.2 115.12.2 482.710.2 676.717.1bc
ab b bc ab
6 81 62.23.2 158.13.7 117.13.7 514.217.1 717.328.6ab
abc ab ab c
7 52 60.33.9 161.44.5 121.84.5 462.221.0 675.635.1bc
ab a ab abc
8 30 62.57.3 166.47.7 121.67.1 496.949.2 743.954.8a
Overall 1043 57.82.7 157.83.1 114.63.1 482.114.2 684.023.6
AB
: Within a column, means with a different superscript are different (p<0.01). abcde : Within a column, means with a
different superscript are different (p<0.05.)

Effects of age on milk production traits were found to be significant (p<0.01). According to MMY of age groups,
there was not a regular relationship among age groups. Except for 1and 8 age groups, milk yield showed a slow
increase up to age 6 and a slight decrease at age 7. First mating age is normally 18 months of age, but sometimes
rapid growing female lambs can mate during the mating season. Also their udders grow well and milk production of
them sufficient for their lambs. Finding high MMY in age 8 can be expressed as keeping the high yielding ewes
until this age culling the low yielding ewes in the farm. It can be seen that there is stable relationship among age

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groups, when the ADMY and MDMY values are investigated. As seen in the Table 1, it is concluded that milk yield
of Akkaraman ewes in the present study increases until the age 6. Maximum milk yield was also reported as 5 years
of age by Finci (1957), Eliin (1970) (in Awassi) and Vanl et al., (1984) (in Morkaraman). Least square means for
greasy fleece weight (GFW), clean fleece weight (CFW), staple length (SL), fiber length (FL), average number of
crimps over a length of 5 cm (ANC), fiber diameter (FD), medullated fiber ratio (MFR), kemp fiber ratio (KFR),
wool yield (WY) and significance of the factor effects were given in Table 2.
Table 2. Least square means for GFW, CFW, SL, FL, ANC, FD, MFR, KFR, WY and significance of the factor
effects

Traits N MeanSE Significance of factor effects

Year Sex Age


GFW (kg) 244 2.240.07 ns ** **
CFW (kg) 187 1.570.07 * ** *
SL (cm) 251 11.500.21 ** ** *
FL (cm) 251 13.980.24 ** ** *
ANC (n) 251 10.180.51 ** ns ns
FD () 227 31.350.65 ns ns **
MFR (%) 227 4.280.64 * ns ns
KFR (%) 227 2.720.62 * ns *
WY (%) 187 65.341.73 ** * *
**:p<0.01; *: p<0.05; ns: non significant

GFW of Akkaraman sheep (2.24 kg) was in general agreement with those in the literature focused on Akkaraman
(Dzgne and Pekel, 1968; Pekel and Gney 1974, Gney, 1979). GFW in the present study is higher than the
findings that reported for Morkaraman sheep (Mftolu, 1974; Vanl, 1974; Akbulut 1986; Dayolu1987 and
zsoy et al., 1990). SL and FL values can change by inter-shearing period. The 11.50 cm SL in the study is similar
to that reported for Morkaraman (11.30 cm) and Akkaraman (11.02) breeds (Vanl, 1974; Gney, 1979).
Akkaraman sheep is a typical carpet wool producing breed, its fleece is composed of coarse-mixed fibers. FD which
is one the most important wool traits was determined as 31.35 micron in this study. This value was found to be
similar to the findings of previous studies above.
Except for GFW and FD, year had a significant effects all the other wool production traits. Vanl (1974) and Torun
et al. (1993) also stated that year had no effect on GFW, but Grsoy (1980), Akbulut (1986), zsoy et al. (1990) and
DellAquilla et al.(1993) reported otherwise. Nutritional status of the flocks, climatologic factors and shearing
season may have changed wool production by the years.
Effect of sex on GFW, CFW, SL, FL (p<0.01), WY (p<0.05) were found to be significant. It is an expected
situation, mature live weight of rams heavier than ewes so the fleece covered body surface area and GFW in rams
more than ewes. However effect of sex on FD, ANC, MFR, KFR were not significant. There are relationships
among these characteristics; in general, FD is getting finer, ANC increases but MFR and KFR decrease. Effect of
sex on these traits was found to be compatible.
Age had a significant effect on wool production traits except for ANC and MFR. But there was not a regular
relationship among ages. Lambs are not usually shorn in the birth year and first shearing is done at the 15-16 months
of age. For this reason, greasy fleece weight of firstly shorn ewes heavier than the others. In general, wool yield
increases proportionally by increasing age and live weight until reaching the mature body size and then decreases
slowly by the advancing ages. Although the effect of age on FD, KFR and WY had significant, its effect on these
traits was found to be irregular. In Awassi sheep, zder and zcan (1990) emphasized the effect of age on FD as
significant, in contrast, Grsoy (1980) and zcan et al. (1983) reported insignificant age effect on FD.
Repeatabilities for milk and wool production traits were given in Table 3. Repeatability of any character is accepted
as upper limit of heritability. Sometimes h2 cannot be estimated from the data set such as in sire uncertainty, and
then repeatability can be considered as the approximate estimate of the upper limit of heritability. Heritabilities for
milk yield production traits in sheep is usually low-moderate and changes between 0.10- 0.35 (Carriedo et al. 1995
(in Churra); Sanna et al. 1997 (in Sarda); El-Saied et al. 1999 (in Spanish Churra); Pollott and Gootwine, 2001 (in
Awassi); Serrano et al. 2001 (in Latxa and Manchega); Othmane et al. 2002 (in Churra)). In the present study,
repeatability for MMY was found as 0.276. It is slightly higher than that reported by Martinez et al. (2011) in
Chilota and Suffolk Down breeds, but, in general it is lower than the repeatabilities those reported in other breeds
mentioned above.
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Repeatabilities for LP, MP, ADMY and MDMY were found to be higher than MMYs repeatability (between 0.450
and 0.796). There are usually positive high correlations between milk yield traits. Especially the correlation between
total milk yield and maximum daily milk yield was reported as higher in some studies (Vanl et al. 1984; Gabina et
al. 1993). It may be concluded that, a selection based on the LP and MDMY could be indirectly enhanced total milk
yield.

Table 3. Repeatabilities of milk and wool production traits

Traits N r Sr Traits N r Sr
MMY 693 0.2760.048 SL 172 0.4850.083
LP 693 0.7960.020 FL 172 0.5860.071
MP 693 0.7650.022 ANC 172 0.6930.056
ADMY 693 0.4500.042 FD 176 0.8310.033
MDMY 693 0.4740.041 MFR 176 0.6930.056
GFW 190 0.6690.065 KFR 176 0.8160.036
CFW 142 0.7100.059 WY 142 0.6510.069

CONCLUSIONS

Wool production traits had moderate to high repeatabilities. Repeatabilities for GFW and CFW in Merino and
Morkaraman reported by zsoy (1974) and Vanl (1974) were lower than the present studys values. In general, the
repeatabilities of the wool production traits given in Table 3 were agreement with the common findings for sheep
breeds reported by Kaymak and Snmez (1992). Also, it is well known that the heritabilities of these traits are
usually higher. As a result, it can be said that, the selection for these traits would be efficient.

REFERENCES

Akbulut, . 1986. vesi x Morkaraman melezlerinin nemli verim zellikleri zerinde aratirmalar (Studies on
principal yield traits of Awassi x Morkaraman crosses). Atatrk niv. Ziraat Fakltesi, Zootekni Blm. Master
Thesis, Erzurum.
Akmaz, A. 1994. Konya Merinosu koyunlarda st verimi ve st verimine etki eden bazi faktrler (Milk yield and
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Batu, S. zcan, K. 1962. Akkaraman, Dal, Kvrck ve Trkiye'de yetitirilen merinos melezlerinde yapa
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diameters of Akkaraman, Dali, Kivircik breeds and German Mutton Merino x Kivircik crosses in Turkey).
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Carriedo J.A., Baro J.A., De La Fuente L.F., San Primitivo F.1995. Genetic parameters for milk yield in dairy sheep,
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Dayolu, H., 1987. Transferrin polimorfizmi ile baz genetik ve evre faktrlerinin Merinos, Morkaraman vesi,
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Dayolu, H., Akyurt, . 1988. vesi, Tuj ve Karagl koyunlarinin deiik ya, transferrin genotipi, yllara gre st
verimi performanslari (Effects of different ages, transferrin genotypes and years on the milk yield performances of
Awassi, Tushinski and Karakul sheep). Cumhuriyet niv. Ziraat Fakltesi Dergisi 4 (1): 255-263.
Dell Aquila, S., Orifici, F., Piermati, C., Renieri, C. Taibi, L., 1993.Genetic studies on fleece weight of Gentile
di Puglia sheep. Anim,Breed. Abstr. Vol. 61 No: I, 27.
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Dzgne, O. Pekel, E., 1968. Orta Anadolu artlarnda eitli Merinos x Akkaraman melezlerinin verimle ilgili
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El-Saied U.M., Carriedo J.A., De la Fuente L.F., San Primitivo F.1999. Genetic parameters of lactation cell counts
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Eliin, A., 1970. Ceylanpnar Devlet retme iftliinde yetitirilen vesi koyunlarnn st verimi, laktasyon
uzunluu ve yzde ya nispeti ile ilgili aratrmalar. A.. Zir. Fak. Yaynlar: 385, Bilimsel Aratrma ve
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Gabina, D., Arrese, F., Arranz, I., Beltran De Heredia, I. 1993. Average milk yields and envionmental effects
on Latxa sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 76; No.4: 1191 -1198.
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Gney, O., Pekel, E. 1981. vesi x Akkaraman melezlerinde heterosisin saptanmasi zerinde bir aratirma (A study
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koyunlarn baz zellikleri zerinde karlatrmal aratrmalar. Doktora Tezi, Baslmam, Adana.
Grsoy, O., zcan, L. 1983. Ceylanpnar Devlet retme iftlii ekstansif ve yar-entansif koullarnda yetitirilen
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Awassi sheep raised in intensive and semi-intensive conditions at Ceylanpnar State Farm). . . Ziraat Fakltesi
Yll 14 (3-4): 155-168.
Grsoy, O., Pekel, E., zcan., Torun, O. Tmon, V. 1992. GAP Blgesinde halk elindeki ivesilerin CeyIanpnar
vesileriyle baz zellikler bakmndan karlatrlmas, I : Dl ve St Verimi, Doa T. Vet. ve Hay. Der. 16: 535-
546. TBTAK
Harvey, W.R. 1987. Users Quide for LSMLMW PC-1 Version Mixed Model, Least-Squares and Maximum
Likelihood Computer Program. Ohio State Univ., Columbus (Mimeo), USA.
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Martnez, M. E., Caldern C., De la Barra, R., De la Fuente, L.F. and Gonzalo, C. 2011. Udder Morphologcal
Trats And Mlk Yeld Of Chilota And Suffolk Down Sheep Breeds. CHIL. J. AGR. RES. - VOL. 71 (1):90-95.
MSTAT, 1989. MSTAT Users Guide: Statistics. Verison 5, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA.
Mftolu, . 1974. Merinos x Morkaraman melezlerinin nemli verim zellikleri zerinde aratrmalar.
Veteriner leri Genel Mdrl Lalahan Zoo. Ar. Ens. Yayn No:35.
Othmane M.H., Carriedo, J.A., San Primitivo F., De La Fuente, L.F. 2002. Genetic parameters for lactation traits of
milking ewes: protein content and composition, fat, somatic cells and individual laboratory cheese yield. Genet. Sel.
Evol. 34 (5) 581596.
zcan, L., Grsoy, O., Torun, O., 1983. Ceylanpnar Devlet retme iftliinde yetitirilen vesi koyunlarn baz
zellikleri iin populasyona ait genetik parametrelerin tahmini zerinde bir aratrma. . . Zir. Fak. Yll Yl: 14
Say: 3 - 4, Sayfa: 195 206.
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zsoy, M.K., 1974. Atatrk niversitesi merinos srsnde yapa verimi ile ilgili vasflara tesir eden faktrlerin
parametre tahminleri. Ata. ni. Zir. Fak. Der. Cilt: 5 (1): 41 - 64.
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some body measurements and fleece characteristics). Ankara niv.Zir.Fak. Yaynlar: 330 Ankara. (Eng. Summ).
Pekel, E. Gney, O., 1974. Anadolu Merinosu, Akkaraman ve vesi koyunlar ve bunlarn saf dllerinin Gzl
Devlet retme iftlii koullarnda nemli baz veriler ynnden karlatrlmalar. .. Zir. Fak. Yll Yl:5
Say: 1-2, Sayfa:31-48.
Peters, R., Buys,N., Robuns, L., Vanmontfort, D., Isterdael, J.Van, 1992. Milk yield and milk composition of
Flemish milk sheep, Suffolk and Texel ewes and their crossbreds. Small Ruminant Resecarch 7 (4): 279 - 288.

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Pollott G.E., Gootwine, E. 2001. A genetic analysis of complete lactation milk production in Improved Awassi
sheep. Livest. Prod. Sci. 71: 37-47.
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Greek Karagouniko sheep breed. Anim. Breed. Abstr. 057-04: 159.
Sandkolu, M., meryz, F., Mftoglu, S., zcanar, K. 1968. Orta Anadolu Blgesindeki halk
yetitirmesi Akkaraman koyunlarnn nemli yapa zellikleri ve yapalarn kullanlabilme yeteneklerinin tespiti
(A study on some properties of Akkaraman wool in Central Anatolia and their suitability for usage). Lalahan Zoot.
Arat. Enst. Derg., 8(4): 105125 (Eng. Summ).
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sheep using a bivariate animal model. Small Ruminant Res. 25 :7984.
Serrano M., Ugarte E., Jurado J.J., Prez-Guzmn M.D., Legarra A. 2001. Test day models and genetic parameters
in Latxa and Manchega dairy ewes, Livest. Prod.Sci. 67 253264.
Teke, M.A. 1973. vesi x Akkaraman melezlerinde yapa zellikleri. (Wool characteristics of Awassi x White
Karaman crossbreds). Lalahan Zoot. Arat. Enst.Derg., 8(12), 3449.
Torun, H., zcan, L. 1991. Ceylanpnar vesilerinde erken saimin analarin st verimi kuzularin geliimi zerine
etkileri (Effects of early milking on ewes milk yield and lamb growth in Ceylanpnar Awassi sheep). . . Ziraat
Fakltesi Dergisi 6 (1): 111-126.
Vanl, Y., 1974. Atatrk niversitesi Morkaraman srsnde yapa ve st verimi zelliklerinin fenotipik ve genetik
parametre tahminleri. Doktora Tezi, Erzurum.
Vanl, Y., zsoy, M. K., Emsen, H. 1984. vesi koyunlarinin Erzurum evre artlarina adaptasyonu ve eitli
verimleri zerine aratirmalar (Studies on some yields and adaptability of Awassi sheep to the environmental
conditions of Erzurum Province). TBTAK Veteriner Aratrma Grubu Proje No: VHAG-533.
Yaln, B.C., Akta, G., 1969. Ergin vesi ve Akkaraman Koyunlarnn Konya Erelisi artlarndaki
Performanslar, Lalahan Zoo. Ara. Ens. Der. Cilt:9 say: 3 - 4, sayfa: 1-14.

PAPER 163

HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS DURING MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF


WOOD IN ALBANIA

Arben Bejtja1, Arben Boari2, Holta ota1


1
Agricultural University of Tirana , Faculty of Forest Sciences, Wood Industry Department, Tirana, Albania;
2
Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economy & Agribusiness, Departement of Mathematics &
Informatics,Tirana, Albania;

E-mail: arbenbejtja@yahoo.fr; bbocari@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

During the processing of wood, in various types of machinery and mechanical processing lines, a large amount of
waste in the form of sawdust, shavings and dust is created. The fast removal of these types of dust is necessary not
only for the normal running of the processing, but for the creation of appropriate hygiene conditions on the ward as
well. Tiny particles of dust, flying in the air and continuously falling on equipment, walls and columns enter humans
during breathing. Inhalation of large quantities of wood dust causes illness and cancer. Therefore the fast and timely
removal of dust and waste directly during wood processing is a problem with a significant environmental impact.

Key words: dust, wood, mechanical processing, environment, pollution, human health.

INTRODUCTION

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Classification of trees. Wood is part of the tree which is found under the bark. Trees are relatively complex and
heterogenic material. They are composed by a number of same elements for all species as well as by specific
components regarding to any particular class of them.
Some of them are toxins (flavonoids, quinones, tannins, terpenes, etc.). In addition to these, other waste chemical
products added by human being for protection purposes, against parasites etc, can also be found in wood.
According to their compactness, trees are divided into hardwood and softwood, without having a distinguish line
between them In general hardwoods contain more organic polar components rather than other category (softwood).
In IARC volume 62/1995 "Monographs on the Evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans, wood dust and
formaldehyde" a summary can be found of hardwoods and softwoods.
The dust obtained from harvesting activities in the forest and first breakdown in the sawmill are not defined as
cancerous. One particularity, which is considered as dangerous, remains the exposure to bacterial and fungal spores.
Dusts from hardwoods. Dust is a particle with an aerodynamic diameter less than 100 m. Wood dust is formed
during wood processing in various types of processing machinery. The amount of dust produced and its size depends
on the type of material processed, the type of machinery, the used cutting tool, the cutting speed etc. This dust is
scattered from cutting tool with a certain speed and stays suspended in the air for some time that mainly depends on
the size and weight of the particles and the circumstantial conditions of the work environment. The larger particle is,
the faster it loses terminal velocity and the faster it falls.
A piece of dust can be inhaled by the operators in the work environment. When the dust is inhaled it is deposited in
the nose, in the upper and lower respiratory ways. The amount of dust deposited within the respiratory ways depends
on the size, shape, density and the velocity of the inhalation. Inhalable particulate fraction is that fraction of a dust
cloud that can be breathed into the nose or mouth. Inhaled particles are particles with a diameter less than 100 m.
Those over 25 m diameter are most of the time deposited in the nose. Particles with diameter greater than 10m are
deposited in the thorax, while particles with diameter less than 10 m are (respirable particles) deposited on the
lower respiratory system (alveolar area).
According to many studies, the exposure or inhalation of saw dust gives an amount on health effects such as:
Dermatological disorders related to irritation or sensitization of the exposed parts, largely hands.
Irritative effects at the level of 'respiratory system (upper airways and deep regions)
Asthma(Thuja Plicata)
Chronic bronchitis
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (from mold contamination of the timber).
Cancer of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. According to studies, this tumor a affects 5 to 10,000 workers per year,
who are exposed to hardwood dust, while it affects 1 person in 1 million, who is unexposed to it.
To workers who are exposed to wood dust, these tumors occur at ages 50-60. The first symptoms may include: a
feeling of a closed nose and nasal bleeding which occurs to one side generally.
In 1995, the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) has classified wood dust in group 1 which
provides:
Group 1. The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of
carcinogenicity in humans. (IARC MONOGRAFS Volume 62)
Based on the above data and the above classification, the IARC has fixed a limit value for exposure to wood dust:
5mg/m3 (inhaled fraction) measured in a period of 8 hours, which should fit in the presence of any wood dust
mixture containing hardwood.
In 1999 the EU directive 1999/38/CE cites oak dust and beech dust as confirmed cancerous sources.
The directive 2004/37/CE of the European Union has fixed a limit value of 5mg/m3 for wood dust as an average
value of 8 working hours per day.
Different countries have set limits to the amount of air dust.
The NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) [NIOSH, 2000] has fixed a limit of 1mg/m3
value for all types of wood dust, underscoring the cancerous danger.
The ACGIH (American Conference of Industrial Hygienists), has set in 2010 a value limit of 1mg/m3 for all types
of powders of trees and gave a value of 0.5mg/m3 limit for the western red cedar (with the sensitizing effect and
asthma). In addition, the ACGIH has registered the cancerous effects of oak and beech dust (class A1) and its
suspicion on the cancerous effects of mahogany, teak, betula and juglans dust (class A2.). Where:
A1: Known carcinogens: the agent is carcinogen towards humans, based on the results of epidemiological studies.
A2: Suspected carcinogen: the data collected by studies are questionable or insufficient to classify the agent as
carcinogen towards humans, or the agent is carcinogen towards animals as shown in experiments.
Germany has set a value limit of 2mg/m3 for all types of wood dust [DFG, 2004].

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In Italy (2008) the limit value is defined as 5mg/m3 for hardwood


In France (2007) the limit is 1mg/m3 for hardwood.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Given the importance of the problem and the requirements above, we thought of undertaking a study where we
collected data on the situation of wood processing industry in Albania. To conduct the study we proceeded as stated
below:
The development of a complex questionnaire, which included a variety of topics on the current state of
manufacturing entities in timber industry.
Data collection for the biggest possible number of subjects distributed in many regions of the country with the
survey method
Additional data on the number of subjects on Wood Processing and the number of workers, by INSTAT.
Data on imports of materials like particle board, MDF, plywood, boards, etc. by the Albanian Customs.
Extraction of data on the amount of timber that is processed by internal resources, in discussion with the Association
of Wood Processors of Albania.
Scientific and statistical processing of data.
The sections of the questionnaire used for data collection includes the following main aspects:
General information on business and legal form.
Data and other main activities
Data on the number of employees and those directly engaged in production.
Materials and raw materials used and their storage conditions.
Machinery used.
Cutting tools and their treatment.
Working conditions and environmental pollution. (Notice that it was impossible to ask directly how many workers
are exposed towards dust because for some this question was stated as sensitive.
Waste and their management
In presented paper, we are focused on some data regarding health of workers and environmental pollution resulting
from residues of wood processing industry.
Classification of subjects by number of employment. According to the Association of Wood Processors for the year
2012, in Albania the wood processing industry included 1793 business with over 11,000 employees. Despite our
intention, the Albanian Institute of Statistics has not been able to provide us reliable data for the sector.

Tab. 1 Number of business according to number of employees*

Total Number of business according to number of employees.


business
1-4 5-9 10-30 31-50 Over 50
1793 1312 345 67 46 23
*Businesses that produce sawmills are excluded.

Most of them are small businesses (73%) and remain part are considered as large businesses. Almost all small
businesses are family business with a limited number of employees. These businesses conduct their activities within
their urban or rural residence or in the ground floors of urban buildings. The materials used are laminated
particleboard, MDF, less plywood and almost no lumber.

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Classification of subjects according to the main activity. Despite our countrys large imports of furniture, it is
noticed that the production of such items is an important percentage. The chart below shows that 78% of these
businesses deal with furniture manufacturing, 12% in manufacturing doors and windows, 8% in manufacturing
upholstery and 2% with wood panel products.

Types of raw material used. Data from the General Directorate of Customs and information from the Association
of Wood Processors, the consumption of wood materials for 2011 and 2012 are as in the table below

Tab. 2 Consumption of wood materials for 2011-2012

Consumption of wood materials for 2011-2012

Material Particleboard MDF Plywood Imported and Albanian sow mill products
Year Beech Oak Fir Others
2011 75200 50881 1712 73750 18540 5460 5008
2012 75915 48287 2082 66930 13890 7815 4428

Note: In others these species are included: Prunus species, Acer, Fraxinus, Teak, Palisander, Iroko, Obeshe,
Mahogany, etc.
The data of table expressed as % are given in the chart below:

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As seen from the data above, the most commonly used materials include wood from beech, oak; dusts of which are
classified as cancerous.
The dust of the wood species marked on table 3 are considered dangerous for human health.

Tab. 3 Common wood species

Softwood Hardwood Tropical hardwood


Species Common Species Common Species Common
name name name
Abies Fir Acer Maple Agathis australis Kauri pine
Chamaecyparis Cedar Alnus Alder Chlorophora Iroko
excelsa
Cupressus Cypress Betula Birch Dacrydium Rimu, red pine
cupressinum
Larix Larch Carya Hickory Dalbergia Palisander
Picea Spruce Carpinus Hornbeam Dalbergia nigra Brazilian
rosewood
Pinus Pine Castanea Chestnut Diospyros Ebony
Pseudotsuga Douglas fir Fagus Beech Khaya African
menziesii mahogany
Sequoia Redwood Fraxinus Ash Mansonia Mansonia,
sempervirens bete
Thuja Thuja Juglans Walnut Ochroma Balsa
Tsuga Hemlock Platanus Sycamore Palaquium Nyatoh
hexandrum
Populus Poplar Pericopsis elata Afrormosia
Prunus Cherry Shorea Meranti
Salix Willow Tectona grandis Teak
Querqus Oak Terminalia Limba, afara
superba
Tilia Lime Triplochiton Obeshe
scleroxylon
Ulmus Elm

Classification of subjects according to the level of mechanization of internal transport. An important indicator
of the progress of technology and the creation of favorable work conditions is the mechanization of internal
transport. Internal transport, depending on the work process, can be accomplished simply with arm strength, with

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simple tools (platform trucks, hand pallet trucks) with different cranes (forklift truck, gantry cranes, bridge cranes,
etc.) with various rollers with belt conveyors, roller conveyors, lifting tables etc. and by systems of suction.
The data is given in the following chart.

The use of waste in form of dust, sawdust, and chips. From the study made, it has been stated that there is no
consistent approach to the use of waste. In general, all small firms throw waste by mixing it with others. There are
some that sell it for burning in kilns and bedding for livestock. There are very few businesses, mainly large ones to
making technical exploitation of their waste using them in furnaces for heat production or to produce wood pellets
or wood briquettes.
But there is worse. In some districts, the waste in the form of sawdust and dust are thrown into rivers and streams,
destroying their fauna.
Data from measurements. The Measurements made of sawdust particles (Cota. H) in the drilling process on different
wood and wood based panels are carried out through device ParticleScanPro.
The evidence shows that around 80% of the particles are smaller than 1m in diameter, with the concentration 0.3-
0.5 m.
With data on the number of particles for each diametrical group, it was calculated their content in mg/m3 air.
For each diametrical group, we have determined the average terminal velocity.
It is noted that the terminal velocity is very small and very small air currents can distribute particles from where they
are produced, in the whole working space.

RESULTS

After 1990 wood processing in Albania by a state industry organized in several factories and plants, was developed
into the form of small and medium businesses where the majority includes small businesses with a limited number
of employees. Almost all small businesses are located within residential areas.
Most of these businesses have imported used machinery and equipment, manufactured before 1998, from countries
around Albania. There are few businesses that have refurbished by introducing modern machinery technology with
contemporary parameters. They generally use as raw materials planks: beach, querqus, particle board, MDF,
plywood and fewer planks: fir, poplar and exotic woody. The different studies confirm that dust produced from the
processing of these materials constitutes a serious risk to the health of persons exposed.
From field surveys, almost all small businesses do not use general and local exhaust systems of suction.
The data collected from tests showing that air pollution from dust exceeds 20 times the allowed rate. The amount of
dust that can be inhaled without suction systems and personal protection constitutes a serious risk to health.
Even the big businesses that have suction systems do not provide proper air cleaning. It is noted that they are
intended merely for the purpose of waste disposal without taking into consideration the factors discussed above.
There are plenty aspiration systems ending with cyclones and no filters to clean the air. This brings environmental
pollution outside and beyond.

CONCLUSIONS

To improve this situation must be done:

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Adoption of laws and procedures from the legal framework of the European Community (the Acquis
Communautaire).
To force all appropriate entities to use general and local exhaust systems of suction.
To force employees to keep personal protective device.
Organizing workshops on employee orientation regarding the risk of exposure from dust and ways to use systems of
suction ventilation. Everyone should understand that he is responsible not only for himself but also for the society.
Update existing systems of suction in the all constituent elements, in order to improve the effectiveness of air
cleanup in relation to hygienic norms.
The Ministry of Health and Institute of Public Health should force dependant institutions to keep records on
occupational diseases which are observed on woodworking workers who are in direct contact with dust.
According to stabilized European norms (1998) for wood machines (e.g. for EN860/1998 thickness planner, EN
940/1998 combined machines) the constructor must supply the vehicle with collection devices and indicate the
aerodynamic parameters necessary for appropriate links with the suction device. The suction systems should provide
an air velocity of no less than 20m/sec for dried materials and 28m/sec for non dried materials. So the first step
when buying new machinery is that it must match these standards or older machineries must be adapted to these
norms. Capture devices should be constructed and placed in such a way that they can ensure that batches of chips
and dust produced from cutting device enter directly into it.
This should be associated with installations of ventilation systems for fresh and warm air. Installations within the
unit should only be suctioning
The air filters should be calculated taking into account not only the amount of air they filter, but also the small
fractions of particles that are inhaled by man
Sanding vehicles should be connected to independent systems of suction

REFERENCES

IARC (International Agency For Research on Cancer).Vol 62 1995.


NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) Cincinnati, OH, 2000.
SCOEL (Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits). Recommendation from the SCOEL: risk
assessment for wood dust. 2003
Dahlqvist M., Johard U., Alexandersson R., Bergstrme B., Ekholm U., Eklund A., Milosevich B., Tornling G.,
Ulfvarson U. Lung function and precipitating antibodies in low exposed wood trimmers in Sweden. Am. J. Ind.
Med. 21: 549-559. 1992.
ACGIH (American Conference of Industrial Hygienists) Cincinnati, Ohio. 2010
Harper M., Akbar M.Z. and Andrew M.E. Comparison of wood-dust aerosol size distributions collected by air
samplers. J Work Environ Health., 6(1), 18-22. 2004.
Harper M. and Muller B.S. An evaluation of total and inhalable samplers for the collection of wood dust in three
wood products industries. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4(5), 648-656. 2002.
ota H. Study on the air dust level during drilling processes of wood and wood based panels. 1998.
Gitte Jacobsen, Respiratory diseases and exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry: A 6 year follow-up, 2007
F. Nerozzi , N. Rosini, A. Innocenti, C. Ciapini, U.F. Prevenzione, Igiene e Sicurezza Luoghi di Lavoro U.S.L. 3
(Pistoia)
Report on Carcinogens Twelfth Edition 2011 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service
National Toxicology Program
Hazard Prevention and Control in the Work Environment: Airborne Dust WHO/SDE/OEH/99.14
ISO (1995). Air Quality - Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-related Sampling.
ISO Standard 7708. International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Geneva.Teschke K, Demers PA, Davies HW, Kennedy SM, Marion SA, Leung V (1999). Determinants of exposure
to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber milling environment. Annals of
Occupational Hygiene 43(4):247-255.

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PAPER 164

RESULTS OF THE IMPACT OF THE TYPE OF COVERAGESCALE ON SEVERAL INDICATORS OF


GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.1758) WAS CULTIVATED IN PLANT
KLOS (ELBASAN-ALBANIA)

Vasjar Shermadhi1, Vladimir Spaho1, Anila Hoda, Enkeleda Sallaku, Fidel Gjurgji

Agriculture University, Faculty of .Tirana , Albania

E-mail: vasjarshermadhi@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Nowadays functional freshwater, semi-intensive aquatic culture are essential elements of human activity in
many aspects which needs to be more recognized. The paper presents the growth of some different phenotypes of
species of carp fish, Cyprinus carpio L.1758) cultivated in breeding place Klos, Elbasan (Albania). In this study are
estimated some grown aspect and survival feature of four phenotypic forms of this specie that change depending
on distribution of its scales.During our study we note that: the phenotypic form known as scaled was represent
with higher value of average weight (621.33 38.295 g), while the phenotypic form known as mirror leather
was represent with lower value of average weight. Are obvious significant differences (P<0.05) , during a
comparison beetwen couples, scaled withlinear mirror, scaledwith mirror leather, and the couple
scattered scaled and mirror leather, For the wild phenotypic form of carp was estimated the higher average
value of Specific Growth Rate (SGR) (0.571 0.010%), while the lower value was encountered for mirror
leather phenotypic form (0.564 0.0073%). We conclude also for SGR the same difference beetwen
phenotypic form as the difference of average weight. Based on Allometric Coefficent b on relation weight-
length, both phenotypic forms, Linear mirror, and mirror leather were represent with negative value. While
the scaled had the higher value of b (b=3.1056; r=0.984), the higher value of index of survival (96.119.42
%) , and the higher rendiment (yield) (43.0 kv/ha). As the result the wild carp (scaled phenotypes) under semi-
intensiv condition has a good performance of growth and productivity.

Keywords: Common Carp, Scales Growth Rate, Scattered Type, Mirror Type.

INTRODUCTION

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is a cultivated specie that has the longest history domestication STEFFENS
(1980). In China, this type is cultivated in ponds from around 3000 years ago Hoffman (1934). Europe has started to
cultivate carp before 100 years ago Hickling (1962).
Are known several types of coverage scales in carps Kirpichnikov (1967). Moreover, there are variability in the
morphology of scales, color and shape of the body, that usually occur in wild populations as well as those cultivated
Haynes (2009). In wild populations are dominant forms that have the body completely covered by scales. According
to Nguyen Huu Ninh (2009), natural selection has largely favored the forms of carp that are completely covered by
scales. The reduction of the number of scales is the result of some domestication effects, such as the protection
against physical injuries and artificial selection.
Mirror carp is commonly found in cultivated populations of this kind. However, the phenotype "mirror" is also
found in wild populations of the European and the Asian carp Kirpichnikov (1981). Approximately 5% of wild carp
in Australia waters belongs to two variants of the phenotype "mirror" Koehn ( 2000). The scales in phenotype
"mirror" are larger and brighter than the usual scales and in the majority of cases, they do not cover the whole body
Kirpichnikov (1981). the reduction in the normal number of scales has been a target of artificial selection for fish
domestication, in order to facilitate cleaning before cooking Michaels (1998). According Kirpichnikov (1981), the
inheritance scale coverage is controlled by genes S and N. Depending on the combination of these two genes, the
phenotype of carp may be "scattered scale mirror", "linear mirror with a raw of scales placed on the body ,
without scales or "naked" and completely covered by scales of normal size, which is known as the "scales"
phenotype or the "wild" phenotype Kirpichnikov (1981). There is evidence that the frequency of degree of scales
presence in phenotype "mirror" is not defined entirely by two mentioned genes. Nicolescu (2004), for example,

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found that the phenotype "naked" is manifested even in the absence of allele N and probably it might be an extreme
variant of the phenotype " scattered scale (ssnn). Not long time ago Rohner et.al (2009) have proved that the gene
s/'s in C.carpio, which is involved in the occurrence of phenotype "mirror", was identical to the one paralog of the
receptor (fgfr I) fibroblasts growth factor. The gene product N / n, which is involved in the occurrence of the
phenotype "naked", has not yet been identified. The type of scale coverage of common carp is affected by
pleyotrope phenomena Gomelsky, et al. (1992), Gomelsky et al. (2012). These authors have found that diploid carp
"naked" genotype ssNn and triploidi "naked" sssNnn genotypes differ from each other from the degree of reduction
of the scales number, forming thus respectively groups with" strong reduction " and groups with "weak reduction".
It is clear that the four alternative of carp phenotype differ from each other, not only by their specific morphological
and anatomical features, but also by some features that have special commercial value, such as survival and growth
rate Golovinskaya (1971).
The goal of the present paper is the impact assessment of the type of scales coverage of carp on some indicators of
growth performance and survival levels, in terms of cultivation in semi-intensive systems.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was undertaken in Klos fish farm (Elbasan;Albania). This fish farm is a private property with surface 20
Ha and is located 10 km south-east of Cerrik City. In the fish farm, breeding is processed in five fish species of
carp family (Cyprinidae), production of Frying and Fattening growth of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Silver carp
(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Big head (Aristichthys nobilis), Grass carp
(Ctenopharyngodon idella) and Bream (Megallobrama amblycephala). Cultivation is done in earth ponds by
applying semi-intensive technology and multiple culture . Taking into consideration the type of scales scattering ,
the cultivated carp belongs to four phenotypic traits of this kind; forms of "scaled" (genotypes SSnn and Ssnn),
forms " scattered scale" (ssnn), forms of "linear mirror" (SSNn and SsNn) and forms of "mirror leather" (ssNn).
Tests to evaluate the survival and growth indicators were carried out in four ponds. Every pond has an area of 1 000
m and the average depth is 1.2 m. In the four versions of the same test is applied cultivation technology. Growth of
fish is mainly based on the exploitation of natural food resources present in the pond ecosystem . For stimulate
growth of plankton and the creatures benthos is applied, according to the relevant technical protocols, and
distribution of organic fertilizers Knud-Hansen (1998). Concentrated food is given in the first two months of
cultivation and in periods when it is observed reduction of biomass consumed by the creatures of carp. Fingerlings
of carp ponds were distributed in the 25 October 2011, applying density 0.6 individuals / m (720 individuals in each
pond). Fingerlings average weight was 10.2 GU applied four variants, everyone scales by type of coverage, in each
variant entered only one "race" of carp. Cultivation continued until 30 September 2012.
The period of sampling was taking in considerate specific condition of dinamic grownth in different breeding
stage. For the five first sampled the temporal interval was every 30 days, while for other four sampled this interval
was 45 days.
All the individuals were sampled from our artificial lake at the same depth using a net with mesh 12 mm.
Aproximately, more than 30 individual were encountered in each sample and after morphometric measurement are
released back.
All the growth parameters are estimated based on average values of total weight (Wg) and total length (L cm) of
all individuals of samples.
After assessment of allometric parameter b of relation length weight Ricker (1975), and assessment of
specific growth index Brett et al. (1979) were analyzed the general growth features.
Calculation for both parameters (1), (2) are as below:

W= a Lb (1)

Where Wg and Lcm are average value of total weight and total length of each individual.
b- represent allometic coefficient ( 2.5-3.5).

(2)

Where : SGR Specific Growth Rate (% W / day)


W1 the fresh weight in time 1
W2 the fresh weight in time 2
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(t2 t1) is interval of time between two measurement.

Is estimated also for each sample survival parameter of populate and is achieve to determinate all the dynamic of
carp specie in this farm fish. The calculation formula is below:

Where:
M percentage of survival
n total number of organism collected
N total number of fingerlings introduced in the lake, or the number of individuals observed from the last
sample ( taking in considerate assessment of survival dynamic).

For all the evaluated parameters are estimated: Average value (M), Standard Deviation (SD) and average of
standard mistake (m). The variability coefficient of weight is determine based on formula:

[ CVw (%) ] = 100 * (Standard Deviation / Average Weight)

Analyze of variances ( ANOVA ) and Duncans Multiple Range Test Steel and Bashcaut. (1996) post hoc are
applied during comparison of their average value of four variant. Was used a computer software known as
MSTATS for estimation of data and their statistical analyze.

RESULTS

The results of average weight (Wg) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) in four scaled morph of common carp.
Following the diagram on figure 1 are obvious that: Average values of final weight and average values of specific
growth rate (SGR %) for four types of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L) distributed according to the
distribution scales.

Fig. 1. The values of final weight (g) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR%) in different scale morphs of common carp
(Cyprinus carpio)

Average values of final weight (Wg) and Specific Growth Rate


(SGR%) in four types of scale cover of common carp reared in
Klosi semiintensive plant
630 0.572
620
Average weight (Wg)

0.57
Average SGR (%)

610 W(g)
0.568
600
0.566 SGR(
590 %)
0.564
580
570 0.562

560 0.56
Scaled Scattered Linear mirror Leather
mirror
Scale cover type

The expected average values estimated for final individual weight (Wg SD) were:
Scaled" 621.33 38.295 g (min.533.5-max.675.5)
"Scattered" 602.57 35.474 g (min.529.4-max.665.2)
"Linear mirror" 588.38 30.949 g (min.528.5-max.642.6)
"Leather mirror" 581.11 29.712 g (min 525.9-max.619.8)

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In a comparison between average final weight show us the presence of significant changes in pairs of variants:
The pair and value of types of carp were: scaled linear mirror ( t =3.55; P< 0.05); scaled leather
mirror (t =4.53; P< 0.05); scattered leather mirror ( t=2.54; P<0.05). Werent shown significant changes
in comparison between pairs, scaled scattered ( t=1; P>0.05), scattered linear mirror (t=1.65; P>0.05)
and linear mirror leather mirror ( t= 1; P>0.05).

While average Values of Specific Growth Rate ( SGR % SD) were as below:
Scaled" 0.571 0.010% (min.0.552-max.0.585)
"Scattered" 0.568 0.009% (min.0.552-max.0.583)
"Linear mirror" 0.566 0.0075% (min.0.551-max.0.578)
"Leather mirror" 0.564 0.0073% (min.0.551-max.0.573)

The situation of SGR parameter confirms the same changes between pairs as the weight parameter. Are found this
significant changes values of morph of carp for SGR: scaled - linear mirror (t=2.05: P<0.05); scaled
leather mirror (t =2.91; P<0.05); and scattered leather mirror (t=2.0; P<0.05). Werent encountered
significant changes of SGR between carp types scaled scattered (t=1.11; P>0.05); scattered linear
mirror (t=1.0; P>0.05) and linear mirror leather mirror (t=1.05; P>0.05).

Allometric coefficient b values in relation Length Weight (curve slope).


In the all diagram of figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 are shown equations of regression for relation length weight for all
types of scaled carp. The equation coefficients are estimated based on average values of length and weight, taken
by nine subsamples for a sample.
All the allometric coefficient b values estimated in this study are as below.

Length-weight relationship in scaled type of C.carpio reared


in Klosi plant

700
600 W = 0.0041L 3.1056
R2 = 0.9701
500
Weight (Wg)

400
300
200
100
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Total length (TLcm)

Fig. 3.Length-weight relationship in scattered type of common carp (r=0.981)

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Length-weight relationship in scattered type of C.carpio


reared in Klosi plant
700
3.0532
600 W = 0.0046L
2
R = 0.9632
500

Weight (Wg)
400
300
200
100
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Total length (TLcm)

Fig. 4. Length-weight relationship in linear mirror type of common carp (r=0.983

Length-weight relationship in linear mirror type of C.carpio


reared in Klosi plant
700
600 2.9404
W = 0.0067L
500 2
Weight (Wg)

R = 0.9664
400
300
200
100
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Total length (TLcm)

Fig. 5. Length-weight relationship in leather mirror type of common carp (r=0.977)

Length-weight relationship in leather mirror type of C.carpio


reared in Klosi plant
700
2.8982
600 W = 0.0077L
2
500 R = 0.9553
Weight (Wg)

400
300
200
100
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Total length (cm)

Taking in considerate the interval value of b coefficient (min. 2.5; max. 3.5) we carry out that: the scaled type
carp represents positive value of allometric coefficient, the linear mirror and leather mirror types represent
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negative value of allometric coefficient, while scattered type allometric value is higher than isometric
parameter (b=3.0).

The survival analysis of four phenotypic form of common carp.


From all measurements of four phenotypic form performed during the intermediate sample and in the final fishing
were found these average values of survival (SD) as below.

Scaled" 96.119.42 %
"Scattered" 95.8910.57 %
"Linear mirror" 93.6115.44 %
"Leather mirror" 94.8611.61 %

Based on the values above is obvious that the survival index represents higher value for scaled types and lower
value represents linear mirror types. Even thought during a comparison between all the pairs in four variant
of samples are never found significant changes of this index (P>0.05).

In final fishing, in accordance with the individual average weight values, survival average value we have reach to
see an efficiency production (kg/ha) for four variant of samples as below:

Scaled" 43.0 kv/ha


"Scattered" 41.5 kv/ha
"Linear mirror" 39.8 kv/ha
"Leather mirror" 39.7 kv/ha

Werent found difference in production level during comparison between phenotypes, linear mirror leather
mirror, while were found low difference in comparison between phenotypes scaled scattered. The
production represents higher difference between pairs scaled phenotype and both mirror phenotypes.

CONCLUSIONS

All different phenotypes of carp (Cyprinus carpus L) are distinct by their scales. This typical nomenclature related
to scales is used only in aquaculture, but usually in common taxonomic aspect all four types of carp are result of
recombination of both genes into a same specie according to Mendel law of heritage. Has many hypothesis that
support this fact , wild types of carp with all body covered by scales is favorite under natural selection thus is
better adapted in cultivated condition in extensive or semi-extensive aquatic system. Reduction of scales is a new
adaption that accompanied domestication phenomena, thus the species is protected by physical damage, Nguyen
(2009).
This artificial breeding point has approximately similar condition as natural environment because intensifying
interventions consist in enrichment of its water using mineral and organic biogenic element. Under these condition
all the results prove that reactions of individuals of four phenotypes were different.
Both types, scaled and scattered carp without N allele in their genome represent with higher value of survival
index in report with two other types where this allele is present.
During our study are proven some quantitative index that characterize the growth performances of different
phenotypes of carp that have had average values of scaled type.
This situation is proved when we estimate individual average weight ( Wg), Specific Growth Rate (SGR %) and
Allometric coefficient (b).
According to Golovinskaya (1971) carps with scaled phenotype, scattered phenotype, linear mirror
phenotype and leather mirror phenotype represent changes not only in extensor features but are related and
other features that distinct commercial value such as survival and growth. Based on systematic distribution of
scales in scaled phenotype this author accept that fact, the damage of position of scales in wild types indicates
negative on survival index and growth.
According to Rebensburg (2010), when we study behavior of scaled phenotype and mirror phenotype are
detect for first phenotype exploratory behavior expressed and consist active during search of food for a long
time in report with second phenotype. Also this author confirm that mirror carp phenotype doesnt present high
variability in behavior parameters in report with scaled phenotype. This hypothesis is supported by Price (1984).

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As in natural condition and in modified artificial condition genotypes that express high activity in search of food
represent more adaptive than alternative genotypes within a species. In this line behavior of allele usually directs
and values of growth index.
When we make a assessment of growth intensity our study is also in accordance with thesis of Golovinskaya
(1971) and the results follows this order: scaled, scattered, linear, and leather phenotype. If we refer
weight in standard condition of nutrient and if percentage of scaled types is 100% the weight for others group
are 95%, 85% and 80%. In unfavorable condition that usually characterize extensive and semi-extensive cultivation
this difference may increase.
During study the annual cycle of cultivation of carp applied in our monoculture semi - intensive system has been
very typical in production levels. Having highest growth index scaled type and scattered type prove highest
production in report with two other covered types. This results is published by Golovinskaya (1971).
We conclude that the weight of scaled carp at the same age is the largest than scattered phenotype. This change
is evident in extensive cultivation system where are used only natural nutrient. Related with that one of the reason
of growth reduction in linear mirror and leather mirror is reduction of faring teeth consequently and
difficulties obtaining food as result of gene N action. This results is published also by Kirpichnikov V.S.
(1981).
At the end gene s has negative impact on the growth and organogenesis. Differences on floating vesicle structure
incurring by pleyotrop effects of gene s. In presence of this gene the posterior part of vesicle represent shorter
than anterior part (scattered type), while in presence of S gene the results are inverse. (scaled type). This
results is supported also by Probst. (1953).

REFERENCE

Brett J.R.and Groves T.D.D.1979 Physiological energetics.In:Fish Physiology,Vol III Bioenergetics and Growth
(ed.by W.S.Hoar,D.J.Randall and J.R.Brett).pp 280-352.Academic press,New York.USA.
Golovinskaya K.A.1971 Breeds of carps and other fishes. Seminar/study Tour in the USSR on genetic selection and
hybridization of cultivated fishes. Rep. FAO pp 187-198.
Gomelsky B.,Schneider J.K.Glennon P.R.and Plouffe A.D.2012 Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear
ornamental (koi) common carp (Cyprinus carpio).Journal of Fish Biology (2012);31-39.
Gomelsky B.I.,Emelyanova G.V. and Recoubratsky A.V.1992 Application of the scale cover gene (N) to
identification of type of gynogenesis ans determunation of ploidy in common carp.Aquaculture;106,233-237.
Haynes G.D.2009 Population genetics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the Murray-Darling basin.Doctor of
Philosophy Thesis.University of Sydney.pp 164.
Hickling, C., 1962. Fish culture. Faber and Faber, London, 287 p.
Hoffman, W.E., 1934. Preliminary notes on the fresh-water fish industry of South China, especially Kwangtung
province. Lingnan University Science Bulletin 5, 77 p
Kirpichnikov V.S. 1981 Genetic Bases of Fish Selection, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, New York, USA,
Springer-Verlag.
Kirpichnikov, V.S., 1967. Homologous hereditary variation and evolution of the wild carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
Genetika 3, 167-180.
Kirpichnikov, V.S., 1971. Genetics of the common carp and other edible fish. Seminar/study Tour in the USSR on
genetic selection and hybridization of cultivated fishes. Rep. FAO/UNDP, 186-201.
Knud-Hansen, C.F. 1998.Pond fertilization ecological approach and practical application. Corvallis, USA, Pond
Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP. 125pp.
Koehn J.,Brumley B.and Gehrke P.2000) Managing the Impacts of Carp, Canberra, Australia, Bureau of Rural
Sciences (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry).
Michaels V.J. 1998 Carp Farming, Farnham, United Kingdom, The Dorset Press.
Nguyen Huu Ninh 2009 Communal or Separate Rearing of Families in Selective Breeding of Common Carp
(Cyprinus carpio L.).Doctor of Philosophy Thesis. Institute of Aquaculture,University of Stirling,Stirling, Scotland,
UK.pp 266.
Nicolescu C. 2004 The phenotypical expression of the common carp's scale cover pattern in accordance with the
genotypic structure and the gene dose. Buletinul Universitatii de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Cluj-
Napoca, Seria Zootehnie si Biotehnologii 60, 78-83.
Price, E. O. 1984. Behavioral Aspects of Animal Domestication. The Quarterly Review of Biology 59(1): 1-32.
Probst, E., 1953 Die Beschuppung des Karpfens. Mnch Beitr.Abwass- Fisch.u.Flussbiol., 1:150227.

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Rebensburg Ph.2010 Assessment and evaluation of temperament traits in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), with contrasts
between mirror and scaled morphological phenotypes.Diploma Thesis.Free University of Berlin.pp 88.
Ricker, W.E. 1975. Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populastions. Bull. Fish. Resh.
Board Can., 191: 203-233.
Rohner N.,Bercsenyi M.,Orban L.,Kolanczyk M.E.,Linke D.,Brand M.,Nusslein-Volhard C.and Harris M.P.2009
Duplication of fgfr I permits Fgf signalling to seve as a target for selection during domestication.Current
Biology;19;1642-1647.
Steel, R. G. D., J. H. Torrie and D. A. Dickey, 1996.Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A biometrical approach.
3-rd Ed. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc., New York, USA.
Steffens, W., 1980. Der Karpfen, Cyprinus carpio. 5. Auflage. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg Lutherstadt.

PAPER 165

EFFECTS IN ENVIRONMENT OF NOX AND DUSTS DISCHARGED FROM CEMENT


MANUFACTURING IN CEMENT FACTORY - SHARRCEM IN HANI I ELEZIT

Besa Veseli1, Ilir Kristo2, Nexhat Balaj3


1
Kosovo Chamber of Commerce, Prishtina, Kosovo
2
Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania
3
European College Juridica- Faculty of Public Policy and Management, Prishtina, Kosovo

Email:besaveselii@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our work was the study of effects in Environment of NOx and dusts from cement manufacturing in
cement factory sharrcem and its impact on air quality in Hani i Elezit region.The cement industry contributes
significantly to the imbalances of the environment in particular air quality. The key environmental emissions are
nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and grey dust. Industrial plant smokestacks from cement and
construction companies are some of the biggest contributors to poor air quality, especially in urban developments.
As air pollution sources, except KEC, Trepca, Ferronikel,Sharr-cem, public heating facilities and other industries,
traffic is considered a significant air pollution sector. Major impacts on the environment from cement factories are
the impacts on air from the rotary kiln, as a result of the physical and chemical dissolution of raw materials, and the
process of burning in the oven at temperatures up to 1450 C. Sharrcem makes periodical measurements by an
external contractor. Monitored parameters are: dust, SO2, NOx, and CO. From our study shows that throughout the
years, the maximum allowed values were exceeded. It is indicated that from 2006, there is a decrease of dust emitted
as a result of investment in the electro filters, whereas in 2011 there is again an increase of the dust emissions.
During the all years of monitoring represented in this study, the NOx values were under the maximum allowed value
(800mg/Nm3).

Keywords:environment, air quality, dusts, SO2, NOx

INTRODUCTION

Cement production is a key supplier to the concrete industry. The most important environment, health and safety
performance issues facing the cement industry are:
Greenhouse gas emissions
Atmospheric releases, primarily of NOx, SO2 and particulates;

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Stakeholder concerns over the potential for dioxin releases, particularly the perceived association with use of
alternative fuels;
Health and safety performance, in particular associated with accidents and worker exposure to dusts.
The cement industry contributes significantly to the imbalances of the environment; in particular air quality. The key
environmental emissions are nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO 2) and grey dust (Albeanu et al).
Cement production is a major source of emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). As much as 5% of
global carbon dioxide emissions originates from cement production.
Industrial plant smokestacks from cement and construction companies are some of the biggest contributors to poor
air quality, especially in urban developments. As of 2007, the cement industry alone was reported to produce 5% of
total greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere (Air Quality Resources). The principal aim in pollution control in the
cement industry is to minimize the increase in ambient particulate levels by reducing the mass load emitted from the
stacks, from fugitive emissions, and from other sources (clentechindia.com).
Cement is produced from raw materials such as limestone, chalk, shale, clay, and sand. These raw materials are
quarried, crushed, finely ground, and blended to the correct chemical composition .
Major impacts on the environment from cement factories are the impacts on air from the rotary kiln, as a result of
the physical and chemical dissolution of raw materials, and the process of burning in the oven at temperatures up to
1450 C. Cement manufacturing is a high volume process and correspondingly requires adequate quantities of
resources, that is, raw materials, thermal fuels and electrical power. The main environmental (air quality) impacts of
the manufacture of cement in general are related to the categories discussed below. Carbon dioxide is released
during the production of clinker, a component of cement, in which calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) is heated in a rotary
kiln to induce a series of complex chemical reactions (Conneely et al). Specifically, CO 2 is released as a by-product
during calcinations, which occurs in the upper, cooler end of the kiln, or a precalciner, at temperatures of 600-
900C, and results in the conversion of carbonates to oxides.
Additional air pollutants emitted include such materials as sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides generated from the
kiln and drying processes. Sulphur dioxide is generated from the sulphur compounds in the ores and the combusted
fuel and varies in amount produced from plant to plant.
The efficiency of particulate control devices is inconclusive as the result of variables such as feed sulphur content,
temperature, moisture, and feed chemical composition, in addition to alkali and sulphur content of the raw materials
and fuel. The combustion of fuel in rotary cement kilns generates nitrogen oxides from the nitrogen in the fuel and
incoming combustion air.
Dust emissions originate mainly from the raw mills, the kiln system, the clinker cooler, and the cement mills. A
general feature of these process steps is that hot exhaust gas or exhaust air is passing through pulverized material
resulting in an intimately dispersed mixture of gas and particulates.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The main current air pollution sources in Kosovo are: KEC that includes thermal power plants (Kosova A and
Kosova B) and lignite mines in Obiliq, Industrial complex in Mitrovic, Ferronikeli in Gllogovc, Cement factory -
SharrCem in Hani i Elezit, etc.
The purpose of our work was the study of effects in Environment of NOx and dusts from cement manufacturing in
cement factory sharrcem and its impact on air quality in Hani i Elezit region. The cement industry contributes
significantly to the imbalances of the environment in particular air quality. Measurement campaigns were carried out
in several area, at two different points, and four different periods in cement factory sharrcem We have measured
(dust, SO2, NOx) on number and mass concentration during the year 2003-2011.

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Fig.1. Cement factory - SharrCem in Hani i Elezit

RESULTS

Assessment of air emissions from Sharrcem

Cement is produced from raw materials such as limestone, chalk, shale, clay, and sand. These raw materials are
quarried, crushed, finely ground, and blended to the correct chemical composition.
Technological process of clinker production, in the cement factory of Sharrcem in Hani i Elezit, is largely followed
by emissions of pollutants affecting the environment. Major impacts on the environment from cement factories are
the impacts on air from the rotary kiln, as a result of the physical and chemical dissolution of raw materials, and the
process of burning in the oven at temperatures up to 1450 C.
Figure 2. show that throughout the years, the maximum allowed values were exceeded. It is indicated that from
2006, with 100 mg /Nm3, there is a decrease of dust emitted as a result of investment in the electro filters, whereas in
2011 there is again an increase of the dust emissions 130 mg /Nm3.

Fig. 2. Annual average values of dust for 2003-2011 from Sharrcem, mg /Nm3

Concentration of emitted Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

SO2 emissions arise from oxidation of volatile sulfur present in raw materials such as organic sulfur, or inorganic
sulfides. Some may also arise from sulfur in the fuels. If the volatile sulfur content of the fuel and raw materials is
low, SO2 emission can be very low.
Much of the SO2 produced can potentially be captured within the process due to strongly alkaline conditions.
Emissions of SOx are of concern as they can detrimentally affect air quality and human health, some examples of
which are the production of acid rain, reduced atmospheric visibility (smog) and aggravation of respiratory systems.
As seen from the above presented figure 3, the concentration of emitted SO2 is almost at all times under the
maximum values allowed (400mg/Nm3), with the exception of 2003 from 450 mg/Nm 3 . From 2010 -2011 there is a
considerable decrease (180-50 mg/Nm3) of SO2 values.

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Fig. 3. Annual average values of SO2, mg/Nm3 for 2003-2011 from Sharrcem

Annual average values of NOx for 2003-2011 from Sharrcem

NOx forms by the reaction of nitrogen with oxygen at the high temperatures generated during combustion of
fuel.Emissions of NOx are of concern as they can detrimentally affect air quality and human health, an example of
which is its role in the production of ground-level ozone, which can aggravate respiratory systems.

Fig. 4. Annual average values of NOx for 2003-2011 from Sharrcem

During the all years of monitoring represented in this study, the NOx values were under the maximum allowed value
(800mg/Nm3).

CONCLUSIONS

Cement production is a major source of emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). As much as 5% of
global carbon dioxide emissions originate from cement production.
The cement industry contributes significantly to the imbalances of the environment in particular air quality. The key
environmental emissions are nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO 2) and grey dust. The main current air
pollution sources in Kosovo are: KEC that includes thermal power plants (Kosova A and Kosova B) and lignite
mines in Obiliq, Industrial complex in Mitrovic, Ferronikeli in Gllogovc, Cement factory - SharrCem in Hani i
Elezit, etc. Shows that throughout the years, the maximum allowed values were exceeded. It is indicated that from
2006, there is a decrease of dust emitted as a result of investment in the electro filters, whereas in 2011 there is again
an increase of the dust emissions.
As seen from the above presented figure, the concentration of emitted SO2 is almost at all times under the maximum
values allowed (400mg/Nm3) 8, with the exception of 2003. From 2010 -2011 there is a considerable decrease of
SO2 values. During the all years of monitoring represented in this study, the NOx values were under the maximum
allowed value (800mg/Nm3).

REFERENCES

1.Albeanu G, Madsen, Popentiu F, Thyregod P. (2004) Computer Aided Statistical Modeling and Optimization for
Pollution Control in Cement Plants

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2.Air Quality Resources. (2011) Concern for the Environment: air Quality in the Cement and Construction Industry
cleantechindia.com/eicimage/2102_42/PPACI.htm. 2004
3.US Environmental Protection Agency. (2010) Available and Emerging Technologies for Reducing Greenhou Gas
Emissions from the Portland Cement Industry, North Carolina, USA.
4.Karstensen K.H. (2006) Formation and Release of POPs in the Cement Industry, Second Edition, World Busines
Council for Sustainable Development
5.Conneely D, Gibbs M.J, Soyka P. (2001). Emissions From Cement Production Good Practice Guidance and
Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
6.Woodard F. (2001) Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook, ButterworthHeinemann,USA.
7.Valaiya KS (1990) Environmental Impact of Mining activities. In: SC Joshi, G Bhattacharya (Eds.): Mining and
Environment. Delhi: Kalinga Publica-tions, pp. 87-95.

PAPER 166

THE PALYNOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME PLANTS OF ASTERACEAE


(COMPOSITAE) FAMILY IN ALBANIA

Dauti A.1, Kapidani G.2, Pupuleku B.1, Kallajxhiu N.1, Turku S.1, Jane A.1
1
University Aleksandr Xhuvani, Elbasan, Albania, FNS, Department of Biology and Chemistry
2
University of Tirana, Albania, FNS, Department of Biology

Email: dauti.anxhela@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Asteraceae (Compositae) comprise the largest family of vascular plants. The family has more than 1100 genera and
about 25.000 species (Lewis et al. 1983, HEYWOOD 1978). The family is divided in two subfamilies: Asteraceae -
Cichoroideae (synonym of Compositae Liguliflorae / Lactuceae) and Asteraceae - Asteroideae (synonym of
Compositae - Tubuliflorae). (W. Punt, P. P. Hoen The Northwest European Pollen Flora, 69). The plants of this
family are economically important, they are used in medicine, they are very good honey plants, but and they also
cause the beginning of allergy. The pollen grains of Asteraceae plants have a thick exine and they are preserved well
as fossil. This article includes the palynomorphological study of six plants of Asteraceae family: Scolymus
hispanicus, Bellis sylvestris, Sonchus asper, Sonchus arvensis, Centaurea solstitialis and Achillea millefolium. The
plants are collected in fresh conditions in their habitat in Elbasan city and in some areas around it. By the study, the
pollen grains of above plants are distinguished from some morphological features such as: the aperture three furrows
three pores, three pores and thick echinate exine. The shape of pollen grains according to the outline vary from
prolate spheroidal to oblate spheroidal at Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper ,Scolymus hispanicus , Centaurea
solstitialis and spheroidal at Bellis sylvestris and Achillea millefolium. According to this study, the sculpture of
exine is echinate. The spines are acuminate and they vary from spinules to microspinules. The exine sculpture of
Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper and Scolymus hispanicus is from a particular type called fenestrate.

Key Words: Asteraceae, pollen grains, exine, spinules, fenestrate

INTRODUCTION

Asteraceae (Compositae) comprise the largest family of vascular plants. The family has more than 1100 genera and
about 25.000 species (Lewis et al. 1983, HEYWOOD 1978). The family is divided in two subfamilies: Asteraceae -
Cichoroideae (synonym of Compositae Liguliflorae / Lactuceae) and Asteraceae - Asteroideae (synonym of

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Compositae - Tubuliflorae) (W. Punt, P. P. Hoen The Northwest European Pollen Flora, 69). In Albania Asteraceae
is a well represented family, with about 100 genera and more than 400 species (Flora e Shqipris Vol. 4, 1999 ).
Literature on pollen grains of Asteraceae is comprehensive and the number of publications large. The first important
pollen grains morphological studies were made by Wodehouse (1926, 1928a, 1928b, 1935). His studies were mainly
based on American material and moreover, on fresh not acetolysed material. Another important publication at that
time was by Stix (1960). She studied 235 species of Asteraceae from all over the world. The other publications such
as Faegri and Iversen ed.4 (1989); Fgri and Iversen (1975); Moore et al.ed.2 (1991); Skvarla and Larson (1965);
Skvarla and Turner (1966); Nilsson et al. (1977); Skvarla et al. (1977); Perveen, 1977; Yang and Ai, 2002; Meo
and Khan, 2003; Jafari and Ghanbarian, 2007; Blackmore, 1982; Blackmore et al., 1984; Blanca et al., 1991;
Breitwiser and Sampson, 1997; Cusma Velari,1983; EL-GHAZALY, 1980; SAAD, S, 1961; TOMB, 1975;
Osman, 2006; have contributed on the knowledge of pollen grains of Asteraceae.
This article includes the palynomorphological study of six plants of Asteraceae family: Scolymus hispanicus, Bellis
sylvestris, Sonchus asper, Sonchus arvensis, Centaurea solstitialis and Achillea millefolium. The plants are collected
in fresh conditions in their habitat in Elbasan city and in some areas around it. This article is fragment of the study
about the palynomorphological characteristics of general members in Asteraceae family in our country.
In order to accomplish the quantitative analysis of palynomorphological features, 31 pollen grains are taken in
consideration. This study is focus on the type of pollen grains, shape, size, characteristics of furrow, sculpture of
exine etc. For the study of pollen grains is used light microscop Motic B1series. The measures are realized with
1000X power and the photos are taken with 1000X power.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The material for study is taken in fresh conditions in the region of Elbasan. To achieve the study of pollens
morphological characteristics we have used three analytical methods.
Acetolysis of Erdtman method (Erdtman, G., 1956).
Acetolysis of Avetisjan method (Avetisjan, B.M., 1950).
Basic fuchsine method of Smoljaninov, Gollubkov S. (1953).
The fixing of pollen grains is is made with glycerin gelatin prepared according to Kisser method (1937). Sladkov
A.N. (1967)
The palynomorphological dates in this study regard the material acetolysed. The terminology is based on that
recommended by Punt.et al.(1994) and Kapidani. (2005)
The method of acetolysis according to Erdtman
The flower or leaf-bud is developed in an alcohol 96 in order to separate the other parts of the flower which can be
separated inside distillated water. The bags of pollen grains with their pollen grains are dried in a thermostat, and
then wetted with an acetolysis mixture (anhydrite acetic and sulfate acid concentration and with pure chemicals in a
9:1 ratio), which is done every time in a repeating way. The test-tubes together with pollen grains and acetolysis
mixture are placed in bathroom at a temperature 70-80 C. The length-time of pollen grains staying in bathroom
varies from different kinds. Then, the test-tubes are centrifuged where as the are cleaned several times with
distillated water. Pollen grains are placed on slide and are observed with a microscope by dropping one dot from
glycerin solution and water in a ratio 1:1. If the pollen grains are darken a lot then the material is separated in a test-
tube by adding 1-2 sodium chloride 1-2 concentration sulfuric acid drops until the material becomes lighter. Then, it
is done the second shower with distillated water. Through separation and centrifugation the material is taken and it is
ready to become a preparation.
The simplified method of acetolysis according to Avetisjan
Pollen grains are placed in slide. Then, we dropped some ethyl alcohol (96%) drops on the slide composite. All fat
substances of pollen grains created after the alcohol actions are cleaned with blotting-paper. The mixture of
acetolysis is prepared every time frequently.
The slide composite is treated with 1-2 acetolysis solution drops and then it is warmed up in a thermostat or on the
alcoholic lamp flames. The composite is controlled with a microscope continuously during the warming phase so it
cannot get darker more then what is allowed. After the desired color is reached the wash-up with alcohol (70 %) is
done. Then the composite is washed from all other remains and then sealed with glycerin gelatin prepared according
to Kisser method (1937).
The colored method of basic fuchsine according to Smoljaninov, Gollubkov
Pollen grains are placed on the lama and then we add some alcoholic concentrated drops. In case the alcohol
evaporates quickly we add an extra drop again. After that, we observe that the fat composite of pollen grains is

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spreader from alcohol toward the slide side. This fatness composite is taken away from the slide with blotting paper.
After the slide is washed away from remains with blotting paper we add to it the colored solution of basic fuchsine
which is prepared in two variants listed below:
1) Basic fuchsine, alcohol 75 % and phenol in this ratio 1:700:100
2) Basic fuchsine, ethyl alcohol 96 % and xylol in the ratio 1:600:800
Phenol and xylol are used in the transparency growth of markers and are necessary as antiseptic. After the color
materials are fixed with gelatin, glycerin which is prepared according to Kisser method.

RESULTS

Morphological description of pollen grains

Bellis sylvestris Cry . , Pl. Rar. Neap. 2:22 (1792)


It is an herbaceous perennial plant, which grows mainly in meadows, grassy areas, etc. Blooming from february to
november (Vangjeli et al., 2000)
The pollen grains are three furrows three pores and with oblate- spheroidal to spheroidal outline. It is difficult to
distinguish the furrows, because of the presence of exine sculptural formations.
The pollen grain has a three-layer thick exine, with echinate sculpture. The spinules are conical and rare. The
spinules length varies 2-3. The width of spinules could reach 2. The distance between spinules varies from 1.5-
2.
The exine thicknes with the spinules reaches up to 5, ektexina (sexina) is 3, mezexina 1, endexina (nexina) is
1. The polar axis of pollen grain varies from 24 30 (26.7) and equatorial diameter varies from 25 31
(27.25). Fig. 1 and 2.

Fig. 1. Polar view (magnification 1000X) Fig. 2- Equatorial view (magnification 1000X)

Centaurea solstitialis L. , Sp. Pl. 917 (1753)


This is a biennial plant, grown in dry places, street sides, etc. It blooms during june- august and it is considered a
weed plant for the agriculture (Vangjeli et al., 2000).
The pollen grains are three porate and three furrowed(or colpate). In polar view pollen grain has prolate spheroidal
to spheroidal outline and in equatorial view it has elliptic outline. The polar axis of pollen grain varies from 25
30 (28.33) and its equatorial diameter varies from 25.5 31.5 (28.1). The exine appears thick and three
layered. The exine thickness varies from 5 6, ektexine varies from 2-3, mesexina 1.5, endexina 1.5. The
exine sculpture is with microspinules or scabrate. The furrow length is 25.06 , and its width is 9.6 . The pore is
9.3 long and 6.9 wide. Fig. 3 and 4.

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Fig. 3. Polar view (magnification 1000X) Fig. 4. Equatorial view (magnification 400X)

Scolymus hispanikus L. , Sp. Pl. 813 (1753)


This is two or perennial herbaceous plant, which grows in dry and stony places, in uncultivated lands, etc. It blooms
during june september (Vangjeli et al., 2000).
The pollen grains are 3 pororate with prolate spheroidal to spheroidal outline. The polar axis of pollen grain varies
from 45 56 (50.5), and its equatorial diameter varies from 45 55 (50.1). The pollen grain exine is thick and
three layered. The exine thickness with spines varies from 9 10 , ektexine 7.6 , mesexine 1 , endexine 1 -2 .
The exine sculpture is echinate and of a special type called fenestrate. The spines length varies from 2 -3 and the
width in its base varies from 1.5 2.The pore is quasi- circular and it is 11micron in diameter. Fig. 5 and 6.

Fig. 5. Polar view (magnification 1000X) Fig. 6. Polar view (magnification 1000X)

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. , Herb. ,Brit 1:47 (1769)


This is an annual herbaceous or biennial plant that grows in cultivated areas, walls, etc., and it blooms during march
october. It is a food plant and a good plant for honey(Vangjeli et al.,2000).
The pollen grains are three colpororate with oblate spheroidal to spheroidal outlines.. The polar axis of pollen grain
varies from 30 33 (31.45), and its equatorial diameter varies from 31 34 (31.7). The pollen grain exine is
thick and three layered. The thickness of exine with spinules varies from 5 7 , ektexine 3 -4 , mesexine 1 ,
endexine 1 -2 . The exine sculpture is echinate of a special type called fenestrate. The spinule length is 2 , and its
width in the base varies from 1 -1.5 .
The furrows are not distingushed, as a consequence of the sculptural elements of exine, and the pore observed in the
equatorial view appears circular and its diameter reaches 3 . Fig. 7 and 8.

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Fig. 7. Polar view (magnification 1000X) Fig. 8. Polar view (magnification 1000X)

Sonchus arvensis L. , Sp. Pl. 793 (1753)


This is a herbaceous perennial plant that grows in grassy areas, cultivated lands, street sides, etc. it blooms during
june september. It is considered a weed plant for the agriculture and a good plant for honey (Vangjeli et al., 2000).
The pollen grains are three colpororate with oblate spheroidal to spheroidal outlines. The polar axis of pollen grain
varies from 31 35 (32.3) and its equatorial diameter varies from 30 35 (33.1), The exine is thick and three
layered. The exine thickness varies frome 6 -7 , ektexine varies from 4 5, mesexine 1, endexine 1. The exine
sculpture is echinate and fenestrate. The spinules length reaches up to 2 , and its width in the base is up to 1 .
The furrows are not detecteble because of the sculptural formations of the exine. The pore in equatorial view of
pollen grain appears circular with a diameter of 3 . Fig. 9 and 10.

Fig. 9- Polar view (magnification 1000X) Fig. 10- Fuxine view (magnification 1000X)

Achillea millefolium L. , Sp. Pl. 899 (1753)


Achillea millefolium pollen grains are used for new preparations in order to make new pictures, but the data about
taxonomical features are taken from Albanian literature (Kapidani, 1996).
The pollen grains are three furrowed three pores with spheroidal outline. The furrows are not visible, and the pore
has a diameter of 3 . The pollen grain exine is two layered, with spinules and microspinules sculpture. The spinules
length is 2 and its width in the base is 2 . The distance between the spinules in the base is 3 4 . The exine
thickenes is 4.5 , ektexine is 3.5 , endexine 1.5 . The pollen grain diameter varies from 20 21.3mikron (20.6)
. Fig. 11 and 12.

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Fig. 11- Polar view (magnification 400X) Fig. 12- Polar view (magnification 1000X)

CONCLUSIONS

The analysis of palinotaxonomical features of Achillea millefolium, Bellis sylvestris, Centaurea solstitialis, Scolymus
hispanicus, Sonchus arvensis and Sonchus asper show that:
The palinotaxonomical features of two species in the genus Sonchus L. are very similar between each other.
The exine of Scolymus hispanicus, Sonchus arvensis and S. asper has a particular type of structure called fenestrate,
which makes these different from the other three species taken in consideration.
The exine sculpture of Centaurea solstitialis belongs to the type mixed microspinules or scabrate.
The pollen grains of Scolymus hispanicus are three pororate.
The exine is thick and mainly three layered.

REFERENCE

Avetisjan B. M (1950): Uproshennij acetolinij metod obrabotniki pilci. Bot. Zhurnal. T. 35, N 4, Fq. 385 386.
Blackmore, S. 1982. The apertures of Lactuceae (Compositae) pollen. Pollen et Spores 24, 453-462.
Blackmore, S. 1984. Compositae - Lactuceae. In: Punt, W. and Clarke, G.C.S. The Northwest Europen Pollen Flora
IV, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 369 pp.
Blanca, G., Salinas, M.J. Diaz de la Guardia and Romero Garcia, A.T., 1991. Estudios palinologicos en la fimilia
Asteroideae (Compositae) en el sureste de la Peninsula Iberica. Acta Bot. Malacitana 14, 491-500.
Breitwiser, J. and F.B. Sampson, F.B., 1997. Pollen characteristics of New Zealand Gnaphalieae (Compositae) and
their taxonomic significance. Grana 36, 65-79.
Cusma Velari, T., 1983. Scanning electron microscopic studies of Centaurea L. s.s. pollen. Giornale Bot. Italiano
116, 201-210
Erdtman, G., 1952. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy. Angiosperms. Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm , 539
pp
Erdtman G. (1956): Morfologija pilci i sisitematika rastenij. Angiosperma. Moskva.
EL-GHAZALY, G. A., 1980: Palynology of Hypochoeridinae and Scolyminae (Compositae). Opera Bot. 58, 148.
Stockholm.
Fgri, K, Kaland, P.E. and Krzywinski, K., 1989. Textbook of Pollen Analysis. Wiley, Chischester, 4th ed., 328 pp.
Fgri, K. and Iversen, J., 1975. Textbook of Pollen Analysis. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 3rd ed., 295 pp.
HEYWOOD, V. H., 1978: Flowering plants of the world. Oxford University Press.
Jafari E & Ghanbarian GH (2007). Pollen Morphological Studies on Selected Taxa of Asteraceae. Journal of Plant
Sciences 2(2): 195- 201.
Kapidani G. (1996). Bazat e palinologjis. Spore dhe polene t disa bimve t sotme t Shqipris. - Elbasan
Meo AA & Khan MA (2003). Pollen Morphology of Achillea (Compositae-Anthemoideae) Species from Pakistan.
Pak J Weed Sci Res 9 (3-4): 253-258.
Moore, P.D., Webb, J.A. and Collinson, M.E., 1991. Pollen Analysis. Second Edition. Blackwell Scientific
Publishers, Oxford, 216 pp.

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Nilsson S, Praglowski J, Nilsson L & Kultur NO (1977). Atlas of airborne pollen grains and spores in Northern
Europe. Sweden: Ljungforetagen Orebro.
OSMAN A. K. E. , 2006: Pollen types of the Egyptian species of tribe Lactuceae (subfamily Cichorioideae-
Compositae)
PUNT, W., BLACKMORE, S., NILSSON, S., LE THOMAS, A., 1994: The glossary of pollen and spore
terminology. LPP Foundation, Utrecht.
SAAD, S. I., 1961: Pollenmorphology in the genus Sonchus. Pollen and Spores 3, 247260.
Skvarla, J.J. and Larson, D.A., 1965. An electron microscopic study of pollen morphology in the Compositae with
special reference to the Ambrosiinae. Grana Palynol., 6(2), 210-269 pp.
Skvarla, J.J. and Turner, B. L., 1966. Systematic im plications from electron microscope studies of Composit ae
pollen. A review. Ann. Missouri Bot.Garden, 53, 220-244.
Skvarla, J.J., Turner, B.L., Patel, V.C. and Tomb, A.S., 1977. Pollen morphology in the Compositae and in
morphologically related families. In: V.H. Heywood, J.B. Harborne and B.L. Turner (Editors), Pollen Morphology
in the Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae. Academic Press, London, New York, NY, pp. 141-248.
Smolianinova L. A. Gollubkova V. F. (1967): K metodike issledovania pilci. Dok. Ak. Nauk. SSSR T.L XXXVIII.
Nr 3. Fq. 125-126.
Stix, E., 1960. Pollenmorphologische Untersuchungen an Compositen. Grana Palynol., 2(2), 41-114 pp.
TOMB,A. S., 1975: Pollenmorphology in tribe Lactuceae (Compositae). Grana 15, 7989.
Vangjeli, J., Ruci, B., Mullaj, A., Paparisto, K. and Qosja, Xh. (2000) Flora e Shqipris. Vol. 4. Tiran.
Yang YF & Ai TM (2002). Studies on the pollen morphology of ten species of Achillea. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za
Zhi 27(5): 338- 341.
W.Punt, P.P.Hoen The Northwest European Pollen Flora, 69
Wodehouse, R.P., 1926. Pollen grain morphology in the classification of the Anthemideae. Bull.Bot. Club, 53, 479-
485 pp.
Wodehouse, R.P., 1928a. Pollen grains in the classification of plants, I, The Ambrosiaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club,
55, 181-198 pp.
Wodehouse, R.P., 1928b. The phylogenetic value of pollen grain characters. Am.J.Bot., 42, 891-934 pp.
Wodehouse, R.P., 1935. Pollen grains. Their structure, identificat ion and significance in science and medicine.
Mc.Graw-Hill, New York and London, 574 pp.

PAPER 169

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL


ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SHEBENIKU JABLANICA NATIONAL PARK

Dorina Grazhdani

Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania.

Email: d.grazhdani@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental situation and opportunities for sustainable development of
Albanian part of Shebeniku Jablanica National Park. The ecosystems within the Park basin are of global
significance and harbour endemic floral and faunal species. Despite the contribution of a range of services to human
wellbeing, these ecosystems are facing numerous challenges, stemming for the existing practices in many areas that
directly or indirectly affect the lakes. The region is also remarkable for its cultural values, and examples of
traditional architecture. Current resource management practices including land-use planning, agriculture, and
forestry are failing to maintain and restore the health of ecosystems within the Park. Productive sectors are failing to
incorporate ecosystem health objectives into their daily management practices and protected areas are under threat
and can barely serve as biodiversity refuges. There are a number of different stakeholders and resource users in the

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Park. The most important consumptive resource use with regard to extend and potential conflicts with the Park is
livestock breeding (grazing of animals and looping of fodder) and the extraction of firewood. Non-consumptive
resource users (tourism, honey production, private landowners and settlements) do currently not exercise any
particular severe pressure on Park resources except for general problems of communities (solid waste, waste water
discharge). There are no marketing and processing capacities inside the Park. Almost 100% of dairy products and
80% of meat is used for home consumptions. Small quantities of milk and cheese are sold to neighbours and 20% of
meat is sold to traders at the farm gate and within the community (lamb and kid within the community and calf to
traders).

Key words: National Park Shebeniku Jablanica, sustainable development, ecosystem, environment, opportunities

INTRODUCTION

The Shebeniku - Jablanica area is declared a National Park by the government on May 21, 2008. It is located in the
northeastern part of the Librazhd District, Elbasan Prefecture in central Albania. The park is one of Albanias
newest, created in 2008. Within the park region dwell a number of different species that are fast becoming rare in
Albania, including the brown bear, gray wolf and the endangered Balkan Lynx. Further, the park is home to a
number of endemic and rare plants. Local economic conditions are poor, conditions are tough and the quality of life
is of a low standard. There are many social problems. The majority of the local population in the Park basin is
occupied in the primary sector - agriculture, animal breeding, and forestry. Most of the households in Park
Communes are engaged in agriculture (farming, and livestock production). Farming is labour intensive. Livestock
husbandry is integral to the farming system. On average, households cultivate all of their land growing wheat,
maize, potato, alfalfa, and vegetables. Almost all of households hold one or two cows mainly for milk, ten to fifteen
chickens and few sheep and goats. Poor farming methods, timbering, overgrazing and soil erosion have damaged
severely some gently sloping to sloping soils, many of which are today abandoned to brush. Based on the fact that
currently the measures for the protection, administration, rational use and sustainable management of the natural
resources is still far from being satisfactory in order to fulfil the criteria including biological, economical and socials
- the identification and assessment of the environmental indicators and sustainable development will serve as a tool
for the sustainable development.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Survey has been found by us to be almost the only practical means of collecting data about a large number of
farmers. Because the farming units were large, our survey was based on samples, which were taken following the
strategy to meet statistical reliability objectives. The sample size must be sufficiently large so that statistical
interferences can be made with reasonable reliability. This study is built also on the collection of secondary data
pertaining to the study area. This includes local and international published materials, local and international reports
and unpublished local information.
After a preliminary analysis of the secondary data, we collected primary data by conducing farmer interviews and
making both technical and socio-economic observation of the farming system. Then we analyzed both primary and
secondary data, described the farming system in the survey area in terms of biophysical and socio-economic setting,
and drafted the on-farm survey background.
The chairman of the village provided a list of all households. A sample of 200 farm households was randomly drawn
from the villages. Samples were selected using a table of random numbers. However, some of selected farmers were
not available and the next number in the random table was selected as a substitute. The head of each household was
interviewed during September-October, 2010.

RESULTS

Abiotic Environment. The Shebeniku - Jablanica National Park covers an area of 33927.7 hectares and shares a
border with the Republic of Macedonia. Elevations in the park vary from 300 m to over 2200 m at the Rreshpes
peak of Shebeniku mountain (2262 m), which, along with Jablanica give name to the park. It is a new park, and thus
underdeveloped. The Shebeniku - Jablanica zone lies within the Green Belt of Europe (Bruner, 2006; Riecken et
al., 2006) and is part of a wider and complex geographical zone spreading at the boundary regions of Albania and
Macedonia. The area will serve as an example for trans-boundary protected areas. The terrain of the Park is mostly

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foothills leading up to mountains which reach over 2200 m high. Two rivers flow and multiple smaller water sources
flow through the parks area including the Qarrishte River and Bushtric River, both of which are 22 km long. The
area is home to at least 14 glacial lakes, the highest of which are around 1900 m. There are numerous hiking trails
throughout the park of varying difficulty with markings of varying quality. The climate of most of the park falls into
the Mediterranean climate, with average annual temperatures between 70C and 100C. Annual average precipitation is
between 1300 mm and 1800 mm dependent on location within the Park.

Biotic Environment. The protected area it is an area internationality known for its ecological importance. Protected
area is a place of exceptional beauty. It can look forward to a future of ecotourism. This area it is known for its very
high biodiversity, extremely rich flora and fauna, abounds in rare animal and plant species. Shebeniku - Jablanica
area is distinguished for its rich and diverse flora. There are 1857 species of flora in the district representing 57% of
the total species of flora inhabiting Albania. This is due to favorable phytoclimate conditions (three phytoclimatic
zones are met inside the area: Quercetum, Fagetum and subalpine/alpine meadows and pastures), as well as diverse
geology and orography, creating a variety and diversity of microclimates and habitats. Apart from tree species above
mentioned that dominates the forests (beach, fir, pines, oak), other rare tree species are met inside the park, such as
Populus tremula, Salix purpurea, Acer platanoides, Betula pendula, etc. It is worth to mention there the presence of
the white fir (Abies alba) with an extension at the northern slopes of the Park area.
There are a number of rare and endemic plant species such as Albanian rock rose (endemic species), greenwed
(subendemic species), Albanian pansy (subendemic species), Dukagjini pansy (subendemic species) and Rock
grevillea (subendemic species). Amongst the herbaceous plants the most notable species endemic to the district are
Leontopodium alpinum and Sideritis Rhoeseri. Of particular interest is a carnivorous plant species called Pinguicula
Hirtflora (known locally as Luletlyni).
Shebeniku - Jablanica National Park is considered to be one of the main nucleuses of the critically endangered
Balkan lynx (Lynx lynx martinoi) in Albania. Other important faunal elements of the area include the presence of
other large mammals such as brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), wild
boar (Sus scrofa), etc., for which this area represents a significant habitat and natural corridor. In the crystal clear
waters of Qarrishta and Bushtrica rivers the presence of otter (Lutra lutra) is recorded. Among the threatened birds
nesting in the area we can mention the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), hazel hen
(Bonasia bonasia) and the area represents a good potential habitat for vulture species records of which have been
confirmed in the past.
Land use in protected area is as follow: total land area is 15390 ha. Of which: forest land 7381 ha (~ 48%) and
shrubs 1340 (8.7%); grassland land 5027 ha (~ 32.7%); arable land 792 ha (~ 5.1%), and other land uses, 850 ha (~
5.5%), which include build up areas, roads, canals, rocks etc. Here are includes also the part of the farm area
currently not cultivated. The category of permanent crops represents only a small percentage of the arable land (~ 3
%). Grasslands include permanent meadows and pastures. Pine, oak, beech, and juniper are dominant species of
natural forests. Vineyards, apple, and plum are the principal planted fruit trees species. Sheep fescue is widespread,
as well as gramineae. The dominant cereals are: wheat, maize and barley. Most of the arable land occurs on mainly
flat or gently sloping areas.
Protected area has a total agricultural land area of 792 ha, of which 768 ha is suitable for crop production, and the
rest of 24 ha are fruit orchards, and vineyards. The cultivable land is located in Strblev (452 ha), Qarishte (139
ha), Sknderbej (119 ha), and Bardhaj (91 ha) villages.
The dynamics of the area destined for agriculture, forest and grassland in period 1990 2010 have not changed
much. The data show that an area of about 150 ha has changed from the category others to forests. Although it
is small area, this change significantly illustrates the development of the communal forests.

Anthropogenic Environment.

a.Social Economic Indicators of Sustainable Development. Since 1992 there has been a total change in the structure
of land ownership and management. The Agricultural Cooperatives have been privatized and its land distributed to
those who worked there. Land ownership is generally not of a single contiguous piece of land. In the interests of
equity the new farmers each received two or more parcels on land of differing quality. The average size farm unit in
protected area is about 2 ha. There are 397 units, of which about 20 percent are less than 1 ha, 65 percent range from
1 to 2 ha, and 15 percent are greater than 1.5 ha. Farm holdings are fragmented into some smaller plots. The vast
majority of landholdings are owners operated. Although the land has been redistributed, secure ownership rights and
title have not generally been established and a free market for sale or rental of land is not yet functioning.

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Approximately 15000 people live in the Park basin: in six Communes (Steblev, Lunik, Qendr, Hotolisht, Quks
and Rrajc), and in 12 villages (Borov, Steblev, Llang, Zgosht, Letem, Kosharisht, Qarrishte, Gizavesh, Dorz,
Skroske (Peshtan), Rrajc Sknderbej dhe Rrajc Bardhaj). Four villages compound protected area: Strblev,
Qarishte, Rrajc Sknderbej, and Rrajc Bardhaj, with a total population of 2325 inhabitants in 2010 (Table 1).
Administratively the territory of Protected Area is organized into three Communes: Commune of Strblev,
Commune of Qendr and Commune of Rrajc, which are administrative part of the Librazhd District. All these
Communes are units of Elbasan Prefecture.
The recent trend of population is growing at a rate of about 1 percent per year. The population distribution is not
uniform among the villages (Table 1). About 65 percent of the population is categorized as a labour force and about
70% of them are over 30 years old. About 70 percent of labour force is working in the agricultural sector. The labour
force data indicates the availability of human resources for future development. The main characteristic of the
agricultural farms is domination of the family labour. About 95% of the farms satisfy their job needs from their
family. The household in protected area consists of about 6 persons, showing a declining trend in years. The area is
dominated by families with 4 6 members, which represent 72% of the total member of the families. The population
is still dominated by the young population. About 23 % of the population is less than 15 years old, 67% is between
15 and 65 years old and only 10% is older than 65 years.

Table 1. Demographic data, 2010

Commune or Village Number of families Population


1. Commune of Strblev 362 1578
Strblev village 67 208

2. Commune of Qendr 2221 11 632


Qarishte village 77 537

3. Commune of Rrajc 2370 10665


Rrajc Sknderbej village 148 693
Rrajc Bardhaj village 105 889
Protected Area 397 2325

The average age of the heads of farm households is about 45 years. The average farmers work is about 25 hours per
week and the education level of most farmers is at the middle school level. There is concern that younger are less
likely to stay on family farm. There is expected to be increased rural to urban migration, which will be encouraged
as the industry and services sector recover.
These demographic trends, coupled with the development of a market for land renting and sale, which will be fully
functioning in a few years as the land registration process is completed, are likely to lead to increasing farm sizes
and larger contiguous cultivation units.
Fortunately there is not an employment shortage at present. According to the data provided by the Communes, about
23% are unemployed. The agricultural farm is the main source of employment. So, 74% of the working force is
employed in agriculture (full or part time), 6% is employed in non agricultural businesses (private, 2% and state
sector, 4%) and about 20% in emigration.
Low income from farming has made farmers to look for other income sources. Many farmers go for non-farm part
work. Here below are given some direction for employment of working labour force of protected area.
Promotion of integrated farming. Integrated farming combines crops and animals. Based on the economic
justification, as well as on the sustainable development policy, the protected area have to be oriented in the
development mainly of the fruit trees, ecological vegetables and fodder crops for livestock. Individual farmers have
started now with the cultivation of new wine yards and restoration of former one. A combined conservation program
for the preservation and restoration of still existing orchards is still not introduced. These efforts have to be linked
with a special marketing program for the fruits, for the certification and license of the production sites, which is
unknown for the area of concerns.
Promotion of organic agriculture. Protected area with its geographical position with its young rural population and
with low level use of external originated inputs on the farms, traditional features of agriculture, offers great
opportunities for development of organic agriculture. The organic agriculture has to be seen as a rural model of
sustainable agriculture and as a contribution to sustainable rural development. Protected area has another great
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advantage in applying organic farming. This advantage holds on the fact that labour force is abundant. Labour force
has the key role in applying organic farming. According to our survey a number of households are practicing organic
farming including nature or ecological farming (reduced use of agro-chemicals and fertilizers). This is 1.2 percent of
total farm households. Organic farms produce mainly vegetables, wine and honey.
Development of ecotourism. The sustainable rural development is one of the main objectives of Albanian policy,
where the ecotourism development is a long-term target. Development of eco-agriculture fits well within overall
strategic priorities of Albania. The increasing of tourism activities requires a demand from the traditional products
from agriculture and livestock. Variety of goats cheese and yoghurt, kid and lamb meat and the famous goats
preserved meat called pasterma will have their influence in the development of agro tourism in protected area.
Meanwhile, this region has good possibilities to offer special, natural and qualitative agricultural and livestock
productions.
Establishment of marketing system. One major source of off-farm employment is the establishment of the marketing
system. Of course, the marketing system also serves as a link between rural and urban migration both permanent and
cyclical.
Development of food industry activities. In this framework may be encouraged the Dairy Products.
Development of wood processing and handicraft activities. The people of the protected Area posses a special artistic
spirit and numerous crafts have been practiced here for centuries. Today these traditional skills are still performed in
the original manner. In their family you can watch the master-women creating beautiful works of sheep and goat
wool. Woollen blanket, carpets and cope, socks and bags may serve as wonderful souvenir from protected area. The
traditional lacework, handed down from one generation to another, creates works of arts made of simple thread.
Master woodcarvers are still working and passing their skills to young apprentices.
Cultivation and sustainable use of medical, tanning and oil bearing natural plants. The medicinal plants from the
protected Area, which are harvested with sustainable methods and traded with a fair price, would allow local people
an adequate income as well as the conservation of their nature.
It is difficult to ensure that the data on farm incomes is reasonably accurate, particularly when much of agricultural
production is consumed on farm. The average annual household income, including cash and non-cash sources in the
protected area is 3000 . Per capita annual income is about 500 , with approximately 40 percent of the population
having an income below 400 . About 5% of the households realize a monthly income up to 50 ; 53% have
monthly income varying from 50 to 150 , 28% from 150 to 250 and 13% from 250 to 400 . Only 1% of the
households make an annual income of more than 4000 .
The destination of agricultural production shows that the cash incomes in farm are still low in comparison with the
interior consumption, although the average income during 1997 2004 was increased by about 2.5 times. The sold
production, in 2002, was about 30% of total production as compared to about 15% in 1997.
Types of households: agricultural households, part time agriculture, non agricultural households are given in below
table 2.
Table 2. Types of households (%)

Full time in agriculture Part time in agriculture Non agricultural


30 65 5

The majority of farm households have income from non-farm activities, and these sources provide about 65% of the
households cash income (Table 3).
Farmers think that a combination of farmer training, improved markets for crops and technical and financial
assistance, is needed to improve their income.
The cost of material expenditure of the agricultural and livestock production amounts to about 40% of the income.
About 60% of the material expenditures are provided at farm level and 40% of them are purchased. In 2004, the
material expenditures for agriculture represent 45% of total expenditures. Expenditures for fertilizer purchase and
land tillage make up for 50% of the material expenditures in agriculture. The on - farm produced forages amount to
75% of the total expenditures for the livestock.
Table 3. Income structure (in %)

On-farm Off-farm Emigration


35 35 30

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From the taken data, we can draw the following conclusions: The farms continue to be considered as subsistence-
oriented, although during last years an increase of the revenues realized from sales has been noticed; and the major
part of the agricultural production is used for family consumption.

b. Agriculture Sector. Three main problems faced by agriculture are: First, the existence of an agricultural farm with
minimal size, fragmented, closed in itself and oriented towards the fulfilment of the family needs; second, the
existence of a considerably large family which needs to operate in the micro farm; third, the lack of irrigation
system.
The future development of agriculture in protected region is based mainly in the long traditions and experience of
the local people in combined traditional crop farming with livestock farming, and collecting from nature. Further,
there are suitable agro-climate conditions and low level of the environmental pollution for the implementation of
different environmentally sound agro-activities, like fruit yards, vineyards, orchards, etc.
Mean cropping structure (in percentage of total farmer cropping area) in catchments area is as follows: Wheat -
20.2 %, Corn 15.2 %, Dry beans - 5 %, Alfalfa 21.1 %, Vegetables 7.8 %, and Others 35.7 %. In table 4 are
given the planted area.
Table 4. Area planted

Crop Area planted (ha)


Wheat 160
Corn 120
Barley 43
Rye 57
Potatoes 54
Dry beans 39
Alfalfa 75
Forage 92

The small farm size and the even smaller average size of each parcel, constrain the development of mechanization
and the productivity of the crop production sector. Despite the demand for agricultural land, it is still utilized with
inefficiency. All arable land has not been intensively cultivated. Of total agricultural land, the maximum land
utilization is only about 85% to be grown one crop a year. There are not cultivated areas devoted to second crops
because the irrigation is not available. Productivity and yields for most agricultural crops showed a declining trend.
Whereas, the agricultural sector in Protected area has features, which provide substantial opportunities: Area of good
agricultural land on gentle slopes. (These soils will respond well to irrigation and fertilizers application with
minimal problems); an agro-climatic zone permitting cultivation of a wide variety of agricultural products; a
population with a high level of agricultural education and literacy who have demonstrated their commitment to
farming in the new economic environment; access to Macedonian market, with potential comparative advantage
arising both from location and from a low cost base.
However there are at present many constraints on the exploitation of these opportunities, some of which are already
being addressed. Of particular importance are: The lack of irrigation system; the poor state of transport infrastructure
(particularly the roads), which impedes produce marketing; inadequate seed supply; weak credit availability;
ineffective agricultural extension service; inadequate supplies of mechanical equipments; the lack of an effective
market for land (sale or rental); the small size and fragmentation of agricultural holdings; serious erosion from
upland areas, largely aggravated by uncontrolled grazing of animals on highly erodible areas.
Based on field level surveys, it has been determined that the major factors which would best contribute to increased
growth in the crop sector include: Providing a timely and assured irrigation water supply; improving the delivery
and availability of quality seeds, fertilizer, insecticides, agricultural extension, credit, and machinery; furthering
farmer education, and improving the rural infrastructure, particularly roads, and communications.
The field survey provides the following overall indications: Cropping intensities are low, despite the fact that a half
of the area is planted to winter wheat, offering an opportunity for a second crop on at least part of this area;
production of fodder crops for livestock is of major importance, with alfalfa and maize being two main crops grown;
reported crop yields are quite low. Crop yields are smaller than the district averages. This reflects both the low levels
of water and input use; most farms are mixed crop and livestock enterprises. Almost all farms own cattle, goats,
sheep and poultry and many also horses and pigs.

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c. Livestock Production. As for livestock production, goats and sheep are predominant and cattle plays important
role. Actually the animal production is taking priority in the total agricultural production. In the future this tendency
will become most important. Even now livestock has an important economic value.
Regardless of a slight livestock number decrease, especially of goats and sheep, there is a tendency towards
livestock production increase. Livestock continues to be the most important sector of the agricultural production
contributing to more than 45% of the total agricultural income in 2010. According to the data provided, the livestock
number is given in table 5.
Table 5. Stockbreeding structure in the Park

Communes or Village Livestock number


Cattle Sheep Goats Poultry Bees
1. Commune of Strblev
Strblev village 150 500 50 300 50
2. Commune of Qendr
Qarishte village 250 900 250 200 120
3. Commune of Rajc
Rrajc Skandrbej village 480 1000 800 400 30
Rrajc Bardhaj village 410 900 750 350 40
Protected Area 1290 3300 1850 1250 240

The breeding systems for small ruminants are still traditional: exploitation of the summer and winter meadows and
low forest, grazing in the considerable area of non cultivated agricultural land, tree lopping and a relatively limited
use of concentration and dry feed (about 110 days a year only during winter season).
Feed resources have declined over the last decade. The major sources for the collection of livestock fodder are:
Forage production; grazing of alpine and sub alpine pastures and meadows; tree lopping.
One of main source for livestock fodder is the forage production. This is not sufficient to meet the needs for
livestock food even and in the summer time because the lack of water for irrigation.
Pastoral capacity is unable to fulfil the pastoral needs of livestock. Since 1992 is evidenced a tendency of local
people to keep small flocks of goats near their houses. So, to assure the wintering of the livestock, needs for food are
provided also and by tree lopping mainly for goats, where the most damaged and overused is the oak belt. Despite
the efforts of the Local Forest Service administration to make limitations, these efforts are actually too weak toward
the pressure from livestock keepers.
The livestock sector has increased its relative importance. According to the data provided by the Directory of
Agriculture in the region, the comparison between the data of 1985 with current ones, the number of the cows, pigs
and bees is increased.
The livestock numbers has been changed according to the system changes. Until 1950 the livestock sector was
private, where each family owned some sheep and goats, cattle, a horse, a pig, some bees, etc. After yr. 1991 these
cooperatives were privatized and the large flocks were distributed to the private villagers. The total number of small
animals actually is decreased to about 5150.
Climate, water and soil favour quick development of forest and brushwood preferable by smaller animals. Certainly,
the forest damaged so much during these years, less by the overgrazing and more by the cutting without criterion
should rehabilitate gradually, but never damaging the livestock, which should have the place that has ever had in the
past in the region. Livestock isnt an activity incompatible to the preservation and conservation of natural
biodiversity values. This should be well understood especially when speaking about goat. The economic importance
of this specie, adapted so well to the conditions of the region, should not be undervalued. With a methodical
development of forest and goat arrangement, the goat can be a very important economic factor, as long as it eats the
spontaneous natural vegetation during the all year.
The habitants of protected area use to grow-up those kinds of domestic animals that can better adapt to the
environmental conditions in the area. Among them the most important are goats. During centuries there has been
consolidated a very interesting goat, with a robust constitution, able to cover kilometres in slope rocks every day in
search of fodder. Its weight is 35-40 kg, annual milk production, 100-120 l and reproduction, 120 %. Its fodder base
is the oaks leaf. There are no interventions aiming to improve the race.
The sheep arrangement continues to be still one of the main livestock activities. Until the year 1960 the common
type small body and rough wool dominated the region. In the 60-ies began the crossbreed of the region sheep with
races half-rough wool, like Cigaja and Rude and was done a severe selection of the sheep with black wool because
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of the very poor industrial value. From 1991, when race improvement stopped to be applied, there is a
predomination of sheep with half-rough wool, but there are also any with black wool, sign of the presence of the
ancient genetic material. Its weight is 25-30 kg, annual milk production, 50-70 l and reproduction, 120 %.
The habitants have also arranged and cows. The cows are used for milk, meat and work. The cow type of the region
represents an animal grey in colour, colour which became deeper on neck and on head, very resistant and adopted to
the climate of the region, similar to cow living in the mountain areas. The annual production is: milk, 1000 l and
meat, 100 kg. During these last 30-40 years there have been efforts to crossbreed it with Jersey, Oberental and
others, but couldnt assimilate the cow of the region.

d. Forestry. Forest is another important income source in protected area. Poor farming methods, timbering,
overgrazing and soil erosion have damaged severely some gently sloping to sloping soils, many of which are today
abandoned to brush.
In 2010, forestry occupied a total area of 7381 ha (Table 6). The forest ecosystem until 1950 was in the very good
condition without degradations and visible problems creating damages. The situation was good also and before 20-
30 years where the oak and beech forest have been in a good vegetative stages creating a real forest with reach
habitats and wild fauna have been presented within a high number of birds and mammals.

Table 6. Forest area (in ha) in Shebeniku Jablanica National Park

Commune/ village Forest Shrubs Grassland Total


Rrajc 3554 724 2840 7118
Strblev 2 031 135 444 2610
Qarishte 1796 481 1743 4020
Total 7381 1340 5027 13748

The notorious local energy shortage continues to have detrimental effects on the forest ecosystems of the protected
area and its surrounding area, as firewood is the major source of energy for the population of the region. The second
most serious threat to the forests is tree lopping for the collection of winter fodder, mostly for goats. Livestock
grazing inside the already-degraded mountain forests poses another threat to forest integrity. This causes soil erosion
and compaction, and the destruction of natural tree regeneration.
As a result of this extensive over-utilization, most local forests have deteriorated into unproductive shrub
communities of low commercial and biodiversity values. This is presumably associated with a reduction in species
diversity and loss of biodiversity. A concerted effort is needed to successfully rehabilitate the forests of the Park and
support zone. This may only be achieved in close cooperation with local villagers, the root cause of the
environmental problems.
Considering this extreme situation in this part of the region, which represent at first view a big contrast with the
another parts in neighboring country, the restoration of forests represent an imperative task of top priority, in order
to improve the natural habitats, manly in core and buffer zones of the Park. By this, the scenic beauty will be
regained and the attractiveness for the visitors will be increased. But this may only be achieved in close cooperation
with local villagers, providing and supporting them with suitable alternatives to firewood production, suggesting and
supporting activities that will led on reducing livestock numbers, reducing goat populations, and eliminating tree
lopping.
Since 1992 the policy of forest management has been changed from exploitation to conservation forestry and to
expand reforestation area. Under this policy, annual forestry production decreased and forest reserves increased.
All over the region wood is an important energy source for heating and cooking. Also, both local people and people
from the surrounding villages have been based on that source of power permanently without restriction.

e. Tourism. Here below are given the main features of protected area which support the tourism development: Stone
houses and barns, orchards and vineyards, grandmothers layered in traditional clothing, shepherds and their dogs
tending flocks of sheep and goats, donkey laden with hay traipsing down narrow trails and up cobblestone streets,
and the striking architecture and serenity of the village church filled with burning candles, ancient murals, and icons
of the orthodox saints, and everywhere there are friendly people eager to offer you priceless insights into their
timeless existence. Here you will find mountain slopes, and the peace of wild and undiscovered country.
Favourable sunlight, climate and soil provide a bountiful harvest. Bees make delicious honey from a multitude of
wild flowers, and sheep and goats grazing in high pastures make delicious cheeses. Lots of meat, mostly pork or

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veal, and the regional speciality, pastrma, andllukanik, are characteristic of Protected area. The specialities of
protected area are characterized by their mild flavours: mostly lamb, potatoes and dairy products.
Vegetables are of high quality. Amongst the most popular vegetables is the red pepper. Every garden in the region
grows red pepper. In the autumn, they are picked, roasted, skinned, pulped, and made into the best red pepper paste
you can imagine. An added delight is the decorative sight of the red peppers hung out to dry on every veranda for
use in winter cooking.
Vineyards and the talent of the local people to enjoy life and to make life enjoyable for their guests have produced
the fine wines of protected area. Robust and very palatable red and white local wines are served from bottles or
straight from the barrel in restaurants and homes. The grape spirit, rakija, drunk in small doses ensures good
digestion and a warm heart.
Prices for all these fresh and tasty delights are low. So even on the most meager of budgets the tourist can eat well
while enjoying the ambience of restaurants with beautiful views of the lake, old urban architecture or listening to
traditional music or dancing a local step.

CONCLUSIONS

In Park agriculture is chiefly practiced at a subsistence level. Mixed farming (i.e. agriculture and livestock breeding)
covers the main needs of the households. From an environmental point of view, the areas forests are under high
pressure mainly due to high practice of tree lopping and illegal wood cutting (wood for heating). Also, agriculture,
the way it is practiced, causes environmental problems, as in many cases it is based on monoculture systems,
although it should be mentioned that as far as agrochemicals are concerned, their use is still at a low level.
The low industrialization of the areas agriculture in comparison with the shortages of basic infrastructure (i.e.
irrigation, transportation etc.) and services (e.g. land market, credit availability, extension services etc.) form the
main restrictive factors for the areas rural development. Under these circumstances, there is no link with the market
or it is very low and almost the whole of the production is destined for own-consumption.
Based on the possibilities for the sustainable social economic development of the Albanian part of Park and the
rational use of the natural resources in order these to be of benefit for both nature and local economy it is required:
Promotion of the balanced and well planed development for all the branches and activities of production including
tourism; promotion of the activities that generating a contribution to nature protection or will reduce the negative
impacts to the environment; promotion of the resolution policy towards improvements of the nature resources
management and particularly water quality; ecotourism development; improvement of the infrastructure;
enforcement of the local human and labor capacity and increase of the local GDP; wide use of the local productions,
animal races and plant varieties; increase the local human and labor capacities through training and assistance;
promotion and support of the business entities; subsidiary system for the locally based population; protection of the
cultural values like monuments, traditional buildings, human traditional activities and cultural elements that will be
of help for the sustainable management of the natural resources.

REFERENCES

Bruner, R. (2006) Transboundary cooperation - a European Challenge. In the Green Belt of Europe, from the Vision
to reality. IUCN Publications, UK.
MoEFW. (2007) State of Environment Report, Tirana.
Riecken U., Ulrich, K., Lang, A. (2006) A Vision for the Green Belt in Europe. In the Green Belt of Europe, from
the Vision to the Reality. IUCN Publications, UK.
Shumka, S., Trajce A., Shuka, L., Schwadere, G., Spangenberg, A. (2008) Albanian Alps, Krabi Mountain Range
and Shebenik-Jablanica Range the New Backbone of the European Green Belt. Proceeding of International
Conference on Biological and Environmental Sciences.

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PAPER 170

FACTORS LEADING TO IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT


PRACTICES ON THE AL-PRESPA BASIN

Dorina Grazhdani

Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania.

Email: d.grazhdani@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The water quality problems in the Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) basin are well documented. As a result,
state and local leaders have searched for viable solutions to nutrient loading in the AL-Prespa. One of the leading
sources of this pollution comes from agriculture, and one of the solutions to this problem lies in finding adequate
management techniques, often called Best Management Practices, or BMPs. This study statistically analyzes
economic and other factors that contribute to farmer adoption of six different agricultural best management practices
in the AL-Prespa basin. For this reason, a logit model is applied to a sample of farms in the AL-Prespa basin in
southeastern Albania. The data come from farmers living in the AL-Prespa basin, and reflects the characteristics of
the farmers, their farms, and their perceptions concerning environmental issues. The results of this study shows that
any policy aimed at improving BMPs implementation in the AL-Prespa basin should take a flexible approach. The
two most important factors in participation in BMPs are farm size and financial assistance. This study should give
policy makers a better understanding of which farmers adopt agricultural BMPs in the AL-Prespa basin and what
policies can effectively improve future BMP implementation. The study should also show that factors contributing
to BMP adoption in the AL-Prespa basin are not uniform across conservation techniques. Future studies should
focus on determining factors of BMPs intensity in the region. With the proper analysis of participation and intensity,
nonpoint source pollution policy formulation should become more effective. Knowing who to target should lead to
the most effective and efficient way to improve water quality on the AL-Prespa.

Key words: AL-Prespa, BMPs, nonpoint source pollution, logit model, management practices

INTRODUCTION

Several studies, starting with Ervin and Ervin (1982), have developed economic models that have dealt a number of
decisions related to BMPs use. Lohr and Park (1995) find that participation decisions are affected by factors only
indirectly related to on - farm returns. These factors include environmental concern, contact with government
agencies, and household and farm characteristics. In Traore, Landry, and Amaras (1998) probit model variables
include farmer characteristics such as education, membership in producers organizations, experience, participation
in government programs, and ownership status; farmer perception variables which include perceived health threat
from farm chemicals, adequacy of information on conservation practices, and expected crop loss to pests and weeds;
and farm characteristic variables which include size of operations and share of potato revenues in total farm income.
This study puts less emphasis on financial aspects than other reviewed studies. Ramirez and Shultz (2000) find
several different factors that contribute to BMP implementation in developing countries. They find that participation
in community organizations is positively related to adoption. Other factors, such as access to credit, labor
availability, education, farm size, and type of cropping system also seem to influence adoption. One interesting
outcome was the finding that higher farm net income and the existence of incentives do not appear to have a positive
impact on adoption.
In his multinominal logit model for tillage adoption, Fuglie (1999) includes the commonly used farm and farmer
characteristic variables such as experience, farm size, and technical experience. Fuglie also adds other variables such
as a variable for those farmers with a college education, farm owners, those who comply with conservation
practices, as well as various erosion and soil related variables. An interesting aspect of Fuglies model specification
is the inclusion of variables representing conditions that would lead to erosion problems.
The studies above are all varying methods for analyzing aspects of BMP implementation in developed countries.
Ramirez and Shultz (2000) study the implementation of BMPs in developing countries. They find several different

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factors that contribute to BMP implementation in developing countries. They find that participation in community
organizations is positively related to adoption. Other factors, such as access to credit, labor availability, education,
farm size, and type of cropping system also seem to influence adoption. One interesting outcome was the finding
that higher farm net income and the existence of incentives do not appear to have a positive impact on adoption.
This study statistically analyzes economic and other factors that contribute to farmer adoption of six different
agricultural best management practices in the AL-Prespa basin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1.Empirical Model
The model used in this study is an example of a Bernoulli or binary response model, which is a binary logistic
regression model, the major benefit of which is that it can be derived from a latent variable model that satisfies the
classic linear model assumptions (Wooldridge, 2000). By this model are estimated the agricultural best management
practices implementation for six different BMP types (i = 1,,6): fertilizer or nutrient management(i = 1),
controlled drainage (i = 2), cover crops in rotation (i = 3), grasses or legumes in rotation (i = 4), conservation or
reduced tillage (I = 5), and integrated pest management (i = 6).
The variables estimated in this model are included in two groups. First group includes the following basic
demographic variables: education, work experience, income, farm size, and percentage of farm sales from livestock,
percentage of income from farming, and a financial assistance dummy. Second model group includes the variables
representing the perception of the farmer concerning AL-Prespa water quality conditions and the expected effect of
these variables on implementation. These variables include the following: a dummy variable for those rating the
water quality poor, a dummy variable for those who have heard or read a lot about problems facing the AL-Prespa, a
dummy variable for those who have talked with someone about the problems on the AL-Prespa, a dummy variable
for those who do not think water quality on the AL-Prespa is important at all, and a dummy variable for those
respondents who feel that the AL-Prespa is not safe for recreation.

2. Data Collection
The data come from a 2012 survey of households from twelve villages in the AL-Prespa basin. Table 1 shows
demographic information for the 298 observations and the expected effect of these variables on implementation. The
average income (Income) of the farmers surveyed is 879.41. The average farm size of the respondents (Farm size)
is 1.413 ha. The average percent income received from farming (Percentage) is 49 percent. Also 18 percent of
respondents receive financial assistance for BMPs (Finasst). Other averages for demographic variables include
education (Education), experience (Experience), percentage of total farm sales from livestock (Animals), age (Age),
and gender (Female). Education is measured in years of schooling. Experience is a proxy for potential work
experience (Age Education 6). Age is measured in years.

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics: Demographics

Variable N Mean Std. Dev. Min. Max. Expected Sign


Education 298 10.82 3.878 7 22 +
Experience 298 36.75 4.215 0 73 +
Income 298 879.41 21.327 300 2000 +
Animals 298 27.86 4.597 0 100 -
Farm size 298 1.413 0.823 0.8 3.4 +
Financial assistance 298 0.178 0.354 0 1 +
Percentage 298 48.973 23.14 0 100
Age 298 52.43 13.89 21 84 -
Female 298 0.123 0.213 0 1 +

Table 2 shows perceptions held by the respondents, and the expected effect of these variables on implementation.
WQPOOR gives the percentage of the number of respondents who felt the water quality was poor in their
communities. WQIMPORTN gives the percentage of the number of respondents who felt the water quality was not
at all important to them personally. READALOT shows the percentage of respondents who felt they have heard or
read a lot about problems facing the AL-Prespa. TALKSOME represents the percentage of respondents who have
talked with other people about the problems on the AL-Prespa before the survey. NOTSAFE shows the percentage

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of respondents who felt the lakes is not safe to use. CURREGAS gives the percentage of respondents who disagree
that the current regulations are sufficient to protect water quality in the AL-Prespa. BOATABLE shows the
percentage of respondents who feel the AL-Prespa is safe for boating. TRIPS shows the average number of trips the
respondent would take to the AL-Prespa for swimming, fishing or other recreational purposes in the next 12 months.
NONPOINT gives the percentage of respondents who have heard of nonpoint source pollution.

Table 2. Descriptive Statistics: Perception

Variable N Mean Std. Dev. Min. Max. Expected Sign


WQPOOR 298 0.541 0.37 0 1 +
WQIMPORTN 298 0.058 0.031 0 1 _
READALOT 298 0.876 0.231 0 1 +
TALKSOME 298 0.897 0.356 0 1 +
NOTSAFE 298 0.359 0.123 0 1 +
CURREGAS 298 0.378 0.157 0 1 +
BOATABLE 298 0.273 0.313 0 1 +
TRIPS 298 7.321 12.587 0 97 +
NONPOINT 298 0.412 0.531 0 1 +

Table 3 gives the percentage of implementation for the six agricultural best management practices: fertilizer or
nutrient management (BMP_Fnma), controlled drainage (BMP_codr), cover crops in rotation (BMP_Rot1), grasses
or legumes in rotation (BMP_Rot2), conservation or reduced tillage (BMP_Till), and integrated pest management
(BMP_Ipms).
Table 3. BMP descriptive statistics

Variable N Mean Std Dev


BMP_Fnma 298 0.861 0.427
BMP_codr 298 0.835 0.371
BMP_Rot1 298 0.771 0.329
BMP_Rot2 298 0.556 0.257
BMP_Till 298 0.339 0.165
BMP_Ipms 298 0.641 0.421

Fertilizer or nutrient management involves accounting for all fertilizer or nutrient inputs so to meet the needs of
crops or livestock, while reducing potential runoff. These plans deal with feed management, manure handling and
storage, land application of manure, nutrient management, land management, record keeping, and acceptable
alternatives for use or disposal of excess nutrients produced or imported onto the farm. These plans are usually site
specific and are written to meet the goals of the farmer. 86 percent of the farmers surveyed implemented this BMP.
Farmers use controlled drainage to manage water flow to and from water sources. This management technique often
uses water control structures and pumps to better manage water flow on a property. Controlled drainage leads to
more efficient water use for crops as well as reduction of polluted runoff. 84 percent of the farmers surveyed
implemented controlled drainage on their farms.
Some farmers use different cover crops in their rotations for seasonal purposes. These cover crops prevent erosion
and increase soil organic matter. In some cases these crops in rotation are grasses or legumes. Grasses can be used
for forage for livestock or for human consumption. Legumes can be extremely important for the nitrogen fixation
process, which can increase the productivity of other crops. 77 percent of the farmers used cover crops in their
rotations and 56 percent of the farmers used grasses and legumes in their rotations.
Conservation and reduced tillage practices involve leaving different amounts of plant residue from past crops on the
fields all year round. This practice helps prevent soil erosion and can increase the soils integrity through increases in
organic matter. 34 percent of the farmers used conservation tillage practices.
The last management technique assessed in this study is integrated pest management. Integrated pest management
involves using a multifaceted approach to pest management. With integrated pest management, farmers deal with
weeds, diseases, insects, and other pests utilizing avoidance, prevention, monitoring, and suppression strategies.
Integrated pest management uses this multifaceted approach so to minimize negative environmental effects that may
occur from overuse of one type of pest control. 64 percent of the surveyed farmers used integrated pest management.

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RESULTS

The logit regression coefficients for the implementation of the six best management practices are presented in table
4. Table 5 presents the marginal effects and odds ratios for the logit model. The model is significant at the 0.01 level
according to the chi-square statistics.
There are several common factors that did influence the implementation of almost six BMPs studied. The two most
important factors in participation in BMPs are farm size and financial assistance. Farm size has a significant,
positive relationship with adoption of BMPs. So, there is a positive relationship between the percent of income from
farming and the implementation of controlled drainage at the 0.05 level. The mean percentage point increase for
implementation of these BMPs is 16.5.
The fact that farm size plays an important role shows the potential for some selectivity in producing the most
effective policy. The only best management practice that is not affected by farm size is fertilizer or nutrient
management. When farm size affected implementation of the BMPs, the magnitude of the increase diminished as the
size of the farm increased.
In each case, there was a specific farm size after which BMPs implementation did not increase. This suggests that
medium sized farms have the lowest average costs for implementation of BMPs. In order to provide more incentives
for small farms to adopt BMPs, small farms could receive higher per ha payments to address the higher costs of
BMPs implementation. The higher payments would balance out the higher per ha cost of BMPs implementation that
occurs with smaller farms.
Financial assistance in BMPs adoption also had positive impacts on implementation of most BMPs in the study. The
only BMPs that were not significantly affected by financial assistance were rotation 1 and integrated pest
management. The mean positive effect of financial assistance in this data set is roughly 20 percentage points. So,
there is a significant positive relationship between farmers who receive financial assistance and the use of grasses
and legumes in rotation at the 0.01 level. There was also proved to be a significant positive relationship between
farmers who receive financial assistance and implementation of controlled drainage. This relationship is significant
at the 0.05 level. As the number of ha of farmland increase, farmers in the AL-Prespa basin are more likely to
implement integrated pest management. There is a significant, positive relationship between farmers who receive
financial assistance and implementation of reduced till. This relationship is significant at the 0.01 level.
The impact of financial assistance amplifies the importance of proper funding in the implementation of such
policies. The odds ratio indicates those farmers receiving financial assistance for implementation of BMPs are over
3 times more likely to adopt fertilizer or nutrient management, and 2.16 times more likely to implement controlled
drainage. Farmers also increase implementation by 1.6 percentage points when an additional ten percent is added to
their total income gained from farming. Farms that receive financial assistance for BMP implementation are 2.5
times more likely to implement conservation or reduced tillage than those farms that do not receive financial
assistance for BMP implementation. Farms that receive financial assistance for integrated pest management
implementation are 1.66 times more likely to implement this BMP than those farms that do not receive financial
assistance. Farms that receive financial assistance for rotation 2 implementation are 2.9 times more likely to
implement buffers than those farms that do not receive financial assistance for BMP implementation. Farmers also
increase implementation by 1.5 percentage points when an additional ten percent is added to their total income
gained from farming.
The implementation of cover crops in rotation, fertilizer or nutrient management, and grasses or legumes in rotation,
was all affected by the percentage of income from farming. The effect was not constant, however. There is a positive
relationship between the percent of income from farming and the implementation of fertilizer or nutrient
management at the 0.01 level. The implementation of grasses or legumes was negatively affected by the percentage
of income from farming. The implementation of cover crops in rotation, and fertilizer or nutrient management, had
positive affects of around 2 percentage points per 10 percent increase in income from farming. There is also a
positive relationship between the percent of income from farming and the implementation of controlled drainage at
the 0.05 level and rotation 2 at the 0.1 level.

Table 4. Estimated logit coefficients for the implementation of the best management practices

Type of best management practices


Fertilizer Controlled Rotation 1 Rotation 2 Conservation Integrated pest
Variable drainage Tillage management

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Estimate (Std Dev)


Intercept 1.1502** -0.5646 0.4155 -0.7645 -0.3406 -0.5671
(-0.0262) (1.2345) (0.9960) (0.8777) (1.0081) (0.8480)
Education -0.0578 0.0577 -0.0600 -0.00094 -0.00930 -0.0252
(0.0535) (0.0565) (0.0467) (0.0407) (0.0466) (0.0392)
Experience -0.0170 0.0127 0.00261 -0.0132 -0.0104 -0.00753
(0.0135) (0.0142) (0.0118) (0.0102) (0.0121) (0.00987)
Income 0.00164 -0.00053 0.00254 -0.00123 0.00374 0.00401***
(0.00276) (0.00288) (0.00256) (0.00206) (0.00255) (0.00201)
Animals 0.00394 -0.00912** -0.00556 0.0102* 0.000579 0.000722
(0.00155) (0.00471) (0.00349) (0.00332) (0.00370) (0.00310)
Farm size 0.00148* 0.00819* 0.00710* 0.00608* 0.0107* 0.00508*
(0.00212) (0.00243) (0.00231) (0.00175) (0.00212) (0.00167)
Financial 1.1717* 0.7710** 0.4938*** 1.0702* 0.9128* 0.5045**
assistance (0.3760) (0.3957) (0.3079) (0.2515) (0.3269) (0.2384)
Percentage 0.0138* 0.0117** 0.00893** -0.00610*** 0.00620 0.00518
(0.00510) (0.00508) (0.00414) (0.00363) (0.00418) (0.00341)
WQPOOR -0.4007 0.2213 -0.1439 -0.5415** -0.3056 0.2360
(0.3096) (0.3215) (0.2866) (0.2482) (0.2882) (0.2365)
WQIMPORTN -0.4649 -0.2365 -0.5118 -0.6111 -1.3412** -0.6758
(0.5773) (0.6832) (0.5744 (0.5572) (0.5620) (0.5385)
READALOT -0.2578 -0.7298*** 0.1949 0.5283** 0.0753 -0.3188
(0.3597) (0.4009) (0.3371) (0.2857) (0.3277) (0.2726)
TALKSOME -0.0826 0.4155 0.4807 0.6749** 0.1748 0.4345
(0.3944) (0.3830) ()0.3447 (0.3076) (0.3383) (0.2823)
NOTSAFE 0.0898 -0.3984 0.0134 0.2560 0.1736 -0.3814
(0.3271) (0.3356) (0.3090) (0.2726) (0.3072) (0.2619)
CURREGUST -0.0904 -0.3289 -0.2165 0.0527 0.4567 -0.2123
(0.2905) (0.3143) (0.2789) (0.2453) (0.2850) (0.2303)
BOATABLE 0.1765 0.3632 0.4249 0.2215 0.2832 -0.1181
(0.6059) (0.4129) (0.3694) (0.3104) (0.3565) (0.2579)
TRIPS 0.0107 -0.00924 -0.0107** -0.00467 0.00497 0.00936
(0.0107) (0.00639) (0.00531) (0.00544) (0.00998) (0.00784)
NONPOINT 0.2851 0.3114 -0.2576 0.6541** 0.3755 0.3688
(0.3701) (0.4067) (0.3327) (0.2889) (0.3456) (0.2707)
Wald (global 34.6539* 44.0898* 56.5204* 70.1185* 64.3593* 43.4146*
McFaddens R2 0.1157 0.1685 0.1833 0.1767 0.1629 0.0964
* Significant 99% confidence; ** - significant 95% Confidence, *** significant 90% Confidence

Several BMPs were positively affected by the percentage of total sales from livestock. Implementation is increased
between roughly 1 and 2 percent for every 10 percent increase in the percentage of total sales from livestock.
Table 5. Estimated logit marginal effects for the implementation of best management practices

Type of Best Management Practices


Fertilizer Controlled Rotation 1 Rotation 2 Conservation Integrated pest
Variable drainage Tillage management
Estimate (Odds Ratio)
Intercept 0.2615** -0.1261 0.0772 -0.19034 -0.0655 -0.1415
Education -0.00423 0.0071 -0.01115 -0.00023 -0.0018 -0.00629
Experience -0.00282 0.0017 0.00048 -0.00033 -0.0020 -0.00187
Income 0.00031 -0.00053 0.00045 -0.00031 0.0007196 0.001000**
Animals -0.00072 0.00126** -0.00103 0.00254* 0.00011 0.00018
Farm size 0.00022 0.00123* 0.00132* 0.00151* 0.00206* 0.00126*
Financial 0.1761* 0.1062*** 0.0918 0.2664* 0.1756* 0.1259**
assistance (3.227) (2.162) (1.639) (2.916) (2.491) ()1.656

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Percentage 0.0021* 0.0013** 0.00166** -0.00152** 0.00119 0.0012


WQPOOR -0.0590 0.0305 -0.0267 -0.1348** -0.0588 0.0589
(0.670) (1.248) (0.866) (0.582) (0.737) (1.266)
WQIMPORTN -0.0695 -0.0479 -0.0951 -0.1521 -0.2580** -0.1687
(0.628) (0.706) (0.599) (0.543) (0.262) (0.509)
READALOT 0.0385 -0.1005*** 0.0362 -0.1315*** 0.0145 -0.0795
(0.773) (0.482) (1.215) (1.696) (1.078) (0.727)
TALKSOME -0.0123 0.0572 0.0894 0.1680** 0.0336 0.1084
(0.921) (1.515) (1.617) (1.964) (1.191) (1.544)
NOTSAFE 0.0134 -0.0508 -0.0054 0.0637 0.0334 -0.0952
(1.094) (0.692) (1.030) (1.292) (1.190) (0.683)
CURREGUST 0.069 -0.0453 -0.0402 0.0131 0.0879 -0.0533
(0.914) (0.720) (0.805) (1.054) (1.579) (0.808)
BOATABLE 0.0018 0.0500 0.0790 0.0551 0.0545 -0.0294
(0.012) (1.438) (1.529) (1.248) (1.327) ()0.889
TRIPS 0.0016 0.0013 -0.0019** -0.0419 0.0010 0.0581
(1.011) (0.991) (0.989) (0.845) (1.005) (1.009)
NONPOINT 0.0426 0.0429 -0.0479 0.1629** 0.0722 0.0920
(1.330) (1.365) (0.773) (1.923) (1.456) (1.446)
* Significant 99% confidence; ** - significant 95% Confidence, *** significant 90% Confidence

One of the aims of this study was to determine if water quality related perceptions impacted adoption of best
management practices. In some cases, perceptions appeared to have little or no influence on implementation. Neither
permanent vegetation strips nor integrated pest management had any water quality related perception that influenced
their adoption. Fertilizer and nutrient management and rotation 1 BMPs only had one significant water quality
related perception impacting adoption. Rotation 2 appeared to be most influenced by water quality related
perceptions.
Rotation 2 was influenced by those who thought water quality is poor on the AL-Prespa, reading a lot about water
quality issues on the AL-Prespa, talking with someone about water quality issues on the AL-Prespa before the
survey, disagreeing that farmers will do the right thing for water quality if given the chance, and knowledge of the
word nonpoint as a proxy for scientific knowledge. Those who feel the water quality is poor in the AL-Prespa are
1.72 times less likely to implement rotation 2. Those farmers who felt they had heard or read a lot about problems
facing the AL-Prespa were 1.69 times more likely to implement legumes or grasses in rotation. Those farmers who
have talked with other people about problems on the AL-Prespa before the survey were 2 times more likely to
implement grasses or legumes in rotation.
The fact that implementation of these best management practices had such varied relationships to perceptions
indicates that the issue may deserve more study. It would be difficult to formulate effective policy related to
farmers water quality related perceptions due to the variability of results.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, voluntary participation in six different agricultural best management practices is characterized by
farmer and farm characteristics, financial characteristics, and varying categories of farmer perception concerning
water quality. The implementation of these six best management practices has been shown to decrease the amounts
of pollution reaching surface waters.
Future studies should focus on determining factors of BMPs intensity in the region. With the proper analysis of
participation and intensity, nonpoint source pollution policy formulation should become more effective. Knowing
who to target should lead to the most effective and efficient way to improve water quality on the AL-Prespa.

REFERENCES

Ervin, C. A., and Ervin, D. E. (1982) Factors Affecting the Use of Soil Conservation Practices: Hypothesis,
Evidence, and Policy Implications. Land Economics 58, 277-92.
Fuglie, K. O. (1999) Conservation Tillage and Pesticide Use in the Cornbelt. Journal of Agricultural and Applied
Economics 31(1), 133-47.

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Lohr, L. and Park, T. A. (995) Utility-Consistent Discrete-Continuous Choices in Soil Conservation. Land
Economics 71(4), 474-90.
Ramirez, O. A., and Shultz, S. D. (2000) Poisson Count Models to Explain the Adoption of Agricultural and Natural
Resource Management Technologies by Small Farmers in Central American Countries. Journal of Agricultural and
Applied Economics 32(1), 21-33.
Traore, N., Landry, R., and Amara, N. (1998) On-farm Adoption of Conservation Practices: The Role of Farm and
Farmer Characteristics, Perceptions, and Health Hazards. Land Economics 74(1), 114-27.
Wooldridge, J. M. (2000) Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach. Michigan State University: South-
Western College Publishing

PAPER 171

YIELD, YIELD COMPONENTS AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF DURUM WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY


DIFFERENT SEED RATES AND PLANTING TIME

Foto Kashta, Agim Canko, Pellumb Harizaj, Nikollaq Bardhi, Isuf Kaziu

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kodr
Kamz, 1029, Tirana, Albania

Email: foto_kashta@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of planting date and plant densities on yield and yield quality of
durum wheat. The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design with split plot
arrangements and four replications. Two genotypes of durum wheat (Creso and Line 5/11-1) were planted on 5 dates
from 15 October to 15 December, with 15 days intervals at 4 densities (300, 400, 500 and 600 plant / m 2). The
results showed that planting dates and population densities significantly affected grain yield ha-1. It was observed
that wheat yields and other characters for both cultivars responded differently to planting dates and plant densities.
Highest yields for 5/11-1 were recorded under 15th November and 1th December planting time, whereas for Creso
the highest yields were achieved under 1th and 15th November. The optimum seeding rate was different for the two
genotypes. For line L-5/11-1 the highest and lowest grain yields were obtained at densities of 500 and 300
plant/m2 respectively, and for Creso at 400 and 300 plant/m2 respectively. Planting time and density did not show
significant effect on protein content, wet gluten and vitreous of kernel. However, highest values of these traits were
obtained from lowest and highest densities when yields were the lowest, showing that these differences are
influenced by those yield values.

Key words: durum wheat, density, planting time, yield, protein, wet gluten, vitreous

INTRODUCTION

Yield potential of a crop is dependent upon genetic and environmenta1 factors. The environmental factors can be
manipulated to exploit the maximum yield potential of a variety. Seeding density and planting time are limiting
factors for plants to capture environmental resources (Stoppler et al 1990). They are considered of the most
important production factors for higher grain yield as well as for quality crop (Benvenuto et al 1973, Xhomo A.
1982). Changes in seeding density have special importance in wheat crops since they have a direct effect on grain
yield and its components (Ozturk et al., 2006) according to the cultivation environment
It can affect ground cover competitive ability with weeds, light interception, lodging and the development of an
optimum number of productive tillers to maximize grain yield. Unfortunately, there is no single recommendation for
all conditions, because the optimum plant density varies depending on environmental factors such as soil fertility,
moisture supply, genotype, planting date, planting pattern, plant population and harvest time (Shirtliffe, S.J et al
2002Gonzalo et al., 2006).

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Planting date is one of the most important agronomic factors involved in producing high yielding small grain cereal
crops, which affects the timing and duration of the vegetative and reproductive stages. Seeding earlier increases
chances of disease and insect problems. Seeding later reduces chance of survival, tends to reduce germination count
and number of tillers unit area-1, generally delays maturity, increases disease chances, and reduces yield potential.
(Blue et al., 1990 Soomro et al, 2009;). Many results showed that optimized sowing time and sowing rate has the
potential to improve yield of winter wheat and radiation use efficiency. Determining suitable planting date plays an
important role in conformation of plant growth stages with desirable environmental conditions which results in
maximum yield.
In view the importance of seeding density and planting time, the present study was designed to determinate the best
seeding density and planting time for productivity and some quality traits
of two genotypes of durum wheat

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The two genotypes of durum wheat (Creso and L-5-11-1) were sown at the experimental field of ATTC Lushnja
(Albania), during 2008-2009, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 growing seasons
The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements and four
replications. Main plot included five planting times (15 October to 15 December, with 15 days intervals) and sub
plots contained four densities (300, 400, 500 and 600 plants/m2) The area of sub plot 10 m2 (5 x 2 m) was
established to accommodate 11 rows with 20 cm row spacing. Standard cultural practices were performed uniformly
for all the experimental units in order to reduce experimental error. Phosphorus (80 kg/ha), potash (60 kg/ha) was
applied at planting time while all the doses of nitrogen (150 kg/ha) was applied during vegetative period in four
times. Six rows were harvested for grain yield and threshed. After threshing the grains were cleaned, dried and
weight to record the grain yield which was calculated per hectare basis. The values of protein content (Nx5.7), wet
gluten and vitreous were calculated, using known methods
All the data collected during three years were subjected to statistical analyses using ANOVA. Least Significant
Difference Test at 5% probability was used to test the significant differences among mean values of each treatment
Steel and Torrie, (1997).

RESULTS

Grain yield. The effect of seed rate and planting time on grain yield (kv ha-1) of wheat was highly significant
(p<0.05) during all the years of study. The yield in 2010-2011 was significantly higher (p<0.01) than the other years
mainly because of favorable weather conditions. Optimum rainfall received caused increase in grain yield. The three
years average data showed that grain yield was maximum (53.9, and 53.5 kv ha-1) at seed rate of 500 and 600
plant/m2 for L-5/11-1, and 52.0 and 52.5 kv/ha) at seed rate of 400 and 500 plant/m2 for Creso
(without significant differences) as against the minimum grain yield of 50.4 and 48.3 kv/ha respectively for L-5/11-1
and Creso at seed rate of 300 plant/m2 (Table 1). This might be due to the fact that more number of plants emerged
m-2, more well filled spikes and plump seed, which in return yielded more grain yield
Maximum grain yield (57.0 and 55.1 kv/ha) was produced by L-5/11-1 planted on 15th November and 1th December
compared to this genotype planted on 15 th October (44.0 kv/ ha). Maximum grain yield (55.4 and 55.8 kv/ha) by
Creso was achieved when it was planted on 1th and 15 th November as compared to15th October and 15 th December
which produced minimum grain yield (46.0 kv/ha). Each day delay in sowing of L-5/11-1 after 1th December
onward decreases grain yield at the rate of 24 kg ha-1 day-1, while for Creso this decrease was higher.
Our results supported by provided by Xhomo (1982), who reported that planting dates and seeding rates had
significant effect on the grain yield. However, Paul (1992), reported non-significant effect of seed rate on grain
yield.
The data also indicated that interaction between seed rate and planting date was significantly (P < 0.01) affected.
Sowing of wheat on 1th December with seed rate of 500-600 plant/m2 (D4S4), resulted in the highest, 57.8 and 57.9
kv/ha, which was statistically similar to D3S3, , where as sowing of wheat on 15th October with seed rate 300
plant/m2 (D2S1), resulted in the lowest grain yield 42.7 kv/ha, for L-5/11-1 genotype. Similar results was obtained
also for Creso
As noted the higher yield was achieved in different seed rate and planting date for two genotypes. These differences
are explained because of the differences in morphological, physiological and biological characteristics between

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them. L-5/11-1 is characterized by erectofil position and it is almost alternative biological type. This is why L-5/11-
1 gave higher yield in higher plant density and on later planting date then Creso.

Table 1. Grain yield (kg ha-1) as affected by seeding rate and planting time in wheat.

Seeding Planting time (L-5/11-1) Planting time (Creso)


rate S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean
(D1)300 43.1df 50.1c 51.2c 55.9a 51.6c 50.4b 43.2f 53.3bc 53.8b 47.5d 43.8f 48.3c
f bc b a c b cd a a c d
(D2)400 42.7 52.9 54.4 56.5 51.4 51.6 47.4 57.5 58.9 49.7 46.5 52.0a
d bc a a ab a cd a a c c
(D3)500 45.9 52.1 57.9 57.8 56.0 53.9 48.1 57.9 57.1 50.7 48.8 52.5a
d b a a b a cd bc bc c d
(D4)600 44.3 53.8 56.8 57.9 54.6 53.5 47.4 52.9 53.3 50.7 46.9 50.4b
d b a a b d a a c d
Mean 44.0 52.2 55.1 57.0 53.4 - 46.5 55.4 55.8 49.6 46.5 -
LSD0.05 (Seed rate) = 1.18
LSD0.05 (Planting time) = 2.12
LSD0.05 (Seed rate x planting time) = 2.84
Means followed by different letter(s) in a column and rows are significant at 5% level of probability.
Protein content, wet gluten and vitreous
Beside the aim of achieving high grain yields, grain quality plays an important role since quality requirements
influence prices. Grain protein concentration and composition have long been recognized as major traits determining
cereals end-use value.
Analysis of the data presented in Tables 2, 3 and 4, indicated that protein content, wet gluten and vitreous were not
significantly affected by different seed rates and different planting times. However, increasing the number of
plants/m2 leads to relative decreases of protein and wet gluten, while vitreous was less influenced by these factors.
This fact is more evident for L-5/11-1 as compared with Creso.
If we observe the values of these traits concerning with planting time, we can see that at first and last planting time
the protein content, wet gluten and vitreous level was higher. This fact happened because of lower yield achieved in
these planting times and due to the strength effect of yield on grain protein. Individual variety yield was inversely
proportional to grain protein across all plots. The overall effect of interaction between seeding rate and planting time
on protein averaged and other studied traits, however, was different at plots which achieved high grain yield,
compared with the plots of lower yield. In generally, lower protein was observed at plots that achieved maximum
yield
However the new higher yielding line (L-5/11-1) consistently recorded good proteins and other values across
numerous plots.

Table 2. Protein content as affected by seeding rate and planting time in durum wheat.

Seeding Planting time (L-5/11-1) Planting time (Creso)


rate S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean
(D1)300 16.26 15.38 15.37 15.92 15.96 15.8 14.31 14.23 13.54 12.61 14.92 13.9
(D2)400 16.03 15.04 14.93 15.53 15.97 15.5 13.90 13.23 13.69 13.53 14.64 13.8
(D3)500 15.78 15.20 15.10 15.67 15.43 15.4 13.99 13.32 13.44 13.93 14.11 13.7
(D4)600 15.53 15.11 14.68 15.21 15.40 15.2 13.36 12.70 13.23 12.92 13.89 13.2
Mean 15.9 15.2 15.02 15.6 15.7 - 13.6 13.4 13.5 13.3 14.4
LSD0.05 (Seed rate) = ns
LSD0.05 (Planting time) = ns
LSD0.05 (Seed rate x planting time) = n.s
NS = Non-significant

Table 3. Wet gluten as affected by seeding rate and planting time in durum wheat.

Seeding Planting time (L-5/11-1) Planting time (Creso)


rate S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean

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(D1)300 30.12 27.39 29.08 33.75 30.67 30.2 27.34 26.03 26.46 24.28 28.14 26.5
(D2)400 30.16 28.93 28.85 30.39 28.91 29.5 26.01 25.16 25.82 26.29 27.45 26.1
(D3)500 30.66 29.64 27.39 29.08 28.47 29.1 26.16 24.39 25.00 25.37 27.41 25.7
(D4)600 28.86 27.59 25.99 28.20 29.57 28.1 24.95 23.61 24.74 25.11 26.31 25.0
Mean 29.9 28.9 28.0 30.3 29.4 - 26.1 25.0 25.6 25.2 27.4 -
LSD0.05 (Seed rate) = n.s
LSD0.05 (Planting time) = n.s
LSD0.05 (Seed rate x planting time) = n.s
n.s = Non-significant

Table 4. Vitreous as affected by seeding rate and planting time in durum wheat.

Seeding Planting time (L-5/11-1) Planting time (Creso)


rate S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Mean
(D1)300 80 82 93 95 91 88.2 90 91 92 93 93 91.8
(D2)400 70 94 88 93 93 87.6 89 97 91 93 95 93.0
(D3)500 76 92 84 92 94 87.6 93 82 83 81 94 86.6
(D4)600 78 90 90 96 94 89.8 91 76 80 94 90 86.2
Mean 76.0 89.5 88.6 94.0 93.0 - 90.8 86.5 86.5 90.2 93.0
LSD0.05 (Seed rate) = n.s
LSD0.05 (Planting time) = n.s
LSD0.05 (Seed rate x planting time) = n.s
NS = Non-significant

CONCLUSIONS

From this study it can be concluded that the seed density and planting time affected yield of durum wheat.
Increasing plants population increased seed yield per unit area. L-5/11-1 gave higher yield at a higher plant density
(500-600 plants/m2 ) than Creso (400-500 plants/m2 ), because of differences in their morphological, and
physiological characteristics. The optimum planting time was different for two genotypes in the study. L-5/11-1
gave higher yield when it was planted on 15th November and 1th December while Creso on 1th and 15th November
planted date. This difference occur because these genotypes are different in their biological characteristics. Protein
content, wet gluten and vitreous were not significantly affected by different seed rates and different planting times.
However, increasing the number of plants/m2 leads to relative decreases of protein and wet gluten, while vitreous
was less influenced by this factor.

REFERENCE

Benvenuto A., Bonari E., Miese S. 1973. Il ruolo della fertilizzazione e dello investimento sulla produtivita di
Triticum durum (Riv. Di Agronomia 2-3
Blue E.N, Mason SC, Sander DH (1990). Influence of planting date, seeding rate and phosphorus rate on wheat
yield. Agron. J., 82: 762-768.
Gonzalo, M., T. J. Vyn, J. B. Holland, L. M. Mcintyre (2006): Mapping density response in maize: A direct
approach for testing genotype and treatment interactions. Genetics (GSA), 173: 331-348
Ozturk, A., O. Caglar and S. Bulut, 2005. Growth and yield response of facultative wheat to winter sowing freezing
sowing and spring sowing at different seeding rates. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 192: 10-16
Paul SR (1992). Effect of pre-sowing seed treatment, seed rates, fertility levels and surface soil compaction on
growth and yield of late sown rained wheat in Assam. Ann. Agric. Res., 13(4): 410-411.
Shirtliffe, S.J. and A.M. Johnston, 2002. Yield density relationships and optimum plant populations in two cultivars
of solid-seeding dry bean grown in Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci., 82: 521-529.
Somro, U.A. , M. U. Rahman, E. A. Odhano, S. Gul and A. Tareen 2009 Effects of sowing method and seed rate on
growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) World J. Agric. Sci., 5: 159-162

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Steel R., R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics. A Biometrical Approach. McGraw
Hill, New York, USA
Stoppler, H., E. Kolsch and H. Vogtmann. 1990. The influence of sowing date, seed rate and variety on agronomic
characteristics of winter wheat. J. Agron Crop Sci. 90: 28-38
Xhomo A. 1982 Koha e mbjelljes dhe dendesia e bimeve elemente te rendesishem te teknologjise se grurit. SH.P.B.
Tirane

PAPER 172

ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT- A CASE
STUDY

Hilal Kivraka, Mohammad Shahriarib,c, Erol Pehlivana, Arif Kivrakd


a
Chemical Engineering Department Selcuk University, Konya, 42031, Turkey
b
Competent Center for HSE & Ethics Faculty of Engineering, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
c
Product and Production Developmet/Production System, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gteborg,
Sweden
d
Department of Chemistry, Yuzuncu Yl University, Van, 65080, Turkey

Email: hilalkivrak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The aim of study is to assess the risk which exists with working in a school laboratory. The study is focused on a
laboratory located at University A in Turkey. Risk assessment tools and methodologies help to identify hazards of
organic solvents and to decrease the health and safety risks in school laboratories. There are various risk assessment
methods such as WHAT - IF Checklist, Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
(FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis. In this paper, What-If/checklist method is used to identify the risk factors of organic
solvents in a laboratory. Checklist method uses a set of pre-written questions developed by experts mainly through
what-if technique to stimulate discussion and evaluate the potential hazards exist in a workplace. It is a broadly-
based assessment technique that combines the creative thinking of a selected team of specialists with the methodical
focus of a prepared checklist. What/If questions were focused on human errors, experimental procedure error and
equipment failures. On the basis of this method, some accidents with serious consequences could be dentfed. In
order to prevent the accidents or reduce the effects of them appropriate safeguards have been proposed.

Keywords: organic solvents, risk assessment, what-if and checklist

INTRODUCTON

The study is focused on a laboratory located at University A in Turkey. Risk assessment tools and methodologies
were used to identify hazards of organic solvents and also to manage the risks in the laboratories. There are various
risk assessment methods such as WHAT IF, Checklist, Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP), Failure Mode and
Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis. In this paper, What-If/checklist method is used to identify the risk
factors of organic solvents in a laboratory. Checklist method uses a set of pre-written questions developed by experts
mainly through what-if technique to stimulate discussion and evaluate the potential hazards exist in a workplace. It
is a broadly-based assessment technique that combines the creative thinking of a selected team of specialists with the
methodical focus of a prepared checklist. What/If questions were focused on human errors, experimental
procedure error and equipment failures. On the basis of this method, some accidents with serious consequences
could be identifed. In order to prevent the accidents or reduce the effects of them appropriate safeguards have been
proposed.

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METHODOLOGY

Risk assessment tools and methodologies help to identify hazards of organic solvents and to decrease the health and
safety risks in school laboratories. Herein, the What-If/checklist method is used to identify the hazards and risks
associated with organic solvents. The study focused on a laboratory located at University A in Turkey. It was
carried out by a team consisting of four members. The members are academic staff. In addition, some interviews
were performed with those who have been involved with the laboratory experiments.

RESULTS

What/If questions can be formulated around human errors, process upsets, and equipment failures. These errors
and failures can be considered normal experiment operations, design and construction, maintenance activities, as
well as debugging. An example of what if questions as incident scenarios, their consequenses, likelihoods, and
severities are tabulated in Table 1.

Table 1: What/if questions and consequences


What/if consequences Likelihood Severity
What if is not there Volatile organic solvents can spread through the air Quite possible Very
any hood in lab or is it (Poisoning or irritation). As a result, student or serious
not working? employees inhale the organic solvents, which may lead
to poisoning by some volatile toxic ones. For instance,
Once students set up the acetone distillation, acetone
may leak from the adaptors. Eyes, nose, and throat of
the students will be irritated when acetone is inhaled.
Furthermore, a strong headache will follow these
symptoms.
What if does not hood Volatile organic solvents spread through the atmosphere Quite Very
have laminated safety of laboratory (Poisoning or irritation). On the other possible serious
glass? hand, explosion during the experiment may occur as a
result of un-controlled pressure increase inside the
flusk. The resulting explosion send broken glass flying
in all directions. Students can be injured if there is not
any laminated glass of hood (injuries).
What if chemicals are Toxic chemical bottles can be broken and toxic Quite possible Very
not stored properly in chemicals can spread around. Furhermore, some these serious
the lab? materials could be flammable, resulting with a fire.
What if there is not a Some chemicals could be very toxic and flammable Quite possible Very
designated, approved when they are mixed due to the fast exothermic serious
waste solvent reaction, resulting with an explosion of the waste
containers? container. This could be very harmful and students
could die or injured seriously.
What if are not The sun light or for fire can lead to burm of the Quite possible Very
flammable liquids flammable liquds which leads to serious and deadly serious
kept away from fire or fires in chemical laboratories.
sunlight?
What if chemicals are Students can be confused and mix two organic solvents Quite possible Very
not labeled properly? which can be give highly exothermic reaction leads to serious
serious injuries and fires.
What if lab rules are (Contact lenses, smoking, gloves, googles, closed shoes, Quite possible Very
not followed by lab coat, eating and drinking in the lab food serious
students? prohibited from laboratory ovens and refrigerators. )
Students could be seriously injured because of the
explosions and can be poisoned due to toxic chemicals.
What if is there not If there is not any good drainage, this could lead to Unlikely Minor
any good drainage? floods in the laboratory. organic solvent bottles can be
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broken. harmful and toxic chemicals can dispose the


water (disposal of water by toxic chemicals).

CONCLUSIONS

Most organic solvents are flammable. Therefore, these solvents should be kept away from fire. Students should be
informed about the use of organic solvents. Moreover, the storage of organic solvents is important to reduce their
risks. Each substance should be separated according to the chemical and physical properties (flammability, vapor
pressure, hazard symbols, etc.) before storing. Then, each group of solvents should be placed in the safe cabinet.
These cabinets must be made from fire-resistant material and well ventilated. Moreover, gloves, disposable suits,
and goggles as protective equipments should be used while working. The suitability of these protective equipments
for use with the particular chemical solvents should be evaluated to ensure safety while working. The accidences
with serious consequences could be minimized when the chemicals and solvents used properly. It should be known
what to do when an unwanted event is occurred. Students spend considerable amount of time in laboratories. They
might be exposed to toxic solvents. Laboratories should contain safety equipment such as safety shower, eye washer,
blanket, first aid supplies, and fire extinguishers. Students should follow the instructions and well supervised by
their teachers. To prevent exposing to chemical substances, all of the possible ways should be safeguarded.

PAPER 173

THE SPREAD OF GEOMORPHOLOGIC RISKS IN ALBANIA, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS AND


THEIR MANAGEMENT

Qamil Lirza1, Linert Lirza2


1
Department of Geography, University of Aleksander Xhuvani, Elbasan, Albania
2
Department of Law, Aleksander Moisiu University, Durres,Albania

Email: liptongreg@yahoo.com; linert_lireza@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The main aim of this paper is to present the spread of geomorphologic risks in Albania, causes of origins and their
development, the consequences in the natural environment and human economic activity. These risks are caused as a
result of natural factors and social ones. The over controlled human activity on the environment stimulate the
intensity of the action of geomorphologic processes. Through this paper is presented an overall assessment of natural
hazards and human intervention with high intensity in the natural environment. As a result, it is important to have
complex studies to analyze natural and human factors over environment. Further, this paper presents the types of
geomorphologic risks in Albania, geographical coverage, favorable factors, the evolution and consequences in the
natural environment and social-economic activity. A detailed analysis is made of erosion as the main form of land
degradation. Albania is among the Mediterranean countries characterized by high levels of erosion. As a result, it is
necessary to take protective measures for a good environmental management. Refers to the principle, it is easier to
prevent risks rather than cure "scars", which often turn into "chronic", through this paper are presented the
measures and recommendations that aim to prevent these risks in origin.

Keywords: Geomorphologic risks, erosion, sliding, environmental consequences, measures.

INTRODUCTION

During the last decades of this century, the intervention of humans on the environment has taken enormous steps; his
activity is spread not only on the surface of the earth but also on the inside. As a result, the geomorphologic risks are
augmented, because its generation and its development, not rarely intensive, now it is stimulated from the

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intervention without a criterion of the human society on different components of the natural environment. The
damages caused from the natural risks even those of the geomorphologic character, constitute one of the most main
reasons, which obligated the humans to try to look for more commitment for their recognition. On the basis of this
recognition, the scientists determined some of the preventive and protective measures, and showed the courses
which should have been followed to diminish the damages of geomorphologic risks, or their probable evidence. It
must be stressed that apart from the achievements in this direction, there is still no possibility to totally vanquish all
the geomorphologic risks; still their economical, material, environmental risks are great, and frequently cause human
victims.In these conditions this would need more complex studies which would be focused not only on the natural
causes of the geomorphologic risks but also on the actions of the social and economical factors, on the consequences
of the overuse of the land, of the vegetation, and of the other natural richness, on the consequences of the extension
of the cultivable land on the chutes of mountains and hills, on the environmental consequences of the intensification
of agriculture, on the augmentation of the urban constructions, roads and highways, of the hydrotechnical and
industrial constructions, and the exploitation of mines.(Bega. E 2001; Kovai. V 1998). The dimensions, the scale
and the intensity of these risks in different places are different. This depends not only on the natural factors, but also
on the scale and the manner as man intervenes in the natural environment. Even though there are some achievements
in the management of the natural risks in generally, and especially in those of geomorphologic risks, the humans still
havent got the possibility and strength to totally dominate those forces of nature. But those damages and
geomorphologic risks still continue to be great.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Geomorphologic risks are defined as the third group of natural risks. They are related with the outer processes that
continually model the surface of earth. In those geomorphologic risks are included the sliding, collapses,
demolitions, and other erosive forms. It is applied the methodology of direct observation in practice to identify the
geomorphology risks in Albania. Through this paper are presented some of the most developed slidings in the last
decade. These geomorphologic risks are identified in the national road sector Librazhd - Prrenjas, in the national
roads Bulqiz - Dibr, Fier - Ballsh -Tepelen, Berat - orovod, Prmet - Leskovik - Ersek etc. In the last years,
in some motorway sections as in the motorway Ballsh - Tepelen, arshov - Leskovik, Tepelen - Uji i Ftoht,
Librazhd - Quks etc, there have been several fallings.
In analysing of erosion as a geomorphologic danger, we do not refer only to that of the flawing waters, but also to
the erosion caused by the activity of the wind, the activity of the chemicals, sea abrasion etc.
These processes are accompanied with environmental consequences and economical damages, risking different
works created by the humans, the farming land, and even the humans life.

RESULTS

Sliding is one of the most noted geomorphologic processes of the inclines, with evident consequences on the
environment and with great damages on the economy. They are caused by two main factors: the great content of
argil in the ingredients of the inclines, and because of water which after getting in contact with the argil transforms it
from a rigid into a mass of a small stability. In this way it is created the possibility of the failure of balance and
sliding appear even in those places which have a low incline of (5 %). The destruction of this equilibrium can be
stimulated by different factors; natural or artificial. The first factors are really a lot, for example the tectonic
breakings, seismic movements, and especially the in-depth and collateral erosion of water leaking in the inclines, the
sea and lake abrasion on the high coasts.The second factors are of different kinds. Like all the Mediterranean
countries even in Albania, the inclines of mountains, hills and valleys are in different periods of their evolution. The
economic activity of the humans has always inclined, and so have also the geomorphologic processes of the incline
like slidings, [Photo 1] erosion, and the degradation of many other elements of these environments.

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Photo 1: Sliding

The stimulation of the sliding is related to the indiscriminative human activity on the environment; the opening of
new lands and use of lands in the clay inclines with taking any measure for the regulation of the superficial waters,
the building of artificial water-carriers, irrigative canals etc.The slidings caused in Albania are innumerable, but we
would present only some of the most developed in the last decade.The slidings are numerous in the national road
sector Librazhd Prrenjas, those are almost constantly happening in the wet season. Often there are activated even
the old slidings, blocking the road and the traffic. The same thing has happened in the years 2001 - 2002 in the
national roads Bulqiz Dibr, Fier Ballsh -Tepelen, Berat - orovod, Prmet Leskovik - Ersek etc. Often
the mass of soil sliding from the inclines passes the hundred m3. The last example in (2003) has been in the national
road Ballsh Gjirokastr where the slidings created after the intensive rains have blocked it in different sectors (
Bega.E 2001). In those last ten years as a result of the evacuation of peasantry population toward the flat zones and
cities, there are created many sliding as a result of the abandonment of whole primary habituated zones. There are a
lot of occasions when the habitants have moved from one place to another, and have built their houses near or within
the old sliding. As a result we can mention that slidings are a great danger for the constructions around the city of
Tirana, Burrel, Durres etc. In the villages and in the abandoned lands the erosive denudes processes have been
enliven, and as a result in the whole country there are damaged over 4000 hectares, and 150.000 hectares are in front
of this danger. (Qiriazi.P 2001). One of the greatest dangers in Albania is that of Monglica formed in the southern
incline of Lenie Mountain. It has started on February of 1977 and continued for a couple of months. It has a surface
of 1.5 km2, (Qiriazi P 1998)] while the volume of this mass reaches in 150 million m 3. This sliding has destroyed the
village of the same name, put out of function the hydro plant of this village with a capacity of 200 Kw and its supply
with water; has damaged and degraded the lands and the agricultural cultures planted in them.
This erosion and many others are not a phenomenon of the moment, but a result of the combination of all the
causing factors and natural and artificial stimuli, and the changes that this erosion brought to the zones landscape
were so enormous that the inhabitants of the village Moglic, themselves, found it difficult to be oriented.
Another form of erosion is that of Crruja which is included in the group of those complexes in which considerable
damages were caused; damaging the houses, lands, trees, etc. This erosion is re-activated several times, starting from
the year 1999, then in 2000, and recently in 2004. The village that underwent this erosion was very poor and the
natural disaster lead this poverty into misery; that is why the population asked for help to the government and other
humanitarian organizations which lay their activity in Albania. The state and the Red Cross gave their first
emergency aid, and the specialists of geology witnessing the phenomenon, stated that the best choice was making
the population remove from Cerruja. Now, the removed families are credited by the state and given the permission
to buy land for building.
It is widely accepted from those who study this danger that it is very difficult, if not possible, to stop erosion after it
has started. That is why there are needed precaution measures:
- There should be given a special attention to geo-morphological dangers in order to have a better administration of
the hilly-mountainous territory. A full and scientific acknowledgement of them would ask for detailed and
specialized studies, accompanied with the hart- graphic display of geomorphologic dangers.
- Changing the way of the side usage. To have a lower water infiltration in its depth, it is needed the organizing of
the waters and rain, so that these waters come out from the body of erosion. For this reason, there are needed
protective channels of superficial waters in the front part of the erosion, and drainage channels in its body.
- In sides where erosion has taken place there should be planted as fewer agricultural plants as possible which need
watering. It would be better that instead of them are planted plants with greater transpiring capability and with deep
root systems.
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- Avoid as much as possible the placement of heavy buildings, streets, which are expected to have an overload of
cars, because later on it becomes the cause of the re-activation of old erosions, even of the creation of new ones.
The fallings and collapses are other geomorphologic dangers, which damage geographic environment and economic
activity of the man. These dangers are related to the favourable conditions that exist in Albania: geologic building
(lime and magmatic) which under physical and chemical metamorphosis are broken; steep relieved, climatic
conditions (temperatures changes, raining, freezing, etc), the lack of natural plants. Just like erosions, the fallings
are caused because of the intervening of man in relieve, flora, lands, etc.
Related to the newest fallings and collapses favoured from the misuse of land and natural flora, we can mention
some cases in Albania. In the zone of Mokrra and Labinot - Mal, superficial erosion has favoured the falling and
eradiation of rocks with a volume of some tens m3. During the spring of the year 1998 the falling of a mass of rocks
of some tens m3 caused even a victim (Qiriazi. P 2005). In the last 2-3 years in some motorway sections as in the
motorway Ballsh - Tepelen, arshov - Leskovik, Tepelen - Uji i Ftoht, Librazhd -Quks etc, there have been
several fallings, which have had a lot of economic damages. In steeps and rock edges with a hight that reaches tens
and hundreds of meters, are encountered great fallings and eradiation, which are seen in Albanian Alps, in the edge
of the western side of ika, Grib, ajupi, Tomorri,etc.The same thing should be said even for the presence of this
phenomenon in the deep deciles of rivers such as: in those of Klcyra, Shkopeti, Miraka, Skavica etc.
As a result, it is nesscary to be taken some measures in order to prevent the fallings and collapses. The building of
defensive walls, betoning or controlled falling of rocks ready to fall, the placing of wire system and iron rods in
escarpments is some of the most used measures up to now in Albania. The latter are widely used in the left
escarpment of the highway Librazhd - Quks. Concerning to geomorphologic dangers in general; it is better to
prevent the risk than to repair their damage. From this viewpoint, the mans intervening on geographic environment
asks for maturity and special respect of the characteristics and real possibilities that this or that territory has, where a
certain economic activity will be placed.
Erosion is another geomorphologic danger, which cannot be seen, but which goes on and on and has very negative
effects to its physical environment and economic activity of the man. This danger is conditioned from natural and
anthropogenic factors. In the first group there are included: the building of the territory from mild rocks, the lack of
flora, the conditions of the Mediterranean climate, etc, while in the second group are included: the mans misuse of
the covering of flora and lands, the development of extensive agriculture, over-exploitation of the land, the usage of
wrong technologies in tills, of watering and unsuitable structures of agricultural cultures.
Erosion, nowadays, is one of the main forms of degradation and wasting of agricultural lands. Nowadays, rightfully,
it is being considered as one of the natural processes which is menacing humankind(Kovai. V 1998; Sala. S
1995).When we talk about erosion as a geomorphologic danger, we do not refer only to that of the flawing waters,
but also to the erosion caused by the activity of the wind, the activity of the chemicals, sea abrasion etc. Albania is
one of the Mediterranean countries that is distinguished for its high rates of erosion. (Kovai .V 1998;Qiriazi .P
200;Leka. I 1996) Besides the above mentioned factors, this phenomenon is highly favoured even by the dominance
of a hilly and mountainous relieve where 70% of the surface has a great slope (Sala .S 2003; Sala. S 2004; Janicot.
S 1999; Lireza.Q 2001). Among other factors that have strongly stimulated erosion in Albania we can mention:
massive deforesting made during the 1970s 1980s, the increase of the watering surfaces with self flowing. The
data show that in Albania every year 54 million materials or 20 hectares are eroded (Kovai. V 1998, Neboit. R
1983; Lireza. Q 1996) while the medium level of the erosion reaches 2.3mm a year. According to the data of the
erosion map of Albania (Sala.S 1994) it results that the non-eroded territories occupy 48% of the entire surface; the
territories with low levels of erosion occupy 16% of the surface; territories with medium rates of erosion occupy
12% of the surface; territories with high rates of erosion occupy 14% of the surface; and finally territories with great
rates of erosion occupy 10% of the entire surface. (Bega. E 2001, Leka. I 1996). Among the most typical zones we
can mention the hills of Krraba, The Reservoir Pond of Tomorrica, of Zaranika, The Highland of Dangellia
(Neboit.R 1983, Qiriazi.P 1990) in which the eroded territories occupy nearly half of the surface. Observations show
that this surface is likely to grow at a great speed in the future. [Photo 2]
Albania is included in that group of countries which have a small agricultural surface per person, nearly 0.2
hectares/person, thus we can state without hesitation that erosion remains a potential risk. According to the data

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published in Albania 20% of the lands is inclined towards the process of erosion, where the superficial value of
erosion is over 50/t /hectares in a year (Leka. I 1996; Kova.V 1998).

Photo: 2 Erosion zone.

Land erosion has continuously reduced the surface of the agricultural land. In 1982 the surface of the tillage in the
entire Albanian territory was 714000 hectares, while in 2001 it was 669000 hectares (Kova. V 1998; Qiriazi P
1992). It is being exposed to the processes of erosion, which continuously impoverishes the land from the
oligomineral elements, humus, and other nursing materials. Based on these negative effects of the destruction of the
agricultural land in 1970 and afterwards considerable measures against erosion were taken which gave the first
positive effects in this direction. Mountainous regulations and forestation were some of the essential actions taken
against erosion. Only in 1970 up to 1980 there were made 340000 ml wires, 630000 m 3 walls (Qiriazi P 1992). etc.
There were also forestations especially with pines, acacia etc.

CONCLUSION

There measures were accompanied with a reduction, even elimination of the floods of lands, and other inhabited
centres. For the limitation of the further degradation of the landscape we recommend that should be made detailed
studies in order to identify the zones with the highest rate of degradation, useful for agricultural use, and those which
require a quick intervention. Scientific criteria should be defined for the grazes and forestation, which should start
immediately.
Agricultural plantation, which responds to the type and possibility that the land has in particular and the slope in
general, should be encouraged in order to protect the land from erosion. Based on the recognition and scientific
control of the state and the defining of the level of damage of the system land- water- flora- animals- man, chemicals
of different types should be used in a controlled way. Albanian authorities must guarantee the right of everyone to
receive environmental information that is held by public authorities, including information on the state of the
environment, but also on policies or measures taken. As a result, the public reaches awareness in purpose to
participate in environmental decision-making.

REFERENCES

Bega E. 2001.The impact of natural and economic factors in the growth of degraded soils in Albania. Geographical
studies. Nro 13. Tirana;
Janicot S. 1999. Le point sur la desertification;
Kovai V. 1998. Erosion, the damages and the problems that require solutions. National Seminar. Tirana;
Leka I. 1996. Erosion, the specification and its dimensions in Albania. Geographical studies Nr o 8. Tirana;
Lirza Q. 2001.Geomorphologic map of Skrapar district. Monography. Tirana;
Lirza Q. 1996.The prolifite pastures in promoting of process of erosion. Geographical Studies Nro 8. Tirana;
Neboit R. Lhomme et Ierosion. Paris, 1983;
Qiriazi P. 1986. The sliding of Moglice. Summary of studies. Publication of the faculty of history and philology,
Tirana;
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Qiriazi P.1990. Geomorphologic problems of degraded soils in the district of Tirana. Geographical studies Nr o 4,
Tirana;
Qiriazi P. 1992. Map of the intensity of erosion in Albania. Tirana;
Qiriazi P. 2001. Physical Geography of Albania. Tirana;
Qiriazi P. 2005. Geographic Studies Nro 15, Tirana;
Sala S. 1994. Some data of stony streams and their geomorphologic activity. Geographical Studies Nr o 5.Tirana;
Sala S. 2003. Geomorphologic risks in our country. The management of risks. Tirana;
Sala S. 2004. Geomorphologic features of Krraba hills. Monography. Tirana;

PAPER 174

THE INCREASE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A FARMER AND THE ROLE OF THE


AGRICULTURAL PRICES ON ITS INCREASE

Jerina Vukaj1, Jonila Brahimi2


1
The Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania
2
The Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Email: jerina_1989_vukaj@hotmail.com; jonibrahimi@gmail.com;

ABSTRACT

In our country it's noticed a tendency of the increase of the number of small farms and this fact constitutes a problem
for the future development of agriculture and especially for the integration of the farms into the market. From the
study made ,we conclude that the price market of the agricultural products is not organized. The way of how a farm
organizes has importance in the increase of the effectiveness of the farm. The organization and the function of the
agricultural products' prices contributes in the avoidance of high costs for local farmers in the monitoring and
coverage of the borrowings that operate in the informal sector therefore they make this sector of the market inactive
for the agricultural producer. The main principle of price operating for the agricultural products is the difference
between the selling price and the total costs of the products. According the data taken from the statistical observation
during a year, the average income for the farm in monetary value of the agricultural activity have been $1219 or
1000 Euro. In 2004 the world production of the grains was 1.038.325 thousands ton while in 2006 this production
fell in the value of 932.527 thousands ton. We have understudied the retail market of a specific product, of which
there are taken 137 records through different periods in the region of Tirana. The used data are taken from the
Statistical Bureau and from the Informative System of the Market(SIT). This material is based in the collection of
the agricultural products' prices .Note, these data are analyzed and commented according the needs of the
Agricultural Ministry, Rural Development etc.

Keywords: organized, SIT, inactive, price ,total costs

INTEODUCTION

This material comes into help to readers who get information regarding the agricultural products' prices and the
influence they have in the increase of farms incomes,the influence they have in the development of the rural areas
and of the whole country. We have a summary of the agricultural products' prices and continuing further on with a
situation analyses,price variation and the conclusions. According (Richard Pomfret) the margin of the production
capability describes what an economy can produce therefore we have to evaluate the merchandise . The price
variation of the merchandise or better say their increase, is a phenomena we face often. The increase of the grocery
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prices is the basis effecting in the falling of the life standards and the reduction of the purchasing power. The macro
economical balances of a government are complex and we can summarize further on. The balanced regional
economical development,balanced pays as price sustainability .These are the main problems of a country in
development like Albania. It's very important for the achievement of these objectives to unite the good power for
more effective results. The last years of the market economy of our country have proved that the agricultural
products' prices,livestock prices and the groceries with main agricultural consistence are controlled from the
spontaneous market mechanisms. The problems identified in our market of agricultural and livestock products are:-
The restriction and the avoidance of permanent subsidies;-The increase of the foreign markets competition. The
weakness and the destruction of the relationship of the country with the processing industry. - The liberalization of
the prices. The creation of the monopolies in the input and output markets. One of the main duties of the ATB is the
support of the initiatives or different forms that have in substance the marketing of the farms' products. ATB might
have as well the duty of the of the import of the agricultural products directly or through other licences firms.
The importance of agriculture related to prices. The global warming ,the use of the agricultural products for non
feeding purposes, the variation of the request and the consumers structure in the field of the grocery has been
commented a lot the last years for the sensitive influence that has brought in the agricultural products and food
market. The product prices published according to FAO have had and considerable increase. In 2006 they increased
with 9% compare to the previous year and in 2007 increased with 23%. The comparison of 2006 with 2007 had an
average increase index of 37% in an international scale. The concern everyday more has influenced the political
levels and the main economical institutions. Albania as well faces these difficulties. Year 2007 was a difficult
agricultural year ,however comparing to the previous year the general agricultural production increased. The private
investments in agriculture increased with 10 million dollars and in the agro-industry with 13 million dollars. The
latest developments in the food markets ,the doubling of their prices in many regions around the world and many
other factors ,oblige us to create a better perspective for agriculture. We lack the policies connected to agriculture
but the newest concept towards that in the created circumstances had to bring full definitions related to this
sector.1.Agriculture remains the main sector of the economy. It gives more than 1/5 of GDP of the country ,engages
at work more that half of the population and secures them the majority of the daily consumables. Agriculture
remains the main economical activity that secures the most development of the regions. Todays world ,including
Albania are characterized from huge shifts of the population toward the urban areas. For the first time in 2007 in the
world scale ,the population of the rural and urban areas has been at 50% with 50%. Agriculture is the sector with the
biggest advantages and disadvantages of the integration processes of the country. In 2008 is noted the first year of
the farmers pay with 6% VAT with condition ,the products to be sold at the subjects with tax invoices. Matriculation
in agriculture is a very important investment that dates from 2008 with our budgetary funds . This consists the most
important step in the development of this sector. The placement of the prices for these agricultural products seen in
the theoretical aspect seems simple but in reality it isn't because the agricultural products have a seasonal character.
The price establishment is done according to some criteria.
-all the agricultural products costs the transport throughout the markets -the imposition of the prices in the place
where they are being sold. - competition with other actors in the market taxation
Given that the price is the main element of the mixed marketing that determines the incomes of the farms. The main
factor that affect the price establishment are : The cost,not only the production but those imposed from it's market as
well and export that relates to value exchange ,modification and the packaging. The market requirements for lots of
consumables ,the income per person is a good indicator of the purchasing power .
The increase of the local production when there is a decrease of agricultural products' prices.
In the agricultural markets of the country during this period ,the product's prices noted a considerable decrease. The
Ministry of Agriculture ,Food and the Consumer Protection in it's periodic report for the markets , analyzing the
statistical data we notice that more than 80% of the needs of the agricultural products are completed from the
Albanian farmers even smaller prices. According to the Ministry of the Consumers Protection in 2007 the food
consume in our country reached the report of 500 million dollars food from import and 400 million dollars produced
in the country. During 2008 this report narrowed again because of the increase of the local production ,especially
wheat ,vegetables,fruits and the processed agro-industrial products.

METHODOLOGY

The data used here are taken from Statistics Bureau and the Informative System of the Market (SIT) and this
material is based in the accumulation of the agricultural product's prices in Albania. Since the data used during the
analyses of the prices progress are taken from the Statistics Bureau and the price index is calculated according the

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standards that the Bureau has in use. These data are analysed and commented in the first sequence for the needs of
the Ministry of Agriculture ,Forests and the Rural Development as well as for all the other interested people. During
the analyses and the comments of the products prices and the derivatives they diverge into 4 main groups . First
group consists of the cultures. -Second group vegetable cultures.-Third group fruit trees cultures .-Fourth group is
the group of the livestock products and the derivatives. In the end of each category they will to the analyses and the
comments for the price progress . In the following chart we will see the progress of the prices for some of the
agricultural products that the Statistics Bureau exploits including the mechanisms and the other agricultural inputs.

RESULTS

In this chart we have included the price index of the consumer.

Table.1

Groups Weig 04- 05- 06- 07- 08- 09- 10- 11- 12- 01- 02- 03- 04-
hts 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 10 10 10 10
Total 100.0 103.9 103.1 102.5 101.8 102.4 103.2 103.6 104.1 105.8 106.8 107.8 108.0 107.6
Food and soft- 39.3 107.3 105.8 104.0 101.9 103.5 105.2 105.7 106.5 110.5 112.0 114.7 114.7 113.0
drinks
Food 37.2 108.2 106.0 104.1 101.9 103.6 105.4 105.9 106.8 110.8 112.4 115.2 115.2 113.5

Bread and 6.0 111.9 111.5 111.3 110.7 110.4 110.4 110.3 110.4 110.1 109.9 109.8 109.8 109.3
cereals
Meat 8.9 110.3 110.2 109.1 109.1 109.4 109.8 109.8 109.9 110.8 111.1 111.1 111.5 111.7

Fish 1.4 110.5 109.7 107,6 109.0 109.8 110.0 110.2 110.8 112.4 112.6 111.2 112.5 112.0

Milk, cheese 6.4 101.9 102.5 100.8 100.7 101.2 101.7 103.2 103.5 103.8 103.6 103.1 103.6 103.5
and eggs

Oil and fats 2.9 102.7 101.3 100.2 99.9 99.6 99.8 99.6 99.7 100.5 100.6 100.1 100.2 100.5

Fruits 3.5 116.0 116.3 111.4 104.2 106.2 113.8 116.8 107.2 110.3 110.6 112.6 115.4 117.0

Vegetables 5.5 107.8 95.0 89.2 79.4 85.9 91.9 91.1 101.9 124.5 134.5 152.3 148.7 136.5
including
potatoes
Sugar,jam, 2.2 103.0 103.0 103.1 103.2 106.5 109.8 111.4 112.3 114.0 114.2 117.5 117.8 117.8
honey, syrup,
chocolates,and
sweets
Other food 0.5 103.7 104.1 104.8 105.0 105.3 105.6 105.6 105.5 105.5 105.8 105.7 105.9 106.1

Soft-drinks 2.1 101.1 101.2 101.2 101.2 101.5 101.8 101.6 102.1 104.0 104.4 104.5 104.9 104.5

Coffee, tea, 0.7 101.5 101.5 101.5 101.5 101.6 101.6 101.1 101.3 101.1 101.4 101.4 101.8 102.1
cocoa
Mineral water, 1.4 101.0 101.1 101.1 101.1 101.4 101.9 101.8 102.5 105.4 105.9 106.1 106.4 105.7
soft-drinks,

Alcohol and 3.6 103.4 103.4 103.2 103.5 103.8 104.5 105.5 106.6 106.5 107.1 107.4 108.1 108.9
cigarettes

Alcohol 1.8 104.2 104.3 104.1 104.3 104.3 104.3 104.6 104.6 104.8 104.6 104.9 105.2 105.3

cigarettes 1.8 102.6 102.5 102.2 102.7 103.3 104.6 106.4 108.5 108.3 109.6 109.8 110.9 112.4

The comment for the chart. The grocery products of the daily consumables have a slight decrease in September 2009
comparing the previous month August 2009. But if the prices were compared with September of the previous year
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we notice more stabilized prices. Inflation in September 2009 results to be lower than the one of the previous year.
The data from INSTAT show a significant increase of the fruits and vegetables. Whereas other food products
,clothing and fuel have a slight increase compare to August 2009. According to INSTAT the price index of the
consumers in September 2009 reached 103.2% against December 2007(December 07=100) marking an increase of
0.8% compare the previous month. The annual difference in September is 2% . The previous year this difference
was 2.7%. The index of the group food and soft drinks marked an increase of 1.7% with influence of 0.7% in the
total of monthly difference. Within this group ,the biggest Increase of 6.9% is noticed in the derivative of
vegetables,including potatoes. Here we can mention the price increase of the peppers by 18.8% almonds by 17.3%
aubergines by 14.3% tomatoes by 6.9% potatoes by 5.0% etc. The index in the fruits derivative marked an increase
of 5.2% where we can mention the price increase of watermelon by 34.7% melon by 24.8% oranges by 16.5%
peaches by 5.8% apples by 2.6% etc. During September 2009 prices have gone up nearly in all the other derivative
food groups with distinguish to the increase of derivatives sugar,jam,honey etc. 3.1% milk ,cheese ,eggs 0.5% beef
0.3% etc. The index of the alcoholic drinks group and the tobacco marked the increase of 0.6%.Within the tobacco
price marked the increase of 1.3%.

Table 2.1.2

Groups 04-09 05-09 06-09 07- 08- 09- 10- 11- 12-09 01-10 02-10 03-10 04-10
04-08 05-08 06-08 09 09 09 09 09 12-08 01-09 02-09 03-09 04-09
07- 08- 09- 10- 11-
08 08 08 08 08
Total 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.8 3.3 4.1 4.4 3.9 3.5

Food and soft- 4.2 5.0 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.1 4.7 5.4 6.8 6.7 7.5 6.1 4.8
drinks
Food 4.4 5.2 6.2 5.8 5.8 5.3 5.0 5.7 7.0 6.8 7.8 6.2 4.9
Bread and 4.4 2.9 1.4 0.7 -2.1 -4.4 -4.6 -4.6 -4.3 -3.2 -3.5 -3.2 -2.3
cereals
Meat 10.3 10.1 8.8 8.9 7.7 5.0 4.2 3.9 3.3 3.5 2.2 1.5 1.3
Fish 8.7 7.6 5.3 6.5 4.4 4.3 4.7 3.6 4.5 4.0 2.9 2.5 1.3
Milk, cheese 1.7 1.4 1.0 1.3 0.4 -0.4 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.7 1.5 1.5
and eggs
Oil and fats -6.5 -7.4 -7.5 -7.7 -8.1 -8.6 -8.5 -7.6 -6.2 -3.8 -4.6 -3.2 -2.2
Fruits 6.1 6.2 8.8 8.8 13.9 20.7 24.8 19.0 14.0 10.2 6.9 4.0 0.9
Vegetables 2.3 12.2 28.0 26.8 30.6 30.1 22.9 33.0 42.4 35.3 44.3 33.9 26.7
including
potatoes
Sugar,jam, 3.8 4.2 3.7 3.9 6.6 9.0 9.0 9.7 10.8 11.6 14.3 14.0 14.4
honey,syrup,
chocolates,and
sweets
Other food 3.1 3.7 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.2 3.2 2.2 2.4 2.2 1.9 2.3
Soft-drinks 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 0.9 0.7 1.0 2.8 3.2 3.3 3.7 3.3
Coffee, tea, 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6
cocoa
Mineral water, 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 0.8 0.7 1.3 4.0 4.7 4.7 5.3 4.7
soft-drinks,
Alcohol and 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.5 2.8 3.9 5.0 4.1 3.9 4.1 4.5 5.4
cigarett

Graphic 1.1 The annual variation of the price index.

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Looking at the graphic 1.1 we notice a variation of monthly price index comparing the basic year 2008 with the
following year 2009.We have a comparison of the 4 fist months of 2009 with the 4 first months of 2010.The price
index from (04-2008 - 04-2009 until 10-2008 10-2009) has a variation with decreasing and increasing of the index
during these months,which is a period relatively long and this variation I small shown on the graphic above. During
this period that we have surveyed we have a maximum on 06-208 and 06-2009 while the lowest level of the price
index is on 04-2008 ,04-2009 and at the end of this period that we are studying thus 09-2008 and 09-2009. After this
period we notice a movement in increase of the price index from 10-2008 -10-2009 until 02-2009-02-2010 where we
have the highest level ,where the price index arrives at the level 4.4. After this period where the price index has
always known a gradual increase ,we have decrease that comes at the end of this period we commented above. So
this decrease happens from 03-2009,03-2010 until the end of the graphic we have shown.
Reports of the prices of the retail and wholesale. This report enable the graphical display or chart of the progression
of the prices on time series according the filtration criteria that you see bellow. Analyzing two products the tomato
and the orange and looking at the price progress in the wholesale and retail aspect variation in the market of the area
of Tirana.

Graphic 1.2 The retail price for the orange (money/kilogram)

In the graphic above we have a display of the Retail market for the orange. We have taken in consideration a period
of 4 months that varies from the second month of 2010 until the sixth month of 2010. In this study of the retail
market of a specific product ,in this case the orange ,there are taken under examination 137 registration s that have
happened in different periods in the area of Tirana during this time line. In the beginning of February we had a price
that has fallen constantly by 90 lek . After this short one week period we have an immediate decrease of the orange
price in the level of 80 lek. Following we have an increase in the level of 95 lek . Later the price was under
continuous monitoring with unchangeable price for a period of two weeks. We notice a variation that characterizes
the whole period we have taken in consideration where the price varies from 80 lek/kg to 100 lek /kg . And at the
end of this period that we have studied ,the price remains in the level of 100 lek/kg where comparing with the
beginning of this period we notice a price increase.

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Graphic 1.3 The wholesale market for the orange (money/kilogram)

In this graphic we are studding again the orange but in the wholesale price point of view. Here we have a period of
six months taken in consideration from 10-12-2009 until 17-06-2010.In the beginning of this period it has been a
price of 70 lek /kg and until the end of this period we have the reach of a price of 100 lek/kg of the orange. Compare
to the retail market price it has been bigger in the wholesale market.

Graphic 1.4 . The retail price for the tomato.(money/kilogram)

From this graphic we have studied the retail market of the tomato for a period of 2 months from 31-10-2009 until
08-12-2009. From this period we are studying we have 19 registration s taken. The price of the tomato at the
beginning of this period it has been 60 lek/kg. The maximum price it's been achieved in the middle of the first month
where during a whole week it has been in the level of 80 lek/kg. This variation with decrease increase continues to
characterize this graphic till the end of it where the tomato price goes at 72 lek/kg . In total from this two months
period taken in consideration we have an increase of the retail price on the level of 12 lek/kg.

CONCLUSIONS

In our country it's noticed a tendency of the increase of the number of small farms and this fact constitutes a problem
for the future development of agriculture and especially for the integration of the farms into the market.
-From the study made ,we conclude that the price market of the agricultural products is not organised.
-The limited options for securing the income and the scale of needs of family farms fulfillment ,it makes the villages
to have lower living standards.
-For the increase of the efficiency of the farm activity the form of organizing is very important.
-From the analyses taken in this study we have concluded that referring the conditions in our country ,the
agricultural product's prices according the placement in the markets have seasonal character which would be more
acceptable from the farmers.
-The organizing and the function of the prices contributes the avoiding of the high costs for the local farmers in the
covering and monitoring of the borrowings that operate in the informal sector ,who make this segment inactive for
the agricultural producers .
-The situation here shows that the agricultural products' prices and the manufacturing and marketing activity is
always closed and is controlled from the lenders who give the loans ,the merchants who sell agricultural inputs as
well as their mediators and other subjects who buy agricultural products.
--But opposite to this development model in this work it's been concluded that the system of the agricultural
products' prices is important in the triangle of the agricultural operators.
-A very important duty of Ministry of Agriculture Food and Protection of Consumers is the one to help in the
achieving the efficiency of the farmers through their policies for the agricultural products' prices.
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-The managing of the price systems has to be leaded from a single criteria. Including all the costs for the agricultural
products ,direct and indirect costs.
-The main principle of the price operation for the agricultural products is the difference between the selling price
and the total cost of the product.
-The objective of the price activity is the clarification of the small farmers from the functional point of view for the
achievement of a high efficiency for the farmers.
-The Agency of the Agricultural Market where the organizing and functioning of the prices is based ,are
the information that serve to farmers for the farm's progression.
-The level of the benefits of the members in a farm is much more smaller of the members in another business line.
This as a result of the small credits that farmers take and the repayment of the profit from the investments done.
-We don't have a good coordination in all the farms in our country for the agricultural products.
-The biggest attempts are required towards the distribution of the information related with the price of the
agricultural products.
-The facilitation of the procedures and the best possibilities to get a credit from the farmers.
-We even notice that the institution for the regulation of the agricultural products prices in Albania don't function
properly.

REFERENCE

Ministry of Agriculture and Food, 2012. Albania. www.mbu.gov.al


World Bank. 2012. www.worldbank.org
INSTAT, 2012. Albania;

PAPER 175

A STUDY OF BASIL TYPES IN THE COASTAL PLAINS OF ALBANIA

Nefruz eliku1, Nikollaq Bardhi2, Zydi, Teqja2, Qatip Doda3, Dilaman Nelaj4, Agim Rameta5
1
Ministry of Agriculture , Forestry and Water Economy, Republic of Macedonia;
2
Agricultural University of Tirana;
3
Agriculture and Food Department of Dibra prefecture;
4
Agriculture and Food Department of Kukesi prefecture;
5
Agriculture and Food Department of Durres prefecture;

ABSTRACT

Basil is a plant of Lamiaceae family, with wide spectrum use in food industry, perfumery, as fresh spice, flavoring
different environments, as well as in medicine. This is why basil is considered both a spice and a medical herb.
These values are resulted from high content of ocimol in all plant organs (leaves, flowers, fruits, seed and roots. The
fact that Dioscorides mentions that herb early in the first century, as a medicinal plants for the disinfection of
premises, mouth and teeth, shows the values and its recognition since Antiquity. In Albania it is a known and
cultivated plant, in families, gardens, and it has synonyms by area. For essence production, it begins to be cultivated
in the 60s and, nowadays the demand is growing. Basil studies are limited in technology and comparisons of
subspecies and varieties. A study of five subspecies in coastal plains of Albania (Toshkz-Lushnja) is presented in
this paper. The differences found are statistically significant.

Key words: essence, spice, cultivation

INTRODUCTION

Basil plant is of the wide spectrum of use and also, the wide variation of species and cultivars, which are been
rajonized through different ecological zones, in compliance with particularities and their biological requirements.

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Since it is the plant that is little studied in Albania, the experimental study was undertaken for five types of sweet
basil. The aim of this study was to define the most appropriate type and the higher productive type of the leaves, the
flowers, the stalks and herbs.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

In this study are included five types of basil. The seeds are been brought from Italy and they are as follows:
Limonez, Napolitan, Red basil, Temines (fino Greco basil), Basil genovez.
The experiment was set up according to the randomized block scheme, with five variants and four repetitions with
variant size of 28m2 (2.4 m x 11.7 m).

2 1 3 4 5 4 5 3 2 1

1 2 4 5 3 1 3 4 5 2

Scheme No. 1. The experiment set up.

There was mowing in the full flowering phase by making the separation in accordance of the organ:
Fresh leaves
Fresh blooms
Fresh herbs
It is realized drying in the shade, separately for each body, up to 10% humidity and there are been identified the
weights for the three organs:
Leaves
Blooms
Stalks
These are done separately for the three scythes, and have become amounts to three scythes and the three organs, and
the total, too (leaves + blooms + stalks).

RESULTS

The experiment was set up in Toshkez - Lushnja, according to randomized block scheme, as the methodology had
provided.
Table 1. Inter-distances of saplings

No. Types Inter-distance No. of plants Area m2


1 Limonez 60 x 50 88 28
2 Napolitan 60 x 45 105 28
3 Red basil 60 x 45 106 28
4 Temines (Fino verde) 60 x 55 85 28
5 Genoves 60 x 55 88 28

The preparation of saplings and planting in the field. The saplings are produced in greenhouses with central
heating by sowing seeds in polystyrol seed pans, with 250 holes, placing two seeds for each hole. Before planting
the seeds are placed in warm water, to provoke their uniform and completed germination. Seeds are planted at a
depth 0.3 - 0.5 cm. In every 3-4 hours it is realized automatically irrigation, with the amount of water 10 mm.

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During vegetation there were made fertilization, for 52 days sapling was ready for planting in the field. The soil
tillage is made in September 2010, at 31-35 cm depth. In the spring it is carried the soil milling. Planting in the field
is realized with workforce. Planting is done with pins in the inter-distances provided in Table no. 1. The mowing is
done in mass flowering stage.
Table 2. The weight of fresh leaf (gr)

No Types of basil Mowing Sum


I II III K (1-3)
1 Limonez 4157.5 8812.5 1948.75 14908.75
2 Napolitan 4152.5 11487.5 1730 17370
3 Red basil 1110 2617.5 612.5 4340
4 Fino verde 1240 3662 963.75 5866.25
5 Genoves 1245 5087.5 1096.25 7428.75
DMV 0.05 231 634.5 149.3
0.01 324 712.3 187.9

The leaves are plant organs that are used for many purposes and they take the brunt of basil production. Among the
types of basil are been observed changes in production that testify to the morphological and plant development
characteristics. The higher production of leaves is taken from Neapolitan and the Limonez basil. The second
mowing gives the highest production for all types of basil. The leaves of Fino-verde basil are in small amounts, but
they are rich in essence and find wider use, especially in the production of tomato sauce. Just, for this reason it is
introduced in the study field.

Table.3. The weight of fresh blooms (gr).

No Types of basil Mowing Sum


I II III K (1-3)
1 Limonez 1555 6782.5 1157.5 9495
2 Napolitan 1255 1240 758.75 3253.75
3 Red basil 997.5 2137.5 266.25 3401.25
4 Fino verde 1550 2345 421.25 4316.25
5 Genoves 1110 3885 461.25 5436.25
DMV 0.05 231 532.8 167.2
0.01 324 589.4 201.5

Bloom organs are rich with ocimol and used in the distillation of qualitative essence. Between subspecies of basil
there are verified differences in the production of fresh blooms. Between the species under study, Neapolitan and
Fino-verde basil have the highest yield production of blooms.

14000

12000

10000

8000 I
II
6000
III

4000

2000

0
Limonez Napolitan I kuq Fino verde Genoves

Chart No. 1. The weight of fresh herbs (gr)

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Meanwhile, the fresh herb production presents verified differences between types of basil. The higher production of
fresh herb gives Neapolitan basil.
Table 4. The weight of dry leaves (gr).
No Types of basil Mowing Sum
I II III K (1-3)
1 Limonez 682 1541.25 327.5 2550.75
2 Napolitan 952.5 2201.25 297.5 3451.25
3 Red basil 270 558.75 116.25 944.95
4 Fino verde 233.75 718.75 165.25 1117.75
5 Genoves 267.5 685 186.25 1138.75
DMV 0.05 53.2 132.4 41.7
0.01 78.4 162.5 53.7

The performance of the dried leaf mass presents the same nomocracy as to fresh leaf, but Fino-verde basil gives a
small proportion to the fresh and dry mass, which goes up to 3.5:1.

Table 5. The weight of dry blooms (gr)

No Types of basil Mowing Sum


I II III K (1-3)
1 Limonez 373.5 1565 188.25 2125.7
2 Napolitan 317.5 287.5 123.75 728.75
3 Red basil 275 325 50.5 650.5
4 Fino verde 464.75 666.25 77.25 1208.25
5 Genoves 239.5 873.25 83.25 1196
DMV 0.05 34.7 43.87 28.7
0.01 46.3 54.95 38.3

Dry bloom gives the same nomocracy, and the higher production of basil subspecies gives Limonez and Fino-verde
basil.
3500

3000

2500

2000 I
II
1500
III

1000

500

0
Limonez Napolitan I kuq Fino verde Genoves

Chart 2. The weight of dry herbs (gr)

The production of dry herb follows the same nomocracy as to the fresh herb, with minor changes that are increasing
to Fino-verde basil.

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Chart No. 3. The fresh mass yield (q/ha)

Analysis of the performance of the fresh mass highlights that Neapolitan and Limonez basil provide higher
production and are included in the same group for Dmv 0:05 and Dmv0:01 are differentiated. So, Limonez basil
gives the greatest amount of fresh herb.

18

16

14

12

10 Leaf

8 Blooom
Herb (Leaf + Flower)
6

0
Limonez Napolitan I kuq Fino verde Genoves Dmv 0.05 Dmv 0.01

Chart No. 4. The yield of fresh mass (q/ha)


The performance of the fresh herb presents differentiations, drawing in the first place only Limonez subspecie. This
is because the leaf of Napolitan basil is pulp and it has the highest content of moisture, increasing the dry mass/
fresh mass ratio.

CONCLUSIONS:

From the second year of the study can derive some conclusions:
Among the subspecies are been marked differences in the yield of fresh mass of plant organs.
The dry mass of plant organs presents the major differences that affected by the ratio between the fresh mass and dry
mass, which is different for subspecies of basil.
Given the amount of production is economically viable cultivation of two subspecies: Limonez and Napolitan, and
for the value of the specific uses for the production of essence and in the food industry is Fino-verde basil.

REFERENCES

1.Ahmataj.H- Kultivimi I bimve aromatike e mjeksore.


2.Bardhi.N.- Leksione 2011
3.Gjoni.Z.- Vjelja dhe grumbullimi I bimve mjeksore t Dibrs
4.G.Milesi Ferretti, L.Massih Ferretti- La coltivazione delle Piante aromatiche e medicinali
5.Hasrama.S.- Kultivimi I bimve mjeksore
6.Kutrolli.F.- Kultivimi dhe Prpunimi I bimve aromatike e mjeksore.
7.Shabani.A- Mjekimi me bim dhe fruta mjeksore.
8.Rusinovci.I, Bardhi.N, Mero.Gj- Bimt vajore.

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PAPER 176

THE IMPACT OF HARVEST WAY IN THE SAGE PRODUCTION AND ITS QUALITY

Qatip Doda1, Nikoll Bardhi2, Zydi Teqja2, Dilaman Nelaj3, Agim Rameta4
1
Agriculture and Food Department of Dibra Prefecture,Albania;
2
Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania;
3
Agriculture and Food Department of Kukesi Prefecture,Albania;
4
Agriculture and Food Department of Durres Prefecture, Albania;

Email: bardhi.nikoll@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Sage (Salvia officinalis) is a typical Mediterranean plant, and its origin is from Adriatic and Ionian coast, where the
plant covers dry limestone mountain slopes, 150-1200 m above sea level, expanding almost entire Albanian
territories. In Albanian spontaneous flora, the gender Salvia contains 15 plant species, where the more economic
value and research interest presented 8 species, while more national interest are 3 types, Glutinous Sage (Salvia
glutinosa L.), lilac sage (Salvia verticellata L.) and common sage or medicinal sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Albania
and its territories produce 80 % of world production of essence, which in Albania has been started in 1956. The
content of sage essence is 1.8 2.67 %. The sage of Northen Albania has the higher content, and the Leskoviku,
Skrapari and Permetis sage has the lower essence content. It contains up to 32 chemical compounds with medicinal
value, as terpenes, Sesquiterpenes. The plant parts, bouquets of leaves, are used for many purposes in medicine and
the treatments of some diseases (cough, rheumatism, against paralysis, epilepsy). It is used in cosmetics and
perfumery industry, as well as a honey plant.Two different harvesting methods are used: one with bouquets (7-9
leaves), cutting them by hand and the other by mowing. Hand harvesting does not damage the buds and
consequently the yield is 40-50% higher.

Keywords: Sage, essence, medicinal, aromatic, cosmetic, harvesting

INTRODUCTION

One of the disturbing problems in sage production is the harvesting manner which affects the quantity and quality of
yield. The manner used so far is that of mowing. This manner decreases the production per plant, due to its harming
the buds, new bunches, and sprout, thus delaying the subsequent growth of new offshoot bunches and sprouts. Also
the production gets mixed with leaves of various ages (of big difference), with impurifying stems and herb
fragments with lower contain of chemical ingredients and essence. For this reason an experimental study was carried
about two harvesting manners: mow harvesting and bunch harvesting (bunches with 7-11 leaves, hand harvesting for
a few times) with 7-9 leaves. This later mannes protects the buds and sprouts and helps accelerate the continuous
blooming of buds. Bunch harvesting is made in a few times (three times for each harvesting).

a c

b M 2 50 m2 M1 50m2 M1 50 m2 M2 50 m2

M1 50 m2 M2 50 m2 M 2 50 m2 M1 50m2

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a=10 m b= 5 m c= 0.8 m The surface of manner = 50 m 2


For each manner were sown 20 lines 5 m long, providing 250 plant for each manner.
M1 = Mow harvesting. M2 = Bunch harvesting.

The saplings were produced in central heating greenhouses, by sowing the seed in styrofoam seed pans. The sowing
was made by labor in the distance 50 x 35 40 cm, thus providing 50 000 plants / ha. They were cared for
simultaneously and equally throughout the experiment with special care to avoid putrefaction (watering, liquid
manuring etc.).

Table 1 Sage production according to harvesting manner (Second harvest). 1-st year
Repeated
No Harvest Harvesting manner Average Yield
Kg/manner kv/ha
1-st 2-nd 3-rd 4-th
1 II- Autumn Mow 6.9 7.3 7.2 6.98 7.095 14.19
2 Bunch 14 14.3 14.8 14.37 14.3 28.60

In the first year only one mow harvest was made, on 20.09.2010 (only one mowing) while three hand of bunch
harvesting were made, respectively on 20.07.2010; 20.08.2010 and 20.09.2010. As can be seen at the table above, it
results that productivity has doubled with bunch harvesting and the product purity is better. The drying is more
uniform and of better quality, in color and odour.

Table 2. Sage production according to harvesting manner. 2-nd year

No Harves Harvesting manner Repeated Average Yield


Kg/manner Kv/ha
1-st 2-nd 3-rd 4-th
1 Mow 5.3 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.525 11.05
2 I Spring Bunch 11.36 11.6 11.4 11.17 11.443 22.886
3 II Mow 8.8 9.6 9.4 8.9 9.175 18.35
4 Autumn Bunch 11.8 12.0 11.8 12.08 11.92 23.84
I + II Mow 14.1 15.2 15.1 14.4 14.7 29.2
Bunch 23.16 23.6 23.2 23.25 23.3025 46.605

In the second year 2 harvests were made, with two mowing, respectively on 10.06.2011 and 20.09.2011 and
practically six bunch harvests (three for the first harvest: 20.05.2011; 05.06.2011; 20.06.2011 and three for the
second harvest: 26.07.2011; 20.08.2011; 20.09.2011) The first mowing of the second year is lower than the second
mowing of the first year, changing by 3.14 kv / ha. The yielded herb is purer and more uniform.
The second mowing and second harvests have a difference of 7 kg/ manner or 14 kv/ha. This clearly shows that the
second mowing was influenced by the harvesting manner, by not harming the vegetative organs of growth. The
bunch harvesting shows its difference during the period after mowings by not harming the vegetative organs.

Table 3. Sage production according to harvesting manner. 3-rd year


Repeated Yield
No Harvest Harvesting manner 1-st 2-nd 3-rd 4-th Average kv/ha
Kg/manner
1 I Spring Mow 6.9 7.3 7.2 6.98 7.095 14.19
2 Bunch 14 14.03 14.8 14.37 14.3 28.60
3 II Autumn Mow 11.96 12.44 12.12 11.86 12.095 24.79
4 Bunch 15.46 16.10 16.39 15.72 15.918 31.835
I + II Mow 18.86 19.74 19.32 18.84 19.19 38.38
Bunch 29.46 30.4 31.19 30.09 30.218 60.435

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In the third year when the plant is much more developed, we will see that the effect is much clear and effective from
the first harvest, resulting in 60 % 65 % more yield than the mowing manner and with much purer and more
uniform production. This because there are more sprouts and buds on the plant that form full bunches with 7-11
leaves. Two harvests were made, on 15.06.2012 and 30.09.2012, with three hands of bunch manner for the first
harvest: 18.05.2012, 07.06.2012, 24.06.2012 and three for the second: 28.07.2012, 29.08.2012 dhe 30.09.2012.
Meanwhile, the pace of bunch growing in the mowing case is much lower. The lapse between the harvests is 105
days.
YEARS
Table 4. The yield according to time and harvesting manner in years.

No Harvesting manner
I II III 3 Years
1 Mow - 11.05 14.19 25.24
I Spring
2 Bunch - 22.886 28.60 51.486

Table 5. The yield according to time and harvesting manner in years.

No Harvesting manners Years

I II III Three years

1 Mow - 11.05 14.19 25.24


I Spring Bunch - 22.886 28.60 51.486
2
3 Mow 14.19 18.35 24.79 57.33
Bunch 28.60 23.84 31.836 84.276
II Autumn
4
5 Mow 14.19 29.40 38.98 82.57
(I + II)
6 Bunch 28.60 46.726 60.436 135.762

The data of three years show a yield of 53.9 kv/ha more and of much better quality. Some processes are also avoided
like the cleaning of foreign herbal and non herbal elements. Economically 65% more yield is made for three years,
respectively 14.41 Kv / ha for the first year, 17.205 kv / ha for the second year and 22.05 kv/ha for the third year.

Tabela Nr.6 Sage yield according to harvesting manner (for three years).

No Harvesting manner Repeated Average Yield


1-st 2-nd 3-rd 4-th Kg/manner Kv/ha
1 Mow 39.86 42.24 41.62 40.22 40.985 81.97
2 Bunch 66.62 68.1 69.47 67.092 67.8205 135.641

Comparing the data of three years production, the result is a clear difference of 53,671 kv or 65% yield and income.

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Graphic1 The productivity reached with the first harvest (spring) according to the harvesting manner by mow and
bunch.

Graphics 2 The productivity reached with the second harvest (autumn) according to the harvesting manner by mow
and bunch.
160

140

120

100

80 Kositje
Me buqet
60

40

20

0
Viti I Viti II Viti III (Tre vitet)

Graphics 3. The productivity reached with both harvests, spring and autumn, according to the harvesting manner: by
mow and bunch.

CONCLUSION

From the agronomic analysis of productivity, production quality and spenditure, we reccomend the bunch harvesting
and the avoiding of mowing, with cultivated sage as well as natural sage. In this manner the increase and quality is
much higher.

REFERENCE

Ahmetaj H. & eku K., 1988. Kultivimi i bimve etero-vajore e mjeksore.


Asllani U,2000. Chemical composition of Albanian sage oil (Salvia officinalis L.). J. Essent. Oil Res. 12, 79-84.
Asllani U. 2002. Esencat e bimve aromatiko-mjeksore t trevave shqiptare, p. 218-235
Bardhi.N, 2013. Bimt aromatike e mjekesore ( Leksione).
Shyti.M, Bardhi.N - Dmtuesit dhe smundjet e bimve aromatike e Mjeksore.
Baricevic & Zupancic, 1999, Conservation of genetic resources of medicinal and aromatic plants in Europe, Report,
Finland.
Basker D., & Putievsky E., 1999, Seasonal variation in the yields of herb and essential oil of some Labiatae species,
25-40.
Bezzi A. & Pirola M., 1997, Moltiplicazione vegetativa di Salvia officinalis.
Demiri M., 1979. Bimt e egra t dobishme dhe t dmshme t Shqipris, Tiran.
Elezi.,Kambo.Q,Sokoli.G,eku.K - Prodhimet e dyta pyjore dhe kulturat eterovajore
George E. F., 1996,- Plant propagation by tissue culture, Part I, Technology, 6791.
Haska H., Bacu A. & Marko O., 2005 - Sherbela (Karakteristika dhe prdorimi).
Hyso M. & obaj P., 2005, Prmbledhje mbi punn e br n kuadr t Programit t Vlersimit dhe Koleksionit t
Gjermoplazms: 25-52.

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Instituti i Krkimeve Pyjore dhe Kullotave, 1988, Inventarizimi i bimve etero-vajore e mjeksore n Shqipri, 20,
30, 55.
Kongjika E, Zekaj. Zh. aushi E. & Stamo I., 2002, Bioteknologjia e bimve Kulturat in vitro, 97 187, 242
256.
Marko. O. & Dishnica. T., 2002, Studimi dhe ruajtja e materialit gjenetik bimor pr kulturat e kultivuara etero-
vajore dhe ato spontane q jan n rrezik zhdukje, pr qllim prodhim fare dhe fidansh (Raport shkencor).
Ndoja. H. Mjeksia popullore, kultur e lasht n shrbim t shndetit.
Paparisto K., Demiri M., Mitrushi I. & Qosja Xh., 1988. Flora e Shqipris, v. 1, Tiran.
Vangjeli J., Ruci B. & Mullaj A., 1995, Libri i Kuq, Bimt e krcnuara dhe t rralla t Shqipris, Botim i A. Sh.,
p. 49, 53, 55.
Vangjeli J., Ruci B., Mullaj A., Qosja Xh., Paparisto K., 2000, Flora e Shqipris, v. 4, Tiran.
World Bank, October 2002. An Agricultural strategy for Albania.

PAPER 177

A STUDY OF SOME MAIZE HYBRIDS, IN THE WESTERN COASTAL PLAINS OF ALBANIA

Nikollaq Bardhi1, Artan Sota2, Ndoc Vata3, Krenar Xhela4, Agim Rameta5, Dilaman Nelaj6.
1,3
Agricultural University of Tirana,
2
Scientific research activity,
4
Agriculture and Food Department of Fier prefecture,
5
Agriculture and Food Department of Durres prefecture,
6
Agriculture and Food Department of Kukes prefecture.

ABSTRACT

The maize is the most prevalent crop in the world. It is considered a green mine, because for a short time, 100-135
days, it gives a dry mass production (grain and green mass), that cant be completed by any other plant. It has high
and diverse values of use. Studies in maize plants are numerous, and they continue for different aspects: genetics,
breeding, improving of technological parameters and its processing. Study of hybrids and their suitability in an area
and micro-area constitutes a permanent field of study to increase the maize production and improving its quality.
Based on this principle, a study of some maize hybrids in western coastal plains of Albania, and specifically in
Toshkz-Lushnja is undertaken. For the hybrids under study (from Italy, France, USA) plant indicators (height of
plant, number of leaves, height of ear), production indicators (ear length, number of rows, number of grains in row
and ear, production per plant and grain yield) and stages of plant development were evaluated.

Key words: Maize, hybrid, technology, indicator, yield.

INTRODUCTION

Study of the suitability of hybrids is one of the possibilities of increasing the yield of maize in different ecological
zones. In Albania are been planted the hybrids from different countries of the World and Europe. For determining
the appropriate hybrids, especially for the coastal plain west of Albania (Myzeqe) is set up field study of ten hybrids
with different plant period, mainly late. For all hybrids are made estimates for indicators of the spikes, the grain and
the yield. In the end, the final conclusions are drawn, which have defined hybrids with higher performance and more
appropriate for this area

MATERIAL AND METHODS


The scope of work was to evaluate the morphological, biological and the production indicators of some maize
hybrids in terms of Western Plain of Albania.

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As a basic material in this scientific research has been used a number of foreign hybrids and synthesized by the ex-
Institute of maize and rice in Shkodra, namely:
Pioneer firms (USA): Hybrid PR 31 A 34
Experimental Institute of wheat and maize, Bergamo (Italy): H 604,
H 605, H 606, H 702.
Limagreen firms (France): Hybrids OH 634.
The Maize Institute Zemun Polje (Serbia): ZP 684, ZP 718B, ZP 735.
Ex-Institute of Maize and Rice Shkodra (Albania) R-685

The place, time and manner of implementation of the study


The study was conducted in the village- Toshkez (Lushnja district), in the land of Artan Sota (land owner), in
2011.The land where the experiment was set up is of sub-clay composition with deep subsoil. The pre-crop was
wheat.
The soil tests are: pH 7.55, humus 2.7%, 0.18% nitrogen, phosphorus 17.7 ppm, 12.5 ppm potassium, calcium 9.07
ppm.
The experiment was set up according to the randomized block scheme, in four repetition and ten variants. The
surface of each variant was 18 m2.

Scheme. 1. Randomized block. A. Protective zone of 3.5 m experiment.; B. The buffer zone between repetition 1 m.

The phonological, morphological and production indicators that are measured.


The phonological indicators
Germination male flowering (day)
Germination female flowering (day)
Germination full mature (day).

The biometric indicators in plant, spikes and grain.

b1. The biometric indicators of plant:


Plant height
Height of the first spike
The number of leaves.
B2. The biometric indicators of spikes
The spikes length
The row number in a spike
The grain number in a row
The grain number in a spike
The spike thickness
The cob thickness
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The cob weight.


B3. The biometric indicators of production
The weight of spike grains
The weight of 1000 grains.
The yield q/ha.
There are predetermined 20 plants in 4 repetition, in which are made biometric measurements. The data are been
made the mathematical calculating for analysis of variance and the smaller certified difference.

THE RESULTS

First, the phonologic indicators are been analyzed, and then continue with biometric indicators according
methodology.
Interpretation of phonological indicators. The period of full germination-male flowering includes the time from
germination till when 75% of panicles are been flowered. It is favourable that this period came as soon as conditions
allow biological plant. This is because, in this way, pollination falls in time when temperatures are lower, it is fresh,
pollen has its best ability to pollinate ( June - beginning of July).

Table 1. Data phonological of the main stages


No. Hybrid OriginGermination- Duration Germination- Duration Germination-
male (d) female full mature
flowering (d) flowering (d)
1 PR1A34 USA 62 56-63 65 58-66 127
2 R-685 ALB 61 56-63 63 58-65 123
3 H 605 ITA 59 54-61 62 56-64 120
4 H 702 ITA 60 56-63 63 58-65 125
5 ZP 684 SRB 59 54-61 61 56-63 112
6 ZP 735 SRB 61 56-63 63 58-65 125
7 H 606 ITA 61 55-63 63 58-65 120
8 ZP 718B SRB 61 56-63 63 58-65 120
9 OH 634 FRA 61 54-62 63 58-65 120
10 H 604 ITA 62 56-63 64 58-66 125
Average 60.7 54-63 63 56-66 127.7

If we will analyze carefully the data in this table, we see that hybrids, although coming from different countries,
pose no major changes between them. Specifically, this period varies from 59 days at ZP 684 and H 605 hybrids, till
62 days at H 602 and PR 31 A 34 hybrids. If we will see an extension of this period within each hybrid, it varies
from 7 days to most hybrids, up to 8 days to OH 634 hybrid. Even in duration of the female flowering, it is kept the
same law as in male flowering. The duration of this phase is 7-8 days. Of interest is to interpret the results of the
period germinating- full maturing. By the data, we will see that this period varies from 112 days at the earliest
hybrids, which are presented by ZP 684 hybrid, up to 127 days to PR31A34 hybrid, with an average 121.7 days for
all hybrids of the experiment.
First, the fact that for the period of vegetative is been noticed a significant difference, means that these hybrids do
not belong to the same class.
Thus, hybrids with a period of 125 days, are of 700 class, (late); those of 120 days cycle are of 600 class; and those
with 112 days period, are of 500 class.
Secondly, the fact that, hybrids dont represent a wide variation is explained by genetic variability between these
hybrids. This means that these hybrids are the product of junction lines (parents) similar and / or approximate.
The interpretation of biometric data for the plant. The main indicator is the height of the plant. This, not only
forms the basis Architecture plant, but during the height, are placed the important vegetative organs, such as: leaves,
that are the place of important process for photosynthesis. Hybrids between them represent differences for this
indicator.

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Table 2.Morphological indicators

Height of Height of Number Height of Number


Nr Hybrids Origin plant spikes of leaves spikes of rows
(cm) (cm) (cm) in a spike
1 PR31A34 USA 301.4 105.4 15.7 21.6 17.2
2 R-685 ALB 275.0 107.9 16.3 16.3 17.4
3 H 605 ITA 297.5 104.9 14.9 19.5 15.6
4 H 702 ITA 302.95 117.6 14.6 19.7 15.8
5 ZP684 SRB 283.4 115.5 14.7 17.8 14.2
6 ZP 735 SRB 311.5 118.4 15.5 17.15 16.1
7 H 606 ITA 282.6 95.9 14.5 18.45 16.9
8 ZP 718B SRB 309.25 119.2 14.2 18.5 16.0
9 OH 634 FRA 274.05 94.7 14.6 18.7 17.9
10 H 604 ITA 300.6 115.6 14.5 18.8 16.6
Average 293.795 107.7 14.95 18.65 16.37

There are differences on the height of first spike of the maize hybrids to the experiment. The lowest values are at
634 OH hybrid, and highest to ZP718B hybrid. The most important are the indicators of the leaf (number, length and
width of the leaf). Here are been analyzed the data of leaves number of hybrids.
The data shows that between repetitions there arent great differences, which indicates that the tested hybrids
represent the visible similarities and uniformity to the climate and technology. While in terms of this indicator show
that in different hybrids, we dont see very large differences. Thus, this indicator varies from 14.2 leaves to hybrid
ZP 718 B, to 16.3leaves at R.685 hybrid, which is a hybrid with a lot of leaves. Average number of leaves per
hybrids studied is 14.95.
Interpretation of data for indicators of spikes. Analysis of data for indicators of the spike occupies an important
place. Spike indicators are important elements of production, therefore are been treated carefully. According to the
methodology, the attention was focused on the ear dimensions: length, thickness, number of rows, number of grains
in a row, the number of grains in the spike, the spike grain weight, thickness of cob, and grain/cob ratio. From the
data it can be seen that hybrids are characterized by a proven variation. From examination of the data is resulted
that, with smaller numbers of rows in the spike is presented hybrid ZP 684 with 14.2 lines, with the largest number
is presented OH634 hybrid, with 17.9 lines. The number of row, and the row of grains are two of the key elements
of the production of maize, so referred as a selection and evaluation object. From the data is shown that the number
of grains in a row in proved hybrids varies from 38.3 grains to hybrid ZP 735, The data show that the number of
tablets in a row in untested hybrids varies from 38.3 grains to hybrid ZP 735, the hybrid H605 to 45.3 grains to
H605 hybrid. The average of grains for all hybrids is 40.64 grains in a row.

Table 3.The parameters of spike

Number Number Thickness Thickness Weight


No. Hybrids Origin of grains of grains of spikes of cob of cobs
in rows in spikes (cm) (cm) (gr)
1 PR31A34 USA 43.2 740.45 5.1 3.0 54.4
2 R-685 ALB 40.1 708.7 5.3 3.1 44.1
3 H 605 ITA 45.3 704.6 5.2 3.1 55.1
4 H 702 ITA 39.6 628.8 5.1 3.1 61.0
5 ZP684 SRB 39.9 566.2 4.8 2.9 47.6
6 ZP 735 SRB 38.3 617.1 5.2 3.1 48.4
7 H 606 ITA 40.3 685.2 5.1 3.0 44.8
8 ZP 718B SRB 41.1 664.5 5.0 2.9 54.0
9 OH 634 FRA 39.2 701.2 5.2 3.1 49.1
10 H 604 ITA 39.4 652.4 5.2 3.1 48.8
Average 40.64 666.915 5.12 2.94 50.73

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The number of grains in the spike generally ranges from 600 to 700 grains. With smaller number of grains in the
spike is presented ZP 684 hybrid to 566.2 grains, with the largest number of grains is present RP 31 H 34 hybrid to
740.45 grains. Meanwhile, the average for studied hybrids is 666.915 grains.The thickness of the spike is a valuable
indicator, too. The spike thickness for tested hybrids varies from 4.8 cm to ZP 684 hybrid, to 5.3 to R685 hybrid.
Average thickness of spikes for tested hybrids is 5.1 cm.The data for the thickness of cobs at tested hybrids appear
with minor differences, is so well for the thickness of cobs there is no proven difference.It is known that the spike is
consist of grains and the cob where the grains are been placed. At the overall weight of spike is intended that cob
weight to be as small as possible. Usually, the ratio grain/cob is expressed in percentage. The cob weight ranges
from 44.1 gram at R 685 hybrid, to 55.1 gram at H 605 hybrid. The average weight of cob to the studied hybrids is
50.73 gram.
Interpretation of the biometric indicators data of the grain. With interest is the study of biometric indicators of
grain. In this respect were studied two indicators, the weight of grains in spike and weight of 1000 grains. From the
data we can observe that there is significant variance among hybrids. Specifically, this indicator ranges from 214.5
grams to hybrid ZP 684, up to 282.5 at PR31A34 hybrid. The average weight of grains per spike for tested hybrids is
245.7 grams (DMV 0:05 = 18.75 and 0:01 = 22:47).The weight of 1000 grains is an important indicator as it has to
do with the size of grains, which is related to the production. From the data we observe that hybrids represent a wide
variation between them. Specifically, this indicator varies from 327 grams at R-658 hybrid, to 604 grams to H 415
hybrid. The average weight of 1000 grains for studied hybrids is 374.1 grams.

Table 4.The data of grain, cob and their ratio

Weight of Weight of Weight Grain/cob


Nr. Hybrids Origin 1000 grains grains in of cob ratio
(gr) spike (gr) (gr)
1 PR31A34 USA 411 282.5 54.4 84:16
2 R-685 ALB 327 230.4 44.1 84:16
3 H 605 ITA 357 259.8 55.1 82.5:17.5
4 H 702 ITA 348 231.2 61 79:21
5 ZP684 SRB 370 214.5 47.6 82:18
6 ZP 735 SRB 387 233.2 48.4 83:17
7 H 606 ITA 342 244.3 44.8 84.5:15.5
8 ZP 718B SRB 378 242.6 54 81.8:18.2
9 OH 634 FRA 415 359.3 49.1 84:16
10 H 604 ITA 406 253.2 48.8 83.8:16
Average 370.1 245.1 50.73 82.9:17.1

Ratio grain/cob represents small differences, where the best value was at 606 H hybrid (84.5:15.5); the value has
diminished at H 702 hybrid (79:21).
The interpretation of the data yields (q/ha). It is understood that in a comparative study, the main indicator and
the most important is, undoubtedly, yield q / ha. Hybrids represent various differences in performance. In this case,
hybrids are grouped by production capacity starting from the highest to the one with the lowest.

200
150 P1
100 P2
50 P3
0
P4
Mesatarja

Chart 1. Yields data (q/ha); P. 005=11.3 q/ha; P.001= 13.8 q/ha


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Hybrids represent a significant variance for yield. Specifically, it varies from 127 875 q / ha to ZP 718B hybrid, to
150.1 q / ha to PR31A34 hybrid. It appears from the analysis of variance tables, in which significant variation
between hybrids are been observed, where f-factual is greater than f-critical. While for repetition, there arent
observed significant variation, which means that there is no yield difference from a repetition to another.

CONCLUSIONS

For all biometric indicators of plant, spike and grain there are differences between hybrids which materialized to
achieve production for each hybrid.
Referring to the performance indicators, hybrids can divide into three groups:
The first group hybrids: PR31A34, H 702, ZP 735, H 606, OH 634 which provide the highest performance for both
levels of security.
The second group: R-685 and H 605 which provide the highest performance for one security level (0,01).
The third group: ZP 684, ZP 718 B, H 604 that dont have good results.

REFERENCES

Hajkola K, 2000, Prmiresimi gjenetik i misrit , hibridet Rozafa dhe vlera e tyre. Konf. Komb. e zhvillimit t shk.
Biol. Tiran.
Hajkola K, 2000, Rezultate t provave t krahasimit t hibrideve t misrit me pjekje t von. B.SH.B. 4, 47-52.
Hajkola K, Rexha A, 2000, Hibridet Rozafa dhe kultivimi i tyre, Broshur IMO.
Hallauer A R, Russell A, Lamkey K R, 1988. Corn breeding. In Corn and corn improvement.
Laej H ,Dionisi Gj 1986 Metodologjia e prdorur dhe rezultatet e arritura n krijimin e linjave t misrit n vendin
ton. BSHB,Nr 1,Tiran
Laej H 1980 Rezultate t puns gjenetiko seleksionues me misrin n vendin ton,BSHB, Nr 4, Tiran.
Osja A, Deva A,2000, Misri n Shqipri, arritje dhe perspektiva. Tiran.
Prmeti M, Xhepa S, Salillari A.1987, Linjat baze t prmiresimit gjenetik t bims s misrit. Tiran .
Russell .A, S.A Eberhart 1975, Hybrid prfomance of selected maize lines from reciprocal selection and test cros
selection programs, Crop sci. 15, 1-4.
Salillari A 1990 Studime n fushen gjenetike dhe prmiresimit t misrit.Disertacion pr graden shkencore Doktor i
Shkencave. UB,Tiran.
Salillari A 1997 Misri nj minier bimore. Tiran.
Salillari, A. Gjeta Z. Rusinovci I, 2000. Kultivimi i misrit.

PAPER 178

A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF BASE DRESSING OF NEW ALFALFA PLOTS

Nikollaq Bardhi1, Elda Pajo2, Ndoc Vata3, Artan Sota4, Agim Rameta5, Dilaman Nelaj6.
1,3
Agricultural University of Tirana;
2
Agriculture and Food Department of Tirana prefecture;
4
Agriculture and Food Department of Fier prefecture;
5
Agriculture and Food Department of Durres prefecture;
6
Agriculture and Food Department of Kukes prefecture;

ABSTRACT

The forage production development, in the context of the agriculture development, has been and remains a
permanent task that is dictated by the need to increase the livestock production. In the Albanian agriculture, alfalfa is
the main forage plant and occupies the first place on the planting surface. In the structure of forage plants, alfalfa

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occupies over 50% of the planted area, and increase of its production constitutes one of the main targets for
increasing of forage production. It is considered as the most important chain and as the bridge between agriculture
and livestock. From statistical data, alfalfa plant is the main crop of Albanian farms, and as such, the care for
implanting of its cultivation technology is increased. So, in our farms it is invested more for seeds, processing and
storage of hay. From the other side studies on finding optimum level of nutrients and alfalfa fertilization have been
scarce in Albania, and for this purpose this study was conducted, aiming at finding links between nutrient level and
biomass. Alfalfa has a considerable demand for nutrients because of its active growth, and for each harvest a
considerable amount of nutrient from the soil is gone. It is being investing for nutrients, but there is not yet any
experiment study for the fertilizers that have the greatest influence, both in production as well as in alfalfa plots
lifetime. It is this reason that this study was undertaken for three years, experimenting in time and space, thus
obtaining results for each year of alfalfa plots lifetime. The result of this study showed that base dressing has a
statistically significant effect.

Keywords: Fertilization, dry grass, farm, forage, technology.

INTRODUCTION

Alfalfa is the more prevalent and important forage plant in Albania and also, the most important crop for livestock.
It is widespread in the whole Albanian territory, because it has a very good ecological adaptation. Among the factors
affecting at the achievement of higher yields is the fertilization. For several years, there are been noted the effect of
fertilizer minerals and there are extracted the best conclusions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. The
studies on organic fertilization were hypothetical. Therefore, an experimental study was undertaken for the impact of
organic fertilization at the production of alfalfa.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experiment was set up according to the randomized block method with 4 repetition and 6 variants, each variant
has a surface of 20 m2, the type of soil SAM, with medium fertility. The study duration was two years.
Variants of the experiment are:
Decaying organic fertilizers 400 quintals / ha, distributed before plowing.
Superphosphate with 18% active substance, the dose of 8 quintals / ha, by spreading half before plowing, and the
half before the last drills.
D.A.P. 4 quintals / ha, distributed half before plowing and the other half before the last drills.
Organic manure and superphosphate at doses: 200 quintals / ha manure and 4 quintals / ha superphosphate, manure
is distributed before plowing, fertilizer before last drill.
Organic fertilizers and animal manure 200 quintals / ha distributed before plowing and DAP 2 quintals / ha
distributed before the last drill.
Without using any kind of fertilization.

There are made the observations and measurements in the field:


The date of planting
The date of germination
The plant height
The date of mowing
Yield q / ha.
All the other care are conducted at the same time and equally to all variants of the experiment.
The Agro-technology
The pre-plant has been the wheat. The applied technology has been of the applicable level for the farmer, and
indicators are been according to methodology. The plowing of soil is done at a depth of 31-35 cm. It is prepared a
good and loamy bed through drilling for planting of the seeds. Then, are distributed the manure of based fertilizers,
according to variants of the method.
The services were performed after planting: roller and drainage, irrigation were conducted with rain-launcher
equipments. The mowing is made in the beginning of the flowering stage, for all mowing and for two years.
Results and their discussion
In this paper will address two years of study, those of the first year and second year.

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The data from the first year are:


During the experiment records are maintained in accordance with the methodology, the dates of sowing, the
germination, the plant height, the number of plants per m2, the mowing dates and yield.
The data obtained from field observations for planting and germination is reflect in Table No.1

Table 1. The data of germinations

No. Variants Date of Date of No. of


planting germination plants/m2
1 Organic fertilizer (40 q/dy) 5/3 18/3 580
2 Superphosphate (80 kg/dy) 558
3 DAP (40 kg/dy) 605
4 Organic fertilizer + superphosphate (20 q /dy 560
+ 40 kg / dy)
5 Organic fertilizer + DAP (20 q /d + 20 kg /d) 574
6 Without fertilization 610

As seen, the providing of plants number for all variants has no significant changes, indicating that the start of the
study on the impact of fertilizer in the production of alfalfa will give results influenced by external factors in
productivity for each variant.
Results for the number of mowing and plant height for each mowing.

Table 2.The mowing date and the plant height

No Data of each Variant 1 Variant 2 Variant 3 Variant 4 Variant 5 Variant 6


mowing
1 Date of mowing I 29/5 29/5 29/5 29/5 29/5 29/5
Height cm
44-54 36-44 41-49 43-53 42-53 35-43
2 Date of mowing 9/7 9/7 9/7 9/7 9/7 9/7
2
Height cm 65-75 63-65 58-67 64-73 63-74 48-56
3 Date of mowing 15/8 15/8 15/8 15/8 15/8 15/8
3
Height cm 30-33 28-30 30-35 25-28
4 Date of mowing 1/11 1/11 1/11 1/11 1/11 1/11
4
Height cm 30-32 28-31 30-34 30-32 31-34 26-30

From the data presented in the table above we come to the conclusion that the first year yield has been very good.
Higher productivity have given variants with organic fertilizer, and DAP was the best chemical fertilizer.

800
Mowing I
600
Mowing II
400
Mowing III
200 Mowing IV

0 Total yield
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Variety I Variety II Variety III Variety IV Variety V Variety VI
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Chart 1. Yield realized by mowing and final yield for the first year

II - The data of alfalfa plots in the second year


There are been kept records of the date of spring awakening, the number of plants per m 2, for the extinction of the
plants, according to the variants. The data obtained are shown in the Table No.3.

Table 3. The data of spring awakening, number of plants and the extinction of plants in first year

Date of spring No. of % of plant


No. Variants awakening plants.m2 extinction in
first year
1 Organic fertilizer (400 q/ha) 06/02 240-251 45-50
2 Superphosphate (8q/ha) 12/02 230-241 50-53
3 DAP (4 q/ha) 12/02 228-235 48-51
4 Organic fertilizer + superphosphate 08/02 250-258 43-48
(200 q/ha + 4 q/ha)
5 Organic fertilizer + DAP (2q/ha + 2 08/02 228-238 45-50
q /ha)
6 Without fertilization 15/02 225-230 50-53

As seen, the variants with organic fertilization have the early awakening in the spring. In terms of life expectancy
impact of plant (thinning of plants), variants with organic fertilizers have a positive impact, too.
Yield q / ha for each mowing in the second year. In the second year have not been specific services, but to the
experimental plot was made drainage, mowing and protection from violations. Mowing for all cases is made in the
flowering stage. In each mowing, first, there were made the measurements for plant height, and after each mowing,
for each variant were made the weight of fresh mass. The data for each mowing and for each indicator are shown in
the table below:

Table 4.The data of mowing and the indicators of yields (q/ha) in the second year

No Data of each Variant Variant Variant Variant Variant Variant


mowing 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 Date of 13/5 13/5 13/5 13/5 13/5 13/5


mowing I
Height cm 55-62 43-52 45-56 54-60 56-65 38-43
2 Date of 18/6 18/6 18/6 18/6 18/6 18/6
mowing 2
Height cm 65-76 63-73 65-75 65-75 68-78 45-56
3 Date of 16/7 16/7 16/7 16/7 16/7 16/7
mowing 3
Height cm 35-42 33-38 35-42 34-41 36-45 32-38
4 Date of 15/8 15/8 15/8 15/8 15/8 15/8
mowing 4
Height cm 28-32 25-28 25-30 25-30 30-35 23-25
5 Date of 30/10 30/10 30/10 30/10 30/10 30/10
mowing 5
Height cm 30-34 28-31 28-33 28-32 30-34 25-30

Mowing is done on the same date as the beginning of the flowering stage was on the same date. The plants with
greater height are in the variants with organic fertilizers and combined fertilizers (organic and chemical fertilizers).

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1000

900

800

700 Mowing I
600 Mowing II

500 Mowing III

400 Mowing IV
Mowing V
300
Total yield
200

100

0
Variety I Variety II Variety III Variety IV Variety V Variety VI

Chart 2.Yield realized in the second year of cultivation.

The highest yield was realized in VI, V5 and V3, so to variants with organic fertilizers and DAP.

CONCLUSIONS

From the data obtained and the argued, for each year and for each result, we conclude that the basic fertilization
experimentation of new alfalfa plots out more positive. The data obtained are putting down thoughts that alfalfa
should not fertilizes with organic fertilizers. By multilateral analysis we reach in these conclusions: The best results
have given variants of composting with organic fertilizer, with an additional output about twice the variant without
fertilizers. has come up with The best option has come up the combining of organic fertilizer DAP. Among
fertilizers, better results gave DAP, while superphosphate is effectively lower in the experiment. The increase of
alfalfa production, from the first year in the second year, according to variants, ranges from 13% to 23%. Positive is
the fact that in two years, variants with organic fertilizers have given higher yields. For all these reasons manage to
advise: Best variants of this study are transferred to the farmer to have their effectiveness in production. Effectively,
with better economic result are the combined variants, with organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, so that we have
to extend the study to other areas, to be demonstrated and proven in production these conclusions.

LITERATURE

Carter.P.R. etj-Alfalfa response to soil water deficit crop.


Clarence. H. Etj Alfalfa Science and tecnology. American Society of agronomy.New York 1980.
Nesturi . D. Jonxha dhe trifilet shumvjeare.
Nesturi.D. Jonxha n Shqipri
Torleto. A. Particoltura de vicenda nel Italia meridionale. Revista di Agronomia. Nr.2 Viti 1985.
Selami.A. Jonxha. Viti 2007.
Shundi. A. Livadhet artificiale.B.SH.B. Nr.3 Viti 1988.

PAPER 179

PRESENCE OF HEAVY METALS IN RIVERS SURROUNDING INDUSTRIAL ZONE IN MITROVICA


TOWN

Afete Musliu, Seit Shallari, Mihone Kerolli, Alma Shehu, Afrim Qela

Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Tirana, Albania;


University of Zagreb, Faculty of chemical Engineering and Technology, Croatia;
University of Prishtina, Faculty of Geosciences and Technology, Mitrovica, Kosovo;

Email: afete-musliu@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
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Mining and metallurgical activities are among the main factors of the atmospheric pollution in the earth, as in the
recent past and also nowadays, especially considering the rapid technical and technological development and the
need ever larger underground resource. The town of Mitrovica, has the largest complex metallurgy and mining in
Europe known as "Trepca", known for exploitation of lead, zinc and cadmium, which town has been, and
unfortunately continues to be, one of the most polluted cities in Kosovo as in air, soil and water, in particular in its
industrial complexes surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to make research of the impacts of the mining and
metallurgical processes on the degree of pollution with heavy metals of rivers in Mitrovica town. The methods used
to determine the impacts of industrial processes on the rivers pollution are as follows: Reviews of scientific
materials related to field of study: Laboratory Research, with sophisticated equipment - AAS (Atomic Absorption
Spectrometry).

Keywords: Mitrovica, Trepca, Water pollution, Heavy metal.,

INTRODUCTION

Mines "Trepca" originates from ancient times, but massive exploitation begins in the twentieth century when the
English company "Selection Trust Ltd." exploited mine from 1926 to 1941. In 1938 starts activity in Zvecan lead
smelter. New flotation is built in 1983 in the Tuneli i Pare. The main products are flotation concentrate of Lead (C /
Pb), zinc concentrate (C / Zn), concentrate pyrites (C/FeS2) and concentrate Pyrrhotite (C / FES). As a result of ore
concentration of Pb - Zn with flotation and hydrometallurgical processes, in and around the "Trepca" complex we
have no less than 8 + 2 landfills and flotation water discharging point into the river Trepca that flows into the river
Sitnica which connects to river Iber. In this case we have two ways of rivers contamination: direct discharging of
the industrial waste waters (Fig. 1) and storm water runoff as a result of rain water which either dissolves the
contamination or carries contaminated soil particles into the river.

Fig. 1 Industrial waste water discharging point of Trepca flotation

MATERALS AND METHOD

To reach the results of the impact of Trepca processes in running waters in the Mitrovica rivers, samples were taken
at four points (Fig. 2) on the river Sitnica and at the discharging point of the Trepca river:

- The first sample was taken in the village Frashr, approximately 300 meters before the Industrial Park of Mitrovica
(IPM)
- The second sample was taken at the beginning of the IPM
- The third sample was taken at the end of IPM's
- The fourth sample was taken in "July 2" Street, approximately 700 m from the bridge of Sitnica.

Samples are marked with serial numbers as per sampling site. In samples was determined concentration of heavy
metals: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, and pH.

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2
1
Fig 2. Sampling locations in river Sitnica

Analytical method for the determination of heavy metals in water samples

From each sample were taken 100 ml, and are set in erlenmajer which priory is filtered in order to eliminate the
insoluble substances. Each sample was added 1 ml of concentrated HNO3, and boiled (2-3 minutes). Samples were
then cooled. Samples are placed in the dish and leveled with distilled water. In this way samples are prepared for the
analytical method with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Taken samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption
Spectrometry (AAS), by which can be determined about 70 elements (Fig. 3). For the determination of most
elements, the boundaries of the survey are part of billion (ppb), using the electro-atomization technique, and for
some elements, parts per million (ppm), using flame as a atomic technique.

Fig. 3 - Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)

Determination of the elements of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Fe in the river Sitnica with SAA, flame - method

Preliminarily, for each element are adapted to the conditions for analysis as: wavelength, lamp position, burner
position, type of flame and spectral cleavage width. Afterwards is measured absorption of standard liquids,
construction of calibration curves and calculation of parameters of heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Fe.
In table 4 are shown values of presence of cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (ZN), Iron (Fe) and Lead (Pb) in all
four samples and allowable standard values.

Tab. 1 - Vlerat e metaleve t rnda n lumin Sitnic

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Standard
allovable Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4
limits
pH 6-9 7.65 7.65 7.81 7.65
Cu mg/L 0.1 0.158 0.1152 0.0755 0.1130
Cd mg/L 0.01 0.0046 0.0059 0.0053 0.0039
Zn mg/L 1 0.018 0.0376 0.5211 1.3568
Pb mg/L 0.1 0.0298 0.1788 0.0672 0.6287
Fe mg/L 1 0.0897 0.6947 0.081 0.0315

Fig. 4 - Concentration of heavy metals in the samples taken in the river Sitnica

RESULTS

Based on the analysis of the water samples taken at surface waters of river Sitnica, we see that these waters are
highly contaminated and in most cases exceed the pollution norms. We found greater pollution with heavy metals in
the river Sitnica near the IPM landfill where the industrial water is discharged from the landfill, storm water runoff
from IPM as well as the consequence of the river Sitnica which passes along the Trepca industrial park.
Based on the obtained results, pH values, cadmium and iron, in Water samples taken in Sitnica River are within
allowable limits, while copper does not exceed permissible limits only in the third sample with 0.1 mg/L, being
present in the first sample with 0.1445 mg/L, in the second sample with 0.1145 mg/L, and in the fourth sample at
0.1145mg/L.
Lead is found in the second sample valued from 0.1746 mg/L, reaching a value of 0.6277 mg/L in the fourth sample,
which exceeds six times allowed value of 0.1 mg/L.
Water pollution in the river Sitnica with Zinc exceeds the value of allowing only on the fourth sample, where zinc is
present with 1.3536 mg/L. From the figure we see that the number 17 in the four samples of pH value is within the
allowed values.
Discharging contaminated industrial waters causes direct damage to rivers flow up to their spill in large rivers or
seas (Rashani.Sh. 2007). As we can see from the results obtained from the water samples analyses, river Sitnica is
highly contaminated with the heavy metals, especially in and around the IPM but also in the areas of the industrial
landfills and damps, and remedies and preventive measures are deem necessary in order reduce the amount of
pollutants to the extent that water can be returned to the environment without causing harm to aquatic life,
surrounding environment and the residents in the area.
This is achieved by treating the discharged industrial waters before the flow into the river, in this case river Trepca
which joins Sitnica river in Mitrovica, as well as protection of slopes of the edges of the perimeter of the landfills
and damps, near the river, with the geo-plastic layers by leveling and compacting dangerous surfaces, in order to
prevent the erosion of toxic waste in the river flow.

CONCLUSIONS

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According to some studies conducted in 1988 (ZUP Prishtine 1988), river Iber, which also percolate Mitrovica town,
before entering the town and joins the river Sitnica, can be used for many purposes, but after passes the town river is
contaminated by sewage waters, and, at this stage, can be used for watering but nor preferred for fishing. River
Sitnica, before any industrial water discharging, is contaminated at that extend as can be used only for watering of
not fruitful trees and grass. The water resources in Kosovo are also protected by Law (2004/24) approved by the
Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo, and with the application of the same enables protection of the waters which
ensures prevention of pollution of surface waters as well as and rehabilitation of polluted waters.

REFERENCES

Shefqet Rashani, Inxhinjerija e mbrojtjes se mjedisit, Mitrovice 2007, p. 32-55;


Ilir Kristo, Fatbardh Sallaku, Toka dhe menaxhimi i saj, Tirane, 2000, p. 142-166;
Prostorni plan opstine, Osnove plana Titova Mitrovica, ZUP-Prishtine, I IAU Serbije- Beograd, 1988, p. 49;
Kuvendi i Republiks s Kosovs, Ligji pr ujrat e Kosovs, Nr.2004/ 24, Prishtine, 2004;

PAPER 180

INTERACTIONS AT METAL INTERFACES-A COMPARISON OF VARIOUS MODEL APROACHES

Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa1, Afete Musliu2


1
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Croatia;
Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Tirana, Albania;

E-mail: mihone_k@hotmail.com,

ABSTRACT

Many of the mineral processing techniques depend on the interfacial interactions between solid and liquid,
essentially water. The interfacial surface tension control those two phases, while the surface energy is one of the
main components in understanding the interface process. The most common standard method used for determining
the surface energy is contact angle method that characterizes the properties of the solids. This paper reports a
description of the theory of interactions occurring at the metal interfaces and the experimental methods available for
assessing those interactions. We made a review and a direct comparison of widely used models for the calculation of
surface energy of solids such as Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble, Wu and Acid-Base models in order to evaluate their
advantages and disadvantages. The particular site of Trepa Mining Complex jarosite waste material was used as an
example for reviewing these interactions. In this case a contact angle between the surface and the edge of droplets of
water, formamide, diiodo methane is measured. We conclude that values of contact angle provide an indication of
the degree of surface hydrophobicity / hidrophilicity character. This method is an important parameter of processing
the jarosite waste material in Trepca.

Key words: Interaction, metal interface, surface free energy, contact angle, Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble, Wu,
Acid-Base model, jarosite waste.

INTRODUCTION

All modern industries rely on materials to create new products and technologies. Surface and interface structure has
been recognized for their importance on solid state and gaseous electronics, adhesion, catalysis and corrosion.
Surfaces and interfaces define a boundary between a material and its surrounding environment and influence
interactions with that environment ( Samorai et al. 2010). The theory of interfacial interactions between solid and
liquid, essentially water is of special interest. The interfacial surface tension control those two phases, while the
surface free energy is one of the main components in understanding the interface process. The standard method used

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for determining the surface free energy is contact angle method that characterizes the properties of the solids
(Neumann et al. 1979). Three interface forces are balanced at the edge of the drop, with two on the opposite
direction and the third that forms the particular angle of the surface. The contact angle measurements are easy to
perform on a smooth flat surface, while in many of the industrial applications materials used are in powdered form.
The interest on the experimental calculation of surface free energy of the solid is growing based on numerous
published studies used as references. The Young presented that the equilibrium of forces at the edge of a resting
drop can be described by the interfacial energies of the corresponding surfaces (Neumann et al. 1979) (Figure 1).

Figigure 1.Contact angle formed by a liquid drop on a surface [3].

This equilibrium of the forces obtained for the surface and interfacial tensions is presented by the following
equation:
(1)
Where:
, , represent the surface tensions between the solid and the saturated vapor of the liquid. The next
development after Young was the Dupre (Kovaevi et al. 2011/2012) that introduced the work of cohesion W coh
and adhesion Wadh. From thermo dynamical point of view the work of adhesion is the reversible free energy change
for making free surfaces from interfaces. It is represented by the equation (or so-called Dupre energy) (Kovaevi
et al. 2011/2012; Yildirim 2001) :
Wad= A+ B AB (2)

where: Wad is the work of adhesion, A and B are the respective surface free energies of two materials, AB is the
surface energy between the two materials in contact. When free surface of the liquid meets a solid boundary, three
interactions will occurs: the solid-liquid interface, the liquid-vapour interface and the solid-vapour interface
(Yildirim 2001). The true work of adhesion can be determined by contact angle measurements, through the Young
Dupre equation, which describes Wad as the function of the contact angle (Kovaevi et al. 2011/2012; Yildirim
2001; Subedi 2011)]:
Wad= A+ B AB= B (1 + cos ) (3)
The contact angle is a measure of the competing tendencies of the liquid drop and solid determining whether it
spreads over the solid surface or rounds up to minimize its own area (Van Oss 1994). Determination of the base line
at the phase boundary solid/liquid is the first step, followed by the determination of the drop profile and
measurement of the contact angle. According to the references the standard liquids with well-known values of
surface tension, component of dispersion and polar interaction such as water, formamide, diiodo methane are mostly
used (Van Oss 1994; Fu et al. 2007; Erbil 2006). The most common models used for the calculation of surface
energy (SFE) and its polar and dispersion components are Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelblen [Neumann et al. 1979;
Kovaevi et al. 2011/2012; Owens et al. 1967), Wu and Acid-Base methods. The Owens, Wendt, Rable and
Kaelble (OWRK) (Yildirim 2001; Subedi 2011; Owens et al. 1967) developed the first idea that the surface tension
of each phase can be split up into a polar and a disperse fraction:
+ (4)
+ (5)
Here and represent disperse and polar parts of the liquid, while and stand for the respective
contributions of the solid.According to Owens, Wendt, Rable and Kaelble the polar interactions contain Coulomb
interactions between permanent dipoles and the ones between permanent and induced dipoles. Both polar and
disperse contributions to the surface free energy and surface tension respectively are combined by forming the sum

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of both parts presented in the Equations 6,7. The calculation of surface free energy of the solid by Owens, Wendt,
Rable and Kaelble method takes place in a single step (Kovaevi et al. 2011/2012; Owens et al. 1967). By
combining the surface tension equation as the basis
+ - 2( ) (6)

with the Young Equation 1, the Owens and Wendt got the transposed equation below:

(7)

For low-energy systems (surface free energies up to 35mN/m) another method was proposed by WU (Van Oss
1994) for evaluating the contact angle. According to Wu the interface free energy between liquid and solid can be
calculated by forming the harmonic mean instead of geometric mean developed by OWRK. The Wu methods
require at least two kinds of drops with different surface tensions (one liquid heaving a polar part greater than zero).
The harmonic mean equation is used to sum the dispersive and polar contributions. Contact angles against two
liquids with known values of and are measured. The values for each experiment are put into the following
equation:

( +1) 4 ( (8)
In this way WU obtained more accurate results for low energy systems, while using the Wus method the following
point must be taken into consideration: as quadratic equations are involved this means that two solutions are
obtained for both and only one of these solutions describes the actual surface free energy (Erbil 2006) The
Van Oss theory (Van Oss 2002) separates the surface free energy of solids and liquids into three components. It
evaluates the polar energy based on energy interchange model of acid and base. The acid-base theory is suitable for
materials with polar surface and requires at least three drops of different surface tensions, while at least two of them
must be polar fluid. The authors OSS and GOOD describe the polar fraction with the help of the acid-base model
according to Lewis. According to this model, the polar fraction of the surface free energy of the solid and the
surrounding drop liquid is split into an electron acceptor fraction corresponding to a Lewis acid (electron
receiving fraction and an electron donor corresponding to a Lewis base (electron donor fraction) (Van Oss
2002). According to the authors the Van Oss and Good theory, the surface free energy , of a material can be
expressed as the sum of two components, the non-polar Lifshitzvan derWaals (LW) and the polar acidbase (AB)
contribution as:

(9)
with: as dispersive component (Lifshitz-Van der Waals interactions) and aspolar components (polar
interactions, Lewis acid-base).They put the relation between surface free energy components, liquid components and
contact angle into the equation:
(1+ ) (10)

were, is the disperse fraction, the acid fraction and the base fraction of the solid.
In this paper surface free energy of different samples of jarosite waste from Trepa tailings was used for measuring
the contact angle. The results were obtained using the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble, Wu and Acid-Base model.

EXPERIMENTAL PART

1. Samples. The material used for the study was taken in Mitrovica Industrial Park (MIP) jarosite waste situated in
northern Kosovo. Mitrovica region constitutes one of the main industrial areas of the former Yugoslavia as well as
one of the most important mining districts of Europe. The Trepca industrial and mining area includes about 40 mines
and various milling, flotation and smelting plant, it is/was regions largest lead and zinc mining, beneficiation,
smelting, and refining complex. At present industrial waste dumps in Mitrovica Industrial Park contains over 1.5
million t of various waste.

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Fiigure 2.Sampling locations of six investigated samples.

According to Deconta study (Deconta 2009) from the total area of 35 ha in MIP (Figure 2), 16 ha are covered with
jarosite waste resulting from Zn neutral leaching and acid leaching.

Table 1. Chemical composition of the samples in wt. %[9].


Sample Composition - wt. %

SO3-56.16, P2O5-0.87, Al2O3-0.3, Na2O-0.21, CaO-35.61, MgO-0.3, Fe2O3-0.03,


1-6 SiO2-1.2, CO2-2,3, F-0.3, organic material-2.3

Within the framework of sampling the particular tailing ponds in total 6 samples (Figure 2) were carried out. The
average depth of the particular samples was 1.5 m. Number of the samples was taken in dependence of waste
profile. Accessibility, position of waste sides and optimal location of sampling points were the main criteria for
selection of the sampling points. The stainless steel soil sampler was used during the sampling. Samples were put
into plastic containers of 1kg. The samples were dried at 105 C. Samples were compressed into a pellet by using a
hydraulic press jet pump.
2. Determination of surface free energy from contact angle measurements. The contact angle measurements
were conducted using three liquids of different polarity: water, formamide and diiodomethane. The drop orientation
was determined by using DataPhysics SCA 21. Firstly, the pellet, which has been prepared earlier, was placed on the
sample holder. The water, formamide, diiodo methane as standard liquids with well-known values was placed in
syringe, from where the drops were dispensed automatically. The contact angle (CA) has been measured by setting
its baseline and then making a profile extraction. The value of contact angle usually was obtained after CA
computation. The contact angle of each sample has been measured for three times. All measurements were
performed under ambient conditions of 21 - 23 C. Small liquid drop is deposited into the surface and the contact
angle is determined from the digital image of the sessile drop. Also the surface free energy (SFE) and its polar and
dispersion components were determined by means of Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelblen [Neumann et al. 1979;
Kovaevi et al. 2011/2012; Owens et al. 1967), Wu and Acid-Base methods.

RESULTS

Following the procedure mentioned in Experimental part, the contact angles of water, formamide, and
diiodomethane were measured on different surfaces samples of mining tailing material in form of clay and pellets.
Experiments showed that both parallel measured value of contact angle samples of compressed pellets and dried
material in glass side were the same. The results with the means of contact angle are presented in

Table 2. The sample 1-6 values obtained by measuring the contact angles with water, formamide, diiodo methane.
Contact Angle ()

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Sample Water Formamide Diiodo methane


1 32.66 20.1 21.2

2 22.2 22.1 13.9

3 1.2 8.2 0.9

4 4.1 22.1 20.1

5 19.1 20.9 16.45

6 41.1 31.3 27.1

If we compare the contact angle values of water on dried surfaces (pellets), we see larger variations between
samples. Water used as a probe liquid has a very high surface tension (72 mNm -1) and it is very polar. The values of
contact angle increases for sample 1, 2, 5 and 6 (Figure 3). This observation gives a first insight into the increase in
the hydrophobic character of the clay surface especially of sample 1 and 6 with the high content of Fe, Pb as well as
other compounds having aromatic or hydrophobic (water-insoluble) chemical structures. The tailing material is
placed in an open pit that gives a possibility of been mixed with other neighboring material via drainage water or
wind. Another explanation can be due to the fact that metal sulphide surfaces contain at least two types of surface
functional groups (thiol group and iron group) as opposed to one (Yildirim 2001). Sample 1 to 2 loses its
hydrophobic nature and became hydrophilic. This can attribute to the surface heterogeneity and solution impurities
adsorbing on the surface with very interesting implications and interactions as well. If the contact angle of water is
less than 30, the surface is designated hydrophilic since the forces of interaction between water and the surface
nearly equal the cohesive forces of water, and water does not cleanly drain from the surface (Arkles 2006). The
contact angle decrease was observed in sample 3 and 4. A lower contact angle indicates that the surface of the waste
material in sample 3 is more wettable. In this case we see that the water spreads over a surface and the contact angle
at the spreading front edge of the water is less than 10 which shows a super hydrophilic character of the surface. In
our case the nature of the observed surfaces in our study shows to have a hydrophilic character.

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45
Water
40 Formamide
Diiodo methane
35

Contact Angle, ()
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Sample1
Fig. 3. Sample Angle
Contact 2 Sample 3
measurement Sample 4 1-6.
for samples Sample 5 Sample 6

When we use formamide as wetting agent, the observed variations show the decrease in sample 3, while the contact
angle in other samples varies from 20.1 to 31.3. Formamide interacts with jarosite the case of sample 1 and 2. In
case of diiodo methane (which is of rather apolar nature) more variations are observed with the lowest value in
sample 3 and variations between 1, 2, 4 and 5 samples. The previous contact angle values (Table 2) were used to
estimate the components and parameters of the surface free energy of Trepa jarosite waste samples with Owens-
Wendt and Wu model. The results are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Free Energy surface values of Samples 1-6.

Owens Wendt Wu
Sample Surface Free Energy (mJ m-2) Surface Free Energy (mJ m-2)
d p d p
1 40.99 24.91 65.89 40.62 28.18 68.81
2 30.35 34.99 65.34 31.96 35.91 67.88
3 35.88 31.95 67.83 36.40 34.08 70.48
4 39.21 30.81 70.02 39.43 33.59 73.02
5 37.52 31.28 68.80 37.82 33.91 71.73
6 38.99 21.73 60.72 38.46 25.54 64.00

If we compare the surface free energy values from 1-6 samples in using Owens-Wendt and Wu models, we see that
there is no major change. However, the characteristic values of surface free energy (SFE) of Trepa waste samples
versus the contact angle () of water, formamide and diiodo methane is presented in Figure 4. Clearly the plots are
not in similar shape and the values of surface free energy varies in line with the increase of contact angle of each
liquid.

a)

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b)

Fig. 4. Surface free energy (SFE) of samples 1-6 versus the contact angle () of water, formamide,
diiodomethane, calculated using a) Owens-Wendt and b) Wu models.
The obtained SFE values are compared in Fig. 5. The data calculated using Owens-Wend and Wu models are based
on the contact angle measurements carried out with use of water, formamide and diiodo methane parameters. The
figure shows that the plot corresponding to both methods is in similar line with very small differences in the results.

Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble model
Wu model
Acid-Base model

80
Surface free energy, (mJ m-2)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Sample1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6

Fig. 5. Comparison of surface free energy (SFE) values of a samples, calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW)
and Wu models.

Following the thermodynamic approach of Van Oss using Eq. (10), we have studied the interactions occurring
between 1-6 sample surfaces and drops of liquid parameters considered for the study. The values of the components
and parameters of the surface free energy of 1-6 samples with the use of Van Oss model are shown on Table 4.

Table 4. Values of the Lifshitz-Van der Waals (LW), electron donor (-), electron acceptor (+), acid-base
ccomponents (AB) and free energy of surface samples

LW ( mJ m-2) + (mJ m-2) - (mJ m-2) (mJ m-2)


Sample LW acid base AB (mJ m-2) total

1 47.15 0.00 48.43 0 47.15


2 49.25 0.03 51.65 2.65 51.90
3 50.79 0.08 56.84 4.32 55.11
4 47.73 0.02 61.96 2.1 49.83
5 48.73 0.05 53.86 3.27 52.00
6 45.23 0.20 35.43 5.29 50.52

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If we look at the electron-donor and the electron-acceptor values, we observe big changes occurring in both
parameters for all samples. The value of - is much higher in all 1-6 samples than the value of +, suggesting that the
sample tailing material in Trepa is predominantly basic. The total surface free energy results are in range of 47.15
to 55.11 mJ m-2. As it can be seen from the table the Lifshitz-van der Waals component values varies from 45.23 to
50.70mJ m-2, while the Lewis acid-base parameters are significantly lower. For example the value of AB may
become zero on a hydrophobic surface (sample 1), while on the other hand LW, never becomes zero. Overall, the
surface hydrophobicity is a function of the value of , as well as its components. Thus, the data given in Table 2 and
3 confirm the surface free energy components that are determined using the contact angle values (Table 2).

CONCLUSION

Values of contact angle provide an indication of the degree of surface hydrophobicity / hidrophilicity character of
the surface. This method is an important parameter of processing the jarosite waste material in Trepca.
Contact angle measurement were conducted on pellet surfaces to determine the surface free energy components of
Trepca jarosite tailing samples using the Owens-Wendt (OW), Wu and Van Oss models. The results showed larger
variations of contact angle values between samples.
A good agreement between the surface free energy calculations using different contact angle methods has been
demonstrated. Our simulation results indicate that the applied models work fine.
As a general trend, the Lifshitz-van der Waals component values varies from 45.23 to 50.70mJ m-2, while the Lewis
acid-base parameters are significantly lower. However, the value of AB is associated with decrease in the value zero
on a hydrophobic surface of sample 1.
The applied models showed advantage in depositing multiple droplets in various locations of sample and
determining the heterogeneity, while the detail characterization of the jarosite waste is in process.

REFERENCES

Somorjai , G., Li, Y. (2010) Impact of surface chemistry, National Academy of Science of USA, 103 (3), 917-924.
Chander, S., Wie, J. M., Fuerstenau, D. W. (1975) Advances in Interfacial Phenomena, AIChE Series 150, 183-188.
Neumann, A. W., Good, R. J. (1979) Techniques of Measuring Contact Angles, Surface and Colloid Science, Exp.
Meth., Plenum Pres, New York.
Kovaevi,V., Blagojevi, S. L., Leskovac, M., Vrsaljko, (2011/12) D. Surface Phenomenon, FKIT, Zagreb.
Yildirim, I.(2001) Surface Free Energy Characterization of Powders, VirginaTech, PhD dissertation.
Van Oss, C. J. (1994) Interfacial Forces, Marcel Decker Inc., New York, 1, 75-85.
Fu, Q., Wagner, Th. (2007) Surface Science reports 6, 421-493.
Erbil, H.Y., (2006) Surface Chem. of Solid and Liquid Interfaces, Blackwell Publishing, UK.
Van Oss, C. J. (2002) Colloid and surface properties, Marcel Dekker, New York, 295.
Deconta (2009) Final report, Czech-UNDP Trust Fund.
Arkles, B. Paint Coatings Industry magazine, 2006.
Hejda, F., Solar, P., Kousal, J. (2010) WDS'10 Proceedings of Contributed Papers, 3, 25-30.
Owens, D. K., Wendt, R.C.(1967) J. Appl. Polym. Sci, 1741-1747.
Subedi, D. P. (2011) The Himalayan Physics II, 2 (2), 1-4.

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PAPER 182

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EUROPEAN UNION NATURE PROTECTION LEGISLATION IN


MACEDONIA

Zoran Sapuric1, Vulnet Zenki 2*


1
University American College, Skopje, Macedonia (former minister of environment)
2*
South East European University, Tetovo, Macedonia.

Email: sapurik@uacs.edu.mk; v.zenki@seeu.edu.mk;

ABSTACT

Nature protection is an important part of environmental activities in the field on protection and improvement of the
environment. Activities, measures and standards in the nature protection should be drafted in the strategic
documents. The strategic documents can be implemented only with the accurately and comprehensive legislation.
Legal regulation significantly contributes toward to better nature protection. European Union, as a community with
the highest environmental standards, since 1972, has been acting in the improvement of common nature protection
activities which are stipulated in the common legislation. Besides the problems with the practical implementation,
Macedonia has been harmonizing its environmental legislation since 2004, a year before obtaining the candidate
status for the membership of the EU. This harmonization has been moving relatively successful. Nature protection
legislation has been harmonizing slower compared to the other environmental sectors. The same situation is with the
practical implementation of nature protection legislation, although The Law on nature protection, adopted in 2004, is
one of the first adopted laws in the sphere of the environment. It is caused by the numerous of subjective and
objective reasons. The Law on nature protection has been changed and amended seven times. After its entering into
force there were adopted a small number of strategic documents and sub law legal acts. The main aim of this paper
is to analyze the process of the harmonization of national nature protection legislation with the EU legislation and
the possibilities for the acceleration of this process. Also the paper gives some recommendations for the future
improvement of the Macedonian, s nature protection legislation and its more successful practical implementation.

Key words: nature protection, environment, legislation, harmonization, European Union

INTRODUCTION

Nature protection, as one of the most important element which determines the quality of the environment has crucial
impact on the activities in the field of the protection and improvement of the environment. The idea of conserving
species and nature has broadly significance and importance (Brinie 2009). Contemporary activities and measures on
nature protection should meet appropriate standards. It must be strictly defined in strategic and planning documents.
The efficient realization of the goals from the strategies is possible only through comprehensive and precise legal
frame work, as a significant tool for efficient and successful nature protection. Environmental legislation and in its
part nature protection legislation is a complex mechanism for the improvement of nature conservation. Besides of
the preservation it should be aimed toward improvement the nature conditions.
The EU, as a community with the highest environmental standards in the world, since 1972 has been enhancing
common activities in the field of the environment and the nature. Since then, the EU has developed a comprehensive
system of environmental legislation which includes more than 300 legal acts. (Sapuric 2010). The Unions
legislation in the sphere of nature protection aims to introduce a high level of protection. It provides strict standards
and a set of effective activities and measures. In that context the EU, permanently has been improving the
legislation and the activities in the field of nature.
The Republic of Macedonia, as a country with candidate status since 2005, has the numerous obligations in many
spheres. One of them is the environment and within it the nature protection. Macedonia started the intensive process
of harmonization of environmental and nature protection legislation in 2004. The harmonization has been going
relatively successful. On the other hand the process of practical implementation has been performing very slowly
with the number of problems which have objective and subjective roots. The sector of nature protection legislation
has been harmonizing slower than the other parts of the environment. The Law on nature protection (Law 2004),

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was adopted in 2004, one year before the basic law in the sphere of environment Law on environment (Law 2005).
Since 2004 The Law on nature protection has been changed seven times. Successful enforcement of the Law needs
detailing and specifying of the provisions. It is possible through detailing in sub law legal acts.

METHODOLOGY

In the process of research which was made during the preparation of this paper, was performed an analysis of EU
nature protection legislation. Also it was analyzed the sector of nature protection legislation of the Republic of
Macedonia, as an important part of environmental legislation, and the process of the implementation of Unions
legislation. The nature protection legislation in Macedonia was compared with the other legislation in the field of
the environment. In order to identify objective and subjective reasons for the slow adoption of legislation in the
field of nature protection, it was made an interview with twenty staff from the Ministry of Environment and Physical
Planning, who are involved in the different aspects of this legislation. Also it was used personal experience and
activity from following, analyzing and drafting the environment and nature protection legislation. The research has
a goal to determine some conclusions and recommendation for future activities.

RESULTS

The EU nature protection legislation has been developing for more than 40 years. The Union has built a system of
comprehensive legislation, which aims to harmonize the activities in nature protection on the whole, territory of the
EU. Under the of Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (The EU Treaty 2010), the Union has exclusive
competence in the area of the conservation of marine biological resources under the common fishery policy. Only in
this area of the environment the EU has exclusive competencies and the member states must follow the common
activities. Further the Treaty defines that other competencies in the field of the environment are shared between the
Union and the member states. The EU policy on the environment shall aim at a high level of protection taking into
account the diversity of the situation in the various regions of the EU. The European Parliament and the Council
acting in accordance within the ordinary legislative procedures and after consultation the Economic and Social
Committee and the Committee of the regions, decide what action is to be taken by the EU in order to achieve the
common environmental objectives. It means that the EU nature protection legislation is adopted in the procedure of
co decide where both institutions, have equal powers and that the common legislation has to consider differences in
the regions. But the common activities in the field of the environment and nature protection not prevent member
states from introducing more stringent protective measures. Such measures must be in accordance of the EU treaties
and should be notified to the Commission. It clearly shows the Unions efforts for harmonization of the activities
and legislation in the area of nature and on the other hand, an opportunity for introduction the stricter standards in
the member states which have potentials for that.
The EU nature protection legislation aims to achieve effective results and to harmonies the activities, even the
shared competencies between the Union and the member states often produce differences, especially in the land use
planning, habitat matters and forest management. (Kramer 2007). As regards to the directives, the most
importance have Directive on the conservation of wild birds, known as Bird directive, (Directive 2009) and
Directive on natural habitats and wild fauna and flora, known as Habitat directive, (Directive 1992). Directive on
the conservation of wild birds was adopted in 1979 and amended several times. In 2009 was adopted codified
version. The Bird directive, underlines that a large number of species, especially migratory species, of wild birds
naturally occurring in the member states in the EU declining in number very rapidly. Directive recognizes that
migratory species causes a range of trans - frontier problems and a need for common activities toward building
conditions for sustainable living conditions for the wild species. The measures and the activities determined in the
Directive are oriented toward long term conservation. This is one of the core elements of the Directive, because the
protection of eco systems needs a set of complex activities with a long term approach. Certain species of birds listed
in Annex 1 are the subject of special conservation measures. For other species listed in other annexes, hunting is
limited by special procedures and conditions. The Directive has a big importance, not only for the protection and
conservation of wild bird and their habitats. It has importance for nature conservation as a whole. With promoting a
systematic, complete and complex common activities and common responsibility of member states toward long term
planed activities, the Directive introduced a completely new approach of the common protection of natural heritage.
Directive on the conservation of natural habitats and wild fauna and flora, also has an importance for the EU
common activities of nature protection. It was adopted in 1992 and amended three times. The Directive clearly
recognizes that activities in the area of habitats and species must take account the economic, social cultural and

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regional conditions. It shows that the EU is awarded that common activities must be harmonized, but based on the
regional diversity . Restoration or maintains of natural habitats and species produce the needs for designing the
special areas of conservation, which is a base for creation European ecological network. Member states are obliged
to establish a system of necessary conservation measure and to designee managements plans of protected areas. It
leads toward our conclusion that the Directive underlines the importance of creation of protection areas and inside of
them the habitats. Besides the numerous of problems in the process of practical implementation in some member
states the Directive has reached significant results, especially because of the fact that the number of protection areas
has been permanently growing . The number of those areas from 309 in 1986, 450 in 1990, 1.247 in 1995, 1.842 in
1998 has grown to 4.523 in 2006, covering 559.083 (Kramer 2007). Directive created the conditions for establishing
European ecological network of special network of special areas of conservation, Natura 2000, which has realized
the numerous of successful projects. Macedonia is also an active part of Natura 2000 and has realized the number of
successful projects.
In the context of EU nature protection legislation it is important to mention, Regulation EC 338/97, on the
protection species of wild fauna and flora by regulation trade therein, (Regulation 1997).The object of the
Regulation to protect species of wild flora and fauna and to guarantee their conservation. The Regulation establishes
a special regime for trade of endangered species and introduces procedures, permissions, certificates, transport and
other activities for trans boundary movement of the species. The long term and interactive approach of the EU in
nature protection can, clearly be seen in many strategic documents, such as EU biodiversity strategy 2020 (Strategy
2020). The Strategy sets a number of activities and measures toward further development of EU legislation.
The implementation of EU nature protection in Macedonia has been raised the question how this legislation could be
implemented in Macedonia with an effective achievement? It is not only a matter from legal point of view, it is also
a matter of practical and real enforcement. As mention above the Law on nature protection was adopted in 2004, one
year before the adoption a basic law in the field of environment, Law on environment. The Law on environment
generally refers on the nature protection issues, which are not regulated in the Law on nature protection. Since then,
the Law on nature protection has been changed and amended eight times. It produces an urgent need for adoption an
official consolidate version, because it is very difficult to use the Law with the numerous of chained and amended
provisions.
The law on nature protection regulates nature protection through conservation of biological and landscape diversity
and protection of natural heritage, within the protected areas and outside of them and protection of natural rarities.
Nature protection is determinate as an activity of national interest. The Law defines a system of measures and
activities in order to ensure sustainable use of nature and maintain natural balance. Nature protection is based on
several principles such as: high level on nature conservation, integrated approach, sustainable development,
integrated approach, precautions, prevention, and user has to pay, public participation and principle of cooperation.
For the planned activities, which in their implementation, could distort the nature balance, it is obliged a procedure
for impact assessment on the nature. It has an aim to avoid or minimize the degradation of the nature. In this context
the Law provides a number of activities which should be elaborated in details such as: stipulation of protection
measures for crossing the wild animal species in the infrastructural objects; performing scientific researches in the
nature; permission for introduction of species in the nature in a particular case; international list of endangered and
protected species of plants and animals red book; procedures at border points for endangered species;
determination of the manner and the procedure for sampling and using genetic materials from the nature; list of
strictly protected wild species in Macedonia and their uses; stipulation of the methods of development maintenance
and marking map of the natural habitats and their types and level of endangerment; determination of
environmentally important areas for the EU Natura 2000; establishment of the structure of the program for
management of forest habitats and ecosystems in protected areas; manner of using of environmentally important
habitats in the grasslands; designing a manner on the valorization of protected areas; establishing a cadastre of
protected areas; establishing a register of natural heritage; establishing an information system of biodiversity;
adopting a strategy for nature protection and many other obligations. The number of activities, which according the
Law on nature protection should be specified and detailed is 63. Some of them are competence of the Government,
and the other are competence of the Ministry for environmental and physical planning. From these activities, only 10
are adopted such as: a list of determination of strictly protected wild species where determinate 9 species of fungus,
51 species of flora; 134 of fauna and a list of protected wild species where are determinate 63 species of fungus, 12
lichens, and 151 species of flora and 594 species of fauna; issuing permits for collection of endangered and
protected wild species and issuing permits for scientific research in the nature. It is important to emphasize that it is
established National council for nature protection, which obligation from the Law.

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From this elaboration it can be recognized that only a small part of the obligation, that are stipulated in the Law are
completed. It is low enforcement especially compared with other sectors of the environment where the obligations
from the basic laws are almost completed, such as: noise with 15 measures and acts, waste management with 84 and
ambient air quality with 25. It is important to comment, that among these unrealized obligations are the Strategy for
nature protection and international list of endangered and protected species. It is a big disability for efficient nature
protection. Also the Habitat and the Bird directives are not implemented. Slow implementation of the Law is result
of the numerous subjective and objective reasons. The low progress can be recognized, also in the European
Commission progress reports (Report 2010, 2011 and 2012). The reports emphasize a little progress, mainly because
of adoption of management plans for the national parks. But the reports stress insufficient administrative capacity
and a lack of sustainable financing capacity. In the preparation of this paper besides an analysis and comparing we
used details from interviews of the administrative staff from the Ministry of environment and physical planning.
Also it is used personal experience in the analyzing and participation in the process of harmonization of national
environmental and nature protection legislation. One of the causes for slow implementation lays in the complexity of
the nature protection legislation, which is related with extensive and complex activities. It needs a complex
preparation and comprehensive practical scientific researches, which requires significant financial recourses. The
lack of sustainable funding the nature conservation activities is one of the reasons for slow implementation the EU
legislation. It is important to stress that the process harmonization of environmental legislation in the past, especially
in the period from 2002 to 2010, mainly was financed from the international sources and in the framework of this
the EU financial, scientific, and capacity building support. The numerous of international experts has helped the
process of harmonization of the environmental legislation. In the last few years this support is much weaker, mainly
because of an economic crisis. Besides of this, the authorities in Macedonia, both on the central level and on the
local level, should be aware, that the aspirations for membership of the EU, provides the obligations to reach its
environmental and nature protection standards. It is related with building of the system of nature protection
legislation, which will be in function to meet the EU standards. That needs a strong political will, which has to be
clearly demonstrated in the future period. In the context of this we underline that reaching the EU standards it is not
an easy task, but it is possible only with an active, gradual approach.
The week implementation of the EU nature protection legislation also is conditioned from insufficient capacity of
administration, on the central and local level. It causes a need for more intensive activities in the field of capacity
building of the administrative staff. In the future, state and local authorities should be more opened to use all
national experts and scientific human potentials. More successful implementation on the EU nature legislation is
also linked with further activities in strengthening of the public awareness, as an important impact on this process.
On the end of this discussion it is important to emphasize that acceleration of the process of harmonization is not
important only for the EU integration. The harmonized legislation will be a solid base for better protection of the
nature and the environment as whole. Investments in the nature protection should not be understood only as a cost,
but also as possibility for better and healthier life of the future generations.

CONCLUSIONS

What can be concluded from the above mention discussion? The implementation of EU nature protection legislation
in Macedonia is far from satisfactory. It is caused by the numerous of objective and subjective reasons. Compared
with the other environmental sectors the nature protection legislation has been trailing. The Law cannot be
implemented successfully without detailing and specifying with the sub law acts and other acts. Harmonization the
national legislation with the EU legislation should open the possibilities for the implementation of high level of
standards and for efficient protection and improvement of the nature, as an important part of the environment.
Macedonia as a state with candidate status for the membership in the EU has to accelerate activities in the
developing a nature protection legislation. In context of this it is possible to give some useful recommendation:
to strengthen the efforts from the Government for the implementation the EU nature protection standards and
legislation;
to follow permanently the development of EU legislation;
to ensure higher budgets funds for nature protection;
to use all national human capacities in the process of drafting and adopting the legislation;
to continue with capacity building of the administration;
to establish mechanisms for practical enforcement of the nature protection legislation;

REFERENCES

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Birnie P, Boyle A, (2009), International Law and the Environment, p. p. 589 592, Oxford University Press, New
York.
Brown L, (2007), Eco- Economy, p.p.70-75, W.W. Norton & Company, New York
Kramer L, (2007), EC Environmental Law, p.p. 195-196, Sweet & Maxwell, London.
Sapuric Z, (2010), Environment and Sustainable Development regulations and policies, p.p. 294- 296, University
American College, Skopje.
Legal acts and documents
Commission staff working document, The Republic of Macedonia Progress report, 2010, 2011, 2012,
http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2012/package/mk_rapport_2012_en.pdf
Directive (2009/147), EC on the conservation of wild birds, codified version, Official journal of European Union, L
20,2010.
Directive ( 1992) on the conservation of natural habitats and wild fauna and flora, Official journal of European
Union,L206,1992,L305,1997,L284,2003,L363,2006,http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONS
LEG:1992L0043:20070101:EN:PDF
Law on nature protection, Official Gazette of Macedonia, 67/2004, 14/2006, 84/2007, 35/2010, 47/2011, 148/2011,
148/2011, 59/2012 and 13/2013.
Law on environment, Official Gazette of Macedonia, 53/2005, 81/2005, 8/2009, 48/ 2010, 124/2010 and 31/2011.
EU Parliament resolution our life insurance our national capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to
2020.http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/comm2006/2020.htm
Regulation (1997), on the protection species of wild fauna and flora by regulation trade therein, Official Journal of
the European Union L 61. 3.3.1997
Treaty on the functioning of the European Union (2010), Consolidated version, Official Journal of the European
Union, C 83/ 47.

PAPER 184

ZOOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL DATA OF ORDER POLYDESMIDA OF THE DIPLOPODA


CLASS IN VLORA REGION

Hajdar Kiaj1, Mihallaq Qirjo2


1
Department of Biology, Vlora University, Vlora Albania;
2
Department of Biology, Tirana University, Tirana Albania;

Email: hajdarkicaj@yaoo.it

ABSTRACT

This article presents some zoological, sistematical and ecological data about the order Polydesmida, Diplopoda clas
of Myriapoda group, in the district of Vlora. The Polydesmida order presents one of the richest orders with the
Diplopoda class, group Myriapoda. Polydesmida order is represented from 29 families with a high number of
species that live on the surface of the ground or inside of it. The zoological sistematical and ecological data about
the Polydesmida order presented in this article are based on the gathering and zoological study of the collected
individuals. Eventhough the Polydesmida order is very common in our country, it is studies very little.Our
information is also compared with other data reported by foreign experts, like Verhoeff (1901), Atems (1929),
Manfredi (1945); Mauris et al. (1996). This study also presents their ecology; the way of living in the collecting
habitat, feeding, reproduction, movement and sensitivity etc. This order consists of earthy environment creatures as
decomposers and phytophags. Although they are very common, Polydesmida are not important for the humane
economy, because the density of the population is limited, they do not harm the crops dhe do not transmit diseases in
humans.

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Key words: polydesmida, diplopoda, zoological data, ecological data

INTRODUCTION

The diplopods data of Albania is based mostly on studies from foreign researchers: (Verhoeff E. 1901; Attems
1929); Manfredi, 1945; Mauris J.-P., Golovatch S. I. & Stoev P. 1996). These diplopods are represented by about
50 genres and 150 species, from which, more than half of them are totally identified from local and foreign
researchers (Mauries,J.P. et. al, 1997).
Polidesmida is one of the most widespread order of the diplopoda class, Myriapoda group, Arthropoda. This order
has 3000 species included in 29 family. Every family is represented by some genus with a lot of species. The reason
for this is that many species occupy a small area and not move further being extended to the territory of other
species. However, the species of this order are little studied in our country and the number of determined species is
limited. From the expedition of J.P Mauries, S.I. Golovatch & V.P. Stoev, are determined the species (Mauries
J.P & al, 1997) as follows:
Brachydesmus herzogowinensis, (Verhoeff 1897); Polydesmus herzogowinensis, (Verhoeff 1897);
Polydesmus mediterraneus oertzeni (Verhoef, 1901); Metonomastus petrelensis n.sp
The data given in this article are about Polydesmus complanatus (Verhoeff 1901) and Strongylosoma stigmatosum
balcanicum (Scubart 1937).
There have been only a few expeditions in the south region of Albania. In the studied literature there are only a few
studies that refer to this area of Albania: Verhoeff, 1901; Attems, 1929; Manfredi, 1945 (Mauries,J.P. et.al, 1997).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The definition criteria of the collecting stations are based on: geographical positions of the stations (Qiriazi,P. 1991),
soil types, based on their structure and their alimentary elements (A.SH. 1991), the height above the sea level
(Qiriazi P. 1991). The collection of material. The collected species are from various heights, from the sea level up
to 1000 m. They are found under rocks and tree barks, in fallen leaves, under musky layers, in tree hollows and the
upper layers of soil. The material is gathered by hand or by sieving the soil (Qirjo M. 1996).
Individuals are preserved in alcohol 80%, with some drops of ether in it (Engoff H. 2006). This mixture is prepared
before going to the collecting area, and helps maintaining the natural color of the collected species.
The definition of species is done by close and direct observation of their morphological features. Some of the other
features are observed by stereomicroscope. To define the species we took into consideration: the size, the shape and
the color of their body, the number of segments and the pairs of legs, the presence of the gonopodes in the seventh
segment (to determine the sex), the shape of their cover and the way tergal plates are put, etc. (Chiefi G., 1978,
Engoff H. 1978; Gjiknuri L. 1994; Hoffman R.L. 1979). In order to define the species with insufficient data about
their morphological features we compared the gonopodes according to Mauries J. (Lab. de Arthropodes, MNHN
Paris) definition keys.

RESULTS

Members of the order Polydesmida are known as "flat-backed millipedes", because each body segment has wide
lateral keels. These keels are produced by the posterior half (metazonite) of each body ring behind the collum
Polydesmids are very common in leaf litter, where they burrow by levering with the anterior end of the body.
The species of this order can reach the length from 2 4 cm. Polydesmids have 18-21 body segments. Most of the
females put the eggs 1-2 cm below the soil surface, the number of which can reache up to 200.
Polydesmida millipedes do not see. They live in the soil surface covered with leaves, and feeds with materilas in
decomposition. To be protected they round up as a compressed ball and release a substance with unpleasant smell.
Polidesmids generally are predators.
Within this study were collected 45 individuals belonging Polydesmida order according to the following taxonomic
units.

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Figure 1: Polydesmid

Family Polydesmidae (Heller 1858)

This species, wich belongs to this family has a body length from 16 25 mm and the width from 2 5 mm (?). From
gathered individual of this family are determined the follow species according to the taxonomic units (Hoffman,
R.L, 1979):

Genus: Polydesmus (Latrielle, 1802)

1. Polydesmus complanatus (Verhoeff 1901 )

Class: Diplopoda
Order: Polydesmida
Family: Polydesmidae (Heller 1858)
Genus: Polydesmus (Latrielle,1802)
Species: Polydesmus complanatus (Verhoeff 1901 )

This species is found in one sampling point (Karabarun) and three specimens were studied. This species was not
previously referred in the study area.
It is common in Europe?. It is found mainly in the valleys. Rust colored body, to 2.5 cm in length and width up to 5
mm. Characteristic is the shape of the body segments, with the exception of cervical or first segment, are jagged
edge. With ordinary eye that are easily distinguished their carved in the dorsal part of the body, surrounded by the
raised parts. Anal segment is tight. They have 30-31 pairs of legs, wich compared with body length, are very long.

Family Paradoxosomatidae

Family Paradoxosomatidae contains 178 genera and 878 species. It is probably the most homogeneous and well-
worked group within the Polydesmida", and is characterised by a gonopod aperture in the shape of a dumb-bell.

Genus Strongylosoma (Brandt,1833)

Strongylosoma is a genus, wich is well- destinguished from the others Polidesmids. Its body is diveded into 20
smooth segments. The species of this genus are very similar to Julids and others Polidesmids. Strongylosoma, in
Balcan, is found mostly in the wetland forest habitats with leafs in decompositation (Chiefi, G. 1978).

2. Strongylosoma stigmatosum balcanicum (Scubart 1937)


This species is found in two zones, sampling points (Trba, Tragjas). Number of specimens studied: 42. This
species was not previously referred in the study area.

Class: Diplopoda
Order: Polydesmida
Family: Paradoxosomatidae
Genus: Strongylosoma (Brandt,1833)
Strongylosoma stigmatosum (Eichwald, 1830)
Strongylosoma stigmatosum balcanicus Schubart, 1934
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This species it is not previously referred in Albania . It has oneshaped bodies, with a length of 16-20 mm and width
2-2,5mm, rust colored dorsal series with two yellow fluid that go up near the last segment.

Figure 2: Territory maps of Polydesmus complanatus dhe Strongylosoma stigmatosum balcanicus

The spreading of species in Balkan peninsula


Based on data from Albania, and other countries in Balkan peninsula (Stoev V.P. et al, 1996; Mauries. J.P et.al
1997; Enghoff. E, 2006), we compared the zoogeographical spreading in Albania, with the spreading in other
countries.

Table 1: Comparison of the species of diplopoda class met in our study area with those of Balcan area

No Species AL MAC SMN CRO B&H BUL GR


1 Polydesmus complanatus (Verhoeff 1901) + - - - + - -
2 S. stigmatosum balcanicum (Schubart, + - - - - + +
1937)

CONCLUSIONS

The first records for millipedes in Albania are the studies of Verhoeff (1901), Atems (1929); Qirjo, (1996),
Mauris, Golovatch, Stoev, (1996); Kiaj & Qirjo, 2004, 2008, 2009. In this study, for the first time are referred
two species of Order Polidesmida: Polydesmus complanatus (Verhoeff 1901); Strongylosoma stigmatosum
balcanicum (Schubart, 1937). References for Balkan peninsula show that the species above do not have a wide
regional distribution, but they have a wide distribution in the Europe. According to the zoogeographical maps of the
families of the Polidesmida order, they should have wide range distribution in our contry. Farther studies are needed
to be done, in order to make the full inventory of the Albanian millipede fauna.

REFERENCES

ASH, Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipris. Qendra e Studimeve Gjeografike, Akedemia e Shkencave, Tiran, 1991.
Chiefi, G. Conoscere la vita, 1978, 189-193.
Engoff, H. The ground-plan of chilognathan millipedes (external morphology), 1990. Pages 1-24 in Proceedings of
the 7th International Congress of Myriapodology. A.Minelli, ed E.J.Brill, Leiden.

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Engoff, H. The millipedes of Turkey (Diplopoda). Steenstrupia 29 (2): 175-198 Copenhagen, Denmark, November
2006. (ISSN ) 375-29-09.
Hoffman, R.L. Classification of the Diplopoda - Mus. Genve, 238 pp, 1979.
Hoffman, R.L. 1982. Diplopoda. In Parker, S.P., Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, vol. 2. McGraw-
Hill, New York: 689-724.
Gjiknuri, L. Zoologjia e parruazorve, 347- 356, 1994.
Jeekel, C.A.W 1971. Nomenclator generum et familiarum diplopodorum, a list of the genus and family group -
names in the klass Diplopoda from edition the 10 th Linnaeus, 1758 to the and of 1957. Monog. Ned. Entomology.
Ver. 5: 405-412
Mauries,J.P., Golovatch, S.I & Stoev, V.P. The millipedes of Albania: recent data, new taxa; systematical,
nomenclatural and faunistical review (Myriapoda, Diplopoda). Zoosystema 19 (2-3) : 270-272; 287-28;. 1997..
Voigtlnder, Karin. 2001. Die Diplopoden- und Chilopodenfauna einer Grubenrutschung im Tagebaugebiet
Berzdorf/Oberlausitz (Diplopoda, Chilopoda). Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 45 (3-4): 199-204: 199-
204
Qiriazi,P., Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipris 137-147, 1991.
Qirjo, M. Ndikimi i disa faktorve biologjik abiotik mbi faunn e toks n dy sera t rrethit t Tirans. Punim
doktorature, UT, Fakulteti i Shkencave t Natyrs, 1996.
Stoev, E.P., Ribarov,K. G. Contribution to the study of cave Myriapoda from Bulgaria. 89-96, 1996.

PAPER 185

THE EFFECT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION TO THE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL SOIL
PROPERTIES IN MINING REGION OF MIDDLE SPI (SLOVAKIA).

Lenka Angeloviov1, Danica Fazekaov2


1
University of Preov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Department of Ecology, 081 16 Preov, Ul. 17.
Novembra . 1, Slovakia
2
University of Preov, Faculty of Management, Department of Environmental Management, 081 16 Preov, Ul. 17.
Novembra . 1, Slovakia

Email: lenka.angelovicova@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of mineral resources for the progress of humans, extraction of minerals has caused serious
environmental problems. Contamination of soils by heavy metals in mining areas leads to the deterioration of soil
quality and other environmental components. Removing of heavy metals from the soils is not easy, because they are
non-biodegradable, and persistent in soils for tens or hundreds years. The aim of the study was to determine level of
soil pollution by heavy metals in the surrounding of processing plant and find out the effect of heavy metals on
enzyme activity and some chemical soil parameters. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, As, Cd, Pb, Zn), activity of
soil urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase, soil reaction, organic carbon and nutrients were
determined. Heavy metals exhibit toxic effect on enzyme activities, what resulted as increasing soil enzyme activity
with the decreasing heavy metal content. Significant positive correlation was found between heavy metals and some
enzymes themselves. We found no statistically confirmed influence of heavy metals to the organic carbon, soil
reaction and nutrients.

Keywords: heavy metals, enzyme activity, mining area, soil properties, pollution

INTRODUCTION

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Heavy metal contamination in environment comes from industry and agricultural practices, but in Slovakia, large
areas are polluted by heavy metals as a result of long-term mining and smelting activities (Blintov et al., 2012).
Heavy metals enter the soils accompanied with dust, which can endanger the health of human beings and seriously
disrupted environment (Liu et al., 2005). In numerous studies, enzymatic activity is widely used as relatively stable
and sensitive biochemical indicator of soil pollution (Glser and Erdoan 2008). Reaction of enzymes to the soil
pollution is faster in comparison with monitoring of the chemical and physical properties (Nannipieri et al., 2002).
In addition, enzyme activities have the further advantage to being easy to determine without expensive instruments
(Dick, 1997). Among the different enzymes in soil environment, urease and phosphatases are important in the
transformation of different plant nutrients. Urease catalyses the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia or ammonium
depending on soil pH and carbon dioxide (Gao et al., 2010). Phosphatases play an important role in transforming
organic phosphorus into organic forms suitable for plants. Cathalase is oxidoreductase which protect organism from
the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide. The contamination of soils by heavy metals is significant problem, which leads to
negative influence of soil characteristics and limitation of productive and environmental functions. Numerous
authors have noted that polluted soils are no longer appropriate for agricultural production, because they have fewer
nutrients and reduced microbial diversity, which led to inhibition of plant growth. The objective of this study was to
determine the effect of heavy metal pollution to the chemical and biological soil properties. For this purpose
Krompachy city [4855'24,1''N 2053'59,2''E] and Slovinky village [4855'48,9''N 2053'51,0''E] as a part of
Middle Spi area, which are characterized by long-time mining and smelting activities predominantly focused on
copper, were selected.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

A total set of 15 soil samples (0,150,20 m) were collected from 5 fields (three samples on each field), in distance
0,3; 1; 1,5; 2,5 and 5 km from the source of pollution. Soil samples were taken in summer period in 2011. Sampling
fields are listed in Figure 1. Samples were dried at room temperature, sieved from a sieve with 2 mm size opening
and finally stored in plastic bags until analyzes. Total content of heavy metals were determined in accredited
laboratory by AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) and XFS (X-Ray florescence spectrometry) method. The soil
reaction was determined in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution using inoLab pH 720WTW. Nutrient content (P, K, Mg) and
organic carbon (Cox) were measured in accredited laboratory. Urease activity (URE) and catalase activity (CAT) was
measured by the method described by Chazijev (1976). Acid (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was measured
by the method described by Chazijev, modified method by Grejtovsky (1991). Statistica 10 software was used for all
data analysis. The level of significance between soil properties was calculated using Spearman's correlation
coefficient.

RESULTS

In our study, soil properties varied with respect to the distance of sampling field from processing plant. Measured
values of total content of heavy metals from five sampling fields are listed in Table 1. The most significantly was
exceeded the limit value in the case of copper, which exceeds permissible limit value 1.5 (field 5) to 21 times (field
4). Total content of arsenic and cadmium was highest on the field 1, which was dump of waste material from
industrial plant, mixed with slag from the mine. It has been reported that this dumps of waste material contains
sludge from the production of copper and zinc (Michaeli et al, 2010). The solid waste also contains residue of lead,
arsenic and cadmium (Klinda et al., 2005) which was confirmed by our results. Extremely high and above the limit
value of copper, lead and zinc was measured at field 4. Because this field is localized to the west of the source of
contamination, it may be a consequence of the prevailing westerly winds that are typical for this area. The lowest
values of each metal were measured at field 5, which was on the biggest distance from the source of pollution and
south westerly direction, so outside of prevailing winds bringing emissions from industrial plant. Values
(medianstandard deviation) of total content of copper (718451,3) and arsenic (16853,83) were at all sampling
fields above the permissible limit value. The same situation but except of field 5, was measured for cadmium
(2,91,7), lead (218136,9) and zinc (857423,1). Hronec et al. (2008) recorded in the Krompachy city above the
permissible limit values of cadmium, copper, zinc and arsenic. With exception of relationship between total content
of Zn and Pb, other heavy metals showed significant positive correlations (P<0.05) among them. All significant
correlations between heavy metals could be explained by the same source of these pollutants.

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Tab. 1. Values of total content of heavy metals, limit values of heavy metals and chemical soil properties

Cu As Cd Pb Zn Cox P K Mg
[mg/kg] [mg/kg] [mg/kg] [mg/kg] [mg/kg] pH [%] [mg/kg] [mg/kg] [mg/kg]
min 89 39 0,5 25 126 4,6 1,64 15 45 101
max 1271 181 5,7 380 1333 7,5 5,49 179 374 280
average 744.6 134.8 3.1 228.6 759.6 5,52 3,2 80,4 157,2 196,8
standard deviation 504.6 60.18 1.9 153.16 473.01 1,12 1,31 56,76 124,65 79,16
limit value 60 25 0.7 70 150 - - - - -

Chemical soil properties measured on sampling fields are listed in Table 1. Soil reaction ranged from alkaline (field
1) to strongly acid (locality 4). Level of organic carbon ranged from middle values to very high, but we found no
direct relationship between distances of sampling fields and the organic carbon value. The lowest value of
phosphorus and potassium was measured at the most polluted locality, which wasnt confirmed in the case of
magnesium.

Fig. 1. Sampling fields in Krompachy city and Slovinky village.

Monitoring methods characterizing microbiological and biochemical soil properties are successfully used to evaluate
the intensity of the soil contamination. They are more sensitive to soil contamination and their reaction to the
pollution is faster than the chemical or physical soil properties. Measured values of enzyme activities are listed in
Table 1. Activity of urease (0,20,108) on the study fields vary depending to the distance of the source of pollution.
The value of urease increased on the least polluted field by 180% compared to the most polluted. Activity of acid
(18359,14) and alkaline phosphatase (122,3367) changed depending to the contamination by heavy metals. The
lowest value of acid and alkaline phosphatase was measured at field 5, but increased at filed 1 of 178% in the case of
acid and of 89% in the case of alkaline phosphatase. Catalase activity (0,410,06) did not change so significantly
than other enzymes. Some experiments demonstrated that some contaminants have an ability to increase soil
catalase activity in appropriate dosage (Wang et al., 2010). The heavy metal content, which exceeded the permitted
limits, is reflected in decreased activity of soil enzymes. In soil ecosystem, heavy metals exhibit toxicological effects
on soil microbes which may lead to the decrease of their numbers and activities (Renella et al., 2005). Although
heavy metals have comprehensive influence to the enzymatic activity, various enzymes activities showed different
responses on the same metal pollutant (Table 2). Urease had significant negative correlation with total arsenic
content (P<0.05). Changes in activity of urease observed in our study coincide with those reported in earlier studies
on the effect of heavy metals on biological soil properties (Zhang et al., 2010). We also reported negative significant
correlation between acid phosphatase and total content of arsenic and cadmium (P<0.05). Khan et al. (2010) has
reported high inhibition of cadmium to the acid phospahatase. Alkaline phosphatase had negative significant
correlation (P<0.05) with all studied heavy metals (except cadmium). Glser and Erdoan (2008) determined
influence of heavy metals to the alkaline phosphatase, and their findings were as follows: alkaline phosphatase gave
significant negative correlation with all heavy metals except cadmium which is the same in our study. We found no
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significant but negative correlation between total heavy metal content and catalase activity. Activity of catalase is
probably more tolerant to high level of metal contamination. Correlation coefficient between enzyme activities
indicated, that urease had significant positive correlation (P<0.05) with acid phosphatase, what agrees with the
findings of Khan et al. (2010). There was also reported significant positive correlation between acid and alkaline
phosphatase.

Tab. 2. Correlations among soil enzyme activities and total heavy metal content

Cu As Cd Pb Zn
URE ns -0.939* ns ns ns
ACP ns -0.922* -0.932* ns ns
ALP -0.924* -0.941* ns -0.924*-0.912*
CAT ns ns ns ns ns
pH ns ns ns ns ns
Cox ns ns ns ns ns
P ns ns ns ns ns
K ns ns ns ns ns
Mg ns ns ns ns ns
Cu 0,8953* 0,9142* 0,9988**
0,9705**
As 0,8906* 0,9032*0,9018*
Cd 0,9322* ns
Pb 0,9615**
** Correlation in significant at the 0.01 level
*Correlation in significant at the 0.05 level
ns not significant
URE: urease, ACP: acid phosphatase, ALP: alkaline phosphatase, CAT: catalase, Cox: organic carbon

With increasing distance of the sampling field from the source of pollution, soil reaction changed from alkaline
(field 1) to strongly acidic (field 5). Although they were no significant statistically, soil pH gave positive
correlations with all heavy metals and negative correlation with enzyme activities, organic carbon and nutrients.
Taylor et al. (2002) approvingly reported negative correlations between soil pH and enzyme activities.

Tab. 3. Correlations between soil characteristics

ACP ALP CAT pH Cox P K Mg


URE 0.943* ns ns ns ns ns 0.881* ns
ACP 0.945* ns ns ns ns ns ns
ALP ns ns ns ns ns ns
CAT ns ns ns ns ns
ph ns ns ns ns
Cox ns ns ns
P ns -0.884*
K ns
** Correlation in significant at the 0.01 level
*Correlation in significant at the 0.05 level
URE: urease, ACP: acid phosphatase, ALP: alkaline phosphatase, CAT: catalase

According to the agrochemical standards for medium-heavy soils on permanent grasslands in Slovakia, optimal
values for nutrients were determined as follows: phosphorus (66-100 mg. kg-1), potassium (151-210 mg. kg-1) and
magnesium (131-175 mg. kg-1). At sampling fields, measured values of magnesium achieved high or conveyable
value, the values of potassium and phosphorus ranged below normal. Negative correlation was observed between
magnesium and other nutrients but significant was only in the case of phosphorus (P<0.05). We also reported
significant positive correlation between potassium and urease activity. No significant correlation was reported for
heavy metals and nutrients. A large number of published papers deal to the relationship between soil enzymatic
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activity and soil parameters, such as organic carbon. Badiane et al. (2001) found no relationship between enzyme
activity and organic carbon, what coincide with our findings. No significant statistically, but positive correlation was
reported between organic carbon and total contents of all studied heavy metals, which was similar to the findings of
Liu et al. (2005).

Acknowledgement. The research was supported by KEGA 012 PU-4/2012 and VEGA . 1/0627/12

CONCLUSION

Mining activities in Middle Spi area affected heavy metal content in the soils and influencing soil properties. At all
sampling fields permissible limit values for copper and arsenic were exceeded, but distance from the source of
pollution wasnt crucial variable for heavy metal content. It has been reported that heavy metals exhibit toxic effects
on the enzyme activities, therefore enzymes can be used as possible indicators of soil pollution. There were reported
correlations between some heavy metals and enzymes, bud only arsenic gave significant negative correlation with
all enzymes (except catalase). Acid phosphatase gave significant positive correlation with urease and alkaline
phosphatase. Nutrients were not significantly affected by measured soil characteristics. We found, that magnesium
was changing conversely than phosphorus and potassium. No direct relationship was found between organic carbon
and enzymes, but positive relationship was reported for organic carbon and metals. There was no significant
difference between chemical soil properties with respect to sampling positions statistically.

REFERENCES

Blintov M, uptkov A, (2012) Treatment of acid mine waters. Technick univerzita v Koiciach, Stavebn
fakulta, stav geotechniky SAV, Koice.
Badiane, N. N. Y. Chotte, J.L. Pate, E. Masse, D. Rouland, C. 2001. Use of soil enzyme activities to monitor
soil quality in natural and improved fallows in semi-arid tropical regions. In Applied soil ecology, 2001, 18, pp. 229-
238.
Dick RP, (1997) Soil enzyme activities as integrative indicators of soil health.In: Biological indicators of soil health
(Ed. By Pankhurst CE, Doube BM, Grupta VVSR), pp 121-156. CAB, Wallingford.
Gao Y, Zhou P, Mao L., Zhi Y, Shi W, (2010) Assesement of effect of heavy metals combined pollution on soil
enzyme activities and microbial community structure modified ecological dose-response model and PCR-RAPD
60,603-612.
Grejtovsk A (1991Effect of soil fertility measures to the enzymatic activity of heavy metal polluted soils.
Rostlinn Vroba 37,289-295.
Glser F, Erdoan E, (2008) The effect of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activities and basal soil respiration of
roadside soils. Environ Monit Assess 145,127-133.
Hronec O, Vilek J, Tth T, Andrejovsk P, Adamiin P, Andrejovsk A, Daov M, Huttmanov E, Vilimov M,
kultty P, Juhsov M, (2008) Heavy metals in soils and plants of contaminated area Rudany Gelnica. Acta
regionalia et environmentalica 1,24-28.
Chazijev FCH, 1976. Fermentativnaja aktivnos pov. Nauka, Moskva.
Khan S, Hesham EL, Qiao M, Rehman S, He J.Z, (2010) Effects of Cd and Pb on soil microbial community
structure and activities. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17,288-296.
Klinda J, Lieskovsk Z, (2005) Report on the state of the Environment of the Slovak Republic in 2004. Ministry of
environment, Bratislava.
Liu HY, Probst A, Liao BH (2005) Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine
spill (Hunan, China). Science of the Total Environment 339,153166.
Michaeli E. Boltiiar M, (2010) Selected localities of environmental loads in loaded areas in Slovakia. Geografical
studies 1,18-47.
Nannipieri P, Kandeler E, Rugguero P, (2002) Enzyme activities and microbiological and biochemical process in
soil.In: Enyzmes in the Environment: Activity, Ecology, and Applications (Ed. By Burns RG, Dick RP), pp 1-33.
Marcel Dekker, New York.
Renella G, Mench M, Ladni L, Nannipieri P, (2005) Microbial diversity and hydrolase synthesis in long-term Cd-
contaminated soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19,203-205.

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Wang XL, Chen XJ, Zhao YL, Qi SH, (2010) Heavy metal enrichment of plants at lead-zinc mines in south China.
Ecology and Environmental Sciences 19,108-112.
Zhang X, Yang L, Li Y, Li H, Wang W, Ye B, (2010) Impact of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment
and human health in China. Environ Monit Assess 4,2261-73.

PAPER 186

VERTICAL PROFILES OF SOIL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN THE PEATBOG


SOIL IN SLOVAKIA

Lenka Bobusk1, Danica Fazekaov2


1
University of Preov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Preov - Slovakia
2
University of Preov, Faculty of Management, Department of Environmental Management, Preov - Slovakia

Email: bobulska.lenka@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Peatlands are one of few long-term terrestrial carbon sinks, preferably important for global carbon regulation in
future generation. Play important roles in maintaining water and soil quality, and supporting wildlife. Current
methods of peatbogs assessment rely on the use of ecological indicators, but often lack an in-depth analysis of soil
parameters. The objective of this study was to examine vertical profiles of some soil properties (soil reaction,
organic carbon content, soil moisture) and various types of microbial activity (soil basal respiration, microbial
biomass carbon, activity of soil urease, phosphatases and catalase). Soil samples were collected from three sites
(centre of peatbog, edge of peatbog and site closely surrounding peatbog) on the peat soil at three depth intervals (0
0.10 m, 0.10 0.20 m and 0.20 0.30 m) in northeast of Slovakia. Enzyme and microbial activities decreased with
the depth, but the significant correlation was found with alkaline phosphatase. Average values of most soil
biochemical indices were highest at the centre of peatbog with the exception of urease and catalase activity. Our
results indicated that enzymatic and biological potential for organic matter mineralization was strongly correlated to
soil pH, soil moisture and organic matter content.

Keywords: Peatbogs, chemical properties, biological properties, soil depth.

INTRODUCTION

Peatlands are one of few long-term terrestrial carbon sinks important for global carbon regulation in future
generations. Interest in the function of peat soils in global carbon turnover has increased due to the threat of global
climatic change and studies of sinks and sources for CO2 and other trace gases relevant for climatic effects (Brake et
al., 1999; Golovchenko et al., 2007). Agricultural use of peat soils employs extensive drainage and leads to
subsidence of such land and is the primary cause of degradation and loos of peat resources. Flora, the activity of
microorganisms and thermal conditions affect conditions in peat soils. Microorganisms together with flora specify
the direction and nature of biochemical processes. Soil enzymes are associated with microorganisms and activity of
soil enzymes in soil plays an important role in catalysing reactions indispensable in life processes of soil
microorganisms, decomposition of organic residues, circulation of nutrients as well as forming organic matter and
soil structure (Sinsabaugh et al., 1994). The stability of the carbon stock contained in peatlands has recently been
questioned and several studies suggest that loss of carbon from soil ecosystems contribute significantly to CO 2
emissions. Field experiments show that CO2 loss and soil microbial activity in peat soils is seasonal and strongly
depends on environmental factors such as temperature, soil water content, peat type (i.e. organic carbon availability)
and depth of soil horizon (Bellamy et al., 2005; Kechavarzi et al., 2010). Because soil is the main site for
transformation and storage of nutrients that are regulated mainly by microbes, it is relevant to clarify nutrients
dynamics in wetland and peat soils for understanding the impacts of changes in nutrient input. In general, these soils

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are thick, and therefore it is important to understand nutrient dynamics and their relationships with microbial activity
both in shallower and deeper layers (Senga et al., 2011).
This work considers differences in soil properties due to vertical profile and different sampling sites. Our study,
therefore, had two goals: (1) to assess the relationships between soil microbial indices and some physical and
chemical properties and (2) to investigate soil microbial activity from the surface to deeper layers by examining
vertical profiles of peat soil in the investigated area.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The study was carried out on the peatland in the region of north-eastern Slovakia in Liptovsk Teplika (48o 57.83'
N; 20o 06.24' E). The area of Liptovsk Teplika is situated in the Low Tatras National Park at an altitude ranging
from 846 to 1492 m a.s.l. Climatically, the area is situated in the mild cold zone with sum of average daily
temperatures above 10 C ranging from 1600 to 2000 and average precipitation of 700-1200 mm.
Samples for determination of chosen soil properties were sampled in spring time on two sites from peat soil (centre
of peatbog and edge of peatbog) and one site that closely surrounding our observed peatbog from different depth (0-
0.10 m, 0.10-0.20 m and 0.20-0.30 m). Soil samples were air dried, sieved (sieve with 2 mm size opening),
homogenized prior for analyzing for measuring soil properties and soil enzyme activity. Soil pH was determined by
the potenciometric method in 0.01M CaCl2 solution. Organic carbon content was determined by the Tiurin's method
(Fiala et al. 1999) and soil moisture was determined by drying samples of soil in the oven at 105 C until constant
weight. Activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase was determined by Grejtovsk (1991) and urease activity by
Khaziev (1976). Basal respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon and activity of soil catalase were performed on
freshly collected soil samples sieved through 2 mm mesh size. Soil basal respiration was determined by CO 2
absorption into NaOH. Respiration rate was then measured at 25 C for a period of 24 hours (Isermeyer 1962, in
Alef and Nanniperi 1995). Soil microbial biomass carbon was determined according to Islam and Weil (1998) and
activity of soil catalase was determined by Khaziev method (1976).
Obtained data were tested by mathematical-statistical methods from which regression analysis was used (the
Statgraphic software package).

RESULTS

Generally, the pH of peat soils is very low and could vary between 2.7 up to 7.0 (Brake et al., 2010; Grodnitskaya et
al., 2013), but our study found a slight tendency to be higher at our sites and varied between 6.5 and 7.0 on peat soil
and 7.2 on the surroundings site (Table 1.). Lower soil reaction was found in the centre of peatbog in deeper
profiles. Content of organic carbon ranged from 3.16 to 29.41 % and the highest amount of this parameter was
measured in the centre of peatbog, where its value increased with the depth (Table 1.). Similar trend was observed
with soil moisture content and these two parameters had a significant effect on many other soil biological
parameters. Activity of enzymes at two peat sites and the site that surrounding peat soil was higher in the shallower
layers. Enzymes are produced not only by microorganisms but also by higher-order plants and high enzyme activity
in surface layers may be originate from roots of such higher plants. Much lower enzymatic activity in the deeper
layers also was found by several authors (Brake et al., 1999; Senga et al., 2011). The relationship between soil
microbial enzyme activities and humic substances has not yet been fully elucidated. Soil enzyme activity levels are
sensors of microbial status and soil physicochemical conditions and can be useful in predicting the impact that
nutrient loading on ecosystems, such as peatbogs, wetlands or aquatic ecosystems (Prenger and Reddy, 2004;
Sardans et al., 2008). Activity of phosphatases were highest on the site that was located in the centre of peatbog, but
surprisingly, the activity of urease and catalase showed highest values on the site which surrounding the peatland
(Table 1.). Literature data point out that among soil physical and chemical properties the strongest connections with
enzymatic activity are indicated by organic carbon and nitrogen contents (Dick et al., 1996). Bieliska et al. (2004)
and Bloska (2010) showed high microbial activity in bog soils, which was also proven in out study. This was
associated by the authors with the content of organic carbon, total nitrogen and phosphate. Soil respiration is
considered to be a well-established parameter for monitoring decomposition in the soil, but it is highly variable and
can fluctuate widely depending on substrate availability, organic matter, moisture content and temperature (Truu et
al., 2009), which was according to our study. The basal respiration rate obtained for the different site on our peat soil
is showed in Table 1. This parameter shows the highest values on the site which is localized in the centre of peatbog,
where carbon mineralization is very fast and decrease with the depth increasing. The similar trend was observed
after determination of soil microbial biomass carbon and these findings were alike to those of Kechavarzi et al.

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(2010). Because of the moisture and high organic carbon content of peatbogs, these soils provide a unique and
varied environment for the microorganisms and soil microbial activity is despite of this reality very high. The high
organic matter content of these soils results from the accumulation of partially decayed plant and animal remains
under waterlogged conditions (Robert and Tate, 1980).

Table 1. Characteristics of peat soil in studied sites

Site Depth pH Mois Cox Ure ACP ALP Cat Cres Cmic
Centre of 0-0.10 m 6.9 35.3 20.28 0.25 465.26 348.56 1.34 255.59 720.82
peatbog 0.10-0.20 m 6.5 44.5 25.55 0.21 452.06 320.68 1.12 213.18 853.62
0.20-0.30 m 6.6 49.7 29.41 0.12 384.99 302.56 0.55 206.99 834.66
Edge of 0-0.10 m 6.8 21.4 11.19 0.29 288.48 343.71 1.36 192.72 531.22
peatbog 0.10-0.20 m 7.0 15.9 12.78 0.17 436.22 431.93 1.40 178.33 417.32
0.20-0.30 m 6.9 16.1 11.56 0.09 256.53 210.97 0.49 148.92 397.82
Site 0.10-0.20 m 7.2 12.7 3.22 0.49 325.41 341.10 2.41 136.13 341.44
surrounding
0.20-0.30 m 7.2 11.2 3.16 0.37 321.98 337.30 1.51 139.87 341.44
peatbog

Moisture (Mois) [%], Organic carbon content (Cox) [%], Urease activity (Ure) [mg NH4+ - N.g-1.1 d-1], Acid
phosphatase activity (ACP) [mg P.g-1.3hours-1], Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) [mg P.g-1.3hours-1], Catalase
activity (Cat) [ml O2.g.min-1], Basal respiration (Cres) [g CO2 g.h-1], Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) [C mg.C.g-1]

A correlation analysis identified significant relationships between several soil parameters (Table 2). Soil moisture
was positively correlated with soil organic matter, microbial biomass and soil respiration. In contrast, soil moisture
was negatively correlated with soil pH and catalase activity and study of Rokosch et al. (2009) showed negative
correlation with other enzymatic activities. It is not surprising that soil moisture is correlated with many of the soil
parameters we measured because of influence on the accumulation and cycling of soil organic matter. Anaerobic
conditions occur under saturated conditions, and by limiting microbial decomposition, enhance organic matter and
organic accumulation. Tate and Terry (1980) studied soil microbial activity in histosols and found correlation
between enzymatic activity and soil moisture, and conclude that moisture could be a limiting factor for microbial
activity. Soil biological indices were positively correlated with soil organic carbon, while they were only negatively
correlated with soil reaction measured in this study. There was a positive correlation between urease and catalase
activity, but on the other hand, depth of soil profile negatively correlated only with one soil enzyme (alkaline
phosphatase). In terrestrial ecosystem, some biological soil parameters have proven to be reliable indicators of soil
quality and can provide an early indication of changes in soil properties due to land management. In these systems,
soil microbial biomass, carbon mineralisation and enzyme activity often decrease as the result of anthropogenic
disturbances (Gil-Sotres et al., 2005). These biological indices are generally positively correlated with soil organic
matter that was observed in our study.

Table 2. Correlation among physico-chemical soil properties and soil biological indices

Parameter Depth pH Mois Cox Ure ALP Cat Cres Cmic


Depth - ns ns ns ns -0.743* ns ns ns
pH ns - -0.927** -0.783* ns ns 0.747* -0.771* -0.921**
Mois ns -0.927** - 0.904** ns ns -0.738* 0.857** 0.946**
Cox ns -0.783* 0.904** - ns ns ns 0.809* 0.898**
Ure ns ns ns ns - ns 0.857** ns ns
ALP -0.74* ns ns ns ns - ns ns ns
Cat ns 0.747* -0.738* ns 0.857** ns - ns ns
Cres ns -0.771* 0.857** 0.809* ns ns ns - 0.922**
Cmic ns -0.921** 0.946** 0.898** ns ns ns 0.922** -
++P 0.01 +P 0.05
Moisture (Mois) [%], Organic carbon content (Cox) [%], Urease activity (Ure) [mg NH4+ - N.g-1.1 d-1], Acid
phosphatase activity (ACP) [mg P.g-1.3hours-1], Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) [mg P.g-1.3hours-1], Catalase
activity (Cat) [ml O2.g.min-1], Basal respiration (Cres) [g CO2 g.h-1], Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) [C mg.C.g-1]
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Peat soil is understood to be the upper most active layer of peatbog, in which the roots of recent plants are found and
which is above the long-term average annual level of the groundwater. However, it is difficult to apply the data
widely because the organic mater of peat soils in climatic regions varies in composition due to variations in the
initial substrate and in the conditions for microbial decomposition (Brake et al., 1999).

CONCLUSION

There was a clear depth effect on soil properties, but statistically significant effect was found on alkaline
phosphatase. Peat soil is understood to be the upper most active layer of peatbog, in which the roots of recent plants
are found. The biggest differences in soil properties were observed between sites of peat soils and the site that
surrounded studied peatland. The main limiting factors of soil microbial activity are the soil reaction, soil moisture
and organic carbon content. The microbial biomass and also different enzymatic and process activities are well
proven as indicators of soil status and widely used in soil microbial ecology studies as easy to measure and
informative parameters. Peat soils are considered to be a unique environment for soil microbes because of the
moisture and high content of soil organic matter.

Acknowledgement. The work was supported by VEGA 1/0627/12

REFERENCES

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England and Wales 1978-2003, Nature 437, 245-248.
Bieliska, E., Smal, H., Misztal, M., Ligza, S. (2003) Enzymatic activity in coeastal soils of Liaseczno, ukie and
Moszne lakes, Acta Agrophysica 1(3), 69-375.
Bloska, E. (2010) Enzyme activity in forest peat soils, Folia Forestalia Polonica 52(1), 20-25.
Brake, M., Hper, H., Joergensen, R. G. (1999) Land use-induced changes in activity and biomass of
microorganisms in raised bog peats at different depths, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31, 1489-1497.
Dick, R. P., Breakwell, D. P., Turco, R. F. (1996) Soil enzyme activities and biodiversity measurements as
integrative microbiological indicators, Methods for Assessing Soil Quality, Soil Science Society of America Journal
WI, 9-17.
Fiala, K. et al (1999) Partial monitoring system soil (in slovak), Binding methods VPOP, Bratislava.
Gil-Sotres, F., Trasar-Cepeda, M., Leiros, C., Seoane, S. (2005) Different approaches to evaluating soil quality using
biochemical properties, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37, 877-887.
Golovchenko, A. V., Tikhonova, E. Yu., Zvyagintsev, D. G. (2007) Abundance, biomass, structure, and activity of
the microbial complexes of minerotrophic and ombrotrophic peatlands, Microbiology 76(5), 630-637.
Grejtovsk, A. (1991) Influence of soil improvers on enzymatic activity of heavy alluvial soil (in slovak), Plant Soil
and Environment 37, 289295.
Grodnitskaya, I. D., Karpenko, L. V., Knorre, A. A., Syrtsov, S. N. (2013) Microbial activity of peat soils of boggy
larch forest and bogs in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia, Eurasian Soil Science 46(1), 61-73.
Islam, K. R., Weil, R. R. (1998) Microwave irradiation of soil for routine measurement of microbial biomass carbon,
Biology and Fertility of Soils 27, 408-416.
Kechavarzi, C., Dawson, Q., Bartlett, M., Leeds-Harrison, P. B. (2010) The role of soil moisture, temperature and
nutrient amendments on CO2 efflux from agricultural peat soil microcosms, Geoderma 154, 203-210.
Khaziev, F. Kh. (1976) Soil enzyme activity (in russian), Nauka, Moskva.
Prenger, J. P., Reddy, K. R. (2004) Microbial enzyme activities in a freshwater marsh after cessation of nutrient
loading, Soil Science Society of America Journal 68, 1796-1804.
Robert, L., Tate I. I. I. (1980) Microbial oxidation of organic matter of Histosols, Advances in Microbial Ecology 4,
169-201.
Rokosch, A. E., Bouchard, V., Fennessy, S., Dick, R. (2009) The use of soil parameters as indicators of quality in
forested depressional wetlands, Wetlands 29(2), 666-677.
Sardans, J., Peuelas, J., Estiarte, M. (2008) Changes in soil enzymes related to C and N cycle and in soil C and N
content under prolonged warming and drought in a Mediterranean shrubland, Applied Soil Ecology 39, 223-235.

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Senga, Y., Hiroki, M., Nakamura, Y., Watarai, Y., Watanabe, Y., Nohara, S. (2011) Vertical profiles of DIN, DOC,
and microbial activities in the wetland soil of Kushiro Mire, northeastern Japan, Limnology 12, 17-23.
Sinsabaugh, R. L., Moorhead, D. L., Linkins, A. E. (1994) The enzymatic basis of plant litter
decomposition:emergence of an ecological processes, Applied Soil Ecology 1, 97-111.
Tate, R. L., Terry, R. E. (1980) Variation in microbial activity in histosols and its relationship to soil moisture,
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 40, 313-317.
Truu, M., Juhanson, J., Truu, J. (2009) Microbial biomass, activity and community composition in constructed
wetlands, Science of the Total Environment 407, 3958-3971.

PAPER 187

STUDY ON THE CONTROL OF THE BEHAVIOR OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL THROUGH USE OF
COMPOST AS ADDITIVE TO IMPROVE SOIL FERTILITY

Rota Elisona, Kopali Alberta, Abazi Urana, Krasniqi Simirb


a
Department of Agro-environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana
b
Drejtoria e Arsimit Profesional,Prizren , Kosova.

ABSTRACT

Improving of soil fertility in agriculture can be realized through use of additives that affects physical and chemical
qualities and also biological qualities.But their use need one careful evaluation regarding the behavior of the heavy
metals in soil. In this research is intended the preparation of the compost as additives in farm level and evaluation of
the content of heavy metals in different typology of compost based on availability of raw materials in farm.The
research is performed in 2008- 2009 at EDE (experimental didactic economy) and AUT (the campus and in Valias)
and also in one zootechnical farm Esat Boddli, in Durres, realizing the production of the compost with different
plant and housing materials to verify the attitude of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb e Zn), environmental
-1
effects and evaluations of the different doses of the compost (15, 30, 45 t ha ) in agricultural plants.The analytic
results shows the differences between raw materials used for compost. The compost prepared in the campus has
shown that the quantity of P and Zn is in the normative, while compost of Esat Boddli has shown a higher value
of K, this because the different plant material used during the process of composting. Comparative evidence in field
-1
have claimed advantages using compost as fertilizer for corn plant in doses (30 t compost per ha ) because this
dose bring priority regard to maize grain production.

Key words: compost, heavy metals, fertility, environmental quality.

INTRODUCTION

Fertility and sustainability of the agricultural systems production depends on behavior and increased of organic
matter. But increasing the organic matter directly in the farm from animal manure management, without any
treatment, may bring also a lot of problems, for example toxic elements, heavy metals, spreading the seeds of wild
plants etc. In this aspect use of compost as additive take one important role in agriculture. To increase the
sustainable use of the land source is necessary to increase the organic matter (Gil et al., 2008). Many studies
(Aggelides e Londra, 2000;Montemurro et al., 2004; Crecchio et al., 2004; Ferri etal., 2006) shows that the use of
additives reach with organic matter, that influence in the fertility , determine improvement of physical and chemical
quality of the soil, and especially of biological quality.
Other studies shows that use of compost in agriculture brings other benefits in the soil, in plants and environment
(Roe et al., 1993; Hicklelenton et al., 2001).

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Organic fertilization in agriculture (through compost) is one important agronomic practice, very appreciated in this
last years, even because of biological system of cultivation. So bringing organic matter in the soil we not only bring
nutrients but there are even some more physical chemical benefits and also biological (Zaccardelli et al.,2006). The
compost used as additive in agriculture is one product with heterogeneous nature, that come from different materials
from different origins , as for example from plant, animal origins etc. To this heterogeneity we can include even
different combinations that derive from the process of composting and that have as final result a compost that can be
used for different purposes.
With compost we want to copy the nature , reproducing her but faster and in one controlled way. The process of
composting transforms complex organic molecules through aerobic microorganisms in simple chemical
compositions and is considered as stabilized that compost in witch are performed this chemical processes. The
compost is sustainable in time, reach with humus, without bed smell or with acceptable smell, able to reach the soil
with nutrients, to improve the structure of the soil through improving the circulation of air in the soil and improve
the microorganisms useful for plants. The main purpose of the experiment in this study is production of compost in
farm level through use of available biomass in the territory and evaluation of environmental effects deriving from
use of compost in different doses in plant in one agricultural farm. Through evidences is performed evaluation of
strengths of use of compost as natural nutrient and the impact on the physical and chemical features and especially
on biological features of the soil.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experiment for the preparation of compost at farm level consist in two phases; first phase of application is finalized
with looking up the agricultural reality of the farms in order to define useful organic waste, potentially for compost
and the quantity that need one compost process; second phase consist in gathering of materials, construction of pile
for compost and the monitoring of the process as protocols approved. From monitoring process results that in two
points indicated for the compost there are enough materials for the pile with different origin, especially from
housing (EDE), (manure of cattle, pigs, small stocks), wood wool, wheat straw, plant waste, corn silage etc.
In the point near Agricultural University we had bigger availability for fertilizer from animal waste, but regardless
for the establishment of clusters we have maintained weight ratios. The sizes of clusters are as indicated: length 10-
15 m, width 1.5-2m height 1.5-2 m. The process of compost is monitored through daily observations of temperature,
and based in this observations and humidity of the materials, we have decided reversing the material and wetting,
(IAM,Bari. Itali,2006).
In the end of the process we have identified some agronomic and environmental parameters of the compost
especially pH, humidity, electric conductivity (EC), content of gravel, content of organic carbon, total content of
N,P,K and heavy metals as Cd, cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb.
Samples of compost are analyzed near Chemistry and Biochemistry Section DiBCA, university of Bari Italy
according to the methods of analysis for fertilizers of Italian legislation. (Trinchera et al., 2006).
Study agronomic and environmental effects of the compost as additive are tested through the field protocol in EDE
Valias, using a spring-summer crops (maize cultivar Goldfox 120). Field evidence is tested according to the
randomized block scheme, with different doses of compost producted in EDE.
There are 15 experimental plots, 25 m2 each of them divided as follow;

- 3 plots T, non use of compost (evidential);


- 6 plots C1, 20 t of compost per ha-1, equal with 2 kg m-2;
- 6 plots C2, 40 t of compost per ha-1, equal with 4 kg m-2.
Scheme of randomized plots is showed in figure 1, in witch the compost is applied on the ground and is inverted to a
depth of about 15 cm before planting, which was done a few days later with density about 7 bime/m2 (distances of
plant 70x20 cm). Each plot was analyzed on the average grain production (kg/plots), average biomass production
(kg/plots), the average height of plants, in relation to the number of rows kernels per ear, in relation to the number of
grains per row theweight of 1000 grains.

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Figure 1. Scheme of experimental plots. C1: 2 kg compost m-2; C2: 4 kg compost m-2; T: 0 kg compost -2.

Environmental qualities are verified through microbiological analyses of the soil, in different doses of compost
according to the above scheme.
During the period of the study different soil samples are analyzed for their systematic microorganisms groups to se
environment effects.

RESULTS

The results of analyses of the most important parameters of the two experiments are in table 1. analytic results
shown the differences between start material used for the compost. The compost prepared near university campus,
looking up even the departure levels of materials is within the normative, while the compost of EDE presented a
higher value of K, associated with greater diversity of plant material available that bring into the necessity of makes
necessary a sifting the material before use. Also is verified higher humidity level, because of excess rainfall
registered in this period.
Since then preparing compost results within the limits of the law is processed with field demonstration. Table 2

Table 1. Results of the main chemical-physical analysis of compost


Parameters Measure unit Composting at Composting at EDE
university campus Valias
Inert % s.s. 8.8 4.8
Humidity % t.q. 68.5 65.3
pH (in H2O, 1:10) - 8.3 7.8
EC (ekstract, 1:10) dS m-1 1.40 0.85
grace % s.s. 52.5 51.1
Organic carbon g kg-1 s.s 260.0 275.1
organic matter g kg-1 s.s 520,0 532,1
total nitrogen g kg-1 s.s 16.3 16.8
C/N - 16.1 16.4
total phosphoric Anidriti g kg-1 s.s 20.5 16.3
(P2O5)
total potassium (K) g kg-1 s.s 2.5 13.0
total Cadmium mg kg-1 s.s 1.1 0.7
total nickel mg kg-1 s.s 61.5 59.3
total copper mg kg-1 s.s 52.5 80.4
total chromium mg kg-1 s.s 75.3 63.2
Chromium hekzovalent mg kg-1 s.s <0.4 <0.4
total Mercury mg kg-1 s.s <0.5 <0.5
total lead mg kg-1 s.s 28.8 40.0
total zinc mg kg-1 s.s 210.5 139.6

Table 2. The results of field tests of the compost, in 2009 and 2010.

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Variants B P B-P H R C P mesatar


T (2009) 489,80 35,00 12,85 201,6 12,4 612,50 370,7
C1 (2009) 53,53 34,30 16,50 202,2 14,1 609,50 345,2
C2 (2009) 52,05 32,05 17,80 203,5 14,0 654,70 330,0
T (2010) 46,60 34,20 12,70 217,2 15,4 714,80 355,3
C1 (2010) 52,50 35,00 15,30 227,3 15,9 663,70 350,7
C2 (2010) 52,30 32,80 17,50 235,5 15,6 760,00 331,0

B: Average total biomass production (kg plot-1);


P: Average grain production (kg plot-1);
H: average height of plants (m);
R: The average length of the ear -1;
C: Average number per cob grains -1;
P: Average: weight of 1000 grains (gr).

Figure 1- Field test results of applying compost, the years 2009 and 2010.

By analyzing the data output measurements and other biometric data results that test C1 has shown greater
production of grain and total biomass in evidence in two years of tests, C2 in the same period has only higher
biomass of corn (B-P). Test free of compost (testimony T) has given a higher weight average grain production since
it had a lower density of grain per parcel. In C2 had lower 1000 grain weight and the highest number of grains per
ear, claiming the greater vegetative development than reproduction. In the end C1 gave an average weight of 1000
grains and a number of grains per spike lower a balanced ratio between the number of grains of their weight and
grain densities for parcel higher.
Evaluation of implementation of environmental qualities and verification of environmental effects is done by
analyzing the contentof systematic groups of microorganisms.

Table nr.3

Variants Total Mikroflora aerobic Actinomycetes mushroom Microbial biomass Humidity in


000/g dry land bacteria 000/g dry land s 000/g estimated kg/ha %
000/g dry dry land
land
T (2009) 10.200 9.100 1.110 13 2.240 15.0
C1 (2009) 18.100 10.630 1.350 18 3.800 15.5
C2 (2009) 24.240 14.900 1.650 23 4.200 15.9
T (2010) 12.110 8.500 1.150 16 3.200 18.1

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C1 (2010) 16.310 11.330 1.310 12 3.990 16.2


C2 (2010) 22.300 15.520 1.700 22 4.450 17.8

By analyzing the content of systematic groups in generally we se that by increasing the dose of compost there is one
improvement the content of systematic groups of microorganisms which is mainly related with increased content of
organic matter.

CONCLUSIONS

From the data of the study we se that scanning parameters of compost, starting from first materials of plant origins,
may result difficult to respect community boundaries for some parameters that are lower than in the test of compost,
especially for heavy metals. Demonstrative evidence in the field have confirmed the advantages of the use of
compost in spring-summer herbs fertilization (corn) when result that C1 (20 t compost per ha-1) result with the
highest agronomic effect. Use of compost as additive bring visible environmental effects, also verified with analyzes
of different systematic groups of microorganisms that are used as Bio indicator. Is verified almost everywhere the
presence of systematic groups in C2, 40 t compost per ha-1 in relation with the test, a higher quantity of the total
microbial connected this with the grooving of organic matter in soil.

As conclusion we can say that adding compost in soil, with one good origin from plants materials, is one good
strategy for growing biological activity in agricultural lands with consequences improving agronomic and
environmental qualities of agricultural systems. The study will serve as a very good reference to agricultural
operators who are interested in the production and application of biomass composting of agricultural origin as
additive in farm level.

REFERENCES

Altieri M.A., (1991) Agroecologia, f.210 - 275.


Altieri M A., ( 1999) - Verso unagricoltura biologica, f.275 300
Aggelides S.M., Londra P.A. 2000. Effects of compost produced from town wastes and sewage sludge on the
physical properties of a loamy and a clay soil. Bioresource Technology 71: 253-259.
Gil M.V., Carballo M.T., Calvo L.F. 2008. Fertilization of maize with compost from cattle manure supplemented
with additional mineral nutrients. Waste Management 28: 1432-1440.
IAM (Bari) Itali (2006) Manual per kompostimin ne bujqesine biologjike. f.140.
Isufi, E. (2004) Kompostimi i mbetjeve organike pr plehrimin e bimve, f.14.
Peuli, V., Kopali A. (2005) Bujqesia biologjike, f. 362
Regolamento (CEE) n. 2092/91 Relativo al metodo di produzione biologico di prodotti agricoli e alla indicazione di
tale metodo sui prodotti agricoli e sulle derrate alimentary.
Roe N.E., Stoffela P.J., Bryan H.H.1993. Utilizzation of MSW compost and other organic mulches on commercial
vegetable crops. Compost Sci. Utilizzation, 1(3):73-84.
Trinchera A., Leita L. e Sequi P. (2006) - Metodi di Analisi per i Fertilizzanti. Consiglio per la Ricerca e la
Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante per conto del Ministero delle
politiche agricole alimentari e forestali, Roma, Italy, 384 f.
Zaccardelli M., Perrone D., Gazzella A., Del Galdo A., Giordano I. 2006. Valutazione bio-agronomica di una
successione triennale di colture industriali e ortive in un terreno della Piana del Sele ammendato con compost da
F.O.R.S.U. Atti del convegno Utilizzo del compost da frazione organica dei rifiuti solidi urbani: attualit e
prospettive, Napoli 30 novembre, 95-118.

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PAPER 188

A NEW CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK RELATED TO NATURAL SELECTION, SEXUAL SELECTION


AND CULTURAL SELECTION

Ani Bajrami, Zyri Bajrami

Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology, Tirana, Albania

Email: ani.bajrami@fshn.edu.al; zyri.bajrami@fshn.edu.al

ABSTRACT

This article takes in consideration Darwinian conceptual framework which includes natural selection, sexual
selection and cultural selection in analizing mate choice. We have analyzed 618 individuals and 30% of them
believe that mate choice is pure coincidence. On the other hand, 46.05% of a sum of 816 individuals consider
appropriate the following concept: We love other people/other people loves us/ we get married to other people. In
363 individuals tested, 2/3 of them are married by interference of another, member of the family or otherwise. These
data allow us to raise hypothetically questions about mate choice and mechanisms in volving it. Coincidence and the
interference of other people in mate choice are caused by cultural selection which acts upon cultural modules. On
the contrary, natural selection and sexual selection acts upon noncultural modules which includes genetical modules,
epigenetical modules and neuor-endocrine modules. In this context, natural and sexual modules acts solely on the
modules mentioned above present on live organisms.

Keywords: natural selection, sexual selection, cultural selection, mate choice, modules.

INTRODUCTION

Living organisms have certain characteristics that enhance their survival and maximize their reproductive success.
For this reason Maynard Smith and Eos Szthamary in their book wrote: living organisms are composed of units
which enhance their survival and reproduction ( Smith and Szathmary 1995).These functional unit are called
modules. In a previous study ( Bajrami,2008) has been shown there exists four types of modules. The modules we
propose coincides with four types of inheritance systems:genetical inheritance, epigenetical inheritance, behavior
and symbolic inheritance ( Jablonka and Lamb, 2006). Genes, part of the nucleic acids, are considered an
information extracted from the environment ( Tooby and Cosmides, 1992). In these modules, a fragment or a part of
nucleic acids is called memory structure that contains the information and the product of this information is
necessary for the functioned performed. This feature lead us to maintain that living organism have a distinguished
property: the relation between information and function ( Emmeche, 2002) so every module performs a certain
functions based on information ( Treur and Jonk, 2006). In other words, gene is comparable with information wich
locks a certain function. Therefore a genetical module is formed when: a. a certain need must be accomplished b. a
certain information is extracted, corresponding to the need and c. a function is performed based on information to
solve the need required. The information is not solely preserved in nucleic acids. The fact that a protein functions
only in its conformational form shows that this information is steric. Based on steric information an alloteric enzyme
is related to prime or to the final product during the biochemical reaction. In many cases, although the genes exists
he is not functional cause of the methylation process. In this case, this process is performed by another type of
module, the epigenetical module. Another type of module is formed in the organism posedin a neuro-endocrine
system. In this case the informacion is deposited on a memory structure as sensory cells. A sensory cell, like gene,
intercept the stimuli (deposit the information required) and connects to muscular cells to perform a certain function.
According to this function for example every one put his hands up when touches a hot object because a module has
been formed. Finally, in humans, memory structures are formed and deposit new information each time. These
memory structure may be identified as memes ( Dawkins, 1976) but adding to them their triadic nature ( Kull,
2000). Memory structures located in our brains, deposits concepts, ideas and different mental models and according
to their information people creates artefacts, symbols and certain behaviours, cognitive, emotional and moral
interpretations.We may conclude that modules are the smallest units of function and they natural selection and

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sexual selection operates in them. How can we define sexual selection? Sexual selection, according to one author, is
a part of natural selection concerned with overpreproduction because of the choice made for their partner ( Starr,
2013). Buss defines sexual selection preference and mate choice object to sexual selection ( Buss, 2008).
According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary sexual selection is the choice of a mate based on the preference for
certain characteristics. Oxford dictionary defines sexual selection as natural selection arising through preference
by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex. In conlusion , sexual selection is defined as a
preference for certain features while natural selection as the survival of the fittest ( Carranza, 2009). In all cases
mentioned, sexual selection is considered mate choice based on certain characteristics. Our view is that sexual and
natural selection operates on the four types of modules. These modules are selected to enhance survival and
reproduction in organisms and when selection acts on modules which are responsible for reproduction, we maintain
in this case that sexual selection takes action.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Our data was gathered by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire formulated the question as follows: In your
opinion, marriage is a coincidence or not? This question was answered from 618 individuals ( Table 1), students
form Tirana University, one of their parents and one of their grandparents.
The second questionnaire tested the general idea expressed in Albanian culture : We love other people/ other peole
loves us/ we get married to other peoples. The individuals were asked if this is true or not. We gathered the
responses of 412 students and 404 parents (Table 2).

RESULTS

Table 1 shows the number of individuals tested (students, one of their parents and one of their grandparents), their
location (city or village) and their genders ( female or males). From 610 individuals , 133 of them (30%) have
answered that marriage is a coincidence. The percentage of tested individuals considering marriage a pure
coincidence is 57% of male students living in village to 22% male students living in city.
Marriage is a According to According to
Generati Location Gender No. coincidence location gender
ons According Accordig
to location to M F M F
generatio
ns
City F 94 29 (30.8%)
Student M 66 15 (22.7%) 28.7
Village F 38 9 (27.7%)
M 14 8 (57%)
City F 78 26 (31.9%) 28.3 33.8 29.8 30.2
Parent M 86 22 (25.5%) 30.5
Village F 44 14(31.85%
M 31 11 (35.5%)
City F 46 13 (28.2%)
Grandpar M 60 17 (28.3%) 32.6
ents Village F 32 8 (25%)
M 21 11 (52.3%)
Table 1. The percentage of students, one of their parents and one of their grandparents which answered that marriage
is a coincidence.

The percentage of individuals who considered marriage as a coincidence event tend to grow easily from students
(28.7%), parents (30.7%) to grandparents (32.6%). The difference between males and females is low (29.9% to
30.2%) but the difference is between location (28.3% in villages and 33.8% in cities). Therefore, people living in
villages consider marriage a coincidence event and this claim support aour thesis: people living in villages or in
small locations tend to be more conservatives than people living in cities. In villages, choosing a partner for the son
or daughter is part of familiar duties than of the person who is going to be married. Thus, sexual selection operates

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on familiar choice and not personal choice. Certainly,in choosing a partner, the family is based on some preferences
and so it can not be excluded that selection operates but we can not know for sure who is this kind of selection.
Familiar choice or the choice of a partner done by one member of the family differs from personal choice. For
example, while harsh economic conditions in a culture prevails, we maintain that family choice will be based in
preferences regarding wealth, high social and economic status and so on. In these conditions , choosing a good-
looking partner or putting erotical pleasure as main preference will be disastrous because these preferences can not
solve adaptive problems regarding harsh economic conditions. These claims are supported by a previous study
where the two preferences mentioned above were considered unimportant in Albanians, Greek minority and cultural
community of Aroumanians and Roma living in Albania (Bajrami and Ruka, 2011). The data gathered in the
previous article, enhance the hypothesis that mate choice happens because of the sexual selection. Table 2 indicates
that in 816 individuals tested, 376 of them ( 46.05%) accepts as true the assumption that: We love other people/
other people loves us/ we get married to other peoples.
Grupet No. Gender Answered YES
Males Females Males Females M-F Total
Students 412 204 208 102 98 200
(50%) (42.2%) (48.5%) 376
Parents 404 206 198 95 81 176 (46.05%)
(46,6%) (40,9%) (43,5%)
Table 2. The percentage of individuals (generations and gender) which considered right the assumption that : We
love other people/ other peole loves us/ we get married to other peoples.

As Table 2 indicates that 46.05% of individuals tested believe that marriage is pure coincidence or kind of lottery. If
46.05% of people believe that marriage is a coincidence event then we assume that sexual selection is not taking
place. Therefore, people does not everytime make the desirable choice about their future partner. In some
ethnographic Albanian studies , data gathered argue that in Albanian society, marriages are managed by family
members for economic purposes, solve conflictual situation and to preserve social cohesion ( Tirta, 2003). Based on
this data, in a previous study among 363 individuals living in Albania (190 Females and 173 Males), in three
generation ( Grandparents, Parents and their children) were asked the following question ( Bajrami, 2012) :You
were married: A with love B by the intrusion of an outsider and with your consent C by the intrusion of an outsider
and without your consent. The tested individuals responded, specifically A- 36.4%, B- 61% and C-2.6%.
Therefore, 2/3 of Albanians admit to get married by the intrusion of a family member and so, mate preferences and
mate choice are not a personal decision.

CONCLUSIONS

In these circumstances, sexual selection operates in a doubtful way. The uncertainty in mate choice is expressed in
the percentage of individuals that thinks marriage is a coincidence. But this uncertainty is explained by other fact as
well. When choosing a partner based on certain characteristics, individuals can not make predictions of future events
related to marriage.
A desirable preference is always accompanied by an undesirable preference in a mate choice. In this context people
must choose in an information pool regarding marriage which is always formed on contradictory characteristics (
for example Healthy versus Wealthy). Every decision making regarding mate choice is affected by the focusing
effect (