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Energy

 Different forms of energy:

Chapter 5 mechanical, electromagnetic,
chemical, nuclear
 Energy can be transformed from
Energy one form to another
 Mechanical energy
Part 2  Kinetic - associated with motion
 Potential - associated with position

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Work Units of Work and Energy

Provides a link between force and

energy
 SI
 The work, W, done by a constant force  Newton • meter = Joule
on an object is defined as  N•m=J
 J = kg • m2 / s2
W ≡ (F cos θ)∆x  US Customary
 F is the magnitude of the force;  foot • pound
 ∆ x is the magnitude of the
 ft • lb
object’s displacement  no special name
 θ is the angle between
r r
F and ∆x
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More About Work Kinetic Energy

r r
 W=0 when F ⊥ ∆ x ( cos 90 ° = 1) KE =
1
mv 2
2
r r
 W>0 when F and ∆ x are in the same  m - object’s mass; v - objects velocity
direction (cosθ > 0, 90° > θ > 0°)  Energy associated with the motion of
an object
r r
 W<0 when F and ∆ x are in the opposite  Work can be converted into kinetic
directions (cos θ < 0, 180° > θ > 90°) energy
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Potential Energy Types of Forces
 Potential energy is associated with  Conservative - work depends only upon the
the position of the object within some initial and final positions of the object
Can have a potential energy function associated with it
system


 Work and energy associated with the force can be

 Potential energy is a property of the recovered
system, not the object  Nonconservative - work depends on the
 Gravitational potential energy path taken by the object
 The forces are generally dissipative and work done
PE g = mg∆y against it cannot easily be recovered
A
 ∆y - change in position B
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Conservation of
Work-Energy Theorem Mechanical Energy
Wnc = (KE f − KEi ) + (PE f − PEi )
 Conservation in general
 To say a physical quantity is conserved is to
say that the numerical value of the quantity
 Wnc - work done by non-conservative forces remains constant throughout any physical
process

 If Wnc = 0 (KE f − KEi ) + (PE f − PEi ) = 0

 In Conservation of Energy, the total
mechanical energy remains constant
KEi + PEi = KE f + PE f  In any isolated system of objects interacting
only through conservative forces, the total
Mechanical energy is conserved mechanical energy of the system remains
constant.

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Conservation of Energy, Work-Energy With

cont. Nonconservative Forces
 Total mechanical energy is the  If nonconservative forces are
sum of the kinetic and potential present, then the full Work-Energy
energies in the system Theorem must be used instead of
Ei = E f the equation for Conservation of
KEi + PEi = KE f + PE f Energy
 Other types of potential energy
 Often techniques from previous
functions can be added to modify this chapters will need to be employed
equation

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2
Nonconservative Forces
Example: Problem #30 with Energy Considerations
 When nonconservative forces are
 m=5 kg
present, the total mechanical energy of
 hA=5 m the system is not constant
 hB=3.2 m  The work done by all nonconservative
 hC=2 m forces acting on parts of a system
equals the change in the mechanical
energy of the system
 a) vB, vC -? 
Wnc = ∆Energy
 b) WAC - ?
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Example: Problem #36 Spring

 Spring is slowly stretched
 m=0.4 kg
from 0 to xmax
 A-B frictionless r r
 B-C rough  Fapp = − Fs
 vA=0
 Hook’s law:
hA=
 a) vB - ? Fs = − k ∆ x
hC=
 WBC - ?
Fs - restoring force,
work spent on
overcoming friction k - spring constant

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∆x - deformation of the spring 16

Potential Energy in a
Spring Spring
 Spring is slowly stretched  Elastic Potential Energy
from 0 to xmax
r r  related to the work required to
r
 Fapp = − Fs = k ∆ x compress a spring from its
equilibrium position to some final,
F f − Fi arbitrary, position x
W = Favg ∆ x = ∆x
2
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 PEs = kx
W = − k∆ x 2 / 2 2
W - work done by the spring force
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Conservation of Energy
Including a Spring Example: Problem #71
 The PE of the spring is added to  k=1.2 N/cm
both sides of the conservation of  x=5 cm
energy equation  m=0.1
 (KE + PE g + PE s )i = (KE + PE g + PE s )f  α =10O
 The same problem-solving
 vl -?
strategies apply

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Nonconservative Forces
and Energy Transferring Energy
 In equation form:  By Work
Wnc = E f − Ei =  By applying a
force
(KE f + PE f ) − (KEi + PEi )  Produces a
displacement of
 The energy can either cross a boundary the system
or the energy is transformed into a
form of non-mechanical energy such as
thermal energy

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Transferring Energy Transferring Energy

 Heat  Mechanical Waves
 The process of  A disturbance
transferring heat by propagates
collisions between through a medium
molecules
 The spoon becomes  Examples include
hot because some of sound, water,
the KE of the seismic
molecules in the coffee
is transferred to the
molecules of the spoon
as internal energy
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4
Transferring Energy Transferring Energy
 Electrical  Electromagnetic
 Transfer by means  Any form of
of electrical electromagnetic
current waves
 This is how energy  Light, microwaves,
enters any radio waves
electrical device

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of Energy Power
 We can neither create nor destroy  Often also interested in the rate at
energy which the energy transfer takes place
 Another way of saying energy is  Power is defined as this rate of energy
conserved transfer
If the total energy of the system does W

℘= = Fv
not remain constant, the energy must 
t
have crossed the boundary of the
system by some mechanism  SI units are Watts (W)
 Applies to areas other than physics J kg m2
 W = =
s s2
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Work Done by Varying

Power, cont. Forces
 US Customary units are generally hp  The work done by
 Need a conversion factor a variable force
acting on an
ft lb
1 hp = 550 = 746 W object that
s undergoes a
 Can define units of work or energy in terms displacement is
of units of power: equal to the area
 kilowatt hours (kWh) are often used in electric under the graph
bills
of F versus x
 This is a unit of energy, not power

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Spring Example
 The work is also
equal to the area
under the curve
 In this case, the
“curve” is a
triangle
 A = ½ B h gives
W = ½ k x2

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