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Energy

„ Different forms of energy:


Chapter 5 mechanical, electromagnetic,
chemical, nuclear
„ Energy can be transformed from
Energy one form to another
„ Mechanical energy
Part 2 „ Kinetic - associated with motion
„ Potential - associated with position

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Work Units of Work and Energy


Provides a link between force and
„
energy
„ SI
„ The work, W, done by a constant force „ Newton • meter = Joule
on an object is defined as „ N•m=J
„ J = kg • m2 / s2
W ≡ (F cos θ)∆x „ US Customary
„ F is the magnitude of the force; „ foot • pound
„ ∆ x is the magnitude of the
„ ft • lb
object’s displacement „ no special name
„ θ is the angle between
r r
F and ∆x
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More About Work Kinetic Energy


r r
„ W=0 when F ⊥ ∆ x ( cos 90 ° = 1) KE =
1
mv 2
2
r r
„ W>0 when F and ∆ x are in the same „ m - object’s mass; v - objects velocity
direction (cosθ > 0, 90° > θ > 0°) „ Energy associated with the motion of
an object
r r
„ W<0 when F and ∆ x are in the opposite „ Work can be converted into kinetic
directions (cos θ < 0, 180° > θ > 90°) energy
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Potential Energy Types of Forces
„ Potential energy is associated with „ Conservative - work depends only upon the
the position of the object within some initial and final positions of the object
Can have a potential energy function associated with it
system
„

„ Work and energy associated with the force can be


„ Potential energy is a property of the recovered
system, not the object „ Nonconservative - work depends on the
„ Gravitational potential energy path taken by the object
„ The forces are generally dissipative and work done
PE g = mg∆y against it cannot easily be recovered
A
„ ∆y - change in position B
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Conservation of
Work-Energy Theorem Mechanical Energy
Wnc = (KE f − KEi ) + (PE f − PEi )
„ Conservation in general
„ To say a physical quantity is conserved is to
say that the numerical value of the quantity
„ Wnc - work done by non-conservative forces remains constant throughout any physical
process

„ If Wnc = 0 (KE f − KEi ) + (PE f − PEi ) = 0


„ In Conservation of Energy, the total
mechanical energy remains constant
KEi + PEi = KE f + PE f „ In any isolated system of objects interacting
only through conservative forces, the total
Mechanical energy is conserved mechanical energy of the system remains
constant.

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Conservation of Energy, Work-Energy With


cont. Nonconservative Forces
„ Total mechanical energy is the „ If nonconservative forces are
sum of the kinetic and potential present, then the full Work-Energy
energies in the system Theorem must be used instead of
Ei = E f the equation for Conservation of
KEi + PEi = KE f + PE f Energy
„ Other types of potential energy
„ Often techniques from previous
functions can be added to modify this chapters will need to be employed
equation

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2
Nonconservative Forces
Example: Problem #30 with Energy Considerations
„ When nonconservative forces are
„ m=5 kg
present, the total mechanical energy of
„ hA=5 m the system is not constant
„ hB=3.2 m „ The work done by all nonconservative
„ hC=2 m forces acting on parts of a system
equals the change in the mechanical
energy of the system
„ a) vB, vC -? „
Wnc = ∆Energy
„ b) WAC - ?
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Example: Problem #36 Spring


„ Spring is slowly stretched
„ m=0.4 kg
from 0 to xmax
„ A-B frictionless r r
„ B-C rough „ Fapp = − Fs
„ vA=0
„ Hook’s law:
hA=
„ a) vB - ? Fs = − k ∆ x
hC=
„ WBC - ?
Fs - restoring force,
work spent on
overcoming friction k - spring constant

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∆x - deformation of the spring 16

Potential Energy in a
Spring Spring
„ Spring is slowly stretched „ Elastic Potential Energy
from 0 to xmax
r r „ related to the work required to
r
„ Fapp = − Fs = k ∆ x compress a spring from its
equilibrium position to some final,
F f − Fi arbitrary, position x
W = Favg ∆ x = ∆x
2
1 2
„ PEs = kx
W = − k∆ x 2 / 2 2
W - work done by the spring force
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Conservation of Energy
Including a Spring Example: Problem #71
„ The PE of the spring is added to „ k=1.2 N/cm
both sides of the conservation of „ x=5 cm
energy equation „ m=0.1
„ (KE + PE g + PE s )i = (KE + PE g + PE s )f „ α =10O
„ The same problem-solving
„ vl -?
strategies apply

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Nonconservative Forces
and Energy Transferring Energy
„ In equation form: „ By Work
Wnc = E f − Ei = „ By applying a
force
(KE f + PE f ) − (KEi + PEi ) „ Produces a
displacement of
„ The energy can either cross a boundary the system
or the energy is transformed into a
form of non-mechanical energy such as
thermal energy

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Transferring Energy Transferring Energy


„ Heat „ Mechanical Waves
„ The process of „ A disturbance
transferring heat by propagates
collisions between through a medium
molecules
„ The spoon becomes „ Examples include
hot because some of sound, water,
the KE of the seismic
molecules in the coffee
is transferred to the
molecules of the spoon
as internal energy
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4
Transferring Energy Transferring Energy
„ Electrical „ Electromagnetic
transmission radiation
„ Transfer by means „ Any form of
of electrical electromagnetic
current waves
„ This is how energy „ Light, microwaves,
enters any radio waves
electrical device

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Notes About Conservation


of Energy Power
„ We can neither create nor destroy „ Often also interested in the rate at
energy which the energy transfer takes place
„ Another way of saying energy is „ Power is defined as this rate of energy
conserved transfer
If the total energy of the system does W
„
℘= = Fv
not remain constant, the energy must „
t
have crossed the boundary of the
system by some mechanism „ SI units are Watts (W)
„ Applies to areas other than physics J kg m2
„ W = =
s s2
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Work Done by Varying


Power, cont. Forces
„ US Customary units are generally hp „ The work done by
„ Need a conversion factor a variable force
acting on an
ft lb
1 hp = 550 = 746 W object that
s undergoes a
„ Can define units of work or energy in terms displacement is
of units of power: equal to the area
„ kilowatt hours (kWh) are often used in electric under the graph
bills
of F versus x
„ This is a unit of energy, not power

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5
Spring Example
„ The work is also
equal to the area
under the curve
„ In this case, the
“curve” is a
triangle
„ A = ½ B h gives
W = ½ k x2

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