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A TRIMBLE

TEKLA
COMPANY

Tekla Structures
Cast In Place
Modeling

Training Manual
Product version 19.0
April 2013

2013 Tekla Corporation


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Lesson 1
1.1 Starting Tekla Structures.............................................................................................................11
1.2 Creating a new model.................................................................................................................. 11
1.3 Saving a model.............................................................................................................................. 13
1.4 Saving a model with a different name......................... .......................................................... 13
1.5 Opening a model........................................................................................................................... 13
1.6 Model created in a previous version........................................................................................ 14 o
1.7 Moving around in the view ........................................................................................................ 14
1.8 Model view s................................................................................................................................... 1 5
1.9 Display............................................................................................................................................. 17
1.10 Creating a basic view................................................................................................................... 18
1.11 Creating a top v ie w ...................................................................................................................... 19
1.12 Moving a plane in a top view .................................................................................................... 20
1.13 Creating a grid view using two points..................................................................................... 20 o
1.14 Opening, closing, and deleting views....................................................................................... 21
1.15 Changing part representation in model vie w s....................................................................... 22
1.16 Rollover highlight.......................................................................................................................... 23
1.17 Common buttons........................................................................................................................... 23
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Lesson 2
2.1 G rid s..................................................................................................................................................27
2.2 Creating a g r id .............................................................................................................................. 27 o
2.3 Creating a second g r id ................................................................................................................ 28
2.4 Creating a grid on a shifted work plane.................................................................................. 29 o
2.5 Adding a grid line to an existing grid...................................................................................... 29
2.6 Modifying a grid lin e ................................................................................................................... 29
2.7 Work area....................................................................................................................................... 29
2.8 Creating plane views along grid lines...................................................................................... 30
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Lesson 3
3.1 Steel parts........................................................................................................................................ 35
3.2 Creating a steel co lu m n .............................................................................................................. 35 o
3.3 Creating a steel beam.................................................................................................................. 35
3.4 Creating a curved steel beam .................................................................................................... 36
3.5 Creating a steel polybeam........................................................................................................... 36
3.6 Creating an orthogonal steel beam........................................................................................... 37
3.7 Creating a steel twin profile....................................................................................................... 37
3.8 Creating a steel contour plate................................................................................................... 37
3.9 Adding a corner to a contour p late.......................................................................................... 38

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3.10 Removing a corner from a contour plate........................................................................... 39
3.11 Setting the contour plate orientation............................................ .................................... 39
3.12 Concrete parts........................................................................................................................ 41
3.13 Creating a concrete column................................................................................................. 41
3.14 Creating a concrete beam.......... ........................................................................................ 42
3.15 Creating a concrete pad footing..................................................................................... . 42
3.16 Creating a concrete strip footing........................................................................................ 42
3.17 Creating a concrete panel...................................................................................... .............. 42
3.18 Creating a concrete slab ..................................................... ................................................. 43
3.19 Creating a concrete polybeam.............................................................................................. 43
3.20 Snapping................................................................. ............................................................... 43
3.21 Snap switches....................................................................................................... ................. 43
3.22 Dimensions in snapping.......................................... .............................................................. 45
3.23 Orthogonal snapping............................................................................................................. 46
3.24 Measuring distances, angles, and bolt spaces...... .............................................. .............. 46
3.25 Mini Toolbar..................................................................................... ..................................... 46
3.26 Mini Toolbar exam ples.... ..................................................................................................... 47
3.27 Customizing Mini Toolbar...................................................... ............................................. 49
3.28 Part properties.............................................. ......................................................................... 50
3.29 Modifying part properties..................................................................................................... 52
3.30 Selecting multiple objects...... .............................................................................................. 52
3.31 Hiding selected parts............................................................................................................ 53
3.32 Hiding unselected parts.................................... .................................................................... 54
3.33 Moving start and end points.......................................... ..................................................... 55
3.34 Extending and shortening parts....... .................. ................................................................ 56
3.35 Creating curved parts........................................................................................................... 57
3.36 Adding recesses to concrete p a rts...................................................................................... 58
3.37 Cambering and warping parts............................................................................................... 59
3.38 59
3.39 Cambering................................................... ........................................................................... 60
3.40 Corner chamfers.......... ....................................... .................................................................. 60
3.41 Chamfering example............ ................................................................................................. 61
3.42 Selection switches.................................................................................................................. 62
3.43 Selection filters...................................................................................................................... 64
3.44 Possible values in filte rin g ................................................................................................... 65
3.45 Selection filter example..................................................................................... .................. 65
3.46 Selection exam ples..................................... .......................................................................... 66

Lesson 4
4.1 Copying and m oving.................................... .......................................................................... 73
4.2 Copying an object.................................................................................................................. 74
4.3 Copying an object linearly to a new position.................................................................... 75
4.4 Copying and rotating an object................................... ........................................................ 75
4.5 Copying and mirroring an object.............................................. .......................................... 76
4.6 Mirroring an asymmetrical column................................................ .................................... 77
4.7 Copying an object to another plane................................ ............................................. ..... 78
4.8 Copying an object to another object.................................................................................. 79
4.9 Copying objects from another model with the help of phases....................................... 80
4.10 Moving an object................................................................................................................... 80
4.11 Moving an object linearly....,..................................................................................... .......... 81

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4.12 Moving and rotating an object............................................................................................ 82
4.13 Moving and mirroring an object......................................................................................... 82
4.14 Moving an object to another plane................................................................................... 83
4.15 Moving an object to another object................................................................................... 83
4.16 Fine-tuning part shape ....................................................................................................... 83
4.17 Creating a fittin g .................................................................. ............................................... 83
4.18 Cutting parts with a line.................................................................. ................................... 84
4.19 Cutting parts with another part.......................................................................................... 85
4.20 Cutting parts with a polygon......................................................................... ..................... 86
4.21 Creating welds and fittings in multiple objects................................................................ 87
4.22 Adding surface treatment to a selected area................................................................... 87
4.23 Welds...................................................................................................................................... 88
4.24 Creating a weld between parts................................................................... ........................ 88
4.25 Chamfering part edges............................................ ............................................................. 89
4.26 B olts.... ..........................................................................................*....................................... 89
4.27 Creating a bolt group............................................................................................. .............. 91
4.28 Connecting parts with a bolt group................................................................................... 93
4.29 Modifying bolt groups...... ................................................................................................... 94
4.30 Holes....................................................................................................................................... 94
4.31 Creating slotted holes......... ...................................... .............................. ........................... 94
4.32 Bolts on cast-in embeds........ ............................................................ ................................. 95
4.33 Splitting parts................................................................................... ................................... 95
4.34 Combining parts.... ............................................................................................................... 96
4.35 Points........... ............................. ........................................... ................................................. 97
4.36 Creating points along a lin e ................................................................................................ 97
4.37 Cast units............................................................................................................................... 98
4.38 Defining the cast unit type....... ........................................... ............................................... 98
4.39 Creating a cast unit........ ............................... ...................................................................... 98
4.40 Adding objects to cast units................................................................................................ 98
4.41 Modifying cast units............. ................................................... ............................................99
4.42 Highlighting objects in a cast unit..................................................................................... 99
4.43 Changing the cast unit main part...................................................................................... 99
4.44 Creating a cast unit view ................................................................................................... 100
4.45 Removing objects from a cast u n it...................................... ............................................ 100
4.46 Overlapping part lines in cast units............. ................................................................... 101
4.47 Defining top-in-form fa ce ................................................................................................ 101
4.48 Orienting parts for drawings.............. .............................................................................. 102

Lesson 5
5.1 Modifying the work a re a ....................................................... ............................................ 109
5.2 Fit work area to selected parts.............................................. .......................................... 109
5.3 Fit work area using two points.... ........................................... ........................... ..............109
5.4 Fit work area to entire model in selected views........... ..................................................110
5.5 Finding distant objects....................................................................................................... 110
5.6 Finding distant points..........................................................................................................110
5.7 Finding distant reference models.............................................................. ....................... 111
5.8 Creating a clip plane ........................................ .............................................................. 111
5.9 Moving a dip plane............................................................................................................. 112
5.10 Deleting a clip plane........................................................................................................... 113
5.11 Work plane................................................ .......................................................................... 113

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) 5.12 Set work plane parallel to a plane......................................................................................113


5.13 Set work plane using three points..................................................... .............................. 114
5.14 Set work plane parallel to view plane............... .............................................................. 114
5.15 Set work plane to top plane of a part.............................................................................. 114
5.16 Shifting the work plane....................................................... ............................................. 115
5.17 Numeric snapping................................................................. .............................................. 115
5.18 Numeric location coordinates........................................... ................................................. 116
5.19 Creating a temporary reference point.................................................. ........................... 116
5.20 Locking a coordinate............ ........................................ ............................................... . 117
] 5.21 Snapping example: Creating a beam with a certain length.................. ......................... 118
5.22 Snapping example: Creating a shifted beam with a certain length.............................. 119
^ 5.23 Snapping example: Creating two parallel and equally long beams............................... 120
5.24 Snapping example: Creating a beam using a temporary reference point.................... 122
5.25 Snapping example: Creating a beam using snap override................ ............................ 123

; Lesson 6
6.1 The Component Catalog...................................................................................................... 129
) 6.2 Components..................... ............................................................................... ...................... 130
6.3 Creating a component.......... ............... ........................................... .................................. 131
6.4 Component status.................. .............................................................................................131
\ 6.5 Modifying component properties.......................................................................................131
6.6 Saving component properties......... .................................................................................. 132
) 6.7 Component example: Inserting a pad footing reinforcement........................................ 132
6.8 Component example: Modifying the pad footing reinforcement.................................. 132
} 6.9 Creating component default view s......................... .......................................................... 133
6.10 The Material Catalog......................................................... ..................................................134
) 6.11 Adding a material grade............. .............................. .......................................................... 135
6.12 Deleting a material grade...................................................................................................136
^ 6.13 The Profile Catalog................ ......................... ................................................................... . 136
^ 6.14 Adding a pro file.................................................................................................................... 138
6.15 Modifying a profile...................................... .................................... ....................................138
) 6.16 Deleting a profile.......................................................... ................... ................................... 138
6.17 Parametric pro files.............. ......................................... ........................ ............................. 139
) 6.18 Parametric concrete profiles................................................................................................139

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Lesson 7
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7.1 Entering project information.................................................. ........................................... 143
7.2 Switching between single-user and multi-user modes.................................................. 143
7.3 Flying through the model....................................................................................................143
) 7.4 Checking using reports......................................... .......................................... .................... 144
7.5 Inquiring the m odel............................................................................................................. 145
J 7.6 Inquiring object properties............................................................................. .....................145
7.7 Inquiring bolts...................................................................................................................... 146
7.8 Displaying ail objects connected to a part........................................ .............................. 146
7.9 Inquiring welded parts......................................................................................................... 147
^ 7.10 Inquiring the center of gravity................................................................... ........................147
j 7.11 Inquiring cast unit objects....................................... ........................................................... 147
7.12 Creating object representation settings in model views................................................ 147
j 7.13 Object representation settings example: Creating object representation settings.... 148

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7.14 Defining your own colors to model object groups......................................................... 150
7.15 The Phase Manager............................................................................................................. 152
7.16 Dividing the model into phases......................................................................................... 153

Lesson 8
8.1 Reference models................................................................................................................. 157
8.2 Inserting a reference model..................................................................................... ......... 157
8.3 Hiding a reference model.............................................................................................. 158
8.4 Updating a reference m odel...................................................... ....................................... 158
8.5 Detecting changes in reference models........................................................................... 159
8.6 Reference model example: Displaying the changes........ ............................... ................159
8.7 Tips for speeding up large reference models.................................................................. 160
8.8 Tekla BIMsight..................................................................................................................... 161
8.9 Publishing a model to Tekla BIM sight......... ................................... ................................ 162
8.10 Publishing a model as a web page using WebViewer..................................................... 162

Lesson 9
9.1 Reinforcement............................................................ ..........................................................167
9.2 Creating a reinforcing b a r.............................................................. .................................. 167
9.3 Defining a hook for a reinforcing b a r...... ...................................................................... 169
9.4 Defining the reinforcing bar cover thickness.................................................................. 170
9.5 Reinforcing bar groups and group types............ ............................................................ 171
9.6 Creating a reinforcing bar group......................................... ............................................ 174
9.7 Creating a reinforcement using predefined reinforcement shapes.............................. 174
9.8 Spacing of reinforcing bars...... ...................................... ................................................. 176
9.9 Omitting reinforcing bars......... ........................................................................................ 177
9.10 Creating a curved reinforcing bar group....... ........................ ......................................... 178
9.11 Creating a circular reinforcing bar group....................................................................... 179
9.12 Creating a polygon reinforcement m esh..... ................................................................... 180
9.13 Creating a reinforcement splice....................................................................................... 182
9.14 Attaching reinforcing bars to another part.....................................................................183
9.15 Reinforcement example: Reinforcing a column and creating a custom
reinforcement component.............. ....................... ....................................... .................... 183
9.16 Reinforcement tip s ............................................................................................................. 188
9.17 Adding a reinforcement component................................................................................. 188
9.18 Reinforcement component examples...................................... ............................ ............. 189

Lesson 10
10.1 Steel component examples................................................................................................. 195
10.2 End plate (1 4 4 )................................................................................................................... 195
10.3 Cranked beam (4 1 )............................................. ...................... ......................................... 195
10.4 Haunch ( 4 0 ) ....................................................................................... ................................. 196
10.5 Joining plates (1 4 ).............................................................................................................. 196
10.6 End plate detail (1 0 0 2 )...................................................................................................... 197
10.7 Stanchion weld (8 5 )............................................................................................................197
10.8 Manlock column (1 0 3 2 )...................................................................................... .............. 197
10.9 Manlock beam (1 0 3 3 )........................................................ ............................................... 198
10.10 Array of objects (2 9 )........................................................................................................... 198

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10.11 Two-sided end plate (1 4 2 )................................................................................................ 200
10.12 Stiffened end plate (2 7 )................................................. ................................................... 201
10.13 Partial stiff end plate (65 )........................................................ ....................... ................. 201
10.14 Bolted gusset ( 1 1 ) .............................................................. ................................................201
10.15 Central gusset (1 6 9 )............................................................................................................ 203
10.16 Seating ( 3 9 ) ........... ................................................. ........................................................... 203
10.17 Stub ( 2 8 ) .... .............................. ........................................................................... ............. . 203
10.18 Base plate (1 0 0 4 ).................................................................... .......................................... 203
10.19 Stiffened base plate (1 0 1 4 ).................................................................................... ..........20 4
10.20 Stiffeners (1 0 0 3 )..................................................................................................... ........... 205
10.21 Stub (1 0 1 1 )............................................................... ................................... ...................... 205
10.22 Round tube (2 3 )................................................................................................................... 206
10.23 Concrete component examples.......................................................................................... 206
10.24 Opening in wall (4 0 )............. .............................. ............................................................... 206
10.25 Starter bars for pillar (8 6 )...... ........................................................................................... 207
10.26 Starter bars for footing (8 7 )............................................................................................. 207
10.27 Slab bars (1 8 )............................................................ .......................................................... 207
10.28 Reinforcement mesh array in area (8 9 )........................................................................... 208
10.29 Stairwells and elevation shafts (9 0 )................................................................................ 208
10.30 Concrete foundation (1 0 3 0 )................................... .......................................................... 208
10.31 Precast found block (1 0 2 8 ).......................................................... .................................... 209
10.32 Concrete console (1 1 0 )............. ........................................................................................ 209
10.33 Concrete console (1 1 1 )..... ................................................... .............................................210
10.34 Wall wall teeth (1 2 ).......................................................... ................................................ 210
10.35 Column - beam (1 4 )..... ..................................... .......................... ......................................211
10.36 Create hole around part ( 9 2 ) .......... ,..................................... ...........................................212
10.37 Concrete beam-beam ( 1 1 2 ) .................. ............................................................................212
10.38 Anchor (1 0 )........ ................................................................................................................ 213
10.39 Parts at beam (8 2 )................................................................... ...........................................213
10.40 Border rebar (9 3 )................ ..................... .......................................................................... 214
10.41 Inbedded (1 0 0 8 ).................................................................................................................. 214
10.42 Braced girders (88 and 8 9 )....... ........................................................................................ 215
10.43 Rebar in beam (9 0 )..............................................................................................................216
10.44 Border rebar (9 2 )........ ......................... ........................................ ..................................... 217
10.45 Longitudinal reinforcement (70)....................................................................................... 217
10.46 Beam reinforcement (6 3 ).................................................................................................. 218
10.47 Pad footing reinforcement (7 7 )................................... .....................................................218
10.48 Beam end reinforcement (7 9 ).......................................................................... .................218
10.49 Lifting anchor (8 0 )..................................... ..................................... ..................................219
10.50 Round column reinforcement ( 8 2 ) .............................................. ....................................219
10.51 Rectangular column reinforcement (8 3 )........... ................... ...........................................219
10.52 Hole reinforcement for slabs and walls (8 4 )............ ...................................................... 220
10.53 Corbel connection ( 1 4 ) ................................................ ..................................................... 220
10.54 Seating with dowel ( 7 5 ) .... ................................................................. .............................. 220
10.55 Two-sided seating with dowel ( 7 6 ) .................................................................................. 221
10.56 Battering connection (1 3 )..................................................................................................221
10.57 Precast stairs (6 5 )........................................................................................................ 221

Lesson 11
11.1 Modeling the building....................................................................................................225

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11.2 Create the grids........................................................ .......................................................... 225
11.3 Create the foundation elements........ ....................................................................... 227
11.4 Create the concrete frame elements................................................................................230
11.5 Create the additional elements....... .................................................................................239
11.6 Create the steel frame elements...................................................................................... 248
11.7 Create the reinforced concrete to steel interface.......................................................... 252
11.8 Reinforcing the building....................................................................................................25 4
11.9 Create reinforcements m anually................................................................................... . 254
11.10 Create reinforcements using components.................................................................. . 258

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1.1 Starting Tekla Structures


To start Tekla Structures:
1. Click the Windows Start button.
2. Click All Programs.
3. Go to the Tekla Structures 19.0 menu item and click Tekla Structures 19.0.
The Tekla Structures - Login dialog box appears.
4. In the dialog box, select the license, role and environment you want to use.
5. Click OK to start Tekla Structures.

1.2 Creating a new model


When Tekla Structures starts, the Welcome to Tekla Structures dialog box appears. The dialog box
contains useful links to, for example, release notes and existing models.

gjpf Welcome to Tekla Structures

A TRIMBLE
TEKLA
COMPANY

V What's new in this release Getting started with Tekla Structures

___________

b Browse Tekla User Assistance Influence future development

________

New model Open model

....vsVlm

n Do not show this at startup Close


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To create a new model:
1. Click New model in the Welcome to Tekla Structures dialog box, or click File > New....
The New dialog box appears.

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New L3J

Save in: C:\T eklaStructuresModels\ Browse...


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Model name: Model_l

Model template: o
Model type: Single-user Server name: o
OK Cancel o
2. Enter the name of the model in the Model name box.
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Do not use special characters (/ \ .; : |) in model names.
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3. Define the folder where you want to save your model.
By default, Tekla Structures saves the models in the . . \TeklaStructuresM odels folder. If
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you want to save the model in another folder, click the Browse... button to browse for the model
folder.
4. In the Model type list, select either Single-user or Multi-user.
If you select Multi-user, enter the server name.
5. Click OK.
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Tekla Structures creates a 3D view using standard view properties. o
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1.3 Saving a model
Tekla Structures prompts you to save the open model when you close Tekla Structures. You should
save your model regularly to avoid losing any work.

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To save the model, click File > Save, or click la K . Tekla Structures saves the model and the
message database stored appears on the status bar.

Autosave automatically saves your model and drawings at set


intervals. To set the autosave interval, click Tools > Options >
Options... > General.

1.4 Saving a model with a different name


To save a copy of a model with a different name:
1. Click File > Save as... to open the Save as dialog box.
2. Enter the new model name in the Model name box.
3. If you want to save the model in a different folder, click the Browse... button to browse for the
folder.
4. In the Save as dialog box, click OK to save the model.

When you save the model with a different name, all the GUID
object identifiers of the saved model will change and be different
than in the original model.

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1.5 Opening a model
To open a model:

1. Click File > Open..., or click


The Open dialog box appears.
You can only have one model open at a time. If you already have a model open, Tekla Structures
prompts you to save that model.
2. In the Open dialog box, select the model.
To open a recently used model, use the Model name list box.
To open a recently used model folder, use the Look in list box.
To search for models in another folder, click Browse.... By default, Tekla Structures searches
for models in the . . \TeklaStructuresM odels folder.
3. Click OK to open the model.
If no views are visible after you have opened a model, Tekla Structures prompts you to select
one.

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The information in the Designer and Description columns comes from
the Project Properties dialog box.

1.6 Model created in a previous version


Tekla Structures displays a warning when you open a model that was created in a previous Tekla
Structures version.

HHjj^s
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Model Created with Previous Release \w3m\

| ^ This model was created using a previous release.


If you save it with this release, you will no longer be able to open it in previous releases.

OK

You can open the model by clicking OK.


If you edit the model and want to save it, the following warning appears:

Tekla Structures - C:\TeklaStructuresModels\New model 5

This model was created using a previous release.


' If you save it now, you will no longer be able to open it in previous releases.

Do you want to continue?

No

You have two options:


If you click Yes, the model is saved and it cannot be opened with the previous Tekla Structures
version anymore.
If you click No, the model is not saved. You can open and edit the model with the Tekla
Structures version in which the model was initially created.

We recommend that you complete any models you have started


using your current Tekla Structures version. Custom components
and drawings created in an older version may not work properly in a
newer Tekla Structures version.

1.7 Moving around in the view


There are several tools you can use to change what you see in a view.

Zooming The zoom tools allow you to focus in on a particular area, or pull out for a wider view.
Use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out in the model: scroll forward to zoom in, scroll backward to
zoom out.
You can also zoom by clicking View > Zoom and selecting an option.

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Panning To pan, hold down the middle mouse button. When the mouse pointer changes to a hand symbol,
click and drag the model to move it anywhere in the view.
To activate or disable the middle button pan, click Tools > Options > Middle Button Pan, or press
Shift+M . There is a checkmark next to the menu command when the middle button pan is active.

Rotating To rotate using the middle mouse button:


1. Hold down Ctrl and click and drag with the middle mouse button to rotate the model.
2. To relocate the center of rotation, press v, and then pick a position in the view.
Tekla Structures rotates the model around this view point.
To automatically set the rotation center:
1. Click Tools > Options > Automatic Rotation Center to switch on automatic rotation centering.
2. Hold down Ctrl and click and drag with the middle mouse button to rotate the model.
The rotation center is automatically set at the location you clicked.

When Automatic Rotation Center is switched off, you can


temporarily activate it by holding down Ctrl + Sh ift while you click
and drag with the middle mouse button.

1 .8 Model views
A view is a representation of a model from a specific location. Each view is displayed in its own
window in the Tekla Structures. There are several types of views. For example, you can create views
of the entire model
of selected parts and components
of selected assemblies and cast units
along grid lines.

View properties To define the view properties, click View > View Properties.... The View Properties dialog box appears.
View Properties

Save Load standard w Save as standard

Vi p w
[7] Name: 3d

0 Angle: g ] 3D H ! Rotation around Z: -109.25

[V] Projection: Orthogonal G3 Rotation around X: 23.75

Representation

[3 Color and transparency in all views: standard 'r Representation,

Visibility
View depth: 0 Up: j 25000.00
[7] Down: 2000.00

3 Visibility of object types: Display...

Visible object group: standard Object group...

OK Apply Modify Get wjr Cancel

The View Properties dialog box contains the following options:

Option Description
Name Name of the view. You should give a view a unique name
if you need to open it in later sessions. When you exit
the model, Tekla Structures only saves named views.

Angle Switch between the 3D and Plane angle.

Projection Switch between the Orthogonal and Perspective


projection.

Rotation around Z Rotation angle around the z axis.

Rotation around X Rotation angle around the x axis.

Color and transparency Color and transparency settings that are applied to
in all views object groups in all views.

View depth: Up View depth upwards from the view plane. The objects
within the displayed depth and the work area are visible
in the model.

View depth: Down View depth downwards from the view plane. The objects
within the displayed depth and the work area are visible
in the model.

Visibility of object types Define the visibility and representation of object types.

Visible object group Define the visibility of object groups.

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1.9 Display
You can set the visibility and representation of objects in the Display dialog box. To open the Display
dialog box, click View > View Properties..., and then click Display... in the View Properties dialog box.
The Display dialog box contains the Settings and Advanced tabs.

Settings tab Set the visibility of objects on the Settings tab. You can also select the representation mode of model
parts and components.

Display

Settings Advanced

Visibility Representation

In model In components
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All
Points

Parts Exact

Sh ad ed wi re f ram e

In components: Shaded wire frame


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Bolts Fast

Holes 0 Exact

Welds 0 Fast

Construction planes [T] Exact


0

Reinforcing bars 0 Exact


0

Surface treatment

Loads 0
Cuts and added material m
Fittings 0
Component symbols

Grids

Construction lines

Reference objects

OK Apply Modify Get F/r Cancel

The Fast option is the recommended representation mode for bolts. It increases display speed
significantly and consumes less system memory. The Fast option displays the axis and a cross to
represent the bolt head.

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The Exact option show s bolts, washers, and nuts as solids.

Advanced tab Set the visibility of a part center line, part reference line, part labels and connection texts on the
Advanced tab.
You can also define the size of points in views. In model increases the point size on the screen when
you zoom in. In view does not.

Sometimes the work area in the model can be huge because points
are positioned far away from the origin of the model. To easily
locate these points for deletion, change the Point size to 1000 or
1500.

1.10 Creating a basic view


Basic views are views parallel to the global basic planes, i.e. xy, xz, and zy. In basic views two axes
always define the view plane and they appear in the plane name. The third axis is perpendicular to
the view plane. It does not appear in the plane name. In the basic plane view, the model is shown
from the direction of that third axis.
The view plane options for basic views are:

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1. Click View > Create View of Model > Basic View... or


The Create Basic View dialog box appears.

Create Basic View

Plane: XV

Coordinate: 10.00
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Create Cancel

2. Select the plane parallel to the view plane.


3. Enter the level coordinate of the view plane.
4. Click Create.
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Tekla Structures creates the basic view. The active properties of the View Properties dialog box are
o used in the view.

.0
1.11 Creating a top view
To create a top view:
1. Click View > View Properties... to open the View Properties dialog box.
2. Select plane from the list next to the Load button. Click Load.
The properties are changed.
3. Click OK.

4. Click View > Create View of Model > Basic View... or to open the Create Basic View dialog
box.
5. Enter the level distance in the Coordinate box.
For example, if you want that the plane view is at level +4500, enter 4500 in the box.

19
I )

O
m O
Create Basic View M&J
o
o
o
o

6. Click Create to create the top view. o


o
1.12 Moving a plane in a top view o
To move a plane in a top view:
1. Click the view. o
A red frame appears around the view. The view is now selected.
2. Right-click and select Move > Linear....
The Move - Linear dialog box appears.
3. Enter the moving distance in the dZ box and click Move.
The Confirm View Move dialog box appears.

Confirm view move

/A You are about to move the view plane of the selected view. o
/ !\ Are you sure you want to do that?
0
T V a S I No
o
4. Click Yes. Q
The plane moves.
0
If you want to change the name of the view, double-click the view and enter the name in the View 1\
Properties dialog box.

o
1.13 Creating a grid view using two points
To create a grid view using two points:
o
1. Hold down Sh ift and click View > Create View of Model > Using Two Points or double-click (D o
The View Properties dialog box appears.
2. Select plane from the list next to the Load button and click Load.
G
The view properties are loaded.
3. Click OK.
4. Pick the first point on a grid line. o
Two arrows appear. The arrows indicate the direction of the view.
o

o
20
V .)
o

5. When the direction is correct, pick the second point on the grid line.
A new view is created. The view uses the loaded properties.

1 . 1 4 Opening, closing, and deleting views


Use the Views dialog box to open, close, and delete views that have a name. To open the dialog box,

click View > View List... or c t

Select and move views between the lists to control visibility.


To select multiple views, hold down ctrl -key while selecting.

Named views: Visible views:


p Igrid i 3D
o GRID 2
GRID 3
GRID 4
GRID 5
GRID 6
GRID A
GRID B Delete
GRID C
GRID D
GRID E

OK

The Named views list contains the named views that are closed.

When you create a view, give the view a name. Temporary views
have a default name in parentheses. Do not use parentheses when
naming a view, or the view will not be saved for later use.

Opening a view To open a view, select the view in the Named views list and click the arrow to move it to the Visible
views list.

21
)

The number of the named views is unlimited, but the maximum


number of open views is nine.

Closing a view To close a view, move the view from the Visible views list to the Named views list.

Deleting a view To delete a view, select the view and click Delete.

To select multiple views on lists, use Shift or Ctrl when you select
views. To deselect views, hold down Ctrl.

1.15 Changing part representation in model views


You can define separately how Tekla Structures displays parts and component objects.
Use the shortcuts Ctrl+1 ...5 and Shift+1 ...5 to set the desired representation for parts in the model
and objects in the components.

Example o
o
o

o
o

o
G
Shaded wireframe (Ctrl+2) (J

Rendered (Ctrl+4)

22
)

1.16 Rollover highlight


When you move the mouse pointer over objects in model views, Tekla Structures highlights the
objects in yellow, so that you can easily see which objects you can select.

To switch rollover highlight on or off, do one of the following:


Press H.
Click Tools > Options > Rollover Highlight.

1.17 Common buttons


Most of the Tekla Structures dialog boxes contain buttons that do the same thing in all dialog
boxes. These common buttons are:

Button Description
Retains the properties in the dialog box without closing
0 Apply
the dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the
next time you create an object of this type.

Closes the dialog box without retaining the properties in


Cancel
the dialog box or modifying objects.

Creates a new object using the properties in the dialog


Create
box.

Fills the dialog box with the properties of the selected


Get
object. When you select several objects, Tekla Structures
takes the properties at random from one of the selected
objects.

Help... Displays the help for the dialog box.

Modifies the selected objects using the properties in the


Modify
dialog box, but does not retain the properties in the dialog
box.

Retains the properties in the dialog box and closes the


OK
dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the next
time you create an object of this type.

Switches all the check boxes in the dialog box on and off.
F/r
Ji
J
23

J
j
o
o 2.1 Grids
The Tekla Structures grids are rectangular, and they are shown on the view plane as dash-and-dot
lines. Using grids makes it easy to create a model and to place objects in the model.
When you create a new model, Tekla Structures creates a default grid, which can be modified. You
can have one or more grids for one model. You can create one large grid for the entire model and
one or more smaller grids for detailed sections. You can also create single grid lines and attach them
to an existing grid.

2.2 Creating a grid


To create a grid:
1. Click Modeling > Create Grid....
The Grid dialog box appears.

Grid

Save Load standard Save as standard

Coordinates
0 X 0.00 5*7200.00

0 Y 0.00 5*6000.00

0.00 3600.00 7200.00

Labels
0 X 123456
________ -
U Y a b c d e f

0 Z +0 +3600 +7200

Line extensions Origin


Left/Below Right/Above

ID 2000.00 0X0 0.00

012000.00 0YO OJOO

0 2000.00 0ZO 0.00


Magnetism
0 Magnetic grid plane O

Other settings
User-defined attributes...

Create Modify Get w/r Close

2. Adjust the grid properties by entering the x, y, and z coordinates and the labels for the grid lines.
The coordinates in the x and y directions are relative distances. The coordinates in the z
direction are absolute distances.

J 27
Use spaces to separate the coordinate values. Enter zero as the first
coordinate value to show the first grid line on the 0,0 coordinate.
Do not use spaces except to separate dimensions or values. Tekla
Structures views a space as an indicator of a new value.

3. Adjust other grid properties if necessary:


Select Magnetic grid plane to bind objects to grid lines.
You can lock the grid parameters to prevent accidental changes. To lock the grid
parameters, click the User-defined attributes... button and choose Yes from the Locked list.
4. Click Create.
5. Click Close.

Creating a second grid


You can create a second grid with a different origin.
You need to have created a grid before you begin creating a second grid.
To create a second grid:
1. Click Modeling > Create Grid....
The Grid dialog box appears.
2. Enter the origin coordinate values in the XO, YO, and ZO boxes in the Origin area. You can also
pick a point in the view and set it as the origin.

The origin of the second grid must be different from the origin of
the first grid.

3. Enter the grid coordinates and labels.


4. Click OK.
You now have two grids with different origins.
o
2.4 Creating a grid on a shifted work plane
The current work plane defines the local coordinate system of a Tekla Structures model. You can
shift the work plane to any position by picking points, parallel to one of the global basic planes, or
on a part or view plane. The current work plane is model specific so it is related to all views.

/
/
1/

You can create a new grid and rotate the grid according to a shifted
work plane. This makes it easier to model in the shifted work plane.

2.5 Adding a grid line to an existing grid


To add a single grid line to an existing grid:
1. Click Modeling > Add Grid Line.
o __ _
1lj
2. Ensure that the Select grid selection switch - - is active.
3. Select an existing grid and attach the grid line to it.
o 4. Pick the start point of the grid line.
5. Pick the end point of the grid line.

2.6 Modifying a grid line


To modify a single grid line:

1. Ensure that the Select grid line selection switch is active.


2. Double-click a grid line.
The Grid Line Properties dialog box appears.
3. Modify the grid line properties.
4. Click Modify to save the changes.

2.7 Work area


The work area is the main area where you can edit the model. Tekla Structures indicates the work
area of a view using green dashed lines.

29
W

You can define the work area to suit particular situations, for example, to concentrate on a o
particular area of the model. Defining the work area makes it faster and easier to work with the
model. Objects outside the work area still exist, but they are not visible. o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
Work area o
o
The arrow symbol indicates the work plane.
o

The green cube in a model view represents the global coordinate system. It is
located at the global point of origin.

o
2.8 Creating plane views along grid lines
To create plane views along grid lines:
1. Click View > Create View of Model > Along Grid Lines....
The Creation of Views Along Grids Lines dialog box appears.

30
o
o
o
: Creation of Views Along Grid Lines

ISave Load standard Save as standard

View plane Number of views View name prefix View properties

XY All I PLAN Grid-Plan Show...

ZY All GRID Grid-Elevation Show...

XZ All GRID Grid-Elevation Show...

OK Create Cancel

2. Define the settings you need.


For example, you can define the number of views and the view name prefixes.
3. Click Create.
The Views dialog box appears.

Select and move views between the lists to control visibility.


To select multiple views,. hold down ctrl -key while selecting,

Named views: Visible views:

II GRID l
_>
3D
GRID 2
GRID 3
GRID 4 r-
GRID S
GRID 6 [ + :
GRID A :
GRID B Delete
GRID C
GRID D
GRID E
*

OK

4. To display the views, move views from the Named views list to the Visible views list.
The direction of all views is -x, +y, and -z.

31
LESSON 3
3.1 Steel parts
You can create steel parts by using the buttons on the Steel toolbar, or by selecting a command from
the Modeling menu.

Button Command Description

Ia Column Creates a steel column at a picked point.

Is Beam

Polybeam
Creates a steel beam between two picked points.

Creates a steel beam consisting of straight and curved


segments.

Curved Beam Creates a steel beam with its radius defined by three
picked points.

Contour Plate Creates a contour plate based on picked points forming a


<39 contour.

M
Orthogonal Creates a steel beam orthogonal to the work plane in a
Beam picked point.

Twin Profile Creates a twin profile between two picked points. A twin
profile consists of two beams.

3.2 Creating a steel column


To create a steel column:

1. Click the Create column n button.


2. Pick a point to place the column in the model.
The column is created.

j
3.3 Creating a steel beam
You can create steel beams, compression bars, wind bracings, plates and tubes with the Create beam
command.
To create a steel beam:

1. Click the Create beam button.


2. Pick the start point.
3. Pick the end point.
The beam is created.

35
o

When you create horizontal parts, such as beams, be consistent and


always pick points from left to right, and from bottom to top. This
ensures that Tekla Structures places and dimensions the parts in the
same way in drawings, and that part marks automatically appear at
the same part end.

3.4 Creating a curved steel beam O


A curved beam is a beam which runs through three points. The radius of the curved beam is
automatically calculated on the basis of the picked points. o
To create a curved steel beam:

1. Click the Create curved beam J button.


2.
3.
Pick the start point.
Pick a point on the arc.
o
4. Pick the end point.
The curved beam is created.
o
3.5 Creating a steel polybeam o
A polybeam is a part which runs through several points.

o
o
o
o
To create a steel polybeam:

1. Click the Create polybeam button.


2. Pick the points you want the beam to go through.
3. Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking. (J
The polybeam is created.
o
)

Do not enter any values for the Radius or the Number of segments in
_ the polybeam properties dialog box.
V

Curved sections You can create curved segments for polybeams. Use chamfering to create the curved segments.

o
o
o
36
o
G

o
To ensure that you will have correct information in NC files, create
polybeams a little shorter than needed (1). Fit them afterwards or
connect them by using a component (2).

Folded plates Folded plates need to be modeled as polybeams. You can modify the shape of a folded plate by
selecting an appropriate chamfer symbol in the Chamfer Properties dialog box.

3.6 Creating an orthogonal steel beam


Orthogonal beams are positioned orthogonally to the work plane.
To create an orthogonal steel beam:
1. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Orthogonal Beam.
2. Pick a point to place the beam in the model.
The orthogonal beam is created.

3.7 Creating a steel twin profile


A twin profile consists of two identical beams. Define the positions of both beams by selecting the
twin profile type and setting the clearance between the beams in two directions.
To create a steel twin profile:
1. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Twin Profile.
2. Pick the start point.
3. Pick the end point.
The twin profile is created.

3.8 Creating a steel contour plate


Contour plates are free-form shaped plates.
To create a steel contour plate:

1. Click the Create contour plate button.


2. Pick the start point.
3. Pick the corner points of the contour plate.
4. Pick the start point again, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
The contour plate is created.

37
Adding a corner to a contour plate
To add a corner to a contour plate:
1. Select the contour plate to which you want to add a corner.
2. Click Detailing > Modify Polygon Shape.
3. Pick an existing corner (1).
4. Pick a new corner (2).
5. Pick another existing corner (3).

'

Alternatively, modify a part by right-clicking the part and selecting


Modify from the pop-up menu. You can then move the handles.
You can also move the handles using drag-and-drop or the Move
command.
3.10 Removing a corner from a contour plate
To remove a corner from a contour plate:
1. Select the contour plate from which you want to remove a corner.
2. Click Detailing > Modify Polygon Shape.
3. Pick an existing corner (1).
4. Pick another existing corner (2).
5. Pick the corner to be removed (3).

Alternatively, modify a part by right-clicking the part and selecting


Modify from the pop-up menu. You can then move the handles.
You can also move the handles using drag-and-drop or the Move
command.

3.11 Setting the contour plate orientation


You can set the contour plate main axis to follow the line created by the first and second points you
have picked. This enables you to manually define the plate orientation in drawings and reports.
To set the contour plate orientation:
1. Create the contour plate.
The first and second points you pick define the main axis of the plate.

39
()
o

o

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
First picked point o
Second picked point
o
o
2.
3.
Double-click the plate to open the Contour Plate Properties dialog box.
Click the User-defined attributes... button and go to the Orientation tab.
o
4. Select From 1st to 2nd creation point from the Main axis direction list. o
Tekla Structures Contour plate (1) o
Parameters W o rkflo w End C onditions Analysis
'
IFC export O rientation
------------------------------ \
General Design
o
Main axis direction [7J From 1st to 2nd cn
o
5. Click Modify and OK to close the dialog box.
6. Click OK to close the Contour Plate Properties dialog box.
7. Click Drawings Et Reports > Numbering > Number Modified Objects to update numbering. o
8. Create a single-part drawing of the contour plate to view the orientation.
o
o
o

o

o
40
o
o
o
0 Main axis direction is Automatic.

Main axis direction is From 1st to 2nd creation point.

3.12 Concrete parts


You can create concrete parts by using the buttons on the Concrete toolbar, or selecting a command
from the Modeling menu.

Concrete H)

[m a a - *= ^

"*') Button Command Description

m dt
Pad Footing Creates a pad footing at a picked point.

Strip Footing Creates a strip footing that traverses the picked points.

p
Column Creates a concrete column at a picked point.
D
j

0 m Beam Creates a concrete beam between two picked points.

0 Polybeam Creates a concrete beam consisting of straight and curved


segments.

Slab Creates a concrete slab based on picked points forming a


K contour.

j Panel Creates a concrete panel that traverses the picked points.


D

3.13 Creating a concrete column


To create a concrete column:

1. Click the Create concrete column n


II button.
2. Pick a point to place the column in the model.
The column is created.

41
u
o

3.14 Creating a concrete beam o


To create a concrete beam:

1. Click the Create concrete beam button.


2. Pick the start point.
3. Pick the end point.
The beam is created.
o
o
When you create horizontal parts such as beams be consistent and o
always pick points from left to right and from bottom to top. This
ensures that Tekla Structures places and dimensions the parts in the o
same way in drawings, and that part marks automatically appear at
the same part end.

o
3.15 Creating a concrete pad footing o
To create a concrete pad footing:
o
1. Click the Create pad footing button. o
2. Pick a point to place the pad footing in the model.
The pad footing is created.

3.16 Creating a concrete strip footing o


To create a concrete strip footing:
o
1. Click the Create strip footing IJHBIbutton. o
2.
3.
Pick the points you want the strip footing to go through.
Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
o
The strip footing is created. o
Curved sections You can create curved sections for strip footings. Use the chamfer feature to create the curved
sections.

3.17 Creating a concrete panel o


To create a concrete panel: o
1. Click the Create concrete panel " button.
2. Pick the points you want the panel to go through.
3. Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
The concrete panel is created. o
Curved sections You can create curved sections for concrete panels. Use the chamfer feature to create the curved
sections.

42
o
Q

O
3.18 Creating a concrete slab
To create a concrete slab:

1. Click the Create concrete slab button.


2. Pick the start point.
3. Pick the corner points of the slab.
4. Pick the start point again.
The concrete slab is created.

You can also model floors, walls and panels with the concrete slabs.

3.19 Creating a concrete polybeam


To create a concrete polybeam:

1. Click the Create concrete polybeam button.


2. Pick the points you want the polybeam to go through.
3. Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
The polybeam is created.

Curved sections You can create curved sections for polybeams. Use the chamfer feature to create the curved
sections.

3.20 Snapping
Most Tekla Structures commands ask you to pick points to position objects.
Snap switches specify exact locations on objects, for example, end points, midpoints, and
intersections. Snap switches help you to pick points to position objects precisely without having to
know the coordinates or create additional lines or points. You can use snap switches any time Tekla
Structures prompts you to specify a point, for example, if you are creating a beam.

3.21 Snap switches


The snap switches are located on the Snapping toolbar.
............. ........--V ;
Snapping D

GO I I(3 as
A u to View plane O utline planes - I
Main snap The two main snap switches define whether you can snap to reference points or any other points on
switches objects. If both these switches are off, you cannot snap to any positions, even if all the other
switches are on.
n

Button Snap positions Description Symbol


Reference lines You can snap to Large
and points object reference
points (points that
have handles).

o
o
Geometry lines You can snap to Small
and points any points on
objects.

o
o
o
o
Other snap You can have Tekla Structures display the snap symbols when you move the mouse pointer over
switches objects. The snap symbol is yellow for model objects and green for objects inside components.
o
Button Snap positions Description Symbol

m Points Snaps to points and grid


line intersections. |*|
End points Snaps to end points of lines, o
polyline segments, and arcs.
o
Centers Snaps to centers of circles
|Q] and arcs. O o
Midpoints Snaps to midpoints of lines,
* polyline segments, and arcs. A
Intersections Snaps to intersections of
X! lines, polyline segments, X
arcs, and circles.

M
Perpendicular Snaps to points on objects
that form a perpendicular s o
alignment with another
object. o
Ml
Line extensions Snaps to the line extensions
of nearby objects, and X
reference and geometry
lines of drawing objects.

o
44
o

o
( )

Button Snap positions Description Symbol

o Free Snaps to any position.

Nearest point Snaps to the nearest points


x on objects, e.g. any point on
part edges or lines.

Lines Snaps to grid lines,


reference lines, and the
edges of existing objects.

Make sure that you do not have too many snap switches on when
snapping. Having too many snap switches on may easily lead to
inaccuracies and errors in snapping.

n
Be particularly careful.when you use the Free snap switch.

3.22 Dimensions in snapping


When you create objects, you can see the dimensions when you snap to points. This is useful, for
example, when you create beams of certain length.

J
Zoom level affects the precision of snapping. To snap on smaller
distances, zoom in.

3.23 Orthogonal snapping


Use the shortcut 0 or click Tools > Ortho to activate orthogonal snapping. The mouse pointer locks
to the closest orthogonal point on the plane (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 degrees, and so on). The mouse
pointer automatically snaps to positions at even distances in the given direction.

3.24 Measuring distances, angles, and bolt spaces


You can measure distances, angles, radius and length of an arc, and bolt spaces. All measurements
are temporary. The measurements appear until you update or redraw the view. Before you start
measuring, make sure that you are using appropriate snap settings.
The following measurement options are available:

Horizontal distance
Vertical distance
Distance
Angle
Arc
Bolt spaces
To measure distances, angles, arcs, and bolt spaces:
1. Click Tools > Measure, or click one of the measurement buttons.
2. Follow the instructions on the status bar. The instructions vary according to the measurement
option you selected.

When you measure horizontal and vertical distances, use a plane


view. To switch to the plane view, press Ctrl+P.

3.25 Mini Toolbar


You can modify the most common properties of modeling objects with the commands on the Mini
Toolbar.
The Mini Toolbar appears next to the mouse pointer when you select an object and fades out when
you move the mouse further away or change the selection. You can change the position of the
toolbar by dragging it and locking it to a new position with the lock button in the top-right corner.

46
COLUMN 400*400 C40/50 1 (Phase 1) 15=191

.3000.00

To show or hide the Mini Toolbar, click Tools > Options > Mini Toolbar. The keyboard shortcut for
showing or hiding the Mini Toolbar is Ctrl+K.

3.26 Mini Toolbar examples


Modifying a In this example you will modify the profile of a column using the Mini Toolbar:
profile
1. Select the column.
The Mini Toolbar appears next to the mouse pointer.

j COLUMN 400*400 C40/50 1 (Phase 1) l"-M

|l b ^

3 0 0 0 .0 0

2. Move the pointer over the Mini Toolbar.


3. Modify the profile in the Mini Toolbar and press Enter.
The profile of the column is changed.

47
(;

o
O
COLUMN 800*200 1 (Phase 1)
o
o
o
o
Changing the part In this example you will modify the position of a beam using the commands on the Mini Toolbar:
position
1. Click on the Mini Toolbar.
A window with additional options appears.

BEAM 800*400 C40/50 1 (Phase 1)


I a g

o
o

o
G
Position selection dial
O
o
Rotation angle knob
o
0 Angle

Plane offset
o
Depth offset
o
2. To change the overall position of the beam, use the round selection dial. Click and drag to select
a position.
3. To change the rotation angle, click and drag the green rotation angle knob.
4. To change the Angle, Plane offset, or Depth offset, enter a value in the corresponding box.
J

48
u

Q
3.27 Customizing Mini Toolbar
You can customize the Mini Toolbar by selecting which commands are visible, and by adding macros
and user-defined attributes to the toolbar.
To customize the Mini Toolbar:
1. Move the mouse pointer on the Mini Toolbar to display it.
2. Click jfEjto open the Customize Mini Toolbar dialog box.
3. Select the elements you wish to show or hide.
The Preview field shows what the toolbar will look like.
4. Include macros and user-defined attributes in the Mini Toolbar.
a Select a macro or user-defined attribute in the list of macros and user-defined
attributes.

You can only add user-defined attributes whose type is string. You
can find out the type of user-defined attributes in the
obj e cts . inp file.

b Click Add to Mini Toolbar after each selected macro and user-defined attribute.
The added macros and user-defined attributes are shown in the list of visible elements.
c To remove macros and user-defined attributes from the Mini Toolbar, clear the check
boxes next to them in the list of visible elements.
5. Click OK.

Customize Mini Toolbar


-----
Choose minitool bar to customize
Beams, Columns

Choose which elements are visible


[71 Name Preview
|71 Profile
171 Material
[71 Phase
[7] Class
[71 Position
0 Numbering series
0 Inquire object
[71 Create 3D vie*
BEAM
[71 Create default views
[71 Cop/ properties
[7] Apply properties to all
[71 Open properties

.Add Macros and User defined


attributes

A id to Mini Toolbar

Cancel
f~ ~ *

49
3.28 Part properties
In addition to the Mini Toolbar, you can use the part properties dialog box to view or modify the
properties of a part.
To open a part properties dialog box, double-click the toolbar button of the part, or click Modeling >
Properties and select an option.

Attributes tab The Attributes tab includes options for entering the name and defining the material of the part, for
example.

Concrete Beam Properties

Save Load standard 'r Save as

Attributes Position Cast u n it D eform ing

0 Name BEAM

13 Shape 800*400 Select...

0 Material Concrete_Undefined 1 Select...

0 Finish

171 Class 6
0 User-defined attributes...

OK A pp ly M o d ify Get wjr Cancel

Option Description
Name The name of the part is user-definable. Tekla Structures uses
part names in reports and in the Drawing List, and to identify
parts of the same type, for example, beams or columns.

Profile / Shape Enter the profile of the part. Click the button next to the box to
select the profile from the catalog.

Material Enter the material of the part. Click the button next to the box
to select the material from the catalog.

Finish Finish is user-definable. It describes how the part surface has


been treated, for example, with fire retardant coating.

Class Use Class to group parts with different colors.

50
u
o
Option Description
User-defined User-defined attributes provide extra information about a part.
attributes Attributes can consist of numbers, text, or lists. Click User-
defined attributes... to enter user-defined attributes.

Position tab The Position tab contains options for defining the placement of the part. The available options vary
from part to part.

o Concrete Beam Properties

o Save Load standard Save as i I


o A ttribu te s Position Cast u n it Deforming

Position

0 On plane: M id d le 0.00

[71 Rotation T op 0.00

7] A t depth: Behind 0.00

End Offset
3 Start End

Dx [7] 0.00
D
Dy [Tj 0.00
D Dz [7] 0.00 0.00

O Curved beam

IV) Radius: XY plane 0.00

N u m be r o f segments: 1

OK A p p ly M o d ify Get w/r Cancel

Option Description
Position The Position area contains options for defining the location of
the part relative to its reference point or the work plane.

Levels For parts that you create by picking only one point (for
example, columns), you can enter the positions of the part
ends, relative to the picked point, in the global z direction. Use
Bottom to define the position of the first end. Use Top to define
the position of the second end. For example, the height of a
column is defined with the entered values.

End offset Use end offsets to move the ends of a part, relative to its
reference line. You can enter positive and negative values.

Curved beam Define the curvature of the part by entering the radius and the
plane of curvature.

51
3.29 Modifying part properties
You can modify part properties before you create parts. You can also modify the properties of the
created parts.

Modifying 1. Open the part properties dialog box either by


properties before double-clicking the toolbar button of the part,
creating parts
holding down Shift and clicking the button of the part, or
clicking Modeling > Properties and selecting a command.
2. Modify the properties as required.
3. Click Apply or OK.
The modified properties are used when you create parts of the same type.

Modifying 1. Double-click a part.


properties of a The part properties dialog box appears.
created part
2. Modify the properties as required.
3. Click Modify to apply the modified properties to the part.
4. Click Cancel to close the dialog box.

If you click OK to close the dialog box, the modified properties are
used the next time you create parts of the same type.

A quick way to modify the properties of a part is using the Mini


Toolbar.

Modifying one 1. Double-click a part to open the properties dialog box.


property in 2. Click the switch on/switch off button to clear all selections from the check boxes next to the
several parts at
the same time properties.
3. Select the check box next to the property that you want to change, for example Class.
4. Change the Class value.
Leave the dialog box open.
5. Select all parts the Class of which you want to change.
6. Click Modify in the part properties dialog box.
7. Click Cancel to close the dialog box.

3.30 Selecting multiple objects


You can select multiple objects simultaneously. To select multiple objects (area selection), do one of
the following:
Hold down the mouse button and drag the mouse from left to right to select the objects that
are completely within that rectangular area.

52
Hold down the mouse button and drag the mouse from right to left to select the objects that
are completely or partly within that rectangular area.

To define how area selection works, click Tools > Options > Crossing
Selection.
When the option is off, the dragging direction affects the selection
of objects, as described above. By default, the option is off.
When the option is on, all objects that fall at least partially inside
the rectangular area are selected, regardless of the dragging
direction.

3.31 Hiding selected parts


You can quickly hide selected parts in a view. This can be useful, for example, when you want to
temporarily hide parts in order to see the parts behind them.
To hide selected parts:
1. Click View > Hide Part.
2. Select the parts you want to hide.

53
V
o

o
o

o
o
o

by

o
3. To make the parts visible again, do one of the following: o
Click View > Redraw All.
Right-click and select Redraw view.

o
3.32 Hiding unselected parts o
To hide all unselected parts in a view:
1. Select the parts that you want to keep visible.
o
o
(j
o
o

2. Right-click and select Show Only Selected.

54
o
o
o
( )

To completely hide the unselected parts, hold down Sh ift when


selecting the command.
To show the unselected parts as sticks, hold down Ctrl when
selecting the command.
o
3. To make the parts visible again, do one of the following:
Click View > Redraw All.
Right-click and select Redraw View.

3.33 Moving start and end points


Tekla Structures indicates the direction of a part with handles. When you select a part, Tekla
Structures highlights the handles. The handle of the start point is yellow, the rest are magenta.

Start point

2) End point

55
You can move the start and end points by using the End offset options in the part properties dialog
box.

Concrete Beam Properties

Load standard Save as

Attributes Position Cast unit Deforming

Position
3 On plane: Middle o.oo

Top -0.00

Behind - 0.00 J
Start End

(3 0.00 U i'ooo
13 o.oo 0 0.00
13 looo.oo 13 1 0 0 0 .0 0
D

Do not use the Dx, Dy and Dz options on the Position tab for
extending or shortening a part.

3.34 Extending and shortening parts


To extend and shorten parts:

1. Ensure that the Snap to part extension lines switch is active.


2. Select the part that you want to extend or shorten.
You can see the part handles when the part is selected.
3. Drag a handle to extend or shorten the part.
Drag the handle along the blue dashed line (the line extension of the part). This way you do not
change the orientation of the part.

56
2. Go to the Deforming tab.
3. In the Start box, enter the angle of the beam at its start point, relative to the part reference line.
4. In the End box, enter the angle of the beam at its end point, relative to the part reference line.
For example, to warp the beam 45 degrees at the end point, enter o in the Start angle box and
45 in the End angle box.
5. Click Modify to warp the beam.

3.39 Cambering
You can use cambering to pre-camber parts, in other words, to curve long heavy sections that will
settle on site and become flat.
Use cambering to show the naturai camber of a prestressed part in a model. Cambering affects the
position of cuts, skews, and embeds in the model.
Tekla Structures cambers parts in the local z direction.
To camber a part:
1. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box.
2. Go to the Deforming tab.
3. In the Cambering box, define the degree of camber.
4. Click Modify.

3.40 Comer chamfers


When Tekla Structures creates a part, by default it has a rectangular chamfer at each corner, which
does not change the geometry of the part. You can modify the default chamfers.
Use the Chamfer command to shape the following parts: concrete and steel polybeams, contour
plates, strip footings, concrete slabs, and concrete panels.

The end points of a part do not have corner chamfers. The handles
that you select must be at corner points or between two segments
of a part.

60
You can see the dimension of extension or shortening when you drag the handle.

To extend or shorten parts by dragging, Drag and Drop must be


activated. When Drag and Drop is activated, the D letter is displayed
in the status bar.
To activate Drag and Drop, click Tools > Options > Drag and Drop, or
press the D key.

Alternatively, extend or shorten a part by right-clicking the selected


part and selecting Modify from the pop-up menu, and then drag the
handles.

3.35 Creating curved parts


You can create curved parts by defining a radius and the number of segments for a part. The number
of segments determines how realistic the curved part looks: the more segments, the less angular the
part appears.
To create a curved part:
1. Create a part that can be bent: a beam, panel, or strip footing.
2. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box.
3. Go to the Curved beam settings area.
These settings can be found either on the Position tab or on the Bending tab, depending on the
part type.
4. In the Radius box, enter the radius.
5. In the Number of segments box, enter the number of segments you want to use.
6. Click Modify to bend the part.

57
Examples

Number of segments: 2

Number of segments: 5

Number of segments: 15

3.36 Adding recesses to concrete parts


To add recesses to concrete parts, you can use the Cut part with polygon and Cut part with another
part commands. You can create more sophisticated recess shapes with the Cut part with another part
command.
To cut a recess with a part:
1. Create a recess-shaped part and position it through the concrete part you want to cut.
2. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Another Part.
3. Select the concrete part to be cut.
4. Select the cutting part.
The recess is created.
5. Delete the cutting part.
You can move, copy and modify the recess.
You can see the dimension of extension or shortening when you drag the handle.

To extend or shorten parts by dragging, Drag and Drop must be


activated. When Drag and Drop is activated, the D letter is displayed
in the status bar.
To activate Drag and Drop, click Tools > Options > Drag and Drop, or
press the D key.

Alternatively, extend or shorten a part by right-clicking the selected


part and selecting Modify from the pop-up menu, and then drag the
handles.

3.35 Creating curved parts


You can create curved parts by defining a radius and the number of segments for a part. The number
of segments determines how realistic the curved part looks: the more segments, the less angular the
J part appears.
To create a curved part:
1. Create a part that can be bent: a beam, panel, or strip footing.
2. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box.
3. Go to the Curved beam settings area.
These settings can be found either on the Position tab or on the Bending tab, depending on the
part type.
4. In the Radius box, enter the radius.
5. In the Number of segments box, enter the number of segments you want to use.
6. Click Modify to bend the part.

57
J
(J

o
Examples o
Number of segments: 2 o

>

s
o
Number of segments: 5
o

Number of segments: 15

JM : /

o
3.36 Adding recesses to concrete parts o
To add recesses to concrete parts, you can use the Cut part with polygon and Cut part with another
part commands. You can create more sophisticated recess shapes with the Cut part with another part
command.
To cut a recess with a part:
1. Create a recess-shaped part and position it through the concrete part you want to cut.
2. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Another Part.
3. Select the concrete part to be cut.
4. Select the cutting part. o
The recess is created.
5. Delete the cutting part.
You can move, copy and modify the recess. o
o
o

58
p
o

f)

Recess-shaped cutting part

3.37 Cambering and warping parts


The Deforming tab in part properties dialog box contains the options for cambering and warping
parts.

Warping

Cambering

3.38 Warping
To warp a beam:
1. Double-click the beam to open the part properties dialog box.

59
2. Go to the Deforming tab.
3. In the Start box, enter the angle of the beam at its start point, relative to the part reference line.
4. In the End box, enter the angle of the beam at its end point, relative to the part reference iine.
For example, to warp the beam 45 degrees at the end point, enter o in the Start angle box and
45 in the End angle box.
5. Click Modify to warp the beam.

3.39 Cambering
You can use cambering to pre-camber parts, in other words, to curve long heavy sections that will
settle on site and become flat.
Use cambering to show the natural camber of a prestressed part in a model. Cambering affects the
position of cuts, skews, and embeds in the model.
Tekla Structures cambers parts in the local z direction.
To camber a part:
1. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box.
2. Go to the Deforming tab.
3. In the Cambering box, define the degree of camber.
4. Click Modify.

3.40 Corner chamfers


When Tekla Structures creates a part, by default it has a rectangular chamfer at each corner, which
does not change the geometry of the part You can modify the default chamfers.
Use the Chamfer command to shape the following parts: concrete and steel polybeams, contour
plates, strip footings, concrete slabs, and concrete panels.

The end points of a part do not have corner chamfers. The handles
that you select must be at corner points or between two segments
of a part.

60
o

Tekla Structures creates chamfers using the active properties in the Chamfer Properties dialog box.
Click Detailing > Properties > Chamfer > Part Corner Chamfer... to open the dialog box, or double-click
an existing chamfer.

Option Description
Type Defines the shape of the chamfer.

X Defines the dimension of the chamfer.

y Defines the second dimension of straight chamfers.

dzl Moves the top surface of the part corner in the local z direction
of the part.

dz2 Moves the bottom surface of the part corner in the local z
direction of the part.

3.41 Chamfering example


To modify the thickness of a slab corner:
1. Double-click the handle on the slab corner to open the Chamfer Properties dialog box.

61
o
o
2. Enter the values in the dzl and dz2 boxes.
3. Click Modify.
o
The thickness of the corner is modified.
o

( I

o
o
o
o
o
n

3.42 Selection switches


You can control object selection by using the selection switches. The selection switches are located
on the Selecting toolbar.
o
o
o
The main selection switches control whether you can select components and assemblies, or objects
o
included in them. These switches have the highest priority:
o

The selection switches are described below:

Button Description
Turns all switches on. Select all object types, except
ilk! single bolts.

Select component symbols.


I:
A I

o
Select parts, such as columns, beams, and plates.
:
i i
o
Select surface treatments.

62
o
Eutton Description

Vo" Select points.


1 D D 1
1___1

Select entire grids by selecting one line in the grid.

E Select single grid lines.

Select welds.
i!i

m Select line, part, and polygon cuts, and fittings.

Select model views.

Select entire bolt groups by selecting one bolt in the


group.

Select single bolts.


:"b p ":
L _J

Select reinforcing bars and bar groups.


w
Select planes.

Select distances.
Fi
When you click any object belonging to a component,
Tekla Structures selects the component symbol and
highlights (does not select) all component objects.

Select objects created automatically by a component.


ilti
When you click any object in an assembly or a cast unit,
&] Tekla Structures selects the assembly or cast unit and
highlights all objects in the same assembly or cast unit.

Select single objects in assemblies and cast units.


iti
Select selection filters. The list contains both standard
alljilter and user-defined selection filters.

m Create your own selection filters.

63
Q

If you cannot pick, check which selection switches are active. In


addition to selection switches, selection filter settings affect which
9 objects you can select.

Use phases as a quick-selection tool: Open the Phase Manager,


select a phase and click Objects by phases. All the objects in the
9 selected phase are selected in the model.

3.43 Selection filters


By using selection filters you can select particular objects. Tekla Structures contains several o
selection filters by default. If you use, for example, the columns filter, you can only select columns in
the model. The Selection Filter list contains the standard and user-defined filters. o
Selecting

y i i . K j i* i iH i
li iit ' iigtj i~ i standard
standard
Beam_Concrete
Beam_Steel
Beams
Bracing
Column_Concrete
Column_Steel
Columns
Concrete
Footing
Pile o
Slab
Steel o
Timber
I angles
I beams
I'chs o
cleats
columns

Selection filters o

Click to open the Object Group - Selection Filter dialog box

Creating your
own filters
To create your own filters: o
o

(J
64
o

o
1. Click the Selection Filter button, or click Edit > Selection Filter... to open the Object Group -
Selection Filter dialog box.
2. Find a filter that has close to the same settings as you need.
3. Modify the settings, then enter a new name in the Save as box.
4. Click Save as, then OK to exit.
Do not use spaces in filter names.
You can now choose the new filter from the list.

3.44 Possible values in filtering


You can create filters that contain several properties. You can also have multiple filtering values for
each property.
If you use multiple values, separate the strings with blank spaces (for example, 1 2 5 ). If a value
consists of multiple strings, enclose the entire value in quotation marks (for example, "custom
panel"), or use a question mark (for example, custom?panel) to replace the space.
By using conditions, parentheses, and the And/Or option you can create filters that can be as
complex as needed.
Empty values are matched to empty properties in filtering.

3.45 Selection filter example


In this example you will create a selection filter that selects parts whose class is two:

'/sax-'
1. Click the Selection Filter '_% button, or click Edit > Selection Filter... to open the Object Group -
Selection Filter dialog box.
2. Select a row and click Delete row to remove the row.
Repeat this to every row.
3. Click Add row.
Now the Object Group - Selection Filter dialog box contains one row where you can define the
filter.
4- In the Property list, select Class.
5. In the Value list, enter 2 .
6. Enter a unique name in the box next to the Save as button.
7. Click Save as to save the selection filter.

65
1S ! ohif
Object Group - Selection Filter
Save/Load
Save Class 2 Save as
ED
Objects with matching properties can be selected

( Category Property Condition Value Add row


O
Delete row
O

Move up
O

Move down o
o
rrr New filter
o
OK Apply Cancel
o
Use the selection filter to select the parts whose class is two.

3.46 Selection examples


o
Selecting a cast In this example, a cast unit consists of two beams in different spans. A reinforcement (the Rebar in
ur|it beam (90) component) is added to the cast unit.

If you want to select the whole cast unit (the two beams with the reinforcement), ensure that the

H i! o
Select assemblies switch is active.
o

66
o
o

3 Scrolling cast unit To define the level on which to select objects in cast unit, hold down Sh ift and scroll with the
levels mouse wheel. Level 0 is the highest cast unit level.

67
Q

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
)
1 Level 0
o
Level 1 o
o
The level of the selected assembly is displayed on the status bar.
Level 0: o
T 0 Pan ||Current phase: 1 o

Level 1: o
T 1 I Pan E C u r r e n t phase: 1
o

Selecting objects This cast unit consists of two beams and reinforcement. o
for reports and
drawings
o

68
o
o
o

When you generate reports, drawings or other types of output of the cast unit, ensure that the

Select objects in components iJti switch is active. You can then select all the objects.
The Select components switch selects objects at the highest level. The reinforcement is
highlighted but not selected, and the information of the reinforcement is not displayed in the report
or drawing.

69

J
J
4.1 Copying and moving
You can copy and move objects linearly, with rotation, and with mirroring. Copying creates a new
object, leaving the existing object in its original position. Moving relocates the existing object.

Tekla Structures has the following options for copying and moving objects:

Command Description
Edit > Copy or Ctrl+C Copies selected objects.

Edit > Copy Special > Linear... Creates copies of selected objects at
a specified distance from the
original.

Edit > Copy Special > Rotate... Creates a copy and rotates it around
any line or around the work plane z
axis.

Edit > Copy Special > Mirror... Creates a mirrored copy of an object
through a specified plane.

Edit > Copy Special > To Another Creates a copy on another plane
Plane using three specified points.

Edit > Copy Special > To Another Copies selected objects from one
Object object to another.

Edit > Copy Special > From Another Copies selected objects from another
Model... model.

Command Description
Edit > Move or Ctrl+M Moves selected objects.

Edit > Move Special > Linear... Moves selected objects a specified
distance.

Edit > Move Special > Rotate... Moves the object and rotates it
around any line or around the work
plane z axis.

Edit > Move Special > Mirror... Mirrors the object and moves it
through a specified plane.

Edit > Move Special > To Another Moves the object using three
Plane specified points.

73
Q

o
Command Description
Edit > Move Special > To Another Moves selected objects from one
Object object to another.
o
4.2 Copying an object o
To copy an object: o

1. Select the objects you want to copy. o


2. Click Edit > Copy, or click . o
3. Pick the origin for the copying.
o
o

o
o
o
o

o
4. Pick one or more destination points.
o
o
o
o
o

o
o

The objects are copied immediately. o

5. To stop copying, click Edit > Interrupt or press Esc. o

o
o

4.3 Copying an object linearly to a new position


Linear copying creates one or several copies of a selected object at a specified distance from the
original. Use linear copying when you want to make many copies of objects at equal distances. For
example, use linear copying to create floors in a building.
To copy an object linearly to a new position:
1. Select the objects you want to copy.
2. Click Edit > Copy Special > Linear....
The Copy - Linear dialog box appears.
3. Use one of the two options for entering the desired distance:
Enter the distance directly in the Copy - Linear dialog box, or
Pick an origin point and a destination point to set the distance.
4. Enter the number of copies.
5. Click Copy.
The selected objects are copied in the selected destination.

If the dialog box is open but the command is not active anymore,
o click the Pick button to re-activate the command.
When you are done with copying, clear the value boxes by clicking
Clear to avoid copying new parts accidentally.

o 4.4 Copying and rotating an object


0 You can copy objects in a model by rotating them around any line you choose, or around the work
plane z axis.
To rotate an object:
1. Select the objects you want to copy.
O
2. Click Edit > Copy Special > Rotate....

o The Copy - Rotate dialog box appears.

o Copy - Rotate nEM


Origin Copy
XO 0.00 Number of copies 1

o Y0 0.00 dZ 0.00

Z0 0.00 Rotation

XI 0.00 Angle 180.00

Y1 0.00 Around

21 1.00

OK Copy Clear Cancel

3. Select Z or line in the Around list box to define whether you want to rotate around the z axis or
around a line.
4. Pick a point to define the rotation axis, or enter its coordinates in the Origin area.
5. Enter the number of copies.

75
6. If required, enter the dZ value, which is the difference in position between the original and
copied object in the z direction.
7. Enter the rotation angle.
8. Click Copy to copy and rotate the objects.

Example In the example:


dZ is the movement per step
Angle is the rotation per step
red arrow indicates the rotation point

Copy - Rotate p3*


Origin Copy
XO 3000.00 Number of copies 6

Y0 3000.00 200.00

Z0 0.00 Rotation
Angle 15.00

Y1 0.00 Around Z

Z1 0.00
fgrmm m immvnimnnN.
OK Copy.... | Clear Cancel

4.5 Copying and mirroring an object


When you copy an object, you can mirror it through a plane that is perpendicular to the work plane
and passes through a line you specify.

The Rotate command is always more preferable than the Mirror


command.
Tekla Structures cannot create mirrored copies of component
properties. The Edit > Copy Special > Mirror... command does not
fully mirror objects if they include components with, for example,
asymmetrically positioned parts.

To copy and mirror an object:

76
1. Select the objects you want to copy and mirror.
2. Click Edit > Copy Special > Mirror....
The Copy - Mirror dialog box appears.
3. Pick the start point of the mirroring plane, or enter its coordinates.
4. Pick the end point of the mirroring plane, or enter its coordinates.
5. Enter the angle.
6. Click Copy.
The objects are copied and mirrored.

Example

Start point

End point

4.6 Mirroring an asymmetrical column


When you mirror an asymmetrical column, the properties of the mirrored column are not
automatically correct.
To set the properties of a mirrored asymmetrical column:
1. Select the mirrored column.
2. Click Modeling > Properties > Steel Parts > Orthogonal Beam....
3. Click Get.
4. Click Modify.
5. Click OK.
The properties of the mirrored column are correct.

77

u
4.7 Copying an object to another plane
You can copy objects from the first plane you specify to the second (and third, etc.) plane using
three specified points.
To copy an object to another plane:
1. Select the objects you want to copy.
2. Click Edit > Copy Special > To Another Plane.
3. Pick the point of origin of the first plane.
4. Pick a point on the first plane in the positive x direction.
5. Pick a point on the first plane in the positive y direction.
6. Repeat steps 3 -5 for all destination planes.
+ 32861

+0

Ai B

Select the objects.

Define the origin and the position of the source object.

Define the origin and position of the target object.

Copied objects.

4.8 Copying an object to another object


You can copy objects from an object to other similar objects. This is useful, for example, when you
detail previously modeled parts. The objects that you can copy between can have different
dimensions, length, and rotation.
To copy an object to another object:
1. Select the objects you want to copy.

79
2. Right-click and select Copy Special > To Another Object
3. Select the object to copy from (source object).
4. Select the objects to copy to (target object).

4.9 Copying objects from another model with the


help of phases
You can copy whole phases from an existing model to another one. You can copy from another
model even when more than one person is working on the model. Tekla Structures only copies
secondary parts from the model if they belong to the same phase as their main part This applies to
both model and component objects.

Drawings cannot be imported with the model.

To copy objects from another model:


1. Click Edit > Copy Special > From Another Model....
2. Select the model to copy from in the Model directories list
3. Enter the numbers of the phases from which to copy objects, separated by spaces.
For example, 2 7.
4. Click Copy.
5. Close the dialog box.

When you enter several phases, separate the different phase


numbers with a space. !f additional phases are not created, all the
objects in the model are in phase one.

4.10 Moving an object


To move an object:
1. Select the objects you want to move.

2. Click Edit > Move, or click i J f c .


3. Pick the origin for moving.

80
4. Pick the destination point.

The objects are moved immediatelly.

4.11 Moving an object linearly


Linear moving moves the selected object a specified distance.
To move an object linearly to a new position:
1. Select the objects you want to move.
2. Click Edit > Move Special > Linear....
The Move - Linear dialog box appears.
3. Use one of the two options for entering the desired distance:
Enter the distance directly in the Move - Linear dialog box, or
Pick an origin point and a destination point to set the distance.
4. Click Move.
The selected objects are moved in the selected destination.

81
o

If the dialog box is open but the command is not active anymore,
click the Pick button to re-activate the command.
When you are done with the copying, clear the value fields by
clicking Clear to avoid copying new parts accidentally. O

O
4.12 Moving and rotating an object O
You can move objects in a model by rotating them around any line you choose, or around the work
plane z axis. O
To rotate an object:
1. Select the objects you want to move.
2. Click Edit > Move Special > Rotate.... o
3. The Move - Rotate dialog box appears.
o
^ Move - Rotate |m3wi|
Origin Rotation o
XO 0.00 Angle 180.00

Y0 0.00 Around
o
Z0 0.00
f J
XI 0.00 o
Y1 0.00 1 o
Z1 1.00

OK Move Clear Cancel


o

4. Select Z or line in the Around list box to define whether you want to rotate around the z axis or
around a line.
o
5. Pick a point to define the rotation axis, or enter its coordinates in the Origin area.
6. Enter the rotation angle.
7. Click Move to rotate the objects around the defined line or axis to a new location. o

4.13 Moving and mirroring an object o


When you move an object, you can mirror it through a plane that is perpendicular to the work plane
and passes through a line you specify.

The Rotate command is always more preferable than the Mirror o


command.

o
To move and mirror an object:
1. Select the objects you want to move and mirror. o
2. Click Edit > Move Special > Mirror....

u
82
The Move - Mirror diaiog box appears.
3. Pick the start point of the mirroring plane, or enter its coordinates and angle.
4. Click Move.
The objects are moved and mirrored.

4.14 Moving an object to another plane


You can move objects from the first plane you specify to another plane, which you specify by picking
three points. The moved objects remain in the same position on the second plane as the original
objects on the first plane
To move an object to another plane:
1. Select the objects you want to move.
2. Click Edit > Move Special > To Another Plane.
3. Pick the point of origin of the first plane.
4. Pick a point on the first piane in the positive x direction.
5. Pick a point on the first plane in the positive y direction.
6. Repeat steps 3 -5 for the destination plane.

4.15 Moving an object to another object


You can move objects from an object to other, similar objects. This is useful, for example, when you
detail previously modeled parts. The objects that you move between can have different dimensions,
length, and rotation.
To move an object to another object:
1. Select the objects you want to move.
2. Right-click and select Move Special > To Another Object.
3. Select the object to move from (source object).
4. Select the objects to move to (target object).

4.16 Fine-tuning part shape


You can use Tekla Structures to fine-tune the part shape in the following ways:
fit part end to fit a part to the selected fitting line
cut part with line to reshape the end of a part
cut part with another part to create part-shaped cuts
cut part with a polygon to cut a polygon shape into a part.

4.17 Creating a fitting


You can fit the end of a part by creating a straight cutting line between two points you pick. The
shortest part of the part end is deleted automatically.
When you fit parts, ensure that the cutting piane is perpendicular to the model view. Use a plane
view when fitting. Switch to plane view by pressing Ctrl+P.

83
o

Use the Snap to nearest points (point on line) snap switch


when fitting.
O

To fit a part end:


O
1. Click Detailing > Fit Part End.
2. Select the part you want to cut with a fitting. O
3. Pick the first point of the cutting line.
O
4. Pick the second point of the cutting line.
O
Do not apply a second fitting on the same part end, because then
Tekla Structures will ignore the first fitting. This happens if you use
o
the Fit Part End command for cutting and try to make two cuts on
the same part end. In situations like this, use the Cut Part
o
commands instead. o
o
o
o

o
Fitting symbol
o

4.18 Cutting parts with a line o


You can shape the end of a part by using the Cut part with line command. A line cut cuts the end of
a beam on a plane that passes through a line you pick. Several line cuts can be applied to one part
end. In addition, a combination of one fitting and one or more line cuts can be applied. When you
use the line cut for shortening, you have to select the side of the part that has to be removed.
o

When you shorten parts in the longitudinal direction using a fitting


or a line cut, the size of the profile is not changed in reports.
o

To cut a part with a line:

1. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Line or click


o
2. Select the part you want to cut.
3. Pick the first point of the cutting line.

o
84
4. Pick the second point of the cutting line.
5. Select the side to be removed.

Do not use cuts or fittings to change the length of a part, for the
following reasons:
Cuts may cause shop errors, because cuts do not always affect
part length when you export information to NC files.
Fittings may cause problems with connections and details.

4.19 Cutting parts with another part


You can create a part-shaped cut by cutting a part with another part.
To cut a part with another part:
1. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Another Part.
2. Select the part you want to cut.
3. Select the cutting part.
Tekla Structures cuts the selected main part. The part cut does not affect other parts.
4. Delete the cutting part.
a Ensure that the Select cuts and fittings selection switch is off.
b Select the cutting part and press Delete.
Cuts are displayed using dash-and-dot lines. It is possible to double-click the cutting line and
change its shape and size.

You can create also circular holes with the Cut part with another
part command. Circular holes are also dimensioned in drawings.
However, when creating circular holes, it is better to use the Create
bolts command. For larger holes, increase the tolerance of the holes.

Errors in part cuts Occasionally errors may occur when the part is cut. In such cases, the cut part is highlighted in a
transparent color.
To have a cut created correctly, rotate the cut part.

85
Attributes Position Deforming o
Position

[V] On plane: Middle 0.00

1 3 Rotation: Front 30.00000

3 At depth: Behind 0.00

incorrect

o
correct
O

An error can also occur when you use the Round tube (23) component. To avoid any errors, set a O
slight rotation for the component. Unsolved errors may result in wrong part lengths and problems in
drawing creation.

! Tekla Structures Round tube (23)

Save Load standard [ Save as ] standard O


modify connection type Welds...

Picture Parameters General Design Analysis O


Weldings Default
Rot angle of cut part,DEF=0 dgr 90.00

Cut tolerance of sec

4.20 Cutting parts with a polygon


You can cut a polygon shape in a part with a polygon cut. You must create the cuts in a plane view. o
To cut a part with a polygonal shape:

1. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Polygon or click


2. Select the part you wan to cut.
o
3. Pick positions to outline the polygon to be used for cutting.
4. To close the polygon, click the middle mouse button.

86
o
The dash-and-dot lines are cutting lines. They can be used for copying the cutting shape.

4.21 Creating welds and fittings in multiple objects


You can create welds and fittings in multiple objects with one selection.
To create welds and fittings in multiple objects:
1. Click Detailing > Weld > Create Weld Between Parts.
2. Select the main part and the secondary parts using area selection.

All five objects are now welded. You can now also fit all the five objects with one command.

4.22 Adding surface treatment to a selected area


You can add surface treatment to parts. Surface treatment for concrete parts include, for example,
flat finishes, surface mixes, and tiles. When you redefine the properties of a part (for example, you
change the size of a part), the surface treatment is automatically modified to fit the part. To define
the properties of the surface treatment, click Detailing > Properties > Surface Treatment....
To add surface treatment to a selected area:

87
1. Click Detailing > Create Surface Treatment > To Selected Area on Part Face.
2. Pick the origin of the surface treatment.
3. Pick a point to indicate the direction of the surface treatment.
4. Select an area of the part face to apply the surface treatment to.
a Move the mouse pointer over a part. The part faces that you can select appear in blue,
b Select the part face.
c Pick three or more points on the part face to define a polygonal area.

4.23 Welds
The Create Weld between Parts command is used to form assemblies. An assembly always consists of
one main part and one or more secondary parts. The welding order determines which part of the
assembly is the main part. When you create welds, you need to select the main part first and then
the secondary part(s).
If the weld type and size are vital, the settings in the Weld Properties dialog box are important. In
case the welds are less important, for example, you have a weld that is not displayed in drawings,
only the weld size is important. If the weld will not be displayed in drawings, the weld size has to be
set smaller than the default size.
In most cases, workshop welds are used. It is also possible that on-site, or field welds, are required.
This can be case, for example, when parts need to be welded to an existing structure. In such cases,
you need to use on-site or field welds in your model.

When you use on-site or field welds, the parts are not actually
welded. In the drawings, a flag indicates the on-site welds.
Do not use the Create Weld between Parts command to create sub-
assemblies or parent assemblies. For example, do not weld a stud
into a beam.

Edge/Around:

Workshop/Site:

On-site or field weld

Workshop weld

4.24 Creating a weld between parts


To create a weld between parts:

1. Double-click the Create welds between parts button.


2. Enter or modify the weld properties.
3. Click Apply or OK.

88
4. Select the part to which you want to weld (main part in workshop welds).
5. Select the part to be welded (secondary part in workshop welds).

Changing the In some cases, for example, after welding a complex truss, it may occur that the main part of the
main part in an assembly is not the correct main part anymore. In such cases you can set a new main part for the
assembly assembly. To change the assembly main part, select the new main part. Right-click and select Set as
New Main Part of Assembly from the pop-up menu.

4.25 Chamfering part edges


To chamfer the edge of a part:
1. Click Detailing > Create Chamfer > For Part Edge.
2. Select the part you want to chamfer.
3. Pick a point where you want the chamfer to start on the part edge.
4. Pick a second point where you want the chamfer to end on the part edge.
Tekla Structures displays the chamfer in light blue color.
5. Modify the chamfer properties if needed.
6. Right-click the view and select Redraw View.
Tekla Structures removes the chamfered edge.

4.26 Bolts
To create bolts, you can either create a single bolt group or apply a component that automatically
creates bolt groups.

89
n

You can create different part marks for holes and bolts in drawings.
Tekla Structures uses the same command for creating bolts and holes. Therefore you cannot use bolt
elements (such as screws, washers, and nuts) while creating holes.

Bolt properties
Double-click the Create bolts button to open the Bolt Properties dialog box.

Bolt Properties yj.


jSave Load standard Save as r
Attributes Position
Bolt -------------------------- |V] On plane: Middle 00o

0 Bolt size: 20
0 Rotation: Front 0.00
7] Bolt standard: 0.00

0 Bolt type:

End point:
0 Connect part/assembly:
0 0.00
0 Thread in material:
121 0,00

0 Cut length: II 0.00


0 Extra length:

Bolt group
with
\
0 Shape: slotted holes:

IV] Bolt dist X:


>-<
0
0 Bolt dist Y:
Include / o
Hole
0 0
in bolt
0 Tolerance:
assembly: o
IT] Hole type: o
Slotted holeX:

0 Slotted hole Y:

Rotate Slots:

User-defined attributes

OK Apply Modify Get i7 /r Cancel

Option Description
Bolt size Bolt diameter. Available diameters depend on the selected bolt
standard.

Bolt standard Bolt assembly standard that is defined in the bolt catalog.

90
o
Option Description
Bolt type Defines whether the bolts are assembled on-site or in the shop.
Default setting is Site.

Connect part/assembly Indicates whether you are bolting a secondary part or a sub-
assembly.

Thread in material Indicates if the thread of the bolt can be inside the bolted parts.

Cut length Indicates which parts the bolt connects. Tekla Structures searches
for parts using half the cut length value, in both directions from
the bolt group plane. If you want to force a bolt to a certain
length, enter a negative value for cut length.

Extra length Additional bolt length.

Shape The shape of the bolt group. The options are Array, Circle, and xy
list.

Bolt dist X Bolt spacing, number, or coordinate, depending on the bolt group
shape.

Bolt dist Y Bolt spacing, group diameter, or coordinate, depending on the bolt
group shape.

Tolerance Tolerance = Hole diameter - Bolt diameter

Hole type Oversized or slotted. This list activates after you select Parts with
slotted holes check boxes.

Slotted hole X X allowance of a slotted hole. Zero for a round hole.

Slotted hole Y Y allowance of a slotted hole. Zero for a round hole.

Rotate slots If the bolt connects several parts, you may want to rotate
alternate holes by 90 degrees.
Options are Odd, Even, and Parallel.

On plane Bolt group location relative to the bolt group x axis on the work
plane.

Rotation Defines how far the bolt group is rotated around the x axis,
relative to the current work plane.

At depth Bolt group location relative to work plane.

Dx, Dy, Dz Offsets that move the bolt group by moving the bolt group x axis.

4.27 Creating a bolt group


Bolt groups are used to connect parts. Bolts can penetrate one part or multiple parts. By default,
bolt groups are rectangular, but it is also possible to make circular bolt groups. When you insert a
bolt group, you need to pick two points. These two points determine the local x direction of the bolt
group. It is important that the points you pick to create the bolt group are close enough to the parts
you want to connect. The Cut length of a bolt group defines how far along the bolt axis the parts
must be in order to hit the bolt group.

91
A bolt group can contain a maximum of 100 bolts or holes.

To create a bolt group:

1. Click Detailing > Bolts > Create Bolts or click


2. Select the shape of the bolt group in the Shape list.
Bolt groups are rectangular by default, but you can also select Circle to create a circular bolt
group.
3. Select the main part to which the secondary parts will be bolted.
4. Select the secondary parts.
5. Click the middle mouse button to finish selecting parts.
6. Pick a point that is the bolt group origin.
7. Pick a second point to indicate the bolt group x direction.
The bolt group is created.
An example of a rectangular bolt group:

An example of a circular bolt group:

92
o

4.28 Connecting parts with a bolt group


You can connect multiple parts together with a bolt group. For example, you can connect two
beams with a plate that is bolted to the beams.

o
o

To connect beams with a plate and a bolt group:

Double-click the Create bolts button to open the Bolt Properties dialog box.
2. Modify the values in the Bolt Dist X box.
You can define the number of bolt rows that are created and the spacing between them.
3. Click OK.
4. Select the parts that you want to connect together.
Select first the beams and then the plate.
5. Pick the start and end points.
The bolt group is created.

93
4.29 Modifying bolt groups
if the bolts in a bolt group are too short, you can modify them.
To modify a bolt group:
1. Select a bolt group.
2. Right-click the bolt group and select Bolt parts.
The parts are highlighted.
3. Follow the instructions on the status bar to select the connected parts.
The bolt length is adjusted to the new material thickness.

4.30 Holes
Tekla Structures uses the same command for creating bolts and holes. Before creating holes, you
need to change some of the properties in the Bolt Properties dialog box.
If you want to create only holes without any bolts, clear all the Include in bolt assembly check boxes:

You can create the following types of holes:


Round
Oversized
Slotted
Tapped

4.31 Creating slotted holes


In addition to circular holes, you can also create slotted holes. Slotted holes can be set either in x or
in y direction.
To create a slotted hole:

1. Double-click the Create Bolts button.


The Bolt Properties dialog box appears.
2. To indicate which parts should be slotted, select the desired Parts with slotted holes check boxes.
When a bolt penetrates more than one part, you can define whether slotted holes are created
for each part individually.
3. Set the length of the slotted holes in the Slotted hole X and Slotted hole Y boxes in the Bolt
Properties dialog box.
4. If the bolt connects several parts, you can rotate alternate holes by 90 degrees by selecting one
of the rotating options in the Rotate Slots list.
Options to rotate the slots:

94
even
odd
parallel

Bolts on cast-in embeds


You can use the Create bolts command to connect two or more parts. The bolt length is calculated by
means of a formula using the material thickness of the connected parts. You can also determine the
bolt length manually.

Splitting parts
You can split parts in Tekla Structures. Tekla Structures retains the properties, attached objects, and
connections even when parts are split.
You can use splitting with straight parts, curved beams without offsets, or normal and tapered
reinforcing bar groups. You can also split plates and slabs by using a polygon. You cannot split
polybeams.
To split a part:
1. Click Edit > Split.
2. Select the part you want to split.
3. Pick a point for the dividing line.
Q

o
If necessary, you can create the points before selecting the parts. New start and end points are o
placed on the splitting points.
If you have already carried out the numbering, the part and assembly number is allocated to the
o
part that was closest to the initial start point of the part. The other part gets a new number.
o

O
You cannot split bolt groups.
O

O
4.34 Combining parts O
You can combine existing parts in Tekla Structures. This can be useful when you want to model
complex parts (such as folded plates) that are otherwise difficult to model, or when you want to
model prefabricated parts that are delivered to the workshop already attached to profiles.
When you select the parts you want to combine, the part properties of the part that is selected first
are used for the combined part.
To combine parts:
1. Click Edit > Combine.
o
2. Select the first part.
3. Select the second part.

o
*
o
o

o
The space is filled when parts are combined.
o

o
96
o

o
The furthest distance between the start and the end point.

If the centerlines of the part are not in line with each other, the centerlines are combined by taking
the largest distance between the start and end points from both parts.

Combining does not work for contour plates or polybeams.

When you combine parts, Tekla Structures retains the attached


objects and connections. Tekla Structures does not recreate
connections in the part that was selected first.

4.35 Points
To place an object in a model you may need to pick points. To place an object where no lines or
objects intersect, you have the following options:
Use snapping commands.
Use construction planes, lines and circles.
Create points.
To create points, use the buttons on the Points toolbar, or select a command from Modeling > Add
Points.

Points (D
\ / r \ 'a */ 0

4.36 Creating points along a line


The Add points on line command creates points at equal intervals along a line. You need to define the
number of points and pick the line.
To create points along a line:

/
1. Double-click the Add points on line ' b
The Divided Line Points dialog box appears.
2. Enter the number of dividing points.
3. Click OK.
4. Pick the start point of the line.
5. Pick the end point of the line.

97
4.37 Cast units
The concrete structures in Tekla Structures are modeled as single parts. By default, each part is
considered a separate cast unit. For construction purposes you may need to merge several concrete
parts into one cast unit. For example, a single cast unit could consist of several beams in different
grid spans. You can specify which parts form a cast unit. Cast units can include reinforcement as
well as concrete parts.
You need to specify which parts form the cast unit. Cast units can include reinforcement, as well as
concrete parts.
The main part in a concrete cast unit is the one with the largest volume of concrete. You can change
the main part in a cast unit.
Cast units have the cast unit type part property - they are set either Cast in place or Precast:

Cast unit type Description


Precast Cast units that are built at another location
and transported to their final location for
placement in the full structure.

Cast in place Cast units that are constructed fully in their


final location.

Tekla Structures checks the cast unit type of the main part each time you create or modify a cast
unit. Tekla Structures does not mix precast and cast-in-place parts within a cast unit.

4.38 Defining the cast unit type


To define whether a concrete part is precast or cast-in-place part:
1. Double-click a concrete part to open the concrete part properties dialog box.
2. Go to the Cast unit tab.
3. In the Cast unit type box, select Precast or Cast in place.
4. Click Modify to save the changes.

4.39 Creating a cast unit


To create a cast unit:
1. Click Modeling > Cast unit > Create.
2. Select the objects you want to include in the cast unit.
3. Click the middle mouse button to create the cast unit.

4.40 Adding objects to cast units


To add objects to cast units:
1. Click Modeling > Cast Unit > Add to.
2. Select the objects you want to add.
3. Select an object in the cast unit.

98
4.41 Modifying cast units
The shape of the cast unit is determined by the used profile (width and height) and the length
(except contour plates). The height and width can be changed by modifying the part properties. The
length is determined by the picked points. These points can be moved afterwards and length can
also be modified by applying fittings possibly by using components.

Do not use fittings, line cuts, or polygon cuts to change the width
of a cast unit.

o
4.42 Highlighting objects in a cast unit
Use the Inquire tool to check which objects belong to a particular cast unit.
To highlight objects in a cast unit:
1. Click Tools > Inquire > Assembly Objects.
2. Select a part that belongs to a cast unit.
o Tekla Structures highlights the other parts that belong to the same cast unit. The following
colors are used:

Object type Highlight color


Concrete - main part magenta

Concrete - secondary part cyan

Reinforcement blue

Steel part - main part orange

Steel part - secondary part yellow

4.43 Changing the cast unit main part


To change the main part in a cast unit:
1. Check what is currently the main part of the cast unit.

a Ensure that the Select assemblies selection switch L 2 H L is active,


b Click Tools > Inquire > Assembly Objects,
c Select the cast unit.
Tekla Structures highlights the main and secondary parts in different colors.

2. Ensure that the Select objects in assemblies selection switch is active.


3. Select the new main part.
4. Right-click and select Set as New Main Part of Assembly.

99
1. Click Modeling > Cast Unit > Show Top in Form Face. o
2. Select the parts.
Tekla Structures highlights the top-in-form faces in red.

0)

05
O'
4.48 Orienting parts for drawings
Usually the top-in-form face of a concrete wall is the front side in a drawing. It is useful to know
how the part is oriented in a drawing. When you model the parts, you should take the orientation
into account. G)
Parts are oriented in drawings according to the direction of the parts. This means that the direction
of the reference points (start point -> end point) defines the orientation in the drawings. Q)
. ~ 0

0)

0)

0)

O'

Q)
Start point
0 ,'

QJ
102
0)

0;
End point

If the pouring side needs to be on the other side of the building, you have to take that into account
when you model the building.

0 Start point

End point

To switch the side of the top-in-form face after a cast unit has been completed:
1. Double-click the part to open the properties dialog box.
2. Click User-defined attributes....
3. Select Back from the Top in form face list.

103
Tekla Structures Panel (1)

Unitechnik EliPlan MAP coordinates General Design


Parameters Status End Conditions Analysis IFC export

Comment

Preliminary mark

Locked

Fabricator name

User field 1

User field 2

User field 3

User field 4

User Phase (affects numbering)

Top in form face

Numbering Order

Tocoman object type

Control Number (Do not modify)

Control Number Status (Do not modify)

Product code

Product description

Initial GUID

OK Apply Modify

4. Click OK
5. Click Drawings Et Reports > Drawing Settings > Cast Unit Drawing... to open the Cast Unit Drawing
Properties dialog box.
6. Click the View... button to open the Cast Unit - View Properties dialog box.
7. Go to the Attributes tab.
8. Select Fixed from the Coordinate system list.

104
Cast Unit - View Properties \wSm\

Save Load standard Save as standard

Views Attributes Shortening Label

0 Scale: 1/ 20,000

[7] View extension for neighbor parts: 1000.00

[71 Coordinate system: Fixed

Rotate coordinate system local


model
Around X:
oriented
horizontal brace
IAround Y:
vertical brace
Around Z: Fixed

9. Click OK to close the dialog boxes.

105
5.1 Modifying the work area
You can modify the work area to suit particular situations. You can fit the work area and locate, for
example, distant objects from an oversized work area.

5.2 Fit work area to selected parts


To fit work area to selected parts:
1. Select the model objects you want to see in the work area.
2. Click View > Fit Work Area > To Selected Parts in Selected Views.
Tekla Structures modifies the work area so that only selected objects are displayed. The objects
outside the work area still exist, but they are not visible.

5.3 Fit work area using two points


o You have to be working with a plane view in order to fit work area using two points. If you are
currently working in 3D view, press Ctrl+P to switch to plane view.
o To fit work area using two points:

o
1. Click View > Fit Work Area > Using Two Points or click
2. Pick the two points you want as corner points for the work area.

o
o

109

J
5.4 Fit work area to entire model in selected views
To fit the work area to the entire model, click View > Fit Work Area > To Entire Model in Selected
Views. The work area includes all model objects in selected views.

5.5 Finding distant objects


The work area in a model view can be oversized if, for example, one or more objects have been
positioned too far from the origin. You can use the Find Distant Objects command to correct the
situation.
To find distant objects:
1. Click Tools > Diagnose ft Repair Model > Find Distant Objects.
Tekla Structures displays a list of object IDs. At the end of the list, Tekla Structures displays
additional six objects that have the biggest and smallest x, y, or z coordinates.

Id: 13218
Id: 13217
Id: 13109
Id: 13108
Id: 13107
Id: 13106
Id: 13105

Min x: Id: 291


Max xz Id: 13226
Min y: Id: 6094
Max y: Id: 13226
z: Id: 736
Max z: Id: 4996

2. Select an object in the list


3. Right-click and select a command from the pop-up menu.
You can, for example, inquire or delete the object

5.6 Finding distant points


The work area in a model view can be oversized if, for example, one or more points have been
positioned too far from the origin.
To find distant points:

1.
n
Ensure that the Select points ^&%and Select objects in components H
ill selection switches are
active.

The other switches on the Selecting toolbar must not be active.

2. Click Edit > Select All Objects or press Ctrl+A to select all points.
3. Check the number of selected points on the status bar and press Delete.
4. Click View > Fit Work Area > To Entire Model in Selected Views to fit the model in the work area.

110
5.7 Finding distant reference models
The work area in a model view can be oversized if, for example, one or more reference models have
been positioned too far from the origin.
To find distant reference models:
1. Click File > Reference Model List... and select the reference model in the list.
2. Click View > Fit Work Area > To Selected Parts in Selected Views.
The work area is resized to the reference model.
3. Move the reference model.

5.8 Creating a clip plane


Clip planes enable you to focus in on the required detail in the model. For example, you can use clip
planes to see what is inside the model.
You can create up to six clip planes in any model view.
To create a clip plane:

\L
1. Click View > Create Clip Plane, or click .
2. Select a plane.

The clip plane symbol appears in the model.

3. Repeat step 2 to create as many clip planes as needed.


4. To finish creating clip planes, press Esc, or right-click and select Interrupt

ill
5.9 Moving a clip plane
To move a clip plane:
1. Select the clip plane you want to move.
2. Click the clip plane symbol and drag it to a new location.

V You can change the location of the clip plane symbol


holding down Sh ift and dragging the symbol.
by

112
5.10 Deleting a clip plane
To delete a clip plane:
1. Select the clip plane you want to delete.
2. Click the clip plane symbol and press Delete.

5.11 Work plane


The red coordinate arrow symbol indicates the work plane, which is the local coordinate system of
the model. The work plane also has its own grid, which can be used for positioning parts. Tekla
Structures displays the work plane grid in dark red color.
To display the work plane grid, select Work plane from the second list box on the Snapping toolbar.

The red arrow symbol shows the xy plane. The z direction follows the right-hand rule.
You can shift the work plane to any position by picking points, parallel to one of the global basic
planes, or on a part or view plane. When modeling sloped parts, shifting the work plane helps you to
place parts accurately.

To set the work plane to any part plane or grid intersection, go to


View > Set Work Plane > Using the Workplane Tool.

If you cannot see the arrow symbol because the parts block the
view, press Ctrl+2 to make the parts transparent.

5.12 Set work plane parallel to a plane


You can set the work plane parallel to the xy, xz, or zy directions.
To set the work plane parallel to a plane:

1. Click View > Set Work Plane > Parallel to XY(Z) Plane..., or click
The Work plane dialog box appears.

113
2. Select the Plane and enter the Depth coordinate.
The depth coordinate defines the distance of the work plane from the global origin along a line
that is perpendicular to the plane parallel to the third axis. The default depth coordinate value is
o.
3. Click Change.

5.13 Set work plane using three points


You can set the work plane by picking three points. The first point you pick is the origin, the second
point defines the x direction, and the third point defines the y direction of the work plane. Tekla
Structures fixes the z direction according to the right-hand rule.
To set a work plane using three points:

1. Click View > Set Work Plane > Using Three Points, or click
B .
2. Pick the origin for the work plane.
3. Pick a point in the positive x direction.
4. Pick a point in the positive y direction.

5.14 Set work plane parallel to view plane


You can use this command to set the work plane to be the same as the view plane of a selected
view.
To set a plane parallel to a view plane:

\2
1. Click View > Set Work Plane > Parallel to View Plane, or click .
2. Select the view you want to modify.

5.15 Set work plane to top plane of a part


When a view is created, you initially work in the plane that belongs to that view. If you want to
work in, for example, the roof plane that is sloping, you need to change the work plane. For
example, you can set the work plane to top plane of a selected part.
To set a work plane to top plane of a part:

1. Click View > Set Work Plane > To Part Top Plane, or click t S .
2. Select the part.

114
n
5,16 Shifting the work plane
You can shift the work plane to any position by picking points, parallel to one of the global basic
planes, or on a part or view plane. When modeling sloped parts, shifting the work plane helps you to
place parts accurately. For example, to model horizontal bracing and purlins in a sloped roof, you
need to shift the work plane to the slope of the roof.
To shift the work plane:
1. Click View > Set Work Plane and select one of the commands.
For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip.
2. Shift the work plane by following the instructions on the status bar.
3. Optional: In the second list box on the Snapping toolbar, select Work plane to display the work
plane grid.
o

5.17 Numeric snapping


o Use the Enter a numeric location toolbar to enter position coordinates you want to snap to.

o Enter a Numeric Location h3J


Location: @1000,-2000 I OK

Tekla Structures has three snapping modes: relative, absolute and


global. Use the advanced option x s _ k e y i n _ d e f a u l t _ m o d e to
indicate the default snapping mode.

To display the toolbar, initiate a command that requires you to pick positions, and then do one of
the following:
Start entering the coordinates using the keyboard
Click Tools > Enter a Numeric Location and select an option.

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o
o
5.18 Numeric location coordinates
The following table explains the types of information you can enter in the Enter a Numeric Location
toolbar.

You can enter Description Example


o
Cartesian The x, y, and z coordinates of a
coordinates position separated by commas. Enter a Numeric Location |3w|
Location: @150,-220,150 o

o
Polar A distance, an angle on the xy plane,
coordinates and an angle from the xy plane Enter a Numeric Location Ij*Ll
separated by angle brackets. Location: @1000<90<45 ok
Angles increase in the
counterclockwise direction.
r* "-i
o
Absolute The coordinates based on the origin
coordinates of the work plane. Enter a Numeric Location |ib3h ] o
Location: $1500,2000,100 o k |

Relative The coordinates relative to the last


coordinates position picked. Enter a Numeric Location S3

Location: @500<30 OK

Global The coordinates relative to the global


coordinates origin and the global x and y Enter a Numeric Location o
directions. Location: !100,200 OK

One value A distance to an indicated direction.


o
Enter a Numeric Location |-S |

Location: 1500 OK
o
o
Two
coordinates
If you omit the last coordinate (z) or
angle, Tekla Structures assumes that Enter a Numeric Location o
the value is 0. Location: 1500,700 OK

Three In drawings, Tekla Structures ignores o


Enter a Numeric Location
coordinates the third coordinate.
Location: 1500,700,150 OK
o

o
5.19 Creating a temporary reference point o
You can create a temporary reference point to be used as a local origin when snapping in models.
o
To create a temporary reference point:
1. Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. For example, create a beam.

()
116

J
o
o
2. Pick the start point.
3. Hold down Ctrl and pick a position.
A green cross indicates that this position is now a temporary reference point.

o
4. Repeat step 3 to create as many reference points as needed.
5. Release Ctrl and pick the end point.
Tekla Structures creates the object between the starting point and the end point.
o
o
o

5.20 Locking a coordinate


You can lock the x, y, and z coordinates on a line. This is useful when you need to determine a point
to pick and the needed point does not exist on the line. When a coordinate is locked, you can snap
to points only in that direction.
For example, to lock the x coordinate, press X. You can the snap to points only in the x direction. To
unlock the coordinate, press X again.

Creating a beam 1. Click Modeling > Create Concrete Part > Beam and pick the start point,
at a certain level 2l Snap to the start point and press Z to lock the z direction.

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o
o

o
o
Q

o
3. Pick the end point to create the beam at a locked level.

5.21 Snapping example: Creating a beam with a


certain length
To create a beam with a certain length:
Q
1. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Beam.
2. Pick a start point for the beam.
3. Move the mouse pointer.
The dimension changes as you move the mouse pointer. The zooming level affects the precision
of snapping.

o
o

o
o
o
()
4. When the dimension is correct, click to create the beam.

'I______________B5Q.QQ_______

5.22 Snapping example: Creating a shifted beam


with a certain length
To create a shifted beam with a certain length:
1. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Beam.
2. Pick the first point.
3. Enter the length and the angle of the shifted beam relative to the workplane.
Use the shortcut R (relative) and the symbol < as a separating character.

Enter a Numeric Location L3 m

Location: @1500<210 OK

The direction of the x axis of the workplane is always 0.

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9t)
Y

270
4. Press Enter or click OK to create the beam.

5.23 Snapping example: Creating two parallel and


equally long beams
To create two equally long beams:

1. Ensure that the Snap to line extensions switch is active.


2. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Beam.
3. Pick the start point for the beam.
4. Pick the end point for the beam.
The first beam is created.
5. Snap to the start point of the first beam.
You can now snap to the extension line of the first beam's start point.

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)

6. Pick the start point for the second beam on the extension line.
7. Snap to the end point of the first beam.
You can now snap on the extension line of the first beam end point. The snap point is parallel to
the first beam, when a blue line runs through the beam.

Pick the end point for the second beam on the extension line.
You have created two parallel and equally long beams.

121

)
o
5.24 Snapping example: Creating a beam using a
temporary reference point
To create a beam using a temporary reference point:
1. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Beam.
o
2. Hold down Ctrl to pick a temporary reference point as an origin.
3. Move the mouse pointer in the direction of the start point of the beam.

r o

o
4. Enter a distance from the temporary reference point and press Enter or click OK.
The start point of the beam is picked. o
5. Move the mouse pointer in the direction of the end point of the beam.

G
122
O
I

\ L
/ \
i
i

6. Pick the end point to create the beam.

5.25 Snapping example: Creating a beam using snap


override
To create a beam using snap override:
1. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Beam.
2. Use a temporary reference point to pick the start point of the beam at the center of the grid
line.

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3. Right-click to select an option from the pop-up menu or use the Snap Override toolbar to
temporarily override the snap settings.

Interrupt
.
Point or Grid Intersection ^
End
Center
Mid
Snap Override & Intersection
E3 o o a x j x
-------------------------------------------
7 Perpendicular
Near
Extension
Free
Line J
Zoom

4. Move the mouse pointer in the direction of the end point of the beam.
Enter the length of the beam and press Enter or click OK.
The beam is created.
6.1 The Component Catalog
The component catalog contains all the components. To open the Component Catalog, click Detailing
> Component > Component Catalog... (Create Component) or press Ctrl+F.
You can browse for the components or search by using search terms and keywords.

O Name Number Keywords


A Create hole around part (92) 92
P|Dividing part (1054)
& Line/Part INTERSECTION (43) 43
A Partial stiff end plate (65) 65
$$ Parts at beam (82) 82
$$ Seam position for deformed parts 31
Staging Parts (1063) 1063
(

Dividing part (1054) A-

o
___________________________________
|
o
Search

View folders

View details

View thumbnails

Show I hide descriptions

Create a component using the component you used last with


its active properties.

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c
Enter the search term here.


Use the list to view component groups, such as bracing
connections.

Component description

/jjN Double-click the name to set the properties and create the
component.

It is useful to view the thumbnail images in the Component Catalog.


Most system components have a default thumbnail image, which
shows you a typical situation where the component can be used.

6.2 Components
Components are tools that you can use to automatically create parts, welds, bolts, embeds, or
reinforcements required to connect parts. You can also use components to add reinforcing bars to
parts. Components are linked to main parts, which means that when you modify a main part, the
associated component also changes.
Components are divided into three sub-types:

Component
type Description Examples Symbol
Connection Connects two or more parts, Two-sided clip
and creates all the required
objects such as cuts, fittings,
angle, bolted
gusset A
parts, bolts, and welds. Corbel
connection (14)

Detail Adds a detail or a reinforcement Stiffeners, base


to a main part. A detail is only
connected to one part. When
you create a detail, Tekla
plates, lifting
hooks A
Beam
Structures prompts you to reinforcement,
select a part, followed by a pad footing
point to place the detail. reinforcement

Modeling tool Automatically creates and Stairs, frames,


assembles the parts to build a
structure, but does not connect
towers 0
the structure to existing parts.
Modeling tools can include
connections and details.

Using the components has the following advantages:


The settings of a component can be saved to a file. The settings can be used in other projects.

130
When you modify a part, all details and connections attached to that part are updated
automatically.
When you copy or move objects, all associated details and components are also copied or
moved.

6.3 Creating a component


Use components to create a detail, a connection or a structural element in a model.
To create a component:

1. Click Detailing > Component > Component Catalog... (Create Component), or click f t to open
the Component Catalog.
2. Click the component name in the Component Catalog.
3. Follow the instructions on the status bar to select the parts or points required to create the
component.
4. If required, click the middle mouse button to end the command.
5. Check that the component symbol is green, which indicates that the component was created
successfully.
6. Examine the component in the model to check if you need to make any changes.

6.4 Component status


Tekla Structures uses different-colored component symbols to show the status of connections and
details:

Color Status Tip


Componentcreated
successfully

Green

Component Often occurs when bolts or holes have an edge


created, but has distance less than the default value for that
problems component.
Yellow

Component A common reason is that the up direction is not


creation failed appropriate.

Red

6.5 Modifying component properties


To modify a component, double-click the component symbol in the model. The component dialog
box appears. This is where you modify the component properties.
When you create a component you are unfamiliar with, you should use the default properties.
Create the component and check it to see what needs to be modified.

131
6.6 Saving component properties
You can save the modified component properties.
To save the component properties:
1. In the component dialog box, enter a name for the new component property file in the Save as
box.
2. Click Save as.
The property file is saved in the model folder.

You can recognize the property file by checking the file extension. For example, if you save the
properties of the End plate detail (1002) component, the file extension is j 1 0 0 2 .

6.7 Component example: Inserting a pad footing


reinforcement
Use the Pad footing reinforcement (77) component for reinforcing a concrete pad footing.
To insert a pad footing reinforcement:
1. Create a pad footing.
2. Click Detailing > Component > Component Catalog... (Create Component) to open the Component
Catalog.
3. Search the Pad footing reinforcement (77) component from the Component Catalog.
4. Select Pad footing reinforcement (77) in the Component Catalog.
Read the instructions on the status bar.
5. Click the pad footing.
Tekla Structures inserts the lacer bar and bottom reinforcement in the pad footing.

6.8 Component example: Modifying the pad


footing reinforcement
In this example you will remove the lacer bars from the pad footing reinforcement.

132
To remove the lacer bars:

1. Ensure that the Select components switch is active.


2. Double-click the reinforcement component in the pad footing.
The component properties dialog box appears.
3. Go to the Lacer bar tab.
4. Select No from the Lacer bar option list.
5. Click Modify.
The lacer bars are removed from the pad footing reinforcement.

6.9 Creating component default views


You can create several views of a component to view it from different viewpoints.
To create views of a component:
1. Click the component symbol to select the component.
2. To create views, right-click and select Create View > Default Views of Component.
Tekla Structures creates four views: front, end, top, and perspective.

9 To check dimensions, such as bolt locations and edge distances,


work in the Component front view and use the Measure tool.

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L
o

0
o
3 View 2 - (Component front view) 13 View 4 - (Component end view)

O
A pc.
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t > {
1 ) i ;

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S- J L yf J
-------------------- ^
?--------- '

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ED View 3 - (Component top view) i o || B || S3 1 E 3 View 5 - (Component perspective view) I II E) S3
o

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6.10 The Material Catalog
The Material Catalog contains information on material grades. Click Modeling > Material Catalog... to
open the Modify Material Catalog dialog box. Materials are displayed in a hierarchical tree grouped
according to, for example, steel and concrete. Material grades are located under each material in
the tree. You can view material grade properties by clicking them in the tree.

134
u

O
>

r
Modify Material Catalog

Selected grade: jj General Analysis | Design User attributes


SO- Steel
Alias 1:
(l-- Concrete
|j)~ Reinforcing bar Alias 2:
E)- Timber Alias 3:
[) Miscellaneous
Profile density: 0.00 kg/m=

Plate density: 0.00 kg/m*

Filter: Filter... Update

OK Export... Import... Cancel

The Modify Material Catalog dialog box contains information on the materials on four tabs:
The General tab
The Analysis tab
The Design tab
The User attributes tab

Tab Description
The General tab The General tab has boxes for three alternative names for the
material. These are usually the material names used in
different countries or standards. It also contains the profile
and plate density values.

The Analysis tab The Analysis tab has information on the properties used in
structural analysis.

The Design tab The Design tab has information on the design-specific
properties such as strengths and partial safety factors.

The User attributes tab The User attributes tab can be used to create your own
attributes for material grades.

6.11 Adding a material grade


You can add a new material grade in two alternate ways.

Option 1 1. Click Modeling > Material Catalog... to open the Modify Material Catalog dialog box.
2. Select a material grade that is similar to the one you wish to create.
3. Right-click and select Copy Grade.
A copy of the material grade with the name COPY is added to the material tree.

135
4. Change the material grade name by clicking the grade and entering a new name for it.
5. Modify the material grade properties.
6. Click OK to save the material grade and close the Modify Material Catalog dialog box.
7. Click OK in the Save confirmation dialog box to save the changes.

Option 2 1. Click Modeling > Material Catalog... to open the Modify Material Catalog dialog box.
2. Select a material type, for example, steel.
3. Right-click and select Add Grade.
A new material grade is added under to the material type you selected.
4. Change the material grade name by clicking the grade and entering a new name for it
5. Enter the material grade properties.
6. Click OK to save the material grade and close the Modify Material Catalog dialog box.
7. Click OK in the Save confirmation dialog box to save the changes.

6.12 Deleting a material grade


You can delete material grades from the Material Catalog dialog box.
To delete a material grade:
1. Click Modeling > Material Catalog... to open the Modify Material Catalog dialog box.
2. Select the material grade that you want to delete.
3. Right-dick and select Delete Grade
4. Click OK to close the Modify Material Catalog dialog box.
5. Click OK in the Save confirmation dialog box to save the changes.
The material grade is deleted from the Material Catalog dialog box.

6.13 The Profile Catalog


The profiles in the Modify Profile Catalog dialog box are displayed in a tree structure. They are
grouped according to rules such as profile type (for example, I profiles) and profile sub-type (for
example, HEA).

136
2^3 Modify Profife Catalog 3

Profile name: General Analysis User attributes


II Profile type
Filter: * Filter
Profile type:
ra -T I profiles
(]|_ L profiles Profile subtype:
S)-T_ Z profiles
Picture
(j) U U profiles
C profiles
(j)...-]- T profiles
pin11 Welded box profiles
g- J l WQ profiles
g - | Rectangular sections
( i) - 0 Circular sections
g ) - 0 Rectangular hollow sections
|i) O Circular hollow sections ________
Ruukki Property Sy... Value
SJ-T j Cold rolled profiles
(il -'S1 I beams (concrete)
E)-5 Ledger beams (concrete)
B -5 T profiles (concrete)
(Sl-^S1 Composite slabs
- Plank slabs
Property Sy... Value Unit
Hollow core slabs
El-^S1 Panels
Others

O Use industry standardized values only

Update

OK Export. Import... Cancel

Different icons denote profile types, rules and profiles within the tree:

Icon Description
Profile type rule. Different icons show different profile types.
L
Rule

Fixed profile
0
Parametric profile
0
The Fly command only works when Projection is set to Perspective.

To fly through a model:


1. Set view projection to Perspective.
a Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box.
b In the Projection list box, select Perspective,
c Click Modify.
2. Click View > Fly.
3. Select a view. The mouse pointer changes into an arrow and a cross. The arrow indicates the
current flying direction.

4. Drag the mouse to move around in the model.


To fly forward, move the mouse forward.
To change the flying direction, drag the mouse in the desired direction.
The flying speed grows exponentially when you are approaching the model from a distance.
To move up or down, hold down Ctrl and drag the mouse forward or backward.
To change the camera angle, scroll with the mouse wheel.
To fly in the in the direction of the camera angle, hold down Sh ift and scroll forward or
backward.
5. To stop flying, press Esc.

7.4 Checking using reports


You can check models using reports. Reports can be lists of drawings, bolts, or parts. Reports can
contain information from selected parts or the entire model.
You can generate the following types of reports:
Bolt, nut, washer, and material lists
ID lists
The main feature of the ID lists is that the lines that contain profiles can be selected. As a result,
the accompanying profile will be highlighted in the model. This is useful if a profile is hard to
locate.
User-defined attributes list
A user-defined attribute list can be used to check that the correct profiles are shortened.
To check using reports:
1. Click Drawings t Reports > Numbering > Number Series of Selected Objects.

2. Click Drawings 8t Reports > Create Report..., or click

144
The Report dialog box appears.
3. Select a report from the report templates
4. Click Create from all or Create from selected button.

7.5 Inquiring the model


The inquire tool displays the properties of a particular object, or a group of objects, within the
model.
The Inquire Object dialog box displays information relevant to the objects you select.

Inquire Object

Id: 2985 Type: 2 Assembly phase: 1 Part phase: 1

L
Name Profile Grids Part Assembly T
position position

COLUMN H2A400 5/A c/0 (?) C/0 (?)

Total 2 Parts: 1.35 T, 15.40 m

Part GUID ID50F3D9FE-0000- 0010-3133-353331363335

Start point - X= 23800.0 mm Y= 0-0 mm Z= -500-0 mm


and point : X= 23300.0 mm Y 0.0 mm Z= 7200.0 mm
Center of gravity : X= 23300.0 mm Y= 0-0 mm Z= 3350.0 mm

Top level ; 4-7-200


Bottom level : -0.500
Part position ; c/0{?)
Assembly position : C/0 (?)
Net length : 7700.0 mm
Gross length : 7700.0 mm
Weight ; 961.08 kg
Weight {Net) ; 923-12 kg
Weight{Gross) : 961.OS kg
Volume ; 0.118 m 3
Area 151071.44 cm*

OK

7.6 Inquiring object properties


Use the Inquire object command to display the properties of a particular object, or group of objects,
within the model.
To inquire object properties:

1. Click Tools > Inquire > Object, or click


2. Select an object.
The object can be, for example, a part, a bolt, a component, or a weld.
The Inquire object dialog box appears. It displays the relevant information regarding the object.
The information displayed depends on the selected object.
The selected object and all parts of the object are highlighted.

7.7 Inquiring bolts


You can use the Bolt Parts command to display parts that belong to a bolt group. With this
command you can also change the parts that belong to a bolt group.
To inquire parts in bolt groups:
1. Select the bolts.
r
2. Right-click and select Bolt Parts.
Main parts are highlighted with red and secondary parts with yellow.

7.8 Displaying all objects connected to a part


In some cases it is useful to see all the objects that are connected to a part, such as components,
welds and fittings. You can then examine, for example, whether parts are welded correctly.
To display the objects connected to a part:
1. Select the part.

c
c

2. Delete the part. c


3. Click Edit > Undo, or click
The part and the accompanying objects are displayed. c
c
c
c
c

146

(
o 7.9 Inquiring welded parts
o
Click Tools > Inquire > Primary Welded Part to highlight the
main part when you select the secondary part.

Click Tools > Inquire > Welded Parts to highlight the selected
part and all the parts that are welded to it.

7.10 Inquiring the center of gravity


You can inquire an object's center of gravity. The object can be a part or an assembly.

When calculating the center of gravity of an object, bolts and welds


are not taken into account whereas polygon cuttings, part cuttings,
fittings, and line cuts are taken into account in the calculation.

To inquire the center of gravity:


1. Select an object.
2. Click Tools > Inquire > Center of Gravity.

7.11 Inquiring cast unit objects


To inquire cast unit objects:
1. Click Tools > Inquire > Assembly Objects.
2. Select a cast unit.
The main part, that is, the part with the largest volume, is highlighted in magenta and all
concrete additions are highlighted in cyan. Embeds that contain non-concrete material are
highlighted in yellow and parts welded to the embeds are highlighted in yellow as well.

7.12 Creating object representation settings in


model views
In object representation you can modify the color and transparency of objects in the model view.
Objects are grouped by a set of rules and conditions that control how the objects are displayed.
Changing the object representation settings in the Object Representation dialog box affects all model
views.
For example, the following images show the same model with different object representation
settings:

147

3
r

Mm-

Standard object representation

Only parts whose profile name starts with IPE* or HEA* are visible


Objects whose user-defined attribute Planned erection date is set to 01/ 05/2009 are
displayed in blue, while all other parts are 90/o transparent
VJ

To set object representation settings in a model view:


1. Click View > Representation > Object Representation....
The Object Representation dialog box appears.
C
2. Load the setting you want to use. c
By default, several standard settings are included, but you can also create object representation
settings of your own.
i
3. Click Modify and OK. c
The objects are displayed according to the settings.

7.13 Object representation settings example:


Creating object representation settings
This example shows how to create a new object group where all columns will be represented in blue
with 70% transparency, as seen in the following image:

148

C
('
To create object representation settings:
1. Click View > Representation > Object Representation....
The Object Representation dialog box appears.
2. Click the Add row button.
A second object group is added. Initially, the new object group has the same properties as the
first object group.
3. In the Object group list box, select A l l to activate the arrow button.
4. Click the arrow button to open a list.
The drop down menu contains all the default options for object groups.
5. Select Create new group... from the list.
The Object Group - Representation dialog box appears.
6. In the Category list box, select Part.
7. In the Property list box, select Name.
The part name is used for selecting columns.
8. In the Condition list box, select Equals.
9. In the Value list box, enter c o l u m n .
Note that all the letters must be capitalized.
10. In the box next to the Save as button, enter a name for the group. For example, column.
You will be able to reuse the new object condition in other models.

149
Object Group - Representation [3*1
Save/Load
column Save column Save as
as|| | >> |

Objects with matching properties will be included in the group

( Category Property Condition Value ) And/Or Add row

ffl Part Name Equals COLUMN Delete row

Move up

Move down

New filter

Close

11. Click Close.


The Object Group - Representation dialog blox closes. Note that the Object Representation dialog
box is still open.
12. In the Object Representation dialog box, in the Color list box, click Color by class to activate the
arrow button.
13. Click the arrow button and select blue color from the drop down menu.
14. In the Transparency list box, click Visible list box to activate the arrow button.
15. Click the arrow button and select 70% transparent from the drop down menu.
16. Click Modify.

7.14 Defining your own colors to model object


groups
You can customize the color of model objects by selecting a specific color for each object group. You
can use an unlimited number of colors.
To define colors for object groups:
1. Click View > Representation > Object Representation.
The Object Representation dialog box appears.
2. Load the object representation settings that you want to change.
3. Click Add row to add a new object group or select an existing object group from the Object
Group list.
4. Click the Color list arrow and then click Choose color....
5. Do one of the following:
Click a color in the Basic colors palette or in the color window.

150
o

o
o
rrBrirE
o r

o

o
&* n M r
o Click Define Custom Colors and create a color of your own:
a Click a color in the color window and then click the desired color depth on the color bar
on the right, or enter RGB values.

Click Add to Custom Colors.


Click the color in the Custom colors palette to select it.

6. Click OK.
7. Select the desired Transparency option.
8. Click Save to save the changes.
9. Click Modify to change the representation of the objects
When you open the Object Representation dialog box the next time, the Color list shows above the
dashed line a maximum of 10 colors that you last defined.

151
7.15 The Phase Manager
Use phases to break up a model into sections. Phases are often used to indicate erection sequences.
You can create reports and views, hide objects, and copy objects from other models, according to
their phase number.

--------------------------------- c
Use phases as a quick-selection tool: Open the Phase Manager,
select a phase and click Objects by phases. All the objects in the
selected phase are selected in the model.

Used the Phase Manager dialog box to create phases. You can open the Phase Manager dialog box
from Tools > Phase Manager... or by using the shortcut Ctrl+H.

Q
n

Option Description
'
The Number box You can enter the number of the
phase in the Number box.

The Name box You can enter the name of the phase
in the Name box.
o
The Filter button You can use the Filter button to filter
o the listed phases by the number and/
or criteria that has been entered in
the Number and Name boxes.

The Set Current button The Set Current button determines to


which phase the object belongs. The
current phase is indicated by @
o
character.

The Add button The Add button can be used to


create new phases.

The Delete button The Delete button can be used to


delete phases.

o The Phases by objects button The Phases by objects button can be


used to determine in which phases
o the selected objects belong to. If you
select objects that belong to several
phases, they are highlighted in the
Phase Manager.

The Objects by phases button The Objects by phases button can be


used to determine which objects
belong to the selected phase. The
object will be highlighted in the
model.

The Modify phase button The Modify phase button can be used
to change the phase for one or more
o
objects.
o
o 7,16 Dividing the model into phases
To divide a model into phases:
1. Click Tools > Phase Manager....
The Phase Manager dialog box appears.
2. Click Add to create new phases.
3. Click Set current to make the selected phase the current phase.
From now on, Tekla Structures assigns all objects you create to the current phase. The
character in front of the phase number indicates the current phase.
4. Divide the model into phases,
a To identify the phase of an object, select an object and click Phases by objects.
Tekla Structures selects the phase of the object.

153

( )
b To see which objects belong to a certain phase, select a phase from the list and then
click Objects by phases.
Tekia Structures highlights the corresponding objects in the model.
c To change the phase of one or more objects, select the objects, select a phase from the
list, and then click Modify phase.
5. Click OK to save your changes.

154
LESSON 8
8.1 Reference models
o A reference model is a file that helps you to build a Tekla Structures model. A reference model is
created in Tekla Structures or another software or modeling tool and imported to Tekla Structures.
For example, an architectural model, a plant design model, or a heating, ventilating and air-
conditioning (HVAC) model can be used as a reference model. Reference models can also be simple
2D drawings that are imported and then used as a layout to directly build the model on.
The following file types are supported:
AutoCAD (* .dxf)
AutoCAD (* . dwg)
MicroStation (* . dgn, * .prp)
Cadmatic models (* . 3dd)
IFC files (* .ifc)

IGES files (* . ig s, * . iges)


STEP files (* . stp, * . s t e p )
PDF files (* .p d f)
You can snap to reference model geometry. Tekla Structures loads the reference model from the file
each time you open your model. It does not save the reference model when you save the current
o model. The filename extension of a saved reference model properties file is * . rop.

o
o 8.2 Inserting a reference model
To insert a reference model in a Tekla Structures model:

1. Click File > Insert Reference Model..., or click >4


The Reference Model Properties dialog box appears.

Reference Model Properties UE3h

Save Load standard Save as

File name Default Browse...

Change detection
171 Old file name Browse...

|7l Show New file Display...


------------
Attributes
[V] Scale 1: 1.00000000 Subdivide

User-defined attributes...

Layers
Select layers...

OK Apply Modify Get W /Q > Cancel

2. Click Browse... next to the File name box to browse for the reference model file.

157
3. Set the scale of the reference model if it is different from the one in the Tekla Structures (for
example, if it uses different measurement units).

Set the scale for a DWG or a DXF file already in AutoCAD. When you
define the measurement unit for a DWG or a DXF file and save the
file in AutoCAD, the unit is recognized in Tekla Structures and the
reference model is scaled correctly.

4. Click OK.
5. Pick a point to place the reference model in the Tekla Structures model.
Tekla Structures inserts the reference model. The point you pick defines the reference model
origin.

8.3 Hiding a reference model


To hide a reference model:
1. Click File > Reference Model List... to open the Reference Models dialog box.
2. Select a reference model from the list.
3. Select Hidden from the Visibility list box.

8.4 Updating a reference model


You can update the reference models in your Tekla Structures model if there have been changes in
the original reference models after you have imported them to Tekla Structures.
To update a reference model:
1. Double-click a reference model.
2. In the Reference Model Properties dialog box, browse for the modified file by clicking the
Browse... button next to the File name field.
3. In the Import dialog box, select the updated file and click OK.
4. Click Modify.

You can also update all the reference models in one go.
To update all reference models:
1. Click File > Reference Model List... to open the Reference Models
dialog box.
2. Click Reload All.
Tekla Structures goes through all the reference models and
regenerates the reference models that have a newer modified
date than the one already in the cache.
However, this is not the recommended way to update reference
models since it is time-consuming and affects the system
performance.

158
8.5 Detecting changes in reference models
Reference models are often updated, but the changes are rarely documented. You can see the
changes between an old and new reference model by using commands in the Reference Model
o Properties dialog box. You can detect changes in reference models that are of the following file
formats:
IFC ( .if c )
Cadmatic (.3dd)
DWG (. dwg)
To detect changes in a reference model:
o 1. Select the reference model and double-click it to display the Reference Model Properties dialog
box.
2. Browse for the name of the old file by clicking the Browse... button next to the Old file name box.
3. Select an option in the Show list in the Change detection area.
For example, select Changed to see the changed objects in the reference model.

Reference Model Properties 3

Save Load standard Save as

File name C:\TeklaStructuresModels\tu Browse...

Change detection
C:\T ekl aStru ct uresM odd; Browse..,

Show Changed Display...

Attributes
Scale 1: 1.00000000 Subdivide

o User-defined attributes.

o Layers
Select layers..,
o
OK [ [I Apply Modify Get F / n Cancel

4. Click Display....
Tekla Structures highlights the changed reference model objects.

O 8.6 Reference model example: Displaying the


O changes
The following example shows how the changes are displayed in the reference model.
O
The old file:
O

o
159
o
o
o
o

c
The new file:

o
0

d
The Show option has been set to Changed in the Reference Object Properties dialog box:

o
o

8.7 Tips for speeding up large reference models


These are some tips for speeding up large reference models:

o
o
160 u

d
o
Large, highly-detailed reference models contain lots of snap points. To speed up snapping,
activate only the snap switches you need.
Split large reference models into smaller ones and display only the parts you need in the model.

8.8 Tekla BIMsight


Tekla BIMsight is a professional tool for construction coordination and collaboration. With Tekla
BIMsight you can carry out spatial design coordination using building information models from all
the project team members. The entire construction workflow can combine their models, check for
clashes and share information using the same tool.

Architect Engineer Subcontractor Inspector Fabricator

Tekla BIMsight is a free software, and you can download it at www.teklabimsight.com.


Use Tekla BIMsight for the following purposes:
Combine models to create digital as-will-be-built representation of the complete building.
Define and run conflict check rules to find conflicts and other issues between different trade
systems.
Communicate and present to project stakeholders and handle updates during the project's
lifecycle.
The benefits of using Tekla BIMsight are:
By checking for issues virtually you can solve them already in the design phase before actual
construction. This lowers your rework costs and reduces delays.
All project members can collaborate via Tekla BIMsight. This speeds up the design process and
improves communication.
Tekla BIMsight supports OpenBIM. This means that you can use the best tools for design and
collaborate with Tekla BIMsight.

161
To learn more, go to the Tekla BIMsight web pages and see the help
center documents and videos. In addition, the Tekla BIMsight
website offers a free Design Coordination Guide on how to perform
in each step during the project's lifecycle.

8.9 Publishing a model to Tekla BIMsight


You can publish your Tekla Structures model and the reference models included in the model as a
Tekla BIMsight project file.
To publish a Tekla Structures model as a Tekla BIMsight project file (* . tbp):
1. Click File > Publish to Tekla BIMsight....
The Publish to Tekla BIMsight dialog box appears.
2. Enter a name for the project file.
3. Select the folder where you want to save the project file.
4. Select other options as required.
You can include assemblies, base quantities, bolts, grids and reinforcements in the
published project.
You can split models according to phases.
Select the Open After Publish check box to open the project in Tekla BIMsight after
publishing.
5. Do one of the following:
Click Publish All to publish the whole model. If the model contains reference models they
are also included.
Click Publish Selected to publish the selected objects.

8.10 Publishing a model as a web page using


WebViewer
You can publish your Tekla Structures models as web pages that can be viewed via the Internet
using a web browser. The WebViewer files can also be used as reference models.
To publish a model as a web page:
1. Click File > Publish as Web Page... to open the Publish as Web Page dialog box.

162
o

n r
Publish as Web Page

Publish what? -------------------

O' Entire model

1_ Selected objects

Publish as ------------------------

Type: () XML '


Solid

Page title: Tekla Structures model

Template: Tekla Web Viewer

Filename: .\PublicWeb\Model.xml [ . ]

o
Tooltip in Web Viewer
o
Default

Pre/iew

o COLUMN
C/0
A

S23SJR

7] Open in browser

Publish Cancel

2. If you want to publish a web page of selected parts, select Selected parts.
3. Change the page title if required.
4. In the File name box, enter the destination path and file name for the published model.
By default, Tekla Structures creates a PublicWeb folder with sub-folders in the current model
folder, and places the published model there.
5. Click Publish. If you select the Open in browser check box, the model opens in your web browser.

163

(J
o
o

n 9.1 Reinforcement
o You can add reinforcements to concrete parts to strengthen the parts.
Tekla Structures includes tools to create single reinforcing bars, bar groups, and reinforcement
C)
meshes. In addition, you can use several system components for creating reinforcement.

o Command Button Description


Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog Creates a single reinforcing bar or a
o iP
VI reinforcing bar group based on predefined
reinforcement shapes.
o Reinforcing Bar Creates a single reinforcing bar.
o LJ

n
\/ Reinforcing Bar Group
&
Creates a reinforcing bar group.

o Curved Reinforcing Bar Group Creates a curved reinforcing bar group.

Circular Reinforcing Bar Group Creates a circular reinforcing bar group.


a

Reinforcement Mesh Creates a reinforcement mesh.


fa

Reinforcement Splice Joins reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar


groups together with reinforcement
splices.

9.2 Creating a reinforcing bar


You can create a single reinforcing bar with the Create Reinforcing Bar command. A reinforcing bar
o can be a straight bar, but also a hair pin, a former, or a bracket. Any shape with random dimensions
can be modeled.
To create a reinforcing bar:
1. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar... or double-click the Create

o Reinforcing Bar button.

o The Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box appears.

o
o

167

o
Reinforcing Bar Properties 3

Save Load standard w Save as standard


r
General Group

Reinforcing bar

[3 Prefix: Start No.: 1

0 Name: REBAR
------
Size: 12

7] Grade: Undefined Select...


c
0 Bending radius: 30.00

0 Class: 11

Hooks

[71 Start: 0 End:

Shape: No hook No hook


c
0 Angle: 0.00

Radius: 0.00 0.00


0 1BHS2S
c
Length: 0.00 ;0 I 0.00 c
Coverthickness
o
0 On plane: 25.00

0 From plane: 25.00

0 Start: 25.00

0 End: 25.00 t~t..... Coverthickness

User attributes

0 User-defined attributes...
Q
OK Apply Modify Get F/r Cancel
O

2. Make the necessary modifications in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.
a You can set the series and start numbers for the reinforcing bars. In addition, you can
enter values for Size (diameter), Grade, and Bending radius.
We recommend that you change Size by clicking the Select... button. It opens the Select
Reinforcing Bar dialog box, where you can select a bar size for the chosen grade. The
correct Grade, Size and Radius are then applied automatically. You can also select
whether the bar is a main bar or a stirrup or tie. When you have selected the correct
size, click OK.
You can modify the values displayed in the Select Reinforcing Bar dialog box in
rebar_ database . inp file. The file is located in . . \Tekla
Structures\< version> \environm ents\< environm ent> \profil folder. If
needed, you can edit the file with any standard text editor.
b Select the reinforcing bar color by entering the color number in the Class box.

168
o
o
n
o

o We recommend you to enter the classes, because the 3D view will be clearer if all the
reinforcing bars have the same color.
c Define a hook for the reinforcing bar.
d Define the reinforcing bar cover thickness.
3. Click OK.
o 4. Select the part to reinforce.
Tekla Structures will attach the reinforcing bar to this part.
o 5. Pick the start point for the reinforcing bar.
o 6. Pick the other reinforcing bar reference points to set the shape of the bar.
7. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
o
Next time you open the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box, the
modified properties are used. If you have stored several sets of
properties, you need to select an option from the list next to the
Load button and load the appropriate set of properties.

o 9.3 Defining a hook for a reinforcing bar


You can add hooks to the ends of reinforcing bars for anchoring purposes. Define a hook for the
o reinforcing bar under the Hooks area in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.
To define a hook:
o
Li
o 1. Double-click the Create Reinforcing Bar button.
The Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box appears.
o 2. Select a hook type from the Shape list.

Hooks

(3 Start: [7] End:

Shape: No hook No hook


No hook
E
Angle: 0.00 I I Standard 90-degrees
[71 Radius: 0.00 13 Standard 135-degrees
Sta n d ard 180 - deg rees
17] Length:
Custom hook

The hook is added automatically to end of the reinforcing bar. If you select a standard hook, the
Angle, Radius, and Length boxes are not active. If you select a Custom hook, you can define the
values.
3. Define the values for the custom hook:
a Enter a value between -180 and +180 degrees in the Angle box.
b Enter the internal bending radius of the hook in the Radius box.
c Enter the length of the straight part in the hook in the Length box.

169

n
C

[71 Start:
r
Shape:

Angle:

Radius:

Length:

4. Click OK to close the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.


o

9.4 Defining the reinforcing bar cover thickness o


Reinforcing bars need a concrete cover to protect them against harmful elements, such as the o
weather and fire.
To define the concrete cover thickness for a reinforcing bar or reinforcing bar group:
1. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement, and select either Reinforcing Bar... or Reinforcing Bar
Group....

U
Alternatively, you can double-click the Create Reinforcing Bar or the Reinforcing Bar Group
o
button. o
The Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box appears.
2. Define the reinforcing bar cover thickness in the Cover thickness area of the Reinforcing Bar
Q
Properties dialog box.
The cover thickness can be defined in three directions:
o
On plane, that is, the distance from beam's bottom, top, and side surfaces to the bar. o


From plane, that is, the distance from the end surface of the beam to the bar.
In the longitudinal direction of the bar, that is, start and end.
o
To define different cover thicknesses on the different legs of a reinforcing bar, enter a thickness o
value for each leg in the On plane field, in the order you pick points to create the bar.
3. Click OK to close the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.
(J

170
Coverthickness

[7] On plane: 25.00 30.00 35.00 25.00

[71 From plane: 47.00

17] Start: 25.00 MawsisfiB Cover thickness

[7] End: 25.00 Miiiamia Cover thickness

On plane distances

0 From plane distance

9.5 Reinforcing bar groups and group types


A reinforcing bar group includes several identical, or very similar, reinforcing bars. Tekla Structures
creates reinforcing bar groups using the properties in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.
Tekla Structures has several reinforcing bar group types:

Type Description
Normal Not tapered

Tapered One bar dimension changes linearly in the group.

171
c

Type Description
Tapered ridge One bar dimension changes linearly. The dimension is longest in the
middle of the group.

Tapered curved One bar dimension changes along a curve. The dimension is longest in
the middle of the group.

Tapered N One bar dimension changes linearly between N ridges. Enter the
number of ridges in the Number of cross sections box in the Group tab
of the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.

Spiral The reinforcing bars rise in a polygonal or circular shape along the
longitudinal axis of the part.

Use the Group tab in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box for selecting and modifying the
reinforcing group types.

& Reinforcing Bar Properties

Save Load standard

General Group

@ Creation method: By exact spacing value with flexible middle space

Target spacing value: 200.00

Exact spacing value: 300.00

Exact spacing value;?; 7*200.00 38.00

c
Additional actions in reinforcing bar group creation
8
0 Reinforcing bar(s) not to be created to the group: None (all reinforcing bars included)

3 Rebar group type: CrmilTIlT Normal


______
Number of cross sections:

172
o
Examples

Example Reinforcing bar group type


Tapered

Tapered ridge

Tapered curved

173
Example Reinforcing bar group type
Tapered N

Creating a reinforcing bar group


To create a reinforcing bar group:
1. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group..., or double-click the Create

reinforcing bar group button.


The Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box appears.
2. Enter or modify the bar group properties.
3. Click OK to save the properties.
4. Select the part to reinforce.
Tekla Structures will attach the reinforcing bar group to this part.
5. Pick the reinforcing bar start point.
6. Pick the other reinforcing bar reference point.
These points define the plane of the first bar and the shape of a single bar in the group.
7. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
8. Pick the start point of the bar group.
9. Pick the end point of the bar group.
These points indicate the distribution length and direction of the bars.
Usually the distribution length of the bars is perpendicular to the plane so that the cover
thickness on the sides can be defined.
If the reinforcing bars are outside the concrete, enter a negative value in the On plane box in the
Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.

Creating a reinforcement using predefined


reinforcement shapes
Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog includes a set of predefined reinforcement shapes. You can create a
reinforcement by selecting a reinforcement shape from a list of predefined shapes.
To create a reinforcement with Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog:
1. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Shape Catalog.
2. Select one of the predefined shapes from the tree view on the left.
You can add frequently used shapes to the tree view, or delete the shapes that you do not need.
3. Modify the leg lengths, general reinforcement properties, hook properties, or the group
properties, if needed.
To change the reference point of the reinforcement, double-click the different legs or hooks in
the preview of the shape. The reference point defines the insertion point of the first reinforcing
bar leg.
4. Click OK to close the Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog dialog box.
5. In the model, place the mouse pointer over a part face or edge.
A preview showing the placing and dimensions of the reinforcement is displayed.

6. Based on the preview, select a location for the reinforcement and click the left mouse button.
The reinforcement is created.

175
9.8 Spacing of reinforcing bars
You can define the way the bars are distributed in a reinforcing bar group by selecting an option
from the Creation method list.

[7] Creation method: By exact spacing value with flexible middle space
a
Equal udistribution
ictjUdi by
ib u iu u u u n u number
y iiu m u e i of reinforcing
ui ic im u ii.ii bars
Number of reinfercm|b3r; Equal di5tribution by target spacing value
Target spacing value: By exact spacing value with flexible first space
By exact spacing value with flexible last space
Exact spacing value:
By exact spacing value with flexible middle space
Exact spacing values: By exact spacing value with flexible first and last space
By exact spacings

The creation method options are:


Equal distribution by number of reinforcing bars: The spacing is based on the number of the bars.
The available distance is divided by the number of bars. Enter the number of bars in the Number
of reinforcing bars box.
This option suits particularly for the main reinforcing bars in beams.
Equal distribution by target spacing value: You can enter a spacing value. Tekla Structures aims
the spacing value as close as possible to the value in the Target spacing value box.
This and the next options suit for determining the placing and distances of stirrups and wall and
floor reinforcement.
By exact spacing value with flexible first/last/middle space: Creates fixed, regular spaces between
the bars. One space adjusts to even out the bar distribution. You can choose whether the
adjusted space is the first, last, or the middle space. Enter the spacing value in the Exact spacing
value box.
By exact spacing value with flexible first and last space: Tekla Structures calculates the number of
bars and places them with the defined spacing. The remaining spacing value is divided equally
to the first and last bar spacing.
By exact spacing: You can enter the spacing values manually in the Exact spacing values box. Use
the multiplication character to repeat spacings, for example, 5 * 2 0 0 to create five spaces of
200 .

176
o
o
o
o
o
0 Equally distributed

o Exact spacing with

o Exact spacing with

o
Exact spacing

o 9.9 Omitting reinforcing bars


o You may occasionally need to omit specific reinforcing bars. For example, when several reinforced
areas intersect, causing reinforcing bars to overlap, or when you want to start bar distribution at a
o specific distance from the end of a part.

o To indicate which bars to omit, select an option from the Reinforcing bar(s) not to be created to the
group list:
o None (all reinforcing bars included)
First
o Last
o First and last

o Additional actions in reinforcing bar group creation

[7] Reinforcing bar(s) not to be created to the group: None (all reinforcing bars included) |
None (all reinforcing bars included)
o [7] Rebar group type: First
Last
Number of cross sections:
First and last

o
Example In the example two reinforcing bar groups have been added to a concrete beam.
o
o Two reinforcing bar groups: one
o with flexible last space and one
with flexible first space
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
177
o
Q
o

Two reinforcing bar groups: one


n
with the last bar omitted and one
with the first bar omitted

9.10 Creating a curved reinforcing bar group


Curved reinforcing bar groups are created using the same reinforcing properties as the straight bar
groups. The only difference is that you need to pick three points instead of two to define the
reinforcing bar shape. After defining the shape, do not click the middle mouse button but continue
to define the distribution direction.
To create a curved reinforcing group:
1. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Curved Reinforcing Bar Group.
2. Select the part to reinforce.
3. Pick three points on an arc to define the curve.

c
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
4. Pick two points to indicate the distribution direction of the bars.

o
o

o
o

o
o
178
O


o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o The reinforcing bars are created:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o 9.11 Creating a circular reinforcing bar group
To create a circular reinforcing bar group:
o
1. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Circular Reinforcing Bar Group.
o 2. Select the part to reinforce.

o 3. Pick three points on the outer contour of the concrete part to define the circular bars.

o
o

o
179
o
u

o
{)
o

The radius is automatically calculated from these three points.


4. Pick two points to indicate the distribution direction of the bars.
The circular reinforcing bar group is created.

If you want to modify the splice length of the round stirrups, enter
negative values in the Start and End boxes in the Reinforcing Bar
Properties dialog box.

Cover thickness

9
/J On plane: 25.00
v.- _
13 From plane:______ 50.00

13 Start -75.00

13 End: -75.00

c
9.12 Creating a polygon reinforcement mesh
You can create a reinforcement mesh that consists of two perpendicular bar groups. The
reinforcement mesh can be polygonal, rectangular, or bent.
To create a polygon reinforcement mesh:

180
c

c
(
o 1. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh..., or double-click the Create

reinforcement mesh ' V button.


o The Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box appears. Set the length, width, diameter, mesh
size, and cover area of the reinforcement mesh.
2. Click the Select button to select a mesh from the mesh catalog.
The Select Mesh dialog box opens, and you can select a mesh and define the mesh properties.
o
3 Select Mesh
o Selected mesh: B503

I B-B500B > [3 Spacing method: Same distance for all


A393 _
.... A252 Longitudinal Cross
.... A193 [3 Distance(s): 100.00 200.00
A142
0 Left overhang: 50.00 1G 0JQ 0
.... B1131
.... B785 [V] Right overhang:
I m [3 Diameter(s):
.... B385
13 Width: 2400.00
. .. B283
C785 [3 Length: 4800.00
.... 0636
---- 1 13 Grade: B500B

OK Apply Cancel
____
o 3. Set the Mesh type to Polygon.

o 4.
5.
Click OK.
Select the part to reinforce.
o 6. Pick the start point of the mesh.
7. Pick the corner points of the mesh.
8. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
9. Pick two points to indicate the direction of the longitudinal bars.

o 181

o
o
The picking order is different if you create a Rectangle or a Bent
mesh. Follow the instructions on the status bar.

9.13 Creating a reinforcement splice


You can join reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups together with reinforcement splices. The blue
splice symbols indicate reinforcement splices in the model:

To create a reinforcement splice:


1. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Splice.
2. Select the first reinforcing bar or bar group.
3. Select the second reinforcing bar or bar group.
4. Optional: Modify the splice properties.
a Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Splice....
The Reinforcement Splice Properties dialog box appears.

Reinforcement Splice Properties

Save Load standard Save as standard


IWMIBMH IH.

0 Joint type Lap right

[7] Lap length 500.00

BJ Offset 0.00

0 Bar positions Bars on top of each other

b Modify the splice properties,


c Click Modify.

Moving a splice If needed, you can move the splice along reinforcing bars.
To move the splice:
1. Select the splice symbol.
2. Right-click and select Move.

182
3. Pick an origin and a destination point for the splice.

9.14 Attaching reinforcing bars to another part


When you model reinforcing bars, you need to select a part to which the bars are attached.
However, a modeled reinforcing bar may need to be attached to another part at a later stage.
To attach a reinforcing bar to another part:
1. Select the reinforcing bar you want to attach.
2. Right-click and select Attach to part
3. Select the part to which you want to attach the reinforcement.

9.15 Reinforcement example: Reinforcing a column


and creating a custom reinforcement
component
In this example you will create two reinforcing bar groups to place staggered stirrups with hooks at
opposite edges in a concrete column.

Reinforcing a To create a reinforcement for a column:


column ^ Create a concrete column that is 3000 millimeters high.
2. H o ld d o w n Sh ifta n d click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group.
The Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box appears.
3. Modify the properties on the General tab as shown below.
Reinforcing Bar Properties

Save Load standard Save as

General Group

Reinforcing bar

[7] Prefix:

(71 Name:

[71 Grade:

[71 Bending radius: 30.00

[7] Class: [3
Hooks ----------

[7] Start: [7] End:

Shape: Standard 135-degrees Standard 135-degrees

Angle: 135.00 135.00

Radius: 30.00 30.00

Length: 120.00
Coverthickness

[7] On plane: 25.00

[7] From plane: 25.00

[7] Start: 25.00 Coverthickness

[7] End: 25.00 [i Coverthickness

User attributes "

User-defined attributes.

OK Apply Modify Get w/r Cancel

4. Go to the Group tab.


5. Modify the properties on the Group tab as shown below.

184
^ Reinforcing Bar Properties I 3

Save Load standard Save as

General Group

200.00

Exa( 7*200.00 38,00

5
Additional actions in reinforcing bar group creation -------------------------------------------------

[3 Reinforcing bar(s) not to be created to the group: None (all reinforcing bars included)

13 Rebar group type: t in i.i.ii.UT Normal

Number of cross sections:

6. Click Apply.
7. Select the column.
8. Pick the corners of the column to define the shape of the reinforcement. Follow the sequence
shown below, starting from the first picked point (1) and ending to the last picked point (5).
Click the middle mouse button to finish.

9. Pick the top and bottom levels to define the range of the reinforcement. Click the middle mouse
button to create the first reinforcing bar group.

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10. Modify the properties under the Cover thickness area in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box
as shown below.

'wover tnicKness

0 On plane: 25.00

171 From plane: 175.00


............... ............... ........... ...
Start: 25.00 tvt.i.Mi...,, Coverthickness

m End: 25.00 t lL . .ui, Coverthickness

11. Click Apply.


12. Select the column.
13. Pick the corners of the column to define the shape of the reinforcement. Follow the sequence
shown below, starting from the first picked point (1) and ending to the last picked point (5).
Click the middle mouse button to finish.

14. Pick the top and bottom levels to define the range of the reinforcement. Click the middle mouse
button to create the second reinforcing bar group.

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Creating a custom To create a custom reinforcement component:
component ^ etailing > Component > Define Custom Component.
The Custom Component Wizard dialog box appears.
2. Select Detail from the Type list.
3. Enter a name and a short description for the component.
4. Click Next.
5. Hold down Ctrl and select the two reinforcing bar groups as the component objects.
6. Click Next.
7. Select the column as the main part.
8. Click Next.
9. Pick the end point at the top level of the column as the reference point.
10. Click Finish to create the custom component.
The custom component only works correctly for columns with a same profile and height.

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9.16 Reinforcement tips


Adding reinforcement to identical cast units is not always necessary. For example, if there are 20
cast units in a model, you can add reinforcements to all twenty cast units, but you can also
reinforce just one cast unit.
Advantages of reinforcing just one cast unit:
The model is better organized because it contains less reinforcements.
The database is smaller because the model contains less reinforcements.
Less numbering differences because there are less reinforcements.
Numbering of the model is faster.
Copying reinforcement and using custom components is not needed.
Applying model changes is quick. There is no need to modify multiple reinforcements.
Disadvantages of reinforcing just one cast unit:
Incorrect reinforcement weight.
Elements that have identical shapes but different reinforcements receive identical cast unit
numbers.
You can create cast unit drawings of the reinforced cast units. If the drawing has already been
created and the reinforcement need to be added in at a later stage, you can find the ID number of
the cast unit by using the Inquire Object command and add the reinforcing bars in the particular cast
unit.

9.17 Adding a reinforcement component


Tekla Structures contains various reinforcing components that you can use to create reinforcing
bars and bar groups.
To add a reinforcement component:
1. Click Detailing > Component > Component Catalog...
2. Click the arrow button and select Reinforcement and Strands from the list.
The reinforcement components are displayed in the Component Catalog.

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3. Double-click a component.
The properties dialog box appears.
o 4. Define the properties and click OK.
5. Select the part that you want to reinforce.

o 9.18 Reinforcement component examples


Beam The Beam reinforcement (63) component creates the stirrups and the top, bottom, and side
reinforcement reinforcements in one go. If the size of the beam changes, the reinforcement adapts to the new
t'*) dimensions.

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For the main reinforcement (top and bottom), the number and diameter of bars can be set
individually. For T profiles or beams with a ridge, multiple stirrup groups can be generated.
The cover thickness for the stirrups needs to be defined in the properties dialog box. The positioning
of the bars in longitudinal direction is automatically determined by the component.

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Tekla Structures Beam reinforcement (63)

Save Load standard Save as ] standard

Parameters Stirrup spacing Advanced

OK ] [ Apply ] ( M odify | | Get | | Cancel |

The stirrup distances can be defined on the Stirrup spacing tab. You can add more stirrups where
there are bigger shear forces. You can set the number of stirrups and stirrup distances for the
different zones.
It is possible to create different stirrups in two ledges. To do so, select Different Each Ledge from the
Ledge stirrups list to activate the Upper ledge stirrups boxes.
The Ledge Stirrup Spacing Type list contains two options to define the spacing of ledge stirrups:
Target: Tekla Structures creates equal spaces between the bars aiming the spacing value as
closely as possible to the value you specify. This is the default option.
Exact: The first and last space of a zone adjust themselves to even out bar distribution. The
spaces in the middle of each zone are exactly the size you specify.

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1 Save 1 1 Load I
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Upper ledge stirrups

Space N x Space N y Snare

Zone 1 10 13 100.00

Zone 2 [3 300.00

Zone 3 10 m 100.00

Zone 4 13

Zone 5

Ledge Stirrup Spacing Type

o OK Apply M odify Get

o Rebar in beam
(90)
The Rebar in beam (90) component is a versatile component that is used for adding reinforcement
bars to a beam. Besides all the options that are available with the Beam reinforcement (63)
o component, the Rebar in beam (90) can also bend the bars at the start or end part of the beam.

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Starter bars for
pillar (86) and
Slab bars (18)

Starter bars for pillar (86)

Slab bars (18)

Hole
reinforcement for
slabs and walls
(84), Beam end
reinforcement
(79), and
Rectangular
column
reinforcement
(83)

Hole reinforcement for slabs and walls (84)

Beam end reinforcement (79)

Rectangular column reinforcement (83)

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LESSON 10
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10.1 Steel component examples
Tekla Structures includes several steel components.

10.2 End plate (144)

10.3 Cranked beam (41)


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10.4 Haunch (40)
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10.5 Joining plates (14)


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10.6 End plate detail (1002)
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10.7 Stanchion weld (85)

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10.9 Manlock beam (1033)

10.10 Array of objects (29)


This component can be used to copy model objects.
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copied
o If you modify the original objects, for example, a column, Tekla Structures
changes the copied objects as well.

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10.11 Two-sided end plate (142)

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10.14 Bolted gusset (11)

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10.15 Central gusset (169)

10.16 Seating (39)

10.17 Stub (28)

10.18 Base plate (1004)


This component includes an option to create one or more filler plates.

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10.19 Stiffened base plate (1014)
With the standard setting, a base plate is created with a leveling plate including grout holes. A plain
base plate is also an option (leveling plate t=0) with or with-out grout holes. Additional stiffeners
can also be added.

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10.20 Stiffeners (1003)

10.21 Stub (1011)


Use the bolt delete option to determine which holes are deleted from the stub.
10.22 Round tube (23)

10.23 Concrete component examples


Tekla Structures includes several concrete components.

10.24 Opening in wall (40)

adding insulation braced girders

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10.25 Starter bars for pillar (86)
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10.26 Starter bars for footing (87)

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o pins and starter reinforcing bars

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10.27 Slab bars (18)
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default bottom and top bars bars in a set direction

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10.28 Reinforcement mesh array in area (89)
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reinforcement direction
default mesh

10.29 Stairwells and elevation shafts (90)

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column and starter bars


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10.31 Precast found block (1028)

connected to a column

10.32 Concrete console (110)

default console intermediate sloped connection

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console in panel corbel connection

10.33 Concrete console (111)

concrete console intermediate console + anchors

10.34 Wall wall teeth (12)

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two beams, prefabricated beams, cast in place connection


o connections

continuous precast beam connection + seam


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recesses sloped connections

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10.36 Create hole around part (92)

column penetrates floor

10.37 Concrete beam-beam (112)

connection + anchors sloped connection

anchors + gain double


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10.38 Anchor (10)


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default connection
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10.39 Parts at beam (82)


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support beam, trenching,
chamfering
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10.40 Border rebar (93)

A M P

default beam default panel

border reinforcing bars

default floor

10.41 Inbedded (1008)

anchor bars
lifting and bolt anchors

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several anchors

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10.43 Rebar in beam (90)

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beam
column and anchor bars

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ledge beam
sloped angles
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reinforcement along the main axis o

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10.45 Longitudinal reinforcement (70)

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10.46 Beam reinforcement (63)

RCL profile c
default reinforcement in beam

10.47 Pad footing reinforcement (77)

default footing plate and lacer bars

10.48 Beam end reinforcement (79)

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beam end teeth

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10.49 Lifting anchor (80)

10.50 Round column reinforcement (82)

round column reinforcement and


round column reinforcement
pins

10.51 Rectangular column reinforcement (83)

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10.52 Hole reinforcement for slabs and walls (84)

panel and reinforcement floor and reinforcement

10.53 Corbel connection (14)

10.54 Seating with dowel (75)

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10.55 Two-sided seating with dowel (76)

default

10.56 Battering connection (13)

10.57 Precast stairs (65)


The precast stairs (65) component creates different stairs with the following optional parts:
stairs
landings
ridges
stringers
anti-skid.

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Example Description
A staircase with:
square step size
stringers on both sizes
top and bottom landings

A staircase with:
chamfered step comers o
ridges on both sides
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A staircase with: c
rounded step corners
anti-skid profile
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LESSON 11
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O 11.1 Modeling the building

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11.2 Create the grids
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Create the grid Create the following grid:
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db d> <> <> <> csto
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A B

+10500 10500
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+7200 +7200
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+3600
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A B C D o
Create the grid Create a single grid line between the grid lines B and C according to the following image.
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B.5 B.5
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o Create the grid Create grid views to make it easier to model the building,
views
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11.3 Create the foundation elements
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Create the pad Create four pad footings according to the following images,
footings

/' "si

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5| 5.5
l
__L180CLQ0 I

|800.qq_
T

B.5 B.5

Create the strip Create strip footings according to the following images,
footings

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Position the strip footings and then fit them to the pad footings. You can use the Fitting (13)
o component.

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11.4 Create the concrete frame elements


Create the Create nine concrete columns according to the following images.
concrete columns
Columns at B/2, B/3, C/1 and C/3

?2od.oo 720 (1.00

C - 'r ~
C
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ME
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COLUMN C40/50 1 (Phasel) 900*900

O * * ^ h @ 3* K
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720Q 00 7200.00
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m x i 0

1)

Columns at B/4 and C/4 o

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IH H H
| COLUMN
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m m m 3600.00
{
...j

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Columns at B/5, B.5/5 and C/5
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concrete panels
Create concrete panels according to the following images,

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PAN EL C40/50 1 (P h a se 1) 4200*300

h si %


__

fiC1 0 . 0 0 1

5 4 0 0 . 0Q 1
D _____
1
1

PANEL C40/50 1 (Phase 1) 1500*600

% 3 A %

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-x= 1500*600

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i

3CCO.&OO

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Use the Fit Part End command to fit the panel ends to columns.

Curved panel
To make a curved panel, use the options on the Bending tab in the part properties dialog box. See the
following image.
PAN EL M
_______

Curved Beam
[71 Radius XY plane 600.00

Number of segments 20

Panels at second level


Create panels also at the second level.

Create the Primary concrete beams


concrete beams

236
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Create primary conrete beams according to the following image.

Create the diagonal beams so that the reference points of the


beams are at the midpoints of the part edges.

o Secondary conrete beams

o Create secondary conrete beams according to the following image.

1)

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BEAM C4D/50 1 (Phase 1)

TRPZM70CT300-200 |t 'I?*

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First, create a beam and apply fitting to the beam. Then copy the
beam.

The fittings are not copied to the skewed intersections. If you have diagonal beams, move the
reference point of the secondary beam to the center line of the diagonal primary beam. Then apply
the fitting.

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11.5 Create the additional elements
Create the mat Create a mat foundation according to the following images,
foundation
GD-

<c>

C I>

Use temporary reference points when you pick the corners for the
mat foundation.

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o Create the Create concrete slabs on two levels according to the following images.
concrete slabs
Slabs at first level
Create concrete slabs on top of the mat foundation.
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Sloping slabs
To make the two slabs sloping, modify the thickness of the three slab corners at the grid
intersections B/2 and B/3. See the following images.
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o & Chamfer Properties
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o Cancel

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Slabs at second level
Create two concrete slabs at the second level so that the top levels of the slabs and the beams are
the same.
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9 Cut the slabs so that they do not clash with the columns and
panels.

Create the Create openings on floors and walls according to the following images,
openings access opening on the first level
Create one opening on the first level.

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Floor access openings on the second level
Create two openings on the second level.

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Doorway
Create one doorway on the panel B/1-C/1.

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9 Create a separate front view of the panel and move the work plane
to the view plane to cut the door opening more easily.

Create the piles Use the CIP_F0_003 component to create piles and pilecaps at each grid intersection under the mat
and the pilecaps foundation. Use the component properties shown below.
o
Tekla Structures CIP_FO_003 (1)

Save Load standard Save as standard Help,


o
ignore other types

Horizontal Vertical Parts Position

[ 7 ] 1800

13 PILES:
o
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0.00 HEAD/
n
o ---- TIP

o 0 o.oo
0 '00

The component is available in the Finland environment. When you


have installed the environment, go to the
. . \TeklaStru ctu res\< version > \environ m ents\finlan
d\component_sketches folder and unzip the
ConcreteComponents . z ip file. Then import the
ciP_components . u e l file to your Component Catalog.

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To achieve the result shown above, move the component
downwards by the thickness of the slab.

____________________________________________________ o

11.6 Create the steel frame elements


Create the steel Create six steel columns according to the following images,
columns

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2' 3'

Create the steel Create steel beams at two levels,


beams

Beams at level +7600

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Create the beams at level +7600 according to the following image.

Beams at level + 1 0 5 0 0
Create the beams at level +10500 according to the following image.

251
^XQLUWN_HA'W3Q

c ___ggjd. i *>_____ | .eEAM JP&&CL . _ . JX Q L U td X JdE*4GQ_

BEAM IP 6 0 0

IFE33CWM IF'C40D BEAM IP E +00

SEA M IP E 5 5 0
'j C O L t ' M N f it A 4 0 0 B E A M IP E 4 0 Q

B EA M IP E 4 0 0

1
!
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B ________________ ' jcDUiW N_HA4.0l. _ fiSlBHft.._r ifc d U & R UEA4QCL

11.7 Create the reinforced concrete to steel


interface
Create the base Create base plates and anchor bolts to connect steel columns to concrete panels and columns. Use
plates and the the U.S. Base plate (1047) component with the properties provided below.
anchor bolts
The Parts tab
Enter the plate dimensions shown below.

t b h
Plate 0 500.00 690.00

The Anchor rods tab


Select Anchor rods from the Base plate with list.
Select the anchor rod type shown below.

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Base plate with anchor rods

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Create the ca st- Connect steel beams to concrete oanels usina the Cast-in-Dlate f10691 comoonent.

(')

253
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11.8 Reinforcing the building

11.9 Create reinforcements manually


Create the Creating the reinforcing bar
reinforcing bars Qreate a reinforcing bar in the corner of one of the columns so that the cover thickness is 100 mm
on both sides.

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o Copying the reinforcing bar
Copy the reinforcing bar using the Copy Special > Rotate option to create additional reinforcing bars
o in each corner.

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Create the Create a reinforcing bar group according to the following images.
reinforcing bar
group

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o 300.00

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3 0 0 .0 0
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200.00
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50.00
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Follow the instructions on the status bar when you create the
reinforcing bar group.

Reinforce the Reinforce the curved wall according to the following image,
curved wall

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Cover thicknew o
| fV; On plane
J From plane 25.00
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H e Start: Cover thickness

User attributes
Cover thickness
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11.10 Create reinforcements using components


Reinforce the pad Reinforce the pad footings using the Pad footing reinforcement (77) component.
footings
' j V i e w 1 3<i

Reinforce the Reinforce the strip footings using the Strip footing reinforcement (75) component. See the following
strip footings image.

V i e * 3 3d Component Catalog > || 1=

Search

Search result

Sliip fooling remtoj


cmenl (75)

Reinforce pilecaps Reinforce the pilecaps using the Pilecap reinforcement (76) component. See the following image.

258
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To be able to pick the pilecap and the two piles needed to create
the pile cap reinforcement, you need to activate the Select objects in
components selection switch. See Tekla Structures Help for more
information.

o View 1 * 3d 2 Component Catalog | c j || E ~ll*3*)

o ElGISBU iw
pile IS M K h l

o Search result

o
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o P ile ca p reinforcem
en1 (76)

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Create the starter Create starter bars using the Starter bars for pillar (86) component. See the following image,
o bars

v} r \
\J You have to pick both the footing and the column.

o __________________________________________________

o
Component Catalog
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o Search result
Search

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Starter bars for piila
r (86)
O

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Reinforce the Reinforce the rectangular columns using the Rectangular column reinforcement (83) component. See
rectangular the following image,
columns
View 1 3d 3 Component Catalog

rectangular Search

Search result

Rectangular sea Rectangular colum


n reinforcement (83

Rectangular spa Rectangular spa.

Create the Create a reinforcement mesh in the wall with the opening by using the Slab bars (18) component.
reinforcement
mesh *105*0 |
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Reinforce the Reinforce openings in slabs and walls by using the Hole reinforcement for slabs and walls (84)
openings in the component.
slabs and the wall

260
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Create construction lines to aid in locating the midpoint of the
opening.
The dialog box in the following image shows how to add the
dimensions of the opening.
y Add the diagonal reinforcing bars and modify the properties in
the Diagonal bars tab.

o ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

o
o
o Elecfrlc box in wa.. H ole reinforcement

o
Tor sla bs and walls

J c * Tekla Structures H o le reinforcement fo r d o b s and walls (84)

o * ; [sa w i rtanda.

" M S l i
o J 1050JX yj 50000 V 25.00 J V 25.00

o y; 5oa.oo
:T -J 50 XW
yj aoo.oc
y | 25.00

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