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PART 2 Subject : Weight and Balance Control of Aircraft

1)What does rule 58 state?

Rule 58 of Aircraft Rules, 1937 requires that every aircraft shall be weighed and its centre of gravity


Empty Weight : Means the measured or computed weight of an aircraft, excluding the weight of all
removable equipment and other items of disposable load, but including the weight of all items of fixed
operating equipment or other equipment which are mandatory for all operations like fixed ballast,
engine coolant, hydraulic fluid and fuel and oil quantities (both trapped and unusable) in the aircraft and
engine system.

Limits of Centre of Gravity : Means the most forward and most rearward Centre of Gravity
position within which an aircraft may be operated safely. These limits are specified in Certificate of
Airworthiness/Flight Manual of an aircraft.

Maximum Take-off Weight : Means the maximum weight, according to its Certificate of
Airworthiness or Flight Manual, at which an aircraft is permitted to take-off.

Removable Equipment : Means items of equipment which are carried on some of or on all flights,
but which are not included in Empty weight and which are not mandatory for the type of operation
being conducted

*)Every aircraft shall be weighed before the issue of Certificate of


An aircraft shall be required to be reweighed if it has undergone major repair,

or major alteration or there has been major change in the interior
arrangement of pilot/pax/cargo compartments which affect already
determined weight and balance data and which cannot be accurately
computed without fresh weighment.

*)Aircraft weighing less than 2000 kg. need not be reweighed on routine
basis, unless it is required to be reweighed after major repair/alteration.

*)Aircraft weighing more than 2000 kg. shall be re-weighed every five years

*)for an adhoc extension of the weighment period of an aircraft by a

maximum of 3 or beyond 3 months to tide over the operational exigencies by
DGCA when satisfied with the given reason or justification.

1)Who will prepare weight schedule?

After the aircraft has been weighed as required, the following persons shall prepare the weight

(i) A person specifically approved by DGCA for the purpose in any organization.


(ii) A person specifically approved by Quality Manager in an organization

approved under CAR 145 provided procedure for grant of such approval is

documented in Maintenance Organization Exposition.


(iii) A Category "B" licensed AME as reflected in item no XIV

2)What does weight schedule contains?

The Weight Schedule shall contain at least the following information :-

(i) Type of Aircraft.

(ii) Registration Marking and Serial No. of aircraft.

(iii) Empty weight including weight of unusable quantity of fuel and oil (kg.).

(iv) Item wise Weight and details of removable equipment (kg.) (Including wireless


(v) Maximum fuel capacity (Usable) in liters and kg.

(vi) Maximum oil capacity (Usable) in liters and kg.

(vii) Maximum commercial weight with fuel and oil tanks full.

(viii) MTOW (as per Certificate of Airworthiness/ Flight Manual) (kg.).

(xi) Empty weight Centre of Gravity.

(xii) Centre of Gravity Range and datum.

(xiii) Maximum number of passengers.

(xiv) Signature of appropriately licensed AME/ Approved person.

(xv) Date of weighment.

*)The Regional/Sub-regional Airworthiness office shall be intimated in
advance because weighing of the aircraft should be done in the presence of
the representative.

*)For all flights, it shall be the responsibility of the Pilot-in-Command to

ensure that The distribution of the load shall be such that the C.G. position
will remain within the specified limits at the time of take off, during the
progress of the flight and at the time of landing

*)In the case of scheduled operator, the responsibility for loading, lashing
and computing C.G. position, for take-off and landing phases of flight as
stated in the previous paragraph may be delegated to a person nominated by
the operator known as flight dispatcher. the same shall be submitted to the
Pilot-in-Command of the aircraft for his scrutiny and acceptance

*)In case a method other than the "direct calculating method" for the
purpose of computing C.G. is employed, the same shall be submitted to the
Regional Airworthiness Office for approval before adoption

*)The load and trim sheet shall indicate the composition and the distribution
of the total load carried on board the aircraft as well as the calculated C.G.
position for "take-off and landing" configurations before the commencement
of the flight

*). One copy of the load sheet shall be carried on board the aircraft and one
copy shall be retained by the operator for record purposes for a period of
altleast four months from the date of issue.

3)What is standard weight of crew/passengers of flight taken?

1. Crew 85 (75+10) kg.

2. Adult passenger (both Male & Female>12 years) 75 kg.

3. Child (Between 2 years and 12 years age) 35 kg.

4. Infant (Less than two years) 10 kg.

*)The weighing scales used for the purpose of weighment of passenger

baggage, goods etc. shall be calibrated at specified intervals to .This
requirement may be reflected in the Maintenance Organisation Exposition

1)What does rule 57 state?

Rule 57 of aircraft rules, 1937 requires that every aircraft shall be fitted and equipped with the
instrument and equipment including radio apparatus and special equipment


First-aid kit: A kit containing such items which can be used for the purpose of first-aid
treatment of injuries which may occur in flight or as a result of minor accidents.

Medical kit: A kit containing such life saving drugs intended to be administered only by a
qualified medical practitioner if and when available.

Universal precaution kit: A kit for the use of cabin crew members in managing
incidents of ill health associated with a case of suspected communicable disease, or in the case
of illness involving contact with body fluids.

Small Aircraft means an aircraft, classified as an aeroplane with a maximum take-off

mass of less than 5700 kg, or a single engined helicopter

2)Explain requirement of medical supplies.

All Indian Registered aircraft shall carry medical supplies as follows:

(a) First-aid kits for carriage on all aircraft,
(b) Medical Kit for carriage where the aircraft is authorized to carry more than 100 passengers,
on a sector length of more than two hours, and
(c) a universal precaution kits for carriage on all aircraft that require a cabin crew member.

Passenger First-aid kits Medical kit Universal kit(with on cabin

crew )

0 100 1 - 1
101 -- 200 2 1 1
201 -- 300 3 1 2
301 -- 400 4 1 2
401 500 5 1 2
More than 500 6 1 2
Additional kit(s) should be made available at times of increased public health risk, such as
during an outbreak of a serious communicable disease having pandemic potential

3)What is AED why and how should be carried?

All Scheduled Airlines may carry one approved Automated External Defibrillators(AED) to
provide the option to treat any serious medical events during flight time. The operators may
carry Automated External Defibrillators because they offer the only effective treatment for
cardiac fibrillation
All Scheduled Airlines operating transport category aircraft when engaged in International
commercial flights of duration more than 2 hours shall carry Automated External Defibrillators.
The approved Automated External Defibrillators if carried:
i. May be stored in the passenger cabin
ii. Shall meet Technical Standard Order or equivalent requirements
for power sources for electronic devices used in aviation.
iii. Be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers specifications
iv. Should be operated by a cabin crew trained for this purpose.

*)The responsibility of the designated person with regard to this check

medical kits shall be included in the Operations Manual

*)The contents of such Kits shall be examined,sealed and certified by

Registered Medical Practitioners/ Medical Officers holding atleast MBBS
degree once in a year

*)The First-aid kits, Medical kits and Universal precaution kit containers shall
marked with a white cross of size atleast 5 Cm to 5 Cm in green background

*)If the seal is broken during bomb threat inspection or due security reasons
or due to usage of the kit and cannot be recertified due to non availability of
qualified doctor, the kits may be carried on board in unsealed condition
provided it is recertified at the first available opportunity or arrival at base,
which ever is earlier

*)a cabin log entry shall be made by the cabin crew indicating the purpose of
breaking the seal and requesting replacement as per Appendix B


PART 6 Subject: Aircraft Log Books

1)What does rule 67 state?

Rule 67 stipulates that following Log books shall be kept and maintained in respect of all aircraft
registered in India.

i. Journey Log Book

ii. Aircraft Log Book

iii. Engine Log Book for each engine installed in the aircraft.

iv. a propeller Log Book for every variable pitch propeller installed in the aircraft.

v. A Radio Apparatus Log Book

vi. A Flight Log Book

vii. Any other logbook required by the Director General

*)Journey log book(jlb) contains record flight time, various aircraft and
engine parameters, pilot defect report and technical and rectification action
taken, the fuel and oil quantity uplifted, transit inspection etc

2)what information is present in log book?

The FRB/Tech Log besides giving other information shall have the following information.

i. Aircraft nationality and registration

ii. Date of flight (s)

iii. Names of crewmembers.

iv. Duty assignments of crewmembers.

v. Place of departure.

vi. Place of arrival.

vii. Time of departure.

viii. Time of arrival.

ix. Hours of flight.

x. Incidents, observations, if any.

xi. Signature of pilot in command

2)Into how many sections log book has been divided?

Each logbook shall be in three sections: -

The first section(white pages) will contain records of

a) hours flown date wise,

b) all routine inspection/maintenance, including "Flight Release" inspection

and higher checks carried.

c) test flight

d) minor repairs and certification thereof,

e) the information required in the vertical columns,

i. the date of flight,

ii. total flight time since manufacture,

iii. time since last overhaul/major inspection, number of landings/cycles, etc.

The second section(pink pages) will consist "Replacement, Major Repairs & Overhaul"

The third section(blue pages) will consist of Details of the modifications/service bulletins
including mandatory modification (s) complied with and certified should be recorded along with date
and time of compliance in this section.

*)Flight time as herein defined is synonymous with the term block to block
time, or chock to chock time in.

*)The entries in the Log Book shall be completed within 48 hours of the
completion of the work.

3)Explain preservation of logbooks.

Log Books shall be preserved for periods shown as under :-

i. The aircraft log books shall be preserved until such time as the aircraft is permanently
withdrawn from use and its Certificate of Registration is cancelled by the Director General.
ii. Provided that in the case of an aircraft meeting with an accident resulting in damage beyond
economical repairs the aircraft log book shall be preserved for a period of two years after the
date of the accident.The engine and propeller log books shall be preserved for a period of one
year after the engine propeller are permanently withdrawn from use. Other log books shall be
preserved for two years from the date of the last entry therein (read para 7.5 x-39 for
PART 7 Subject: Documents to be carried on board by Indian Registered Aircraft.

1)What doe rule 7 state?

Rule 7 of the Aircraft Rules, 1937 requires that all aircraft registered in India shall carry valid documents
as specified

2)What documents should be carried on flight?

The documents that should be carried on flight are:

i Certificate of Registration

ii Certificate of Airworthiness

iii Airworthiness Review Certificate (ARC)

iv A document attesting Noise Certification of the aeroplane/ helicopter

v Air Operators Permit

vi Appropriate Licences for each member of the flight crew

vii Aeromobile Radio operation Licence for Radio Communication apparatus

viii Journey Log Book or equivalent documents approved by the DGCA

ix Operations Manual

x Minimum Equipment List

xi Flight Manual

xii Cabin Crew Manual

xiii Cockpit and Emergency Check List unless these form part of Flight Manual, carried on board

xviii. Route guides

xix. Current and suitable navigation charts/maps for the planned flight route and all

other routes along which it is reasonable to expect that the flight may be diverted

xx. Weight Schedule

xxi. Load and Trim Sheet

xxii. If carrying passengers, a list of their names and places of embarkation and destination

xxiii. If carrying cargo, a manifest and detailed declarations of the cargo;and

xxiv. If carrying dangerous goods, a list of such goods. This list must be specifically

brought to the notice of Pilot-in-Command, before the flight.

3)What safety instruction should operator provide to the passengers?

(a) When seat belts are to be fastened. Illustration showing the fastening, tightening and unfastening of
seat belts.

(b) When and how Oxygen equipment is to be used.

(c) Restrictions on Smoking.

(d) Location and method of opening emergency exits.

(e) Use of evacuation slides.

(f) How to brace oneself while experiencing impact loads for all seat orientations.

(g) Location and Use of Life Saving Rafts/Jackets for over water flights.

(h) Routes from passenger area to emergency exits.

(i) Restrictions on use of mobile phone, laptops, electronic devices, etc.

PART 8 Subject: Procedure for issue of taxy permit

1)Which person can be issued taxy permit?

The person should a valid AME licence in category c covering engine installation and has been trained
for taxy

He should have radio licence for radio communication

He should be conversant with aerodrome layout,ATCsignals and instructions,signs run way

marking,lighting etc.

He shall be asses by pilot of the operator.

*)Taxy permit is valid for one year

2)Explain renewal of taxy permit?

The taxy permit shall be renewed subject to following conditions:

i.AME licence is current

ii.Holds a valid RT licence

iii.Taxied aircraft atleast once during preceding one year