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PWM Digital Exciter

Users Manual
PWM Digital Exciter

Users Manual

Issue Date: June 1997

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor to provide for every
possible contingency to be met during installation, operation, and maintenance. If further information is desired
or if particular problems arise that are not covered sufficiently for the purchasers purpose, the matter should be
referred to GE Motors & Industrial Systems.

This document contains proprietary information of General Electric Company, USA and is furnished to its
customers solely to assist that customer in the installation, testing, operation, and/or maintenance of the
equipment described. This document shall not be reproduced in whole or in part nor shall its contents be
disclosed to any third party without the written approval of GE Motors & Industrial Systems.
1997 by General Electric Company, USA
All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375



Indicates a procedure, practice, condition, or statement that, if not strictly observed, could result in
personal injury or death.


Indicates a procedure, practice, condition, or statement that, if not strictly observed, could result in
damage to or destruction of equipment.


Indicates an essential or important procedure, practice, condition, or statement.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter


This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are
adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install,
operate, or maintain this equipment.

Isolation of test equipment from the equipment under test presents potential electrical hazards. If
the test equipment cannot be grounded to the equipment under test, the test equipments case must
be shielded to prevent contact by personnel.

To minimize hazard of electrical shock or burn, approved grounding practices and procedures
must be strictly followed.


To prevent personal injury or equipment damage caused by equipment malfunction, only

adequately trained personnel should modify any programmable machine.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375


Section/Subject Page Section/Subject Page

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW 2-5.4. PTCT (DS200PTCT).................................. 15

2-5.5. NTB/3TB (531X305NTB) ......................... 15
1-1. Description Scope ....................................... 1 2-5.6. LTB (531X307LTB) .................................. 15
1-2. Introduction ................................................. 1 2-5.7. RTBA (DS200RTBA) ................................ 15
1-3. EX2000 System Overview .......................... 3 2-5.8. ACNA (DS200ACNA)............................... 15
1-3.1. Hardware Design...................................... 3 2-6. Inputs and Outputs......................................... 15
1-3.1.1. Control Core (Regulator Module) ......... 4 2-6.1. Generator Inputs ......................................... 15
1-3.1.2. Power Converter Module ...................... 5 2-6.1.1. Potential Transformer Inputs................... 15
1-3.1.3. Optional Hardware Modules ................. 5 2-6.1.2. Current Transformer Inputs..................... 16
1-3.2. Software Design ....................................... 6 2-6.2. 4-20 MA Inputs .......................................... 16
1-3.2.1. Software ................................................ 6 2-6.3. Generator Line Breaker Status ................... 16
1-3.2.2. Ac and Dc Regulators............................ 6 2-6.4. Generator Lock-Out Trip............................ 16
1-3.2.3. Scaling................................................... 7 2-6.5. Additional I/O............................................. 16
1-3.2.4. Faults ..................................................... 7
1-3.2.5. Simulator ............................................... 7 CHAPTER 3 SOFTWARE SYSTEM
1-3.3. Human-Machine Interface........................ 8 OVERVIEW

CHAPTER 2 HARDWARE SYSTEM 3-1. Introduction ................................................... 25

DESCRIPTION 3-2. Configuration Tools ...................................... 25
3-3. Programmer Module...................................... 25
2-1. Introduction ................................................. 9 3-3.1. Using the Programmer................................ 25
2-2. Packaging .................................................... 9 3-3.2. Software Design ......................................... 26
2-2.1. Environmental .......................................... 9 3-4. Standard Function.......................................... 26
2-2.2. Enclosure.................................................. 9 3-4.1. Automatic Voltage Regulator
2-3. Ratings......................................................... 9 (AVR) Ramp.............................................. 26
2-3.1. Input Ratings ............................................ 10 3-4.2. Automatic Voltage Regulator Setpoint ...... 26
2-3.1.1. PMG Input............................................. 10 3-4.3. Automatic Voltage Regulator..................... 26
2-3.1.2. Auxiliary Bus Input............................... 10 3-4.4. Field Regulator (FVR) Ramp ..................... 26
2-3.1.3. Bus Feed From the Generator ............... 10 3-4.5. Field Regulator ........................................... 27
2-3.1.4. Dc Input Power...................................... 10 3-4.6. Under Excitation Limiter (UEL) ................ 27
2-3.2. Output Current Rating.............................. 10 3-4.7. Over Excitation Limiter (OEL) ................. 27
2-3.3. Voltage Control Range............................. 11 3-4.8. Firing Block................................................ 27
2-3.4. Power Profile Rating ................................ 11
2-4. Power Converter Hardware......................... 12 CHAPTER 4 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION
2-4.1. Ac and Dc Input Drives............................ 12 AND SCALING
2-4.2. Dc Link and Dynamic Discharge ............. 13
2-4.3. IGBT and IAXS Devices.......................... 13 4-1. Introduction ................................................... 37
2-4.4. Output Contactor MDA............................ 13 4-2. Configuration and Scaling Example.............. 37
2-4.5. Output Shunt SHA.................................... 13 4-2.1. Example Generator, Exciter and Regulator 37
2-5. Control Electronics Module ........................ 14 4-2.1.1. Generator Data......................................... 37
2-5.1. TCCB (DS200TCCB) .............................. 14 4-2.1.2. Exciter Data ............................................. 38
2-5.2. PSCD (DS200PSCD) ............................... 14 4-2.1.3. Regulator Data......................................... 38
2-5.3. GDDD (IS200GDDD).............................. 15

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Section/Subject Page Section/Subject Page

4-3. Generator Configuration .............................. 38 4-6.1. Transducer Outputs ....................................54

4-4. Feedback Scaling.......................................... 39 4-6.2. Ground Detector and Diode Fault
4-4.1. Generator Feedback................................... 39 Monitor ......................................................55
4-4.1.1 Potential Transformer Failure Detector 4-6.2.1. Ground Detector and Diode Fault
(PFTD) Operation.................................. 40 Scaling and Configuration ...................... 55
4-4.1.2. PTFD Scaling ........................................ 40 4-6.3. Field Thermal Model.................................. 56
4-4.1.3. PTFD Detection Level........................... 40 4-6.3.1. Thermal Model Operation ....................... 56
4-4.1.4. P.T.U.V.................................................. 40 4-6.3.2. Thermal Model Scaling ........................... 56
4-4.2. Bridge Voltage Feedback ......................... 40
4-4.3. Bridge Current Feedback.......................... 41 CHAPTER 5 STARTUP CHECKS
4-4.4. Feedback Offsets ...................................... 41
4-4.5. Instantaneous Overcurrent Trip................ 41 5-1. Introduction ................................................... 57
4-5. Regulator Scaling ........................................ 42 5-2. EX2000 Prestart Checks................................ 57
4-5.1. Automatic Voltage Regulating System .... 42 5-2.1. Energization and Simulator Control
4-5.1.1. AVR Operation...................................... 42 Checks........................................................ 57
4-5.1.2. REF1 Operation..................................... 42 5-3. Pre-Start Power Checks................................. 59
4-5.1.3. REF1 Scaling and Configuration .......... 42 5-4. Initial Roll Off-Line Checks.......................... 61
4-5.1.4. Autosetpoint Block................................ 43 5-5. On-Line Checks............................................. 62
4-5.1.5. Autosetpoint Block Scaling and 5-6. Operator Interface.......................................... 63
Configuration......................................... 43 5-6.1. Units with UC2000 or IOS ......................... 63
4-5.1.6. Automatic Voltage Regulator 5-6.2. Units with Discrete Switches and Meters... 63
(AVR) Block......................................... 44
4-5.1.7. AVR Scaling and Configuration ........... 44 CHAPTER 6 SIMULATOR SCALING AND
4-5.1.8. AVR Proportional Gain......................... 45 OPERATION
4-5.1.9. Integral Gain.......................................... 45
4-5.2. Under Excitation Limiter (UEL) .............. 45 6-1. EX2000 PWM Simulator .............................. 65
4-5.2.1. UEL Operation ...................................... 45 6-1.1. Simulator Scaling ....................................... 65
4-5.2.2. UEL Scaling andConfiguration ............. 46 6-1.2. Operation .................................................... 67
4-5.2.3. UEL Curve............................................. 46
4-5.3. Reactive Current Compensator (RCC)..... 48
4-5.4. VAR/Power Factor Control...................... 49
4-5.4.1. VAR//PF Control Operation and
Configuration........................................ 49
4-5.5. Field Regulator (FVR) ............................. 50
4-5.5.1. REF2 Operation..................................... 50
4-5.5.2. REF2 Scaling and Configuration .......... 50
4-5.5.3. FVR Operation ...................................... 50
4-5.5.4. FVR Scaling .......................................... 51
4-5.5.5. Transfer Tracking Meter and Balance... 51
4-5.6. Field Current Regulator (FCR) ................ 51
4-5.6.1. Alternate FCR........................................ 52
4-5.6.2. Alternate Field Current Regulator
Scaling .................................................. 52
4-5.6.3. Primary FCR.......................................... 53
4-5.6.4. Primary Current Regulator Scaling
and Configuration ................................. 53
4-6. Optional Functions Scaling and
Configuration.............................................. 54

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375



1-1. DEFINITION AND SCOPE Chapter 5 Startup Checks

Contains pre-start, startup, and on-line
This manual describes the EX2000 Pulse Width adjustments required during the commissioning
Modulated (PWM) Digital Regulator for brushless of the PWM regulator for a brushless excitation
generator excitation systems. This is a system.
microprocessor controlled power converter that
produces controlled dc output for rotating exciter, Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and
brushless generator applications. Operation
Gives example simulator scaling and operation
This manual is intended to assist applications and
instructions for a typical brushless regulator
maintenance personnel in understanding the
generator application.
equipment hardware and software. It also provides
initial startup information.
The manual is organized as follows:
The EX2000 PWM regulator controls the ac
Chapter 1 Overview
terminal voltage and/or the reactive volt amperes of
Briefly defines the EX2000 PWM regulator the generator by controlling the field of the rotating
with an overview of the hardware and software brushless exciter. Figure 1-1 shows a typical one-
design. Includes references to other manuals line system of a PMG fed brushless generator
and documents, one-lines and connection application. Power for the regulator is normally
diagrams. supplied from a Permanent Magnet Generator
(PMG) driven directly by the main generator field.
Chapter 2 Hardware System Description This can be a single phase or three phase PMG. An
Contains specific information on system alternative method is to obtain excitation regulator
hardware design and purpose, ratings, I/O power from a Power Potential Transformer (PPT)
definition. supplied from an auxiliary bus. This can also be a
single or three phase supply. The PPT is required to
Chapter 3 Software System Overview ensure an ungrounded input to the regulator. A
Contains specific information on software second power source is also possible from a dc
tools, structure, functions, and one-line battery source.

Chapter 4 Software Configuration and

Gives examples of the scaling for specific
parameters in a generic brushless regulator
generator application.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

The control system contains both a generator In the EX2000 PWM regulator, PT Failure
terminal voltage regulator and an exciter field Detection requires two sets of PT inputs. There is
current regulator. These are known as the automatic automatic tracking between the ac and dc regulators
or ac regulator and the manual or dc regulator to ensure a bumpless transfer in either direction. A
respectively. balance signal is available for display on the
operator station or turbine control interface. A
When operating under control of the dc regulator, a transfer between regulators can be initiated by the
constant exciter field current is maintained, operator or, if supplied, by the PT failure detection
regardless of the operating conditions on the algorithm. In addition to the reference input to the
generator terminals. When operating under control ac regulator summing junction, a number of both
of the ac regulator, a constant generator terminal standard and optional inputs are possible. See
voltage is maintained under varying load conditions. section 1-3.2.2.
If the generator is connected to a large system
through a low impedance tie, the generator cannot Besides the regulating functions, the excitation
change the system voltage appreciably. The ac system contains protective limiter functions, startup
regulator, with very small variations in terminal and shutdown functions, and operator interfaces that
voltage, then controls the reactive volt amperes are implemented in both hardware and/or software.
The software is accessed via an RS-232C
If the generator is isolated from a system, the ac communication link by using the SuperTool 2000
regulator controls the terminal voltage and the (ST2000) program or GE Controls Systems Toolbox
VARs are determined by the load. Most systems for Windows NT or Windows 95. These toolkits are
operate in a manner that is between these two microprocessor based software used to configure
extremes. That is, both VARs and volts are and maintain GEs EX2000 regulators and exciters.
controlled by the ac regulator. Normal operation is It consists of a collection of programs (tools)
with the ac regulator in control, with an automatic running under a command shell.
transfer to the dc regulator in the event of loss of
potential transformer feedback as detected through The EX2000 PWM regulator includes a Local Area
Potential Transformer Failure (PTF) or PT Network (LAN) and RS-232C interfaces for external
Undervoltage Detection (PTFD). communication, which includes using the ST2000
toolkit that can be purchased separately.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Figure 1-1. PMG Brushless Exciter Overview

1-3. EX2000 SYSTEM OVERVIEW The power converter consists of input disconnects
and filters, a dc link with charge control, IGBT
1-3.1. Hardware Design devices, output contactor and shunt, and control
The EX2000 PWM hardware consists of a control
core and a power converter section, described in There are also optional hardware devices available
Chapter 2. The controller includes printed wiring on the EX2000 PWM such as 4-20 ma transducers,
boards containing programmable microprocessors Power Potential Transformers, and Field Ground
with companion circuitry, including electrically- Detector Power supplies.
erasable programmable read-only memory
(EEPROM) where the regulators system blockware
pattern is stored.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

1-3.1.1. CONTROL CORE (REGULATOR inputs from the isolation and scaling printed wiring
MODULE). Referring to Figure 2-3 the control boards. These inputs are analog feedback signals
core is mounted in two board racks on the outside of from the current and voltage transformers, which
the core panel and is accessible while the regulator monitor generator output and line voltage, and from
is operating. Also, behind the hinged outer door, the bridge ac input and dc output voltages and shunt
several Input/Output (I/O) boards are mounted. (See feedbacks.
Figure 2-4) The control core consists of all these
circuit boards interconnected by ribbon cables and I/O Terminal Board (NTB/3TB)
harnesses, which keep wiring to a minimum. Instruction Book GEI - 100020
Detailed hardware information including fuse and
test point information, replacement instructions and The NTB/3TB board includes an RS-232C
board layouts are provided in the referenced communication port for connecting to a personal
documents for each of the following circuit boards. computer (PC). The optional field ground detector
inputs are connected to the NTB board.
Power Supply and Contactor Driver (PSCD)
Instruction Book GEI - 100241 Drive Control and LAN Control Board (LDCC)
Instruction Book GEI - 100216
The PSCD board creates internal power supplies and
redistributes the necessary power supply voltages Reprogramming the LDCC board
for the other control core circuit boards. An isolated Instruction Book GEI - 100217
70 V dc supply is also produced and used for LTB
board inputs. The PSCD board also produces the The LDCC controls LAN communication and
contactor coil voltage for the MDA output and permits operator access and control via the
charge control contactor. Programmer keypad. It also contains the drive
control microprocessor which monitors start/stop
Gate Driver and Dynamic Discharge (GDDD) sequencing, alarms, trips and outer loop regulators
Instruction Book GEI - 100240 and motor control microprocessors which monitors
the field voltage and current regulators, gating and
The GDDD board controls the gating of the IGBTs overcurrent protection.
for bridge output and Dynamic Discharge control. It
also isolates and scales DC output, DC link voltage, Relay Terminal Board (RTBA)
shunt feedback and heat sink temperature feedbacks. Instruction Book GEI - 100167

LAN Terminal Board (LTB) The RTBA board provides seven output relays with
Instruction Book GEI - 100022 form C contacts available for customer use which
can be driven from a remote input or directly from
The LTB board provides an interface between the relays on the LTB board.
control devices and external devices such as
contactors, relays, indicators, lights, pushbuttons ARCNET Link (ACNA)
and interlocks.
The ACNA board provides the connection point for
Microprocessor Application Board (TCCB) the ARCNET Lan communications
Instruction Book GEI - 100163

The TCCB contains software transducering

algorithms that mathematically manipulate the

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375


Figure 1-2. EX2000 Brushless Unit

The power conversion section consists of an input the dynamic discharge resistor, RDD. This circuit is
section, a dc link, and the converter output section. normally powered from the PSCD board but may be
The input section is a three phase diode bridge with powered through the dynamic discharge power
input filters. The range of the ac input is from 90 source resistor RDS if control power is lost.
volts rms up to 275 V rms. Frequency inputs range
as high as a nominal 360 hz. It can be a single phase The converter output section takes the dc link source
or three phase input from a PMG, auxiliary bus or voltage and pulse width modulates it through the
generator terminal fed. An input PPT is not IGBT devices. The output voltage is determined by
required for the PMG input. A PPT is required for the following formula:
an auxiliary bus or generator terminal feed. An
optional voltage doubling feature is available for Voutput = Vinput * (time on/(time on + time off))
units requiring higher forcing capability.
where Vinput is the dc link voltage, time-on is the
An optional backup source from nominal 125 or 250 conduction time of the IGBT devices and time-off is
V dc batteries is filtered, diode isolated and the non-conduction time of the IGBTs. The
combined with the three phase diode bridge output. chopping frequency of the IGBTs is approximately
These sources charge the power capacitors through a 1000 hz. See Figure 5-1.
charge control resistor, RCH, which forms the dc
link portion of the power converter module. The dc This output is fed to the rotating exciter field as a
link is the unregulated source voltage for the control regulated voltage or current. A single pole contact
core power supplies and the output power through from the MDA contactor isolates the regulator from
the IGBTs. A coarse control of the voltage level of the field. An output shunt monitors the field
the dc link is provided by the dynamic discharge current.
circuit. This circuit will dissipate excess power
from the dc link (possible due to a regeneration 1-3.1.3. OPTIONAL HARDWARE MODULES.
effect from the field of the rotating exciter) through There are a limited number of structured options
available with the EX2000 PWM regulator. Up to

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

four 4-20 ma output transducers are available for These blocks are tied together in a pattern to
customer use. They are driven from D/A converters implement complex control functions. For example,
located on the NTB board, and are non-adjustable a control function such as the under-excitation limit
devices. Scaling is provided in the EX2000 PWM (UEL) is included as an ac regulator input by setting
software. software jumpers in EEPROM. The relevant
blockware is enabled by pointing the block inputs to
A 50/60 hz, 25 kVA Power Potential Transformer RAM locations where the inputs reside (the UEL
(PPT) is available for units that are connected to an requires megawatts, kilovolts and megavars). The
auxiliary bus or generator output terminals. This UEL output is then pointed to an input of the ac
PPT may or may not be supplied inside the regulator regulator summing junction. The software blocks
enclosure. Power to the primary should be fused per are sequentially implemented by the block
the application notes found in the control elementary interpreter in an order and execution rate defined in
supplied with the equipment. This transformer is the ST2000 tools.
sized to supply rated excitation requirements
continuously and still be capable of operation at The blockware can be interrogated while running by
ceiling excitation for a short time. using the ST2000 Tools. The dynamically changing
I/O of each block can be observed in operation.
An optional Field Ground Detector Power supply This technique is similar to tracing an analog signal
may be supplied for some systems. This power by using a voltmeter.
supply provides 24 V control power to the Field
monitor unit mounted in the generator exciter 1-3.2.2. AC AND DC REGULATORS. The ac or
housing. A 120 V ac feed is required to power this Automatic regulator and, dc or Manual regulator are
supply. software functions again emulating traditional
analog controls. The ac regulator reference is from
a static counter and is compared to the generator
1-3.2. Software Design terminal voltage feedback to create an error signal.
In addition to the reference signal input to the ac
The regulator application software consists of regulator summing junction, the following inputs
modules (building blocks) combined to create the can be used to modify the regulator action. (The
required system functionality. Block definitions and power system stabilizer (PSS) is an optional
configuration parameters are stored in read-only function.)
memory (ROM), while variables are stored in
random-access memory (RAM). Microprocessors Reactive Current Compensation (RCC). The
execute the code. generator voltage is allowed to vary in order to
improve reactive volt amp (VA) sharing between
Diagnostic software is transparent to the user. A generators connected in parallel. Generator voltage
Programmer module with a digital display and decreases as overexcited reactive current increases,
keypad allows an operator to request parameter and increases as underexcited reactive current
values and self-checks. decreases. Alternatively it can be used to provide
line drop compensation.
1-3.2.1. SOFTWARE. The exciter application
software emulates traditional analog controls. The Under-excitation Limit (UEL). Under-excited
software uses an open architecture system, which VARs must be limited to prevent heating of the
uses a library of existing software blocks. The generator iron core and to ensure dynamic stability
blocks individually perform specific functions, such of the turbine generator. This is done by an under-
as logical AND gates, proportional integral (P.I.) excitation limiter that takes over when a specified
regulators, function generators, and signal level limit curve is reached and prevents operation below
detectors. this limit.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

V/Hz. The ratio of generator voltage to frequency Typically 1 pu equals either 5000 or 20000 counts.
(V/Hz) must be limited. This prevents overfluxing This means that the feedback value for a particular
the generator and/or line-connected transformers variable, such as field voltage (VDCLINK = 1 pu)
caused by overvoltage operation or under-frequency or bridge current (AFFL = 1 pu), must be
operation, or a combination of the two. normalized by using a multiplier to equal the
prerequisite value of counts when it is at 1 pu. See
Power System Stabilizer (PSS). The introduction Chapter 4 for more details.
of a high gain, high initial response exciters can
cause dynamic stability problems in power systems. 1-3.2.4. FAULTS. The EX2000 has a
The advantage of these exciters is to provide sophisticated self-diagnostic capability. If a
improved transient stability, but this is achieved at problem occurs, a fault code flashes in the
the cost of reduced dynamic stability and sustained Programmer display showing a fault name and
low frequency oscillations. number. The fault number also appears on the
display on the LDCC in coded form. GEI - 100242
The PSS is fed with a synthesized speed signal includes information on fault codes, interpretation,
based on the integral of accelerating power. This and troubleshooting.
indicates the rotor deviation from synchronous
speed. This signal is conditioned and fed into the 1-3.2.5. SIMULATOR. Located within the core
summing junction of the continuously-acting ac software is a sophisticated system simulation
regulator so that under deviations in machine speed program that models the exciter and generator
or load, excitation is regulated as a composite behavior. The simulator is activated via a software
function of voltage and unit speed. The stabilizer jumper in EEPROM.
therefore produces a damping torque on the
generator rotor and consequently increases dynamic
stability. The PSS is an optional function. CAUTION

Over-excitation Limiter (OEL). It is necessary to

The simulator physically operates the
limit generator excitation current off-line to prevent
field contactors when a start signal is
overfluxing the generator and connected
issued to the exciter. If dc link voltage
transformers. On-line, it must be limited to prevent
is present, current may flow in the
field thermal damage. The limiting action is
exciter field.
performed by the excitation current regulator. The
current regulator takes control of bridge gating if the
Signals representing the field and the generator
regulator (automatic or manual) calls for a field
feedbacks are simulated in the TCCB and fed to the
current that produces main generator field excitation
transducering algorithms, in place of the real
current in excess of a predetermined pick-up level.
feedbacks. Once the exciter is scaled for a
particular generator, the simulator uses that scaling.
The dc or manual regulator is configured as a field
For example, after a successful startup sequence is
current regulator using the shunt feed back as a
performed in simulator mode, the operator interface
reference compared to the manual regulator static
will displays the exciter voltage and current and
adjust reference. It will maintain a constant exciter
generator voltage applicable to that particular unit.
field current based on the setpoint adjuster. The on
This tool is useful for training, startup, and
line and off line field current regulators are low
calibration checkout.
value gate selected with the manual regulator output
to select the appropriate firing level for the IGBT
Scaling and operation of the simulator is discussed
in Chapter 6.
1-3.2.3. SCALING. It is necessary to scale the
software in each exciter for application with a
particular generator. The regulators use normalized
values of counts to represent one per unit (1 pu).

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

1-3.3. Human - Machine Interface include, but are not limited to, discrete switches and
meters, direct DCS control through a UC2000, or
Each EX2000 PWM will have a human - machine some other device. Refer to the control elementary
interface (HMI) device of some form. The standard supplied with the equipment for the devices
offering will be via a data link with the turbine provided and to that devices specific instruction
controller over the Status S page and regulator book for further information.
information will be obtained through the turbine
controllers HMI. Other interfaces offered may

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375



2-1. INTRODUCTION Reactive Sulfur

Reactive Chlorine
This chapter describes the EX2000 PWM regulator Hydrogen Sulfide
hardware structure, and overall operation. When Sulfur Dioxide
reading these descriptions, refer to Figure 1-2, the Chlorine Dioxide
specific unit elementary, and the excitation layout Sulfuric Acid
diagrams provided with the equipment. Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrogen Chloride

GEI-100228 provides information on Receiving, 2-2.2. Enclosure

Storing, and Warranty Instructions for DIRECTO-
MATIC 2000 Equipment. This document should be The standard enclosure offering is a NEMA 1 or
consulted upon receipt of the EX2000 PWM IP20 equivalent, 90 inches high by 24 inches wide
regulator. and 20 inches deep. An optional 36 inch wide
enclosure is also available. In some instances, just
Each regulator will endure the following the regulator panel without enclosure will be
environmental conditions without damage or provided. This panel measures approximately 63
degradation of performance. inches high by 17 inches wide by 18.5 inches deep.
Other enclosure types are available.

2-2.1. Environmental Estimated weight is 1200 pounds with NEMA 1, 24

inch enclosure, 900 pounds without enclosure.
Temperature requirements for the EX2000 PWM
should be maintained within the shipping and Estimated watts losses are a maximum 200 watts for
storage limits in GEI - 100228 during transport and all applications.
handling. Once installed, the operational limits of
an ambient temperature of 0 to +45 C, outside of
the convection cooled cabinet, should be 2-3. RATINGS
maintained. It is expected that the hottest board
entry temperature will be approximately 60 C In the interest of producing a robust design, all
allowing the use of 70 C parts. power components, including the IGBT package,
were chosen with an operating limit of at least 50 A
5 to 95% relative humidity with no external where practical. This overdesign of components
temperature or humidity excursions that would should provide the long life and reliability desired in
produce condensation should also be maintained. a generator excitation regulator.

The EX2000 PWM control equipment is also Each EX2000 PWM regulator has a specific output
designed to withstand 10 PPB of the following limit rating based on the application of the regulator
contaminants: and limited by the shunt chosen for the application.
The following ratings information is the maximum
output of the standard regulator, using a 25 A shunt.
For shunt ratings other than 25 A, the output current

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

limitations will be reduced proportionately. Name 2-3.1.3. BUS FEED FROM THE
plate information should be used for accurate GENERATOR. Bus Fed based systems will
ratings. require an input transformer to isolate the input to
the brushless regulator from the power system. This
is also to insure that the power source to the
2-3.1. Input Ratings brushless regulator is ungrounded. The transformer
will be external to the enclosure that houses the
The ac input is the primary input power to the brushless regulator. The secondary voltage can
brushless regulator. The range of input ac is from range from 90 V ac rms up to a max. 275 V ac rms.
90 V rms. up to 275 V rms. The ac input may be Nominal secondary voltages can be 100 V ac rms up
single or three phase. The input ac may be from a to 250 V ac rms. Rated frequency for the bus feed
permanent magnet generator (PMG), customer based systems can be 50 Hz or 60 +/- 10 %.
supplied auxiliary bus, or bus fed from the
generator. If a bus fed system is applied on a black-start gas
turbine, this input may start at 20 % of rated speed,
The ac source input to the EX2000 PWM regulator therefore, the voltage and frequency will start at
should have an impedance of 6 % nominal based on 20 % of rated.
an estimated 20 A, 10 kVA source.
2-3.1.4. DC INPUT POWER. The dc source
2-3.1.1. PMG INPUT. The voltage and frequency input power is generally provided from a battery
for PMG based input will start from 0 and increase bus. This source is a back-up to the primary ac
to rated as a function of generator speed. Rated input power source. It can be used as the primary
input from the PMG system can be as high as 250 V input power for starting black-start turbine
ac rms / 360 Hz. Nominal voltages can be 100 V ac generators.
rms up to 250 V ac rms. With overspeed conditions,
the maximum is 275 V ac rms / 440 Hz. Since the The nominal battery bus voltages are based on a
PMG is ungrounded and is only used to source 110/125/ 220 / 250 V dc. Therefore, the operating
power to the brushless regulator, no input range for the dc input is from 80 V dc up to a max.
transformer is required. of 290 V dc.

PMG systems on gas turbines will see extended 2-3.2. Output Current Rating
periods of time at < 50 % speed operation on
startup. This is due to the purge cycle needed by the The bridge is capable of delivering the following
gas turbine. Since the PMG may be the only input absolute maximum output:
power to the regulator, the control will initialize at
60 V ac rms (i.e. ~50% speed). 25 A dc continuously over the specified
temperature range
2-3.1.2. AUXILIARY BUS INPUT. Auxiliary
bus based systems require an input transformer to 40 A dc for 20 s once every 30 minutes after
isolate the input to the brushless regulator from the continuous operation at 25 A dc over the
customer power system. This is to insure that the specified temperature range.
power source to the brushless regulator is
ungrounded. The transformer can be external to the The PWM bridge is monitored for excessive
enclosure that houses the brushless regulator but temperature by a heatsink sensor. Both alarm and
will generally be located in the panel. The trip signals are available.
secondary voltage can range from 90 V ac rms up to
a max. 275 V ac rms. Nominal secondary voltages
can be 100 V ac rms. up to 250 V ac rms. Rated
frequency for the auxiliary bus based systems can be
50 Hz or 60 +/- 10%.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

2-3.3. Voltage Control Range 2-3.4. Power Profile Rating

The PWM bridge is capable of two quadrant The output power profile is a function of line
operation (positive and negative output voltage, impedance, line current rating, operating point (I dc
positive current). This allows operation near zero and V dc), and capacitor current rating. Peak
voltage. The PWM bridge has two active transistors current is limited by IGBT rating. In general higher
and will operate in zero vector mode. This will current output is available at lower output voltages.
allow the output voltage to be chopped in PWM Output current (I dc) can be higher than line current
fashion from +V dc to 0 for positive voltage rating. The regulator shall be capable of matching
commands and -V dc to 0 for negative voltage the following power profile.
commands. The chopping frequency is
approximately 1 khz. The continuous operating area is bounded by the
minimum of the capacitor limit, line limit, 25 A dc,
The IGBT bridge does not provide a low impedance or maximum output curve and the x (V dc) and y
path which would provide rectification when gating (I dc) axis.
is disabled. This prevents runaway conditions
known to occur on brushless units having rotating The y axis shows input line amps (rms), capacitor
diode failure. The four flyback diode structure amps (rms), or output amps (dc) for a given output
provides this inherently. V dc and I dc. The curve labeled 25 shows rms
capacitor current on the y axis for a given V dc and
25 I dc.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Line and capacitor currents as functions of dc voltage and current

at 200 Vdc and
IGBT limit 25 Adc
25Adc line current
cap limit 10 Arms is 15 Arms

line limit 12.5 Arms

25 maximum

25 Adc

Line (A rms), capacitor (A rms), or output (A dc) current




at 50 Vdc and 25 Adc

5 capacitor current is
10 Arms

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Output voltage (Volts dc)

Figure 2-1. Typical Power Profile

The curve labeled 25 A dc shows rms line current on sheet is typical for all applications. On a
the y axis for a given output V dc and 25 I dc. requisition basis, the output shunt (SHA), charge
resistor (RCH), and dynamic discharge resistor
The line limit curve corresponds to given V dc and I (RDS) may change. Also, various combinations of
dc which would result in rated line current. The cap the input source power may exist. A single phase
limit curve corresponds to given V dc and I dc PMG with battery backup is assumed.
which would result in rated capacitor current. The
following graph illustrates the various limits.
2-4.1. Ac and Dc Input Devices
Negative voltage operation is not shown.
The ac input device DSWAC is a three phase, 600 V
ac, 30A molded case industrial circuit breaker. For
2-4. POWER CONVERTER HARDWARE single phase applications, the L1 and L3
connections should be used. The dc input device
For the following discussions, elementary drawing DSWDC is a two phase, 250 V dc, 30 A molded
03A and the panel layout drawings (Figures 2-2 thru case industrial circuit breaker. These input devices
2-5) should be used references. The elementary are mounted at the top of the panel, easily accessible
for operation as a disconnect during equipment
maintenance or inspection.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

The ac input source is filtered by snubber RC three phase, 50 A, 1200 V IGBT pack. Only leg A
networks and rectified by a three phase diode bridge upper and leg B lower IGBTs are active. Leg A
(DM1, 2 and 3). The dc output of this bridge lower and leg B upper are permanently inactive.
charges capacitors C1, C2, C3, and C4, forming the Controlled by the microprocessor based digital
dc link. The dc supply is filtered through inductors regulator, the leg A and B IGBTs are modulated to
(LPDC and LNDC) and battery capacitor C1F. It is pulse the dc link supply and feed the resulting
then fed directly to the dc link through isolation output to the field of the rotating brushless exciter.
diode DM4. MOV1 and MOV2 are provided for The output voltage is determined by the following
surge protection. All of these components are formula:
located at the top of the panel, behind the ac and dc
disconnects. Voutput = Vinput * (time on/(time on + time off))

where Vinput is the dc link voltage, time on is the

2-4.2. Dc Link And Dynamic Discharge conduction time of the IGBT devices and time off is
the non-conduction time of the IGBTs. The
A charge control resistor (RCH) mounted on the chopping frequency of the IGBTs is approximately
heat sink assembly is provided to limit inrush 1000 hz.
current during power up and capacitor charging.
The second pole of the MDA contactor controls The IAXS board provides the connection of the dc
application or removal of the charge control resistor. link capacitors to the IGBT bridge, dynamic
The dc link provides the source power for internal discharge control and gate control from the GDDD
board power supplies via cable DCPL to the PSCD board. The IAXS board is also the connection point
board. The control power supply is designed to for the dc output voltage and sensing feedbacks to
operate over a range of 60 to 600 V dc on the dc the control circuitry.

Auxiliary diodes DM5 allow stored energy in the 2-4.4. Output Contactor MDA
exciter to be returned to the dc link when the output
contactor MDA opens. Excessive voltage buildup in The output contactor MDA is described in GEK -
the dc link during regeneration is controlled through 83756. It is a double pole, single throw, 600 V dc,
the dynamic discharge circuit. This circuit monitors 50 A contactor, isolating the positive leg of the
the level of the dc link and will dissipate energy EX2000 PWM bridge output. The second pole is
through the dynamic discharge resistor (RDD) used to remove the charge control resistor RCH.
mounted at the top of the panel to prevent The power for the contactor coil is provided from
overvoltage of the power circuit and board rack the PSCD board. This voltage is only present when
supply. The C leg of the 3 phase IGBT pack is the control has been commanded to run. When the
controlled by the dynamic discharge circuitry on the DC link voltage is not present, there is no power
GDDD board. An alternate source of power for the available to drive this contactor.
discharge circuit is provided through the RDS
resistor, also to the GDDD board, in the event that
control power is lost. Jumper settings on the GDDD 2-4.5. Output Shunt SHA
board set the control level of the dc link by the
dynamic discharge circuit. The output current is monitored by the control via
the 100 mv feedback shunt SHA. The shunt rating
is application specific. A range from 1 A to 25 A
2-4.3. IGBT And IAXS Devices maximum is possible. The shunt rating must be less
than twice the exciter amps full load.
The dc link also provides the unregulated power
source for the Insulated Gate, Bi-polar Transistor
(IGBT) bridge used to provide the exciter field
current. The bridge consists of legs A and B of the

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter


The control electronics module contains powerful The microprocessor application board (TCCB) is
programmable microprocessors with companion essentially a transducer board. The isolated and
circuitry, including EEPROM, to process the scaled generator PT and CT signals are fed from the
application software. It is a module assembly that is PTCT board to the TCCB board. The TCCB uses
located on the front door assembly of the power voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) to transform
conversion module. Elementary diagram sheet A04 the analog voltage signals into digital signals.
and Figure 2-7 shows the connections of the various Software transducers process the voltage and current
boards in the control module. signals and then calculate generator data. This
information is passed to the LDCC control
This control module assembly contains the main processors for use by the regulators. The EX2000
processor board (LDCC), microprocessor PWM simulation software also resides in the TCCB.
application board (TCCB), power supply and
contactor driver board (PSCD), and the gate driver
board (GDDD). These boards are interconnected 2-5.2. PSCD (IS200PSCD)
through ribbon cables. The following is a brief
functional description of the boards within the The Power Supply and Contactor Driver board
exciter. Each board has a unique GEI which (PSCD) is powered from the dc link via stab-on
documents the hardware layouts, test points, fuses terminals DCPL1 (+) and DCPL2 (-). The control
and other information for each individual board. operates from 80 - 400 V dc as nominal range inputs.
These are referenced in Chapter 1. Transient operation to 600 V dc is possible during
maximum operation of the dynamic discharge. This
The LAN and Drive Control Board (LDCC), which board produces control power for distribution to the
is the main processor board, provides the IGBT other control module boards. The main supply
gating circuit control and regulator functions produces +/- 24 V, +/-15 V, and +5 V for control
including: boards (LDCC and TCCB, etal.) A 17.7 V ac
squarewave is distributed through high frequency
Automatic voltage regulator transformers to the gate driver and LTB inputs power
supplies. Auxiliary to the main supply are supplies
Field current regulator for generating isolated 70 V dc (sufficient to power
13 LUP inputs ) and an isolated SHVI/SHVM power
Field current limit regulator for future applications.

Volts/hertz limit regulator The contactor control power supply from the PSCD
board is sized to deliver up to 0.75 A dc. Power is
taken directly from the dc link and converted to 105
Reactive current compensation
V dc by a buck converter. The enable of the MDA
contactor is via an optically coupled signal which is
Under-excitation limit regulator logically in parallel with the coil of K1. Relay K1 is
driven from the LDCC board when the control is
Optional functions include: commanded to run.
VAR/power factor regulator Relay K86 is used as the controls permissive to run
and emergency stop. Dropping out K86 will
Power system stabilizer immediately stop the EX2000 PWM regulator. Coil
voltage is from the 70 V dc power supply on the
The LDCC board also contains both isolated and PSCD board.
non-isolated circuits for communication inputs to
the exciters controller. The LED display and
keypad programmer is on this board.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

2-5.3. GDDD (IS200GDDD) RTBA board determine if the LTB relays or external
connections operate the RTBA relays. The eight
The Gate Driver and Dynamic Discharge board LTB (or LUP) inputs are connected to the LDCC
(GDDD) provides the interface isolation between board via 8PL for use by the regulator controls.
the IGBTs and the main processor firing circuits.
Dynamic discharge circuit control is implemented
on the GDDD board as well as the gating circuits for 2-5.7. RTBA (DS200RTBA)
the A leg and B leg active IGBTs.
The Relay Terminal Board (RTBA) board contains
The board also provides the instrumentation of the seven form C, DPDT relays that can be software
EX2000 PWM. Output dc voltage, dc link voltage, driven via the LTB pilot relays or externally driven.
shunt current mv input, and the heat sink thermistor The relay contact outputs are used for external
input are processed on the GDDD board and sent to customer interface. Each relay contains an LED that
the LDCC processors for use by the regulators. indicates when the relay is energized.

2-5.4. PTCT (DS200PTCT) 2-5.8. ACNA (DS200ACNA)

The Potential Transformer Current Transformer The ARCNET Board (ACNA) serves as the
(PTCT) board isolates and scales the voltage and connection for the ARCNET data link for the
current signals from the PTs and CTs. It also EX2000 PWM regulator. Termination is made
provides auxiliary inputs and outputs for either low using co-axial cable. Each ACNA can terminate
voltage ( 10 V dc) or 4-20 ma current signals. two co-axial cables.
Secondaries of the isolation transformers are passed
to the TCCB board via the JKK ribbon connector. The Status S data link connection to the turbine
controller is made on the ACNA board.

2-5.5. NTB/3TB (531X305NTB)

The NTB/3TB serves as a general purpose terminal
connection board. Connections are made as an The EX2000 PWM regulator has a limited amount
interface between the control core and other devices. of hard inputs and outputs that can be supported.
The EX2000 PWM RS-232C serial port is located For most applications, these will be conducted over
on this board. When supplied, the field ground the Status S data link. As a minimum, the following
detection inputs from the ground detector receiver must be supported in the basic brushless regulator
are connected to the auxiliary VCO inputs on the for basic/OEM offerings.
NTB/3TB board.

2-5.6. LTB (531X307LTB) 2-6.1. Generator Inputs

The LAN Terminal Board (LTB) is an I/O 2-6.1.1. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER

termination board that serves as an interface INPUTS. Up to three sets of three phase PT inputs
between the control core and other devices. Ribbon are supported. These inputs are a nominal 120 V
cable RPL allows software variables pointed to the secondary with software adjustments available for
seven low voltage, low current, form C LTB output other nominal secondary voltages. The inputs are
relays to control higher voltage, higher current, form less than a 10 VA burden on the PT inputs.
C RTBA board relays. Jumper settings on the
The first two PT sets are used to supply generator
line voltage feedback information to the automatic
(ac) regulator for control of the generator output

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

voltage. The first PT set is used for generator 2-6.3. Generator Line Breaker Status
control. The second set is used for PT failure One form A contact input from the generator output
detection and can be configured for control should circuit breaker is used by control, limiter, and
the first set fail. protection functions. This contact is connected to
an LTB input. The contact may be powered using
These inputs also supply speed / frequency feedback the 70 V dc supply from the PSCD board.
information for the regulators, limiters, and
protection functions, including the optional Power
System Stabilizer (PSS). 2-6.4. Generator Lock-Out Trip

The third set of three phase PT inputs provides line One form A (closed when reset) contact input from
side voltage and is used by the control for an a customer trip relay (86G typically) is supported
optional voltage matching feature. These for an external trip of the excitation control system.
connections are made directly to the PTCT board. This contact must be powered from the 70 V dc
power supply on the PSCD board.
Optional PT isolation switches for all three sets of
inputs may be supplied.
2-6.5. Additional I/O
One set of two phase CT inputs is supported. Phase In addition to the I/O listed above, the following
A and phase C currents are required by the EX2000 minimum inputs and outputs are supported.
PWM regulator. These CTs supply generator line
current feedback information for use by regulator, Not all applications will require each of the contact
limiters, and metering functions in the brushless I/O or 4-20 ma inputs or outputs listed. Refer to the
regulator control, including the optional Power job specific elementary for those supplied.
System Stabilizer (PSS). The inputs require a
nominal 5 A secondary CT input. Software Input Regulator On / Off (Closed = Regulator On)
adjustments are available down to a nominal 3 A This is used to start and stop the brushless regulator.
secondary input. The CT burden is less than 1 VA
per phase. These connections are made directly to Input Regulator Selector AC/DC (Closed = AC )
the PTCT board. This is used to select the controlling regulator, auto
(AC) or manual (DC).
Optional CT isolation shorting switches for each
phase input may be supplied. Input Regulator Raise (Close = Raise)
This interfaces to the active regulators reference
adjuster, ac or dc, and raises the setpoint.
2-6.2. 4 - 20 MA Inputs
Input Regulator Lower (Close = Lower)
Optionally, the EX2000 PWM regulator can support This interfaces to the active regulators reference
two 4 to 20 milli-amp inputs for signals used to adjuster, ac or dc, and lowers the setpoint.
modify the overexcitation limiter / protection based
on the cooling of the generator. On air cooled Input PSS Enable/Off (Closed = Enable)
generators this input will be proportional to the This contact allows the PSS control to operate if
cooling air temperature for the generator. On minimum load permissives are reached.
hydrogen cooled generators this input will be based
on hydrogen pressure of the generator. Input Status of Control Output Contactor
This contact is used to monitor the status of the
MDA contactor.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Output Exciter Alarm (30EX) The voltage inputs supported are:

This output provides a global exciter trouble alarm
for customer annunciation Input from Exciter Field Ground Detector Alarm
(+ 24 V)
Output Protective Transfer to dc Regulator / Input from Exciter Field Ground Detector
Transfer Regulator alarm (60EX) Malfunction (+24 V)
This contact provides an indication of an automatic Input from Exciter Field Ground Detector Diode
transfer to manual regulator Fault (+24 volts)

Output Regulator On Up to four 4 to 20 milli-amp outputs are also

This contact provides an indication that the EX2000 supported.
PWM regulator is operating.
These outputs are provided through the digital to
Output Exciter Trip Request (94EX) analog converters on the NTB/3TB board. They are
This contact output is a request from the EX2000 software configurable. Typical uses are regulator
PWM to immediately trip the generator. Usually output voltage, regulator output current, and
directed to the 86G device. regulator balance.

Output Exciter Field Ground Alarm/Trip (64FA or

This contact output can be either an alarm or trip
contact depending on customer preference.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Note: Not Certified for Construction.

Figure 2-2. Mechanical Layout

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Figure 2-3. Front View

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Figure 2-4. Front View (Door Removed)

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Figure 2-5. Bridge Components

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Figure 2-6. Bridge Components (Isometric)

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375











Figure 2-7. Typical Connection Diagram

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter


EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375



3-1. INTRODUCTION personnel to troubleshoot, fine-tune, and maintain

the installed EX2000 PWM regulator. Optional tool
The EX2000 PWM regulator uses microprocessor based modules provide real display of control
based software that includes adjustable parameters. variables and communications data.
These parameters perform many functions once
controlled through adjustable hardware and software Publication GEH-5860 provides instructional
combinations. information about DOS ST2000. Publication GEH-
6333 provides information about the Windows-
The parameters are modified to customize the based Toolbox. These publications also include the
regulator to the specific hardware and application. PC requirements for running the tools.
They also enable field and maintenance personnel to
fine tune the regulator for optimal performance.
Either the DOS-based ST2000 Toolkit or Windows-
based Toolbox and the LDCC board Programmer The EX2000 PWM regulator includes a Programmer
are used for making these software adjustments. module with a 16 character digital display and an
These products are available as options from GE alphanumeric keypad. It functions as an operator
Motors & Industrial Systems for use by the interface for software adjustments and diagnostic
customer. testing when the ST2000 Toolkit is not available.

The programmer is provided with each unit. NOTE

Permanent changes made using the

3-2. CONFIGURATION TOOLS Programmer module must also be made
in the configuration tools to keep them
DOS based ST2000 and Windows-based GE up to date with the exciters software
Control System Toolbox are software toolkits used configuration. Contact GE Motors &
to configure, maintain, and fine tune the EX2000 Industrial Systems for support in this
PWM regulator. They consist of a collection of area.
programs (tools) running under a command shell on
an IBM PC-compatible computer.
3-3.1. Using The Programmer
The toolkit includes an extensive database of
EX2000 definitions, accessed and manipulated Publication GEI-100242 provides information on
using menu driven selections. Additionally, the how to operate the Programmer module.
ST2000 program can graphically display the
exciters program logic on the computer screen. By
viewing the logic flow, the user can better
understand and manipulate the exciters adjustable

ST2000 is used at the factory to initially configure

and test the systems. At the customer site, the tools
enable GE field engineers and other trained

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

3-3.2. Software Design 3-4.1. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

The exciter application program consists of
functional software modules (building blocks) The AVR ramp block accepts an input from the
combined to perform to system requirements. Block operator via the Status-S page for auto regulator
definitions and configuration parameters are stored raise or lower. The reference then ramps at a
in read-only memory (ROM), while variables are predetermined rate, within an upper and lower limit
stored in random-access memory (RAM). (usually 0.9 to 1.1 pu terminal V). The output can
Microcontrollers execute the code. be preset to a value upon startup. Automatic
tracking of the AVR track value is performed when
The exciter application software emulates traditional operating in manual regulator. Refer to Figure 3-2.
analog controls. The software uses an open
architecture system, which uses a library of existing
software blocks. The blocks individually perform 3-4.2. Automatic Voltage Regulator Setpoint
specific functions, such as logical AND gates,
proportional integral (PI) regulators, function The AVR setpoint block sums the output from the
generators, and signal level detectors. reactive current compensation (RCC), AVR ramp,
UEL output, and power system stabilizer (PSS)
These blocks are tied together in a pattern to output. This sum is compared to the V/Hz reference
implement complex control systems. For example, a in a minimum select block and then passed through
control function such as the under-excitation limit a high limiter as the AVR output signal. By
(UEL) is included as an ac regulator input by setting selecting a negative or positive gain, line-drop or
software jumpers in EEPROM. The relevant droop compensation mode may be selected on the
blockware is enabled by pointing the block inputs to RCC. An auto/manual command via the operator
RAM locations where the inputs reside (the UEL generates auto active or manual active status
requires megawatts, kilovolts and megavars). The indicators. A PT failure can also select manual.
UEL output is then pointed to an input of the ac Refer to Figure 3-3.
regulator summing junction.

The software blocks are sequentially implemented 3-4.3. Automatic Voltage Regulator
by the block interpreter in an order and execution
rate defined in ST2000. The blockware can be The AVR block combines the AVR setpoint with
interrogated while running by using ST2000. The the negative generator terminal volts to provide an
dynamically changing I/O of each block can be error signal. This is passed through to the automatic
observed in operation. This technique is similar to regulator proportional and integral gain sub-blocks,
tracing an analog signal by using a voltmeter. and then passes through the auto regulator limits to
the manual voltage regulator. The auto regulator is
modeled by the following transfer function:
AVR out = AVR error (Kp + KI)/S. See Figure 3-4.
Table 3-1 is a description of the inputs and outputs
for the more significant blocks used in the EX2000.
These inputs and outputs can be monitored through 3-4.4. Field Regulator (FVR) Ramp
ST2000, if desired. Also, the significant
adjustments of those functional blocks are described The FVR ramp block accepts an input from the
as Adjustable Constants. These constants operator via the Status S page for manual regulator
represent limits, gains, and setpoints. They are raise or lower. The reference then ramps at a
functionally equivalent to potentiometers or other predetermined rate within an upper and lower limit
discrete adjustment devices used in previous
excitation systems.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

(usually 0.7 pu VFNL to 1.2 pu VFFL). The output 3-4.7. Over Excitation Limiter (OEL)
can be preset to a value upon startup. When in auto
regulator mode, the FVR ramp tracks the value of In the EX2000 PWM, the alternate current regulator
IFE, exciter field current. Refer to Figure 3-5. is initially enabled. If the signal level detect looking
at exciter field current or either of the inverse time
3-4.5. Field Regulator protection blocks activate, the alternate field current
regulator is disabled and the primary current
The exciter field regulator is configured as a current regulator setpoints are active. The output of either
regulator in the EX2000 PWM. The reference input the alternate or primary field current regulator is fed
to the FVR is from either the manual regulator ramp to the firing block where a minimum select with the
block or the AVR. When fed from the AVR, the field regulator firing command is performed. A cool
field regulator is used as an inner loop. A bridge down function is also supplied to simulate cooling
firing enabled signal is also provided to keep the of the field after an overexcitation condition. Refer
exciter turned off until bridge firing has been to Figure 3-8.
enabled. Refer to Figure 3-6.

3-4.8. Firing Block

3-4.6. Under Excitation Limiter (UEL)
The firing block accepts the field current reference
The UEL blocks accept watts and volts as inputs and and the field voltage reference and then selects the
calculates a VAR reference. Using a table lookup least of the two. This signal is passed on to the
which approximates the underexcited capability of bridge only if the instantaneous overcurrent or the
the generator, the VAR reference is then compared stop commands are not activated. If either of these
to the actual unit VARs to develop a VAR error are active, the firing signal is a preset retard limit.
signal. The error signal is then passed through a Refer to Figure 3-9.
proportional and integral regulator sub-block to keep
the machine within its underexcited capability.
Refer to Figure 3-7.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Table 3-1. Standard Software Functions

Function Inputs Adjustable Constants Outputs

AVR Ramp Auto Increase (RF1@IN) High limit (RF1THO) Reference out
Auto Decrease (RF1@DC) Low limit (FR1TLO)
Manual Active (RF1@VE) Ramp rate (RF1NRT)
Go to Preset (RF1@3E) Preset value (RF1@T3)
Track Enable(RF1@T2) Track lag (RF1WLG)
Track Value(RF1@2E)
AVR Setpoint Frequency (ASP@FQ) ASP Limit High (ASPHLM) AVR Ref
React. Cur.(ASP@IQ) V/Hz Gain (ASPVHZ) Auto Active
REF Out (ASP@RO) RCC Gain (ASPRCC) Man Active
UEL Out (ASP@UE) PSS High Watt (ASPHIW) PSS Active
PSS Out (ASP@PV) PSS Low Watts (ASPLOW) V/Hz Active
Auto/Man (ASP@AC) UEL Active
Extra Input (ASP@EX) Setpoint In Limit
PT Fail (ASP@PT) Latched PT Fail
Gen Volts (ASP@VM)
PSS Armed (ASP@PC)
Gen Watts (ASP@WT)
PT Fail Reset (ASP@PR)

FCR FCR Setpoint FCR@SP FCR Prop Gain (RGKC0) FCR Output
FCR Enable FCR@EN FCR Integral Gain (IRWIC0) ILOP0
FCR Alternate Setpoint Alt FCR Prop Gain (IRGKA0)
FCA@SP Alt FCR Integral Gain
FCR Alternate Enable (IRWIA0)

AVR Generator Volts (AVR@FB) High Limit (AVRPLM) AVR Out

FVR Output (AVR@TV) Low Limit (AVRNLM) AVR In Limit
AVR Ref (AVR@SP) Prop. Gain (AVRPGN) AVR Error
Manual Active (AVR@TC) Integral Gain (AVRIGN)
Bridge Fire Enabled Tracking Gain (AVRTGN)
FVR Ramp Manual Increase (SS) High limit (RF2TH0) Reference Out
Manual Decrease (SS) Low limit (RF2THL)
Auto Active (RF2@2E) Ramp rate (RF2NRT)
Go To Preset (RF2@3E) Preset value (RF2@T3)

FVR Field Current (IFE) FVR Turn Off (FLDZVL) FVR Out
AVR Out (EFR@TV) Tracking Gain (FLDTGO)
FVR Ref (EFR@SP) Proportional Gain
Auto Active (EFR@EN) (FLDPGO)
Bridge Fire Enabled Integral Gain (FLDIGO)

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Table 3-1. Standard Software Functions - Continued

Function Inputs Adjustable Constants Outputs

UEL Watts (RA1@I1) VARs Ref. 0 (FGENYO) UEL Output

Gen. Volts(@INPUT) Watts Ref. 1 (FGENX1)
VARs (R2@FBO) VARs Ref. 1 (FGENY1)
Watts Ref. 2 (FGENX2)
VARs Ref. 2 (FGENY2)
Watts Ref. 3 (FGENX3)
VARs Ref. 3 (FGENY3)
Watts Ref. 4 (FGENX4)
VARs Ref. 4 (FGENY4)
Prop. Gain KP (R2KFBO)
Integral Gain KI (R2WI_0)
High Limit (R2LMPO)
Low Limit (R2LMNO)
OEL Field Current High Limit (CRLMHI) OEL Act
Low Limit (I tAFL) (FLDMOD)
FCR Preset (PIT@RS) IIT Acc
Inst. Overcur. Lim (PITPU) (PITIACCM)
FCR Pos. Limit (FCRPLM)
IIT Cooling Mult. (I tCMT)
Firing Block FVR Out Retard Limit Firing Code
IOC Active

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Figure 3-1. Software Overview

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Figure 3-2. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Ramp

Figure 3-3. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Setpoint

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Figure 3-4. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

Figure 3-5. Field Voltage Reg (FVR) Ramp

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Figure 3-6. Field Regulator (FVR)

Figure 3-7. Under-Excitation Limit (UEL)

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Figure 3-8. Over Excitation Limit (OEL)

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Figure 3-9. Firing Block

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter


EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375




The software to configure various regulators,
metering, and protective functions within the The following section shows how scaling is
EX2000 PWM regulator operates on a count system performed using example generator data. The
representing actual feedback values. These example system is configured as a Brushless exciter
feedbacks are generated by current transformers, regulator fed from a PMG with a 125 V dc battery
voltage transformers, and dc shunts. The signals backup. There is also a single set of generator
may pass through isolators and amplifiers. These potential transformers (PT)s and no line PTs. The
analog signals are transformed to digital signals by scaling may not apply to all EX2000 applications.
means of voltage controlled oscillators. Contact GE Motors and Industrial Systems before
changing any EE Values.
The regulator controls use standard normalized
values to represent the variable being monitored or Even though the EX2000 PWM is a brushless
regulated. This enables the use of software that, to a regulator and as such, operating data from the
large extent, is not application dependent. For generator field is not readily available to the
example, the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) regulator, the generator information listed is critical
controls the generator terminal voltage based on a to the overall operation and performance of the
setpoint chosen by the operator. For any machine, 1 regulator and excitation system. Assumptions made
per unit (or rated terminal voltage) is defined within in the AVR and exciter field regulators are based
the AVR to be 20000 counts. If the operator upon the available generator data.
chooses to set the terminal voltage at rated then the
reference to the AVR is 20000 counts. The voltage
feedback counts are compared to this reference to 4-2.1. Example Generator, Exciter And
generate an error signal and the appropriate control Regulator
action takes place to maintain the feedback counts at
20000. The example generator, exciter, and regulator data
in this chapter is as follows:
The actual generator terminal voltage being
regulated is not referenced at this control level. It is 4-2.1.1. GENERATOR DATA:
therefore necessary to ensure that the feedback
counts seen by the regulators are adjusted to provide KVA 100000
the standard number of counts when the generator is Frequency 60 Hz
operating at rated. This is referred to as scaling. Volts 13800
PF 0.85
An EX2000 system can be constructed several ways Cold Gas Temperature 40 C
to accommodate customer system requirements. For Rated Stator Amps 4184
example, the regulator can be fed from the Amps Field No Load 313
permanent magnet generator or from an auxiliary Amps Field Air Gap 281
bus. It can be a brushless regulator or an SCT Amps Field Full Load 846
control winding regulator. The controls are set to Amps Field Ceiling 1360
match the hardware used. This is known as Field Open Circuit Time
configuration. Constant (Tdo) 5.615 sec
Field Open Circuit Subtransient (Tdo) 0.022 sec

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Field Winding Resistance 0.199 ohms at 25 C applications and should not be changed or need
Volts Field Full Load 136 changing on any requisition. If any parameters not
Station battery volts 125 V dc discussed in this manual are in question, contact the
PT Ratio 14400/120 product service group of GE Motors and Industrial
Current Transformer (CT) Ratio 8000/5 Systems or the local GE service organization for
4-2.1.2. EXCITER DATA:
The following are general configuration adjustable
kW 268 parameters (EEPROM) used to direct signals and
Volts 300 help make the configurable blockware function as a
Rated Exciter Output Amps 893 brushless regulator.
Amps Field Air Gap (exciter) 1.712
Amps Field No Load (exciter) 3.52 Generator Model Jumper EE.3850 (GMJMPR)
Amps Field Synch Imp.(exciter) 6.236
EE.3850.1 Used to simulate PT failure in
Amps Field Full Load (exciter) 9.54
simulator mode. Normally set to
Amps Field Ceiling (exciter) 15.45
Exciter Time Constant (Tdo) 0.35 sec
EE.3850.2 Selects slip source for Power
Field Winding Resistance (exciter) 4.871 ohms
System Stabilizer (PSS) The
at 25 C
example has no PSS
EE.3850.3 Selects extra PT source for
4-2.1.3. REGULATOR DATA: calculation of PT failure. Can only
be from PTCT board for EX2000
DC shunt 10 A = 100 mv PWM. Set to (0).
Dynamic Discharge Resistor 17.0 ohms EE.3850.4 Generator model type. Can be static
Dynamic Discharge Resistor (0) or rotating (1). Brushless
Rated Amps 6.0 A regulator is rotating.
Charge Control Resistor 2.0 ohms EE.3850.5 Selects 50 hz (1) or 60 hz (0) system
Voltage Doubling No for simulator and normal operation.
DC Link Expected Volts Example is 60 hz.
from PMG 137 EE.3850.6 Selects terminal (0) or separately
Maximum Expected DC fed (1)inputs for bridge. EX2000
Link Volts 360 PWM is separately fed.
EE.3850.7 Selects whether the extra PT is used
for calculations if a PT failure is
4-3. GENERAL CONFIGURATION detected. (1) is yes, (0) is no. No
PT failure detection available in the
Throughout this example, the software nomenclature example.
is defined as follows: EE.3850.8 Selects location of extra PT input.
Line side (1) of 52G breaker or
EE.XXXX (ABCDEF), where "XXXX" represents generator side (0). Example does
the software address location and "ABCDEF" not have extra PT input.
represents the software address name. EE.3850.9 Select if PT failure detection is
always (0) or only with 52G closed
There are many parameters that are set in the (1). No PT fail detection in
EX2000 PWM which are not discussed in this example system. Set to zero.
manual. Many of them are used to set up EE.3850.10 Use maximum of PT feedbacks for
configurable parameters such as the Status S data calculations. (1) is yes, (0) is no.
link, communication, and so on. These are fixed No for example.
parameters baud rates, displays configuration,
keypad configuration for all EX2000 PWM

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

EE.3850.11 Adjusts simulator for 60 hz (0) or 4-4. FEEDBACK SCALING

50 hz (1)
EE.3850.12 Sets LOE calculation for high gain As a brushless regulator, there are a limited number
(rev. G1B) PTCT board for LOE of feed back signals from the generator available to
calculations. All new EX2000 the EX2000 PWM. These are potential transformers
PWM use high gain PTCT inputs. and current transformers monitoring the stator
Set to (1) output, a shunt feed back from the exciter field, and
EE.3850.13 Adjusts PTCT board inputs for Rev. exciter field voltage. Main generator field current
A (0) or Rev. B (1) board. and voltage are not commonly available for display
or control on a brushless generator. The following
Configuration Jumper EE.589 (ECNFIG) sections will detail the common feed back signals
and the scaling used in the EX2000 PWM.
EE.589.0 Selects IFG feedback to be from
SHPL on GDDD (1), IA2PL from
GDDD (2) or none (0). Set to 2 for 4-4.1. Generator Feedback
EX2000 PWM
EE.589.2 Selects IFE feedback to be from The PT and CT signals to the EX2000 PWM
SHPL on GDDD (1), IA2PL from regulator are isolated by the PTCT board. The
GDDD (2) or none (0). Set to 1 for voltage signals generated by the PTCT are sent to
EX2000 PWM the TCCB transducer board. Here voltage
EE.589.4 Selects VFG to be from APL/BPL controlled oscillators (VCO) translate the analog
on GDDD board (1), IA1PL on signals into digital counts.
GDDD board (2) or none (0). Set to
zero for EX2000 PWM. The PTCT board will accept one set of three phase
EE.589.6 Selects VFE to be from APL/BPL CT inputs from the main generator stator current
on GDDD board (1), IA1PL on transformers. These CTs must have a nominal 5
GDDD board (2) or none (0). Set to amp secondary and phase A and C are required for
one for EX2000 PWM. correct operation of the EX2000 PWM regulators.
EE.589.8 Selects field regulator feedback to Phase B CT input is not required and is not used by
be either VFG (0), VFE (1), IFG (2) the controls. EE.3840 CT_ADJ is used to account
or IFE (3). EX2000 is a current for off nominal CTs. The scaling for this EE setting
regulator for the exciter field. Set to is calculated as equal to 20480/(actual 1 pu CT
three. secondary amps)
EE.589.10 Selects source for Var.105 to be
either IFG (0) or IFE (1). Set to 1 For the example generator data: EE.3840 =
for EX2000 PWM. 20480/(4184*5/8000) = 7832

Other general configuration parameters The PTCT board also accepts up to three sets of
important to the operation of an EX2000 PWM generator voltage transformer inputs. These inputs
regulator are three phase inputs with a nominal secondary
voltage of 120 V ac. Two of the inputs are for
EE.550 Identifies product type. For generator voltage before the synchronizing breaker.
EX2000 hardware select 4. These two PT inputs should both be on the same
EE.556 Identifies hardware feedback board. side of the generator step up transformer. The third
For EX2000 PWM select GDDD input can be used for a line side of the
board 2. synchronizing breaker voltage input. The scaling
for this EE setting is calculated as equal to
491520/(actual 1 pu PT secondary volts)

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

For the example generator data: EE.3841 = 4-4.1.3. PTFD DETECTION LEVEL. The failure
491520/(13800*120/14400) = 4274 detection level is set using PTFDVL EE.3837. It is
typically set to approximately 50% of nominal (120
4-4.1.1. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER V) PT signal (loss of half the voltage of one phase).
In the example system only one set of PT inputs are For the example system, EE.3837 = 0.5 * 2048 *
specified. The second set of generator side PTs can (115/120) = 981. In the formula, 2048 represents a
be used for an optional Potential Transformer complete loss of a PT signal and 115 is the actual 1
Failure Detection (PTFD) function. The generator pu PT secondary volts.
PTFD operates by comparing the sum of the
absolute counts for V12 and V23 signals (generator A PT failure detection causes automatic transfer to
PT signals) with the sum of the absolute counts the field (or manual) regulator. This regulator
representing the extra PT input signals VX12 and controls field current level and does not look at
VX23. generator terminal voltage. This is the only fault
that initiates automatic transfer to the manual
The 1 pu secondary voltages from these two sources regulator. It is not possible to transfer back to the
depends on the transformer ratios used. A scale AVR until this latching fault is cleared. The
factor PTFDSC EE.3835 is used to null the signal operator interface should indicate when a PTFD has
difference that could exist. The resulting magnitude occurred. A reset signal must be sent to reset the
difference is filtered and the absolute value is PTFD. A soft reset of the core is necessary to clear
compared to the failure detection level set by the fault display from the LDCC board once the PT
EE.3837 PTFDVL. Under normal conditions the feedback problem is fixed.
difference between the two sums should be
approximately zero. If this absolute difference is 4-4.1.4. P.T.U.V. If a second set of generator
greater than the value set by PTFDVL EE.3837 then PTs is not provided then the PTFD scheme
a PT FAIL FLT.488 is generated and VAR.1166 described above can not be used. In this case the
EXPTFD becomes true. This variable is sent to the PTFD function is disabled by setting EE.3837 to
excitation autosetpoint block input ASP@PT and, if 65,535 and protection is provided by pointing
true, forces a latched transfer to the manual ASP@PT at VAR.1182 EXPTUV. In the event of
regulator. loss of one phase or complete loss of generator
voltage signal as measured by the TCCB board, and
The PTFD can be disabled off-line by setting after a time delay specified in EE.3834 PTFDT1.
EE.3850.9 GMJMPR.9 equal to 1. The PTFD EXPTUV will become true, forcing the control into
detector can be tested using the simulator by setting manual regulator mode.
GMJMPR.1 equal to 1 to simulate loss of V12 PT
4-4.2. Bridge Voltage Feedback
Setting EE.3850.9 GMJMPR.7 equal to 1, the extra
set of PTs can be used for all calculations The bridge (regulator) dc output voltage feedback
downstream from the PT failure detector software. signal is fed via APL-5 and BPL-6 from the IAXS
board to the GDDD board. A voltage controlled
4-4.1.2. PTFD SCALING. Parameter PTFDSC oscillator on the GDDD board converts this analog
EE.3835, PT failure scale adjust, is used to null any
signal difference existing between V and X PTs. If
a second PT for failure detection were supplied,
then set EE.3835 = 4096 * (1 pu V PT secondary
volts/1 pu X PT secondary volts).

In most cases, the second set of PT inputs would be

the same secondary as the first and the default value
of 4096 would be used

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

signal to a frequency and digital counts. JP1 on the EE.1508 VF1OF0 is used to zero the VFB1 bridge
GDDD board is set per the maximum expected dc voltage feedback offset. With no bridge output,
link voltage. For units not employing the voltage variable 1014 should be read using diagnostic test
doubling feature of the EX2000 PWM regulator, 31. This count value multiplied by the constant -
this is normally 360 volts. The example system 1141 and divided by the scale factor value in EE.612
does not use voltage doubling. VDCMAX then becomes the value in EE.1508.

The dc link voltage feedback signal is fed to the For example, with power on the bridge but the
GDDD board via the DCPL -1 and 2 connections on bridge not firing, monitor VAR.1014 (assuming
the IAXS board. Again, JP2 on the GDDD board is VFE is the selected feedback) for any zero offset.
set to the maximum expected DC link voltage. Assume the offset found was approximately 80
counts. Set EE.1508 = (80*-1141)/360 = -253.
EE.612 VDCMAX sets the 1 pu count level (20000) Enter this value and continue to monitor VAR.1014
equal to 360 or 604 volts for scaling of both the DC to verify that the offset is now zero.
link voltage and DC output voltage. JP3 on the
GDDD board sets the operation level of the dynamic EE.1510 CF1OF0 is used to zero the CFB1 bridge
discharge firing circuit. The selection of JP3 is also current feedback offset. With no bridge output,
based upon the maximum expected dc link voltage. variable 1016 should be read using diagnostic test
JP1, 2 and 3 on the GDDD board should all be set to 31. This count value multiplied by the constant
the same settings. 21475 and divided by the scale factor value in
EE.1505 CFS1F0 then becomes the value in
4-4.3. Bridge Current Feedback
For example, with power on the bridge but the
The EX2000 PWM regulator field current feedback bridge not firing, monitor VAR.1016 (assuming IFE
signal is from shunt SHA and is fed to the GDDD is the selected feedback) for any zero offset.
board via connections SHPL-1 and -2. This input is Assume the offset found was approximately -100
scaled using EE.1505 CFISF0. This trims the gain counts. Set EE.1510 = (-100*21475)/34348 = -62
of the VCO to achieve 5000 counts at 1 pu bridge Enter this value and continue to monitor VAR.1014
current. The scaling for this EE setting is calculated to verify that the offset is now zero.
as EE.1505 = 32768*(shunt rating)/(regulator amps
field full load). For the sample system, the shunt EE.1513 VDCOF0 is used to zero the dc link
rating = 10 A for 100 mv. The exciter AFFL rating voltage feedback offset. Since dc link voltage is
is 9.54 A. required for control power, this offset must be made
with dc link voltage present. VAR.1018 should be
Set EE.1505 = 32768 *(10)/(9.54) = 34348 read using diagnostic test 31. The dc link voltage
should be read on the IAXS board connection points
PL and NL. This measured voltage will then be
4-4.4. Feedback Offsets converted to counts. The converted measured
counts minus the count value in VAR.1018 then
Due to the tolerance limits of the op-amps and becomes the value in EE.1513.
VCOs that provide the EX2000 PWM feedbacks, it
is possible that positive or negative offsets may
occur with zero signal feedback. The actual offsets
produced are dependent on the actual hardware and
must therefore be zeroed at startup. The bridge
output voltage, dc link voltage and shunt feedback
are adjustable using the following feedback offsets.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

For example, with power on the bridge but the the terminal voltage and regulator output such that
bridge not firing, monitor VAR.1018. Assume it is the volts per hertz ratio specified in the AVR
7825 counts. Then assume the measured value of controls is maintained.
the dc link is 137 volts. Converting the measured
voltage to counts gives 137/360 * 20000 equals 4-5.1.2. REF1 OPERATION. The selected
7611. Set EE.1513 = (7611-7825) = -213 counts. (unmodified) reference originates in the INC/DEC
Enter this value and continue to monitor VAR.1018 reference block REF1 (see Figure 3-2). The initial
to verify that the offset is now zero. reference used in the EX2000 PWM is a preset
value normally set for 1 pu generator voltage. The
REF1 output tracks this value when a start is given
4-4.5. Instantaneous Overcurrent Trip to the regulator. During this initial operation the
RAISE and LOWER controls are ignored.
An instantaneous overcurrent trip occurs if the
bridge current, as monitored by SHPL (CFB1), Once the startup operation is complete, the reference
exceeds the threshold set by EE.1518 IOCTRO can be changed by selecting RAISE or LOWER
where 5000 counts = 1 pu Set EE.1518 = 25000 (5 from the operator station with the regulator in
pu) with EE.1517 IOCTDO = 0 for no time delay. AUTO regulator. When off-line, selecting RAISE
or LOWER controls the generator terminal voltage
over a range set in REF1 (and the autosetpoint
4-5. REGULATOR SCALING block). This range is normally 10% of rated
terminal voltage. When on-line, selecting RAISE or
There are several regulators and limiters available in LOWER increases or decreases the generator
the EX2000 PWM. The applicable one-line or terminal reactive voltage and/or the power output of
system ordering documents will detail whether or the generator. The more stiff the connection to the
not all or any of these are supplied on a given power system (lower impedance tie) the less the
requisition. Generally the AVR, FVR, and OEL generator terminal voltage is able to change.
regulators are supplied as standard. The UEL, RCC,
and V/hz limiters are also generally standard An optional volt ampere reactive/power factor
features. PSS and VAR/PF controllers are typically (VAR/PF) controller can also control the output of
supplied as options. the REF1 block. While under control of the
VAR/PF controller, the slew rate of REF1 is slowed
to an alternate ramp rate, and the operator
4-5.1. Automatic Voltage Regulating System RAISE/LOWER inputs are ignored.

The primary purpose of the automatic voltage When the exciter is operating in manual, the
regulator (AVR) is to control the generator terminal autosetpoint reference REF1 tracks a value
voltage according to a chosen reference. The representing the sum of ASP@VM (normally
terminal voltage can then be modified by various generator voltage) and the reactive current
limiter and regulator functions. compensation signal. While REF1 is tracking this
value, the INC/DEC commands from the operator
4-5.1.1. AVR OPERATION. The EX2000 PWM station are ignored in the REF1 block. The output
is designed to be started in AVR. The exciter can be of REF1 in VAR.282 REF1OUT0 is passed to the
started in AVR mode with the generator operating autosetpoint block (EXASP).
from 20 to 100 Hz. To prevent initial overshoot, the
integrator is held at the preset value until 95% 4-5.1.3. REF1 SCALING AND
voltage is obtained. For a normal bandwidth AVR, CONFIGURATION. REF1 tracks target RF1@T3
this also means forcing the regulator to its maximum EE.3402 without delay during startup. It is normally
output until 95% of terminal voltage is reached. If pointed to a value of 20000 counts for 1 pu
the speed of the generator is below rated when the generator voltage. For 1 pu generator voltage set
regulator is started, the V/Hz limiter will hold down EE.3402 = 19.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

During startup, a quick store register can be used to PTUV). When a PT failure is detected, regulation is
preset the terminal voltage to a value other than switched to the MVR. ASPAUTOA becomes false
rated. This register can contain a count value and remains latched in that state until the PT
representing the desired preset voltage. RF1@T3 feedback problem is corrected, the core is soft reset,
should then be pointed to this address. For example, and the PTFD reset button on the operator station is
during startup, if the desired preset voltage is 12.5 pushed to permit selection of AUTO operation.
kV on a 13.8 kv machine, the reference preset Configuration jumper EE.589 selections can
counts required is 12.5/13.8 * 20000 = 18116 disabled the PTFD while off-line.
The ASP block contains a summing junction,
Quickstore EE.95, currently an unused register, can minimum value gate, and a positive output limiter.
be used to store this value. Then, point EE.3402 The summing junction adds the output of REF1, the
(RF1@T3) to EE.95 instead of the normal EE.19 UEL regulator output, the PSS regulator output (if
location. present), and an extra input ASP@EX. This extra
input can be used to insert a test signal. The RCC
The range of the AVR is set using EE.3414 RF1TH0 compensation signal is subtracted in the summing
(upper limit) and EE.3412 RF1TL0 (lower limit). junction.
Set this to provide a range of 10% of rated
generator voltage. Set EE.3414 = 18000 and The output of the summing junction feeds a
EE.3412 = 22000. minimum value gate where it is compared with a
V/Hz limit signal proportional to the generator
To select the ramp rate of the AVR set frequency by an amount set in EE.3789 ASPVHZ.
EE.3400.6 = 0 for a normal INC/DEC scale control The minimum of these two references is used as the
setting of 1/10 bits/sec. The time to ramp across the reference sent to the regulator. The maximum
AVR range is set by the normal INC/DEC rate output is limited to a value set in EE.3790
EE.3421 RF1NRT. ASPHLM. If the reference used by the regulator is
the V/Hz limit and the exciter is in auto, then
The range of the AVR = (22000-18000) = 4000. VAR.958 ASPVHZA is set true and an indication is
The desired time to cover this range is 60 seconds given that the exciter is in V/Hz limit.
taking into account the setting of EE.3400.6. Set
EE.3421 = (4000/60) *10 = 667. If a positive value is input to the summing junction
from the UEL and the exciter is in auto, then
4-5.1.4. AUTOSETPOINT BLOCK. The VAR.959 ASPUELA is set true and an indication is
selected reference from REF1 enters the given that the exciter is in UEL. The output of the
autosetpoint block (EXASP) as the main auto AVR setpoint block VAR.158 ASPAVRSP is sent
reference setpoint. This reference can now be to the AVR block as the regulator reference signal.
modified in the autosetpoint block by various
standard and optional regulators and limiters. In 4-5.1.5. AUTOSETPOINT BLOCK SCALING
addition to the REF1 input the ASP block receives AND CONFIGURATION. For the example system
feedback variables for reactive current, generator the V/Hz limiter will be set to 110%. Set EE.3789,
terminal voltage, generator frequency, the output of the V/Hz gain, to 282 (256 = unity) For 50 Hz
the under excitation limiter, and generator real applications, multiply EE.3789 by 6/5.
power if a power system stabilizer (PSS) is used
(see Figure 3-3). The ASP High Limit is set in EE.3790 ASPHLM.
This is generally set for 110% of rated or 22000
Automatic regulation is enabled through the counts. For 50 Hz applications, multiply EE.3790
operator station or the A/M selector button on the by 6/5.
LDCC board programmer keypad. When auto is
active, VAR.953 ASPAUTOA will be true. The
ASP block also has an input from the PTFD (or

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter


REGULATOR (AVR) BLOCK. The AVR is a CONFIGURATION. The AVR response is not set
proportional plus integral regulator that compares for optimum speed, but for acceptable performance
the generator terminal voltage feedback (derived without risking instability due to local mode
from the V12 and V23 generator PT signals) with a oscillations. This setting is considered to be a
reference from the auto setpoint block to produce normal bandwidth regulator. A high bandwidth
an error signal. This error signal, VAR.156 regulator is used when a high gain fast response
AVRERROR, is fed to the PI regulator. If the AVR is required. The example assumes a normal
EX2000 PWM is in automatic regulator, the output bandwidth regulator. If a high bandwidth regulator
of the AVR, AVROP VAR.157 is then fed to the is chosen, then the high bandwidth settings for the
inner loop field regulator. The AVR output is UEL regulator should be used also.
limited to approximately 2 pu field current so as to
not overdrive the exciter. The output of the AVR is AVRJMP EE.3759.0 is set to 1 for AVR output to
passed through the field regulator to cancel the follow AVR@ZC until regulator error is less than
impact of the additional time constant of the rotating 1000 counts. Set at 1 for a high bandwidth exciter
exciter. By doing this, the calculations and settings also.
of the various regulator limiters, (UEL, V/Hz, OEL)
can be set using the same rules as a terminal fed or EE.3759.1 is set to 1 on a normal bandwidth exciter
bus fed excitation system. Tuning of regulators in to hold AVROP in ceiling until AVRERROR is less
the field is thus minimized. than 1000 counts. Set to zero for a high bandwidth
The AVR is preconditioned to a value
corresponding to AFNL at startup. The initial value AVRPLM EE.3772 is the positive limit for AVR
of AFNL used could be an estimated value. After output. Normally set to 10000, which is
the initial startup, when a precise value of firing approximately 2 pu current for the exciter field.
command counts for AFNL is known, the
preconditioning value stored in EE.92 can be AVRNLM EE.3773 is the negative limit for AVR
adjusted accordingly. output. Set to 0

When the precondition input AVR@ZC is true, the AVRTGN EE.3770 is the AVR tracking gain. This
AVR output follows the preconditioning value sets the time delay for the AVR to track the output
AVR@ZV. If AVRJMP.0 = 1 the integrator of the field regulator while in manual regulator. Set
continues to follow AVR@ZC until AVRERROR is EE.3770 = 5 (where 100 = 1 rad/sec) for a 20
less than 5% (1000 counts on a 20000 base). If, in second tracking filter.
addition to AVRJMP.0 = 1, AVRJMP.1 also = 1
then the output of the AVR is forced to maximum as The following is an example of setting the AVR
set in EE.3772 AVRPLM until the AVRERROR is regulator for an EX2000 PWM regulator with
less than 1000 counts. If the exciter is in MANUAL normal bandwidth.
(ASPMANUA true), the AVR tracks the output of
the field regulator FLOPO VAR.1004. Prior to startup, the AVR output is preset to the no
load exciter field current level. This effectively
The AVR integrator has anti-windup protection that wipes out overshoot problems when starting in the
zeros the error feeding the integral gain if either: automatic regulator.

a. The output is in positive limit or if the

EX2000 PWM regulator is in FCR and the
error signal feeding the regulator is positive.

b. The AVR output is in negative limit or in

full retard and the error signal feeding the
regulator is negative.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

AVR@ZV EE.3764 points to EE.92 In EE.92, the 4-5.1.9. INTEGRAL GAIN. Set Kp/Ki = 1 for a
RUN2RF storage register stores the firing command lead time constant of 1 sec. For the example Ki =
count value necessary to produce 80% exciter Kp = 1.67
AFNL. In the example, exciter AFNL was 3.52 A
dc. Set AVRIGN EE.3771 = 1.67 * 100 (where 100 = 1
rad/sec) = 167
Set RUN2RF EE.92 to a FIRCMD = 0.8 * AFNL*
5000/AFFL = 0.8*3.52*5000/9.54 = 1476
4-5.2. Under Excitation Limiter (UEL)
proportional gain of the PI regulator is set as The two basic problems with operating a generator
follows: in the underexcited region of the capability curve
are stator end iron heating and generator steady state
1. Determine the transient gain requirements of stability limit. Stray flux in the end turn region of a
the system. high speed steam or gas turbine driven generator can
cause large losses in the core end iron during
2. Calculate the proportional gain which is underexcited operation.
directly proportional to the transient gain. For the The steady state power stability limit indicates the
normal bandwidth regulator, set the transient gain to maximum real power that can be delivered at
4*Tdo (the open circuit field time constant) with 20 constant field voltage. The effect of the high initial
as a default minimum for new gas and steam response AVR is to substantially increase the steady
applications. A high bandwidth regulator should be state stability limit. The generator must be
set for a transient gain of 100. constrained to operate in the underexcited region in
an area where the unit would be stable if a transfer
From the transfer function of a brushless EX2000 were made to the field regulator.
PWM regulator, the relationship between
proportional and transient gains is: The thermal limit is usually more restrictive than the
power stability limit. The default scaling of the
Transient gain = (Kp*20000 * Kex*AFFLex) / UEL curve described is based on the generator
(VFAGgen*5000) where Kex is the gain of the capability curve. The intent is to protect the
exciter. The gain of the exciter is calculated as the generator from end iron heating effects by setting
(voltage out/current in) or ((VFFLgen at 100 C - the UEL approximately 10% above the underexcited
VFNLgen at 100 C) / (AFFLex - AFNLex)). For the reactive capability curve. The 10% is chosen to give
example system, Kex is calculated to be (216- sufficient safety margin.
80.13)/(9.54-3.52) = 22.51.
The stability limit is a function of the network to
VFAGgen is the air gap voltage which is determined which the generator is connected. The customer is
by reading IFAG from the machine estimated air gap responsible for system stability protection settings.
line at 1 pu armature voltage. The example If the customer supplies UEL curve points, enter
generator has IFAG of 281 A dc. The rated field those values instead of the values from the method
resistance Rf@rated temp is defined as 100 C. The described.
Rf@100C was not given and is therefore
extrapolated from Rf@125C to give Rf@100C = 4-5.2.1. UEL OPERATION. This section
.256 ohms. VFAG = .256 * 281 = 72 V dc. describes the UEL operation which is performed by
a combination of standard blocks (see Figure 3-7).
Solving for Kp gives Kp = (transient gain * The capability of a generator when plotted on a
VFAGgen*5000) / (20000 * Kex*AFFLex) = reactive power versus real power plot changes as
(20*72*5000) / (20000*22.51*9.54) = 1.67. terminal voltage changes. This means that a number
of curves are required to provide protection over the
Set AVRPGN EE.3769 = 1.67 * 256 (where 256 = normal 10% terminal voltage range permitted by the
unity) = 429 AVR. If the real and reactive power signals are

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

normalized by dividing by the square of the terminal response/high gain AVR. The default setting is
voltage then the capability of the generator becomes normal bandwidth. The recommended settings are
a single curve. as follows:

The generator watts signal is first normalized by Normal

dividing by the square of the filtered voltage signal. EE.5899 = 200 (Ki = 2 rads/sec)
The resulting normalized power is then filtered and EE.5900 = 819 (Kp = 3.2)
absoluted. This value is fed to the function
generator block where the normalized pu UEL curve High
has been entered. The output of the function EE.5899 = 200 (Ki = 2 rads/sec)
generator block is the UEL curve point EE.5900 = 410 (Kp = 1.6)
corresponding to that value of generator real power
output. This value then becomes the UEL limit NOTE
Two EEPROM values are set because
This UEL limit as read from the curve is normalized the command and feedback gains are
VARs and must be multiplied by the square of the independently adjustable.
filtered voltage signal to produce a VAR reference
for the proportional plus integral regulator. The PI Steady state stability of the UEL can be verified by
regulator is enabled by an AND gate if 52G is operating the generator at various power levels then
closed and the AVR is in control. It compares slowly lowering the excitation to drive the generator
measured generator VARs feedback quantity with a into the limit curve. Dynamic closed loop response
reference limit derived from the UEL curve to can then be verified by stepping the AVR setpoint
generate an error signal which feeds the regulator. using the excitation autosetpoint block extra input
ASP@EX. A step of 1 or 2% is sufficient. If it is
The output of the PI regulator block is fed to a not permissible to drive the generator into its true
limiter set to allow only positive outputs. This value limit curve then the curve could be reset at a safer
is then fed to the excitation autosetpoint block level and the testing performed using this curve.
ASP@UE input. It is added to the existing AVR
setpoint to produce an increase in the excitation 4-5.2.3. UEL CURVE. The UEL limit curve is
level sufficient to prevent the excitation decreasing obtained by using a general purpose background
below the level corresponding to the UEL limit function generator block. This is a five point
curve chosen. piecewise linear function generator. The function is
flat to the left of Y0, the first point, and to the right
4-5.2.2. UEL SCALING AND of Y4, the last point. The X coordinates must be
CONFIGURATION. Configuring and scaling the monotonically increasing X0<X1<X2<X3<X4.
UEL function involves setting the PI regulator for
proper gain and time constants. It also includes The coordinates are specified in counts, where
setting the UEL curve based on the generator generator 1 pu watts = 5000 counts and generator 1
capability curve. pu VARs = 5000 counts. The underexcited portion
of a typical generator reactive capability curve is
The UEL limiter uses process regulator #1. This is a shown in Figure 4-1.
proportional plus integral regulator. A PI regulator
has the form:

Kp + Ki/s where Kp = proportional gain and Ki =

integral gain (rads/sec).
Only two sets of adjustments for the UEL regulator
are necessary. One for exciters using a normal
bandwidth AVR and one for those customers
requiring a higher bandwidth, such as a fast

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

Generator Data: 100000 k VA Next, the Y coordinates must be chosen. This

3600 RPM method selects Y values 10% above the rated
0.85 PF capability curve to provide ample safety margin. If
40 C cold gas more than one curve is given for different gas
13800 V temperatures, use the rated curve. In the example
given this is 40 C cold gas. From the chosen
1 pu power at unity power factor = 100 MW = 5000 customer reactive capability curve, read the VARs at
counts. This value was defined during primary 0 power. This is -35 MVARs. Add 10% of rated
scaling of the generator voltage and current kVA (not 10% of the reading) to define the Y0
feedbacks. The EX2000 calculates watts and VARs point. Y0 = -35 + (10% * 100) = -25 MVARs. This
from measured generator voltages and currents. value must now be changed to counts to store in
If the customer has not specified UEL settings, the
following recommended settings can be used: EE.2872 = (-25/100)*5000 counts = -1250 counts =
Recommended X coordinates are at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9,
and 1.2 pu MW. X = 0 is the X coordinate for Y0 Y1, Y2 and Y3 are obtained as follows:
point and needs to be entered. This gives the
following values: Y1 = -40 MVARs + 10 = -30 = -1500 counts =
X1 = 0.3 pu = 0.3*5000 counts = +1500 = EE.2864
(from the example curve this is equivalent to 30.0 Y2 = -35 MVARs + 10 = -25 = -1250 counts =
MW) EE.2867

X2 = 0.6 pu = 0.6*5000 counts = +3000 = EE.2866 Y3 = -17 MVARs + 10 = -07 = -350 counts =
(from the example curve this is equivalent to 60.0 EE.2869
The final value Y4 is chosen differently. A straight
X3 = 0.9 pu = 0.9*5000 counts = +4500 = EE.2868 line is drawn from the Y3 point through the 1 pu at
(from the example curve this is equivalent to 90.0 unity power factor point to intersect the X = 1.2 pu
MW) power line. This gives Y4 = -2*Y3 = -2 * -350 =
+700 counts = EE.2871. All this is based on the
X4 = 1.2 pu = 1.2*5000 counts = +6000 = EE.2870 assumption that the 0.9 pu power point on the
(from the example curve this is equivalent to 120.0 capability curve yields a negative value and the final
MW) segment passes through rated k VA at unity power
factor. The final point Y4 is chosen this way
because this gives better coordination with loss of
excitation protection.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

Figure 4.1 UEL Curve

4-5.3. Reactive Current Compensator (RCC) during initial startup. The compensation is set to the
minimum required to ensure VAR sharing. Values
The RCC signal is used to compensate for of 3% to 6% reactance are usually sufficient.
insufficient reactance between generators or when (Alternatively, EE.3791 ASPRCC can be set to a
there is too much reactance. The RCC simulates a negative value to provide line drop compensation
reactance on the generator output. If reactive LDC).
current increases, the amount subtracted from the
autosetpoint also increases. This lowers the RCC is set by EE.3791 ASPRCC, reactive current
excitation voltage and therefore the amount of gain. The range of this setting is 12.5%
VARs produced by the generator. It provides a compensation. The setting for the +12.5%
drooping characteristic to insure that the load compensation is 32768 counts, or 2621.44 counts
reactive power is equally divided between paralleled per percent compensation. If an RCC of 4%
machines. reactance is desired, set EE.3791 = 4*2621.44 =
10486. If LDC is required, EE.3791 is set to a
Generally this compensation is required if machines negative value. For a 4% line reactance, or line
are paralleled directly on the same bus. If drop compensation, set EE.3791 = -10486.
generators are paralleled on the high side of their
generator step-up transformer, then sufficient
reactance should exist between the generators so
that additional compensation is not required. The
factory default setting is zero compensation.
Determine the amount of compensation necessary

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

4-5.4. VAR/Power Factor Control The preset or latched VAR setting is fed to a second
switch that will pass either the VAR or PF reference
A VAR/Power Factor controller can be provided as to a summing junction depending on which control
an optional regulator in the regulator core. Either action has been selected. If the VAR setting was
VAR control where a constant generator VAR chosen, the VAR reference will be fed to the
output is maintained or power factor control where a summing junction where the actual VAR feedback
constant generator power factor is maintained can be will be subtracted to create an error signal. This
selected. The two control actions are, of course, error signal passes through a deadband set by
mutually exclusive. The PF/VAR controller can be EE.3722 PFDEBD (5000 counts = 1 pu). The
configured to latch to the existing PF or generator deadband setting should be chosen so that excessive
VAR output when the associated control action is regulation does not occur while the required setting
initiated. is accurately maintained. From the dead band
function a raise or lower signal is given to the
The operator station is used to enable the PF/VAR exciter as required to maintain the value selected.
controller. The operator must adjust the generator The raise signal is PFVRAISE VAR.718 and the
to the VAR output or PF that it is desired to lower is PFVLOWER VAR.719.
maintain. The appropriate operator station button is
then pushed to latch the output at the desired value. The power factor controller functions in a similar
To release the control action, the same button is fashion.
pushed a second time.
The VAR signal is multiplied by 32768 and then
4-5.4.1. VAR//PF CONTROL OPERATION divided by the watt signal. The resultant is the
AND CONFIGURATION. The PF/VAR control normalized tan of the angle between watts and vars
block uses the generator VARs and Watts as its where 32768 equals a tangent of unity (45 degrees).
feedback variables. These inputs are selected by The resultant is filtered and then feeds a latch that
EE.3718 PF@VAR, normally pointed to VAR.1153, will be set if the PF control function is selected.
generator VARs and EE.3719 PF@WAT, normally The output of the latch feeds a switch configured by
pointed to VAR.1152, generator watts. EE.3721 PFVWTK. If PFVWTK is set to zero the
latched value is passed. If PFVWTK is set to a non-
The watt and var signals pass through low pass zero value, then the angle represented by the setting
filters both of which are set by EE.3723 PFLPFW. of EE.3721 will be regulated. A non-zero value is
A setting of 5 rad/sec is typically used (where 100=1 typically not used. The output of this switch is
r/s). multiplied with the actual generator watts and
divided by 32768. The resultant is the generator
The filtered VAR signal is fed to a latch and the VARs necessary to maintain the desired PF angle at
negative input of the controller summing junction. the new generator real power level. This becomes
The latch gets set when VAR control is selected. the reference to the controllers summing junction,
The input variable that controls VAR control where an error signal is developed which causes the
selection is set by EE.3717 PF@ENV. When this exciter to raise or lower the generator VAR output
variable is true, VAR control is selected. The latch to hold the desired power factor. The same
holds the value of VARs that was measured as the deadband setting applies to either the PF or VAR
latch was set. This latched variable is fed to a controller.
switch. The switch is configured by EE.3720
PFARK. If PFARK is set to 0, then the switch will NOTE
pass the latched value of VARs to be regulated. If
PFARK is set at a non zero value then the generator The algorithm does not calculate the
output VARs corresponding to this count value will cosine of the angle between the
be maintained. This feature is typically not used. generator watts and vars so does not
explicitly develop a signal representing
the PF of the generator.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

4-5.5. Field Regulator (FVR) The manual (backup) regulator tracks the field
current necessary to maintain the existing generator
The FVR (manual) regulates the exciter field terminal voltage. This tracking is delayed to avoid
without reference to the generator terminal voltage. following transient fluctuations or erroneous AVR
It is possible to configure the field regulator to behavior. The ramp range is typically set for 70%
regulate one of four variables. Either main of AFNLex to 120% AFFLex in 120 secs. The output
generator field quantities IFG and VFG or exciter of the REF2 block is passed through a software
field quantities IFE and VFE are selectable. For the switch to the EX2000 core block and then to the
EX2000 PWM, the field regulator is configured as a MCP block as the field regulator adjust command
current regulator with IFE as the feedback variable . MFLDADJ VAR.165.
Normal regulator operation is in automatic voltage
regulator with transfer to the manual regulator only 4-5.5.2. REF2 SCALING AND
occurring as a result of losing the generator terminal CONFIGURATION. The present for the manual
voltage feedback signal(s) due to PT failure voltage regulator RUN1REF EE.91 is set to a count
detection. The PTFD detector is disabled off-line in value for *0% of AFNLex . Set EE.91 =
certain configurations. In this case, the field current (0.8*AFNLex*5000/AFFLex) = 1476.
regulator (OEL) serves to limit the regulator output
to prevent overfluxing the generator. The operator The REF2 ramp high limit is set to 120% of AFFLex.
has the capability to switch the exciter to manual Set RF2THO EE.3444 = 1.2*5000 = 6000.
regulation by an operator station command (see
Figure 3-5). The REF2 ramp low limit is set to 70% AFNLex.
Set RF2LO EE.3442 = .07*(3.52/9.54)*5000 = 1291
In automatic regulator, the field regulator receives
an input from the auto voltage regulator and acts as Typically the ramp time to cover this range is set for
an inner loop regulator in an attempt to cancel the 120 secs. Set RF2SLM EE.3446 = 0 for 1/10
effects of the time constant of the rotating bit/sec rate and RF2NRT EE.3451 = ((6000 -
equipment. This allows for greater speed of 1291)/120)*10 = 392.
response when operating in automatic regulator.
The AVR output is limited to 2 pu exciter field Tracking delay, set RF2WLG EE.3447 = 50
current so as not to overdrive the regulator output.
4-5.5.3. FVR OPERATION. The field regulator
4-5.5.1. REF2 OPERATION. The adjust command MFLDADJ VAR.165, which
increase/decrease reference block normally supplies normally originates as the REF2 output or a
the field regulator reference to the core block reference signal from the AVR, becomes the
EXCOR. This reference block is identical in reference for the field regulator. This reference
structure to the REF1 block used by the AVR. feeds a summing junction. A feedback signal
representing IFE is subtracted from this reference to
During exciter startup, the output of REF2 tracks, give an error signal (FLOPERR VAR.1003) for the
without delay, the value pointed to RF2@T3. This PI regulator. The output of the field regulator
is EE.91 RUN1RF register. RUN1RF is set to the (FLOPO VAR.1004) goes to a minimum value gate
count value representing 80 percent of AFNLex. where it is compared with the field current regulator
Normal increase/decrease control is disabled at this output (ILOPO VAR.1002). The minimum of the
time. If the exciter is in AUTO regulator and is not two becomes the net firing command (FIRCMD
detected to be in limit then the output of REF2 VAR.1000).
tracks the variable pointed to by RF2@T2 which is
normally IFE.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

4-5.5.4. FVR SCALING. The field regulator is a command (EFA@EN) to the Core Block. These
set to cancel the effects of the time constant of the two sets of gains are referred to as the primary field
rotating equipment by setting Kp/Ki = Td0 of the current regulator and the alternate field current
exciter. With the loop gain set to unity, the transfer regulator. The primary current regulator is enabled
functions of the inner loop reduce to be Ki = when FCR@EN EE.3706 is true. The alternate
(2*pi*f*VFFLex @75 C)/(Bridge Gain*5000). The current regulator is enabled when both EFA@EN
bridge gain is the actual DC link voltage divided by EE.3705 and FCR@EN are true.
11775, maximum firing command counts.
The EX2000 PWM uses both of these current
The field regulator bandwidth for the EX2000 PWM regulators as an Overexcitation Limiter (OEL) to
regulator is chosen to be 10 Hz. limit exciter field current (and therefore main
generator field current). The alternate FCR gains
In the example system, VFFLex is 9.54 * 5.810 = and primary FCR gains are set exactly the same as
55.4. The bridge gain is calculated as 137 the field regulator gains since the field regulator in
volts/11775 or .0116. Ki is calculated to be the EX2000 PWM is configured as a current
(2*pi*10*55.4)/(.0116*5000) = 60 Set FLDIG0 regulator. The alternate current regulator is always
EE.1551 = 60*65.536 = 3932 counts. enabled unless an extended forcing condition is
detected, and is used as an instantaneous current
Since Kp/Ki was set to equal the time constant of limit. It has two setpoints, one for on-line and one
the exciter, in the example system, Kp = Ki *0.35 or for off-line operation. The primary current regulator
21. From this, EE.1550 FLDPG0= 21 * 256 = 5376 is used as an inverse time limiter. Forcing is
counts. allowed for up to 10 seconds. If forcing is
maintained for 10 seconds, the alternate current
FLDTGO EE.1547 sets the tracking filter for 2 secs. regulator is disabled with control switching to the
Set EE.1547 = 1/2 * 65.536 =33 (where 65.536 = 1 primary regulator. The primary regulator will then
rad/sec) drop the current to its on-line setpoint until the
inverse time block activates and then control is
4-5.5.5. TRANSFER TRACKING METER AND limited to 1 pu exciter field current.
BALANCE. There is automatic tracking between
the manual and automatic regulators in either In the off-line situation, instantaneous exciter field
direction with independent tracking delays. A current is limited to 125% (or less) of AFNLex to
balance meter is normally provided on the operator prevent overfluxing the generator and connected
station to show the amount of unbalance that exists transformers. On-line, the instantaneous current is
between the regulators. While in the auto regulator, limited to prevent heating (I2t) damage to the main
the unbalance is shown as the magnitude of exciter field winding. However, it must allow proper field
field voltage unbalance that exists. If a transfer is forcing for fault support before beginning its current
made at this time to the manual regulator, the exciter limit function.
field voltage jumps by this amount. While in the
manual regulator, the balance is shown as the When either the primary or alternate current limiter
generator terminal voltage unbalance that exists. takes control of IGBT bridge gate firing, an OEL
Active annunciation is displayed on or sent to the
operator interface. The control of bridge firing is
4-5.6. Field Current Regulator (FCR) determined by a function referred to as a minimum
value gate. The field regulator cannot resume
control of bridge firing until the firing reference
The Field Current Regulator (FCR) is programmed
generated by AVR or FVR becomes lower than the
within the MCP Block. This regulator is also a
firing signal limit out of the current regulator. See
proportional plus integral (PI) regulator. The FCR
Figure 3-8.
has a feature that allows for two sets of proportional
and integral gains to be entered. The FCR can then
be switched between these two sets of gains through

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

4-5.6.1. ALTERNATE FCR. Off-line, the The on-line setpoint for instantaneous current limit
alternate FCR limits the exciter field current to must allow for forcing of the regulator during
protect against overfluxing the machine and any system transients. Generally, calculations are made
connected transformers. It is a backup V/Hz limit that specify a ceiling from the exciter to support 2
with the actual V/Hz limiter in the excitation pu capability from the generator. The rotating
autosetpoint block serving as a primary limiter. On- exciter diodes can be a limiting factor in what this
line, the alternate current regulator serves to limit on-line forcing capability is. In the EX2000 PWM,
the exciter field current to a level that protects the this current level is conservatively chosen to be the
rotating diodes in the brushless exciter. maximum of either 140% AFFLex or twice AFSIex
unless a higher value is specified by the original
The alternate field current regulator is enabled
equipment manufacturer. In the example system,
whenever EFA@EN true. Until the generator
1.4 * AFFLex = 13.356. Two times AFSIex = 2 *
output breaker is closed, it will limit field current to
the value in EE.82, the off-line instantaneous 6.236 = 12.472. There is also a specified ceiling
setpoint. Once the 52G breaker closes, the alternate limit of 14.45 amps. EE..80 will then be 15.45 *
current regulator limit is switched to the value in 5000 /9.54 = 8097 counts. Before changing this
EE.80. instantaneous limit to a higher value, GE generator
engineering should be consulted.
As stated before, since the field regulator (FVR) is
configured as a current regulator in the EX2000 An off-line protection block, PRITC, is provided as
PWM, the proportional and integral gains for the an instantaneous trip if the pickup setpoint is
alternate current regulator are identical to those in exceeded when the EX2000 PWM regulator senses
the FVR. the unit is off-line. It is set to a value above the off-
line alternate field current regulator setting. If this
4-5.6.2. ALTERNATE FIELD CURRENT level is reached, the regulator will immediately stop
the alternate FCR proportional gain. From the
calculations for the FVR in the example system, Kp The PRITC block is set up for linear error with pure
for the current regulator is 21. EE.1541 will then be integration (1 sec integration time). The pick up
the same as EE.1550 = 256*Kp = 5376. value is set to 1.25 AFNLex with the limit being
activated as soon as the pickup level is exceeded.
EE.1543 IRWIA0 is the alternate FCR integral gain.
From the calculations for the FVR in the example Set PITJMP = 2. This sets the PRITC block for
system, Ki for the current regulator is 60. EE.1543 excessive I*t function .
will then be the same as EE.1551 = 65.536*Ki =
3932. Set PITPU = 125% of AFNLex For the example
system 1.25*(3.52/9.54)*5000 = 2306 counts the
EE.1545 ILOPA0 is the alternate FCR preset value. PRITC begins to accumulate when PITPU is
In the EX2000 PWM, this is chosen to be 120% of exceeded.
the firing command for exciter field AFNL. For the
example system, this would be (1.2*VFNLex@25 PITTRP is set such that the unit will stop gating at a
C*11775)/actual DC link voltage. EE.1545 = value of 160% of AFNLex. For the example system,
(1.2*3.52*4.871*11775)/137 = 1768 counts. this would be 645 counts. The trip setting is counts
above the pick up level for a trip.
The off-line setpoint for the alternate current
regulator is stored in EE.82. This value is 125% of
AFNLex which for the example system would be
1.25*3.52/5000 = 2306 counts.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

4-5.6.3. PRIMARY FCR. The primary field This value is 100% of AFFLex which is equal to
current regulator is used to limit main generator 5000 counts.
field current to a value so as not to exceed the
thermal capability of the field copper. This limit For SLD1, the level that the input (IFE) is to be
must be imposed on the EX2000 PWM output compared with is set in EE.152 SL1LEV. This
current into the exciter field in order to limit the value is set to 140% of AFFLex or 7000 counts.
calculated main generator field current. The SLD1 pickup time delay EE.154 = 1000 (for 10
setpoints of the primary FCR are generally set to second pickup)
125% of AFFLex until the inverse time protection is
enabled and then output current is limited to 1 pu
The PRIT1 is an inverse time protection block. The
scaling is set on a per unit basis of AFFL. As all
Forcing on-line is allowed until the reference level machines are scaled to produce 5000 counts at
stored in a signal level detector (SLD1) is exceeded AFFL then the values should not change on an
for 10 seconds or by a protection inverse time block individual job basis. The PRIT1 block is scaled for
being in limit (PIT1LIM = true). The SLD level is I*t function with a sixty second leaky integrator.
set for 140% of AFFL. The protection inverse time
block, PRIT1, is set to begin timing at 1.06 pu Set EE.3749.0 PITJMP = 0 This sets the PRIT
exciter current and will activate the second level of block for excessive I*t function (protect for field
field current at 1.25 pu after 60 seconds. The field heating).
regulator setpoint must be lowered below the level
of the field current regulators in order to release Set EE.3749.1 = 0 This sets the PRIT block with a
control from the FCR or FCA. 60 second integrator.

4-5.6.4. PRIMARY CURRENT REGULATOR Set EE.3751 PITPU = 5100 which is 102% of
SCALING AND CONFIGURATION. EE.1540. AFFLex. The protection block will begin to integrate
IRGKC0 is the primary FCR proportional gain. when PIT@IN exceeds 102% AFFL.
From the calculations for the FVR in the example
system, Kp for the current regulator is 21. EE.1540 Set PITDEL EE.3755, integrator leak gain to 16122
will then be the same as EE.1550 = 256*Kp = 5376. counts. This setting allows the PRIT1 block to
begin accumulating but never reaches a point where
EE.1542 IRWIC0 is the primary FCR integral gain. it will generate a trip. Essentially sets the
From the calculations for the FVR in the example accumulation level to 1.06% of AFFLex.
system, Ki for the current regulator is 60. EE.1542
will then be the same as EE.1551 = 65.536*Ki = A trip level can be set in PITTRP EE.3752. If a trip
3932. is used, a setting of 783 will cause a trip signal
output in 120 secs at 112% AFFLex and 42.3 secs at
EE.1548 ILOPP0 is the primary FCR preset value. 125% of AFFLex.
In the EX2000 PWM, this is chosen to call for full
gating of the IGBT bridge. In the example system, A transfer level can be set in PITTRF EE.3753 If a
this would be 11775 counts. transfer is used, a setting of 666 will cause a transfer
action at 85% of the trip level.
The high level setpoint for the primary current
regulator is stored in EE.83. This value is 125% of PITDEL is set to 0 in EE.3755 so that pure
AFFLex which for the example system would be integration is used. A constant error signal will
1.25*5000 = 6250 counts. produce a linear ramp of (PIT@IN -PITPU)
After the PRIT1 block times out, the current will
then be reduced to the lower level setpoint for the
primary current regulator which is stored in EE.81.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

4-6. OPTIONAL FUNCTIONS SCALING AND The MX address is the maximum input value
CONFIGURATION (EE101 = DAC1, EE103 = DAC2, EE105 =
MET1, and EE107 = MET2)
Several optional functions are available with the
EX2000 PWM regulator on brushless exciters. DAC1 and DAC2 can be offset by the values
These include exciter field temperature calculation, stored in DAC1OF and DAC2OF
field ground detection, and 4 - 20 ma output
transducers. The requisition specific elementary For example, to bring up this function:
should be consulted to determine which, if any, of
these options have been supplied. 1. In the Parameter Mode, call up EE100-DAC1
and EE101-DAC1MX (select EE.100).

4-6.1. Transducer Outputs 2. Enter the signal to be monitored into EE.100.

The DAC1, DAC2, MET1, and MET2 analog Putting that RAM address in EE.100 produces that
outputs are available for test purposes and are signal at the NTB/3TB boards DA1 testpoint and
typically used as the input reference for up to four DAC1 terminal (3TB-53).
isolated 4-20 ma output transducers. The four
outputs operate identically and are programmed DAC2, MET1, and MET2 function like DAC1.
similarly to the variables in Test 11. DAC1 and When a signals RAM address is loaded into the
DAC2 have 12 bit resolution and are updated 720 DAC and MET addresses, the signal is output on the
times per second. MET1 and MET2 have eight bit NTB/3TB testpoints and terminal points listed in
resolution and are updated 360 times per second. Table 4-1.

Each output has two addresses (see Table 4-1). Typically, the DAC and MET outputs are assigned
with exciter volts (VFE), exciter amps (IFE),
The @I address selects the variable to be output transfer volts, and occasionally exciter field
(EE100 = DAC1, EE102 = DAC2, EE104 = temperature. Consult the elementary for the specific
MET1, and EE106 = MET2) requisition to see which transducers are supplied, if
any. Typically, DAC1 is exciter field temp, DAC2
is transfer balance, MET1 is IFE and MET2 is
filtered VFE.

Table 4-1. Diagnostic Mode Analog Output Points

Loaded into Address NTB TP Terminal Board Point

EE.100-DAC@1 & DA1 DA1, 3TB-53
EE102-DAC@2 & DA2 DA2,3TB-55
EE104-MET@1 & MET1 MET1, 3TB-54
EE106-MET@2 & MET2 MET2, 3TB-56

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

4-6.2. Ground Detector And Diode Fault Each of the inputs and resulting signal level detect
Monitor outputs are incorporated in the global alarm string
30EX and also passed over the status S page.
The EX2000 PWM is capable of interfacing with a
brushless regulator field ground detector module. 4-6.2.1. GROUND DETECTOR AND DIODE
There are several different styles of ground FAULT SCALING AND CONFIGURATION.
detectors available, some with multiple inputs to the The Ground Detector Malfunction input is scaled in
EX2000 PWM, some with only one input. The most the FBVCO. The feed back VCO scale factor
common of these detectors is configured as follows. EE.1386 FVSCL0 is set to a value of 10000. This
scales VAR.183 to a nominal 20000 counts with an
This detector requires a 24 volt supply, typically input of 20 V dc. EE.180 SL5LEV is the level that
passed through the EX2000 PWM cabinet. The the input variable from the FBVCO is compared to.
detector returns three signals to the EX2000. These This is set to a value of 18000. The mode of the
are a Ground Detector Malfunction alarm, a Ground level detect is set to a 0 in EE.178.11 SL5MODE.
Fault alarm, and a Diode Fault alarm. These three The level detect will then pick up when the input is
inputs are taken into the EX2000 PWM controls on greater than or equal to the sensing level. The level
the NTB board at inputs V4VCO, FDBVCO, and detect time delay is set to 0.5 seconds with a setting
REFVCO. These inputs are configurable voltage of 50 in EE.182 SL5PUT.
controlled oscillators which convert the analog input
to dc counts for use in the regulator. The Ground Detection input is scaled in the
V4VCO. The V4VCO scale factor EE.488 V4SCL0
The Detector Malfunction alarm signal is a nominal is set to a value of 10609. This scales VAR.185 to a
2 V dc when there is no fault present. This signal is nominal 20000 counts with an input of 24 V dc.
scaled in the FBVCO and compared to a fixed
reference in a signal level detect. A high signal This variable is compared to EE.74 in the CMPR1
(nominally 20 V dc) indicates a detector block. EE.74 is a general purpose register and is set
malfunction. to a value of 2000 counts. If the output of V4VCO
is greater than 2000 counts, then there is no ground.
The Ground Fault alarm is a nominal 10 to 24 V dc The delay of 10 seconds is set in the ONDLY3
unless a ground fault is detected. Then the input block at EE.5670 ONDLY3. This is set to a value
will go to a nominal 2 V dc. This signal is scaled in of 1000 for a 10 second delay.
the V4VCO, compared to a fixed reference and
passed through a time delay such that the condition The Diode Fault input is scaled in the REFVCO.
must persist for up to 10 seconds. It is ANDED The feed back VCO scale factor EE.1281 RVSCL0
with the inverse of the detector malfunction alarm. is set to a value of 10000. This scales VAR.182 to a
This prevents a false ground detection if the detector nominal 20000 counts with an input of 20 V dc.
has indicated that it is not healthy. To prevent
inadvertent alarms when the unit is not operating, For a diode monitor fault detection, EE.187
the ground fault detector is not activated until the SL6LEV is the level that the input variable from the
EX2000 PWM has been running for 15 secs. It is RFVCO is compared to. This is set to a value of
always disabled while in simulator mode to prevent 18000. The mode of the level detect is set to a 0 in
false alarms or inadvertant operation of the customer EE.185.11 SL6MODE. The level detect will then
lockout. pick up when the input is greater than or equal to the
sensing level. The level detect time delay is set to 2
The Diode Fault alarm sends a one hertz, 0 to 24 seconds with a setting of 200 in EE.189 SL6PUT.
volt squarewave to the EX2000 PWM. This signal
is scaled in the REFVCO. It is then sent to two For a diode fault detection, EE.194 SL7LEV is the
signal level detectors. One checks for a level that the input variable from the REFVCO is
continuously low voltage which indicates a diode compared to. This is set to a value of 2000. The
fault. The other checks for a continuously high mode of the level detect is set to a 4 in EE.192.11
voltage which indicates a diode monitor fault. SL7MODE. The level detect will then pick up when

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

the input is less than the sensing level. The level The field current IFE (VAR.1016), after passing
detect time delay is set to 2 seconds with a setting of through a filter, feeds a limiter that only passes field
200 in EE.196 SL7PUT. current values greater than 500 counts. The signal
then becomes the denominator of the divide
function. The result of the divide function is the
4-6.3. Field Thermal Model field resistance in counts. Restricting the
denominator to values above 500 counts eliminates
The EX2000 PWM monitors the temperature of the the possibility of division by zero.
exciter field windings by calculating the field
winding resistance from the measured values of The resulting resistance count value is normalized to
exciter field voltage and exciter field current. In Kelvin degrees by multiplying by a scale factor set
simulator mode, the model uses the simulated values EE.1594 ERTSFO. The Kelvin degrees are then
of field voltage and current. converted back to centigrade by subtracting 235.
The temperature, now in degrees centigrade, is
From the calculated field resistance, the temperature filtered and passed though a limiter that restricts the
of the windings is calculated using the resistance output temperature range to 0 to 300. The
formula for copper. This temperature is stored in temperature is output as VAR.1011 EFG, scaled at 1
VAR.1011, where it is displayed in degrees count equals 1 C. Due to the time constants, field
centigrade. It can be read directly or sent over the temperature is not accurately modeled during startup
LAN to the operator station. and shutdown of the exciter.


The voltage feedback, VFE (VAR.1014), passes example system uses VFE and IFE as the feedback
through a limiter that restricts it to positive values. variables. The model parameters to be set are
This prevents negative values of resistance from ERTSF0 and EFTLC0.
being calculated. The resulting voltage signal is fed
through a filter that matches the field voltage to the EE.1594 ERTSCO - Exciter thermal model
associated field current. This is accomplished by resistance to degrees scale factor is set = (32 * Max
producing a lag that approximates the lag V dc link * 5000 * (234.5+t1)) /
experienced by the field current due to the field time (AFFLex*20000*(Rf@t1) From the sample data:
constant. The amount of lag is set using EE.1596 DC link volts = 360 V dc; AFFLex = 9.54 A dc ;
EFLTCO. Rf@25C = 4.871 ohms.

A switch is used to select either field voltage or a EE.1594 =

value of zero. Field voltage is the output if bridge 32*360*5000*(234.5+25)/(9.54*20000*4.871) =
firing is detected (VAR.882 MPWRENAB is true). 16082 counts.
This signal becomes the numerator in a divide
function. The exciter lag field time constant is set by
EE.1596. From the sample data, the open circuit
exciter field time constant is 0.35 seconds. It will be
set to (4096 * 0.458752)/ (Tdo exciter).

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375



5-1. INTRODUCTION installation process, contamination due to improper

storage, and loosening of connections and
This chapter contains basic checks to perform after components.
installation and during initial startup. Consult and
study all furnished drawings and instructions before Proper grounding and separation of wiring levels
starting installation. These include outline should also be maintained. Ensure that the ground
drawings, connection diagrams, and elementary connection is sized properly and is connected to a
diagrams. For installation details, refer to suitable ground point.
applicable sections of GEH-6011 and GEI-100228
Receiving, Storing, and Warranty Instructions.
5-2.1. Energization And Simulator Control
These checks are not intended as complete Checks
commissioning instructions for the EX2000 PWM
regulator, but serve as a guide for the sequence of The following steps are intended as guide for
tests and a description of functions and devices installation and initial startup of the EX2000 PWM
requiring field tests. regulators. Site specific procedures should
incorporate these steps to ensure completeness.

WARNING 1. Verify hardware, proms, and board revisions

using the ST2000 or Control System Toolbox
and job specific software supplied with the
Before application of any power source equipment. Hardware to check includes the
to this equipment, be sure that no tools shunt supplied, dynamic discharge resistor,
or other objects left over from charge control resistor, and options supplied.
unpacking or installation are present in
the cabinets, including the bridge If changes to proms or circuit boards are
assembly. required, a Full Calc in ST2000 or Control
System Toolbox may be needed. Contact GE
Motors & Industrial Systems before changing
5-2. EX2000 PRESTART CHECKS any values generated by the Full Calc if unsure
of the correct settings.
Each EX2000 PWM is thoroughly tested before
shipment. This testing process should ensure that 2. Verify jumpers and switch settings as specified
the regulator will perform properly upon receipt and in ST2000 or Control System Toolbox and the
loading of requisition specific software. requisition elementary. If changes are made,
update the application tool databases to keep an
A complete inspection of the EX2000 PWM accurate documentation of the regulator.
regulator and associated equipment should be
performed prior to energization of any portion of the 3. Perform a complete wire check of all external
regulator controls. Items to look for are shipping connections to the EX2000 PWM. Inspections
damage to wiring or circuit boards, installation for unintentional shorts, induced voltages,
damage or foreign objects from the correct wiring ampacities, and the like should be

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

made. This will include PT and CT inputs, alarm Phase rotation of the ac input is not important in
contacts, trip contacts, and connections to the the EX2000 PWM regulator. But phasing should
operators interface device. Ground detector be checked to ensure accuracy in as built
connections and other optional equipment should drawings. If a single phase ac input is used, it
also be checked. must be connected to L1 and L3 leads of the ac
input device.
4. With input disconnects open, check incoming ac
and dc power for proper levels and polarities. If voltage doubling is required, the connections
On units with a PMG input, it may not be on CTBA-3 and CTBA-4 should be made. Refer
practical to check the PMG inputs until initial to the control elementaries for proper
roll of the equipment. At a minimum, a complete connections.
wire check of the inputs should be performed.
After independent proper operation with both the
5. Energize the dc power supply feed to energize ac and dc source voltages are observed, both
exciter regulator controls. The EX2000 PWM power sources should be energized at the same
will go through an initialization process. During time. Elimination of either source should have
this initialization process, hardware and firmware no noticeable affect on the EX2000 PWM
diagnostic checks are performed. Any faults regulator. Only the dc link voltage may be
generated during the initialization should be affected. This check should be performed during
corrected before proceeding. If an IOS or power checks and on-line operation as well.
UC2000 is supplied on the system,
communication faults will not be cleared until 7. Using ST2000 or Control System Toolbox,
the IOS or UC2000 is operational. download the appropriate core file to the
EX2000 PWM regulator. After the download is
The LDCC display will default to its normal, de- complete, the regulator will again perform a
energized state. It should appear similar to the diagnostic check.
8. In order to thoroughly test the operation of the
A S 97% I 0 % EX2000 PWM regulator, operation in the
simulator mode is recommended. Place the
The PSCD board has several LED indications of control core in the simulator mode (EE.570.0=1).
power supply levels and test points for checking See Chapter 6 for operation and scaling
the output of the regulator supplies. Check these information of the simulator. It is also
testpoints for appropriate voltage levels. Refer to recommended that as much testing be performed
the ST2000 help messages or the individual in simulator mode as possible. This should help
board GEI instructions for test points and shorten the pre-startup and initial roll checks
voltages. greatly since control functions, alarms, trips, etc.
will have been tested and verified correct.
The DC link voltage should also be checked.
Variable VAR.1091 should read the NOTE
corresponding voltage in engineering units and
should agree with the level measured. On the In the simulator mode, the EX2000 can
IAXS board, connections PL and NL are the generate a request for lockout. This can
positive and negative link voltages respectively. trip the lockout relay unless the
function is disabled.
6. Turn off the dc supply and repeat the PSCD
supply voltage checks for the ac feed to the
EX2000 PWM regulator. The PSCD board
voltages will be the same as for the dc feed. The
DC link voltage will generally be different than
the DC link with only the dc supply voltage.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

9. It may be necessary to place temporary jumpers a. Off-line OEL

on inputs to simulate breaker closures or start While in manual regulator, raise the
permissives that may not be operable at this time. excitation level until the field current exceeds
One such input is to reset the lockout relay (86) the off-line OEL pickup level. The system
or place a temporary jumper to simulate lockout goes into off-line OEL. Lower the reference
relay. Refer to hardware elementaries for to see that the OEL condition resets. Step the
specific jumpers required. If temporary jumpers reference into OEL and observe the response.
are used, it is important to remember to check the Return the summation block test input to zero.
operation of these inputs from the actual devices
at some point during the pre-start process. b. On-line OEL
While in manual regulator and with about
10.If the operators station device is available, a 90% MW load, increase the VARs until field
start from this device may be given and proper current is above 112% of AFFL. The PRIT1
operation of the controls should be tested and block begins to accumulate and after a time
observed. Raise and lower signals, alarms, delay activates the OEL limiter. Lower the
limits, displays and transducer outputs are setpoint and then step the reference so that the
available in the simulator mode. system goes back into on-line OEL. Observe
the response and be aware that if a very large
11.Close or jumper circuit breaker auxiliary contact step is used, the signal level detector pickup
(52G) input to simulate on-line operation. level is also exceeded. After 10 seconds, the
exciter field current will be limited to 125%
Change EE.84 value to simulate higher turbine of AFFLex and when PRIT1 times out it will
load. UEL settings can be checked by increasing limit to 100% of AFFLex.
EE.84 lowering the regulator output, and
comparing to the capability curve. After completion of the tests, be sure to disconnect
the test oscillator.

Return EE.84 value to 5-3. PRE-START POWER CHECKS

(152*frequency/60) before opening the
52G contact or the simulator will 1. After proper simulator operation, remove the
overspeed and cause a trip. control core from simulator mode. As described
in section 4-4.4 Feedback Offsets, the inputs
12. Verification of the operation of the on-line and from the current and voltage feedbacks should be
off-line OEL Limiters can be accomplished through adjusted.. These offsets are found in location
the use of the built in simulator and ST2000. A EE.1508 through EE.1513. In simulator mode,
convenient way to do this is to utilize the two input these values are not in use and therefore do not
summation (2 Input Sum) block that is programmed affect the simulator operation.
between the REF2 block output and the CORE
block EFR@SP input. EFR@SP is the setpoint for 2. Check PT and CT inputs by applying an input
the field regulator. The summation block was added signal with a 3-phase source at rated PT
to the pattern for test purposes only. Input 1 of this secondary volts and CT secondary current. The
block is the normal field regulator reference operator station device should display rated
supplied by REF2 output. Input 2 can be pointed to terminal volts. Internal control variables for PT
the output of the background test oscillator. In this and CT feedbacks should be verified for proper
manner the regulator can be easily stepped. scaling. If supplied, a PT failure can be checked
by opening the primary switch and observing a
transfer to the backup PTs or a transfer to the
manual regulator.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

3. It is recommended that the brushless exciter field 5. Upon starting the regulator, exciter field current
be used for initial power tests. There should be should develop to approximately 80% AFNL.
no detrimental effects to using the exciter field as Immediately stop the controls if any unusual or
a load since the unit is not rotating and can not abnormal operation occurs. Operation in the
produce generator field voltage. If the exciter automatic regulator is not recommended since
field is not available, a suitable replacement load the regulator will be open loop and be very
must be used. This dummy load has to be difficult to control.
inductive. If a simple resistive load is used the
control will trip on instanteous over current 6. Measure field voltage and current and compare
before the regulator can limit the current. Since to the operator station display values. Use
the EX2000 PWM regulator is a current ST2000 or Control System Toolbox to check the
regulator, it should be sized to carry at least VCO output counts for proper values. While the
AFFLex in order to keep as many EE settings at scaling can be adjusted to give the desired counts
the requisition levels as possible. Choosing a for the indicated voltages or currents, it is
smaller current load will require adjustment of generally an indication of improper scaling or
several operating parameters. jumper settings when these values are not in
4. Place the controls in manual regulator. Connect
an oscilloscope and voltmeter to the output load 7. Check field output waveshapes using an
leads. Incorrect shunt wiring can cause the oscilloscope. Observe for stable operation at low
EX2000 PWM regulator to turn full on in manual and full output voltages. The display should be a
mode. Verify shunt connections with a millivolt square wave similar to Figure 5-1. As output is
source, observing proper polarities, before raised, the on-time will increase as the off-time
starting. will decrease. The upper and lower peaks of the
square wave will be equal to the dc link voltage.
Again, test jumpers or operation of the 86G
device will be required to run the EX2000 PWM
regulator into the exciter field or replacement




Figure 5-1. Typical Output Wave Forms

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

8. Use the method outlined in the OEL simulator 4. Check phasing of the PT inputs. CT inputs will
testing section 5-2, step 12 to verify off-line and not be available at this time. Measure for correct
on-line OEL limit and regulator stability. A secondary values at rated generator terminal
jumper for the 52G input will be required to volts. Negative generator frequency counts are
simulate on-line operation. It will not be indicative of improper phase rotation of the PT
necessary to simulate MWs on the EX2000 inputs.
PWM regulator. Raising the output current to
the OEL settings should result in OEL limiter Check for the values of exciter field volts and
operation as described. For checks without the exciter field current at no load used to scale the
actual exciter field, it is possible to simulate exciter. Measure the actual field volts and field
higher current levels by changing the value in shunt millivolts. The measured values, counts
EE.1505. This value should be restored to the and operator station display values should be in
original setting after testing. If found to be agreement.
unstable, contact GE Motors & Industrial
Systems for any changes in settings. 5. Step tests of the exciter field regulator should be
performed to ensure stable operation. Step test
9. Restore values and reconnect for normal the field voltage regulator using the input
operation. Check temporary inputs, jumpers and summing block as described in the OEL
EE values and restore to the desired operational simulator testing.
settings. The unit is now ready for off-line,
initial roll system checks. 6. Transfer to automatic regulator. The transfer
should be smooth and without any noticeable
fluctuations in generator or regulator operation.
5-4. INITIAL ROLL OFF-LINE CHECKS The AVR can be stepped by pointing the extra
reference in the Excitation Autosetpoint Block
1. Run the unit up to synchronous speed. At this (EE.3781 ASP@EX) to the output of the test
time the PMG input may be available for the first oscillator. Generally a 2% step (400 counts) is
time. Before applying the PMG input, measure sufficient. Verify stability of the AVR.
and observe correct PMG inputs. Refer to
applicable PMG instruction manuals for more 7. Give the regulator a stop command. With the
information. unit in automatic regulator, restart the exciter and
watch for proper operation. The EX2000 should
2. With the EX2000 PWM regulator in manual bring the generator to rated terminal volts (or the
control, start the exciter. The unit should come setting of the EE.3402 pointer).
up to approximately 80% amps field no load.
This should result in a build up of generator 8. The V/HZ regulator function can be checked by
terminal voltage no greater than rated terminal slowing the generator and, while in automatic
volts when operating at rated generator regulator, watching the ac terminal volts drop
frequency. accordingly. A 1.10 pu ratio should not be
3. Refer to applicable instruction manuals for initial
startup checks for the rotating portions of the The EX2000 PWM regulator is now ready for on-
brushless exciter and main generator. This line operation. Return the unit to rated terminal
should include ground detector operational volts. Initial synchronization checks for other
checks as well. equipment may be required at this time.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

5-5. ON-LINE CHECKS Removing only the secondary PT input will

generate a PTX alarm but will not transfer the
1. It is recommended that the unit be synchronized unit from automatic to manual. Restoring the PT
in manual regulator the first time. The CT inputs input will clear the alarm.
to the EX2000 PWM regulator can adversely
affect the automatic regulator operation if they Removing both the primary and backup PT
are not correct. Once the unit has been inputs will generate the PT undervoltage alarm
synchronized, increase the unit load for a small and the restoration process described above
amount of generator line current. should be followed.

Check the MW and MVAR displays for positive 3. Check UEL operation. The simulator checks
values. If they are negative, the CT leads should be sufficient to guarantee proper
connections may be reversed. This condition operation of the UEL at the desired setpoints as
should be corrected before proceeding. If there long as the line current and line voltage count
are no CT disconnects, the unit must be off-line values are correct. Many customers may require
to reverse/change CT connections. verification of the actual UEL limit line. If this
is needed, the UEL stability should be checked
Stability of the UEL can be checked by raising
the UEL setpoints to a value of just slightly
Reversing CT leads with the unit under underexcited. The values of EE.2872, EE.2865,
load can cause substantial damage to EE.2867, and EE.2869 should be set to negative
generator components. The unit must 250 counts. Lower the excitation slowly until
be off-line, 52G open, before correcting the UEL regulator takes over at the revised
CT lead polarity. settings. The EX2000 PWM regulator can then
be stepped into the UEL regulator using the extra
2. After correct displays of MW and MVars has input to the auto setpoint block as described in
been ascertained, place the regulator in section 5-4, step 8. This will verify that the UEL
automatic. For units without PT failure operation is stable. Contact GE Motors &
detection, remove the main PT input by opening Industrial Systems if any instability in the UEL
the disconnect switch (if supplied) or pulling the regulator is encountered.
PTCT board input connection plug. This
generates a PT undervoltage alarm. The operator If at any time undesired operation is observed, a
station display should indicate that the regulator transfer to manual regulator should correct the
has transferred to manual, and can not be placed condition. After verification of UEL stability,
into automatic. A 30EX global alarm should be the original UEL setpoints should be restored. If
generated. Restoring the PT input and operating the customer desires testing of the actual UEL
the PT BAD reset will allow a return to limits, the excitation can be slowly lowered into
automatic. Activating the automatic regulator the limit.
selection should again place the exciter in
automatic regulator. The 30EX alarm should be 4. The on-line OEL testing performed in section 5-
clear. 3, step 7 should be sufficient. To perform the
same test on the actual machine requires
Two PT inputs are required for PT failure operation at very high field current levels. GE
detection. Opening the main PT will generate a Motors & Industrial Systems does not
PT failure alarm but the unit will not transfer to recommend that the equipment be actually driven
manual. It will continue regulation on the into OEL. If it is required, contact GE Motors &
secondary set of PTs. Restoring the main PT Industrial Systems.
input will clear the PT bad alarm.

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

After completion of all EX2000 tests, restore all Check out of the Status S communications should be
storage registers used for testing to normal carried out in conjunction with the turbine control
values, back up the software, and disable all startup procedures. Usually it is sufficient to verify
write enables. control of operator functions as described on the
interface control panel or screen.
As the unit is loaded, check for reactive sharing
between paralleled units. Reactive current
compensation can be introduced through the AVR 5-6.1. Units With UC2000 or IOS
setpoint block by changing the gain of the RCC.
See EE.3791 help for changing the RCC gain. All UC2000s and IOSs are factory-tested and
operable when shipped to the installation site. Final
checks should be made after installation and before
5-6. OPERATOR INTERFACE starting the UC2000/OC2000 combination or the
IOS. Consult the appropriate equipment GEH for
The EX2000 PWM regulator is a versatile regulator, guidelines for inspections to perform prior to
capable of communicating with several different startup.
Human-Machine Interfaces. Direct communication
with the GE turbine control is the standard, primary GEH-6335 Operator Console 2000 Operation
operators station and interface to the EX2000 and Maintenance
PWM. The communication configuration is defined GEH-6334 Unit Controller 2000 Operation and
and standardized within both the turbine controller Maintenance
and the EX2000 PWM. Changes to the Status S GEH-6122 Intelligent Operators Station
page and communication settings should be made Operation and Maintenance
only under advisement from GE Motors and
Industrial Systems. 5-6.2. Units With Discrete Switches And

Testing of contact inputs and outputs from discrete

meters and switches should include a thorough
wiring check for continuity and no direct shorts
before powering the devices from the EX2000
PWM. Normal startup checkouts will ensure correct
connections and operation of the devices.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter


EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375



6-1. EX2000 PWM SIMULATOR The exciter regulator can be raised and lowered in
automatic or manual regulator, both on-line or off-
A simulator is built into the EX2000 PWM that can line. The regulator limits come in at the same levels
model a generator and brushless excitation system as in non-simulated operation. The regulator
off-line or on-line (connected to an infinite bus). responses provide a good representation of what can
Simulator operation is selected by setting be expected of the real system in response to step
EE.570.0 = 1. When selected, the feedbacks changes.
presented to the control regulators are switched, by
software, from the real feedback inputs to feedbacks By changing the storage register containing the
derived by mathematical models mimicking the value representing model shaft torque, EE.84, it is
generator and field circuit behavior. possible to raise or lower the generator real power
output when simulating on-line operation. The
The EX2000 PWM controls react in a manner close exciter changes the system VARs in response to
to the way they would react in normal operation. changes in the exciter setpoints.
The simulator can serve as a valuable startup,
maintenance, and training tool.
The simulator is scaled to represent the actual
system as accurately as possible. This means that
when a start command is given to the EX2000, it Disable the IGBT gating while in
follows a normal start sequence. Close commands simulator mode. Check that setting of
are sent to the bridge contactor but gating of the EE.589.14 = 0.
IGBT devices is disabled. The controls look for
actual auxiliary contact feedbacks representing the
contactor states. If these are not correct the 6-1.1. Simulator Scaling
appropriate faults are generated.
The goal of the simulator scaling is to make the
The generator armature and field models, as well as models represent, as close as possible, the behavior
the exciter stator and field models, provide the of the real system.
feedbacks for exciter field voltage and current and
generator stator voltage and current. These In addition to the following EE settings, see
feedbacks are handled by the transducering EE.3850 GMJMPR in section 4-3. Generator,
algorithms the same way real feedbacks are used to exciter, and regulator parameters listed in section 4-
calculate watts, VARs, speed deviation, and 2 for the example system will be used for scaling
frequency. If the model scaling is correct, the discussions in the simulator section.
display data cannot be distinguished from real data.
Main generator field voltages and currents are also SMVDCL0 EE.1558 simulates the dc link voltage
simulated internally and used for correct model of the EX2000 PWM regulator. It is set to represent
operation. the actual running voltage of the dc link. For the
example system this is 137 V dc. For EE.1558, set
equal to 137/360 * 20000 = 7611 counts.

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

SMHST0 EE.1559 is the simulated heat sink GMILFG EE.3858 is the simulated inverse of
temperature of the PWM IGBT heatsink. This value generator field inductance. Set equal to (60/
can be used to test the overtemperature alarm and frequency) * 670 / T'dogen, where T'do is the main
trip levels in the regulator controls. One count generator field time constant. Set EE.3858 =
equals 1 C. Normally set to maximum expected 670/5.615 = 119 for the example system.
temperature during operation, 60 C.
GMVFES EE.3859 is the simulator exciter voltage
GMVBAT EE.3851 represents simulator flashing scale down divider. This scales the exciter voltage
voltage. Since flashing is not required on the from the model to produce EXSIMFE VAR.1177
EX2000 PWM regulators, set EE.3851 = 0. (simulated exciter field voltage). Set EE.3859 =
5888 * maximum dc link volts / dc link volts = 5888
GMRBAT EE.3852 represents simulator battery * 360/137 = 15472.
resistance for field flashing. This is also not
required in the EX2000 PWM and EE.3852 is also GMIFES EE.3860 is the simulator exciter current
set to a 0. scale down divider. This parameter scales the
exciter current from the model to make EXSIMIFE
GMVTHY EE.3853 is the simulator thyrite voltage. VAR.1176 (simulated exciter field current). Set
This models an overvoltage protection thyrite EE.3860 = (AFFLex/AFNLex)*3146 =
connected across the exciter field input. The (3.52/9.54)*3146 = 8526.
example system has a 125 V exciter field.
Set EE.3853 = (Exciter field class*7.2*1797)/(DC GMVFGS EE.3861 is the simulator generator field
link volts) = (125*7.2*1797)/137 = 11805. voltage scale down divider. This parameter scales
generator field voltage from the model to make
GMRDIS EE.3854 simulates the dynamic discharge EXSIMVFG VAR.1163. Set GMVFGS to
resistance. Set EE.3854 = 27329280/ (AFNLgen * RFG@100 C* 20000 /
(AFNLex*2*RDD*30664) / DC link volts = Maximum DC link volts). In the example system,
(3.52*2*17*30664)/137 = 26787. and simplifying the formula, this is 1367 * 360 /
(313*0.256) = 6139.
GM_RFE EE.3855 is the simulator exciter field
resistance. This is set equal to (VFNLex/DC link GMIFGS EE.3862 is the simulator generator field
volts) * 31108 where VFNLex = AFNLex * current scale down divider. This parameter scales
Rfe@25C. From the example data Rfe@25c = generator field current from the model to make
4.871 ohms. VFNLex = 4.871 * 3.52 = 17.15 V dc. EXSIMIFG VAR.1161 (simulated generator field
Set EE.3855 = (17.15/137)*31108 = 3838. current). When used in conjunction with standard
scaling, such as AFFL = 5000 counts, set GMIFGS
GMILFE EE.3856 represents the inverse of exciter = (AFFLgen / AFNLgen ) * 3146. In the example
field inductance. EE.3856 is set equal to (DC link system, this would be 846/313*3146 = 8503.
volts * 156) / (VFNLex * Tdoex). T'doex is the
open circuit field time constant which is 0.35 GMIFLS EE.3863 represents the simulator flashing
seconds in the example system. Set EE.3856 = current scale down divider. This parameter is not
(137*156) / (17.15 * 0.35) = 3561. used in the EX2000 PWM regulator. Set
GM_RFG EE.3857 simulates generator field
resistance. This parameter is normally set to 7115 * GMDAMP EE.3864 is the simulator generator
frequency/60. The constant scaling is the result of model damping factor where 1 count = 0.11 pu
expected normalizations. Exciter AFNL is expected watts/pu speed(60 Hz). Normally EE.3864 is set
to produce VFNL on the generator field which in equal to 400. If oscillations occur while operating
turn produces AFNL on the generator field. Set in simulator mode, try changing GMDAMP.
EE.3857 = 7115 for the example, which is a 60 Hz

EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375

GM_IXS EE.3865 represents the generator model Set EE.3865 equal to 4096/Xs = 4096/2.04 = 2007.
inverse of synchronous reactance. This parameter
models the generator synchronous reactance in GMXEXS EE.3866 models the effect of external
simulator mode. GM_IXS = 4096/Xs(pu). reactance for the simulator generator model. This
can be set for a strongly or weakly connected
To most accurately model the generator, it is system. EE.3866 is set equal to 65536*Xe/(Xs +
necessary to approximate the generator synchronous Xe) where Xe represents the amount of impedance
reactance from no load to full load. In a real system, in per unit connecting the generator to the system.
machine reactances vary with saturation and For the example, set for a strong system (small
saliency. Therefore it is necessary to make amount of impedance between generator and
simplifying assumptions that produce a value of Xs system), with Xe = 0.1 pu, then EE.3866 =
that provides reasonable behavior over the range 65536*(0.1)/(2.04 + 0.1) = 3062.
VFNL to VFFL. Assume a round rotor machine
with no saturation, no saliency, and resistance is GM_IM EE.3867 models the effect of generator
negligible. This makes the direct and quadrature inertia for the simulator. Typically, the default
reactances equal. If this level of accuracy in the value of zero (which is equivalent to M = 3.98 pu) is
model is not of concern then Xd (the direct axis used. For more accurate simulator modeling,
saturated synchronous reactance) can be used. EE.3867 can be set to (frequency/60)*16302/M
where M =2H, the generator inertia constant.
If optimum model accuracy is of concern then the
following method, based on a simplified
synchronous machine model, can be used. The 6-1.2. Operation
range of field amps from no load to full load =
AFFL/AFNL=9.54/3.52 = 2.71. To put the control core into simulator mode set
EE.570.0 = 1. The shaft speed of the generator
If a phasor diagram showing the machine operating increases to rated (synchronous) speed at a rate
at rated load and power factor connected to an determined by the simulator inertia constant and the
infinite bus at rated terminal volts is drawn then a level of shaft torque preset in register EE.84. The
quadratic equation with the synchronous impedance value of torque preset to give rated speed at no load
as the unknown quantity can be generated and is 153 * (frequency/60). Rated speed is indicated on
solved for Xs. It is then used in the above equation the core programmer display as 100%. The shaft
for GM_IXS. torque can be altered on-line or off-line by changing
the value stored in EE.84. Off-line, changing shaft
The rated power factor for the sample machine is torque increases the speed and hence the frequency
0.85. With the machine operating at rated k VA = 1 of the generator. Changing the torque on-line
pu k VA then rated real power = 0.85*1 pu and increases or decreases the real power output of the
rated reactive power output = 0.53*1 pu Generator model generator.
voltage = 1 pu
To start the simulator, it is generally necessary to
As per unit values are being used it is not necessary wait until the simulated generator speed is above
to use the actual generator MW and MVAR values 95%. It is also necessary to have the 86G input to
involved. the EX2000 PWM regulator closed. Failure to do so

From the phasor diagram, the following quadratic

equation results where the generator internal voltage
range required is represented by the ratio of AFFL
to AFNL = 2.71

(2.71)**2 = (1 + 0.53*Xs)**2 + (0.85*Xs)**2

Solving for Xs gives a synchronous reactance of
2.04 pu

GEH-6375 EX2000 PWM Digital Exciter

will result in a fault 29 when attempting a start. To put the simulator on-line, a contact closure
Starts in auto or manual regulator are permissible. simulating 52G aux contact feedback must be input
The simulator can be started from the operators to core LTB input IN1. Some oscillations are
station or by pressing the RUN button on the LDCC generally observed when closing the 52G contact
keypad. After starting, exciter field current and since there is no synchroscope to confirm closing
voltage and generator terminal voltage will build up while the simulated generator and line voltages are
to the preset levels of the regulator being used. in phase. When off-line, changing the exciter AVR
or MVR setting adjusts generator terminal voltage.
When on-line, raise or lower signals change the
CAUTION generator VARs. The result of these control
changes can be observed.

Once the simulator is on-line, the 94EX Testing of UEL settings, V/hz regulator, over
contact output can be operated current protections, and so on, can also be observed.
inadvertently. This may cause Feedback and control signals from the operators
unintentional operation of protective station and 4-20 ma outputs (if supplied) can also be
devices outside the EX2000 PWM observed.
regulator. Lifting of the 94EX output
contacts is recommended during When stopping the simulator, the reference value in
simulator operation. EE.84 should be returned to the original level for
100% speed off-line. Failure to do so will result in
unusual off-line operation.


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Electric Company
Issue Date: April 1997
1997 by General Electric Company, USA.
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