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INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF BIBLICAL STUDIES

VOLUME 55
FOUNDED BY FRIDOLIN STIER
EDITED BY BERNHARD LANG
WITH SUPPORT OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF PADERBORN, GERMANY
INTERNATIONAL REVIEW
OF BIBLICAL STUDIES
Internationale Zeitschriftenschau fr Bibelwissenschaft und Grenzgebiete
Revue Internationale des tudes Bibliques

edited by

BERNHARD LANG

VOLUME 55, 20082009

LEIDEN BOSTON
2010
This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

LC Control number 54022523

ISSN 00749745
ISBN 978 90 04 18134 2

Copyright 2010 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.


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EDITORIAL STAFF

Bernhard Lang (BL)


Damian Lazarek (DL)
Tomasz Manka (TM)
Susanne Pramann (SP)

CONTRIBUTORS

Christoph Buysch, Aachen (CB) Dennis Lewandowski, Paderborn (Lew)


Bernd Feininger, Gengenbach (BF) Ansgar Moenikes, Paderborn (AM)
Michael Fresta, Paderborn (MF) Thomas Naef, Lausanne/Switzerland (TN)
Michael Hartmann, Tbingen (MH) Wolfgang Schenk, Saarbrcken (WSch)
Paul Albertus Kruger, Stellenbosch/South Sebastian Stwe, Bochum (SSt)
Africa (PAK) Dieter Zeller, Mainz (DZ)
Andr Lemaire, Paris/France (AL)

Address of the editorial office

International Review of Biblical Studies


Universitt Paderborn
Faculty of Arts and Humanities, N3/IZBG
Warburger Str. 100
D-33098 Paderborn, Germany
ABBREVIATIONS

ABG Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Geschichte, Leipzig/Germany


ABR Australian Biblical Review, Melbourne/Australia
ACra Analecta Cracoviensia, Cracow/Poland
Aevum Aevum, Milan/Italy
AGJU Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums,
Leiden/The Netherlands
AJA American Journal of Archaeology, Boston, Massachusetts/USA
AJBA The Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology, Sydney/Australia
AJBI Annual of the Japanese Biblical Institute, Tokyo/Japan
Altertum Altertum, Berlin/Germany
ANES Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Leuven/Belgium
Ang. Angelicum, Rome/Italy
Anton. Antonianum, Rome/Italy
AOAT Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Mnster/Germany
AsbJ The Asbury Journal, Wilmore, Kentucky/USA
ASEs Annali di storia dellesegesi, Bologna/Italy
ATh Acta Theologica, Bloemfontein/South Africa
AThR Anglican Theological Review, Evanston, Illinois/USA
AtK Ateneum Kaplanskie, Wrocawek/Poland
AUSS Andrews University Seminary Studies, Berrien Springs, Michigan/USA

BAR Biblical Archaeology Review, Washington D.C./USA


BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Baltimore, Mary-
land/USA
BBB Bonner Biblische Beitrge, Berlin/Germany
BBR Bulletin for Biblical Research, Winona Lake, Indiana/USA
BCPE Bulletin du Centre Protestant dtudes, Geneva/Switzerland
BEAT Beitrge zur Erforschung des Alten Testaments und des antiken Judentums,
Bern/Switzerland
Beit Mikra Beit Mikra, Jerusalem/Israel
BEThL Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium, Leuven/Belgium
BI Biblical Interpretation, Leiden/The Netherlands
Bib. Biblica, Rome/Italy
Bijdr. Bijdragen. Tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie, Amsterdam/The Netherlands
BiKi Bibel und Kirche, Stuttgart/Germany
BiLi Bibel und Liturgie, Klosterneuburg/Austria
BiTr The Bible Translator, Reading/UK
BN Biblische Notizen, Salzburg/Austria
Bobolanum Bobolanum, Warsaw/Poland
BR Biblical Research, Chicago, Illinois/USA
BS Bibliotheca Sacra, Dallas, Texas/USA
BTB Biblical Theology Bulletin, South Orange, New Jersey/USA
BThSt Biblisch-Theologische Studien, Neukirchen-Vluyn/Germany
BThZ Berliner Theologische Zeitschrift, Berlin/Germany
BWANT Beitrge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament, Stuttgart Berlin
Cologne Mainz/Germany
BZ Biblische Zeitschrift, Paderborn/Germany
BZAW Beihefte zur ZAW, Berlin/Germany New York/USA
BZNW Beihefte zur ZNW, Berlin/Germany New York/USA

CBQ The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Washington, D.C./USA


CBQ.MS The Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series, Washington, D.C./
USA
CBR Currents in Biblical Research, London/UK
CDios La Ciudad de Dios, Madrid/Spain
Coll. Collationes. Vlaams Tijdschrift voor Theologie en Pastoraal, Gent/Belgium
Com(P) Communio, Pozna/Poland
CoTh Collectanea Theologica, Warsaw/Poland
CRAI Comptes Rendus des sances de lAcadmie des Inscriptions et Belles
Lettres, Paris/France
CrSt Cristianesimo nella Storia, Bologna/Italy
CThMi Currents in Theology and Mission, Chicago, Illinois/USA
CTJ Calvin Theological Journal, Grand Rapids, Michigan/USA
CV Communio Viatorum, Prague/Czech Republic
CzST Czestochowskie Studia Teologiczne, Czestochowa/Poland

DBAT Dielheimer Bltter zur Archologie und Textberlieferung der Antike und
Sptantike, Heidelberg/Germany
DBM Deltio Biblikon Meleton, Athens/Greece
DJD Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, Oxford/UK
DSD Dead Sea Discoveries, Leiden/The Netherlands

Encounter Encounter, Indianapolis, Indiana/USA


Ephem. Ephmrios, Athens/Greece
ErIs Eretz-Israel, Jerusalem/Israel
EstE Estudios Eclesisticos, Madrid/Spain
ET The Expository Times, Edinburgh/UK
EThL Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, Leuven/Belgium
ETR tudes Thologiques et Religieuses, Montpellier/France
EuA Erbe und Auftrag, Benediktinische Monatszeitschrift, Beuron/Germany
Evangel Evangel, Edinburgh/UK
EvTh Evangelische Theologie, Gtersloh/Germany
ExAu Ex Auditu, Allison Park, Pennsylvania/USA

FAT Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Tbingen/Germany


FNT Filologia Neotestamentaria, Crdoba/Spain
FRLANT Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments,
Gttingen/Germany
Fundamentum Fundamentum, Riehen/Switzerland
fzb Forschung zur Bibel, Wrzburg/Germany

GlLern Glaube und Lernen, Gttingen/Germany


Gr. Gregorianum, Rome/Italy
GregPa Gregorios ho Palamas, Thessaloniki/Greece

HBS Herders Biblische Studien, Freiburg/Germany


HBT Horizons in Biblical Theology, Leiden/The Netherlands
HebStud Hebrew Studies, Madison, Wisconsin/USA
Hen. Henoch, Brescia/Italy
Hermenutica Hermenutica, Cachoeira Bahia/Brasil
HlD Heiliger Dienst, Salzburg/Austria
Hokhma Hokhma, Alenon/France
HThR Harvard Theological Review, Cambridge, Massachusetts/USA
HTS Hervormde Teologiese Studies, Pretoria/South Africa
HUCA Hebrew Union College Annual, Cincinnati, Ohio/USA

IBSt Irish Biblical Studies, Belfast/UK


Ichthys Ichthys, rhus/Denmark
IDS In die Skriflig, Potchefstroom/South Africa
IEJ Israel Exploration Journal, Jerusalem/Israel
IKaZ Internationale katholische Zeitschrift Communio, Cologne/Germany

viii
IKZ Internationale Kirchliche Zeitschrift, Bern/Switzerland
Interp. Interpretation, Richmond, Virginia/USA
IThQ Irish Theological Quarterly, Maynooth/Ireland

JAAS Journal of Asia Adventist Seminary, Silang, Cavite/Philippines


JANER Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions, Leiden/The Netherlands
JANES Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society, NewYork/USA
JbDEI Jahrbuch des Deutschen Evangelischen Instituts fr Altertumswissenschaft
des Heiligen Landes, Hannover/Germany
JBL Journal of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Georgia/USA
JBQ Jewish Bible Quarterly, Jerusalem/Israel
JBTh Jahrbuch fr Biblische Theologie, Neukirchen-Vluyn/Germany
JCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Atlanta, Georgia/USA
Jdm Judaism, New York/USA
JECS Journal of Early Christian Studies, Baltimore, Maryland/USA
JETh Jahrbuch fr evangelikale Theologie, Wuppertal/Germany
JETS Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, San Diego, California/
USA
JFA Journal of Field Archaeology, Boston, Massachusetts/USA
JGRChJ Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism, Sheffield/UK
JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Chicago, Illinois/USA
JNWSL Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages, Leiden/The Netherlands
JOSA Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, Sydney/Australia
JQR The Jewish Quarterly Review, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/USA
JRTI Journal of Religious & Theological Information, Binghamton, New
York/USA
JSHJ Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus, London/UK
JSJ Journal for the Study of Judaism, Leiden/The Netherlands
JSJ.S Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, Leiden/The
Netherlands
JSNT Journal for the Study of the New Testament, London/UK
JSNT.S JSNT Supplement Series, London/UK
JSOT Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, London/UK
JSOT.S JSOT Supplement Series, London/UK
JSP Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, London/UK
JSP.S JSPE Supplement Series, London/UK
JSQ Jewish Studies Quarterly, Tbingen/Germany
JSSt Journal of Semitic Studies, Manchester/UK
JThF Jerusalemer Theologisches Forum, Mnster/Germany
JThS Journal of Theological Studies, Oxford/UK

KaKe Katorikku Kenkyu. Catholic Studies, Tokyo/Japan


KuD Kerygma und Dogma, Gttingen/Germany
KUSATU Kleine Untersuchungen zur Sprache des Alten Testaments und seiner
Umwelt, Waltrop/Germany

LASBF Liber annuus. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem/Israel


lectio difficilior lectio difficilior. European Electronic Journal for Feminist Exegesis; www
.lectio.unibe.ch; Bern/Switzerland
LeDiv Lectio Divina, Paris/France
Leqach Leqach. Mitteilungen und Beitrge; Forschungsstelle Judentum, Theol.
Fakultt, Leipzig/Germany
LHBOTS Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies, London/UK
LNTS Library of New Testament Studies, London/UK
LouvSt Louvain Studies, Louvain/Belgium
LSTS Library of Second Temple Studies, London/UK
LTP Laval Thologique et Philosophique, Qubec/Canada
LV(L) Lumire & Vie, Lyon/France

ix
Maarav Maarav. A Journal for the Study of the Northwest Semitic Languages
and Literatures, Rolling Hills Estate, Cal./USA
MDOG Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, Berlin/Germany
MSR Mlanges de Science Religieuse, Lille/France
MThZ Mnchener Theologische Zeitschrift, St. Ottilien/Germany

NEAr Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly Biblical Archaeologist), Atlanta,


Georgia/USA
Neotest. Neotestamentica, Pretoria/South Africa
NGTT Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, Cape Town/South
Africa
NRT Nouvelle Revue Thologique, Tournai/Belgium
NT Novum Testamentum, Leiden/The Netherlands
NTM New Testament Monographs, Sheffield/UK
NTOA Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus, Freiburg/Switzerland
NTS New Testament Studies, Cambridge/UK
NT.S Supplements to Novum Testamentum, Leiden/The Netherlands

OBO Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Freiburg/Switzerland


Or. Orientalia, Rome/Italy
Orient Orient, Tokyo/Japan
OTE Old Testament Essays, Pretoria/South Africa
OTS Oudtestamentische Studin, Leiden/The Netherlands

PEQ Palestine Exploration Quarterly, London/UK


PJBR The Polish Journal of Biblical Research, Cracow/Poland
PosLuth Positions Luthriennes, Paris/France
PozST Poznaskie Studia Teologiczne, Pozna/Poland
Proceedings EGL Proceedings: Eastern Great Lakes and Midwest Biblical Societies,
& MWBS Buffalo New York/USA
Prooftexts Prooftexts: A Journal of Jewish Literary History, Baltimore, Maryland/
USA
Protest. Protestantesimo, Rome/Italy
PRSt Perspectives in Religious Studies, Richmond, Virginia/USA
PSB The Princeton Seminary Bulletin, Princeton, New Jersey/USA
PSV Parola Spirito e Vita, Bologna/Italy
PzB Protokolle zur Bibel, Salzburg Klosterneuburg/Austria

Qad. Qadmoniot, Jerusalem/Israel


QD Quaestiones Disputatae, Freiburg/Germany, Basel/Switzerland,
Vienna/Austria
Qsel Quaestiones selectae. Zeszyty Naukowe, Wroclaw/Poland
QC The Qumran Chronicle, Cracow/Poland

RB Revue Biblique, Paris/France


RBB Revista Biblica Brasileira, Fortaleza/Brasil
RBL Ruch Biblijny i Liturgiczny, Cracow/Poland
RdQ Revue de Qumrn, Paris/France
REB Revista Eclesistica Brasileira, Fortaleza/Brasil
RevAg Revista Agustiniana, Madrid/Spain
RevBL Review of Biblical Literature, Atlanta/USA
RHPhR Revue dHistoire et de Philosophie Religieuses, Paris/France
RHR Revue de lHistoire des Religions, Paris/France
RicStBib Ricerche Storico Bibliche, Bologna/Italy
RSPhTh Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et Thologiques, Paris/France
RSR Recherches de Science Religieuse, Paris/France
RStB Ricerche Storico-Bibliche, Bologna/Italy
RStR Religious Studies Review, Valparaiso, Indiana/USA
RTeol Roczniki Teologiczne, Lublin/Poland

x
RThom Revue Thomiste, Toulouse/France
RThPh Revue de Thologie et de Philosophie, Lausanne/Switzerland
RTL Revue Thologique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve/Belgium
RTR Reformed Theological Review, Doncaster/Australia

Sal. Salesianum, Rome/Italy


Salm. Salmanticensis, Salamanca/Spain
SaSc Sacra Scripta, Cluj-Napoca/Romania
SBAB Stuttgarter Biblische Aufsatzbnde, Stuttgart/Germany
SBB Stuttgarter Biblische Beitrge, Stuttgart/Germany
SBET Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology, Edinburgh/UK
SBL Society of Biblical Literature
SBL.DS SBL Dissertation Series, Atlanta, Georgia/USA
SBL.MS SBL Monograph Series, Atlanta, Georgia/USA
SBL.SPS SBL Seminar Paper Series, Atlanta, Georgia/USA
SBob Studia Bobolana, Warsaw/Poland
SBS Stuttgarter Bibelstudien, Stuttgart/Germany
ScC La Scuola Cattolica, Milan/Italy
ScEs Science et sprit, Ottawa/Canada
Schrift Schrift, Baarn/The Netherlands
ScrB Scripture Bulletin, Birmingham/UK
ScripSc Scriptura Sacra, Opole/Poland
Scriptura Scriptura, Stellenbosch/South Africa
SCS Sino-Christian Studies, Taiwan/Taiwan
SE Svensk Exegetisk rsbok, Uppsala/Sweden
Sef. Sefarad, Madrid/Spain
Sem. Semitica, Paris/France
Semeia Semeia, Atlanta, Georgia/USA
SFra Studia Franciszkanskie, Pozna/Poland
SGn Studia Gnieznienskie, Gniezno/Poland
SJOT Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, Oslo/Norway Stockholm/
Sweden Copenhagen/Denmark
SJTh Scottish Journal of Theology, Edinburgh/UK
SNTS.MS Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series, Cambridge/UK
SNTU Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt, Mnster/Germany
Sploc Studia Plockie, P ock/Poland
SR Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses, Waterloo/Canada
SSHT Slaskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne, Katowice/Poland
ST Studia Theologica, Oslo/Norway
STAC Studies and Texts in Antiwuity and Chrstianity, Tbingen/Germany
STeol Studia Teologiczne, Bia ystok/Poland
StGda Studia Gdaskie, Gdask/Poland
StUNT Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments, Gttingen/Germany
STV Studia Theologica Varsaviensia, Warsaw/Poland
SWJT Southwestern Journal of Theology, Fort Worth, Texas/USA

TAik Teologinen Aikakauskirja, Helsinki/Finland


TarST Tarnowskie Studia Teologiczne, Tarnw/Poland
TBe Theologische Beitrge, Haan/Germany
Tel Aviv Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv/Israel
ThD Theology Digest, St. Louis, Missouri/USA
Theol. Theology, London/UK
Theol(A) Theologia, Athens/Greece
Theologika Theologika. Revista Biblico-Teologica, Lima/Peru
ThQ Theologische Quartalschrift, Munich/Germany
ThR Theologische Rundschau, Tbingen/Germany
ThRev Theological Review, Beirut/Lebanon
ThZ Theologische Zeitschrift, Basel/Switzerland
TrinJ Trinity Journal, Deerfield, Illinois/USA

xi
TS Theological Studies, Washington D.C./USA
TSAJ Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum/Texts and Studies in
Ancient Judaism, Tbingen/Germany
TTh Tijdschrift voor Theologie, Nijmegen/The Netherlands
TThZ Trierer Theologische Zeitschrift, Trier/Germany
TTK Tidsskrift for Teologi og Kirke, Oslo/Norway
TuK Texte und Kontexte, Berlin/Germany
TynB Tyndale Bulletin, London/UK

UF Ugarit-Forschungen, Mnster/Germany
US Una Sancta, Meitingen/Germany

Verbum et Ecclesia Verbum et Ecclesia, Pretoria/South Africa


VF Verkndigung und Forschung, Gtersloh/Germany
VH Vivens Homo, Bologna/Italy
Vivens Homo Vivens Homo. Rivista di teologia e scienze religiose, Florence/Italy
VoxPa Vox Patrum, Antyk chrzescijanski, Lublin/Poland
VoxScrip Vox Scripturae, Sao Paulo/Brasil
VT Vetus Testamentum, Leiden/The Netherlands
VT.S Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Leiden/The Netherlands
VV Verbum Vitae, Kielce/Poland

WdO Die Welt des Orients, Gttingen/Germany


Wiez Wiez, Warsaw/Poland
WMANT Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament,
Neukirchen-Vluyn/Germany
WO Die Welt des Orients, Gttingen/Germany
WrPT Wroclawski Przeglad Teologiczny, Wroclaw/Poland
WST Warszwaskie Studia Teologiczne, Warsaw/Poland
WThJ The Westminster Theological Journal, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/
USA
WUB Welt und Umwelt der Bibel, Stuttgart/Germany
WuD Wort und Dienst, Bielefeld/Germany
WUNT Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, Tbin-
gen/Germany

ZABR Zeitschrift fr Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte, Wies-


baden/Germany
ZAC Zeitschrift fr Antikes Christentum, Berlin/Germany New York/
USA
ZAH Zeitschrift fr Althebraistik, Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne/Germany
ZAW Zeitschrift fr die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Berlin/Germany
New York/USA
ZDMG Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft, Wiesbaden/
Germany
ZDPV Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palstina-Vereins, Wiesbaden/Germany
Zion Zion, Jerusalem/Israel
ZKT Zeitschrift fr Katholische Theologie, Vienna/Austria
ZNKUL Zeszyty Naukowe KUL, Lublin/Poland
ZNSBP Zeszyty Naukowe Stowarzyszenia Biblistw Polskich, Warsaw/
Poland
ZNT Zeitschrift fr Neues Testament, Tbingen/Germany
ZNW Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, Berlin/Germany
New York/USA
ZPTh Zeitschrift fr Pdagogik und Theologie, Frankfurt/Germany
ZThK Zeitschrift fr Theologie und Kirche, Tbingen/Germany

xii
TEXT VERSIONS

Text of the OT Masorah


1 John F. Hobbins, Taking Stock of Biblia Hebraica Quinta
This review examines the three fascicles of Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ) which have
appeared to date. Five aspects of BHQ serve as springboards for wider ranging reflec-
tions: (1) production schedule; (2) format; (3) treatment of poetry; (4) updateability; and (5)
advantages and disadvantages vis--vis a parallel project, the Oxford Hebrew Bible (OHB).
The essay concludes that both BHQ and OHB, though crafted with great care, provide an
incomplete picture of the textual data in hand. As long as the texts so far published are
concerned, they are occasionally tools that are to be used only alongside other relevant
secondary literature and that must be checked against the primary data.
JETh 22 (2008) 3756

2 Yosef Ofer, The Shattered Crown: The Aleppo Codex 60 Years after
the Riots
In Aleppo, Syria, anti-Jewish riots destroyed the synagogue and many of its treasures. The
Aleppo Codex, a most valuable manuscript of the Hebrew Bible dating from ca. 930 CE,
was also badly mutilated. Ofer tells the story of the manuscript and how its remains came
into the possession of the state of Israel. For the codex, see www.aleppocodex.org.
BAR 34/5 (2008) 3849 (BL)

3 Toshio Homma, Der Aleppo Kodex und die Textberlieferungen im


Osten und im Westen: Historische berlegungen zu den Masoretischen
Textberlieferungen in Bezug auf die Ben Ascher-Handschriften
In der Masora finalis des Codex Leningradensis ist ein groes Ma an fachspezifischen
Informationen fr Soferim und Masoreten dokumentiert. Eine Liste die sog. illufim
gibt die Varianten der Lesarten zwischen den Orientalen und den Okzidentalen an. Die
hier prsentierte Untersuchung der illufim-Stellen kommt zu der Schlussfolgerung, dass
viele Spuren der Korrektur, die sich in den Handschriften verschiedener Textberlieferun-
gen, besonders in den reprsentativen Ben Ascher-Handschriften, darunter dem Aleppo
Kodex, finden, Zeugnis davon geben, dass verschiedene Traditionen des Judentums wie
illuq-haQaraim wehaRabbanim bezeugt im Osten und im Westen ber ihre heiligen
Texte in Konflikt gerieten und miteinander verhandelten. Die klaren und organischen
Zusammenhnge in den Texten werfen somit ein Licht auf die Geschichte der Entstehung
und berlieferung der masoretischen Texte.
AJBI 32 (2006) 1591

4 David N. Freedman et al., Scribal Interventions in 1QIsaiah (a)


The long Isaiah scroll found in Qumran includes many corrections made by both the
original scribe and later ones. The study of these scribal interventions can serve as a
training ground for modern textual critics.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
vol. 2, 787799 (BL)

1
5 Zoltn Kustr, Leerstellen innerhalb biblischer Verse. Ein Beitrag zur
hebrischen Textgeschichte
Out of the 5560 cases of a blank space within a biblical verse (pisqa) 37 stand immediately
before an introductory formula and thereby serve to emphasise the direct speech which
follows. A further 11 cases function as a setumah or petuchah. So 83% of the occurrences
of pisqa can and should be interpreted as older paragraph markers, which were later
subordinated to the Masoretic division into paragraphs and verses.
ZAW 121/1 (2009) 104111

6 Raymond de Hoop, Stress and Syntax; Music and Meaning: the Purpose
and Function of the Masoretic Accentuation System
In this paper the classic threefold classification of the purpose of the Masoretic accents, i.e.
stress, syntax and recitation, is re-evaluated, because it appears that this classification does
not do complete justice to the evidence. Some accents are not positioned at the stressed
syllable, and sometimes their positioning suggests a division of the text that is not in line
with the syntactical structure of the text. In other words, this classification is somewhat
misleading and contributes to the sceptical attitude in scholarly circles towards the Maso-
retic accentuation. It is argued that the aspects of stress and syntax are not completely
appropriate classifications and that a musical or recitative purpose is closer to the mark.
The latter aspect is elaborated upon, after which some conclusions are drawn.
JNWSL 34/2 (2008) 99121

7 Hans-Georg von Mutius, Non-masoretic Texts from the Pentateuch in


the Midrash ha-Gadol
As the examples from the Midrash ha-Gadol discussed in this paper demonstrate, the text
of the Hebrew Bible remained in a certain condition of fluidity even several centuries after
the end of the activities of the masoretic scholars. Their efforts to unify the diversified
textual traditions, presumably as a political reaction to the foregoing unification of the
text of the Quran by the Muslim religious authorities, had only limited success. Old local
differences of Biblical texts within the different Jewish communities, being autonomous in
relationship to each other, could apparently not be swept away by the establishment of the
masoretic version, constituting in itself a mixtum compositum of variant readings affecting
also the consonantal part of the holy text.
SE 73 (2008) 2937

Greek (OT): general studies modern translations of the Septuagint Bible


8 Melvin K.H. Peters (ed.), XIII Congress of the International Organiza-
tion for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Ljubljana 2007
If there is a general message implied in the contributions to this volume, it is certainly this:
the Septuagint in many cases derives from a Hebrew Vorlage that is closer to the original
text than the Masoretic texts. The latter must be seen as a revision guided by theological
considerations. See the following papers specifically: Chr. Amphoux and A. Serandour,
La composition de Jrmie LXX daprs les divisions du Codex Vaticanus (pp. 321);
Philippe Hugo, The Jerusalem Temple seen in 2 Samuel according to the Masoretic Text
and the Septuagint (pp. 183196).
Septuagint and Cognate Studies 55; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) XI/1365
(BL)

9 Johann Cook, Translation Technique and the Reconstruction of Texts


This article argues that, because of the complicated history of origin and transmission
histories of texts, more avenues need to be pursued than only primary textual witnesses in
2
the task of textual criticism. It argues that the translation technique followed by individual
translators is basic to such endeavours. It uses the Septuagint version of Proverbs as a
case study and demonstrates that stylistic and translation technical considerations should
be taken into account in addition to, or in conjunction with, any hard textual evidence
in the reconstruction of texts.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 6168

10 Martin Karrer, Licht ber dem Galila der Vlker: Die Fortschreibung
von Jes 9,12 in der LXX
Die Prophetenbcher sind in der Septuaginta oft aktualisiert, d.h. mit Anwendung auf die
Zeit der bersetzung versehen. Im Falle von Jesaja 9 ist an die Mitte des 2. Jahrhunderts
v. Chr. zu denken, sptestens ca. 140 v. Chr. In Jesaja 9,821 wird (nach Auffassung der
bersetzer) Efraim/Samaria verworfen. Doch damit sind die Nordstmme nicht von Jeru-
salem abgeschnitten. Getragen von Gottes Handeln, knnen die Stmme des Nordens die
Meerstrae zur Strae nach Juda machen. ber diese Strae stellen sie in der Situation
des 2. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. ihre Verbindung zu Jerusalem her an Samaria vorbei.
WUNT 210; Jrgen Zangenberg et al. (eds.), Religion, Ethnicity and Identity in Ancient Galilee; Mohr
Siebeck, Tbingen (2007) 353 (BL)

11 Hans Debel, The Lord Looks at the Heart (1 Sam 16:7): 11QPsa 151
A-B as a Variant Literary Edition of Ps 151 LXX
While Ps 151 LXX is only a paraphrase of the events recounted in 1 Sam 1617 in
autobiographical style, a creative scribe has enriched its Vorlage with a midrash in Ps
151A of the 11QPsa scroll, emphasising that God does not judge man according to his
outward appearance, but according to his inner dedication, as it is exemplified in the
preference given to David over his brother. Most likely, both editions of Ps 151 are not
directly connected to each other, but ultimately depend on a common ancestor, which is
here termed edition n, indicating that this edition was not necessarily the first edition
of this psalm.
RdQ 23/4 (2008) 459473

12 Reinhart Ceulemans, The Onomastica Sacra: A Neglected Corpus of


Hexaplaric Data
Biblical textual critics have never systematically studied the onomastica sacra. Nevertheless
these etymological corpora deserve being studied, since they potentially contain a consid-
erable amount of Hexaplaric data. After all, although their aims and methods differed,
both the Jewish pre-Hexaplaric revisers and the Christian patristic and Byzantine exegetes
(the authors of the onomastica) sought to cope with problematic proper names. By study-
ing these names in the book of Canticles, this paper draws attention to the agreements
between the minor versions and the onomastica, in an attempt to stimulate scholarly interest
in the latter corpus. It is beyond doubt that the onomastica sacra can be useful in drawing
the picture of the Christian Nachleben of Hexaplaric variants, which in turn can help in
doing Hexaplaric textual criticism.
RB 115/3 (2008) 340359

13 Wolfgang Kraus et al. (eds.), Septuaginta Deutsch. Das griechische


Alte Testament in deutscher bersetzung
During the past two decades, it became increasingly clear to specialists that one should
produce translations of the Septuagint into modern languages. Older modern transla-
tions of the Septuagint existed only in English, but neither in German nor in French. By
now, there is a good English Septuagint (ed. by Albert Pietersma and B.G. Wright, 2007),
and a French Septuagint in progress (called La Bible dAlxandrie; only the Pentateuch is

3
available in completed form, 2001). The German Septuagint follows the Greek text of
the Rahlfs-Hanhart edition very closely (thus offering a working translation, rather than
a literary version), and, laudably, gives renderings of parallel Greek versions, e.g. in the
case of the book of Esther. Each biblical book is introduced by a brief summary of the
content and an evaluation of the relationship of the Greek text to the Hebrew parent
text. These introductions vary in their interpretive boldness. In the case of the Minor
Prophets, for instance, the lost Hebrew Vorlage is deemed superior and more original than
the Hebrew text; in the case of Jeremiah, no such claim is made (but could be made). To
the scholars delight, a maximalist rather than minimalist policy has led to the inclusion
of the Odes (an appendix to the Psalms) and the Psalms of Solomon. The translation is
annotated and strives for literal renderings. Essential for all scholarly libraries.
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart (2009) XXVIII/11507, maps (BL)

14 Dreifaltigkeitskloster Buchhagen (ed.), Die Psalmen deutsch. Buch-


hger Psalter. Aus der Septuaginta
This is a fresh translation of the Psalms on the basis of the Septuagint. Although meant
for use at the orthodox (Bulgarian) monastery in Buchhagen near Hameln, Germany, it will
also serve those who wish to read the psalms with an eye on the Greek version, which may
in a number of passages conserve a textual form that is more original than the Hebrew.
The reader will also be struck by the fact that the Greek Psalter has an additional psalm,
counted as Ps 151 and placed at the end. This apocryphal passage is not generally included
in modern translations of the Bible (though the German version of Paul Riessler may be
quoted as a notable exception). The well-produced book is available from Evangelisches
Vertriebshaus, Blumenstr. 76, D-04155 Leipzig.
Verlag des Klosters Buchhagen, Buchhagen (2008) 1284 (BL)

Greek (NT): editions manuscripts studies


15 Roderic R. Mullen (ed.), The Gospel according to John in the Byzantine
Tradition
The Byzantine textual tradition of the New Testament is represented by a large number of
manuscripts. For the present edition, the base text, printed above the scholarly apparatus,
is that of Coislin Gr. 199 = Gregory-Aland 35 (Bibliothque nationale, Paris; eleventh
century CE). Numerous other manuscripts have been compared, and all major variant
readings are indicated in the notes. Lectionaries and patristic quotations (especially John
Chrysostom) have also been used for the present edition. The edition was made at the
Centre for the Editing of Texts in Religion (now the Institute for Textual Scholarship and
Electronic Editing) at the University of Birmingham, England.
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart/Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass./Alban Books, Edinburgh
(2007) XLVIII/1273 (BL)

16 J. Harold Greenlee, The Text of the New Testament: From Manuscript


to Modern Edition
This is an elementary-level introduction to the manuscript tradition and textual criticism
of the New Testament, written by a senior scholar who made his dbut with A Concise
Exegetical Grammar of the New Testament (1953).
Henrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass./Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XII/1130 (BL)

17 James M. Robinson, Fragments from the Cartonnage of 75


75, an early third-century codex, consists of Bodmer Papyrus XIV and Bodmer Papyrus
XV and contains large portions of the gospels of Luke and John published in 1961. In the

4
summer of 1972 Kurt Aland and his text-critical team visited the Bibliothque Bodmer to
photograph both the papyri and the unplaced fragments, a number of which they identi-
fied and published in 1976. This essay supplements Alands list with other fragments not
available at that time, since they had been pasted together in parts of the cartonnage of
the leather cover of the codes containing 75. From this cartonnage eighteen new vari-
ants are counted, five from Luke (four agreeing with the critical text, one against it) and
thirteen from John (five agreeing with the critical text, eight against it).
HThR 101/2 (2008) 231252

18 Bart D. Ehrman, Whose Word Is It? The Story behind Who Changed
the New Testament and Why
Ehrmann is known in scholarly circles as a textual critic who, rather than merely trying
to recover the original reading, studies textual variation in manuscripts and its historical
background. The present book is a popular (though annotated and indexed) guide to
the forces that shaped the text of the Greek New Testament during its early manuscript
history.
Continuum International Publishing, London (2006) X/1242

19 Thomas A. Wayment, A New Transcription of P. Oxy. 2383 (69)


Although not listed in the critical apparatus of Luke 22:4144 in NA27, P. Oxy. 2383 (P69)
is an important early witness to the omission of these verses. Since the publication of the
editio princeps in 1957 of this small papyrus fragment, no new editions have appeared. In
light of recently completed images, this edition offers several significant new and improved
readings, while at the same time confirming that this fragment witnesses the omission of
Luke 22:4144. Based on the new images, it is also apparent that the fragment was subject
to subsequent scribal correction in at least two instances.
NT 50/4 (2008) 351357

20 Carl P. Cosaert, The Text of the Gospels in Clement of Alexandria


Clements gospel text reveals an Alexandrian influence in John and Matthew, and a stronger
Western influence in Luke and Mark 10. The textual form of the gospels in Alexandria
was in transition at the end of the second century.
The New Testament in the Greek Fathers 9; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008)
XIV/1370

21 J.K. Elliott, Manuscripts Cited by Stephanus


The third edition of Stephanus Greek New Testament (Paris 1550), known as the editio
regia, is held in high regard in English Protestantism. Unfortunately, there are some errors
in the translation of Stephanus sigla by the presently used system published by C.R.
Gregory. This paper provides a table giving the cross-references from Stephanus number
to the equivalent Gregory-Aland number, explicates the errors of the Gregory 1908 clas-
sification, and makes some remarks on Stephanus sources.
NTS 55/3 (2009) 390395

Early translations: Syriac Latin


22 Howard Jacobson, VL Deut. 4:24
Entgegen den Anmerkungen im TLL und der Beuron Edition der VL wurde fr den Aus-
druck verzehrendes Feuer in Dtn 4,24; 9,3 und Hebr 12,29 in der Vetus Latina Version
niemals ignis edax verwendet. Die von den beiden genannten Ausgaben eingerumte

5
Mglichkeit einer Verwendung dieses Ausdrucks an den genannten Stellen geht auf eine
fehlerhafte Wiedergabe des biblischen Textes durch Augustinus (und Evodius) zurck.
RB 14/1 (2007) 3031 (DL)

23 Massimo Pazzini et al., Il libro di Abacuc secondo la versione siriaca


(Peshitto)
In this article the fully vocalized Syriac text of the Prophet Habakkuk is published. In
previous issues of the review Liber Annuus the books of Amos, Jonah, Hosea and Micah
had already been published following the same method. All these contributions are freely
available on the internet.
LASBF 57 (2007) 163170

24 H.F. van Rooy, The Headings of the Psalms in the East Syriac Tradition
Reconsidered
In the first half of the previous century the headings of the Psalms in the East Syriac
tradition received a lot of attention, with important contributions by scholars such as
Devreesse and Vost. In 1960 Bloemendaal published an edition of these headings. Since
1960 a number of important new manuscripts became available, as well as a translation
of the commentary of Theodore and a translation of the commentary of Diodore on the
first fifty Psalms. This paper deals with the light shed on the history of the East Syrian
headings particularly by two manuscripts not available to Bloemendaal. The examples
discussed lead one to the conclusion that the Manuscript 6t1, used by Bloemendaal, must
not be regarded as the paradigmatic witness in all instances.
Bib. 89/4 (2008) 505525

25 H.A.G. Houghton, Augustines Text of John: Patristic Citations and Latin


Gospel Manuscripts
In his sermons, Augustine quotes the Bible mainly from memory. The present study shows
how he moved from earlier versions to Jeromes Vulgate. The effect of his use of the
new version on his mental text can be documented from readings included in sermons
delivered in 418 CE and later. The author prepares a new edition of John in the Vetus
Latina version.
Oxford Early Christian Studies; Oxford University Press, Oxford (2008) XII/1407

26 Herbert Migsch, Das unvollstndig negierte modale pseudo-konsekutive


Satzgefge in der Vulgata
In der hebrischen Bibel kommen 32 modal-explikative Verknpfungen vor, deren
Sachverhalt negiert ist. Bei 18 Stellen muss in der bersetzung im modal-explikativen
Gliedsatz ein Negationswort ergnzt werden. Hieronymus hat dreizehn der 18 negierten
modal-explikativen Verknpfungen insofern wrtlich bersetzt, als er die subordinierten
Stze durch die Subjunktion ut einleitete. Nach den Regeln der lateinischen Grammatik
aber htte er die subordinierten Stze durch ut non oder ne einleiten mssen, da die Sach-
verhalte negiert sind.
BN 139 (2008) 99105

Modern translations: general English French German


27 Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole, History and theory of Scripture translations
This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achieve-
ments and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes

6
its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the
LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Transla-
tions shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a
particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a particular translation.
The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the
transaction source-target is culturally handled. Some of these theoretical frames, namely
the functional equivalence, relevance, literary-functional equivalence and intercultural
mediation, are discussed. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible
translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 253266

28 Dietmar Neufeld (ed.), The Social Sciences and Biblical Translation


The adepts of the Mediterranean anthropology approach to biblical studies, a method
associated with names such as B. Malina, J.J. Pilch, and R.L. Rohrbaugh, explore the con-
tributions their method may make to biblical translation. One particularly striking example
is the contribution of J.H. Elliott who shows that God in the Bible is zealous or jealous,
but never envious (and some translations fail to distinguish between these words).
Symposium Series 41; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) IX/1188

29 Werner Klaiber, (Bibel-)bersetzen eine unmgliche Aufgabe?


Although this paper seeks to assess the merits and demerits of recent biblical translations
in German, there is a long introductory section (cols. 467480) that comments on recent
translation theory, especially on concepts of equivalence, the skopos theory of translation,
the functional approach.
Theologische Literaturzeitung 133/5 (2008) 467492 (BL)

30 Emil A. Wcela, What Is Catholic about a Catholic Translation of the


Bible?
The simple answer to the question posed in the title of this paper is that a Catholic
translation of the Bible is one that has the approval of a bishops conference or the Holy
See. The standard for approval will, of course, be fidelity to the original text. But, since
the main Catholic translation in the United States is also destined for use in liturgy, and
Vatican offices have the final word on the acceptability of a translation for the liturgy, two
conditions come into play: 1. Translations will be literal and not functional equivalence. 2.
Adjustments to achieve horizontal inclusive language will be used sparingly and to achieve
vertical inclusive language not at all.
CBQ 71/2 (2009) 247263

31 George Wesley Buchanan, Integrity in translating and editing


American translators and editors, Harold W. Attridge and Linda M. Maloney, of the
Hermeneia commentaries on Hebrews and First John have shown their discriminative
attitudes toward monasticism by distorting the Greek and German texts. Noting that
there was no mention of any female in the dramatis personae of either document, they
added feminine characters to the text and thereby changed the message to suit their own
political preferences. Scholars should object strenuously to this misrepresentation of the
Scripture.
RB 115/1 (2008) 4955

7
32 R. Daniel Shaw, Of Grass, Food, and Hospitality: The Role of cognitive
Studies in the Translation/Communication Task
This paper explores the development of cognitive studies (as approached by anthropology,
linguistics and psychology) as it relates to the theory and practice of the translation of
Scripture. Key contributions of this developing field include methodological approaches and
greater theoretical insight to prototype theory, schema, conceptual blending, the concept
of meaning, computational approaches, and discourse analysis. This article applies these
insights to translation illustrated by a case study from the Samo translation of Matthew
14:1321. The article concludes by recognising that, while complex, the objective of
translation is relevant communication that people are able to apply to daily living.
Scriptura 96 (2007) 501522

33 S.V. Coertze, The African agent discovered: The recognition and involve-
ment of the African biblical interpreter in Bible translation
This article explores the extent to which the role of the African biblical interpreter is
acknowledged in the process of Bible translation, as the Bible and Bible translation form
an important part of the establishment of the African church. The author points out that
even though foreign discovery of African agency in Bible translation is evident, indigenous
discovery of the same is largely absent. The African biblical interpreter can bring a unique
contribution to the process of Bible translation that could even have impact on translations
done outside of the African context.
Verbum et Ecclesia 29/1 (2008) 7790

34 Sol Scharfenstein, Torah and Commentary: The Five Books of


Moses
This is a complete new English translation of the Pentateuch, accompanied by interpretive
notes that often refer to traditional Jewish commentaries. Some examples of the translation:
At the beginning Elohim created the cosmos, which included planet Earth. The earth was
shapeless and empty, with darkness on the face of the waters, and life-giving winds from
Elohim whooshed over the surface of the water (Gen 1,12). Cut down their goddess
Asherah trees (Exod 34:14). The translation is often interpretive rather than literal. This
work is the fruit of an amateur scholar born in 1923.
Ktav Publishing House, Jersey City, N.J. (2008) 1569

35 Roger L. Omanson et al., A Handbook on 12 Kings


Bound in two volumes with continuing pagination, this work is meant for the hand of
those who wish to have a guide when producing new translations of biblical books in
minority languages. Two English translations for the basis: the Revised Standard Version
(literal) and the Good News Translation (dynamic). Text-linguistic issues are discussed at
the beginning, names of ancient Israelite and Judaean kings are listed at the end, and
illustrations are scattered through the pages (pp. 148, 175, 322, etc.). Textual problems are
discussed in a non-technical way. This most helpful scholarly resource often comes close
to a being a textual commentary. It includes a glossary and an index.
United Bible Societies. Handbook Series; United Bible Societies, New York (2008) XI/11420

36 V. George Shillington, Examples of Variants in the KJV that Lack


Support
The King James Version lacks manuscript support in the following passages: John 7:538:11
(the adulterous woman passage), Mark 16:920; 1 John 5:78; Luke 2:14; Col 1:14;

8
doxology of Romans (Rom 16:24). See also: V.G. Shillington, Reading the Sacred Text,
London 2002, 161163.
V.G. Shillington, The New Testament in Context; T & T Clark, London (2008) 301303 (BL)

37 Roger Tomes, Scripture its Own Commentator: a History of English


Cross-Reference Bibles
The history of English cross-reference Bibles is traced from its beginnings with Tyndale
and Coverdale, through successive editions of the King James Bible, to the compilation
published with the Revised Version in 1898, on which the recent NRSV cross-reference
edition is based. Some independent (and idiosyncratic) compilers are looked at on the way,
and some hesitations about the value of cross-references are discussed.
ET 119/10 (2008) 487494

38 James Clifton, A Lutheran Image on the Title-Page of the Last Bible


without a Confessional Label
La Saincte Bible published by Martin Lempereur in Antwerp in 1530 has been called the last
Bible to be published without a confessional label. But its title-page carries an allegorical
scene that derives from Lucas Cranach compositions, usually called Law and Grace, that
are specifically Lutheran. Lempereur reused the image on his second edition of La Saincte
Bible and a Latin Bible, both published in 1534; only these later editions were proscribed
in the Indexes of Leuven and Antwerp, apparently because of their paratextual mate-
rial rather than the title-page image. As inoffensive as Lempereurs 1530 Bible may have
been to the authorities, its title-page allegory may have stimulated illicit discussion among
laypersons in conventicles.
EThL 84/1 (2008) 6986

39 Yohanan Elihai, Tora ou Torah? Ou du bon usage du H final


Angesichts eines vermehrten Aufkommens von Schlusskonsonanten in der Schreibweise
hebrischer Begriffe mit h am Ende des jeweiligen Wortes (z.B. Torah, Mishnah, Shoah
etc.) in franzsischer Literatur pldiert der Verf. fr einen sorgfltigen Umgang mit
diesem Phnomen. Das Schluss-H sollte nur dann ausgeschrieben werden, wenn es in
der Ausgangssprache stimmvoll (z.B. Psah, Zerah) bzw. betont (z.B. Govah, halelu-yah)
ist. Worte mit stimmlosen h wie Tora, Mishna, Haggada sollten hingegen wie in vielen
anderen bekannten Fllen (Medina, Fatima, Gaza etc.) ohne das Schluss-H ins Franzsi-
sche bertragen werden.
RB 115/4 (2008) 613615 (DL)

40 Ulrich Oelschlger, Die Wormser Propheten von 1527. Eine vorluther-


ische Teilbersetzung der Bibel
Luther war nicht der erste! Im Frhjahr 1527 entstand in Worms die erste reforma-
torische bersetzung der Prophetenbcher des AT ins Deutsche. Ihre Verfasser waren
die Spiritualisten Hans Denck und Ludwig Htzer. Innerhalb eines Jahres erfuhren die
Wormser Propheten zehn Druckauflagen. Luther, dessen Prophetenbersetzung 1532
erschien und der ebenso wie Zwingli die Wormser Prophetenbersetzung hin und wieder
zu Rate gezogen hat, anerkannte den Flei der bersetzer, verwarf ihre Arbeit aber,
da Juden dabei gewest seien. Dieser Aufsatz gibt einen Einblick in die Methoden und
Probleme frher evangelischer Bibelbersetzung und in die Anliegen und Leistungen der

9
sogenannten radikalen Reformatoren. Besondere Bercksichtigung ist der Frage nach
jdischer Mitwirkung eingerumt.
ThZ 64/2 (2008) 169198

41 Werner Besch, Deutscher Bibelwortschatz in der frhen Neuzeit. Auswahl


Abwahl Veralten
This is a collection of 16 research papers on the language of early-modern German
biblical translations and their vocabulary, with particular emphasis on defunct words
or words no longer understood. Several papers have never been published before. One
contribution deals with the history of the Zurich Bible and its shift from Swiss German
to modern high German; another one is on the German Bible of the Strasbourg-born
Johan Piscator (15461626). This is a valuable resource for the study of neglected aspects
of German biblical translation.
Peter Lang Verlag, Bern (2008) 1277 (BL)

42 Michael Hartmann, Die Stuttgarter Konkordanz zur Einheitsbersetzung


Die vorliegende, graphisch ansprechend gestaltete Konkordanz erschliet die deutsche
Einheitsbersetzung (1980) durch etwa 1200 Stichworte. Wie eine frhere Konkordanz
zur Einheitsbersetzung (erstellt von Franz Joseph Schierse, erweiterte Auflage 1996)
ist auch die vorliegende nicht vollstndig, sondern als reprsentative Auswahl angelegt.
Gerne gebraucht man diesen (im Unterschied zur frheren Konkordanz kleinformatigen)
Helfer auch im Zeitalter digitaler Bibeln, die zur Textsuche natrlich vielseitigere Hilfe
versprechen. Aber wer in Ruhe in der Bibel lesen will, greift doch nach wie vor am lieb-
sten zu einer gedruckten Konkordanz im handlichen Format einer Bibelausgabe. Sehr
empfehlenswert.
Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart (2009) 1768 (BL)

43 Gerd Ldemann et al. (translators), Arbeitsbersetzung des Neuen


Testaments
In an age in which official and semi-official versions of the New Testament tend to loose
philological accuracy due to political correctness, ideas about gender etc., philologists
come up with their own, more conservative versions, of which the present book is a good
example. Two additional features strike the reader: the typographical marking of certain
words, esp. repeatedly used one, to alert the reader to the inner structure of a passage; the
relegation of a number of secondary passages to the notes (for instance Matth 16:2b.3;
Luke 17:36; 22:4344; Rom 16:2427). German theology students will use this transla-
tion along with the Greek text, in preference to versions that are meant for liturgical and
catechetical purposes. The only problematic aspect of the book is that it is produced as a
simple paperback, and as such is likely to disintegrate after a few days of use.
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gttingen (2008) 1567 (BL)

10
THEOLOGICAL AND EXEGETICAL APPROACHES

Theological Foundations

Inspiration authority canon (OT, NT) canonical criticism


44 Saskia Wendel, Die Bibel Gottes Wort im Zeugnis der Menschen
Bibelhermeneutisch wird zwischen Bibelfundamentalismus auf der einen und Bibelrelati-
vismus auf der anderen Seite der Wahrheitsanspruch der Bibel in ihrer metaphorischen
und analogen Rede von Gott behauptet. Wahr sind die Aussagen der Bibel, wenn sie in
ihrer Interpretation vernnftig zu rechtfertigen sind und so lebenspraktisch zu berzeugen
vermgen im Blick auf die menschliche Frage nach einer Hoffnung fr die Welt.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 285288 (CB)

45 Peter Barnes, Review Article: The Divine Spiration of Scripture. By


A.T.B. McGowan (Nottingham: Apollos, 2007), 229pp.
This paper presents and criticizes Andrew McGowans work on Scripture, especially his
view of inerrancy. His new terms used to describe the authority of the Bible like spira-
tion or authenticity can not solve any difficulties while opening the door to doctrinal and
ethical waywardness. In the end McGowan is left to wander in a no-mans land between
inerrancy and errancy, formally denying both, but without a compass to his epistemologi-
cal Promised Land (156).
RTR 67/3 (2008) 149156 (DL)

46 Gonzalo Aranda Prez, Inspiracin: autor, libro, lector-oyente como


inspirados. Implicaciones teolgicas
This article aims to show how the concept of Biblical inspiration encompasses the action
of the Spirit of God: a) upon the books authors; b) in the books themselves, insofar as
they are received by the Church as inspired books, and c) upon the readers-listeners of
those books as Sacred Scripture and word of God. In this sense, the orientations of Dei
Verbum, the Pontifical Biblical Commissions document on The Interpretation of the Bible
in the Church (1993) and some contributions of recent authors are taken into account.
The conclusion is that the action of the Holy Spirit in the three aforementioned moments
enters within the process of Biblical inspiration. This inspiration is geared towards the
communication of Gods word through a written text which becomes a living voice in the
present time. The comprehension and actualization of the Bible at different moments form
part of the word of God which is transmitted in Tradition together with Scripture.
EstE 325 (2008) 271304

47 Vicente Vide Rodrguez, La verdad contenida en la Biblia: en qu


consiste y en qu estratos del lenguaje se encuentra
Dei Verbum surpasses the concept of truth understood as historical accuracy of the narration,
which was the ideal of the historiography developed in the later 19th century. The truth
of Scripture is oriented toward salvation. Taking as starting point the unity of Scripture
(DV 12) and the whole Truth of the Mystery of God manifest in Jesus Christ, it is possible
to access to the truth of each sacred book. Compared with Christ, the complete Truth,
all fragments of truth as found in every biblical text are relative and receive their precise
value. In Scripture truth is presented and enunciated in diverse ways. The truth of biblical
expressions consists of the correspondence between the communicative intention of the

11
human author and the communicative intention of God. Truth as contained in Scripture
consists of the Revelation of God as Word.
EstE 325 (2008) 305328

48 Stefan Schorch, Communio lectorum


(1) Texts in the ancient Near East were meant to support memory, and they were transmit-
ted within the class of scribes (David Carr). (2) Textualization of Israelite religion began
with Deuteronomy and public recitation. (3) We know little about the emergence of a
Judaism that came to be a community of readers. The theory that the temple library of
Jerusalem played a pivotal role in the process is uncertain, for we know very little about
its existence (2 Macc 2:1314 does not seem to reflect historical reality).
FAT 62; Joachim Schaper (ed.), Die Textualisierung der Religion; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2009)
167184 (BL)

49 K.L. Noll, Was There Doctrinal Dissemination in Early Yahweh Religion?


Recent research on scribal practice demonstrates that the scrolls of the Jewish canon
were produced by a tiny elite class who did not attempt to disseminate the contents of
the scrolls to the largely illiterate Hebrew-speaking peoples. However, the Bible contains
a number of passages that describe or command dissemination of their contents (e.g.,
Deut. 31:1013), as well as stories about individuals who try to influence common religious
belief and practice (e.g., 1 Kings 18:1740). These biblical commandments and stories
frequently persuade researchers that something like a doctrinal dissemination must
have been common among pre-Hellenistic Yahwists. Recent research by anthropologists
observing processes of religious dissemination is pertinent to this question, calls common
assumptions about dissemination into question, and supports the recent conclusions about
Hebrew scribal practice.
BI 16/5 (2008) 395427

50 James Alfred Loader, Die Problematik des Begriffes hebraica veritas


Proceeding from the importance of the concept of hebraica veritas in terms of both its
original intention and of the opposing positions on Holy Scripture entertained by the
Roman Catholic tradition and the emerging Protestant views during the Reformation, a
brief discussion of the meaning and early context of the concept is given. The formal
problematic of the hebraica veritas as found in the Tanak is addressed vis--vis its latinised
version in the Greek text tradition. Jeromes use of the concept is analysed on the basis
of his textual justification for it. Pneumatological and salvation-historical dimensions are
identified, and the function of the concept as self-identification over against Judaism is
discussed, as well as its implications for delimiting the canon. It is concluded that the
concept needs to be foregrounded anew in light of its significant impact in the context
of accounting for the concepts of Holy Scripture, canon and therefore canon-based
endeavours to construe a biblical theology of the whole Bible.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 227252

51 Lee Martin McDonald, Ancient Biblical Manuscripts and the Biblical


Canon
The author looks at three sources that can be used as evidence about the origin and
stabilization of the New Testament canon: the codex manuscripts and the writings that
they included; the textual forms found in these manuscripts; and translations of the Bible.
Among the many insights of the author, the following ones merit quoting: only one NT
book the book of Revelation was written with the aim of producing a sacred book;

12
the Greek translation of the Old Testament owes its existence not to Jewish, but to pagan
initiative (Nina Collins); the churchs earliest beliefs developed without the aid of complete
or carefully copied or translated NT manuscripts.
Gerbern S. Oegema et al. (eds.), The Pseudepigrapha and Christian Origins; T & T Clark International,
London (2008) 255281 (BL)

52 Daniel Stkl Ben Ezra, Canonization a Non-Linear Process? Observ-


ing the Process of Canonization through the Christian (and Jewish) Papyri
from Egypt
Apocryphal writings seem to have been copied less and less over the early-Christian centu-
ries. However, this decline is not a linear process. The Shepherd of Hermas, for instance
is an exception to the rule, for this work remained popular until the fourth century. And
interest in Old Testament apocrypha increases in the fourth century.
ZAC 12/2 (2008) 193214 (BL)

53 Paul Hartog, Polycarp, Ephesians, and Scripture


In his 1983 WBC study of 2 Peter, R.J. Bauckham listed some possible early indication
of NT texts as being called graphai, including Polycarps Phil 12.1 (a citation of Ps 4:5
and Eph 4:26 as these scriptures). A majority of scholars in the field of early Christian
studies, however, challenged Bauckhams thesis, that Polycarps Philippians refers to a text
from Ephesians as scripture. This article re-examines this issue and argues that scholar-
ship should, in fact, be open to this distinct possibility. Along the way, the author elongates
Bauckhams list of other possible early designations of NT documents as scripture.
WThJ 70/2 (2008) 255275

54 Olivier-Thomas Venard, Dans toutes les critures ce qui le concernait


(Lc 24,27). Une approche historico-christique du canon biblique
After so many studies concerning the inclusion or exclusion of any given book in the biblical
canon have been written, the cultural, political, doctrinal, and ecclesiastic circumstances
surrounding the definition of the biblical corpus are more and more known. The risk today
is to reduce the closure of the canon to a juridical or disciplinary decision exterior to the
content of the Book. 1.) Employing contemporary studies of the beginnings of the word
about Jesus, the author describes here the formation and development of the Christian
canonical dynamics starting from the Jewish idea of the canon and the Jewish practice
of the fulfilment of the Scriptures. 2.) He then (see 2nd part) describes some poetic
devices that result from this and which make the canonized Bible a profoundly unified
book. 3.) He suggests finally that the ecclesiastical usage of the Word can be understood
as the reception required by this poetics.
RB 115/3 (2008) 396420; 115/4 (2008) 516545

55 Thomas OLoughlin, Inventing the Apocrypha: The Role of Early Latin


Canon Lists
The Western churches have long had disagreements as to what books form the canon of
the Old Testament, and, therefore, which books can be used in theological argument. This
article argues that this dispute is itself a function of earlier disputes in the late patristic and
early medieval periods, and explores how the solution to those disputes left a legacy of
confusion that fuelled the Reformation and later debates. This exploration is focused on the
canon listings that were produced as part of the patristic and early medieval debates.
IThQ 74/1 (2009) 5374

13
56 Hubert Frankemlle, Methodik und Hermeneutik. Anfragen an die
kanonische Exegese
Angesichts des biblischen Methodenpluralismus setzt sich der Verf. kritisch und differenziert
mit dem vergleichsweise jungen Ansatz der kanonischen Exegese auseinander. Er weist
auf die Ungenauigkeiten des Begriffs kanonisch genauso hin wie auf die Schwierigkei-
ten, die mit einem zu scharf formulierten Spannungsverhltnis von historisch-kritischer
und kanonischer Exegese einhergehen, und thematisiert die Problematik einer erst zum
Kanon gewordenen Schriftensammlung im Verhltnis zur Lesart der neutestamentlichen
Autoren, aber auch zu canones unterschiedlichen Umfangs. Schlielich tritt der Verf. fr
eine Multiperspektivitt in der Hermeneutik und einen Pluralismus in der methodischen
Erschlieung ein, in den die kanonische Exegese eingeschlossen ist, jedoch noch einer
hermeneutischen Klrung bedarf.
Thomas Schmeller (Hg.), Neutestamentliche Exegese im 21. Jahrhundert. Grenzberschreitungen; Verlag
Herder, Freiburg (2008) 1132 (EB)

57 Georg Steins, Kanonisch-intertextuelle Studien zum Alten Testament


Steins feels that the primary focus of exegetical work on social and religious history should
at least be supplemented, if not overruled, by a canonical and intertextual reading to which
he is committed. The present volume reprints eighteen papers that explain, defend, and
apply the canonical approach.
SBAB 48; Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart (2009) 1304

58 Egbert Ballhorn et al. (eds.), Der Bibelkanon in der Bibelauslegung.


Methodenreflexion und Beispielexegesen
Eight papers discuss the project and problem of canonical exegesis which currently is
considered the leading paradigm of theological interpretation. Another set of papers,
thirteen in number, offer case studies of passages from both testaments.
Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2007) 1347

Hermeneutics Methods

Biblical interpretation in general: manuals basic perspectives individual


problems
59 W. Randolph Tate, Biblical Interpretation: An Integrated Approach
This is the third, expanded edition of a work first published in 1991. Tate distinguishes
three approaches: those that study the world behind the text (the cultural background,
essentially social-scientific criticism, but also source criticism as the study of earlier forms
of biblical books such as the Yahwist); the world within the text (the study of genres,
redactional techniques); and the world in front of the text (i.e., our world reader-
response criticism, feminist criticism, and the like). One chapter shows how the gospel of
Mark generates meaning, e.g. through literary allusions. A guide through the jungle of
methodologies and what they achieve.
Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass./Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XIX/1380 (BL)

60 Michala Bauks et al. (eds.), Manuel dexgse de lAncien Testament


This multi-authored introduction to the analysis of Old Testament texts is committed
to the historical-critical approach and relies on the close reading of individual passages
chosen for the problems they pose or the plausibility of exegetical results. The chapter
on narrative analysis is by Jean-Pierre Sonnet.
Le Monde de la Bible 61; Labor et Fides, Genve (2008) 1236 (BL)
14
61 Klaus Wengst, Geschichte(n) und Wahrheit. Anmerkungen zum biblischen
Wirklichkeitsverstndnis
Gegenber dem griechischen Wahrheitsverstndnis und Gottesbild, wie es im Protest des
Kelsos gegen Juden und Christen hervortritt, wird das biblische Zusammendenken von
Gott und Geschichte an der historisch nicht identifizierbaren Geschichte vom Durchzug
durchs Schilfmeer und ihrer jdischen Rezeption gezeigt. Das lsst nach der Leistung von
Wundergeschichten in jdischer und neutestamentlicher Tradition fragen: Sie bestreiten
die Totalitt der Realitt. Mit Hilfe einer rabbinischen Diskussion ber Ez 37 wird das
Zeugnis von der historisch ebenfalls nicht identifizierbaren Auferweckung Jesu und
das Erzhlen von ihr als wirkliches Gleichnis und wahre Geschichte verstanden und
von daher ein Blick auf die Nutz- und Fruchtlosigkeit historischer Jesusforschung gewor-
fen sowie auf die Bedeutung dessen, dass die Grundgeschichte des Neuen Testaments
vierfach erzhlt wird.
EvTh 68/3 (2008) 178192

62 J. Cilliers, Skrifbeskouing en Skrifhantering: perspektiewe op n herme-


neutiek van verwagting
In this article the intrinsic relationship between the Bible readers views on and their use
of scripture is proposed. This relationship is described in terms of two basic components
of the reformed understanding of scripture, namely the accommodative and performative
nature thereof. This is followed by an exposition of two fundamental misunderstandings
pertaining to the abovementioned components as well as some suggestions for the profiling
of a hermeneutics of expectancy.
Verbum et Ecclesia 29/1 (2008) 6276

63 Francisco Ramrez Fueyo, Cmo interpretar el texto bblico? Viejos y


nuevos itinerarios para una exgesis actual y actualizada
Because of the great diversity of exegetical methods and biblical reading proposals, confu-
sion and criticisms arouse at very different levels. This article reviews briefly the history
that lead to the acceptance of the historical-critical methods in the Catholic Church, shows
their main values as well as their weak points, and explains how they are nowadays still
in good health. Other methods of biblical interpretation are explained that aim to fill
precisely the gaps left by the formers.
EstE 325 (2008) 329370

64 Gnter Rhser, Von der Welt hinter dem Text zur Welt vor dem Text.
Tendenzen der neueren Exegese
Es ist kaum zu bestreiten, dass die neuere Exegese den Schwerpunkt ihres Interesses von
der historisch-diachronen Rckfrage (Welt hinter dem Text) auf die ganzheitlich-synchrone
Textinterpretation (Welt vor dem Text) verlagert hat. Der vorliegende Beitrag fragt nach den
Ursachen dieser Entwicklung (inner- wie auertheologisch), stellt die einzelnen Forschungs-
richtungen und Fragestellungen im berblick vor (u.a. auch Intertextualittsforschung und
kanonische Auslegung) und versucht eine Beurteilung. Besondere Bedeutung kommt dabei
neueren rezeptionssthetischen Anstzen zu; diese sollten jedoch kein Grund fr einen
Paradigmenwechsel hin zu einer einseitigen Leserorientierung in der biblischen Exegese
sein. Letztere hat vielmehr auch weiterhin die Aufgabe, nach dem stabilen Sinnkern
von Texten und der von einem historischen Autor jeweils intendierten Sinnbildung durch
und innerhalb eines Textes zu fragen.
ThZ 64/3 (2008) 271293

15
65 Steven G. Smith, What is Scripture? Pursuing Smiths Question
In What Is Scripture? (Minneapolis 1993) Wilfred Cantwell Smith called for a new conception
of scripture that is fully historical and comparative and that anchors religious meaning in
the personal acts of relating to the divine rather than in texts as such. He also proposed
thinking of scripture as a primary mode of human language alongside prose and poetry.
This essay fills in Smiths indeterminate conception by defining scripture as a sovereignly
authoritative sacred book-like text or text collection. The essay also points out powers of
directive language that reach a maximum in scripture so understood: addressing articu-
lately the most basic question of how persons shall be guided, offering the most usefully
comprehensive array of types of guidance, and sponsoring the richest interpretive discus-
sion and most rewarding implementation of ultimate practical norms. In all these respects
scripture plays a crucial role in the historic maturation of direction-setting that Habermas
has called the linguistification of the sacred.
AThR 90/4 (2008) 753775

66 H.C. van Zyl, Reading the New Testament from a theological perspective
This article argues that, from the perspective of the faith community, it is not enough
to read the Bible only from a technical point of view; a theological perspective is also
required. Subsequently the article deals with what a theological reading entails: A reader-
oriented and a text-orientated view are presented.
ATh 28/2 (2008) 133145

67 Ludger Schwienhorst-Schnberger, Die Einheit der Schrift ist ihr geisti-


ger Sinn. Ein Beitrag in der Reihe Die Bibel unter neuen Blickwinkeln
Ein Blick in die Auslegungsgeschichte zeigt, dass die sogenannten Widersprche der Bibel,
die bei einem rein wrtlichen Verstndnis irritieren mgen, auf einer tieferen Ebene des
Verstehens zu einer Einheit konvergieren. Die Vielstimmigkeit der Schrift ergibt sich aus
der Vielzahl der Zeugen, ihre Einheit aus jener Wirklichkeit, die sie bezeugen. Die Wirk-
lichkeit, die sie bezeugen, ist eine, aber sie zeigt sich von verschiedenen Seiten und wird
von kulturell und biographisch unterschiedlichen geformten Subjekten vernommen.
BiKi 63/3 (2008) 179183

68 Richard Elliott Friedman, Ancient Biblical Interpreters vs. Archaeology


& Modern Scholars
Dieser Artikel ist eine Rezension des 2007 erschienenen Buches von James L. Kugel
mit dem Titel How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Now. Das Werk wird
zunchst gewrdigt als ein auergewhnlicher Versuch, eine auf Prinzipien moderner
wissenschaftlicher Bibelforschung und in Anerkennung gegenwrtiger archologischer
Erkenntnisse etablierte Hermeneutik der Bibel durch einen orthodoxen Juden den Autor
des Buches- zu begrnden. Das Halten an nachweisbar als falsch erwiesenen Vorstellungen
der Auslegungstradition ohne schlssige Erklrung dafr lsst jedoch diesen Versuch als
gescheitert erscheinen. Besonders negativ fllt die Gleichsetzung des Judentums mit dem
orthodoxen Judentum an einigen Stellen des Buches auf.
BAR 34/1 (2008) 6267 (DL)

69 Thomas Hieke, Alles Auslegungssache. Methodisch-hermeneutische Erw-


gungen zur Kontextualisierung biblischer Auslegung
The experiences of everyday life teach that communication is a matter of interpretation.
As God communicates the divine revelation through human beings, the words of God,
expressed in human language, always need interpretation, exegesis. The understanding
of biblical texts, however, is fostered by contextualization, i.e., by including the context of

16
the Bible itself, the history of its reception, and the belief of the community of faith and
practice in the present. In this process the scholarly analysis of the biblical texts in Old
Testament exegesis is not an end in itself, but it also cultivates life in a variety of aspects.
Finally, one must emphasize that in view of the many dimensions of contextualization the
mission of biblical exegesis is basically unaccomplished.
BN 140 (2009) 95110

70 Ernest van Eck, Een teks meerdere betekenisse: Hoe lees ons die
Bybel?
This article discusses three ways of reading the Bible that are evident in the current
theological debate in South Africa: a fundamentalist, foundationalist and critical reading.
A brief description and evaluation of the three reading strategies are given. It is indicated
that a fundamentalist reading of the Bible essentially operates with a canon in the canon,
and a foundationalist reading with a canon outside the canon. A critical reading, which
roots can be traced back to the Reformation, is put forward as possibly a more responsible
way of reading the Biblical text, especially since it takes cognizance of the historical and
cultural distance between text and reader. It is argued that readers who take this dif-
ferentness seriously, are enabled to read the Bible afresh and anew, especially in terms
of some burning ethical questions of the present time. Attention is also given to a critical
reading of metaphorical language of the Bible.
HTS 64/3 (2008) 11551185

71 Christian Schramm, Wenn zwei einen Text lesen . . . Alltgliches Bibel-


verstehen empirisch untersucht
Der eindeutige Befund dieser empirischen Untersuchung von Alltagsexegesen ist, dass
sich jede Gruppe entsprechend ihrem Orientierungsrahmen einen eigenen virtuellen Text
zusammenbastelt, wobei teilweise methodisch vorgegangen wird. Die Kenntnis solcher
Orientierungsrahmen und Verstehenshorizonte hlt der Verf. auch fr die wissenschaftliche
Exegese zwecks Vermittlung ihrer Erkenntnisse fr unverzichtbar.
BiKi 64/2 (2009) 114118

72 Lukas Bormann, Kulturwissenschaft und Exegese. Gegenwrtige


Geschichtsdiskurse und die biblische Geschichtskonzeption
Die wissenschaftstheoretischen Entwicklungen in den Geisteswissenschaften ntigen die
Exegese zu einer neuen Grundlagenreflexion. Die kulturwissenschaftliche Neuorientierung
(cultural turn) fordert eine mehrperspektivische, nicht-zentristische und post-ontologische
Geisteswissenschaft. Kennzeichen einer kulturwissenschaftlichen Exegese sind reflektierte
Perspektivitt, ein ethnographischer Blick und die Kreativitt der Fragestellung. Diese
Neuausrichtung hat sich gegen die herkmmlichen wissenschaftlichen Autorittsdiskurse
durchzusetzen, soll aber das bisherige Niveau wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens nicht unterschrei-
ten. Das wissenssoziologisch fundierte Konzept des Gegenhorizonts nimmt berlegungen
des Kulturvergleichs auf und berwindet Beschrnkungen der Forschungsperspektive, wie
sie noch die neuesten Forschungen zum rmisch dominierten Iudaea (Bernett, Eck) bela-
sten. Schlielich wird die biblische Narration kulturwissenschaftlich erschlossen, indem die
biblische Geschichtskonzeption (Freedman: primary history) vor den Gegenhorizont der
rabbinischen Geschichtskonzeption (Neusner: paradigmatic history) gestellt wird.
EvTh 69/3 (2009) 166185

17
73 Richard A. Burridge, Being Biblical? Slavery, sexuality, and the inclusive
community
The use of the Bible in ethical debate has been central for the last two millennia. Current
debates about sexuality, or the position of women in church leadership, are marked by
both, or all, sides of the argument using Scripture. However, this has been true of many
issues in the past. This is demonstrated in the debate about slavery two hundred years
ago. Careful analysis of the use of the Scripture in both the justification and critique of
apartheid reveals how both sides quoted Scripture in its various modes, such as rules,
principles, paradigms, and overall world-view. The biographical nature of the Gospels
means that one must set Jesus rigorous ethical teaching in the context of the narrative
of his deeds, including his open and welcoming acceptance of all people.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 155174

Historical-critical methods
74 Jrgen Kgler, Entweihung der Schrift? Die bleibende Provokation der
historisch-kritischen Bibelwissenschaft
Das Thema wird in folgenden Abschnitten entfaltet: Historische Grnde fr die Entstehung
der historisch-kritischen Exegese; Ist die historische Kritik heute noch aktuell?; Entweihung
der Schrift als geistliche Aufgabe der Bibelwissenschaft?; Die Texte vor den Lesenden
schtzen?; Neue Wege der Bibelwissenschaft. Die Bezeichnung historisch-kritisch wird
in der heutigen Bibelwissenschaft nicht mehr oft verwendet. Die historische Frage gilt als
berschaubares Teilgebiet; der grte Teil der Arbeit gilt dem rechten Verstndnis der
Texte, d.h. der philologischen und interpretatorischen Erschlieung.
Theologisch-praktische Quartalschrift 157/2 (2009) 146153 (BL)

75 Olivier-Thomas Venard (d.), Le sens littral des Ecritures


Les treize contributions de ce livre collectif, crites par des membres ou invits de lEcole
biblique de Jrusalem, portent sur le sens littral, expression de la tradition catholique
qui veut dire sens historique originaire. Les mthodes de recherche, leurs difficults et
leurs limites sont bien prsentes dans les articles de Francolino Gonalves et dEtienne
Nodet. Dautres spcialistes voquent des uvres exgtiques dOrigne, dAugustin, de
Jrme et mme de Paul Claudel.
LeDiv; Editions du Cerf, Paris (2009) 1362 (BL)

76 Jrn Varhaug, Den formkritiske bibelforskning hundre r etter


Form Criticism as a methodology has now been used in historically oriented biblical
exegesis for a century. In this article there is a historical presentation of this methodol-
ogy, an application of some concepts from it on Psalm 13, and a short discussion of
the change in mood at the end of this psalm. There are at least three serious objections
to the way this methodology has been carried out. But taken these into consideration,
there is general agreement among scholars that this methodology has given very fruitful
contributions. The author claims that in contemporary historical exegesis the analysis of
genre and practical use of texts is still crucial in biblical studies whether the methodology
is labelled form-criticism or given another name.
TTK 79/34 (2008) 213233

18
77 Michael Theobald, Offen dialogisch (selbst-)kritisch. Die grundlegende
Bedeutung historisch-kritischen Arbeitens fr die theologische Auslegung
des Neuen Testaments
Angesichts der immer feineren historischen Differenzierungen der Wirklichkeit hinter den
biblischen Texten durch die literarische Kritik wird in jngerer Zeit Unbehagen laut, das
dem Wunsch entspringt, in der biblischen Vielfalt, die orientierungslos machen knne,
wieder der Einheit der Schrift zu begegnen, in den vielen Worten dem einen Gotteswort,
das die Hrer der Schrift unmittelbar angehe. Dieser Beitrag dreht sich daher um die Frage
nach der Einheit der Schrift, insofern diese, recht verstanden, historisch-kritischer Arbeit
unter den Bedingungen der Moderne gleichfalls theologische Dignitt verleiht.
BiKi 63/4 (2008) 240245

Sociology anthropology psychology


78 Gerd Theien, Kulturanthropologie ein Korrektiv der Kulturtheologie?
Zur theologischen Bedeutung kulturanthropologischer Exegese
Der Aufsatz zeigt drei Entwicklungen auf, die zur Aufwertung des Kulturbegriffs in
der gegenwrtigen Theologie gefhrt haben: Am wichtigsten ist die Entstehung einer
modernen Kulturtheologie, die nach Evidenzquellen des Glaubens auerhalb der Bibel
in Kunst, Natur und Spiritualitt sucht. Hinzu kommt die allgemeine kulturelle Wende
in den Geisteswissenschaften, die auch die Religionswissenschaft erfasst hat, so dass sie
sich heute als Kulturwissenschaft von der Theologie abgrenzt. Die kulturanthropologische
Exegese bildet in dieser Situation ein notwendiges Korrektiv zur Kulturtheologie. Sie legt
Seiten des Urchristentums frei, mit denen es schon in der antiken Welt ein Fremdkrper
war. Erst recht erinnert sie heute an sperrige Erfahrungen, die nicht in die Kultur der
Kulturtheologie passen.
EvTh 68/6 (2008) 405414

79 Bernhard Lang, Von der kriegerischen zur nativistischen Kultur. Das alte
Israel im Lichte der Kulturanthropologie
Welche Ergebnisse eine an Sozial- und Kulturanthropologie orientierte Exegese erzielen
kann, wird in zwei Skizzen gezeigt, die uns das ltere Israel als kriegerische Kultur und
das klassische Israel der Propheten als nativistische Kultur verstehen lassen. Die geistige
Welt des kriegerischen Israel wird an der Gestalt Simsons verdeutlicht (Ri 1316). Die
vergleichende Anthropologie von G. Dumzil lenkt den Blick auf die Auseinandersetzung
traditioneller Kulturen mit dem gesellschaftlich isoliert agierenden Krieger, der sich den
sozialen Normen verschliet. Mit drei exemplarischen Snden gegen die Regeln von
Wirtschaft, Kampf und Autoritt verstoend, schliet sich Simson von der Gesellschaft
aus, so dass ihm nur der Tod bleibt. Die Religionsgeschichte des klassischen Israel folgt
einem aus nativistischen Bewegungen bekannten Verlauf: In einer Situation der politi-
schen Krise (Kolonialisierung Palstinas durch altorientalische Gromchte) kommt es
zu einer prophetischen Umkehrbewegung, die durch Besinnung auf distinktive Werte
der traditionellen Kultur (exklusive Verehrung des einen Gottes) eine groe politische
Wende erhofft. Faktisch tritt diese Wende nicht ein, doch eine neue Religion entsteht: das
monotheistische Judentum.
EvTh 68/6 (2008) 430443

80 Hans J.L. Jensen, The Bible Is (also) a Myth: Lvi-Strauss, Girard, and
the Story of Joseph
C. Lvi-Strauss analyzed mythical traditions at home in cultural areas such as South and
North America. He failed to widen the perspective by including biblical (and other) sto-
ries in his comparative project. Jensen demonstrates that it is possible to understand the

19
Joseph story of the book of Genesis as a myth of food-supply, i.e. a type of myth well
represented in South and North America.
Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 14 (2007) 3957

81 Gerd Theissen, Regards psychologiques et sociologiques sur le christian-


isme primitif. Cinq etudes
The following papers are here printed in French translation: (1) Franchir les frontires de
faon paradoxale: propositions pour une psychologie religieuse du christianisme primitif;
(2) La conversion de Paul et celle de Nasir Khusraw. Une rencontre au muse imaginaire
de lhistoire; (3) La nouvelle perspective sur Paul et ses limites: quelques rflexions psy-
chologiques; (4) Eglise ou secte? Unit et conflit dans le christianisme primitif; (5) Du Jsus
de lhistoire au fils de Dieu du krygme: Lapport de lanalyse sociologique des rles la
comprhension de la christologie du NT.
ETR 83/4 (2008) 477604

82 Jerome H. Neyrey et al. (eds.), The Social World of the New Testament:
Insights and Models
This collective volume, with individual chapters written by senior scholars committed to
the social-scientific approach (B.J. Malina, J.H. Neyrey, J. Pilch, J.H. Elliott, D. Oakman,
et al.), discusses the following subjects: social-scientific criticism, kinship, the patron-client
institution, the economics of agrarian Palestine, honor and shame, purity, Jesus as peas-
ant, the social location of Marks audience, gender, space, healing in Luke-Acts ( J. Pilch),
evil eye ( J.H. Elliott, with focus on Galatians), limited good, and modal personality (B.J.
Malina, J.H. Neyrey). The book reflects the work of the context group associated with
the Catholic Biblical Society and the Society of Biblical literature for two decades. Most
chapters reprint papers already published elsewhere. They are here united to form a unique
manual of social-scientific criticism.
Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass./Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XXIV/1295 (BL)

83 Dean Andrew Nicholas, The Trickster Revisited: Deception as a Motif


in the Pentateuch
The trickster is a comical character who lives by his wits, breaking social boundaries and
using deception and trickery to survive. An example for such a character is Abraham when
he declares his wife to be his sister, Jacob tricks Esau out of his birthright, and Miriam in
Exod 2:7 offers to Pharaohs daughter a nurse for baby Moses. Such stories function in
exilic and post-exilic Israel, when the people became marginalized and dependent upon
trickery to survive. Reference is made to anthropological work on trickster lore.
Studies in Biblical Literature 117; Peter Lang Publishing, Bern (2009) XI/1129

Literary studies: general narratology intertextuality rhetorical criticism


reader response socio-linguistics
84 Hans-Peter Schmidt et al. (eds.), Bibel als Literatur
This is a collection of classical essays that interpret biblical texts as literature; all of the
texts included thirteen are translated from the original English publications by R. Alter,
F. Kermode, J. Fokkelkman, M. Sternberg, R. Polzin et al. The collection is framed by
essay written by the two editors Daniel Weidner (director of research at Berlins Zentrum
fr Literatur- und Kulturforschung) and H.-P. Schmidt. There is also a brief bibliogra-
phy. The editors seek to promote biblical studies within the study of literature, arguing
that unlike in America (and elsewhere), German literary critics have almost completely

20
neglected the Bible. For further bibliography, the editors recommend the following website:
www.aroumah.net. Unfortunately, the book lacks an index.
Trajekte; Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Mnchen (2008) 1352 (BL)

85 David G. Firth et al. (eds.), Words and the Word: Explorations in Bibli-
cal Interpretation and Literary Theory
Two general papers titled Literary theory and biblical interpretation (G. Osborne, who
discusses narrative theory as a test case) and A structural-historical approach to the
exegesis of the Old Testament (S. Syman) are followed by six more papers that deal
with speech-act theory (R. Briggs), genre criticism ( J.K. Brown), ambiguity (D.G. Firth),
poetics ( J. Grant), and discourse analysis (T. Wardlaw). Each article has a bibliography.
Recommended.
Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Ill. (2008) 1317 (BL)

86 Kristin Moen Saxegaard, Bibelsk narratologi


The last 20 years, narratology, and especially the field of Bible and Literature, has played a
central role in Scandinavian biblical research. This has brought insight and nuances into
the reading of the biblical text on a level far beyond what traditionally historical-critical
exegesis has made possible earlier. This article brings a presentation of this method, as it
also raises two questions to the approach: First, the reader plays an important role, being
an intended reader who enters the text and follows the play, and at the same time sees
the distance between the text and its story. Narrative is not history, but fiction. Secondly,
the narrative approach does not pay much attention to historical questions. As an ancient
text, and always being read as holy texts, the texts need a relevant historical context.
Biblical narratology, therefore, needs to incorporate historical questions into the narrative
approach, not in order to reconstruct history, but to bring forth the conditions of theology
at the time the text was written.
TTK 79/34 (2008) 182195

87 Ronald van der Bergh, The Distinction Between Story and Discourse
in the Analysis of Biblical Narrative
The distinction between story and discourse has become all but canonical in narratology.
This article investigates the viability of this approach with reference to the narratological
analysis of biblical narratives. It is shown that the distinction is indeed necessary, although
the traditional approach should be modified. Discourse, rather than story, should be the
starting point of any narratological analysis. This leads to the concept of an implied
story, which can be used as an analytical tool in the analysis of narrative. Special atten-
tion is given to the application of this new approach to biblical narrative, with an example
drawn from a comparison of Isa 36:122 and 2 Kgs 18:1337.
JNWSL 34/2 (2008) 8398

88 Andr Wnin, De lanalyse narrative la thologie des rcits bibliques


Narrative analysis is an exegetical method till now poorly known in the French-speaking
theological area. In a first part of his article, the author presents the principle of the
method and exemplifies its main procedures using texts from both Testaments. Reading
a biblical account (2 Sam 12,16), he shows in which kind of relationship a narrative
involves the reader. In the second part, the author indicates some ways in which such a
synchronic method may be useful for a biblical theology which differs from that which
studies the history of Israels theological ideas. As a matter of fact, narrative analysis
leads into a hermeneutical exploration of the theology the accounts themselves offer in

21
the way they characterize God in his manifold relations with human characters involved
in the story they tell.
RTL 39/3 (2008) 369393

89 Joshua Berman, Establishing Narrative Analogy in Biblical Literature:


Methodological Considerations (Hebr., Engl. summary)
One of the primary modalities through which narrative analogy in biblical narrative is
established, is through shared lexical terms. Is it possible to contend justifiably that very
common terms also contribute to the analogical base when their appearance in each nar-
rative may be attributed to happenstance? Building upon Russian structuralist V. Propps
approaches to the study of the folktale, this article posits a new approach to this question,
one that counters the classic view laid down by M. Garsiel in this 1983 study, The First
Book of Samuel: A Literary Study of Comparative Structures, Analogies and Parallels.
The study is executed through the examination of a narrative analogy between the trial
of Achan in Joshua 7 and the second battle against Ha-Ai in Joshua 8.
Beit Mikra 53/1 (2008 ) 3146.7*

90 Thomas H. Olbricht, Rhetorical Criticism in Biblical Commentaries


Biblical commentators through history have employed various methods to facilitate
interpretation, including rhetorical criticism, with emphasis on classical rhetoric. Despite
a resurgence of interest in rhetoric in the past two decades, only a few commentators
in the New Interpreters Bible and the Hermeneia series have undertaken in-depth rhetorical
analysis. Most observations of these commentators are derived from the rhetorics of
Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian and the Rhetorica ad Herennium. This essay sets forth and
evaluates the various methods of rhetorical analysis and their employment in the two
above-mentioned commentary series.
CBR 7/1 (2008) 1136

91 Luke Grtner-Brereton, The Ontology of Space in Biblical Hebrew


Narrative: The Determinative Function of Narrative Space within the
Biblical Hebrew Aesthetic
In Slavic folktales (as read by Vladimir Propp) and in our own (cinematic) mentality,
space is quasi neutral, relevant only in so far as protagonists move through it. In Hebrew
narrative, by contrast, there is a tendency of space to be primary rather than secondary
to the plot. The book includes readings of Genesis 1; 25; 28:1022; Ruth.
Equinox Publishing, London (2008) VIII/1128 (BL)

92 Susanne Pramann, Point of View im Markusevangelium


Diese Studie bietet eine erzhltheoretische Analyse des Markusevangeliums, die die Erzh-
lerin und ihre Stimme in der Erzhlung fokussiert. Nach einer detaillierten Auseinander-
setzung mit der Forschung geht die Analyse folgenden Fragen nach: Erfolgt die Erzhlung
aus einer bestimmten Perspektive, etwa aus der des Volkes, der Jngerinnen oder aus der
Perspektive Jesu? Inwiefern nimmt die Erzhlerin Einblick in das Innenleben der Figuren?
Wird die Erzhlerin als Individualitt sichtbar? Wie kommentiert sie die erzhlten Ereig-
nisse? Ist die Stimme der Erzhlerin in der Erzhlung deutlich zu hren oder werden die
Ereignisse den Leserinnen eher unvermittelt vor Augen gefhrt? Die erzhltheoretische
Basis fr die Analyse des Markusevangeliums bilden die Point-of-View-Typologien von Nor-
man Friedman and Franz Stanzel sowie verschiedene Konzepte aus den narratologischen
Modellen von Grard Genette, Mieke Bal, Seymour Chatman, Dorrit Cohn und Ansgar
Nnning. Die Analyse zeigt, dass der Text des Markusevangeliums anderen Regeln folgt
als die modernen erzhltheoretischen Konzepte. Gerade in diesen Abweichungen treten

22
jedoch spezifische Charakteristika des Markusevangeliums deutlich hervor. Der Studie ist
ein Glossar der wichtigsten narratologischen Begriffe beigefgt.
Europische Hochschulschriften Reihe XXIII Theologie 887, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main (2008)
1323 (SP)

93 Eirin Hoel Hauge, Trendy eller ndvendig? Bruken av termen inter-


tekstualitet i bibelforskningen
In biblical scholarship today, intertextuality is used to characterize studies varying from
traditional historical-critical studies to modern studies inspired by post-structuralism and
deconstruction-theories. The term itself has thus lost its meaning and provides in no way
a point of departure where the methodology presents itself. This transition from a com-
prehensive and diffuse theory to an applicable method is the interest of a recent anthol-
ogy The Intertextuality of the Epistles. Explorations of Theory and Practice edited by T.L. Brodie
et al. (Sheffield 2006; IRBS 54:123). Instead of providing a useful methodology, however,
it actually illustrates the diverse use of the theory. The result is that all intertextual studies
still need to define their basis, and that this definition not only concerns terminology and
criteria for finding an allusion, but also includes more basic reflections concerning the
text and its relationship to other texts.
TTK 79/34 (2008) 196212

94 Vernon K. Robbins, The Invention of Christian Discourse. Volume 1


Christians created their own language. After two chapters on story, argument and poetry
(the three essential modes of literary expression), the author sketches the linguistic fields of
wisdom, prophecy, and apocalyptic as idealized cognitive models (George Lakoff ). If it
had not been for the apocalyptic reasoning and argumentation of first-century Christians,
Christianity probably would not exist today (p. 482). The book also includes a glossary
of rhetorical terms (pp. XXIXXX) and indexes.
Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Series 1; Deo Publishing, Blandford Forum (2009) XXX/1565

95 James W. Watts, Oracular Rhetoric


Rhetorical analysis of biblical prophecy is, from one perspective, much more developed
than for any other genre of ancient Near Eastern literature. Unlike the earlier form critics,
however, rhetorical analysis of prophetic persuasion has paid little attention to non-biblical
oracles. That is unfortunate, because the surviving sources reporting on oracles, primarily
in Mesopotamia, depict the phenomenon of oracular rhetoric much closer to the actual
oral situation than do the highly edited and refined books of the Hebrew Bible. The
distinctive characteristics of oracular rhetoric are therefore as it is shown in this paper
more easily isolated and analyzed in this material than in the Hebrew Bible.
PRSt 35/2 (2008) 185195

96 Hanne Lland, Connecting the Dots Om lesere og lesning i Reader


Response Criticism
In this article the history and the significance of the reader is explored. Different concepts
of readers are discussed and some of the main ideas in reader response criticism. A reader
might be internal or external to a text; there are implied readers and real flesh and blood
readers. Some readers, as scholars or students of biblical studies, are professional readers
or critics. Many readers are willingly entering the role they are assigned, whereas others
are resisting readers. Focusing on the reader means focusing on what comes after the texts,
thus on our side of the text; further it opens for a stronger reflection on what readers
are doing when they are reading.
TTK 79/34 (2008) 164181

23
97 Victor H. Matthews, More than Meets the Ear: Discovering the Hidden
Contexts of Old Testament Conversations
The author, well known for his expertise in anthropology, ventures into the field of socio-
linguistics and the theory of communication. Drawing upon the work of author such as
Harvey Sacks and Erving Goffman, he discusses the following passages: the story of Judah
and Tamar (Gen 38), the dialogue between Moses and Jethro (Exod 18), the interaction
of David and Michal (2 Sam 6), the social triangle story of David, Nabal and Abigail
(1 Sam 25), the confrontation between King Ahab and the prophet Micaiah (1 Kings 22).
There is also a chapter on the reuse of space in Isaiah 7 and 36 and Jeremiah 36, and
another one on modes of positioning in the heroic tales in the book of Daniel (Dan
1; 3; 6). The book includes a glossary of technical terms and a long bibliography. An
valuable exercise in sociolinguistic exegesis.
W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mich./Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XII/1198
(BL)

98 Vern Sheridan Poythress, Canon and Speech Act: Limitations in Speech-


Act Theory, with Implications from a Putative Theory of Canonical Speech
Acts
Speech-act theory, if used simplistically, tends to make people think that each sentence-level
act makes a single, simple speech commands, wishes, or the like. But a sentence in the
Bible may often have, in addition to one more obvious and direct commitment, multiple,
interlocking purposes, related in multiple ways to its literary context and its addressees.
Speech-act theory, seen by some of its advocates as a way for enhancing the appreciation
of multiple kinds of speech in the Bible, may at the same time artificially flatten and
restrict the implications of any one kind of speech.
WThJ 70/2 (2008) 337354

99 Job Y. Jindo, Toward a Poetics of the Biblical Mind: Language, Culture,


and Cognition
This article shows how cognitive investigation of biblical metaphors enables to fathom the
basic categories through which biblical writers conceived of God, humans, and the world.
This investigation is part of a work-in-progress that employs recent studies in cognitive
linguistics to explore the Weltanschauung of ancient Israel as reflected in the use of language
in biblical literature. The article first explains the cognitive linguistic account of metaphor;
it next illustrates how this discipline can be applied to the study of the complex relation-
ships between language, culture, and cognition; and it then exemplifies how this cognitive
approach can enhance the understanding of such relationships in biblical literature.
VT 59/2 (2009) 222243

Contextual exegesis: general postcolonialism ecology gender studies


feminism queer studies
100 Randall C. Bailey et al. (eds.), They Were All together in One Place?
Toward Minority Biblical Criticism
This collective volume includes papers such as F.O. Garca-Treto, Exile in the Hebrew
Bible: a postcolonial look from the Cuban Diaspora; and F.F. Segovia, Toward Latino/
Latina biblical criticism. Final responses are offered by M. Rivera Rivera, E.L. Parker,
and J. Kyung-Jin Lee.
Semeia Studies 57; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2009) XIV/1397

24
101 Knud Jeppesen, Justice with mercy: About a contemporary Palestinian
theology
Arab Christianity has a long history, longer than the history Christianity has in many
European countries. According to Acts 2:11, some Arabs, together with several other people
of different nationalities were present when Peter gave his address to the crowd on the
first Pentecost day after the ascension of Christ. Even if this piece of information is not
historically true, there is no doubt that Christianity spread to the Arab world fairly early,
probably in the beginning with some Judaeo-Christians, who moved to Arabia, and later
on as a result of a mission to the gentiles. Already in antiquity the Bible was translated
from the Greek Septuagint into Arabic.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 195206

102 Hans van Deventer, Did someone say history? In Africa we say His
story! A study in African Biblical hermeneutics with reference to the book
of Daniel
This article is a contribution related to the issues of what constitutes an African approach
to the biblical text. While considering previous contributions in this respect it wants to
draw attention to the promises hold by an epistemic framework that manifests among
others in myths and oral tradition. From these an outline can be established to serve on
the one hand as criterion for an approach claiming to be African, and on the other hand
to be utilised in synthesising traditional and modern modes of understanding. In this
article attention is limited to the first aspect when a contribution to a recent commentary
is evaluated against this criterion. It is indicated that the contribution fails to exhibit an
African approach because it is informed by an outdated form of modern (Western) epis-
temology. A further suggestion is that when it comes to a practical application of what is
proposed here only in theory, a literary approach to the text seems to be a more fruitful
point of departure than a historical approach.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 713728

103 Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole, Rise of intercultural Biblical exegesis in


Africa
This article traces the rise and development of intercultural biblical exegesis in Africa,
especially with regard to New Testament interpretations. Different trends of biblical exegesis
practiced in Africa are first explored, then, the different phases of intercultural exegesis
are discussed. The focus falls on inculturation hermeneutic as an important method of
interpreting the Bible in an African context. The different proponents of this method are
discussed and differences in approach are noted and appraised as a healthy tension.
HTS 64/3 (2008) 13471364

104 Bradley L. Crowell, Postcolonial Studies and the Hebrew Bible


As the field of biblical studies continues to become more diverse, scholars incorporate
theories and methods from other areas of research. One of these fields is postcolonial
theory, which makes the role of empires and their effects on society and literature the
primary focus of the interpretive effort. This essay explores how postcolonial theory is
currently being integrated with the study of the Hebrew Bible. Biblical scholars incorpo-
rating postcolonial theory focus on three major areas: how colonial empires interpreted
the Hebrew Bible and how indigenous populations reacted to the colonial interpretations,
interpretations from previously colonized populations, and the role of empires and reac-
tions to them in the composition of the texts of the Hebrew Bible.
CBR 7/2 (2009) 217244

25
105 Lazare S. Rukundwa, Postcolonial theory as a hermeneutical tool for
Biblical reading
In this article, postcolonial theory is presented as a tool for Biblical interpretation, in an
attempt to find colonial intentions (be they political, cultural or economic) that informed
and influenced the writers context. Although criticism has been levelled at the church
and other religious institutions for having, consciously or unconsciously, facilitated colonial
conquests and imperial establishment all over the world, postcolonial theory calls them to
a constructive reading that enables readers to see the concerns of the universal mission
of justice. Postcolonial theory, as a tool for Biblical interpretation, deals with the Bible
as a cultural product in time and space. However, as part of socio-scientific method,
postcolonial theory encounters some crucial translation problems such as ethnocentrism
and anachronism.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 339351

106 Roland Boer, The Bible and Postcolonialism in Australia. Second Edition
Drawing upon colonial literature, including explorer journals, poetry, novels, and Bible
translations, Boer, a scholar with Marxist leanings, seeks to create a mutually enlightening
dialogue between postcolonial literature and biblical texts on themes such as exodus and
exile, translation, identity, and home.
Semeia Studies 64; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) XIV/1201

107 C.I. David Joy, Mark and Its Subalterns: A Hermeneutical Paradigm for
a Postcolonial Context
Mark is interpreted here as an anti-colonial document. In fact, there are absolutely no
pro-colonial ideological elements in the mind of the author (p. 120). Joy offers detailed
readings of Mark 5:120; 7:2430; and 10:1731.
Equinox Publishing , London (2008) XVI/1223 (BL)

108 Norman P. Habel et al. (eds.), Exploring Ecological Hermeneutics


The 15 papers included in this collective volume explore how one could meaningfully
look at biblical texts from the perspective of ecological concerns. The examples discussed
include animal speech in Genesis 3 and Numbers 22 (C. Howard), the figure of Cain
(K. Swenson), Hosea 4:13 (M. Loya), the book of Joel (L. Braaten), the book of Amos
(H. Marlow), and the nonhuman characters in the book of Jonah (R. Person).
Symposium Series 46; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) XIV/1183

109 Eckart Otto, Gender Mainstreaming im biblischen und altorien-


talischen Recht
Gleich vier neuere Arbeiten aus dem Bereich der Gender-studies werden in diesem Beitrag
rezensiert: (1) C.B. Anderson, Women, Ideology, and Violence. Critical Theory and the
Construction of Gender in the Book of the Covenant and the Deuteronomic Law ( JSOT.S
394, London 2004); (2) R. Jost, Gender, Sexualitt und Macht in der Anthropologie des
Richterbuches (BWANT 164, Stuttgart 2006); (3) C.R. Chapman, The Gendered Lan-
guage of Warfare in the Israelite-Assyrian Encounter (Harvard Semitic Monographs 62,
Winona Lake 2004); (4) E.M. Tetlow, Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law
and Society, Bd. I: The Ancient Near East (London 2004). In seinen kurzen Besprechun-
gen der einzelnen Werke macht der Rezensent insbesondere auf das emanzipatorische

26
Potential biblischer Texte aufmerksam, wenn diese in einer literatur- und rechtshistorischen
Perspektive gelesen werden.
ZABR 14 (2008) 475486 (DL)

110 Elisabeth Schssler Fiorenza, Grenzberschreitungen einer kritisch-


feministischen Befreiungshermeneutik
Die Verf. resmiert ihren Ansatz einer kritischen Befreiungshermeneutik, die im Unterschied
zu Frauen- oder Genderstudien nicht die Frau oder die Geschlechterverhltnisse als
solche zum Thema macht, sondern wissenschaftlich verantwortet alle Herrschaftssysteme
und Unterdrckungsstrukturen, die das Leben von Frauen bestimmen, analysiert, um sie
zu verndern. Weiblichkeit und Geschlecht werden als Teil multiplikativer Herrschaftsstruk-
turen verstanden. Es gilt die Hermeneutik des Verdachts in der Ekklesia der Frauen.
Thomas Schmeller (Hg.), Neutestamentliche Exegese im 21. Jahrhundert. Grenzberschreitungen; Verlag
Herder, Freiburg (2008) 5162 (EB)

111 Ken Stone, Bibles That Matter: Biblical Theology and Queer Performativity
Discussions of Bible and homosexuality, and discussions of postmodern biblical interpreta-
tion, have often taken place in isolation from one another. However, Judith Butlers queer
approach to sex, gender and performativity may allow biblical scholars to rethink their
objects and procedures in a manner that brings such discussions together. Grounded in a
reading of speech act theory, Butlers work explores the possibility that gender, rather than
being conceived in a modernist fashion as the social interpretation of stable sexed bodies,
is best understood in terms of collective practices that produce perceptions of fixed sexes
and genders as performative effects. So too the Bible, often conceived as a fixed object,
may be reconceptualised in terms of the collective practices, including conventional modes
of scholarly and popular analysis, that produce perceptions of a single, stable Bible as
performative effects. Postmodern queer theorys appreciation of complexity and pluralism
as resources rather than threats can thus be extended from bodies to bibles.
BTB 38/1 (2008) 1425

Philosophical approaches
112 Wolfgang Palaver, Ren Girards mimetische Theorie im Kontext kul-
turtheoretischer und gesellschaftspolitischer Fragen
Girard (b. 1923, emeritus professor 1995), a French literary critic, has developed a cultural
theory known as the mimetic theory. He himself has applied it to the interpretation of
literature, the Bible (esp. the book of Job), Christian origins, the institution of scapegoat
sacrifice, and a critique of S. Freuds psychoanalysis. The present book offers a systematic
account of Girards theory. The book includes a major section on the Bible (pp. 251345),
a list of Girards published work (pp. 415421), a bibliography of work on Girard, a
chronology and a glossary of Girardian jargon. Both supporters and critics of Girard will
benefit from consulting this work.
Beitrge zur mimetischen Theorie; Lit Verlag, Mnster (2008) 1461 (BL)

113 J.W. Gericke, Why is there something rather than nothing? Biblical ontology
and the mystery of existence
In methaphysics, perhaps the most fascinating but also the most commonly misunderstood
problem presents itself in the question, Why is there something rather than nothing?
This is the mystery of existence and it has proved to be insoluble as long as it is properly
understood. One popular misconception with regard to the problem includes the belief that
biblical ontology was concerned with a similar query, in response to which it supposedly
offered the god-hypothesis as a pre-philosophical solution to the riddle of the Real. In this

27
paper, these assumptions are critically evaluated and shown to be both anachronistic and
presumptuous. Protological aetiologies in the Hebrew Bible show no trace of familiarity
with the problem of being and the assumed deity-reality relation was never intended as a
solution to the mystery of why things are the way they are, or why they are at all.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 329344

Literary genres stylistic devices


114 Roelie van der Spuy, Hebrew Alphabetic Acrostics Significance and
Translation
This article explores the significance of Biblical Hebrew alphabetic acrostics and tries
to give an explanation of the purpose of acrostics from the perspective of the Cognitive
Sciences. This leads to the question whether this feature should be reproduced in a transla-
tion. While denying the possibility of an exactly reproduction the author points out that
one should aim to produce a form that at least represents the original acrostic to some
extent. He is convinced that any acknowledgement of the acrostic form in a translation
contributes much to conveying the poetic impact of the acrostic poem and it should not
be ignored completely.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 513532

115 Gary A. Rendsburg, Alliteration in the Exodus Narrative


The alliterations found in passages such as Exod 1:21; 2:23; 5:9,11,14; 8:10 (etc.) reflect
the oral-aural nature of ancient texts. In order to employ alliteration, the storyteller
occasionally departs from an established linguistic pattern.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 83100 (BL)

116 Stephan Lauber, Textpragmatische Strategien im Disputationswort als


gattungsbildendes Kriterium
The Gattung disputation (speech) is not uniformly defined in technical studies: texts are
assigned to it which exhibit different pragmatic strategies. The designation is applied
not only to those texts which seek to confirm a thesis by arguments which are related to
it and also exhibit a higher degree of plausibility than it, but to those which contain a
direct refutation of an explicitly stated counter-thesis. Both strategies are described in the
article by the use of the analytical tools of speech-act theory on texts which the history
of research has found relevant, and an emphatic distinction is made between them by
reference to the units of discourse in the book of Malachi. The types of textual structure
which are to be recognised on the basis of the different pragmatic processes require a
distinction between the Gattungen argumentation and disputation.
ZAW 120/3 (2008) 341365

117 Carolyn J. Sharp, Irony and Meaning in the Hebrew Bible


Drawing upon recent literary theory on irony, the author explores four clusters of biblical
stories centered on individual figures: (1) foreign rulers Pharaoh and Abimelech, Joseph
and his brothers, Belshazzar, Esther; (2) prostitutes and other women Tamar, Rahab,
Jael, Gomer, and Ruth; (3) prophets Balaam, Amos (considered as Samson redivivus),
Micah (Micah 2:1213), Jonah; (4) wisdom Qohelet, Psalm 73. In the case of the book
of Ruth, the irony of it all comes to the fore when we consider the contrast between the
story (as it unfolds in the narrative section) and the appended Davidic genealogy: The
genealogy demonstrates with devastating irony that genealogies narrating communal
identity according to official codes of male identity are woefully inadequate to the task
of describing what has truly been going on in the background of the official narrative

28
(p. 120). The hilarious ironies in the book of Jonah practically tumble over one another
in their haste to undercut a straight reading of that story, and interpreters usually have
seen that, although they continue to disagree about the precise point of the narrative and
what exactly is being ironized (p. 130).
Indiana Studies in Biblical Literature; Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Ind. (2009) XII/1357
(BL)

118 Edward L. Greenstein, Reanalysis in Biblical and Babylonian Poetry


The process of returning to an expression or text and reinterpreting it in the light of
what one encounters after a first reading (or hearing) was discovered by C.H. Gordon
who referred to it as Janus parallelism. The same feature, here restudied, appears not
only in biblical poetry, but also in Babylonian texts.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 499510 (BL)

119 Marco Di Giulio, Mitigating Devices in Biblical Hebrew


The aim of this paper is to analyse linguistic strategies which occur in biblical dialogues
and are intended to attenuate conversational moves. The corpus used for this analysis
consists of all the reported speech found in the prose texts of the Bible. According to a
prior schematic classification, in biblical Hebrew one can find means suited to external
mitigation, elements functional to internal mitigation and strategies that take place by
shifting the deictic centre of the utterance, i.e. by ascribing the utterance to a source other
than that of the actual speaker.
KUSATU 8.9 (2008) 3362

120 Jeremy D. Smoak, Building Houses and Planting Vineyards: The Early
Inner-Biblical Discourse on an Ancient Israelite Wartime Curse
You have built houses of hewn stone, but you will not live in them. You have planted
lush vineyards, but you will not drink their wine (Amos 5:11; cf. Zeph 1:13; Deut 28:30).
Amos 9:1415 reformulates the cures into a blessing that forecasts the restoration of the
northern kingdom. Other reformulations include Jer 31:45 and Deut 20:56, the latter
text stipulating that a person who has built a house and not yet dedicated it, or planted
a vineyard and not yet harvested it, is exempt from military service.
JBL 127/1 (2008) 1935 (BL)

121 Michael W. Martin, Betrothal Journey Narratives


In this study the author examines a convention of biblical literature identified as the
betrothal journey narrative. He isolates the recurring elements that constitute this kind
of narrative and shows how these are represented in narratives featuring Isaac, Jacob,
Moses, Ruth, Saul, David, Tobias, and Jesus. Moreover he shows how interpretation of
each of these narratives is informed by recognition not only of conformity to the pattern
but also innovation in it.
CBQ 70/3 (2008) 505523

122 David A. Bosworth, The Story within a Story in Biblical Hebrew Narrative
Mise-en-abyme (= placement in abyss, coined by Andr Gide) is a literary device in which
a part reduplicates the whole, the most famous example being the play within the play in
Shakespeares Hamlet. This device also appears in the Bible. The present book studies the
theoretical aspects of mise-en-abyme, and selects the following passages for detailed analysis:
Gen 38; 1 Sam 25; 1 Kings 13. The biblical examples are all simple, retro-prospective cases
of mise-en-abyme that occur en bloc near the beginning or middle of the main narrative,

29
or alternately near the beginning and the end. The analogy between part and whole opens
up texts to one another and elucidates aspects of the whole.
CBQ.M 45; Catholic Biblical Association of America, Washington (2008) VIII/1200 (BL)

123 Thomas Schmeller (ed.), Historiographie und Biographie im Neuen


Testament und seiner Umwelt
The following papers are included in this volume: D. Dormeyer, Pragmatische und pathe-
tische Geschichtsschreibung in der griechischen Historiographie, im Frhjudentum und im
NT; M. Ebner, Von gefhrlichen Viten und biographisch orientierten Geschichtswerken;
Chr. Heil, Evangelium als Gattung; Chr.G. Mller, Digesis nach Lukas; S. Schreiber, Die
Vita des Knigs Jesus. ber die Gattung des Johannesevangeliums; I. Broer, Autobiographie
und Historiographie bei Paulus; G. Hfner, Biographische Elemente der Paulusrezeption.
In Germany, Dormeyer first suggested to look at the NT gospels as ancient biographies.
The present volume takes up the discussion and expands the horizon by including Pauline
autobiographic materials.
NTOA 69; Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gttingen (2009) 1208 (BL)

BIBLICAL EXEGESIS

Bible as a Whole
124 Robert Althann (ed.), Elenchus of Biblica 2005
This regularly issued biblical bibliography remains the most complete one available. One of
its chief merits is the inclusion of reviews that are indexed under the titles reviewed. The
final section lists obituary notices, and we may list some of the scholars who died on 2005:
Peter Ackroyd, Jean Delorme, H.J. Franken, Franois Langlamet (of the Ecole biblique),
Erica Reiner (the Assyriologist), Paul Ricoeur, Nahum Sarna, St. Segert, H. Stegemann,
Alfred Suhl, and Timo Veijola. By the time this abstract appears in print, the Elenchus
should be available online, if we may believe the announcement made in the present
volume.
Elenchus of Biblical Bibliography 21; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2008) 1965 (BL)

125 John Glynn, Commentary and Reference Survey: A Comprehensive


Guide to Biblical and Theological Resources. Tenth Edition
This bibliographical survey lists books on all theological disciplines, but commentaries
on Old Testament and New Testament books take up most space. The author seems to
have three key recommendations: Daniel Blocks commentary on Ezekiel; Philip King
and Lawrence Stager, Life in Biblical Israel; and G. Bromiley (ed.), The International Standard
Bible Encyclopaedia (4 vols.). The author of this rich scholarly resource offers very helpful
evaluations and recommendations.
Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Mich. (2008) 1380 (BL)

126 Katharine Doob Sakenfeld (ed.), The New Interpreters Dictionary of


the Bible. Vol. 3: I-Ma
The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible (1962; with Supplementary Volume, 1976) was
Americas foremost and then only biblical reference work that met academic standards.
This has changed by the early 2000s, but another major biblical encyclopedia is still wel-
come. Judging from the present volume, there can be no doubt that the beautiful design
of the pages, the bibliographies (sometimes very long and detailed, but often mysteriously
lacking), and many interesting articles (kingdom of God by B. Chilton; Literature, the

30
Bible as, by P. Borgman; Jesus, brothers and sisters of , by J. Painter with no sisters
in sight!) along with much of the shorter but nevertheless useful information will attract
many users. Among the articles I found inadequate is that on iconography because it
does not refer to the judgment of Solomon scene from Pompeii (Museo Nazionale,
Naples), and the pioneering work of Othmar Keel is mysteriously absent from the entry.
My advice to the editor: (1) bibliographies most users are likely to prefer more exten-
sive and classified bibliographies; list standard editions and manuals first; then classical
treatments of a subject; finally, recent contributions; (2) history of interpretation there
is too little on this subject, though Joseph, story of, history of interpretation represents
a laudable effort.
Abingdon Press, Nashville, Tenn./Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XXV/1936 (BL)

Digital media

General internet Bible software research materials


127 John Glynn, Commentary and Reference Survey: A Comprehensive
Guide to Biblical and Theological Resources. Tenth Edition
This bibliographical survey includes several sections that deal with digital media: chapter
19 exegetical computer programs (pp. 343356), chapter 20 computer resources (pp.
357364, with special section for Macintosh users); chapter 21 internet websites (pp.
365368). The author is full of praise for Accordance products. The author offers very
helpful evaluations and recommendations.
Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Mich. (2008) 1380 (BL)

128 Michaela Bauks et al. (eds.), Das wissenschaftliche Bibellexikon im


Internet
This is a biblical encyclopaedia in the form of an online database, accessible free of
charge, though one has to go through an automatic registration procedure (as a guest
user, however, you dont have to register). At the time of the writing of this abstract,
more than 500 Old Testament articles, but no New Testament ones, are available, but
the homepage explains that New Testament articles will eventually be added. What is
offered though far, is impressive. The articles are generally long and detailed, include
much bibliography, illustrations and maps, and occasionally even discussions of recent
contributions to the scholarly discussion (for an example, see Magie by R. Schmitt).
The language is German, and most contributors teach Old Testament exegesis or bibli-
cal history in German universities. The website is sponsored and maintained by the
German Bible Society, Stuttgart.
www.wibilex.de

129 Ulrich Johannes Schneider et al., Codex Sinaiticus


At the university library of Leipzig, Germany, Schneider is responsible for a project
realized between 2006 and the end of 2009: the online presentation of all of the extant
pages of Codex Sinaiticus. This is a mid fourth-century Greek manuscript of the Old
and New Testaments plus a few early-Christian apocrypha. Only part of the text of the
Old Testament is extant 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, 1 and 4 Maccabees, Wisdom and
Sirach. The online version includes many features that make this electronic version at
the same time a critical edition and a facsimile. Most of the original pages remain of
course in the university library of Leipzig, but the pages housed elsewhere are included
in the online version.
www.codex-sinaiticus.net
31
130 Zrcher Bibel 2007
Auf einer einzigen Compact-Diskette ist die gesamte Zrcher Bibel (IRBS 53:42) gespei-
chert. Die vorliegende Fassung ist speziell fr Macintosh-Benutzer eingerichtet, und
zwar mit Hilfe der Firma Accordance, die sich auf digitale Forschungsmedien fr die
Bibelwissenschaft im Machintosh-Format spezialisiert hat (IRBS 53:161, 162, 165, 166).
Zugrunde gelegt ist das Programm Accordance 8.2. Sobald der Inhalt der Diskette auf
der Festplatte eines Macintosh-Gerts (zum Beispiel eines iBook oder eines iMac) installiert
ist, lsst sich mhelos mit der Zrcher Bibel arbeiten. Fr die optimale Ausnutzung der
Suchfunktion ist der gesamte Text lemmatisiert. Lemmatisierung bedeutet: alle Wrter
im Bibeltext sind auf ihre jeweilige Grundform zurckgefhrt. Dadurch wird es mglich,
durch Eingabe der Grundform alle Formen eines Wortes im Bibeltext aufzufinden. (Bei der
Auswertung ist jedoch ein Blick auf die einzelnen Stellen stets angebracht. Suche ich zum
Beispiel alle Formen des Wortes Liebe und gebe dieses Wort ein, so bekomme ich auch
die Belege von bliebe angezeigt.) Neben dem Bibeltext ist auch das umfangreiche und
sehr hilfreiche Glossar ein kleines Bibellexikon auf der Compact-Diskette gespeichert
und kann gelesen werden. Sehr empfehlenswert.
Verlag der Zrcher Bibel beim Theologischen Verlag Zrich, Zrich (2009) (BL)

131 Primary 8.1 DVD (Accordance Bible Software)


This is another, updated version of what was called Scholars Collection 7.1 (see IRBS
53:161). Much is already installed on the disk, but, as with the earlier version, the buyer
has a choice of modules that he may wish to buy for permanent unlocking. The disk
submitted for review has the package called Scholars standard level, and it includes
all the primary material exegetes of both testaments are working with normally Biblia
Hebraica Stuttgartensia, Greek New Testament, several English versions of the Bible
(including NET = New English Translation with notes) plus some essential lexical tools.
Also included are Adolf Deissmanns Bible Studies (1900), somewhat dated, but neverthe-
less useful as a survey of then known extra-biblical papyri that shed light on the New
Testament and its language; and the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (ed. R. Laird
Harris, 1980). The reviewer would recommend users to purchase some additional modules,
such as a text and translation of the Septuagint and perhaps Josephus. Those who wish
to introduce themselves to Accordance Bible software should make sure to get the train-
ing DVD supplied by OakTree. This remains an excellent tool for biblical studies. It
is especially designed for Macintosh users, to whom it can be warmly recommended, not
least because it is easier to use than most other biblical software. For further information,
consult www.accordancebible.com.
OakTree Software, Altamonte Springs, Flor. (2008) (BL)

132 William W. Hallo (ed.), Accordance Context of Scripture


Hallos three-volume set The Context of Scripture, originally published in print in 1997, 2000,
and 2002, is the most authoritative collection of ancient Near-Eastern and Egyptian texts
relating to the Old Testament. In addition to the Accordance edition, there is at least one
more digital version available (IRBS 52:158), though that one you can access only while
you are online. This is not the case with the Accordance version. Since it is specially
designed for Macintosh users, you simply download it from a single disk onto your hard
disk. Both text and notes can be searched separately and conveniently. If you are already
a user of software by Accordance, you will find COS (as the Context of Scripture is
commonly known) in your Accordance folder or, more precisely, in the tools subfolder.
In general, the libraries supplied in packages of Bible software include mostly older, non-
copyright materials; in the present case, however, you get a superb up-to-date scholarly

32
resource so dont hesitate to buy Accordance Context of Scripture. Highly recommended.
1 disk.
OakTree Software, Altamonte Springs, Flor. (2007) (BL)

133 Der groe elektronische Bibelatlas. Landkarten, Fotos, Ortsbeschreibungen


Diese CD-ROM bietet die umfangreichste und aktuellste Sammlung von deutschsprachi-
gem Kartenmaterial zur Bibel in digitaler Form. Neben historischen Karten enthlt das
Programm eine Flle zustzlicher Medien und Texte: das vollstndige Lexikon Namen
und Orte der Bibel, 200 Fotos von biblischen Schaupltzen sowie Beschreibungen von
100 biblischen Sttten. Alle Bilder und Zusatzinformationen sind mit den Landkarten
verlinkt und knnen leicht mit einem Mausklick aufgerufen werden. Da die Ortsnamen auf
den Karten sich einzeln ein- und ausblenden lassen, knnen sehr einfach eigene Karten
erstellt werden. Zu weiteren attraktiven Programmfunktionen gehrt die Suchfunktion in
smtlichen Kartentexten, Ortslegenden und Medien, sowie die Mglichkeit zur Berechnung
von Entfernungen zwischen verschiedenen Orten auf den Karten. Auerdem knnen
alle Karten, Bilder und Texte kopiert und ausgedruckt werden sehr gut geeignet fr
die Erstellung von Unterrichtsmaterialien! Ein beigefgtes Heft bietet eine Einfhrung in
das Programm und seine Funktionen.
bibeldigital; Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart (2008) (DL)

134 Biblical Archaeology Society (ed.), The Biblical World in Pictures


In pre-digital times, not very many pictorial resources for biblical studies were available.
Pictures were generally offered in large-size table-coffee books or in black-and-white collec-
tions such as J.B. Pritchard (ed.), The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament
(1954) and J. Finegan, Light from the Ancient Past: The Archaeological Background of Judaism and
Christianity (1946). Then, in the 1980s, came the era of slide sets that culminated, in the
1990s, in the slide sets published by the Biblical Archaeology Society. Now, all of this
material ten slide series (illustrating the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, Galilee, the
Dead Sea Scrolls, Jerusalem, etc.) has become available on a single compact disk. Each of
the ca. 1300 photos is accompanied by the name of the photographer and an explanatory
legend, and there are also chronologies, maps, and reading lists with references to articles
published in Biblical Archaeology Review and Bible Review. As any user will quickly discover,
there are additional features such as the possibility of clicking at biblical references of which
the full text then appears in an extra window (King James Version). The Accordance Bible
software, specifically designed for Macintosh users, makes this an excellent and uncompli-
cated electronic tool for biblical study. Recommended. 1 compact disk.
OakTree Software, Altamonte Springs, Flor. (2004) (BL)

135 Hershel Shanks (ed.), Biblical Archaeology Review. The Archive 1975
2003
In March 1975, the first issue of BAR (as it came to be called) was published. In one of
its earliest numbers, a satirical piece by Woody Allen was published an original text; the
publication of the seal impression of one of King Hezekiahs servants, by contrast, was
dependent on a related article first published by the Israel Explortation Journal. All of
this changed rapidly, and within a few years, BAR became the most lively and sometimes
controversial popular or semi-popular periodical to cover all aspects of biblical archaeol-
ogy. Many of the big finds were first published in BAR, and BAR became an important
forum for scholarly discussion. BAR is shaped by the personal style of Hershel Shanks
(b. 1930), the founder and editor and frequent contributor to the journal, and he can be
credited not only with having successfully challenged the editors of the Dead Sea scrolls
to no longer put off the publication of their important material, but also with promot-
ing scholarly exchange even in sensitive areas like forgery, issues touching on Christian
or Jewish belief, and personal honesty. Shanks has become a key figure of biblical and

33
archaeological studies, and one should be deeply grateful for his decision to make BAR
available in electronic format. This is a wonderful scholarly resource for both friends
and critics of Shanks and, more broadly, of the project of biblical archaeology. As is to be
expected from OakTree Software, the BAR archive is technically perfect. One compact
disk. Before installation, make sure to have enough space on your Macintosh.
OakTree Software, Altamonte Springs, Flor. (2004) (BL)

136 Martina Kepper, CD-ROM-Sprachkurs Biblisches Hebrisch. Multimedia-


Kurs zur Vorbereitung auf das Hebraicum
In mehreren Modulen (Laut- und Schriftlehre, Formen des Substantivs, starkes Verb,
schwache Verben) bietet das Lernprogramm einen Einstieg in die Sprache des Alten
Testaments. Die einzelnen Lernschritte sind sorgfltig berlegt, die korrekte Aussprache
wird durch eine Audio-datei vermittelt. Zu jeder Lektion lassen sich Vokabellisten und
bungsbltter ausdrucken. Das Werk ist auch geeignet zur Repetition und zum Auffrischen
von hebrischen Sprachkenntnissen. Eine CD-ROM mit Anleitung. Voraussetzung ist
ein Personal Computer oder ein Macintosh-Gert.
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart (2008) (TN)

Non-biblical electronic media


137 Kathrin Reining, Die Gestalt der biblischen Judith in der Kunst des 19.
Jahrhunderts Von der Heldin zur femme fatale
In der Kunst des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Judith-Thema vermehrt aufgegriffen, wobei
die Protagonistin einer radikalen Umdeutung unterliegt: wird um die Jahrhundertmitte
noch die biblischen Heldin von Horace Vernet, August Riedel, Friedrich von Amerling
und Theodor Hildebrandt monumentalisiert ins Bild gesetzt, gewinnt Judith um 1900 als
erotische, dabei skrupellose Frau an Anziehungskraft. Diese Metamorphose erreicht ihren
Hhepunkt mit den dmonischen, verfhrerischen Figuren der Judith-Gemlde von Gustav
Klimt und Franz von Stuck. Die nackte Judith eroberte die Leinwnde der Knstler, wobei
der Ttungsakt zum Sinnbild des Geschlechterkampfes wurde. Stark beeinflusst wurde
diese Umdeutung der Judith-Figur durch Friedrich Hebbels literarische Bearbeitung des
Judith-Stoffes von 1840 sowie den gesellschaftlichen Diskurs der Jahrhundertwende um
das Verhltnis zwischen Mann und Frau. Die Enthauptung des Holofernes durch Judith
wurde somit zum Paradigma des Geschlechterkonflikts, wodurch sich die Beliebtheit des
Sujets um die Jahrhundertwende erklren lsst. Die ehemals keusche und glubige Witwe
war zu einer sexualisierten femme fatale geworden. Die Arbeit steht in elektronischer
Fassung kostenlos zur Verfgung: http://dx.doi.org/10.1466/20082801.03
Verlag und Datenbank fr Geisteswissenschaften, Kromsdorf/Weimar (2008)

OLD TESTAMENT EXEGESIS

Introduction general
138 John Day (ed.), Book List 2009
This issue of JSOT presents a Book List, which contains 433 reviews of recently
(2007/2008) published books on OT issues organized in following chapters: (1) General; (2)
Archaeology and Epigraphy; (3) History, Geography and Sociology; (4) Texts and Versions;
(5) Exegesis and Modern Translations; (6) Literary Criticism and Introduction (including
History of Interpretation, Canon and Special Studies); (7) Law, Religion and Theology; (8)
The life and Thought of the Surrounding Peoples; (9) Apocrypha and Postbiblical Studies;

34
(10) Philology and Grammar. Attached is a list of some further books not reviewed in this
journal as well as the indexes of authors, reviewers, series, and publishers.
JSOT 33/5 (2009) IIV.1270 (DL)

139 Tremper Longman et al. (eds.), Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom,
Poetry and Writings
This dictionary focuses on the poetry (Psalms, Song of Songs, Lamentations), novellas (Ruth,
Esther), and wisdom literature (Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes, Sirach) of the Hebrew Bible
and the apocrypha. Not only each of these books gets a long entry, but also the history of
the books interpretation (in the case of the Psalms, 8 pp, in. the case of Job, 10 pp.). Of
special value are articles that bring together interpretive material from a variety of fields:
ambiguity, chaos and death, discourse in Proverbs, editorial criticism, feminist interpreta-
tion (an excellent survey with a focus on Psalms, Proverbs, Esther, Ruth, etc.), honour and
shame, Maat (the Egyptian word for order, by K. Kitchen), novella story narrative,
oral poetry, poetics (terminology of ), Proverbs (ancient Near Eastern background, by K.
Kitchen), Psalms (iconography, by M. Klingbeil), sages schools education (A. Mil-
lard), social-scientific-approaches (V.H. Matthews), Song of Songs (ancient Near-Eastern
background, by G.A. Long), wasf (poetic description of the body of a person whom the
poet loves, by G. Schwab), wisdom sources (R.S. Hess), woman wisdom and woman folly
(with a reference to the possibility of equating Yahweh and Lady Wisdom, a suggestion
made by T. Longman) AT to name but a few examples. Each article has a long, help-
ful bibliography for the benefit of both scholar and student. As one can sense, authors
and editors have taken great care to make the articles both scholarly and readable, and
one can say that they have succeeded in producing a work that supplements all existing
biblical reference works.
Intervarsity Press, Nottingham (2007) XXIV/1967 (BL)

140 Martin Rsel, Bibelkunde des Alten Testaments


This introductory textbook on the Old Testament (eighth, revised edition), although meant
for the beginning student of theology, is nevertheless sophisticated. Two sections of about
equal length deal with (1) all the books included in the canonical Old Testament (including
the deuterocanonical or apocryphal literature), and (2) major themes such as the history
of Israel, creation, exodus and conquest, the names of God, the types of lyrics found
in the book of Psalms, women, theodicy, and the like. Highly recommended to German
students. (One point of criticism, however: in the section on the Decalogue, pp. 128130,
the author states that the original version of this text is the one included in Exod 20; the
article by F.L. Hossfeld, listed in the bibliography on p. 130 argues, quite convincingly,
that the version given in Deut 5 is the older text.) Glossary, diagrams, illustrations.
Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn (2008) X/1222 (BL)

141 Greg Goswell, The Order of the Books in the Hebrew Bible
The sequence of books in the Pentateuch has been made according to storyline. This
principle is also applied to the Former Prophets. The books of the Latter Prophets are
ordered according to chronology. The placement of Joshua-Kings after the Torah sug-
gests an understanding as illustrating and applying the teaching of the Pentateuch. The
enjambment of Psalms-Job-Proverbs is explained by common genre and declares the
Psalter to be a wisdom book.
JETS 51/4 (2008) 673688 (BF)

142 Pamela J. Scalise, The End of the Old Testament: Reading Exile in the
Hebrew Bible
Innerhalb der letzten hundert Jahre kam es zu einer Verschiebung des allgemeinen exege-
tischen Interesses von den Quellen und frhesten Texten der Bibel zu ihrer Redaktion

35
und Abschluss. In diesem Kontext rckte die exilisch-nachexilische Zeit als die Periode der
Abfassung der meisten biblischen Bcher ins Zentrum der Untersuchungen. Der Beitrag
errtert die historischen Zusammenhnge dieser Zeit sowie die vom Ereignis Exil geprgte
Sichtweise auf einzelne Ereignisse und die damit verbundene Ideologie bzw. Theologie
von der Zeit der Entstehung der Bibel bis in die Gegenwart hinein.
PRSt 35/2 (2008) 163178

143 Mark S. Smith, Biblical Narrative between Ugaritic and Akkadian Litera-
ture. Part I: Ugarit and the Hebrew Bible: Consideration of Comparative
Research
Despite the enormous gains made by the comparison of Ugaritic and biblical texts, the
biblical field has often ignored or criticized such comparisons. One reason lies in the major
differences between the Ugaritic and biblical corpora. Part I of this essay focuses first on
misplaced conceptions and criticisms of the use of Ugaritic in biblical studies and then
indicates how Ugaritic may serve as a background or baseline for the study of biblical
literature, but not as a general explanation.
RB 14/1 (2007) 529

144 Mark S. Smith, Biblical Narrative between Ugaritic and Akkadian Lit-
erature. Part II: Mesopotamian Impact on Biblical Narrative
This second part of the two-part essay examines the question of Mesopotamian influence
on the Israelite narrative tradition and some of the subsequent effects in the formation of
biblical narrative. Summarising both parts the author concludes that the understanding
of biblical literature, in particular biblical narrative in the Iron Age, may be advanced by
being contextualized between the Ugaritic texts and Mesopotamian literature.
RB 114/2 (2007) 189207

145 James Alfred Loader, Intertextuality in Multi-Layered Texts of the Old


Testament
This article proceeds from the tenet that the Old Testament is, in various different ways,
a layered text, to argue that the interpretation of the so-called final text can only be
done if the intertextual influence of the various pre-texts on the final text is taken into
consideration. The different levels of intertextuality between a text and its pre-stages,
its alternative forms (which are often also present in the final form), and the context
into which it was embedded are described. The complementarity of the synchronic and
diachronic dimensions of a text and the importance of the intertextual network it forms
with other texts are illustrated by two examples that of the Succession narrative (in
which the parallels between Eli and David are shown to be hermeneutically significant),
and the book of Esther (in which the parallels with Exodus are shown to be hermeneuti-
cally significant).
OTE 21/2 (2008) 391403

146 Thomas Pola, . . . Dies ist mein Name zum Verbergen. Arkanum und
Amnesie im Alten Testament
As the revelation of the tetragrammaton in the Old Testament implies that YHWH reveals
himself totally, it is strange that there are hints of incompleteness in the Priestly Code
of the Pentateuch (e.g. Ex 25.17, 30.2233, and more) and in the Prophets (concerning
the prophet as a member of the heavenly counsel, e.g. in Jer 1.9). The analysis of the
passages concerned demonstrates that the incompleteness is due to the respect of holiness
or divine mysteries. In some cases this Arcanum leads even to a collective amnesia (e.g.
concerning the vocalisation of the nomen sacrum, the exact localisation of Mount Sinai, the

36
exact recipe of the anointing oil). Bible translations should communicate that the passages
concerned express their respect of holiness.
TBe 39/6 (2008) 346362

147 J.W. Gericke, Yahwism and Projection: An A/Theological Perspective on


Polymorphism in the Old Testament
In this article the presence of projection tendencies in the religious language of Old Tes-
tament Yahwism(s) is demonstrated and the nature and extent thereof is discussed. The
a/theological thesis of the inquiry is that both YHWH and the divine world as depicted
in some of the texts may be seen as being the products of sociomorphic, anthropomorphic
and psychomorphic projective operations. This heterodox perspective is held to be valid
given the culturally relative and historically contingent nature of the biblical references to
the divine and of the constructive nature of its supernaturalism. As a result, it is suggested
that the popular theory claiming that all religious language is metaphorical fails to salvage
realism as it involves the twin fallacies of anachronism and sweeping generalisation when
applied to the Old Testament discourse en bloc.
Scriptura 96 (2007) 407424

148 Yigal Bloch, The Prefixed Perfective and the Dating of Early Hebrew
Poetry A Re-Evaluation
This article takes issue with the theory that those Biblical Hebrew poems, which show an
extensive use of verbal forms belonging to the short prefix-conjugation (Northwest Semitic
yaqtul) to signify complete situations in the past without the conjunction w-, were composed
at an early date (c. 13th10th centuries BCE). The article takes as its starting point the
fundamental discussion by David A. Robertson (1972) and argues that Robertsons neglect
of the Masoretic spelling and vocalization, which often help to distinguish between the
short and long prefix-conjugations in Biblical Hebrew, is unjustified. Then, it is shown that
although in those biblical poems, which are commonly identified as early, short prefixed
verbal forms are used to signify complete situations in the past more frequently without
the conjunction w- than with it, the use of such forms with the conjunction w- (in the
wayyiqtol construction) is also attested in those poems. And on the other hand, a similar
pattern of use of short prefixed verbal forms to signify complete situations in the past
more frequently without the conjunction w- than with it appears also in two poetic texts
that are commonly dated to the 6th century BCE: Isa. 41:15 and Ps. 44.
VT 59/1 (2009) 3470

149 Yigal Bloch, Should Parallelistic Structure Be Used as Evidence for an


Early Dating of Biblical Hebrew Poetry?
Discussing the stylistic aspect of the Early Hebrew Poetry as presented by Terry Fenton
and his predecessors from the Albright school this paper focuses on the issue of poetic
parallelism. The author demonstrates that the kinds of poetic parallelism, held by Fenton
and others to be characteristic of Ugaritic and of the earliest specimens of Hebrew poetry,
are also to be found in biblical poetic compositions dating from the 8th5th centuries BCE
(and possibly later). In addition, these kinds of parallelism are to be found in Aramaic
poetic texts of Pap. Amherst 63, dating generally to the first millennium BCE (examples
of forked parallelism appear in a composition dating no earlier than the mid-7th century
BCE). Hence, the occurrence of the relevant kinds of poetic parallelism in any poetic
text in the Hebrew Bible cannot be used as evidence for dating the composition of that
text to the 13th10th centuries BCE.
JANES 31 (2008) 2345

37
150 Johannes Unsok Ro, Socio-Economic Context of Post-Exilic Community
and Literacy
Examining literacy is one of the most important methods for analyzing socio-economic
stratification of the postexilic community in Palestine. According to Albertz, among
others, considerable portions of Prophetic and Psalmic texts (for example: Mal 2,17; 3,5;
3,1321; Isa 29,1724; 56,957,21; Ps 9/10; 12; 14; 35; 40; 69; 70; 75; 82; 109; 140)
were written by an impoverished group to consolidate their identity and to retaliate against
the power elite in Jerusalem at that time. Many current OT scholars advance the notion
of a theology of the poor in exilic and postexilic Israel. Employing Gerhard Lenskis
sociological theory of advanced agrarian society, this article questions the validity of
the thesis and argues that the theology of the poor was mainly generated by a middle
class of postexilic Israelites like Levites and Hasideans, not by the penniless underclass,
such as farmers, peasants, shepherds, craftsmen and artisans. It also pays special attention
to the theological and ethical implications of theology of the poor for our post-modern
and post-colonial era.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 597611

151 Joseph Blenkinsopp, The Midianite-Kenite Hypothesis Revisited and the


Origins of Judah
The Kenite, or Midianite-Kenite, hypothesis about the origins of the cult of Yahweh first
came into prominence in the late nineteenth century. It rests on four bases: an interpreta-
tion of the biblical texts dealing with the Midianite connections of Moses, allusions in
ancient poetic compositions to the original residence of Yahweh, Egyptian topographical
texts from the fourteenth to the twelfth century, and Cain as the eponymous ancestor of
the Kenites. This article discusses the implications of the hypothesis for the ethnic origins
of Judah.
JSOT 33/2 (2008) 131153

Pentateuch and historical books

Pentateuch: general Yahwist Priestly Code Deuteronomists


152 Didier Luciani, Aimer la Torah plus que Dieu. Au centre, Dieu ou la
loi? Contribution ltude de la structure du Pentateuque
The author discusses recent suggestions that try to describe the overall literary pattern
of the Pentateuch. The authors own suggestion is that Genesis + Exodus and Numbers
+ Deuteronomy form a frame around the book of Leviticus. Thus Leviticus emerges
as the true centre of the Pentateuch. A growing number of commentators support this
conclusion.
RTL 40/2 (2009) 153189 (BL)

153 Henri Cazelles, Statut public et droit priv dans la Torah


The textual layers that make up the Pentateuch include a number of legal codes and
legal perspectives in narrative texts that differ from each other in their perspectives. These
perspectives can be characterized as follows: (1) The deuteronomic code (Deut 1226)
desacralizes the other sanctuaries such as Shechem and Bethel; two more legal codes
are included in what is essentially a deuteronomistic narrative: the covenant code (Exod
20:2223:19, E) and another code (Exod 34:1426, J), both with traces of deuteronomistic
reworking. (2) The E narrative has a firm legal perspective, for it presents the relationship
between God and Israel in the form of a covenant. Moses, a Levite, is mediator of the
covenant and political authority. (3) The Yahwist does not deal with the legal aspect of
social relationships; instead, his focus is on ritual: thus he supports the legitimacy of places

38
of worship whenever one of Israels founding ancestors performed ritual acts at a place of
worship (such as Bethel); not Moses but the king is the guarantor of true religion.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 39 (BL)

154 Richard Elliott Friedman, Three Major Redactors of the Torah


The classic view remains the most probable: a redactor (RJE) cut and combined J and E
into a single continuous text. A second redactor (R) merged this combined JE text with
the Priestly text, added the Deuteronomic corpus at the end, and moved the JE and P
accounts of the appointment of Joshua and the death of Moses to the end of the work.
The present paper seeks to identify the procedures of the two redactors. A third redactor,
the Deuteronomistic Historian, differs from the two; in fact, he was both an editor and a
writer: he started with the law code (now contained in Deut 1226), made some changes
in wording, added an introduction (Deut 111) and a stunningly beautiful conclusion (Deut
2930), and added a report of the last acts of Moses. In the closing section, he added an
old poem, The Blessing of Moses. All of this was just the beginning of his larger literary
project, namely to tell the story of Israel down to the time of Josiah.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 3144 (BL)

155 Hans-Christoph Schmitt, Erzvtergeschichte und Exodusgeschichte als


konkurrierende Ursprungslegenden Israels ein Irrweg der Pentateuch-
forschung
Exodustradition and patriarchal tradition were originally independent, but were united
at an early stage of tradition. Both were cultivated at the sanctuary of Bethel, and both
show traces of being woven together after 722 BCE. In postexilic times, they were never
thought of as alternatives (against Th. Rmer and K. Schmid).
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (eds.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 241266 (BL)

156 William G. Dever, Can Archaeology Serve as a Tool in Textual Criticism


of the Hebrew Bible?
Archaeology supports the notion that much of the Old Testament belongs to the late
eighth and the seventh centuries BCE, the first era for which we have adequate archaeo-
logical evidence for widespread literacy in Israel. The traditional dates for J and E (tenth
and ninth century BCE) should be lowered to the late eighth and the seventh centuries.
However, the notion of a Hellenistic Bible as suggested by scholars of minimalist per-
suasion does not make sense.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
225237 (BL)

157 Eckart Otto, Die Tora. Studien zum Pentateuch Gesammelte Schriften
Twenty-five papers are collected in this huge volume. Otto (b. 1944), now an emeritus
professor at the University of Munich, Germany, has reinvigorated the study of the Old
Testament legal traditions in the light of cuneiform sources. Among his key contributions
is the idea that Moses the legislator may be seen as a response to neo-Assyrian royal ideol-
ogy. In one paper, that on Gerhard von Rad (pp. 620ff.), the author permits us a glimpse
of his scholarly career and how he feels about the work of the scholars who inspired his
own approach. This very rich collection should be in all exegetical libraries.
Beihefte zur ZABR 9; Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden (2009) VII/1714

39
158 Bruce Wells, What Is Biblical Law? A Look at Pentateuchal Rules and
Near Eastern Practice
Some pentateuchal laws reflect ancient Near Eastern legal practice, and some may or may
not. That some pentateuchal laws share similar legal issues, reasoning, and remedies with
ancient Near Eastern documents of practice strengthens the likelihood that others, though
not all, do as well. Thus, this evidence appears to favour only some of the points of view
described in the first section of the article. Although it does not provide decisive proof,
the evidence tends to favour those views that allow for some level of connection between
the provisions in the codes and real-life law: views A (authoritative law), B (competing
sets of authoritative law), and D (legally descriptive treatises). It tends to disfavour those
views that sever the connection between the codes and legal practice: views C (theoreti-
cal treatises) and E (nonlegal treatises). Ultimately, though, it seems that a single view is
insufficient to explain all the material in the pentateuchal laws the author prefers view D
(legally descriptive treatises) as an explanation for much of the material in the codes.
CBQ 70/2 (2008) 223243

159 Eckart Otto, Ersetzen oder Ergnzen von Gesetzen in der Rechtsherme-
neutik des Pentateuch. Zu einem Buch von Jeffrey Stackert
Die Monographie von J. Stackert, Rewriting the Torah. Literary Revision in Deuteronomy and
Holiness Legislation (FAT 52, Tbingen 2007), besttigt erneut die literaturhistorische und
damit auch rechtshistorische Abfolge von Bundesbuch, Dtn, und Heiligkeitsgesetz, die
das Fachwerk fr die Geschichte der Redaktion im Pentateuch bildet. Sie bedarf jedoch
einer den Blick in die literarischen Kontexte der Rechtsberlieferungen ausweitenden
Ergnzung, um den Textnominalismus des Stackerts zugunsten einer biblischen Rechts-
geschichte zu berwinden.
ZABR 14 (2008) 434442

160 Eckart Otto, Abraham zwischen Jhwh und Elohim. Zur narrativen Logik
des Wechsels der Gottesbezeichnungen in den Abrahamserzhlungen
Wenn Jahwe seinen Namen erst am Dornbusch in der Wste offenbart (Ex 3,1315),
aber bereits in der Urgeschichte die Anrufung des Jahwenamens notiert wird (Gen 4,26),
so erklrt sich das aus dem Unterschied zwischen Erzhlzeit ( jetzt) und erzhlter Zeit
(damals). Der Leser wei, dass Jahwe von Anfang an hinter allem Geschehen steht. Der
Wechsel von Jahwe und Elohim in Gen 2022 und, innerhalb von Gen 22, von Elohim
zu Jahwe folgt derselben Logik: Elohim weist in die erzhlte Zeit (Vergangenheit), Jahwe
in die Gegenwart des Lesers.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn u.a. (Hg.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 4965 (BL)

161 Etienne Nodet, Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus


Lors de son compte-rendu de Russell E. Gmirkin, Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus,
LHBOT 433, 2006 (IRBS 53:188), Nodet tablit tout un programme de recherch par-
tir de ce livre remarquable qui propose une rdaction fort tardive du Pentateuque. Voici
quelques pistes suivre: (1) Le lieu choisi par Yahv pour faire rsider son nom, refrain
du Deutronome, nest pas Jrusalem, mais bien Sichem ou le mont Garizim, comme la
montr A. Schenker. (2) II y a lieu de supposer que la bibliothque dAlxandrie renfer-
mait des ouvrages en hbreu, et sans doute aussi dans dautres langues barbares. Est-ce
que le Pentateuque a t rdig en Alxandrie partir de documents trouvs dans cette
bibliothque? (3) En Gense 49,5 on trouve le mot mkrh pour dire glaive; cest un mot
grec bien connu, mchaira. (4) Pour ltude de la vnration des anctres ou patriarches
comme Abraham il faut prendre en considration de Josphe: les Damascnes, rapporte-
t-il, vnrent leurs anciens rois comme des dieux (Antiquits juives IX, 9394).
RB 114/4 (2007) 615621 (BL)

40
162 Christoph Levin, The Yahwist: The Earliest Editor in the Pentateuch
While others take the priestly author (P) to be the creator of the first overarching nar-
rative presentation of early Israel, Levin argues that an exilic Yahwist was the editor of
the whole Pentateuch.
JBL 126/2 (2007) 209230

163 Israel Knohl, Nimrod, Son of Cush, King of Mesopotamia, and the
Dates of P and J
The negative attitude toward the Mesopotamian peoples and Nimrod in Gen 1011 ( J =
Yahwist) reflects the conflict between Assyria and Israel in the second half of the eighth
century BCE. The earlier stratum of Genesis 10, that of P (Priestly Code), was written
before the time of this conflict. In other words: P dates from the ninth or early eighth
century BCE, and J from the second half of the eighth century BCE.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 4552 (BL)

164 Ludwig Schmidt, Die Priesterschrift kein Ende am Sinai!


In current research there is increasing support for the view that the original Priestly Work
ended at Sinai. This view is untenable, as is shown here with reference to several examples.
In Ex 6,8 P includes a promise of the land to the Exodus generation: the Priestly story
of the spies (Num 13f.*) shows why this was not fulfilled for the Exodus generation. The
narrative of water from the rock (Num 20,la.213) contains a nucleus from P, which
was subsequently expanded by the final redaction of the Pentateuch and related by it to
the pre-Priestly parallel in Ex 17,lb7. This nucleus formed, with the quails-manna nar-
rative (Ex 16,115*) Ps framework for Israels sojourn in the wilderness. P, in contrast to
the pre-Priestly account, named no places or encampments in the wilderness before and
after Sinai, but only various wildernesses. This is why in its spies story P replaced its pre-
Priestly location at Kadesh by the Wilderness of Paran, which is mentioned by P alone
in the wilderness wanderings.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 481500

165 Jean-Louis Ska, Le rcit sacerdotal: une histoire sans fin?


The end of the Priestly Code (Pg, the original textual layer of P) is to be sought for
somewhere in the book of Numbers. To this layer belong Numbers 1314; 20:113;
27:1223.
BEThL 215; Thomas Rmer (ed.), The Books of Leviticus and Numbers; Peeters, Leuven (2008)
631653 (BL)

166 Hartmut N. Rsel, The So-called Deuteronomistic History: A Discussion


with Thomas Rmer
According to Rmer (The So-Called Deuteronomistic History, 2005), the Deuteronomistic His-
tory was not written by one main author (as was suggested earlier by M. Noth). Instead,
the Deuteronomistic History went through various stages, developing in a long and
complicated process, and held together by certain unifying leitmotifs. Rsel differs from
Rmers analysis in one important respect: while Rmer seems to imply the existence of
one huge scroll that was at one point begun and that was subsequently rewritten and
expanded, it seems more likely that there was a number of smaller scrolls. These scrolls,

41
while all contributing to the general theme of the history of the Israelites, do not share
as many leitmotifs as Rmer suggests.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
9196 (BL)

167 H.G.M. Williamson, How Did the Deuteronomists Envisage the Past?
The Deuteronomists envisaged the past in terms of rise and fall. They saw clear steps both
on the ascent and the descent, which they interpreted from a religious perspective.
Hans M. Barstad et al. (eds.), The Past in the Past: Concepts of past Reality in Ancient Near Eastern
and Early Greek Thought, Novus Press, Oslo (2009) 133152 (BL)

168 Felipe Blanco Wissmann, Er tat das Rechte . . . Beurteilungskriterien und


Deuteronomismus in 1 Kn 122 Kn 25
The evaluations of kings that punctuate this text are based upon a theology that differs
from that of the book of Deuteronomy. They belong to a different, later period and, like
contemporary Neo-Babylonian texts, echo specifically priestly sentiments about kings and
royal rule. The ideal monarch would be one whose primary concern is to protect and
promote the worship of Yahweh. Interestingly, the cult of Marduk, like that of Yahweh,
survived the demise of the (Babylonian) monarchy and organized itself as a community
centered upon a high priest; see T. Boiy, Late Acheamenid and Hellenistic Babylon, Leuven
2004.
AThANT 93; Theologischer Verlag Zrich, Zrich (2008) VIII/1293 (BL)

Genesis: general Primeval History (Gen 111) patriarchs (Gen 1250)


Tale of Joseph (Gen 3750)
169 Bill T. Arnold, Genesis
This is a detailed commentary on what scholars have termed the final text of the book
of Genesis, i.e. the text as it can be read now, as opposed to textual layers that are recon-
structed by scholars. Nevertheless, Arnold indicates his general idea of diachronic devel-
opment: the earliest textual layer, he argues, seems to be an old epic narrative of Israels
early history, a text whose author is generally called the Yahwist (a historian living in the
southern kingdom and writing in the ninth or eighth century BCE), However, Arnold does
not burden his commentary with discussions about sources and dates. Instead, he care-
fully explains the biblical text and indicates representative exegetical options and debates,
often in shaded inserts for quick reference. This excellent commentary also benefits from
Arnolds Assyriological expertise. Highly recommended.
The New Cambridge Bible Commentary; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2009) XXI/1409
(BL)

170 Sidney Greidanus, Detecting Plot Lines: The Key to Preaching the Genesis
Narratives
The book of Genesis consists primarily of cycles of narratives linking later Israel to the
beginnings of Gods redemptive history. In this paper the plot lines of the development
in some of those narratives are drawn in order to discover the themes of the narratives
for preachers. Once the theme has been formulated as a brief, single sentence, preachers
can write their sermons with the confidence that they know the focus of the narrators
message for Israel and the point(s) they can legitimately make for the church today.
CTJ 43/1 (2008) 6477

42
171 Michael J. Williams, Lies, Lies, I Tell You! The Deceptions of Genesis
The practice of deception in Genesis is found in this study at all levels of the social
ladder. Fifteen cases are explicitly discussed. In some cases, however, a positive assess-
ment is indicated by the narratives description of the outcome of the deception. The
author, therefore, suggests a criterion for positive deception which is the restoration of
shalom (= normal relationship of things or people to each other) being the motive of the
deceiver.
CTJ 43/1 (2008) 920

172 Jean-Pierre Sternberger, Les tentes des matriarches


Transcrits une poque ancienne de manire indiffrencie par la lettre h, les pronoms
hbreux de la 3e personne du singulier masculin et fminin sont souvent corrigs par les
Massortes comme des masculins en waw. Cest le cas dans le livre de la Gense pour
quatre emplois du mot ohel (tente), avec un suffixe en h selon le texte crit (ketyv) ou en
waw selon la lecture orale (quere). J.-P. Sternberger examine le sens de ces pronoms dans
leurs contextes dorigine. Il note une possible rfrence un phnomne largement attest
au sein des populations bdouines: la tente nappartient pas lhomme (patriarche) mais
son pouse. Le motif de la tente de la matriarche pourrait caractriser une couche
rdactionnelle contemporaine des premiers retours de lexil; il renverrait ainsi un idal
de vie nomade personnifi par No, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob et leurs pouses.
ETR 83/2 (2008) 187200

173 David Volgger, Die Opfer in Gen 111


The concept of sacrifice is not a crucial point in Genesis 111. Gen 4,35 and 8,2021
mention a gift made for YHWH. In both texts men act without a clear order of God. The
offering of gifts does not express a positive progress of the human plan and of human
acts. It is not clear if YHWH really accepted the offerings. Hence, the reader of Gen
111 is a witness of Gods plan of creating life notwithstanding the dangerous jealousy
of men and the end of life upon earth. He does not learn anything definitive about the
gift men should bring for YHWH.
LASBF 57 (2007) 927

174 Christian Grappe, Le crationisme et les donnes bibliques


The work of the Turkish Islamic propagandist Harun Yahya LAtlas de la Cration offers a
recent example of how creationism remains appealing to fundamentalist circles, not only in
Christianity but also in Islam. Reading Gen. 1:12:4a and Gen 2:4b3:24 both separately
and comparatively, the author of this paper shows that the biblical texts about the creation
are not meant to be answers to the question of why we are here as creationism assumes
but to the very different question of what we are here for.
ETR 84/1 (2009) 95108

175 Thomas Pola, Die Schpfung auf den ersten Seiten der Bibel (Gen
1,12,25) Bericht oder Darstellung?
Gen l:l2:4a (P) and 2:4b25 ( J) are not interested in reporting the manner in which the
creation was accomplished. The details in these passages and the passages as a whole are
addressed to its ancient (and modern) recipient in order to introduce him to creation as a
cosmological structure on the one hand and to the theological intention of the pentateuchal
source concerned on the other hand.
TBe 40/3 (2009) 167174

43
176 John H. Walton, Creation in Genesis 1:12:3 and the Ancient Near
East: Order out of Disorder after Chaoskampf
As an account of cosmogony through temple building, Genesis 1 resonates well with
the ancient world but need not be provided with theomachy or a chaoskampf motif. As
a functional account of origins, it does not offer a competing paradigm to information
pertaining to material origins provided by modern science, though it does insist on Gods
involvement in origins he is the one who made the cosmos functional and sustains its
operations.
CTJ 43/1 (2008) 4863

177 Gordon, H. Johnston, Genesis 1 and Ancient Egyptian Creation Myths


Genesis 1 appears to be a literary polemic designed to refute ancient Near Eastern creation
mythology in general and ancient Egyptian creation mythology in particular. Although
several elements in this passage surely reflect a general Semitic background, the majority
of parallel elements are cast against the Egyptian mythologies. This suggests that Genesis
1 was originally composed not as a scientific treatise, but as a theological polemic against
the ancient Egyptian models of creation which competed against Yahwism for the loyalty
of the ancient Israelites.
BS 165/2 (2008) 178194

178 Wolfgang Oswald, Das Erstlingswerk Gottes zur bersetzung von


Gen 1,1
The use of rjt elsewhere in P and the analogy of Prov 8,22 and Job 40,19 indicate that
its meaning in Gen 1,1 is first work. The preposition beth can likewise by analogy with
other occurrences in P (Gen 1,26; Ex 6,3) be understood as a beth essentiae. As rjt is inher-
ently determined and so does not form part of a construct relationship, Gen 1,1 should
be translated as a heading: As his first work God created heaven and earth.
ZAW 120/3 (2008) 417421

179 Russell R. Reno, Reading the Bible with the Church


Am Beispiel von Gen 1,1 verdeutlicht der Verf. die bleibende Relevanz der traditionellen
Interpretation der Schrift fr moderne bersetzungen. Gegen moderne bersetzungsvor-
schlge von Gen 1,1 wie Im Anfang, als Gott Himmel und Erde erschuf oder Als Gott
Himmel und Erde zu erschaffen began hlt er an der traditionellen bersetzung Im
Anfang schuf Gott Himmel und Erde fest. Diese bersetzung (1) hilft einen unntigen
Konflikt zwischen der Schpfung und der Wissenschaft zu vermeiden, (2) sie erleichtert
ein gewissenhaftes Zusammenspiel zwischen Glauben und Vernunft, und (3) sie optimiert
die geistliche Fruchtbarkeit des Interpretationsvorgangs.
CTJ 43/1 (2008) 3547 (DL)

180 Mark S. Smith, Light in Genesis 1:3 Created or Uncreated: A Question


of Priestly Mysticism?
Within the priesthood, Gen 1 may conceal an esoteric dimension. In addition to authoriz-
ing priestly torah for Israel, the passage may express a feature more muted yet additionally
meaningful to the priesthood. This presentation of creation might not divulge the whole
store of priestly lore: it may hold back secret speculations and associated visionary praxis
that the priesthood may have wished to keep to itself. Uncreated theophanous light (i.e.,
the primeval light) may well have been the subject of discussion and speculation (see
Ezek 43:2).
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 125134 (BL)

44
181 Jakob Whrle, dominium terrae. Exegetische und religionsgeschichtliche
berlegungen zum Herrschaftsauftrag in Gen 1,2628
The meaning of the conferral of dominion in Gen 1,2628 is much debated in Old
Testament scholarship. Especially in recent times it has often been supposed that the
commission in Gen 1,2628 provides for a human responsibility for the well-being of
nature and animals. But a fresh study of the verbs kb and rdh, which are used here, and
a comparison based on the history of religions with the imposition of productive labour
on humans in ancient Near Eastern creation myths show that according to Gen 1,2628
humans are meant to achieve and exercise dominion over animals. In this way they are
to take control of the environment (earth) whose use they share with the animals and
make it inhabitable for themselves.
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 171188

182 Annette Schellenberg, Humankind as the Image of God. On the


Priestly predication (Gen 1:2627; 5:1; 9:6) and its relationship to the
ancient near Eastern understanding of images
Ausgehend von der Beobachtung, dass im altorientalischen Verstndnis Funktion und
Wesen von Kultbildern und als Bild (eines) Gottes bezeichneten Knigen nicht vonein-
ader zu trennen sind, wird in diesem Aufsatz erneut nach den Bedeutungsdimensionen
der priesterschriftlichen Gottebenbildlichkeitsaussagen gefragt. Aus Beobachtungen zum
Fortgang der priesterschriftlichen Urgeschichte, in deren Verlauf sich der Mensch als
unfhiger Herrscher erweist (Gen 6:913) und von Gott in seinem Amt entsprechend
nicht mehr besttigt wird (Gen 9:17), dennoch aber weiterhin als Bild Gottes gilt (Gen
9:6), werden folgende Schlsse gezogen: (1) Die priesterschriftlichen Gottebenbildlich-
keitsaussagen beziehen sich nicht nur auf die Funktion des Menschen als Herrscher ber
die Tiere. (2) Als Bild Gottes wird der Mensch in P nicht wegen, sondern trotz seines
Wesens bezeichnet. (3) Der Fokus liegt nicht auf dem Menschen, der gottebenbildlich ist,
sondern auf Gott, der den Menschen als gottebenbildlich erschafft/erachtet. (4) Weil Gott
einer und damit der Schpfer aller Menschen ist, gelten die priesterschriftlichen Aussagen
ber den Menschen tatschlich allen Menschen.
ThZ 65/2 (2009) 97115

183 Stephen L. Herring, A Transubstantiated Humanity: The Relationship


between the Divine Image and the Presence of God in Genesis i 26f.
Since the 1960s the consensus in Old Testament research regarding humanitys role as
image of God has been along the lines of a functional or propagandistic interpretation.
Thus, humanity represents the deity by functioning like him: they rule over the earth by
his command and in his stead. This interpretation, however, often overlooks the ontological
worldview of the ancient Near East where the distinction between object and referent was
not as clear as it is today. The image functioned to make present the referent, be it god or
king. In this way, the priestly conception of humanity as divine image is more than mere
function but concerns the manifestation of divine presence as well.
VT 58/45 (2008) 480494

184 Nathanal Garric, Lhomme ou la reprsentation divine: le terme


elem en Gense 1,26
elem est un terme fondamentalement materiel bien que susceptible dune lecture mta-
phorique. Il se distingue avant tout des noms qui lui sont connexes, par sa propension
voquer la lumire et les couleurs, dnotant une image plus ferme que la simple forme
ou la silhouette. Il sen distingue ensuite par ses emplois abstraits et figuratifs. Mais que le
mot soit saisi dans une dimension matrielle ou bien quil soit lobjet dune lecture mta-
phorique, elem implique toujours une forme de ressemblance qui se rapproche, en franais,

45
de lide de reprsentation. Ainsi la philologie confirme-t-elle les analyses thologiques
contemporaines de verset Gense 1,26, qui voient limago Dei, non dans lme ou le corps
seuls, mais bien dans lhomme tout entier.
RB 115/3 (2008) 440447

185 Serge Cazelais, La masculofminit dAdam: quelques tmoins textuels


et exgses chrtiennes anciennes de Gen. 1,27
Early Jewish and Christian exegesis knows an interpretation of Genesis 1,27 that under-
stands Adam as a masculine and feminine being. Rabbinic testimonies relate that some
Septuagint manuscripts read male and female He made him, although modern research
has not found any manuscript that bears this reading. This paper shows that this reading
was preserved in Bohairic manuscripts and in Marius Victorinus. Also, a particular way of
punctuating the verse seems to have been known to Augustine and may partly explain this
exegetical tradition. This way of punctuating is reflected also in the manuscript tradition
of the Bohairic version of the Genesis.
RB 114/2 (2007) 174188

186 Ronald Hendel, Leitwort Style and Literary Structure in the J Primeval
Narrative
Exploration of a stylistic device (first described by Martin Buber) in Gen 211.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
93109 (BL)

187 Jean-Louis Ska, Genesis 23: Some Fundamental Questions


Genesis 23, a passage dating from post-exilic times (presumably the late Persian period)
and not amenable to literary-critical dissection, is in opposition to Genesis 1 and endeavours
to explain in a different way the origin of humankind and its early condition.
FAT 11.34; Konrad Schmid et al. (eds.), Beyond Eden; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2008) 127 (BL)

188 Christoph Levin, Das verlorene Paradies (Genesis 23)


Levin fragt nach der ltesten erkennbaren Gestalt von Gen 23 und nach deren Verhltnis
zur Mythologie des alten Orients. Der Grundbestand der alten Erzhlung ist zu finden in
Gen 2,5.7.8.19.2022; 3,20.21; 4,1.
Stefan Gehrig u.a. (Hg.), Gottes Wahrnehmungen; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 85101

189 Bernhard Lang, The Forbidden Fruit: An Ancient Myth and Its Trans-
formation in Genesis 23
Once we realize that the forbidden tree of paradise was a mandrake whose fruit promotes
fertility, the original, pre-canonical version of the biblical story can be reconstructed: In
the beginning, the fruit of the tree of life (i.e., the mandrake) was prohibited to humans
so that only the gods would know the secret of fertility and sexuality. But after one of
the gods had betrayed the divine secret, the first human couple partook of the fruit and
gained insight into the mechanisms of fertility and reproduction. As a consequence, the
gods punished the humans (by sending them out of paradise), the betrayer (by reduc-
ing it to a poisonous snake), and the tree (by transforming the mandrake tree into small
shrub). This pre-canonical myth, which can be reconstructed with the help of a passage
included in the Physiologus, was transformed into an Israelite myth that suppressed the
theme of marital fertility by highlighting the theme of obedience. The paper also offers
guidelines for the interpretation of biblical mythology (developed in conversation with
C. Lvi-Strauss).
Bernhard Lang, Hebrew Life and Literature; Ashgate, Farnham (Surrey) (2008) 111126 (BL)

46
190 Paul Krueger, Etiology or Obligation? Genesis 2:24 Reconsidered in the
Light of Text Linguistics
A man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife. The author demonstrates
that the exact meaning a commentator attributes to this passage depends on his or her
general exegetical method. The general approach to the text forms the basis of the specific
interpretation offered. Three possibilities are discussed: (1) If the passage is considered
as a report on real life events, the interpreter tends to move from primeval events to the
present time: what happened when man and woman were made, is a standard how the
two should behave in all history. (2) Since the remark in v. 24 is a lesson or some sort of
conclusion to the rest of Gen 2, the author had a specific effect in mind, and the effect
must be determined by the interpreter. (3) Gen 2 serves as a prologue to Gen 3 and 4.
Accordingly, the remark in Gen 2:24 on union serves as background for the various
schisms that characterize the text that follows.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
3547 (BL)

191 Emanuel Pfoh, Genesis 4 Revisited: Some Remarks on Divine Patronage


This brief paper aims to reconsider Cains sinful deed in Genesis 4 in the light of what
may be termed Yahwehs divine patronage, as expressed throughout the Old Testaments
narrative as a whole. From this point of view, Cains first sin was not the envy towards
Abel or the murder of his brother but rather the implicit disobedience of Yahwehs word
and his lack of humility for accepting divine will.
SJOT 23/1 (2009) 3845

192 H.G.L. Peels, In het teken van Kan. Een theologische exegese van Genesis
Violence and animosity are important and often displayed subjects within biblical narra-
tives. Genesis 4 recounts the well-known story of Cain and Abel. The story of the worlds
first children turns out to be the story of the worlds first murder. YHWHs role in this
process is of particular interest: his warnings (vss 67), his interrogation (vss 910), his
sentence (vss 1112) and his promise (vs 15). This article investigates Genesis 4:116 and
focuses especially on the remarkable promise to Cain, the nature of Cains mark (vs 15)
and the theological significance of YHWH as the keeper of Abels brother.
Verbum et Ecclesia 29/1 (2008) 172193

193 John Byron, Cains Rejected Offering: Interpretive Approaches to a


Theological Problem
The story of Cain and Abel records the first ever offering made to God. The question
that quickly rises to the surface when reading Gen. 4.37 is: What was wrong with Cains
offering? Why did God reject it? Gods seeming capriciousness in rejecting one sacrifice over
the other creates a theological problem. The problem is compounded by Abels murder.
Since Cains act of fratricide is precipitated by Gods unexplained rejection of the sacrifice
which resulted in Cains anger, God becomes complicit in the act. These problems opened
the door for ancient interpreters to expand and rework the story in a way that exonerated
God of appearing capricious and, by extension, complicit in Abels murder. This article
traces the interpretive approaches used by Jewish and Christian exegetes to respond to a
theological problem created by gaps in the narrative.
JSP 18/1 (2008) 322

194 Joel N. Lohr, So YHWH established a sign for Cain: Rethinking


Genesis 4,15
The so-called mark of Cain has long been thought to be something God puts upon Cains
body or a trait Cain would possess to deter would-be avengers. Often overlooked, however,

47
are details immediately following the story Gen 4,17 dealing with the building of a city
which may well indicate the sign. In this short note the author argues that the sign might
best be understood not as a mark upon the body, but as something God established for
Cains protection perhaps a city of refuge.
ZAW 121/1 (2009) 101103

195 Benjamin Ziemer, Erklrung der Zahlen von Gen 5 aus ihrem komposi-
tionellen Zusammenhang
The individual numbers in Gen 5 do not derive from any of the Pentateuchal sources,
but were purposefully composed by the (Priestly) redactor of the Pentateuch to combine
together data from the different sources and traditions in the present text. Deliberate rein-
terpretation of non-Priestly data by means of the redactional number-system provides an
explanation of the basic unit of a year which elapses between conception and birth, the
chronological framework of the divine day which lasts a thousand years, and the 17th
day of the 2nd month as the decisive date in the Flood story. The same system applies to
the individual numbers of years which are supplied in the MT of Gen 5 and are to be
reckoned up in accordance with it.
ZAW 121/1 (2009) 118

196 Helen R. Jacobus, The Curse of Cainan ( Jub. 8.15): Genealogies in


Genesis 5 and Genesis 11 and a Mathematical Pattern
This study suggests that Cainan (LXX Gen. 10.24; Gen. 11.12; [LXX A] 1 Chron. 1.18;
Jub. 8.15; Lk. 3.3637), the missing thirteenth patriarch from Adam in the genealogical
table in Masoretic text (MT) and the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) was known to the authors
of the proto-MT, and the proto-SP. Using textual and chrono-genealogical analysis, it offers
evidence to show that the thirteenth generation from the thirteenth generation from Adam
had to contend with a curse. An arithmetical test on the variant chrono-genealogical data
in Gen. 5 and Gen. 11 in the MT, SP, LXX Vaticanus (B), LXX Alexandrinus (A) and the
Peshitta show that the ages and begetting ages of the ancestors across the recensions create
an integrated mathematical model. It would appear that the variant data in the texts was
compiled by the same mathematical school of Jewish scholars, probably in Palestine and
Alexandria. The arithmetical paradigm takes into account Cainans presence in LXX B
and LXX A and his absence in the proto-MT, proto-SP and the Peshitta. It is likely that
the Gen. 5 and Gen. 11 chrono-genealogies can be dated to between the compilation
of the LXX Genesis, in the third century BCE and the schism between the Samaritans
and the Jews in the second century BCE.
JSP 18/3 (2009) 207232

197 Hermann-Josef Stipp, Who is Responsible for the Deluge? Changing


Outlooks in the Ancient Near East and the Bible
The story of the deluge (Gen 611) offers an example of how traditional Ancient Near
Eastern narrative materials were adapted for the inclusion into Israelite theological lit-
erature. In the Mesopotamian sources, the flood was a tragic event insofar as it targeted
mankind, even though the reasons for the deluge were beyond human control. When the
traditional pot was transferred into a Yahwistic framework, it had to be reconciled with
the idea of divine justice. The pre-priestly and priestly flood accounts represent successive
stages in this process of reinterpretation. Whereas the pre-priestly version tolerates a certain
degree of self-contradiction on Yhwhs part, the priestly account devotes significant efforts
to bringing Yhwhs behaviour into line with the rules of the talion.
Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palstina-Vereins 37; Izak Cornelius et al., From Ebla to Stellenbosch.
Syro-Palestinian Religions and the Hebrew Bible; Harrassowitz Verlag,Wiesbaden (2008) 141153

48
198 Terence E. Fretheim, The God of the Flood Story and Natural Disasters
The purpose of this paper is some theological considerations about Gods actions in the
Flood Story in face of experiences with natural disaster in present times. The author
claims that the biblical narrative about the flood focuses on God and Gods commitment
to the world. What God does here recharacterizes the divine relationship to the world.
God qualifies the workings of divine judgment and promises an orderly cosmos for the
continuation of life (34). Gods promise not to do it again implies his new approach to
the reality of human sin.
CTJ 43/1 (2008) 2134 (DL)

199 Andreas Schle, The Divine-Human Marriages (Genesis 6:14) and the
Greek Framing of the Primeval History
Die vielfach als Fremdkrper empfundene Episode der sog. Engelehen in Gen 6,14
wird in diesem Beitrag vor dem Hintergrund griechischer Mythologie interpretiert. Mit
der Erwhnung eines Geschlechts von Helden, das aus der Vereinigung von Menschen
und Gttern hervorgeht, spielt Gen 6,14 auf die in der griechischen Antike zentrale
Heldenmythologie an und integriert diese in das urgeschichtliche Bild von der Erschaf-
fung und Ausbreitung der Menschen. Die Kernaussage ist dabei, dass in der Frhphase
der Menschheit die Grenzen zwischen gttlicher und menschlicher Sphre noch flieend
waren. Dem setzt YHWH ein Ende, indem er die Lebensspanne der Menschen auf 120
Jahre begrenzt.
ThZ 65/2 (2009) 116128

200 Holger Gzella, Zum periphrastischen Infinitiv in Genesis viii 5


The astonishing use of the double infinitive absolute with the verb hjh, attested only in Gen.
viii 5, has not yet been explained satisfactorily. This paper argues that this construction
is neither a variant form of the periphrastic participle, nor that hjh serves as a pluperfect.
Instead, the two infinitives provide an adverbial modification for the main verb by specifi-
cally marking durativity and/or iterativity. However, precisely the combination with hjh
appears to be special. The past tense indicator hjh, itself being semantically void here, has
been employed instead of a full verb, even though such a full verb would normally be
expected with this expression, in order to retrieve a piece of information given in Gen. viii
3 and move it from the background to the foreground. It is thus the information structure
which conditions the authors decision to explicitly mark the durative Aktionsart.
VT 58/45 (2008) 469479

201 Victor Avigdor Hurowitz, In Search of Resen (Genesis 10:12): Dur


Sharrukin?
The author suggests that Resen is to be identified with Dur Sharrukin. See also A. van
der Kooij, in: A. Lemaire (ed.), Congress Volume Leiden 2004, Leiden 2006, 117, esp. pp.
1117 (IRBS 52:231).
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 511524 (BL)

202 Jan Christian Gertz, Babel im Rcken und das Land vor Augen.
Anmerkungen zum Abschluss der Urgeschichte und zum Anfang der
Erzhlung von den Erzeltern Israels
W. von Soden unterscheidet zwischen reflektiertem Mythos als Erzhlung, die mythi-
schen Stoff der berlieferung entnimmt und diesem durch Neuerzhlung einen aktuellen
Bezug verleiht, und konstruiertem Mythos, dem als Ad-hoc-Bildung der Hintergrund
in der Tradition fehlt. Die Turmbauerzhlung Gen 11 ist als reflektierter Mythos zu

49
verstehen. Gen 11 steht nicht isoliert da, sondern ist in sowohl mit der vorangegangenen
Urgeschichte als auch mit der Vtererzhlung verwoben. Gertz liefert eine eingehende
Kommentierung von Gen 11 im Vorgriff auf seinen Kommentar zu Gen 111 in der
Reihe Das Alte Testament deutsch.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (Hg.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 934 (BL)

203 George Van Pelt, Refusing Gods Blessing: An Exposition of Genesis


11:2732
Genesis 11:2730 presents Terah as a man unable to escape the effects of sin, who lived
and died without blessing or hope because he rejected Gods call. His life fittingly sum-
marizes the effects of sin, as well as the lack of response to Gods grace, portrayed in
Genesis 211. He stands in contrast to his son Abraham, whose life was a journey into
the broad sunlit uplands of Gods presence. The difference between Terah and Abraham
was one thing only: a response of faith to Gods call.
BS 165/3 (2008) 268282

204 Richard Benton, The Niphal and Hitpael of brk in the Patriarchal
Narratives
Using cross-linguistic evidence, the author demonstrates that the Niphal and Hitpael forms
of brk in the patriarchal narratives focus on the resulting state and the process of the
nations being blessed, respectively. The contexts with the Niphal form bring the resulting
state into relief by emphasizing a particular individual as an agent and not looking back
at the beginning point of the process. In contrast, the Hitpael examples refer to interme-
diate points during a dynamic process by highlighting collective, indistinct agents and the
beginning point of the action.
KUSATU 8.9 (2008) 117

205 Renate Brandscheidt, Abraham. Glaubenswanderschaft und Opfergang


des von Gott Erwhlten
Individual chapters present readings of the following chapters: Genesis 1213 (Abraham
as bearer of blessing and promise), 14 (Abraham as saviour in the war of the kings), 15
(faith and covenant), 1819 (Abrahams future and Sodoms destruction), 21 (the birth of
Isaac and the expulsion of Ismael), 22 (the sacrifice of Abraham), 23 (buying the tomb
at Machpela). For her general theological perspective on Genesis as literature of faith,
attesting a growing theological reflection, the author is indebted to Ernst Haag and
Rudolf Mosis.
Echter Verlag, Wrzburg (2009) 1366

206 Bob Becking, Abram in Exile: Remarks on Genesis 12,1020


The historicity of the underlying event cannot be proven; camels, for instance, appear in
Palestine not before the Persian period (1 Chr 12:14). The story dramatizes challenging
experiences of drought, fear, and famine, and these cannot be fixed chronologically. The
story is told with the exodus tradition in mind: we can see that, at the time of the writing
of the passage, the God of the patriarchs had already been identified with the God of the
exodus. The narrative was told some time during the period of Israels monarchy, and it
no doubt functioned as a signal of hope for an audience in distress.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (eds.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 3547 (BL)

50
207 Max Rogland, Abrams Persistent Faith: Hebrew Verb Semantics in
Genesis 15:6
This analysis shows that it is not at all uncommon for a narrator to utilize verbal forms
indicating different aspectual nuances within the same sentence. Similar interchange occurs
in Gen 15:6. In light of this analysis the most natural reading of whmn in this verse is as
a waw-consecutive form that refers to an imperfective (habitual-iterative) past situation.
By taking note of the aspectual value of whmn, it emerges that Abrams believing in
the Lord is not to be viewed as a single moment of trust that took place in Gen 15 but
rather as something that occurred repeatedly.
WThJ 70/2 (2008) 239244

208 Jed H. Abraham, The Covenant Between the Parts


Die 400 Jahre des Abraham in Gen 15,1316 vorausgesagten Aufenthaltes der Israeliten in
gypten beginnen nicht mit der Generation nach Abraham sondern mit der Unterdrk-
kung des Volkes in gypten. Mit den vier Generationen sind somit die Generation von
Levi, die von seiner Tochter Yocheved (Ex 6,20) und die Generation von Aaron gemeint.
Nach dessen Tod kehrt eine vierte Generation entsprechend dem Versprechen Gottes in
Genesis 15 in das Land Kanaan zurck.
JBL 36/4 (2008) 231242 (DL)

209 Konrad Schmid, Gibt es eine abrahamitische kumene im Alten Testa-


ment? berlegungen zur religionspolitischen Theologie der Priesterschrift
in Genesis 17
Is Abraham in Genesis 17 the father and representative figure just of Judaism or also of
other people, including the Edomites? A careful exegetical study reveals that Genesis 17
is indeed a text that transcends the limits of a narrowly defined Judaism. The text may
date from the Persian period, when Abrahams city Hebron was located in an area then
belonging to the Edomites (Idumeans). Included in Gods covenant with Abraham are
Isaac (and his descendants, i.e., the Jews) and Ishmael (and his descendants, i.e. southern
Israels non-Jewish neighbours).
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (eds.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 6792 (BL)

210 Karin Schpflin, Abrahams Unterredung mit Gott und die schriftgelehrte
Stilisierung der Abrahamgestalt in Gen 18,16b33
We should not think of Abraham as a prophet who intercedes on behalf of others, as
he actually does in Genesis 20. In the present passage Genesis 18 he is presented
in a role that is elsewhere given to Moses. In other words: Abraham is portrayed as a
prophetic precursor of Moses.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (eds.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 93113 (BL)

211 Aron Pinker, On the Meaning of rbh qt in Gen 21:20


It is suggested that the enigmatic phrase rbh qt in Gen 21:20 was obtained from the original
r(k)b hqt by a process similar to the one that produced the Qere rb and the Kethib rkb
in 2Kgs 19:23. The consequent meaning driver of the (mounted) archer has its Sitz im
Leben; contextually agrees with allusions to Ishmaels predicament in the first part of the
blessing for Joseph in Gen 49:2224; and, fits his apparent shortness of stature and slight
build, manifested by Hagars handling of her child in Gen 21.
RB 114/3 (2007) 321332

51
212 Christo Lombaard, Problems of Narratological Analysis of Genesis
22:119
Narrative analysis re-describes a text for the sake of elucidating its inner workings. As
Erich Auerbach (Mimesis, Princeton 1953) has observed, Gen 22 is driven by that what
remains hidden in the text. While Auerbach states his observation in very general terms,
Lombaard works it out in detail.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
4962 (BL)

213 Christo Lombaard, Isaac multiplex: Genesis 22 in a new historical rep-


resentation
In this paper, a new interpretation of the Genesis 22:119 account is offered. Based on
the new view of biblical historiography as anecdotal (Frykenberg), and drawing on the
authors own recent studies on the historical problems related to, and historically-sensitive
narratological interpretative possibilities of this Genesis text, a new meaning and a new
dating for Genesis 22:119 are proposed. This text, namely reflects the end of a struggle
for dominance between the different tradents of the patriarchal traditions, in which the
Abraham tradents finally subjugate, with this Genesis 22*-text, the Isaac tradents. This
occurs late in the compositional history of the Pentateuch, namely between 400 and 250
BCE.
HTS 64/2 (2008) 907919

214 Johannes Klein, Frieden fr den Gerechten? Ein Wunder. Am Beispiel


Abrahams (Gen 22,114.19)
Abraham erfhrt groe Verunsicherung. Gott selbst erscheint ihm in zweierlei Gestalt
und gibt eine zweideutige Anweisung. Er befrchtet das Schlimmste, gibt jedoch auch
die Hoffnung nicht auf, wie im Gesprch mit den Knechten und Isaak deutlich wird.
Durch seinen Tatendrang gert er in die Situation, mit eigener Hand seine Hoffnung auf
Erfllung der gttlichen Verheiung und damit seinen Lebenssinn zu zerstren. Wie ist
es mglich, dass er dennoch Frieden findet? Nur durch ein Wunder.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 231247 (BL)

215 Anselm C. Hagedorn, Hausmann und Jger (Gen 25,2728). Aus den
Jugendtagen Jakobs und Esaus
Esau is portrayed in terms of exaggerated masculinity, while Jacob is a soft, female-like
person who also prepares a meal (which is the task of women in ancient Mediterranean
societies). The two characters are contrasted as representing nature and culture. Hagedorn
draws upon anthropological theory for his argument.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (eds.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 137157 (BL)

216 Uwe Becker, Jakob in Bet-El und Sichem


Die Integration Bet-Els in die Jakobsgeschichte durch die beiden Erzhlungen Gen 28,1lff.
und Gen 35,116 beruht nicht auf alten berlieferungen, sondern spiegelt die wachsende
Bedeutung dieses Heiligtums insbesondere nach dem Untergang Jerusalems wider. Vor
allem E.A. Knauf hat auf diese Entwicklung aufmerksam gemacht, vgl. E.A. Knauf, Bethel,
in: O. Lipshits et al. (Hg.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period, Winona Lake 2006,
291349. Offenbar war Bet-El im 6. Jh. v. Chr. weit bedeutender als Jerusalem gewesen,
doch nach der Errichtung des 2. Jerusalemer Tempels hat Jerusalem Bet-El bertrumpft.
In der Tradition vom Vergraben der fremden Gtter und Ohrringe bei Sichem (Gen
35,24) ist eine andere Konkurrenz von Kultorten greifbar: die zwischen Bet-El und
52
Sichem: in Sichem wird Unreines deponiert (Polemik gegen den beginnenden Kult auf
dem Garizim?), wodurch Bet-El um so reiner dasteht.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn u.a. (Hg.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 159185 (BL)

217 Paul Krueger, Vreugde en verdriet in die huis van Jakob


The birth narrative in Genesis 29:3130:24 is a coherent mini drama in its own right,
although it is embedded in the patriarchal narratives and as such furnishes important
background to the unfolding drama in Jacobs house. In this narrative, the reader is invited
right into the intricate family relations of a dysfunctional polygamous marriage, where two
rivals communicate with each other and their mutual husband by means of the names
given at birth to their children and the children of their slave girls. This article focuses
on the quest for happiness, which is evident in the births and name-giving in the house
of Jacob. Although true happiness remains elusive, at the end both women receive their
dues. God keeps a balance between the two contenders, but the birth of Rachels son
calls for a resolution still to come. The text is thus left open ended.
HTS 64/2 (2008) 935957

218 Marc Rastoin, Suis-je la place de Dieu, moi? Note sur Gn 30,2 et
50,19 et lintention thologique de la Gense
The parallel between Gen 30:2 and Gen 50:19 has often been noticed by scholars, ancient
and modern. They are the only biblical verses containing the rhetorical question: Am I
in Gods place? Those two verses might not only help to better understand the way the
final redaction of the book of Genesis was done (creating some verbal links between the
so-called patriarchal cycles) but they also shed some light on the theological intention of
the whole book. There is a relationship between the gift of life and the gift of forgiveness.
Those questions have driven the story since Adam, Eve and Cain. While it is true that the
human being should not want to take Gods place, he nevertheless has a true capacity to
create and forgive. Joseph is the real summit of the biblical theological trajectory. That
this ending was made possible by the borrowing of an Egyptian tale only shows how Israel
was able to use the Nations wisdom to better understand itself.
RB 114/3 (2007) 333347

219 John Barton, Jacob at the Jabbok


The story told in Gen 32 still puzzles interpreters, as can be seen from Matthias Kckert,
War Jakobs Gegner in Gen 32,2333 ein Dmon? (in: A. Lange et al., eds., Die Dmonen
Demons, Tbingen 2003, 160181; no, he wasnt, this was God); Roland Barthes, La
lutte avec lange (in: R. Barthes et al., eds., Analyse structurale et exgse biblique, Neuchtel
1971, 2739). One of the problems is that, from the point of view of Vladimir Propps
analysis of folktale, God is both the originator of Jakobs quest and his helper, but
suddenly appears, paradoxically, in the role of opponent. This confusion of roles also
appears in medieval English literature: in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. In the case of
the biblical story, we may have here a specialty of Hebrew narrative: the story makes the
reader feel a shiver down the spine, the same feeling we get when reading Gen 22, the
sacrifice of Isaak by his father Abraham. What we have here is a way of storytelling that
leads to monotheism.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (eds.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 187195 (BL)

220 Martin Arneth, Der Gotteskmpfer am Jabbok


Aufgrund literarkritischer und formgeschichtlicher Beobachtungen rekonstruiert der Verf.
Gen 32,23a (nur wjqm bljlh) b.25b.26y.27.30b als die Grundschicht der Erzhlung vom
Gotteskampf am Jabbok (Gen 32,2333). Diese zeichnet sich durch die Anonymitt der

53
Hauptpersonen sowie durch die strenge lokale Bindung des Geschehens aus. Hinsichtlich
der Identitt des Angreifers lsst sich lediglich eine klar erkennbare solare Matrix fest-
stellen, was zu einer Gottheit minderen Ranges oder einem Nachtdmon passen wrde.
Smtliche Ergnzungen dieser Grundschicht setzen bereits die Identifikation des Ange-
griffenen mit Jakob und damit zumindest den Jakob-Laban-Esau-Sagenkranz im Ansatz
voraus. Dabei nimmt der Verf. zwei relativ umfngliche Ergnzungen bzw. grundlegende
Bearbeitungen an.
ZABR 14 (2008) 350364

221 Caroline Blyth, Listen to My Voice: Challenging Dinahs Silence in


Genesis 34
In this article, readers of Genesis 34 are invited to contemplate the narrative from the
perspective of Dinah, a literary victim of sexual violence. Throughout this story, much
ink is spilled recounting the effects of Dinahs rape upon the men who surround her. In
stark contrast, Dinah remains a silent and passive observer to the dramatic events as they
unfold. To redress this imbalance, the author of this paper has appealed to the witness of
contemporary rape survivors, in an attempt to give Dinah a voice with which she could
recount her experience of sexual violence to the reader. Finally, Blyth gives consideration
to the importance of such a reading within a contemporary pastoral context.
ET 120/8 (2009) 385387

222 Caroline Blyth, Redeemed by His Love? The Characterization of


Shechem in Genesis 34
This article gives consideration to the apparent rehabilitation of the character of Shechem
in the narrative of Genesis 34, following his initially negative portrayal as the rapist of
Dinah, Jacobs daughter. Through a close analysis of the Hebrew language used by the
narrator within this text to describe Shechems actions and emotions, this article argues
that this biblical rapists depiction is perhaps not as redemptive as it may first appear.
Furthermore, the article takes to task those interpreters who not only argue in favour of
a textual basis for Shechems seeming rehabilitation, but who also suggest that such a
redemption is understandable, if not merited.
JSOT 33/1 (2008) 318

223 Jeremy M. Hutton, Avith Revisited (so to speak): A Note on Gen 36:35
The toponym Avith is preserved in el-Gwetha, as argued by J.L. Burckhardt in the nine-
teenth century.
JNES 68/2 (2009) 103107 (BL)

224 Krzysztof Dariusz Lisewski, Studien zu Motiven und Themen der


Josefsgeschichte der Genesis
This book on the Joseph story in Gen. 3750 is in two parts. (1) The first part deals with
the echo, the Joseph story has left in the Old Testament, early-Jewish literature (including
the Testaments of the XII Patriarchs, and Joseph and Asenet), and the New Testament. The
fact that there is not much evidence for the Joseph story in the rest of the Old Testament
supports the notion of a late dating of the story: it may have originated in the sixth or
fifth century BCE, was included in the Pentateuch in the fourth or third century BCE, and
received its final shape in the second or first century BCE. (2) each of the following motifs
receives detailed exposition: the wise courtier (his humility, poverty, self-control, willingness
to forgive); the foreign woman and the chaste Hebrew; dreams and their interpretation;

54
divine guidance. All of these motifs are more characteristic for the late period of the Old
Testament, and some seem to reflect notions that can be found in Jesus Sirach.
Europische Hochschulschriften 23/881; Peter Lang Verlag, Bern (2008) 1503 (BL)

225 Baruch Margalit, The Myth of Tammuz in Biblical Narrative


Two Genesis stories can be understood as echoing the myth of Tammuz, the god who
dies (and is lamented by weeping) in the summer and is resurrected in winter: the story of
the binding of Isaac (Isaac = Tammuz) and the story of Joseph ( Joseph = Tammuz). Like
Tammuz, Joseph is a shepherd on the steppe. In the Sumerian tale of Dumuzis dream,
marauders attack Dumuzi as he tends his flocks, and is saved only by sheer luck. A close
reading of the Joseph story with the Tammuz myth in mind reveals many suggestive details
of resemblance. One example: In Sumerian tradition, goddess Inanna prefers the uncouth
Dumuzi to the cultivated Enkidu because she is captivated by the lads good looks not
unlike Mrs. Potiphars preference for Joseph. There is also a colorful robe in both the
Joseph story and in the Tammuz tradition, see Jacob Klein and S. Shifra, In those Distant
Days: Anthology of Mesopotamian Literature in Hebrew, Tel Aviv 1996, 388391.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 531548 (BL)

226 Rainer Albertz, Die Josephsgeschichte im Pentateuch


The Joseph story of Genesis 3750 is not made up of originally independent sources;
instead, there is an originally independent story that ended with the return to Canaan
of the brothers of Joseph and their families after the end of the seven years of dearth.
However, there is evidence that the story underwent several editorial expansions in the
interest of integrating the story into the larger narrative context of the Pentateuch. One
of the expansions is Gen 39:223, a passage in which an exilic editor visualizes the
ambivalence of exilic existence.
Thomas Naumann et al. (eds.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zu Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 1136 (BL)

227 Bernhard Lang, Joseph the Diviner: Careers of a Biblical Hero


The story of Joseph, built as it is of several loosely connected clusters of episodes, shows
all the characteristics of a story that originally circulated orally. There are also traces of
two different narrative emphases: one on the career of a diviner, and one on the career
of a Diaspora hero. Originally, the story told of a father who transmitted his profession
as a diviner to his son Joseph (rather than to any of his brothers). The special cloak with
long sleeves most likely had magical qualities. The present essay offers a reconstruction
of the story of the young diviners initiation trials and eventual promotion to the office
of governor. The version told in the book of Genesis transforms the older story into a
Diaspora novella whose hero welcomes his brothers (i.e., other Jews) into the Jewish com-
munity of Egypt. Joseph thus becomes the emblematic figurehead of Judaism and as such
vies with Moses. As a folktale-like story, the Joseph novella is universalistic and optimistic
in its perspective on life, whereas the legend of Moses is characterized by parochialism,
separation from foreign cultures, and an implicit claim to historical truthfulness.
Bernhard Lang, Hebrew Life and Literature; Ashgate, Farnham (Surrey) (2008) 93109 (BL)

228 Peter Weimar, Gen 38 Eine Einschaltung in die Josefsgeschichte


The prejudice, according to which Genesis 38 represents an alien element in the context
of the Joseph-story, articulated in research again and again, is confirmed inasmuch as this
chapter is based on an originally independent story in verses 611*.1319*.2426a, which
was not conceived for a larger narrative context. By means of editorial extensions, probably
by the final editor, this was brought into accord on a second level, not only in facing the

55
literary context of the Joseph-story, but beyond that also considering the whole book of
Genesis, within whose framework chapter 38 fulfils an exactly calculated function.
BN 138 (2008) 537; 140 (2009) 530

229 Christoph Levin, Tamar erhlt ihr Recht (Genesis 38)


Die Erzhlung ist literarisch mehrschichtig. (1) Die Erzhlung von Juda und Tamar beruht
auf einer in die Josefsgeschichte eingeschobenen Genealogie Judas, die nur V. 1.6.18b.2730
umfasst: Juda zeugt mit Tamar die Zwillinge Perez und Serach. Die Anspielung auf Gen
25,2426 soll den Vorrang Judas vor Israel unterstreichen. (2) In diesen Rahmen wurde
eine Beispielerzhlung fr das Recht der Leviratsehe (nach Dtn 25,510) eingefgt: Statt
mit Tamar zeugt Juda mit einer anonymen Kanaaniterin zwei Shne und verheiratet den
Erstgeborenen mit Tamar.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 279298

230 Kristin M. Swenson, Crowned with Blessings: The Riches of Double-


Meaning in Gen 49,26b
Gen 49,2226 is a difficult text in several ways. This brief note means to address problems
and possibilities only in the final bicolon of the poem, specifically how Josephs receiving
of extraordinary blessings and his consequent distinction from his brothers hint at an
anointing. Without explicitly calling him a king, the bicolon concludes an image of Joseph
that suggests that he is a leader uniquely set apart not to dominate but to serve.
ZAW 120/3 (2008) 422425

231 Nicholas P. Lunn, The Last Words of Jacob and Joseph: A Rhetorico-
Structural Analysis of Genesis 49:2933 and 50:2426
This article utilises what is here termed the rhetorico-structural method of analysis with
application to the final episodes of Genesis. By means of this approach, the final major
section of the book, contrary to what is found in many commentaries, is identified as
49:2950:26, which is structured in the shape of an inverted parallel pattern. Analysed in
this way the pericopae concerning the last words and death of Jacob and the last words
and death of Joseph are placed in a corresponding relationship, inviting a comparison
between the two. This reveals differences but also an essential unity in the final wishes of
each patriarch. Though manifested in different ways their dying requests are governed
by a common faith in the future fulfillment of the divine promise to give the offspring of
Abraham the land of Canaan. The authors use of a particular literary device to show
the appropriateness of Jacobs burial in the cave of Machpelah is identified. Finally, the
article offers an explanation for the amount of space the narrative gives to Jacobs burial
as contrasted with that of Joseph.
TynB 59/2 (2008) 161179

Exodus
232 Georg Fischer et al., Das Buch Exodus
Exodus is a central book of the Old Testament, and the absence of an intelligent com-
mentary in German for lay people has been felt by many. Fischer and his fellow Jesuit
Dominik Markl present a running commentary the focus of which is on the end text.
Two classic approaches to the Exodus account are only briefly alluded to: (1) the question
of whether there was a historical figure of Moses, an exodus out of Egypt, and a Sinai
event; and (2) the well-established though in its detail controversial distinction between
various literary layers. This may be understandable, given the controversial nature of these
approaches. Lay readers of the Bible tend to insist on getting some information about

56
historical events, although it must be admitted that whatever answer is given, it tends to
remain somewhat speculative. One detail strikes the reviewer: the absence of a detailed
commentary on the individual commandments of the Decalogue. Nevertheless: this is a
helpful guide, though it demonstrates the lack of consensus within the guild of experts.
Neuer Stuttgarter Kommentar Altes Testament 2; Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart (2009) 1408
(BL)

233 ukasz Niesioowski-Span, The Broken Structure of the Moses Story:


Or, Moses and the Jerusalem Temple
Close examination of the biblical myth of Exodus shows that the reasons for the punish-
ment of forty years of wandering in the wilderness are far from clear. Furthermore, there
is no reference to Moses fault, causing his death before accomplishment of his life duty,
i.e. bringing Israel to the Promised Land. In addition, the narratological analysis of the
Exodus account points to the fact that Moses death in Moab breaks the logical structure
of the story. One could envisage a coherent narrative according to which Moses suc-
ceeds in entering Canaan. The reasoning and a few other biblical (e.g., 1 Sam 12,8) and
extra-biblical hints may suggest a reason of the breaking of the narrative structure. This
paper aims at reconstructing the original form of the Exodus story, according to which
Moses not only enters Canaan but also founds the temple in Jerusalem, as Hecateus of
Abdera puts it.
SJOT 23/1 (2009) 2337

234 Jacob Milgrom, The Revelation of Gods Name (Exodus 3:1315)


Moses is not given the name of God, but the meaning of Gods name: I will be present
whenever I will be present.; this meaning is applied to Moses: I will be with you (Exod
3:12). The name Yhwh (the vocalization of which has been lost) is an imperfect Qal mean-
ing I am present or I will be present. The pronunciation Yahweh is problematic, for
it implies a Hiphil form and the meaning he who causes to be, a meaning not relevant
in the exodus context.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 7981 (BL)

235 William M. Schniedewind, Calling God Names: An Inner-Biblical


Approach to the Tetragrammaton
Exod 3:14 is to be understood as an interpretative insertion. It draws upon a lemma in
Exod 3:12 ehyeh immakh, I will be with you, and draws attention to the larger context
of Exod 3:1115. The interpreter uses ehyeh immakh in v. 12 as the lemma, and thus God
becomes simply Ehyeh (see v. 14b Ehyeh sent me to you). The interpretative gloss
makes sense in a situation in which the presence of God was questioned, as it was by the
exile and during the post-exilic period. However, it is not completely clear whether the
insertion is simply an affirmation of Gods presence. It may well be that the insertion is
meant to be ambiguous, allowing for two readings one that affirm divine presence and
one that refers to divine capriciousness (I shall be whom I shall be).
Deborah A. Green et al. (eds.), Scriptural Exegesis; Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009) 7486 (BL)

236 Nyasha Junior et al., Mosaic Disability and Identity in Exodus 4:10;
6:12, 30
In the book of Exodus, Moses describes himself as having a speech difficulty at three
different points (4:10; 6:12, 30). These descriptions occur at points in the narrative in
which his complex relationship to the Egyptians or Hebrews is at issue. Informed by the
burgeoning field of disability studies, this article explores the construction of Moses identity
in the book of Exodus in order to show that his references to his disability provide more

57
than simply an excuse to avoid his divine commission. While his disability may function
as an excuse, Moses emphasis on his disability allows him to circumvent questions about
his group identity.
BI 16/5 (2008) 428441

237 Arie C. Leder, Hearing Exodus 7:813 to Preach the Gospel: The Ancient
Adversary in Todays World
In this article, Exodus 7:813 is discussed as the base text for the first in a series of six
sermons on Exodus. This biblical narrative reminds Gods people in the Promised Land,
under constant pressure to honour Baal as lord of fertility, that the Lords power over Yam
and Mot is final, that Baal has as much power to give life as did Pharaoh on shores of the
Sea. To those in exile, unable to cleanse themselves from the swallowers bile, burdened
by Gods heavy hand, and barren among the nations, this text offers an opportunity to
lament and confess (Lam. 3:4042).
CTJ 43/1 (2008) 93110

238 Shaul Bar, Who Were the Mixed Multitude?


The expression erb rab (Exod 12:38) refers to mercenaries who intermarried with the
Israelites and left armed with them at the time of the exodus from Egypt.
HebStud 49 (2008) 2754 (BL)

239 Georg Steins, Exodus 14,20 ein neuer Blick auf ein altes Problem
The article seeks to determine the subject of the striking formulation in Ex 14,20 (wjr t
hljlh). In order to do so, one has to take into account the many parallels to Gen 1 in the
adjacent verses. Consequently, the subject is the messenger of God, i.e. YHWH himself.
The event is understood as analogous to the creation of light and so as a fundamental
act of creation. Thus it is part of the act of salvation (cf. Ex 14,13).
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 273276

240 Michael Segal, wjr t hljlh (Exodus 14,20): New Light on an Old Problem
Exegetes of Ex 14,20 have long had difficulty with the combination of cloud and darkness
on the one hand, with light on the other, in the description of the Israelites salvation in
Ex 14,20. This study proposes a new interpretation of the phrase wjr t hljlh as referring
to the emergence of lightning from the cloud, based upon biblical parallels ( Job 3637;
Ps 77,19; 97,4), thus eliminating this tension. Cloud, darkness, and lightning are found
together in biblical theophanies, and it is suggested that this is the Gattung of Ex 14,20.
ZAW 120/2 (2008) 254260

241 Raik Heckl, Zur Rolle der Ahnen in der Grundkonzeption der Hexa-
teuchberlieferung
Exod 15,2227, with its reference to Yahweh the healer (v. 26) and the place name Elim
(v. 27), shows traces of an underlying but obscured tradition that had to do with ances-
tor worship. Once, the ancestors were the elim (gods) and the healers. This passage in
its original, but no longer extant form, seems to have discussed the relationship between
the Exodus tradition (which claims exclusivity of the cult of Yahweh) and the patriarchal
tradition (which reflects ancestor worship, as was recognized by O. Loretz). The twelve
springs of water (v. 27) are no doubt symbols for the twelve sons of Jacob, and the seventy
palm trees (v. 27) echo a tradition according to which Israel had seventy ancestors (Gen
46:2627; Exod 1:5; Deut 10:22, with Deut 10:22 being the earliest text). But what was
the original implication of the episode told in Exod 15? Possibly, an original text described

58
a festival held in the desert, a festival that marked Israels liberation by honouring the
ancestors in a communal act of worship.
FAT 64; Angelika Berlejung et al. (eds.), Tod und Jenseits im alten Israel und in seiner Umwelt; Mohr
Siebeck, Tbingen (2009) 525546 (BL)

242 Viktor Ber, Moses and Jethro harmony and conflict in the interpretation
of Exodus 18
Exodus 18 is the last chapter of the wilderness section in the book of Exodus. Very often
its commentators focus on harmonic, positive, and affirmative elements of the narrative
in this chapter. This article deals with proposed harmonic reading of Exodus 18, but also
seriously examines possible motifs of conflict or tension. The conclusion of the author is
that the narrative does present harmony. However, this harmony is reached after real or
potential conflicts are solved or avoided. An attempt is made to understand this narrative
of resolved tensions in Exodus 18 in the context of theology in the book of Exodus.
CV 50/2 (2008) 147170

243 Calum Carmichael, The Giving of the Decalogue and the Garden of
Eden
In Exodus 1920, several notable features suggest that the aim of the author who describes
the events at Sinai is to evoke the origin of the world. Although the focus is on the nation
of Israel, there is also a stress on the existence of all the other nations of the earth (Exod
19:5). Once we take into account the link between Eden and Sinai, the Decalogues
juxtaposition of the two rules about honouring parents and prohibiting murder becomes
intelligible: Cains offence dishonours his parents in that he destroys the life they had cre-
ated. See also: C. Carmichael, The Spirit of Biblical Law, Athens, Ga. 1996).
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
2124 (BL)

244 Assnat Bartor, Narrative Images of the Ten Commandments (Hebr.,


Engl. summary)
With R. Jackendoff s Conceptual Semantics, C. Fillmores Frame Semantics and J. Burners
Narrative Psychology as guides, the author illustrates the cognitive perception of four com-
mandments: the sixth, the seventh, the eighth and the tenth. The purpose of this illustration
is to clarify a cognitive process that turns abstract and laconic utterances, devoid of any
context, into clear and meaningful commands in the hearers or readers mind.
Beit Mikra 53/2 (2008) 5778.7*8*

245 Bernard M. Levinson, Legal Revision and Religious Renewal in Ancient


Israel
The author examines the doctrine of transgenerational punishment found in the Deca-
logue i.e., the idea that God punishes sinners vicariously and extends the punishment
due them to three or four generations of their progeny. Though it was God-given law, the
unfairness of punishing innocent people merely for being the children or grandchildren
of wrongdoers was clearly recognized in ancient Israel. A series of inner-biblical and
postbiblical responses to the rule demonstrates that later writers were able to criticize,
reject, and replace this problematic doctrine with the alternative notion of individual
retribution. This is an expended and revised version of a book originally published in
French; see IRBS 52:70.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008) XXVI/1206

59
246 Carsten Ziegert, Das Altargesetz Ex 20,2426 und seine kanonische
Rezeption
There is an obvious tension between the altar-law in Ex 20,2426 and the other instruc-
tions in the Pentateuch that regulate place and manner of the sacrifice. Using a canonical
approach, these tensions turn out to constitute a theological enrichment. In the immedi-
ate context, the altar-law is presented as a regulation for the conclusion of the Sinaitic
Covenant. The building materials mentioned in the text refer to patriarchal traditions.
Simplicity of design emphasizes dependence on Yahweh. In the canonical reception from
Ex 24 up to 1 Chr 21, the regulations of the altar-law are applied to the renewal of the
Covenant. The latter is independent from the cultic centralization described in Dtn 12
and happens at certain turning points in the canonical plot.
BN 141 (2009) 1934

247 Roger Tomes, Home-Grown or Imported? An Examination of Bernard


Jacksons Wisdom-Laws
This analysis reviews critically B.S. Jacksons Wisdom Laws: A Study of the Mishpatim of Exodus
21:122:16 (Oxford 2006). According to his textual and formal inner-biblical observations,
the origin of the mishpatim is to be sought in orally-transmitted customary practice.
However, what Jackson does not do is consider in any direct way whether the nature
and purpose of the Covenant Code should be deduced from the ancient near eastern
codes to which they are so similar. The fact that other ancient near eastern codes are
sponsored by kings makes it highly likely that one or more Israelite kings were responsible
for having the collections compiled, but it remains more likely that reform rather than
restatement was the motivation. The object would be to publicise practices precedents
that were not hitherto well known rather than restate what was common knowledge.
ZABR 14 (2008) 443462

248 Barry L. Eichler, Exodus 21:2225 Revisited: Methodological Consid-


erations
From the standpoint of comparative legal studies and from the perspective of literary
analysis, verses 2225 do not contradict the prescriptions of verses 1819.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 1129 (BL)

249 Gloria London, Why Milk and Meat Dont Mix. A New Explanation
for a Puzzling Kosher Law
The Rabbinic injunction against mixing milk and meat is a core law of kashrut, an elabora-
tion of the Bibles injunction against boiling a kid in its mothers milk (Ex 23,18; 34,26).
Based on her study of her ethnoarchaeological fieldwork in Cyprus the author proposes a
new explanation of the origin of this custom: In times when people used porous clay pots
to cook, everyone avoided cooking meat in containers used for milk products because the
sour milk which clung inside the porous walls would spoil the meat.
BAR 34/6 (2008) 6469

250 Carol Meyers, Framing Aaron: Incense Altar and Lamp Oil in the
Tabernacle Texts
The incense altar (Exod 30:110) seems to have had an anomalous position with respect
to zones of holiness, and for this reason it does not appear in the expected place in Exod
25.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
1321 (BL)

60
251 Dmitri Slivniak, The Golden Calf Story: Constructively and Decon-
structively
Unlike other postmodern reading practices, deconstruction suppresses the figure of the
reader: the text is viewed as both engendering and undermining its meaning, while the
readers role is only to discover these processes. Yet, when one deconstructs biblical texts,
anarchic and lacking logic according to traditional Western criteria, the illusion van-
ishes, and it is hard to get along without the reader as an active figure. The readers role
is actively to construct the meaning of the text, before it gets deconstructed. This is the
reason why in some recent works the deconstructive reading of the text is preceded by a
constructive one. In this article the Golden Calf story (Exod. 32) is read both construc-
tively and deconstructively. The constructive reading focuses on the opposition normative
cult deviant cult which is viewed as central to the story. Normative cult and deviant
cult are represented by the Tablets of the Law and the Golden Calf respectively. The
deconstruction of this opposition is based on the fact that the tablets and the calf receive
the same treatment: Moses destroys both of them.
JSOT 33/1 (2008) 1938

Leviticus Numbers
252 Thomas Rmer (ed.), The Books of Leviticus and Numbers
The following papers of this collective volume deal specifically with the book of Leviticus:
T. Rmer, De la priphrie au centre: les livres du Lvitique et des Nombres dans le dbat
actuel sur le Pentateuque; E. Zenger u.a., Die Bcher Levitikus und Numeri als Teile der
Pentateuchkomposition; F. Garca Lpez, La place du Lvitique et des Nombres dans la
formation du Pentateuque; C. Nihan, Israels Festival Calendars [Lev 23, Num 2829];
A. Marx, Le systme sacrificial de P et la formation du Pentateuque; J.W. Watts, The Ritual
Rhetoric in the Pentateuch [Lev 116]; D. Luciani, Structure et thologie en Lv 1,13,17;
H. Liss, Ritual Purity and the Construction of Identity; T. Staubli, Hhneropfer im alten
Israel [Lev 1,14]; I. Himbaza, Le Lvitique dans la nouvelle Biblia Hebraica; T. van der
Louw, Translation and Writing in 4QLXXLev; H. Koorevaar, The Books of Exodus,
Leviticus and Numbers, and the Macro-Structural problem of the Pentateuch.
BEThL 215; Peeters, Leuven (2008) XXVII/1742

253 Eckart Otto, Das Buch Levitikus zwischen Priesterschrift und Pentateuch
Dieser Beitrag bietet eine Rezension der Monographie von C. Nihan, From Priestly Torah
to Pentateuch. A Study in the Composition of the Book of Leviticus; FAT, 2. Reihe 25, Tbingen
2007. Die Strken dieser Monographie sind nach der Meinung des Rezensenten in
einzelnen Textinterpretationen, insbesondere zu den Opfergesetzen in Lev 17, nicht
aber im Gesamtkonzept der Rekonstruktion einzelner Schichten und Redaktionen des
Pentateuchs zu sehen. Insbesondere die Annahme eines von der Priesterschrift (P) und
dem Heiligkeitsgesetz (H) unabhngigen Pentateuchs sowie die Differenzierung zwischen
dem H und einer Pentateuchredaktion beurteilt Otto als nicht haltbar. Die Monographie
bleibt somit die Antwort auf die Frage schuldig, wie der Zusammenhang von Priester-
schrift und Heiligkeitsgesetz als Fortschreibung von P mit dem Dtn, dem Bundesbuch und
dem Dekalog literarisch hergestellt wurde, und wie P und H in einen ersten Pentateuch
eingefhrt worden sein sollen, wenn die Gestalt eines vorpriesterschriftlichen Pentateuchs
unklar bleibt.
ZABR 14 (2008) 365407

254 Volker Wagner, Zwei Beobachtungen im Buch Leviticus


1. If the Particle k in Lev 16:2 is understood to be a subordinative conjunction with the
meaning if / when, and hence 2 b as a subordinate clause, the passage offers a clear
answer to the question at what time Aaron can enter the adytum without danger to his

61
life: He wont die, if / when I appear in the cloud over the Kapport. 2. The writer
of Lev. 26:3435.43 considers the pre-exilic Sabbath not to be the alleged full moon day,
but the weekly rest day, whose non-observance impaired the land (and all what lives on
it). Lev 26:43 reveals nothing about the Sabbath having been of special esteem in the
exilic generation.
BN 136 (2008) 516

255 Roland Boer, The Forgetfulness of Julia Kristeva: Psychoanalysis, Marx-


ism and the Taboo of the Mother
Julia Kristeva is known both for her reinterpretations of psychoanalysis and her regular
engagements with the Bible. What is less known is her earlier interaction with Marxist
analysis. In this article the focus is on one of Kristevas better biblical readings the
taboos in Leviticus, which ultimately rely on the taboo of the mother where it can be
seen that her dominant psychoanalytical reading can get her only so far. In order to go
further one needs the forgotten Marxist Kristeva. After finding Marx in a number of her
texts, this study suggests a way in which Kristevas. reading of Leviticus 1114 might be
filled out with some social and economic analysis.
JSOT 33/3 (2009) 259276

256 Naphtali S. Meshel, Food for Thought: Systems of Categorization in


Leviticus 11
Building on C. Lvi-Strausss theory of animal classification this paper distinguishes
between a popular, relatively simple system of categorization that appears to have been
prevalent in ancient Israel and is widely attested in pentateuchal literature and an alterna-
tive, relatively complex system found in P. Internal analysis of Leviticus 11 suggests that
the Priestly system itself is the product of a gradual process, in which each textual stra-
tum appears to be conscious reaction and response to its predecessors. It is demonstrated
that the formulation of the ritual taxonomy in Leviticus 11 was not motivated merely by
materialistic considerations, but rather testifies to a consistent mental operation, carried
through in a series of binary oppositions: pure // impure; prohibited // permitted; external
contact // internal ingestion. The complex ritual grid of this chapter can be likened to
a logical formula in which animal species serve as variables, and ritual categories serve
as logical operators.
HThR 101/2 (2008) 203229

257 Jacob Milgrom, The Desecration of YHWHs Name: Its Parameters and
Significance
The desecration of Yahwehs name (which is forbidden: Lev 18:21; 19:8,12; Ezek 20:9,
etc.) refers to tarnishing or blemishing the earthly presence of the deity. In Ezekiel, a
further dimension is added: the blemishing of Gods reputation.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 6981 (BL)

258 Leigh M. Trevaskis, The Purpose of Leviticus 24 within its Literary


Context
This paper argues that the purpose of Lev 24, situated as it is between the calendrical
concerns of Lev 23 and 25, is discernible when the symbolism of its prescriptions (vv. 19)
for lighting the tabernacle lamp (mnrh) and the provision of 12 loaves is considered.
First, the light (m r) of the mnrh represents the lights (m rt) of Gen 1:1416
which govern the occasions (miqr ) prescribed in these framing chapters. Second, the
12 loaves positioned under this light represent the ideal of a holy Israel, paused in

62
worship of YHWH on these occasions. It is in the ensuing narrative (vv. 1023) that
the ideal symbolised in vv. 19 is extended to the life of Israel. The blasphemy of the
sojourner ( gr) provides a foil for the legislator to present the rules of talion which
reveal the extent to which this ideal of holiness should be reflected among the Israelites:
it is required even of the sojourner.
VT 59/2 (2009) 295312

259 Thomas Rmer (ed.), The Books of Leviticus and Numbers


The following papers on the book of Numbers are included in this collective volume:
E. Noort, Bis zur Grenze des Landes? Num 27,1223 und das Ende der Priesterschrift;
O. Artus, Le problme de lunit littraire et de la spcificit thelogique du livre des
Nombres; R. Achenbach, Das Heiligkeitsgesetz und die sakralen Ordnungen des
Numeribuches im Horizont der Pentateuchredaktion; H. Seebass, Das Buch Numeri in
der heutigen Pentateuchdiskussion; T.B. Dozeman, The Midianites in the Formation of
the Book of Numbers; M.N. van der Meer, The Next Generation: Textual Moves in
Numbers 4 and the Translator; T.L. Brodie, The Literary Unity of Numbers: Nineteen
Atonement-Centered Diptychs and One Key Element; W. Lee, The Conceptual Coher-
ence of Numbers 5,110,10; U. Sals, Kohrenz im Buch Numeri: Eine Perspektive aus
der Weltchronik Rudolfs von Ems; F. Mirguet, La reprsentation littraire dune ralit
venir: la terre promise dans les Nombres; J.-P. Sonnet, Nb 20,11: Mose en flagrant
dlit de main levee?; A, Wnin, Le serpent de Nb 21,49 et de Gn 3,1; H.-P. Mathys,
Numeri und Chronik nahe Verwandte; M. Christian, Openness and the Other Inside
and Outside of Numbers; V. Snchal, Quel horizon dcriture pour Nb 14,1112? Essai
de sondage; D. Nocquet, Nb 27,1223, la succession de Mose et la place dElazar dans
le livre des Nombres.
BEThL 215; Peeters, Leuven (2008) XXVII/1742

260 Richard S. Briggs, Reading the Sotah Text (Numbers 5:1131): Holiness
and a Hermeneutic Fit for Suspicion
This article argues that despite frequent labelling to the contrary, the sotah text of Num.
5:1131 is actually a passage about jealousy rather than adultery per se, and that histori-
cal-critical attempts to locate the described ritual in its ancient Near Eastern context are
inconclusive with regard to substantial matters of interpretation. Various strategies for
handling the ethical dimensions of the text are explored, including gender-specific and
symbolic angles of approach. These are considered to be of limited value. The ethical
issues presented by the text are then discussed with regard to its present canonical location
in the book of Numbers. It is argued that owing to a unique combination of factors, an
expected reading of the sotah text in its canonical context is one which is suspicious of
the suspicion described in the passage. Some hermeneutical dimensions of this analysis
are evaluated with a view to the wider question concerning theologically problematic
passages in scripture.
BI 17/3 (2009) 288319

261 Hanna Liss, Das Problem des eifernden Mannes: Das Eifer-Ordal in
der biblischen berlieferung und in der jdischen Tradition
The strange jealousy-ordeal of Numbers 5:1131 has been misunderstood by modern
interpreters. What they have failed to realize is that the ordeal procedure neither serves
to protect the woman (by leaving punishment to God) nor to punish her (by using the
ordeal to find out whether she has actually committed adultery). Instead, the ritual is
performed to benefit the adulterous wifes husband. As postbiblical Jewish law asserts, the
husband of an adulterous wife must divorce her; if not, he is in a sinful state. To restore

63
his purity, he makes his wife go through the ordeal. Once the ritual is performed, he is
again allowed to sleep with her. The biblical law can only be understood in the light of
its application in postbiblical Judaism.
ABG 28; Sylke Lubs et al. (eds.), Behutsames Lesen; Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig (2007)
197215 (BL)

262 Anne Katrine de Hemmer Gudme, How Should We Read Hebrew Bible
Ritual Texts? A Ritualistic Reading of the Law of the Nazirite (Num
6,121)
The aim of this article is to propose a ritualistic reading of Old Testament ritual texts
based on the theory of Roy A. Rappaport (Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity,
Cambridge 1999). One of Rappaports more or less overlooked views is that in order to
be able to understand a certain ritual, one will have to become acquainted with this
rituals liturgical orders, its encoded message. In other words to understand a ritual it is
necessary in some way to be informed of this rituals particular worldview. As this paper
focuses on the ritual texts of the so called P material in the Pentateuch, and in particular
on the law of the Nazirite in Numbers 6,121, the author uses this notion of Rappaport
as a hermeneutical key to the reading of the ritual texts.
SJOT 23/1 (2009) 6484

263 Simeon Chavel, The Second Passover, Pilgrimage, and the Centralized
Cult
Numbers 9:114 presents a new legislation on the Passover sacrifice. This law of the
Second Passover stands alone not only in the Hebrew Bible, but also in the ancient Near
East. Two theories are given to explain how this rare law developed, but neither the
explanation that Numbers 9 together with 2 Chronicles (Hezekiahs delayed Passover) is
based on the combination of a North Israelite term with a south Yehudite calendar, nor an
anachronistic theory of a socio-economic change in Yehud into a merchant-community are
convincing. The concept of distance presupposed by the Second Passover texts is caused
by centralization to a single temple. Thus, the law of the Second Passover represents a
Jerusalem priesthood living in the unintended fallout from the centralization of the cult,
unwilling to give up on the Passover as annual temple rite.
HThR 102/1 (2009) 124 (WSch)

264 Jan Joosten et al., Elments pour lanalyse de Nb 12


Lanalyse de Nombres 12 rvle le souci des auteurs de ce texte de faire Mose un person-
nage exceptionnel. En cela, le texte se rapproche de la finale du Pentateuque (Dt 34:1012),
que lon peut attribuer une rdaction pentateucale. Ce texte runit deux conflits autour de
Mose: celui des mariages mixtes (voir Esd 9 et Neh 10), et celui concernant la hirarchie
des autorits sacerdotales et prophtiques face u milieu des scribes laques qui sidentifient
Mose. Larticle, par J. Joosten et Th. Rmer, a des notes et une bibliographie.
Michaela Bauks et al. (eds.), Manuel dexgse de lAncien Testament; Labor et Fides, Genve (2008)
191219 (BL)

265 Ka Leung Wong, And Moses raised his hand in Numbers 20,11
This note argues that the phrase and Moses raised his hand in Num 20,11 should be
interpreted figuratively and it refers to Moses inner attitude and his will to demonstrate
his power over God whom he is at enmity with.
Bib. 89/3 (2008) 397400

64
266 Rainer Bickert, Israel im Lande Moab. Die Stellung der Bileamerzhlung
Num 2224 in ihrem redaktionellen Kontext
Durch ihren Umfang und ihre literarische Eigenart heben sich die Bileam-Kapitel Num
2224 aus ihrem redaktionellen Kontext heraus. Die Pentateuchquellen J und E sind
in ihnen nicht vertreten, auch nicht JE. Es ist vielmehr zuerst mit einer fortlaufenden
Grunderzhlung zu rechnen. Sie ist vordtr. und besteht aus zwei Teilen und zwei Spr-
chen. Sie wurde zunchst (noch vordtr.?) um einen dritten Spruch ergnzt, der spter
redaktionell mit der Grunderzhlung ausgleichend verbunden wurde. So wurde die volle
Dreizahl der Segenssprche erreicht. Die alte Grunderzhlung gebrauchte durchgehend die
Gottesbezeichnung (h-) lohm. Die ursprngliche Bileamerzhlung drfte ein Teil der im
AT besonders in Sam und Reg recht hufig vertretenen Nordreich-Literatur sein. Die dtr.
Bearbeitung fgte Num 2224 in ihren redaktionellen Kontext im Numeri-Buch ein. Zuletzt
kamen die Eselin-Episode und der vierte Bileam-Spruch, zudem noch mancherlei einzelne
Zufgungen hinzu, bis die nunmehrige Endgestalt von Num 2224 erreicht war.
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 189210

267 Ulrike Sals, Bileam der lcherliche Falschprophet? Eine Widerlegung


The Bileam section (Num 2224) is to be considered a product of late scribalism, replete
as it is with scriptural allusions. Firmly anchored in the web of scriptural passages, this
section can only be mastered, exegetically, with the instruments of canonical criticism.
Bileam ist ein typischer Prophet, oder, um es im Blick auf die Kanonfrage auszudrcken:
Er ist ein Prophet, wie er im Buche steht (p. 181).
Egbert Ballhorn et al. (eds.), Der Bibelkanon in der Bibelauslegung; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart
(2007) 163188 (BL)

268 Erasmus Gass, Modes of Divine Communication in the Balaam Narrative


In its final form, the Balaam narrative (Num 2224) alludes to a number of different top-
ics related to divine communication: Balaam comes into contact with the divine sphere
through an encounter with God and Gods messenger, by an audition, by consulting omens
and finally by a real vision. Thus, there is a certain progression and dynamic in the way
that Balaam receives the message of God. All in all, Balaam is portrayed as a diviner able
to predict the future, though ineffective as a sorcerer who could manipulate Gods will.
This seems to be the disastrous misunderstanding of Balak. Thus, the Balaam narrative
is mainly interested in the proper concept of God. One final objective is to demonstrate
that Gods will is unchangeable and that a true prophet can only speak what is revealed
to him by God.
BN 139 (2008) 1938

269 Ulrike Sals, The Hybrid Story of Balaam (Numbers 2224): Theology
for the Diaspora in the Torah
The strange character of Numbers 2224 as a story about foreigners and their attempts
to rule YHWH can successfully be read with Homi Bhabhas concept of hybridity and
Gayatri Spivaks subaltern. Focusing on the characters relationships in this text, Balak
is the hegemon and Balaam the subaltern, and this constitutes much of their commu-
nicational failures. The donkeys episode serves as a lesson for the reader as well as for
Balaam who is the hegemon in this case: he learns as Balak does not that God is the
real worldly and wordly hegemon. This monotheistic message is explained to the Judaean
readers/listeners through non-Judean protagonists. Many details point to an origin of the
final text in a reception of the deuteronomistic YHWH/Assur/Israel constellation and
theology in Persian times.
BI 16/4 (2008) 315335

65
270 Tania Notarius, Poetic Discourse and the Problem of Verbal Tenses in
the Oracles of Balaam
The system of verbal tenses underlying the oracles of Num 23 and 24 reveal some devia-
tions from classical biblical Hebrew, to be explained as archaic features.
HebStud 49 (2008) 5586 (BL)

271 Amadi Ahiamadu, Assessing Female Inheritance of Land in Nigeria with


the Zelophehad Narratives (Numbers 27:111)
Over one hundred years since the Bible was introduced into Nigeria, the practice of
female inheritance of property still remains problematic in parts of the country. Despite
the undeniably patriarchal culture in the Old Testament and in Nigeria, there is a Biblical
text which indicates that under certain circumstances females sue of female eligibility to
own and inherit land. It uses the Zelophehad narrative to assess the Nigerian understand-
ing of female inheritance.
Scriptura 96 (2007) 299309

Deuteronomy: general individual passages


272 Lothar Perlitt, Deuteronomium
The present fascicle of Perlitts magisterial commentary on Deut 112 presents his notes on
the rest of Deut 4:140 (begun p. 279 of the previous fascicle) plus the complete notes on
Deut 4:4143 and 4:4449. For the interpretation of these chapters, H. Spieckermann is
Perlitts foremost dialogue partner. the biblical guild is eagerly awaiting the rest of this fine
and judicious commentary that presents the Gttingen approach to Deuteronomy.
Biblischer Kommentar Altes Testament 5,5; Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn (2008) 321400
(BL)

273 Eckart Otto, Ist das Deuteronomium nicht mehr und nicht weniger als
eine Lehrstunde der Geschichtsdidaktik ? Zu einem Buch von Johannes
Taschner
In seiner Habilitationsschrift Die Mosereden im Deuteronomium. Eine kanonorientierte Untersuchung
(FAT 59, Tbingen 2008) will J. Taschner dank eines als kanonisch bezeichnetem Zugang
in der mosaischen Repetition der Erzhlungen des Tetrateuch und dem damit verbundenen
Perspektivenwechsel das Proprium des Lehr- und Lernprozesses im Dtn sehen. Durch
den Verzicht auf die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Dtn als einem gewachsenen Text
wird Taschners synchrone Analyse aber zu einer unkritischen Nacherzhlung, der er in
kanonischer Perspektive Spannung dadurch zu verleihen sucht, dass er den Dtn-Rahmen
und parallele Texte des Tetrateuch und damit den biblischen Erzhler mit Mose als
Erzhler konfrontiert, ohne dass es Thema sein soll, wie literaturhistorisch diese Paralle-
len insbesondere mit dem Numeribuch zu erklren sind. Da auf diese Weise die postdtr
Einbindung des Dtn in den Pentateuch unbeachtet bleibt, scheitert Taschner insbesondere
bei seinem Versuch, ein endtextliches Dtn im Kontext der diachronen Hypothese eines
DtrG in der Exilszeit zu situieren.
ZABR 14 (2008) 463474

274 Johannes Taschner, Die Mosereden im Deuteronomium. Eine kanon-


orientierte Untersuchung
At the center of this canonical study is the fact that the focus of the speeches of Moses
is on two events that are also told elsewhere in the Pentateuch: the renewal of the tables
of the Law (Exod 34; Deut 10:15) and the story of the missed opportunity of taking
possession of the land (Num 1314; Deut 1). Read canonically, the speeches of Moses in

66
Deuteronomy are speeches that address those who, after the Babylonian demise of the
Judean monarchy, live in a kind of zero situation which may turn out to be the opportunity
for a new beginning. King Josiahs reform came too late to warrant divine intervention,
but those who now read the Mosaic Torah have a good chance to earn the benefits of
their love for God and their obedience to his law.
FAT 59; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2008) XII/1402

275 Peter T. Vogt, Social Justice and the Vision of Deuteronomy


The author argues with M. Weinfeld (The Origin of the Humanism in Deuteronomy, JBL
80, 1961) that the book of Deuteronomy presents a humanitarian vision for community
life in Israel, attempting simultaneously to demonstrate that there is a profound theologi-
cal motivation for that humanitarian concern: Deuteronomys call to social justice is
based on the fact that the people of Israel are the people of Yahwe. As such they are
called to live out that relationship in radically counter-cultural ways. They are to serve as
a paradigm for the rest of humanity (p. 44).
JETS 51/1 (2008) 3544 (BF)

276 Marc Zvi Brettler, Fire, Cloud, and Deep Darkness (Deuteronomy
5:22): Deuteronomys Recasting of Revelation
The book of Deuteronomy can be seen as a book that aims at re-interpreting the event
of revelation. In order to achieve this, it employs a number of literary strategies such as
giving the Decalogue a more prominent position than other laws, or placing other, post-
Sinaitic laws under the canopy of the Sinai event. Above all, however, it places the Sinai
event in perspective by making the speech of Moses, given forty years after the Sinai event,
more important than the original revelatory event.
Themes in Biblical Narrative 12; George J. Brooke et al. (eds.), The Significance of Sinai; Brill,
Leiden (2008) 1527 (BL)

277 Nadav Naaman, Sojourners and Levites in the Kingdom of Judah in the
Seventh Century BCE
In a recent article the author pointed out that Sennacheribs campaign to Judah in 701
BCE caused a far-reaching upheaval in the population pattern throughout the kingdom of
Judah and its capital, Jerusalem (BASOR 347, 2007, 2156; IRBS 54:1445). The Assyrian
campaign devastated many settlements and masses of people fled from the threatened
areas before, during and after the invasion, to seek shelter in Jerusalem and the mountain
regions of Judah. This article examines a number of biblical texts that show the impact
of Sennacheribs campaign to Judah upon the social situation in the kingdom during the
7th century BCE. The discussion focuses on the status of sojourners ( grm) and Levites
in Judahite society, as reflected in works composed during the 7th century primarily
the Book of Deuteronomy. The testimony about these two groups reflects the profound
crisis suffered by the kingdom of Judah, which left an impact upon its society that was
discernible for generations after these events.
ZABR 14 (2008) 237279

278 Eckart Otto, Deuteronomiumsstudien I: Die Literaturgeschichte von


Deuteronomium 13
Nach einem Durchgang durch die Forschungsgeschichte stellt der Verf. fest, dass es in
der gegenwrtigen Forschung zu Dtn 13 jenseits der These eines Deuteronomistischen
Geschichtswerkes keine berzeugenden literaturgeschichtlichen Konzepte gibt. Die eigene
diachrone Analyse im Horizont von Dtn, Hexateuch und Pentateuch fhrt ihn zu dem

67
Ergebnis, dass Dtn 13 eine dtr. Grunderzhlung zugrunde liegt, die postdtr durch Autoren
berarbeitet wurde, die die dtr Erzhlung der Moabredaktion in den literarischen Kontext
von Pentateuch und Hexateuch integrierten (212). Eine synchrone Lesung des untersuch-
ten Textes dient im letzten Abschnitt dieses Beitrags als Gegenprobe zu der diachronen
Analyse, um die narrative Logik der postulierten Hauptschichten zu besttigen.
ZABR 14 (2008) 86236 (DL)

279 Detlef Jericke, Der Ort des Mose nach Deuteronomium 1:1
In a literary-topographical view the nine toponyms of Deut 1:1 show the figure of Moses
at the end of the exodus and the wilderness journey. They indicate also the beginning
of the conquest of the land of Canaan, i.e. Western Palestine. Many scholars under-
stand the verse as the heading of Deut 13. If that interpretation is correlated with the
literary-topographical meaning of the toponyms in Deut 1:1 the three chapters can be
understood as a redactional formulation to insert the book of Deuteronomy between
Numbers and Joshua.
JNWSL 34/2 (2008) 3557

280 Norbert Lohfink, Israels Unglaube in Kadesch-Barnea (Dtn 1,32) und


die Enneateuchhypothese
The author rejects the theory of Hans-Christoph Schmitt and others according to which
Deut 1:32 belongs to a later editing of the Enneateuch which (allegedly) incorporated the
theme of belief of Israel as a unifying theme.
J.N. Aletti et al. (eds.), Biblical Exegesis in Progress; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2009)
3365 (BL)

281 Georg Braulik, Der unterbrochene Dekalog. Zu Deuteronomium 5,12


und 16 und ihrer Bedeutung fr den deuteronomischen Gesetzeskodex
Within the Decalogue in Deut 5 the commandments about the Sabbath and respect for
parents include the qualification as YHWH your God commanded you (5,12.16). This is
not a grammatical inconsistency, but it does constitute a problem for interpretation. For in
the Pentateuchal narrative before the Sinai theophany there is neither a divine command-
ment about the Sabbath nor one about respect for parents. The literary phenomenon of
different voices or levels of communication, which is known elsewhere in Deut, could
be of some help here. The article attempts to explain the intention of the two clauses
within the literary construction of the book of Deuteronomy. In the process it becomes
apparent how even in the composition of the individual laws there is an elaboration of
the Decalogue given at Horeb.
ZAW 120/2 (2008) 169183

282 Christopher R. Bruno, A Note Pertaining to the Translation of Deut 6:4


Scholars who translate Deut 6:4c as the Lord alone claim that lbd is improper in a nominal
clause. Elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible, however, lbd does occur in nominal clauses.
VT 59/2 (2009) 320322

283 Andr Lemaire, Deuteronomy 6:6,9 in the Light of Northwest Semitic


Inscriptions
Inscriptions reveal that writing on the heart (i.e., placing an amulet on the heart), on the
doorposts of a house, or in gates may well have been understood literally by Judeans living
in the eighth and seventh centuries BCE.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 525530 (BL)

68
284 Jen Kiss, Der Mensch lebt nicht vom Brot allein, sondern . . .
The aim of this study is, on the one side, to inquire into the meaning of the expression
mw ph ( jhwh) in Deut. viii 3b. Because this expression appears only once in the Old Tes-
tament, this study investigates the genitival construction mw ph in Num. xxx 13; Deut.
xxiii 24; Jer. xvii 16, and Ps. lxxxix 35, and the expression j mn ph in Num. xxx 3; Judg.
xi 36; Isa. xlv 23; and lv 11. One may conclude that these expressions bear signs of a
juridical language, with the connotation of self commitment. Accordingly, mw ph jhwh
in Deut. viii 3b denotes the self commitment of YHWH. Secondly, the study explores the
meaning of the expression hlm lbdw. Following the lead of Deut. viii 1618, it arrives at
the conclusion that bread alone denotes food detached from YHWH, acquired by ones
own efforts, in contrast to the manna, the symbol of the provision of God. According to
the final clause of Deut. viii 3b, YHWH teaches his people that, when there is food and
wealth, they recognise his covenantal love, the sole foundation of Israels life.
VT 58/45 (2008) 510525

285 Bernard M. Levinson, The Neo-Assyrian Origins of the Canon Formula


in Deuteronomy 13:1
The authors of Deut 13 transformed two inextricably intertwined legal paragraphs
paragraphs 4 and 10 of Esarhaddons Succession Treaty. They reworked the treatys
adjurations requiring exclusive loyalty to the word of the Assyrian overlord Esarhaddon
regarding his designated heir, Assurbanipal, and put the reworked adjurations into new
service as a demand for fidelity to the word of God as mediated by Moses. The formulas
original focus dynastic succession now addresses legal succession.
Deborah A. Green et al. (eds.), Scriptural Exegesis; Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009) 2545 (BL)

286 E.H. Scheffler, Deuteronomium 15:118 en die uitroei van armoede in


(Suid) Afrika
Poverty is a problem of the present day as it was also in the ancient world. Endeavouring to
draw inspiration from the ancient text of Deuteronomy 15:118 to benefit the eradication
of poverty today, the author of this paper evaluates the contexts of the ancient text as well
as the context of today. In view of the available resources in the world, it is concluded that
through a re-appropriation of the basic values undergirding the biblical text and applying
the measures prescribed by present day clinical economics, it is probable that extreme
poverty can be eradicated in the foreseeable future or at least be largely reduced.
Verbum et Ecclesia 29/1 (2008) 194221

287 Mark OBrien, Deuteronomy 16.1818.22: Meeting the Challenge of


Towns and Nations
Historical-critical analysis sees Deut. 16.1818.22 as a move by deuteronomistic reformers
to effect a distribution of power in Israel and/or to curb the power of the monarchy. A
recent detailed synchronic analysis argues that the pericope formulates a political constitu-
tion designed to enshrine Israels status as a liberated people. This study argues that the
passage aims to maintain Israels unswerving commitment to the Torah in the challenging
new situation of living in towns in the land and in proximity to surrounding nations. It
does so by turning potential threats to the Deuteronomic ideal into things that will enhance
Israels status as YHWHs special possession, a people set apart.
JSOT 33/2 (2008) 155172

288 Thomas Rmer, Das Verbot magischer und mantischer Praktiken im Buch
Deuteronomium (Dtn 18,913)
Ancient Israel, like its neighbours, was a society steeped in magic, to be defined, pragmati-
cally, as methods associated with the gaining of suprahuman knowledge and power or
69
with influencing suprahuman powers ( Joanne Kmmerle-McLean in Anchor Bible Diction-
ary, s.v. magic). Elijah and Elisha were magicians, and so was the patriarch Joseph. The
book of Deuteronomy, however, sought to redefine Israels culture as one opposed to all
forms of magic. Rmer offers a detailed commentary on Deut 18:913, adding that many
readers (including Max Weber) of the Bible have taken this text to be the Old Testaments
central statement on magic.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 311327 (BL)

289 Ernest Nicholson, Traditum and traditio: The Case of Deuteronomy


17:1420
No king in the usual sense of the word is portrayed, no head of state with normal func-
tions pertaining to this office indeed, no state properly understood. The only leadership
with which the bearer of the office is here charged is to be an exemplary Israelite in
meditating upon and fulfilling the requirements of the book of the Torah. The future of
the dynasty also depends on this conduct. The binding of kingship to Torah precludes an
interpretation that views the dynastic promise of 2 Sam 7:1116 as unconditional and
the rehabilitation of Jehoiachin (2 Kings 25:2730) as a sign of dynastic hope.
Deborah A. Green et al. (eds.), Scriptural Exegesis; Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009) 4661 (BL)

290 Ian Wilson, Central Sanctuary or Local Settlement? The Location of


the Triennial Tithe Declaration (Dtn 26,1315)
This reading of the text argues for the eventual presence of the Israelite farmer at the
central sanctuary in connection with the triennial tithe. It derives from two curious and
largely unremarked features of the pericope: first, the Israelites declaration that he has
not eaten of the tithe while [he] was mourning (Dtn 26,14) is meaningful if he has
partaken of the tithe, but pointless if he had indeed set aside the whole of it for the
poor, and secondly, his designation of what he has given away as the sacred portion,
i.e. rather than the tithe (v. 13). These features can be understood on the basis of the
implied direct object pronoun in v. 12 (I have given to the Levite etc.). Such an omission
is fairly common in Biblical Hebrew, the identity of the missing object generally being
inferred from the preceding context. Here, modern translations assume that the whole tithe
is intended. There are cases, however, involving an uncountable noun, where the omitted
object refers not to the whole of such an antecedent, but only to part. This syntactical
feature of Biblical Hebrew thus allows the possibility that, while setting aside most (the
sacred portion) of the tithe for the disadvantaged, the Israelite farmer retained some
for his own consumption.
ZAW 120/3 (2008) 323340

291 David Lincicum, Greek Deuteronomys Fever and Chills and Their
Magical Afterlife
The Greek text of Deut. xxviii 22 preserves the earliest reference in a Jewish context
to fever and chills, a pair that repeatedly surfaces in later incantations. This provided
both a scriptural justification for some Greek curses and contributed to the magical
Wirkungsgeschichte of Deuteronomy itself.
VT 58/45 (2008) 544549

292 Mark S. Smith, Deuteronomy 32:89


In view of the larger context of Deut 32 (esp. verses 12, 17, 21, 31, and 39), it is evident
that the original composer of the passage presupposed the monotheistic identification of
Yahweh (v. 9) with Elyon (v. 8). But there is still some sort of polytheism in the passage

70
in v. 8, where the sons of God are mentioned; these seem to have been considered minor
divinities or angels.
FAT 57; Mark S. Smith, God in Translation; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2008) 195212 (BL)

Joshua
293 Ernst Axel Rnauf, Josua
Diesem Kommentar liegt eine von Knauf selbst erarbeitete literarkritische Hypothese
zugrunde. Nach dieser begann das Buch Josua sein literarisches Leben nicht als eigenes
Werk, sondern als Schusskapitel einer Exodus-Josua-Geschichte, zu der vor allem Jos 6 und
Jos 10 gehrte. Eine D-Redaktion (um 520 v. Chr.?) erweiterte dieses Kapitel, dessen Schluss
in Jos 11,23 vorliegt. Die D-Komposition provozierte einen Gegenentwurf; dieser stammt
von P; besonders deutlich ist P in den chronologischen Notizen Jos 4,19 und Jos 24,29.
Eine Hexateuchredaktion vereinigte die D-Komposition mit dem P-Stoff. Zu den jngsten
Teilen des Josuabuches gehren Jos 18,219,48 und Jos 23. Das kanonische Josuabuch ist
das Ergebnis von politischen und theologischen Kontroversen, die vom ausgehenden 7.
bis zum Anfang des 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. in Jerusalem gefhrt wurden.
Zrcher Bibelkommentare AT 6; Theologischer Verlag Zrich (2008) 1203

294 Elie Assis, The Sin at Kadesh as a Recurring Motif in the Book of
Joshua
Entsprechend dem Duktus des Pentateuchs nimmt die Kundschafter-Erzhlung in Num
1314 eine zentrale Position in der Exodusberlieferung ein. Dieser Wendepunkt auf dem
Weg ins verheibene Land wird in den Erzhlungen von der Inbesitznahme des Landes
wieder aufgenommen. Explizit erwhnt wird diese Begebenheit zwar nur im Bericht von der
Verteilung des Landes in Jos 14,614, doch an fnf weiteren Stellen wird auf sie ebenfalls
Bezug genommen ( Jos 2; 5,28; 5,1112; 7; 18,110). Angesichts der bereits erwiesenen
Vielschichtigkeit des Josuabuches vermutet der Verf., dass das Kundschafter-Motiv als ein
verbindendes Element innerhalb der Gesamtstruktur dieses Buches verwendet wurde.
JANES 31 (2008) 114 (DL)

295 Marieke den Braber et al., The Unity of Joshua 18, its Relation to
the Story of King Keret, and the Literary Background to the Exodus and
Conquest Stories
The story of the campaign against Jericho and its taking in Joshua 16 is usually assumed
to be a composite narrative, in which episodes from various sources have been put together,
resulting in a text which exhibits a considerable number of discontinuities, especially in
the field of chronology. In this article it is argued that the chronological indications can be
joined in one framework of twice seven days. In the middle of the first week the crossing
of the Jordan is found, whereas the second week is concerned with the taking of Jericho.
It is argued that this scheme mirrors the Ugaritic story of King Keret going to the city
of Udum in order to obtain the princess Hurriy as his wife. The arguments in favour and
against the assumption of relationship of emulation between the two texts are discussed,
and the possibility of an encompassing intertextual relationship of the Biblical account of
Exodus and Conquest with the story of king Keret is cautiously advanced.
SJOT 22/2 (2008) 253274

296 L. Daniel Hawk, Conquest Reconfigured: Recasting Warfare in the


Redaction of Joshua
As L.G. Stone (Ethical and apologetic tendencies in the redaction of the book of Joshua,
CBQ 55, 1991, 2535) has pointed out, the holy war tradition echoed in Joshua 212 was

71
mitigated during the redactional process that shaped the present form of the text. Pursuing
this line of analysis, Hawk comes up with further evidence for the same phenomenon.
Canaanite kings, rather than the Canaanites as such, are considered the enemies, while
the Canaanite population is increasingly humanized. Thus the redactional process reveals
a profound ambivalence about Israels traditions of conquest.
Symposium Series 42; Brad E. Kille et al. (eds.), Writing and Reading War; Society of Biblical
Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) 145160 (BL)

297 tienne Nodet, De Josu Jsus, via Qumrn et le pain quotidien


After crossing the Jordan river and renewing the Covenant, Joshua celebrated Passover at
Gilgal; then the manna ceased and the Israelites began to eat the produce of the Promised
Land ( Jos 5,212). This narrative provides a literary pattern for the entrance into the
divine world, on earth or in heaven. It helps explain the strange position of the Qumran
site as an Essene settlement, the crowds around John the Baptizer in the wilderness, and
Jesus public life, from the Jordan to the Last Supper, which concentrates all the features
of Joshuas Passover, including his very name Iesous God saves.
RB 114/2 (2007) 208236

298 Hanna Bartfeld, Different Pictures Have Been Integrated Into the Nar-
rative of the Conquest of Jericho (Hebr., Engl. summary)
Examination of the primary compositional layer presents two different traditions. One
tradition implies that Jericho was conquered through the heroic efforts of Joshua and the
Israelites, aided by their god who commanded their trust ( Josh. 5:1315; 6:23a, 5abce,
7, 20cef, 2223). According to the second tradition (6:1, 6a, 1012a, 14acd, 15ab, 16acd,
17ab, 1920abef, 21, 25, 26) the walls of Jericho fell miraculously, and the Israelites entered
the town, put it to the ban and burned it. Both traditions are concluded in this paper as
being pre-Deuteronomistic. Later, a Deuteronomistic author-editor combined pieces of
the two traditions, added characteristic idiom of his own (procession of priests carrying
the ark), and thus produced a continuous story describing the conquest of Jericho.
Beit Mikra 53/2 (2008) 2756.6*7*

299 Hanna Bartfeld, Uncovering the Latest Stratum Added to the Composi-
tion Describing the Conquest of Jericho ( Jos. 6) by Text Critical Research
(Hebr., Engl. summary)
This examination centres on a primary issue in biblical research: the importance of text
critical research and its contribution to literary critical examination of compositions. The
textual analysis concentrates on disclosing the latest stratum (hypertext) added to the compo-
sition describing the conquest of Jericho (hypotext) in Jos. 6. In the article, it is shown that
there are two distinct editions of the hypertext based upon different theological conceptions
of the interrelation between divine and human actions. Since separate revisions appear
in two textual witnesses, it seems likely that they represent two editions of the hypertext,
one of which was composed by the scribes of the MT, and the other composed by the
scribes of the Hebrew Vorlage of the LXX, or by the translators themselves.
Beit Mikra 53/1 (2008) 530.5*6*

300 Douglas Petrovich, The Dating of Hazors Destruction in Joshua 11


by way of Biblical, Archaeological, and Epigraphical Evidence
Petrovich argues with B.G. Wood (cf. JETS 48/3, 2005, 475489; IRBS 52:1687) that the
simple (and biblical) solution is that Joshua destroyed an earlier city at Hazor in ca. 1400
BC, while Deborah and Barak administered the coup de grace in ca. 1230 BC (511).
For Petrovich the biblical narrative matches perfectly with the archaeological evidence.

72
This conclusion supports the early-exodus position, and thus the literal interpretation of
numbers such as 480th in 1 Kgs 6:1.
JETS 51/3 (2008) 489512 (BF)

301 Adrian Schenker, Altar oder Altarmodell? Textgeschichte von Jos


22,934
Die lteste griechische bersetzung, deren Textform in der Vetus Latina zwar nicht
ganz fehlerfrei, aber im Wesentlichen intakt erhalten ist, bewahrt in V. 10, 19 und 2629
eine ursprnglichere Textgestalt als der hebrische Text und die Septuaginta. In der
ursprnglichen Erzhlung (Vetus Latina) bauten Ruben, Gad und Halb-Manasse einen
richtigen Altar, nicht ein Modell oder eine Nachbildung des einzig legitimen Altars von
Schilo.
BEThL 224; Hans Ausloos et al. (eds.), Florilegium Lovaniense; Peeters, Leuven (2008) 417425 (BL)

302 Galy Dinuur, The Design of the Dialogue in the Story of the Altar of
the Two-and-a-Half Tribes ( Joshua 22:934) (Hebr., Engl. summary)
The narrative Joshua 22:934 was formed in a tight chiastic structure with a judicial dia-
logue in its centre. The exposure of this structure shows that there is a strong connection
between the aesthetic and ideological aspects that is, the storys design is a significant
device to elevate its message. The chiastic structure tightens the connection between the
parts of the story, and highlights the contrast between its beginning and ending. The
scene of the negotiations, which constitutes the core and the bulk of the narrative, is also
chiastic the speech of the eastern tribes is in the centre (verses 1520, 3031). Examin-
ing the chiasmus within a chiasmus, it becomes evident that the heart of the story is the
speech of the eastern tribes, which is twice as long as the other two parts combined, and
concerns the social-religious renewal represented in this story.
Beit Mikra 53/2 (2008) 89122.9*

303 Yair Zakovitch, And the Lord sent Moses and Aaron
Four references in the Bible mention Moses and Aaron together as being sent by God:
Josh 24:5; 1 Sam 12:8; Mic 6:4; Ps 105:26. In each case, a close reading suggests that the
two names were added by an editor.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 191199 (BL)

Judges
304 Walter Gro, Richter. bersetzt und ausgelegt. Mit Karten von Eras-
mus Ga
Recent commentaries on Judges are by C.E. Amerding (1997), D.I. Block (1999), and K.L.
Younger (2002), all in English. The present commentary surpasses all these in detail as
well as substance. Four features characterise the work of Gro: (1) he offers a new transla-
tion based on the commentators expertise in Hebrew syntax, a field in which Gro is a
major specialist; (2) he engages in German-style literary-critical analysis, concluding that
one can discern ancient traditions, a pre-deuteronomistic redaction, and two deuteron-
omistic editorial expansions; (3) he has a clear historical perspective he refrains from
late datings, suggesting, as he does, that the Song of Deborah ( Judges 5) dates from
ca. 1000 BCE and the Samson stories from the seventh century BCE; he consistently offers
a historical evaluation so as to enable the modern reader to know whether a passage may
or may not echo historical realities, personas, and events; and, finally (4), he refrains from
offering daring interpretations, intent as he is on indicating exactly what can be known

73
for sure and what cannot be known. This is one of the finest commentaries a German
exegete has produced in recent years.
Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament; Verlag Herder, Freiburg (2009) 1896 (BL)

305 Serge Frolov, Rethinking Judges


The recent tendency to read the canonical Book of Judges as an integral and relatively
self-contained composition is unwarranted. The text within its boundaries is not a literary
entity of any kind but rather a combination of three major components: the conquest
account in 1:126, which belongs with what we know as the Book of Joshua; the sequence
of apostasy-oppression-repentance-deliverance cycles in Judg 3:721:25, which extends at
least through 1 Samuel 7; and the introduction to the latter in Judg 1:273:6.
CBQ 71/1 (2009) 2441

306 Moshe Garsiel, Puns on Names as a Literary Device in the Book of


Judges (Hebr., Engl. summary)
Using puns in names is a common device in biblical narratives. Sometimes the puns are no
more than alliteration. In other instances names may contain references to physical traits or
they refer to the fate of the names bearer. In this paper many personal and place names
in the Book of Judges are discussed, such as Deborah, Jair, Samson, Gideon, Eglon, Ehud,
Sisera, Gaal, Jephtah, Gershom, Kir-Moab, Harosheth hagoyim, Mizpah, and Eshtaol.
The puns that are attached to these names indicate that the author of Judges was great
master of this literary device. While some of the names may have been chosen for their
symbolic qualities, others are known from different biblical and extra-biblical sources. The
author of Judges thus has exerted himself to handle the material in such a way as to sug-
gest links between the names of the characters and the events of the plot.
Beit Mikra 53/1 (2008) 5982.8*9*

307 Erasmus Ga, Zur Ehud-Tradition in historisch-topographischer Hinsicht


Die hier prsentierte Zusammenschau des literarischen und archologischen Befundes zeigt,
dass die in den arbt M b (Land am Ostufer Jordans nordstlich des Toten Meeres) und
darber hinaus spielende Erzhlung um Ehud und Eglon (Ri 3,1230) erst ab dem 8. Jh.
v. Chr. entstehen konnte, da vorher vermutlich keine Moabiter dort gesiedelt haben und
nachher die Ammoniter dieses Gebiet beherrschten. Damit wre ein terminus post quem
fr die Entstehung bzw. Abfassung der Ehud-Tradition in ihrer jetzigen Form gegeben,
was natrlich nicht ausschliet, dass die zugrunde liegende Tradition selbst viel lter sein
kann. Darber hinaus knnen die Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchung auch fr die Jiftach-
Erzhlung, die von einem Konflikt mit den Ammonitern nordstlich des Toten Meeres
berichtet, fruchtbar gemacht werden, deren Verschriftung vor dem Hintergrund dieser
Untersuchung erst im 7. Jh. v. Chr. denkbar ist.
ZDPV 124/1 (2008) 3850

308 Heinz-Dieter Neef, Eglon als Klbermann? Exegetische Beobachtungen


zu Jdc 3:1230
This essay argues against the idea that King Eglon in Judges 3:1230 should be understood
in a negative light in the sense of a Klbermann. Such an interpretation is inherent
neither in the kings name nor in the story itself. The story of Ehud and Eglon is fun-
damentally a hero saga, which portrays the successful assassination of the overpowering
king of the Moabites, Eglon, by the seemingly powerless and chanceless Judge Ehud. The
story leaves Yahweh unnamed, but behind the allusion to the miracle that no evidence of
the murder was left behind, lies a hidden allusion to the works of Yahweh for the sake
of Ehud and Israel.
VT 59/2 (2009) 284294

74
309 Andr Wnin, Le point de vue racont, une catgorie utile pour
tudier les rcits bibliques? Lexemple du meurtre dgln par hud ( Jdc
3,1526a)
This article is a narrative study of the first scene of the story of Ehud in Judg 3,1526a.
It examines especially the handling of the point of view in the narrative. Adopting the
point of view of this or that character and deliberately playing on it to present different
aspects of the story makes it possible to create particular effects (secret and mystery, wonder,
suspense, irony, humour and satire) which contribute to the aim of the story as well as the
pleasure of the reader. The analysis is based on the distinctions employed by the French
linguist Alain Rabatel concerning the source of the point of view (or focalisateur). He
distinguishes three different points of view which can be identified with help of linguistic
markers: asserted (direct discourse), represented (second level of the narrative) and narrated (the
narration, as objective as possible, of the subjective perception of a character). Special
attention is devoted here to the narrated point of view.
ZAW 120/1 (2008) 1427

310 Tyler Mayfield, The Accounts of Deborah ( Judges 45) in Recent


Research
Within the book of Judges, the figure of Deborah receives exceptional treatment in that her
actions are presented first in a narrative, comprising chapter four, then in a poem, chapter
five. Read together or separately, these chapters elicit scholarly interpretations aplenty.
This article surveys recent research on the accounts of Deborah since 1990 by dividing
the discussion into three sections: the two accounts as a single unit, Judges 4 alone, and
Judges 5 alone. The first section discusses the function of these chapters within the book
and their relationship with each other. The second section further subdivides according to
the narrative elements of character or event, while the third sections divisions are based
on common scholarly concerns like genre, dating, and structure.
CBR 7/3 (2009) 306335

311 Charles L. Echols, Tell Me, O Muse. The Song of Deborah ( Judges 5)
in the Light of Heroic Poetry
The original form of Judges 5, a secular poem celebrating human heroes, dates from close
to the victory that it celebrates (ca. 1150 BCE); later, it was given a liturgical (religious)
frame by the addition of v. 25 and the words brkw yhwh in v. 9c. The song of Deborah
bears a close resemblance to panegyric, and it may be called a victory song. Perhaps
the best label to be used is heroic victory song. A convincing piece of scholarship
that refrains from speculation (such as a post-exilic dating and multiple revisions of the
original text).
LHBOTS 487; T & T Clark International, London (2008) XIII/1241 (BL)

312 Vince Endris, Yahweh versus Baal: A Narrative-Critical Reading of the


Gideon/Abimelech Narrative
The story of Gideon and his son Abimelech (Ri 6 9) lies at the centre of the book of
Judges. This article offers a reading of this narrative that lends a clearer understanding
of the book as a whole. Gideon and Abimelech are seen as human representatives of
Yahweh and Baal. In this way, the narrative is seen as a fight between the two gods for
Israels fidelity. Yahweh defeats Baal, yet the Israelites still reject Yahweh and turn to the
defeated god. After this, Yahwehs activity with the Israelites is less frequent and more
ambiguous. The text suggests that Israels problems with fidelity will be solved once a
human representative of Yahweh sits on the throne of Israel.
JSOT 33/2 (2008) 173195

75
313 John A. Beck, Gideon, Dew, and the Narrative-Geographical Shaping of
Judges 6:3340
By treating the narrative in Judges 6 as a literary whole and by careful inquiry into the
use of geography within the story, narrative-geographical analysis explains why Gideon
requests for a manipulation of dewfall as a sign of Gods presence. The crisis that lies
at the heart of the first three scenes of this narrative concerns Israels divided loyalty,
offering both Jahveh and Baal a seat on the divine throne. The manipulation of dew is a
powerful way for the real deity to stand up and be counted since both Baal and Jahveh
had claimed the right to provide this moisture so critical to survival in the land. On a
threshing floor before the soldiers of Israel god uses the manipulation of dew to confirm
his power and presence at the expense of Baal.
BS 165/1 (2008) 2838

314 Katie M. Heffelfinger, My Father is King: Chiefly Politics and the


Rise and Fall of Abimelech
This study argues that the complex secondary chieftainship model recently articulated
by Robert D. Miller (IRBS 52:1688) offers explanatory power for understanding several
inconsistencies in the Abimelech narrative of Judges 8 and 9. The complex secondary
chieftainship model is briefly sketched and applied to four logical gaps in Abimelechs
story. These gaps are (1) the contradiction between Gideons refusal of hereditary kingship
and the assumption by all of the characters that one of Gideons sons would rule after
him, (2) the appeal Abimelech makes to the best interests of the lords of Shechem, (3)
the storys treatment of the raiding done by the lords of Shechem as a personal offence
against Abimelech, and (4) the reason for Abimelechs unmotivated attack on Thebez.
JSOT 33/3 (2009) 277292

315 Dieter Bhler, Jiftach und die Tora. Eine intertextuelle Auslegung von
Ri 10,612,7
The story of Jephtah is a conscious re-telling of Numbers 2022. If this hypothesis is
granted, it is clear that the passage can only be read intertextually, i.e. in the light of
Numbers 2022. In terms of this interpretation, Jephaths daughter is a symbol for Israel,
and the human sacrifice the sacrifice of the daughter (= Israel) stands for Israels decline,
for which Israels leaders are responsible.
sterreichische Biblische Studien 34; Peter Lang Verlag, Bern (2008) 1414

316 Erasmus Gass, Simson und die Philister Historische und archologische
Rckfragen
This article evaluates the archaeological record of the Northern Shephelah in search for
possible dating of the Samson story in Jdg 1316. The historical reconstruction of the
political and economic conditions of the 7th century BCE presents the motivation for
the biblical hatred of the Philistines, while the archaeological findings at certain places in
the Samson story define the terminus post quem for the writing of this narrative. The sharp
contrast of the Philistines as opponents of Judah and the inhabitants of the Shephelah is
conceivable only beginning in the 7th century BCE. Such antagonism is excluded for the
Iron Age IIIA due to the marginal settlement in the Shephelah.
RB 114/3 (2007) 372402

317 D. Luciani, Samson: 1amour rend aveugle


This short note makes a suggestion to solve the question why Samson doesnt see Delilah
and why she is the only woman named in Judges 1316.
VT 59/2 (2009) 323326

76
318 Brent A. Strawn, kpr ryt in Judges 14:5
Data culled from the Hebrew Bible (e.g., Ezek 19:199) and, especially, zoology casts
light on the odd construct phrase in Judg 14:5, kpr ryt. The phrase, which may even
be a compound word, is best understood as designating a nomadic subadult lion. This
makes good sense of a number of details in the narrative, including the lions location in
the vineyards of Timnah and its aggressive behaviour. It also underscores still further the
astonishing nature of Samsons victory over precisely this kind of lion.
VT 59/1 (2009) 150158

319 Shalom M. Paul, Plowing with a Heifer in Judges 14:18: Tracing a


Sexual Metaphor
To plow serves as a metaphor for sexual coition. It is attested as far back as Sumerian
times.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
163167 (BL)

320 D.G. Lawrie, Figuring it and Figuring it out: The Historical Imagination
at Work in and on Judges 1921
In this paper, Judges 1921 is used to illustrate the role of imagination in historical
accounts and historical study. Historical accounts, being linguistic representations of the
past, necessarily use figuration, but in assessing the account, the rhetorical critic also
has to figure things out. This requires imagining the scenario in which the account
made sense. The rhetoric of Judges 1921, which is anti-Saulide and pro-monarchic,
suggests that the narrative was loosely based on a historical conflict. This is shown by
comparing the views of Wellhausen and Eissfeldt and by expanding the latter view. The
rhetorical critic has to take both the literary aspects of the text and the historical context
into account even if the conclusion is that the text is fictional. The conclusion that is
reached in this way is never certain, but it is based on reasonable argumentation and is
therefore not mere fantasy.
Scriptura 96 (2007) 425440

321 Henrik Pfeiffer, Sodomie in Gibea. Der kompositionsgeschichtliche Ort


von Jdc 19
Der Grundbestand von Richter 19 bildet vermutlich die lteste literarische Brcke zwi-
schen Volksgeschichte (erzhlt in Exodus bis Josua) und Knigtumsgeschichte (1 Samuel
bis 2 Knige). Im Vorfeld der Entstehung des Knigtums weckt die Erzhlung die
allerschlimmsten Erwartungen fr die sptere Residenz Sauls, verleiht jedoch den Orten
der Knigssalbung und Residenz Davids ein positives Image. Fortan darf der Leser aus
Betlehem nur das Allerbeste erwarten (nmlich David). Von Gibea aber (der Stadt Sauls)
wei er, dass diese Stadt nicht besser ist als Sodom.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (Hg.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 267289 (BL)

322 Anke Eversmann, Gottesbefragung und Bruderkrieg in Ri 20


In diesem Aufsatz wird auf der Endtextebene analysiert, wie die drei Dialoge zwischen
Israel und Gott die Erzhlung in Richter 20 strukturieren und in welchem Verhltnis sie
zu den Kmpfen Israels gegen Benjamin stehen. Ausgehend von der hohen Bedeutung, die
Dialogen in Erzhltexten zukommt, wird dargelegt, wie der Fokus durch die Redeeinheiten
auf die drei Szenen gelenkt wird, in denen der Gott Israels zum Bruderkrieg befragt wird.
Insbesondere werden die unterschiedlichen Perspektiven sowohl Gottes als auch Israels in
Bezug auf einen jeweils erneuten Auszug zum Kampf in den Blick genommen. Zudem

77
wird dargestellt, wie sich die Intensitt der Dialoge von der ersten bis zur letzten Gottes-
befragung auf Seiten der Erzhlstimme, der Israeliten und Gottes selbst steigert.
BN 136 (2008) 1730

323 Georg Hentschel et al., Der Bruderkrieg zwischen Israel und Benjamin
(Ri 20)
The story about Israelites war against their brother Benjamin ( Judg 20) is told from Israels
perspective. Benjamin almost does not get a word in edgeways. However, the fight against
Benjamin is only then successful, when the Israelites show confidence in God by weeping,
fasting and making sacrifices. Conspicuous repetitions and syntactical disturbances point
to a thorough revision. If one pays attention to the distinction of names sons of Israel
and man of Israel and to the differences in structure and strategy, dates and times,
numbers and theology, then the second account of the last fighting (20,36c47) turns out
to be a part of an independent tradition. A younger narrator added to this old narrative,
that the sons of Israel learned to inquire of God after two setbacks, and God helped
them to defeat Benjamin, their brother. The contribution of the deuteronomistic and
priestly redactions is relatively small.
Bib. 89/1 (2008) 1738

Ruth
324 Neil Glover, Your People, My People: An Exploration of Ethnicity in
Ruth
This article reviews competing theories of ethnic identity to suggest different points in the
book of Ruth at which Ruth the Moabite may become an Israelite. Close reading of the
text favours the suggestion that Ruth enters the Israelite ethnie upon her acceptance by
the Bethlehem community in ch. 4. This concept accords with a Constructivist vision
of ethnic identity, where biological descent is not always necessary for ethnic belonging.
Though the ethnic vision of Ruth is often supposed to contrast with that in Ezra/Nehe-
miah, the nuances of ethnological theory suggest a greater congruence between these two
texts. The conclusion identifies some advantages and dangers of employing anthropological
theory in biblical studies.
JSOT 33/3 (2009) 293313

325 Yitzhak Berger, Ruth and the David-Bathsheba Story: Allusions and
Contrasts
Numerous scholars maintain that the book of Ruth alludes to the Judah Tamar narra-
tive in order to provide a contrasting, wholesome portrait of the ancestry of David. This
study argues that the book also alludes to the related narrative of David and Bathsheba,
casting Davids conduct in that episode as a departure from the favourable qualities of the
bloodline modelled by Ruth and Boaz. The latter half of the book of Ruth contains three
subtle features, each of which bears a unique resemblance to a feature of the Bathsheba
tale; and in all three instances, it is proposed that the author of Ruth seeks to underscore
a contrast between the characters in the two respective stories.
JSOT 33/4 (2009) 433452

326 Lesleigh Cushing Stahlberg, Modern Day Moabites: The Bible and
the Debate About Same Sex Marriage
With the debate about same-sex marriage raging in the United States, this paper asks
whether the canonical scriptures of Judaism and Christianity offer any justification for
blessing same-sex unions. It looks to the ways that the Bible is used by proponents and
opponents of same-sex marriage. It then turns to the biblical book of Ruth using it as

78
a prooftext to support same-sex marriage. The book has already been upheld by lesbian
readers of scripture because of the intimate relationship between the protagonists, Ruth
and Naomi, but this paper misreads the text differently. Ruth describes how a mar-
riage made between an Israelite and a Moabite brings about the line of King David, one
of the most important figures in the Bible and the man from whose line the Messiah is
expected to come. The biblical law, however, is unequivocal: Moabites are not permitted
to enter into the community of Israel. Juxtaposing the levitical laws (ostensibly) prohibit-
ing homosexuality with those banning Moabites from Israel, this paper argues that the
religious left could hold up the book of Ruth as a biblical model for allowing marriage
that seems explicitly forbidden by biblical law.
BI 16/5 (2008) 442475

327 Carsten Ziegert, Das Buch Ruth in der Septuaginta als Modell fr eine
integrative bersetzungstechnik
The Greek version of Ruth is, generally speaking, a literal translation. Even the style of
the Hebrew original has been replicated as the translation brings out various Semitic
archaisms. The quality of style, poor from a Greek point of view, aims at reproducing
a special Hebrew local colour. This special style is avoided, however, if intelligibility is at
stake. In that case, the translator reverts to a communicative translation technique. Hence,
the Greek version of Ruth integrates elements of a communicative translation into an
otherwise literal translation. Considering the findings of functional translation theory, this
apparent caprice should be seen as a focused and innovative translation technique which
might be described as integrative.
Bib. 89/2 (2008) 221251

328 Elvira Martn-Contreras, Masoretic and Rabbinic Lights on the Word


hb, Ruth 3:15 jhb or bw?
A new definition concerning the morphological analysis of hb in Ruth 3:15 is done here
while taking into the account the rabbinic and masoretic evidence. This definition is based
on relevant information on the spelling and gender of the word that has been ignored
in the explanation commonly given to it. According to the evidence, the word should be
connected to the root bw and understood as feminine, in spite of its masculine form.
VT 59/2 (2009) 257265

Samuel: general 1 Samuel 2 Samuel


329 David G. Firth, 1 & 2 Samuel
Firth believes that 1 and 2 Samuel was compiled, on the basis of earlier sources, around
700 BCE, in the time of King Hezekiah. He identifies the reign of God, mediated through
kings and prophets, as the central subject of 1 and 2 Samuel. Each section is presented
in the following format: translation, notes on the text, form and structure, comment,
explanation (= final interpretation). Scholarly work is frequently referred to and listed in
a bibliographical appendix.
Apollos Old Testament Commentary; Apollos/Intervarsity Press, Nottingham (2009) 1614

330 Klaus-Peter Adam, Law and Narrative. The Narratives of Saul and David
Understood Within the Framework of a Legal Discussion on Homicide
Law (Ex 21:1214)
This case study of homicide laws and the characters of David, Saul and Joab (1 Sam
161 Kings 2) suggests an interrelatedness between legal and narrative material. First, the
narratives present the characters involved in a kinship relation, and, at the same time in an
inter-state relationship between Israel and Judah represented by Saul and David. Secondly,

79
the narratives interest is in a judicial assessment of homicide. The relation between nar-
rative and abstract legal norms is comparable to a drama and a scene in the background.
The legal discourse on homicide is told before the backdrop of the norms reflected in
Ex 21:12 and 1314. The actors agenda and the formation of the characters open up a
legal discussion about homicide, transforming the actors into paradigmatic figures within
an ongoing judicial discourse about blood guilt, inadvertence and revenge.
ZABR 14 (2008) 311335

331 Hermann Michael Niemann, David gegen Goliat. Waren Philister und
Israeliten Erzfeinde?
Die tendenzielle Beschreibung des Verhltnisses von Philistern und Israel in 1 Sam 4 bis
2 Sam 5 als Dauerkrieg, den David mit Gottes Hilfe endgltig beendet, ist ein Element
davidisch-judischer Theologie. Historisch ist das Verhltnis nicht so holzschnittartig ent-
lang ethnischer Linien verlaufen. Das Nebeneinander von reichen Kstenbewohnern und
rmeren Berglandbauern war strukturell bedingt und weitgehend als normal akzeptiert.
Die biblischen Texte zeichnen ethnische und wirtschaftliche Differenzen und Gegnerschaft
zwischen Israel, Juda einerseits und den Philistern andererseits viel schrfer als dies im
Alltag in der historischen Realitt sehr wahrscheinlich der Fall war. Die Kontrastierung
geschah freilich nicht zufllig in Zeiten, als das Selbstwertgefhl der Juder durch politischen
Niedergang, Zerstreuung und Machtlosigkeit Schaden genommen hatte.
WUB 49 (2008) 3439

332 Casper J. Labuschagne, The Divine Title ill, The High One, in the
Song of Hannah
Staying close to MT, the problematic lw in 1 Sam. ii 10 should be read ill, a synonym
of ljn. This particular form of the epithet was deliberately chosen to pun upon the
name Eli.
VT 58/45 (2008) 644649

333 Stephen Pisano, The Prophecy against the House of Eli (1 Sam 2,2736)
In its first (hypothetically reconstructed) form, this oracle was concerned only with the
condemnation of Elis sons for their treatment of the sacrifices, as well as the condemna-
tion of Eli for being too lenient toward them. The remnants of this oracle can be found
in 2:29.3132.34.
J.N. Aletti et al. (eds.), Biblical Exegesis in Progress; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2009)
97124 (BL)

334 Aren M. Maeir, Did Captured Ark afflict Philistines with E.D.?
Biblical scholars have long puzzled over the exact nature of the embarrassing ailment that
caused the Philistines to return the Ark of the Covenant to the Israelites after capturing
it in the battle of Ebenezer (1 Sam 56). For centuries, the painful affliction suffered by
the Philistines (Hebrew, opalim) has been translated as hemorrhoids, but in the face of
mounting archaeological evidence this paper argues that the opalim with which the Philis-
tines were afflicted involved penises rather than hemorrhoids, while it is still not clear what
the nature of the affliction of the Philistine membra virile was. In her note Of Philistines
and Phalluses (BAR 34/6, 2008, 34.82) M.J. Winn Leith supports the authors idea giving
some more examples of the importance of phallus-imageries in the Bible.
BAR 34/3 (2008) 4651

80
335 Jonathan Jacobs, The Role of the Secondary Characters in the Story of
the Anointing of Saul (I Samuel ixx)
This article investigates the roles of the secondary characters in the story of the anoint-
ing of Saul as king (I Sam. ixx). This story contains more than the usual number of
secondary characters in a biblical narrative, with some of them playing strange or unusual
roles. Through literary analysis of the storys structure and its key words, it becomes clear
that the secondary characters play a central role in the story. The hidden message of the
story, arising from the chiastic structure of this unit, the moulding of the main character,
and the moulding of the secondary characters surrounding him, is that the king of Israel
does not come to be chosen by chance; his selection is guided by God. This message is
important for the reader, but the development of the story shows that Saul himself learns
the same lesson over the course of the events.
VT 58/45 (2008) 495509

336 Caroline Nolan, The Rejection of Israels First King


The rejection of King Saul seems somewhat unjust. After exterminating the Amalekite
enemies and capturing their king, Agag, Saul is demoted from being king of Israel. A
study of the background to the battle, the battle itself, and the aftermath of it, in the
textual unit 1 Sam 15:19, with particular reference to the literary-critical problem in
1 Sam 15:89, can provide the key to understanding why Saul was rejected.
IThQ 73/34 (2008) 355368

337 Peter Bauck, 1 Samuel 19: David and the Teraphim: jhwh m dwd and the
Emplotted Narrative
This article interprets the use of teraphim in 1 Sam 19,13 through a historiographical
lens. A close reading of 1 Sam 1319 reveals Sauls doomed kingship (a lack of Gods
presence) and Gods continual presence with David. Drawing on Hayden Whites histo-
riography, archaeological material, and textual sources, one can see how the teraphim
functions as part of the emplotted (arranged) narrative of David and Saul, emphasizing
the leitmotiv jhwh m dwd that runs through Davids rise and Sauls decline. The author
of the 1 Sam 19 arranged the narrative vis--vis David and Saul in such a way that her
or his audience would understand.
SJOT 22/2 (2008) 212236

338 W. Randall Garr, Necromancy and 1 Samuel 19:22


The verse in question seems to hint at an oracular consultation.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
2331 (BL)

339 Jrg Hutzli, Saul als Feind Jhwhs, David als Verehrer Jhwhs. Zum
schriftgelehrten und polemischen Character von 1 Sam 22,623
The massacre of Nob, told in 1 Sam 22:623, does not seem to play any role at all in the
rest of the story of Saul. Thus this must be seen as an isolated passage within the Saul
narrative, in fact as an addition dating from the late Persian or Hellenistic periods and
reflecting the conflicts between Judah and Edom in this era.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 185208 (BL)

81
340 Ina Willi-Plein, Abigajil und die Kunst der Rede. Zum Informationsgehalt
der wrtlichen Reden in der Davidsgeschichte
The analysis of the art of speaking in 1 Sam 25 leads to the conclusion that the ability
to communicate is a vital feature in the portrait of Abigail.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 417432 (BL)

341 Klaus-Peter Adam, Nocturnal Intrusions and Divine Interventions on


Behalf of Judah: Davids Wisdom and Sauls Tragedy in 1 Samuel 26
A literary strand of narratives about Saul in 1 Samuel emerged in a process of rewriting
Israelite-Judean history. 1 Sam 26* and a number of other episodes (1 Sam 10:8; 10:1727;
13:7a13a; 14:2446; parts of 1 Sam 9; 1 Sam 16:113; 16:1423; 17*; 1 Sam 28*, 31*;
2 Sam 1*) present the first Israelite king as a figure that was informed by Greek tragic
heroism. More specifically, the themes and the formation of the characters in the story
of Davids nocturnal intrusion in 1 Samuel 26 are set side by side with the post-classi-
cal drama Rhesus. 1 Sam 26 is understood as a narrative comment on Sauls destiny in
prophetic tradition. Sauls tragic heroism is described with skl to act foolishly in 1 Sam
26:21b. Also, Qohelets royal travesty in Eccl 1:122:26 alludes to this notion of Saul as
a tragic king who acts foolishly (skl). He is contrasted with his glorious opponent David
who succeeds (kl) in all his endeavours.
VT 59/1 (2009) 133

342 Robert Couffignal, Le Roi, le Prophte et la ncromancienne. Inter-


prtation du chapitre 28 du Premier Livre de Samuel
Interprtation here means the quest for a hidden meaning that belongs to the realm
of the unconscious. The story presents the relationships between the members of a
family: the son, Saul, who is guilty of attacking his symbolic father, Samuel, and behind
him Yahweh, the supreme Father; and the mother, the medium, who feels compassion
towards her son. The narrative sequence passes through states which resemble psychologi-
cal processes: a state of persecution, when the Father recalls the faults of the king and
declares his punishment; a state of depression, when the poor traumatised man sinks into
distress; and finally a state of restoration, due to the hospitable assistance of the woman.
Thus the fantasies which are constitutive of the Oedipus complex come in to view: the
murder of the Father, which is implied in the disobedience of Saul; castration, as the
king loses both his throne and his life; and incest, suggested by his close involvement
with the motherly protection of the woman. It is a unique example in the Bible, where
the Oedipus problem is never resolved, of the supreme Father exhibiting the face of the
hostile deity of Greek tragedy.
ZAW 121/1 (2009) 1930

343 Pnina Galpaz-Feller, David and the Messenger Different Ends, Similar
Means in 2 Samuel 1
There are three stories in the Bible where a messenger appears and reports the disasterous
results of a battle: 1 Samuel 4:1217; 2 Samuel 1:116; 18:1932. This article discusses
the story of David and the Amalekite in 2 Samuel 1:116, and compares it to the story
in 1 Samuel 4:1217. The article demonstrates that the Amalekites report to David cre-
ates a complex situation that highlights different motives of the protagonists through their
clothing and their words. The result is a reversal in the balance of power between the
Amalekite messenger and David.
VT 59/2 (2009) 199210

82
344 Elisha Qimron, The Lament of David over Abner
The Masoretic form of 2 Sam 3:3334 does not reflect the original version of the lament.
The text of 4QSam(a) is linguistically sound and in fact preserves an earlier, archaic
Hebrew version that must be deemed authentic.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 143147 (BL)

345 Wolfgang Oswald, Is there a Prohibition to Build a Temple in 2 Samuel 7?


2 Sam 7 separates the issue of temple building from the legitimacy of the Davidic dynasty.
The text seems to be shaped by the requirements of the exilic period. Accordingly, any
political references are carefully avoided.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
8589 (BL)

346 Ronald H. van der Bergh, Deadly Traits: A Narratological Analysis of


Character in 2 Samuel 11
This narratological study takes a closer look at the characters of the ambiguous story of
David, Uriah and Bathsheba. First, different theories of character are discussed to high-
light the nature of narrative character. Special attention is given to the nature of biblical
characters. A combination of these theories is then used to analyse the characters of 2
Samuel 11.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 180192

347 David G. Firth, David and Uriah (With an Occasional Appearance by


Uriahs Wife) Reading and Re-Reading 2 Samuel 11
The interpretation of 2 Samuel 11 has been built around three points: (1) The primacy of
the relationship between David and Bathsheba; (2) Uriahs death as cover-up; (3) Numerous
points of ambiguity in the chapter. This paper explores the narrative from the perspective
of the ambiguities employed, showing that the third point undermines the first two. This
is achieved by drawing on Genettes theory of anachrony which emerges as an important
historiographical feature in Samuel. The text is meant to be read and then re-read as each
anachrony is encountered, thus coming to a clearer understanding of what is meant by
the narrators closing comment.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 310328

348 Ronald H. van der Bergh, A Narratological Analysis of Time in


2 Samuel 11:227a
This article enquires into the role of time in 2 Samuel 11 the story of David, Bathsheba
and Uriah. This is done by first demarcating 2 Samuel 11:227a as a narrative unit and
determining the scenes of the narrative. An analysis of time, on the basis of the narrative
theory of Grard Genette, then follows. It can be clearly seen in this analysis, amongst
other things, that the main theme of this narrative is rather the murder of Uriah than
the adultery of David and Bathsheba.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 498512

349 Steven T. Mann, Youre Fired: An Application of Speech Act Theory


to 2 Samuel 15.2316.14
While the role of speech act theory in studying how words do things in real life continues
to yield insight into the study of language, the theory can also contribute to an under-
standing of the performative nature of words in regard to biblical narrative. In this article

83
speech act theory is applied to the narrative of 2 Sam. 15:2316:14 in two ways. First,
the speech acts of the characters are analyzed as real speech acts using the categories
presented by John Searle to see how they function within the story. Second, the reality that
these speech acts are in fact parasitic is taken into account, and all speech acts including
those of the narrator are examined for the way they create a literary world that consists
of perlocutionary acts intended to affect a presumed audience.
JSOT 33/3 (2009) 315334

350 Stanley D. Walters, To the Rock (2 Samuel 21:10)


In this article, the author seeks to discern what would be involved in reading the Samuel
narrative in light of the two Isaian passages 51:152:12 and 30:633, interpreting the
words to the rock in 2 Sam 21:10 as if they are an echo of the same words in Isaiah.
The result is that the events of the story become figures of moral and theological ideas
found in the prophetic texts.
CBQ 70/3 (2008) 453464

Kings: general 1 Kings 2 Kings


351 Aarnoud Van Der Deijl, Protest or Propaganda: War in the Old Tes-
tament Book of Kings and in Contemporaneous Ancient Near Eastern
Texts
The author offers a thorough exegetical study of six passages: 1 Kings 12:124; 20; 22:138;
2 Kings 3; 6:87:20; 18:1319:37. The extrabiblical passages analyzed include the Mesha
stela (pp. 304339), the Kilamuwa and Zakkur inscriptions, the annals of Ashurbanipal,
the Cyrus cylinder, and others. The final chapter sums up the results of this comparative
study under the following headings: common Near Eastern background (gods, kings, war),
plot (again: gods, kings, war), actors (great king, vassal, priest, prophet, chroniqueur, exile);
finally, a question is asked: how holy is the war? An important difference between the
Old Testament and the ancient Near Eastern text emerges: in 1 and 2 Kings, Yahwehs
will is communicated by prophets and priests, in most extrabiblical traditions, the role of
mediator is played by the king.
Studia Semitica Neerlandica 51; Leiden (2008) XI/1706 (BL)

352 Robert R. Wilson, How Was the Bible Written? Reflection on Sources
and Authors in the Book of Kings
While it is reasonable to assume that the stories about the prophets Elijah and Elisha
were originally independent but became incorporated into the present text, they were also
shaped by the Deuteronomistic editor. Interestingly, the two prophets receive portrayals
that show characteristic differences; see e.g. W.J. Bergen, Elisha and the End of Prophetism,
Sheffield 1999.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
133143 (BL)

353 Bat-Sheva Brosh, The Contribution of Chronological Displacement to


the Design of the Characters of Solomon and Hezekiah (Hebr., Engl.
summary)
The purpose of this article is to deepen the discussion on the contribution of Chronological
Displacement to characters design and to show how the narrator of the book of Kings
uses Chronological Displacements in designing royal characters. First, Jeroboams exposi-

84
tion is discussed and its impact on the characterisation of Solomon is analysed. Secondly,
comparing the biblical account with Assyrian and Babylonian sources the author uncovers
chronological displacements in the accounts about the king Hiskija and searches for the
narrators goals which were achieved through this changed order in the narrative.
Beit Mikra 53/2 (2008) 526.5*6* (DL)

354 Marvin A. Sweeney, Synchronic and Diachronic Considerations in the


DtrH Portrayal of the Demise of Solomons Kingdom
In 1 Kings 111, a largely laudatory account of King Solomons reign has been heavily
reworked to present a substantial critique of this rule. The redactional placement of ref-
erences to his marriage to the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kgs 3:1; 7:8; 9:16, 24; 11:1) play
an important role in depicting Solomon as a monarch who betrayed his own national
tradition.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 175189 (BL)

355 Andrs Piquer Otero, An Old Greek Reading Attested in the Sahidic
and Old Latin Fragments of 1 Kgs 1:52. Text-Critical Analysis and Rela-
tionship with the Hebrew Text
This paper examines the evidence on 1 Kgs 1:52 (LXX 3 Kdms 1:52) offered by a Sahidic
Coptic fragment from the Balaizah collection, published by P.E. Kahle (1954, vol. 1, fr.
6A, 314316) and compares its meaningful variants (affecting oath formulae) with the
Greek LXX text-types and with a remarkable Old Latin gloss from Codex Legionensis. The
verse is surveyed both from the perspectives of textual criticism and syntactical analysis
in order to propose a reading from the Old Septuagint lost to the Greek witnesses but
preserved in the Coptic and OL fragments. Then, this reconstructed reading is contextu-
alized via a comparison with the Hebrew text of the verse and with other usages of the
oath formulae affected. Finally, the possibilities of a variant Hebrew Vorlage lying behind
are presented and discussed.
Hen. 30/1 (2008) 8093

356 Pamela Tamarkin Reis, Unspeakable Names: Solomons Tax Collectors


In dem Aufsatz geht es um eine Lakune in 1 Kn 4,719, die in der Forschung vielfltig
diskutiert worden ist. Fnf der zwlf Fronvgte Salomos sind namenlos; nur die Namen
ihrer Vter sind berliefert. Die Leerstelle stimmt berein mit vergleichbaren Tilgungen, die
im AT durch die verrterische Formel der Namenlosigkeit, reduziert auf der Sohn des X,
angezeigt sind. Deshalb wird hier argumentiert, dass der biblische Autor diese fiinf durch
alleinige Auflistung ihrer Vatersnamen tadeln und dem Vergessen anheimstellen will.
ZAW 120/2 (2008) 261266

357 Seul Il Kang, The Molten Sea, or Is It?


Contrary to the conventional rendering of hjm mw q (1 Kgs 7,23), the name of the huge
water basin in the Solomonic Temple, as the Molten Sea, the author suggests that hjm
mw q should be seen as one of the cultic proclamations declared during the New Year
festival and should be translated The Sea has been constrained!
Bib. 89/1 (2008) 101103

358 Juha Pakkala, Jeroboam without Bulls


According to the Book of Kings, Israels gravest transgression was Jeroboams sin (I Reg
12,2633). Contrary to the starting point in previous research, it is probable that the
bulls are a late addition to the passage. Jeroboam was connected with bulls only at a

85
very late stage in the development of these books. Prior to their addition, Jeroboams sin
only referred to the construction of the temples on the high places. When the bulls are
regarded as an addition, the history writers motives in III Reg become clearer. In the
cultic sense, he is primarily interested in the location of sacrifice. There is also little reason
to try to speculate about a possible bull cult at Bethel or Dan. The whole idea may be a
late literary construct that aimed to increase Jeroboams sin and to ridicule his standing
as a founder of a dynasty in Israel.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 501525

359 Gunnar Begerau, Elia vom Krit zum Jordan. Eine Untersuchung zur
literarischen Makrostruktur und theologischen Intention der Elia-Ahab-
Erzhlung (1 Kn 16,29 bis 2 Kn 2,25)
The Elijah story forms a structured unity composed of the following sections: 1 Kgs
16:2919:21; 20; 21; 22:151; 1 Kgs 22:522 Kgs 2:52. Bergerau analyses the first and
the last one of these sections in order to determine the thematic structure of the Elijah
story. According to the analysis presented, it is all about Yahwehs battle against Baal (the
deity favoured by Ahab and Jezabel), and both Elijah and Elisha are called to demonstrate
the superiority of Yahweh over Baal. Whereas Elijah stands mainly for divine judgment,
Elisha indicates the possibility of salvation.
Europische Hochschulschriften 23/884; Peter Lang Verlag, Bern (2008) XV/1305 (BL)

360 Winfried Thiel, Essen und Trinken in der Elia- und Elisa-Tradition
Eating and drinking are major motifs in the stories about the prophets Elijah and Elisha
(1 Kings 172 Kings 13). Reference is made to the article Eating and drinking in the Old
Testament in the Anchor Bible Dictionary II (1992), 250254.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 375388 (BL)

361 Frances Flannery, Go back the way you came: An Internal Textual
Critique of Elijahs Violence in 1 Kings 1819
The Deuteronomist celebrates violent Elija, who is always prepared to kill his opponents.
A later Deuteronomistic editor, however, introduces the figure of Obedyahu who hides in
a cave and thereby rescues the life of one hundred prophets (1 Kgs 18:315). The editor
belongs to those who had come to the conclusion that the violent reforms of kings Jehu
and Josiah had not saved Israel and Judah from defeat.
Symposium Series 42; Brad E. Kelle et al. (eds.), Writing and Reading War; Society of Biblical Literature,
Atlanta, Ga. (2008) 161173 (BL)

362 Jeremy Schipper, From Petition to Parable: The Prophets Use of Genre
in 1 Kings 20:3842
Unlike the Mesad Hashavyahu inscription, the petitionary narrative in 1 Kgs 20:3940
does not represent the actual petition of an oppressed person. Rather, the story in 1 Kings
20 uses the petition as a recognizable form of address for the purposes of narrative art.
As such, the prophets petition does not function simply to provide relief of the soldiers
oppressive circumstances. Rather, in the context of 1 Kings 20, the prophets use of a
petition serves his goal of exposing Ahabs lack of discernment and bringing judgement
upon him. It invites a comparison with Ahabs earlier encounter with Ben-Hadads mes-
sengers, since both encounters contain pleas for mercy. It frames the prophets encounter
with Ahab as a test of the kings mercy and discernment. In the larger context of the Book
of Kings, the petitionary narratives serve as the texts goal of royal characterization.
CBQ 71/2 (2009) 264274

86
363 Nadav Naaman, Naboths Vineyard and Foundation of Jezreel
This article examines the possible historical background of the story of Naboths vine-
yard. It opens with a methodological introduction to the problem of the historicity of
prophetic stories, which is followed by a short analysis of the storys date, its literary
structure and plot. The results of the excavations at Tel Jezreel are compared with the
biblical description and archaeological evidence of the foundation of Samaria. In light of
the archaeological and textual analysis and some extra-biblical sources, it is suggested that
the story takes place in Jezreel and refers to the time when Ahab was planning to build
a new royal centre in the place and negotiated with the local inhabitants about purchas-
ing their lands. The article compares the different descriptions of Naboths murder in
1 Kings 21 and 2 Kgs 9.2526, and makes clear distinction between the original historical
episode and the literary and ideological details that were added by the author in order to
fill the gaps and elaborate the plot.
JSOT 33/2 (2008) 197218

364 Ariel lvarez Valds, Cul fue el Pecado de la Reina Jezabel?


Die Erzhlung von Nabots Weinberg ist eine Novelle, die auf einer historischen Begebenheit
basiert, die sich unter Knig Joram ereignet hat (vgl. dazu 2 Kn 9,2126). Die erzhlten
Ereignisse wurden in die Regierungszeit Ahabs verlegt und die Knigin Isebel wurde als
Intrigantin dargestellt, um zu veranschaulichen, welche Gefahr von Eheschlieungen mit
Frauen aus Nachbarvlkern ausgehen kann.
QOL 48 (2008) 314 (SP)

365 Andr Lemaire, A Forgotten Cultic Reform? 2 Kings 3:2b


This passage may refer to a limited cultic reform the removal of a Baal stela under-
taken by Jehoram.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
4349 (BL)

366 Georg Steins, Aus der Flle . . . Vom Essen, briglassen und Verstehen
2 Kn 4
Das Brotwunder von 2 Kn 4,4244 wird hier als ein Schssel zum Verstndnis der Wunder
in der Bibel verwendet. Das wichtigste Moment der Erzhlung ist in ihrer sprachlichen
Kargheit und Reduzierung auf das Wesentliche zu finden. Von der Randbemerkung, dass
noch brig gelassen werde, erschliet sich demnach der Perspektivwechsel der Wunder-
geschichte vom Realismus des Sparens und Zuteilens zu einem Geben und Leben aus
Gottes Flle.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 238241 (CB)

367 Karin Schpflin, Naaman. Seine Heilung und Bekehrung im Alten und
im Neuen Testament
2 Kn 5 bildet eine auergewhnliche Wunderheilung im AT, weil sie durch ein anweisendes
Gotteswort ins Werk gesetzt wird, und zwar unter der Voraussetzung, dass der auslndische
Kranke diesem Wort Wirkung zutraut und dementsprechend handelt. So wird die Kombi-
nation von Heilung und Bekehrung mglich. Im NT werden Elisa und Naaman zwar nur in
Luk 4 explizit erwhnt, doch profilieren die synoptischen Evangelien mehrmals die Gestalt
Jesu in ihrer gttlichen Vollmacht durch implizite Anspielungen auf die Naamangeschichte.
Die Taufe des thiopischen Kmmerers in Apg 8 weist charakteristische Gemeinsamkeiten
und Unterschiede zur Naamanerzhlung als Bekehrungsgeschichte auf.
BN 141 (2009) 3556

87
368 Laura M. Zucconi, Aramean Skin Care: A New Perspective on Naamans
Leprosy
In 2 Kgs 5:119, two methods of healing are combined: the medicinal bath and the
miraculous cure that does not generally entail the use of medical measures. The story
also highlights a specific feature of Israelite Yahwism: the prophet, but not the king, is
able to cure from illness.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
169177 (BL)

369 Ernst Wrthwein, Die Revolution Jehus. Die Jehu-Erzhlung in altisra-


elitischer und deuteronomistischer Sicht
In der Jehu-Erzhlung (2 Kn 8,2810,17) sind zwei Fassungen zu unterscheiden. Aus
der ersten, lteren, lsst sich die nordisraelitische Sicht der Jehu-Revolution ablesen. Die hin-
ter ihr stehenden Kreise werden mit denen verwandt sein, die auch sonst eine kritische
Sicht des Knigtums, sei es Ahabs oder anderer, vertreten haben. Die zweite, jngere,
Fassung gibt dann die dtr. (und sptere) Deutung des Vorgehens Jehus wieder. Man geht
in die Irre, wenn man beide Fassungen in Geschichte umzusetzen versucht und Jehu aus
religisen Grnden seine Revolution beginnen lsst, die sich dann zu einer grausamen
Machtergreifung ausgeweitet htte. In Wirklichkeit sind die beiden Sichten kontrr. Die
lteren Szenen haben in Jehu den grausamen, piettlosen Usurpator gesehen, die dtr.
(und spteren) Deutungen aber machen Jehu zu einem Werkzeug, das den Willen Jahwes
zur Verwirklichung bringt.
ZAW 120/1 (2008) 2848

370 Walter Brueggemann, Stereotype and Nuance: The Dynasty of Jehu


This study of divine engagement with the house of Jehu is proposed as a refinement of
and addendum to Gerhard von Rads classic and defining study of the Deuteronomistic
theology of the Books of Kings. Although the primary thesis of von Rads characteriza-
tion is accepted, the textual analysis offered in this paper suggests that von Rads bold and
insightful characterization does not adequately account for all that is offered at the interface
of history and theology in this narrative text. For the stereotypical judgments concerning
the northern kings, it is clear that theological history or historical theology must allow
for nuance in order to make allowance for Yhwhs several shows of forbearance, generosity,
and compassion to subjects well outside the scope of Judah. Thus, Jehu did well with
reference to the prophetic word (2 Kgs 10:30), and Yhwh continued to be engaged on
behalf of his dynasty, albeit for a limited scope of four generations (2 Kgs 915).
CBQ 70/1 (2008) 1628

371 Shuichi Hasegawa, Historical Reality vs. Theological Message: Deuter-


onomists Insertions in 2 Kgs 9:2728
This article demonstrates that the Deuteronomist, by inserting Megiddo and Ibleam
in 2 Kgs 9:2728, gave priority to his theological message over the historical reality, and
that a historian therefore must consider theological implications of toponyms when recon-
structing a historical event solely based on a description in the Book of Kings.
AJBI 32 (2006) 514

372 Peter Dubovsk, Assyrian downfall through Isaiahs eyes (2 Kings 1523):
the historiography of representation
In this article the author compares Assyrian expansion as presented in the Bible with that
presented in the Assyrian sources. Then he points out the problems of the historical events
presented in the Bible. Combining these problems with the results of source-criticism
he argues that the biblical distortion of the historical events is intentional. The writers
88
probably did it to offer their interpretation of the downfall of Assyria. This presentation
and organization of the events can be explained in terms of the historiography of repre-
sentation. By applying this concept it is possible to explain several textual and historical
problems of these chapters.
Bib. 89/1 (2008) 116

373 Shawn Zelig Aster, They feared God/they did not fear God: On the
Use of yr Yhwh and yr et Yhwh in 2 Kings 17:2441
The expression fear of the gods/Yahweh has two meanings in this passage: an Akkadian
meaning (to worship the gods; see S.M. Paul, JBL 88, 1969, 7374) and a Hebrew one
(to be loyal to Yahweh).
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 135141 (BL)

374 Paul S. Evans, The Hezekiah-Sennacherib Narrative as Polyphonic Text


2 Kings 1819 is commonly viewed as an incoherent narrative composed of multiple
sources, necessitating a diachronic approach. However, this hypothesis is only a heuristic
model suggesting one reads the pericope in this way. This article instead takes a Bakhtin-
ian approach, viewing 2 Kings 1819 as a polyphonic composition which accounts for
both the disjunctions within the narrative and its unity. Viewed as a dialogue of genres
(history-like narrative, direct speech and prophetic oracle) in implicit dialogue, this nar-
rative is dialogic as different voices intersect in this pericope, revealing a plurality of
viewpoints. A Bakhtinian approach not only allows a fresh exegesis of the narrative but also
has implications regarding the composition of the narrative, allowing the Deuteronomist
more creativity than is often the case.
JSOT 33/3 (2009) 335358

375 Bradley Root, Scribal Error and the Transmission of 2 Kings 1820
and Isaiah 3639
The longer readings should be preferred when the shorter readings could have been the
result of haplography.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
5160 (BL)

376 Jonathan Ben-Dov, Writing as Oracle and as Law: New Contexts for
the Book-Find of King Josiah
The two designations of the book of Deuteronomy point to two aspects of its interpreta-
tion: as book of the covenant (sefer habbert, 2 Kgs 23:13.2123, by the Deuteronomist)
it is a legal code, as book of the Torah (sefer hattrah, 2 Kgs 22:8, non-Deuteronomistic
narrative) it is an oracular book. Seen within the context of other ancient oracular
book-finds, one may reconstruct the historical event as follows: occasioned by the temple
renovation, the king may have requested an oracle, and the answer came in the form of
a book that contained the divine answer; Trah originally means oracle (Isa 1:10; 2:3;
Prov 29:18), while the meaning law represents a later semantic shift. In Akkadian, trtum
means instruction derived from divinatory practice.
JBL 127/2 (2008) 223239 (BL)

377 Emma Abate, La fine del regno di Sedecia


The two relevant biblical texts that report on the end of King Zedekiah and the end of
the Jerusalem monarchy 2 Kgs 24:1825:30 and Jer 52 seem to date from the early
years of the Persian period in a time when the reintegration of the sons of Jehoiachin was

89
considered possible. The ideological and theological dimension in the biblical passages is
more conspicuous than reliable historical information.
Textos y estudios Cardenal Cisneros de la Biblia polglota matritense; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
Cientficas, Madrid (2008) 1244 (BL)

378 David Janzen, An Ambigouos Ending: Dynastic Punishment in Kings


and the Fate of the Davidides in 2 Kings 25.2730
The portrayal of the fates of the dynasties of the North in Kings shows that, in Deu-
teronomistic theology, only one king in a royal house need cause the people to sin to
mandate the destruction of the entire house. Since Manasseh also causes the people to
sin, one might assume that the Deuteronomic History (Dtr) intends the same fate for the
Davidides. However, Dtr is deliberately ambiguous in regard to the future of the Davidides
following the exile besides the specific reference to Manassehs sin, it also includes (but
does not explicitly annul) the unconditional covenant with David, and includes a conclu-
sion that permits readers to interpret the narrative as forecasting either hope for Davidic
restoration or annulment of the Davidic covenant. This ambiguity suits the exilic period
of composition of Dtr, when the fate of the Davidides was unknown, and so should not
be taken as evidence for redaction.
JSOT 33/1 (2008) 3958

Chronicles: general 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles


379 Pancratius Cornelis Beentjes, Die Freude war gro in Jerusalem
(2 Chr 30,26). Eine Einfhrung in die Chronikbcher
The author offers a thorough introduction to 1 and 2 Chronicles. The following subjects
are dealt with: title of the work, Hebrew and Greek text, authorship, date, canonicity,
outline of contents, literary aspects (with spezial emphasis on speeches, prayers, and psalms),
theological themes (special vocabulary; divine retribution; Judah and Israel; temple, cult
and kingship; prophets and seers; war; ideology and utopia). The book includes a long
bibliography. (The most recent detailed commentary on 1 Chron is by G.N. Knoppers
in the Anchor Bible, 2004.)
Salzburger exegetische theologische Vortrge 3; Lit Verlag, Mnster (2008) VII/196 (BL)

380 Louis Jonker, The Chronicler and the Prophets. Who were his Authorita-
tive Sources?
The Chronicler was fond of mentioning and quoting prophetic voices. However, apart
from Isaiah and Jeremiah, no other Hebrew Bibles prophets feature in the Chroniclers
version of history. Numerous other prophets, however, not known from the Hebrew Bible
are mentioned and quoted. And this happens in a time when, according to some scholars,
classical prophecy as an active phenomenon had ceased. Within this broader context, this
paper focuses on Jeremiah as authoritative prophet in the Books of Chronicles.
SJOT 22/2 (2008) 275295

381 Eugene H. Merrill, The Chronicler: What Kind of Historian Was He


Anyway?
This article assesses the chronicler as a historian in light of the differences between
Chronicles and the so-called deuteronomistic history of Samuel and Kings, the primary
synoptic literature from which he drew. The analysed examples are 2 Samuel 5:110 //
1 Chronicles 11:19 and 2 Samuel 24:110 // 1 Chronicles 21:18. The analysis demon-
strates that the chronicler, like any other researcher, depended on his sources but felt free
to use them in a way that reflected his own peculiar circumstances, heritage, experiences,

90
and objectives. Differences between him and his sources are therefore not indicative of
sloppiness or revisionism on his part; instead they contribute to the veracity and effectiveness
of the account while reflecting the chroniclers own unique personality and situation.
BS 165/4 (2008) 397412

382 Julie Kelso, O Mother, Where Art Thou? An Irigarayan Reading of the
Book of Chronicles
Drawing on the work of two feminist philosophers, Luce Irigaray and Michelle B. Walker,
Kelso seeks to reveal two principal strategies of silencing women in 1/2 Chronicles: dis-
avowal and repression of the material body. Chronicles depends for its coherence on the
absence and silence of women.
Bible World; Equinox Publishing, London (2007) XV/1247

383 Thomas Willi, Chronik. 1. Teilband: 1 Chronik 1,110,14


This commentary the only up-to-date one on Chronicles in German appeared first
in fascicles that have begun to be published in 1991. The attentive reader may detect the
commentators increasing attention to intertextuality with other biblical books, especially
the Psalms. Willi consistently interacts with international scholarship, represented in the
first place by Sarah Japhet, Gary Knoppers, and S. Zalewski. It is to be hoped that Willi
continues his valuable commentary, bringing it to completion in Germanys most presti-
gious series (and eventually offering the introductory material that the author has chosen
to write after having done the exegetical job).
Biblischer Kommentar Altes Testament 24.1; Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn (2009) VIII/1335
(BL)

384 James T. Sparks, The Chroniclers Genealogies: Towards an Understand-


ing of 1 Chronicles 19
The genealogies of 1 Chronicles 19 are an ordered, well-structured, unified whole. The
Chronicles presents his genealogies chiastically, with the aim of the chiasm to uphold the
cult and cultic officials as the center of the nations life. The genealogies indicate that
society is sent into exile because of the unfaithfulness of the people and their leaders.
Only through the proper attention to the cult and its elements can atonement be made
and the people possess their land.
Academia Biblica 28; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) XVII/1385

385 Michael Avioz, The Story of Sauls Death in 1 Chronicles 10 and Its
Sources
The only story that the Chronicler mentions of King Saul is the story of his death, but
the Chroniclers version differs from that told in 1 Sam 31. The Chronicler, in particular,
does not mention the two versions of Sauls death found in his Vorlage. How to explain
the differences between the accounts in 1 Chron 10 and 1 Sam 31? The Chronicler appar-
ently wished to avoid contradictions. But he may also have wished to avoid the antagonism
toward David, or to promote the idea that David, not Saul, triumphed over the Amalekites.
Finally, the Chronicler may have wished to avoid giving the title of Messiah to Saul.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
113119 (BL)

91
386 Saul Zalewski, Now rise up, O Lord, and go to your resting-place. A
Literary Study of the Ark Narrative in the Book of Chronicles (Hebr.)
Zalewskis Untersuchung der chronistischen Ladeerzhlung (1 Chr 13; 1516) kommt
zu folgendem Ergebnis: Die Idealisierung des Konigtums Davids und Salomos, die in
besonderer Weise fr die Lade Sorge trugen, zeigt, dass der Verfasser die Erneuerung des
davidischen Knigtums in der Zukunft erwartet. Er charakterisiert das Knigtum Davids
und dessen Wirken als demokratisch und in bereinstimmung mit den Wnschen des
Volkes stehend. Die Kultpolitik Davids und Salomos die Lade bzw. den Tempel betref-
fend stellt er als direkte Entsprechung zu den Geboten der Tora dar. Auf diese Weise
sttzt die Lade die Legitimitt des Tempels. Der Verfasser betont zugleich die Gre und
Unvergleichlichkeit Gottes sowie die Bedeutung der Leviten fr das kultische Leben auch
in Zeiten ohne Lade. S. Zalewski verstarb 2006.
Verlag der Ben-Gurion-Universitt im Negev, Beer Sheva (2008) 1339 (AM)

387 James M. Street, The Significance of the Ark Narrative: Literary Forma-
tion and Artistry in the Book of Chronicles
The ark narrative (1 Chron 1516) forms the basis of Israels religious development,
according to the work of the Chronicler. The narrative portrays David as a cultic authority
on the same level as that of other ancient Near Eastern kings. Proper worship is at the
heart of the Chroniclers purpose.
Studies in Biblical Literature 129; Peter Lang Publishing, Bern (2009) XV/1166

388 William Doan et al., The Song of Asaph: A Performance-Critical


Analysis of 1 Chronicles 16:836
For the Chronicler, audience formation is of prime importance. It is with this in mind that
we must return to the observation made by Trent C. Butler that the Chroniclers edits of
source psalms in 1 Chr 16,836 show little that is of any real theological significance.
To the contrary, performance criticism shows that the Chronicler skilfully uses the iconic
nature of the Song of Asaph to help construct audience identity in a way not possible
in narrative alone. The Chronicler carefully chose selections of the psalms and skilfully
edited those selections, presenting a composite song at just the right spot in the narrative
to maximize the iconic value of the song for audience formation. And it is the formation
of audience identity that gets to the very heart of what the Chronicler was all about.
CBQ 70/1 (2008) 2943

389 Louis Jonker, The Chroniclers Portrayal of Solomon as the King of


Peace within the Context of the International Peace Discourses of the
Persian Era
This article points out that the understanding of King Solomon, the King of Peace, can
be enriched when one views his portrayal in 2 Chronicles 19 within the international
arena of the late post-exilic era. The theme of peace, so closely related to Solomon, is
examined here against the background of the relationship between Greece and Persia,
and the conditions within the Persian Empire.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 653669

390 Louis Jonker, The Disappearing Ne ushtan: The Chroniclers Reinter-


pretation of Hezekiahs Reformation Measures
In the Chroniclers reworking (2 Chr 31:121) of the DtrG version of Hezekiahs cultic
reformation measures (2 Kgs 18:47a), he/they incorporated the DtrG text in his/their

92
reconstruction, but one detail is conspicuously absent. The reference to Hezekiahs destruc-
tion of the so-called Ne ushtan, the bronze serpent that Moses made in 2 Kgs 18:4
is left out in 2 Chr 31. This article investigates the possible reasons behind the omission
of the Ne ushtan remark in Chronicles, arguing that this could be an indication of the
hermeneutical framework at work in the Chroniclers reinterpretation of DtrG.
Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palstina-Vereins 37; Izak Cornelius et al., From Ebla to Stellen-
bosch. Syro-Palestinian Religions and the Hebrew Bible; Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden (2008)
116140

391 Mark Leuchter, The Prophets and The Levites in Josiahs Covenant
Ceremony
Scholars have long noticed the curious variant from The Prophets in II Reg 23,2 to
The Levites in II Chr 34,30 in the parallel accounts of Josiahs Covenant Ceremony.
The present study suggests that the Chroniclers variant is part of a deliberate strategy
to direct his readers to the Jeremiah tradition as a hermeneutical lens through which the
source material in Kings must be read. The Chroniclers strategy, however, also reveals
deeper layers of meaning regarding the Levite-prophet typology that emerge in the Jer-
emiah tradition and which informed his perceptions of the past. The Levite variant in
II Chr 34,30 indicates a far more complex sociological universe in the literary traditions
regarding the reign of Josiah, one remembered by the Chronicler and put to use for his
own historiographic interests.
ZAW 121/1 (2009) 3147

Ezra Nehemiah
392 Andrew E. Steinmann, A Chronological Note: The Return of the Exiles
under Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel (Ezra 12)
Cyrus decree in 538 BCE was followed by a five-year period of planning. The arrival of
Sheshbazzar in Jerusalem took place in 533 BCE; in the same year the altar was rebuilt.
Zerubbabel of the proper Davidic lineage laid the foundation of the second temple in
532 BCE in the second month. Thus Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel worked together as
the acknowledged leader and the Davidic leader of the Judeans. The second temple was
finished in 515 BCE.
JETS 51/3 (2008) 513522 (BF)

393 tienne Nodet, Pque, Azymes et thorie documentaire


A study of the Passover of the Returnees (Ezra 6,1922) requires a reassessment of the
literary history of this feast, for the classical documentary theory and its variants lead to
endless difficulties. The solution proposed here is grounded in the apparently late authority
of Deuteronomy, and a reinterpretation of the Samaritans, who, despite their name, are
nothing else than the local Israelites around Shechem who had not gone into exile.
RB 114/4 (2007) 499534

394 Christopher B. Hays, The Silence of the Wives: Bakhtins Monologism


and Ezra 710
This article examines an understudied aspect of Bakhtins literary theory, monologism, and
then brings the observations to bear on the account of the sending away of Israels foreign
wives in Ezra 710. Bakhtins ethical interests make his work a promising lens through
which to view this troubling text. It allows a reader to describe the diversity of narrative
techniques used to characterize Ezra and his mission while still recognizing the underlying
unity of the texts message. In fact, the multiplicity of voices in the text may serve to mask

93
its monologic effect. However, these chapters in Ezra may also be read within the context
of a canon, which does comprise polyphony, undercutting Ezras message.
JSOT 33/1 (2008) 5980

395 Armin Lange, Your Daughters Do Not Give to Their Sons and Their
Daughters Do Not Take for Your Sons (Ezra 9,12). Intermarriage in Ezra
910 and in the Pre-Maccabean Dead Sea Scrolls
Ancient Jewish literature in general and the pre-Maccabean literature from the Qumran
library in particular allow for a better understanding of Ezras marriage reforms and
their interpretation by the final stage of the book of Ezra / Nehemiah. Ezras measure
of enforced mass divorce is unique in Second Temple Judaism which argues for its histo-
ricity. Ezras marriage reforms were probably motivated by a democratization of priestly
intermarriage prohibitions. In light of the (enforced) Hellenistic acculturation of Ptolemaic
Yehud, the final redaction of the book of Ezra / Nehemiah reads Ezras marriage reform
as a fight for the preservation of the religious and cultural identity of Judaism.
BN 137 (2008) 1739; 139 (2008) 7998

396 Klaus-Dietrich Schunck, Nehemia


This installment of Schuncks commentary on the book of Nehemiah includes the
continuation of the notes on Neh 11:336; complete notes on Neh 12:126; 12:2743;
12:4413:3; and most of the notes on Neh 13:431. All of these passages, while reflecting
the presence of a Nehemiah Memoir, are heavily marked by redactional expansions and
modifications. All of Neh 12:4413:3 is secondary. May the author continue his fine
exegetical work and complete a commentary that was begun in 1998.
Biblischer Kommentar Altes Testament 23,2/5; Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn (2008) 321400
(BL)

397 Joseph Fleishman, The Rebuilding of the Wall of Jerusalem: Neh 2:19
and the Use of Zoroastrian Principles
It is suggested that the secret of Nehemiahs success in receiving permission from Artax-
erxes to go to Yehud was his clever and exact planning of his decisive and crucial meeting
with the king. Nehemiah, who was close to the king and desperately wanted to strengthen
Yehud and save Jerusalem from its shame, based his argument primarily on key values
of the Zoroastrian faith. As senior minister in the palace, he was familiar with the kings
religion and the kings faithfulness to his principles, and cognisant of the Persian Empires
difficulties in ruling and holding the Province beyond the River, and especially Yehud.
Accordingly, Nehemiah skilfully demonstrated to the king that his request was consistent
with Zoroastrian principles, and that neither his journey nor his actions in Yehud would
jeopardise the peace or stability of the empire. His actions might even contribute toward
ruling the province and stabilising the surrounding sensitive area.
JNWSL 34/2 (2008) 5982

Tobit Judith Esther 1/2 Maccabees


398 Robert J. Littmann, Tobit: The Book of Tobit in Codex Sinaiticus
While the title refers only to the Codex Sinaiticus, this bilingual Greek and English
edition of Tobit actually prints and translates both the text of the Sinaiticus (pp. 141)
and the Codex Vaticanus (pp. 161191), though the latter without commentary. The
book includes one impressive plate that shows a fisherman holding a Tigris salmon that
is impressive in its size (about as long as a human person) to illustrate Tobit 6:3ff. A
most welcome addition to a prestigious commentary series.
Septuagint Commentary Series; Brill, Leiden (2008) XVII/1211 (BL)

94
399 Giancarlo Toloni, La sofferenza del giusto. Giobbe e Tobia a confronto
The fate of Job forms the literary and ideological model for the way the fate of Tobit
is told in the early chapters of the book of Tobit. Like Job, suffering Tobit stays a pious
Jew, a servant of God.
Studi biblici 159; Paideia editrice, Brescia (2009) 1123 (BL)

400 Werner Sundermann, Zoroastrian Motifs in Non-Zoroastrian Traditions


One of the Zoroastrian motifs discussed in this paper is the presence of the demon
Asmodaios in the book of Tobit. Zoroastrians value next-of-kin marriage, as the book of
Tobit does, and they know of the demon Ashmas animosity against human cohabitation.
Ashma, in fact, tries to ruin marital harmony at night. Both the similarity of the names
Ashmo dauv and Asmodaios and the role they play as enemies of marital union lead me
to conclude that the assumption of an Iranian origin of the Jewish demon Asmodaios
is correct and that it can be vindicated by the actual resulty of Iranian studies (p. 159).
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 18 (2008) 155165 (BL)

401 S. Veulemans, Bouwen aan morgen met het bouwmateriaal van gisteren:
Tobit 78 over de rol van geliefden als hoeders en verzorgers van elkanders
psychische kwetsuren
A painful past can spoil a persons perspective of the future, which, in the case of a
couple, can put pressure on their future together. In the Tobit novella Tobias realises
that it will only be possible for him to share a future together with Sarah if the chaos of
Sarahs past can be transformed, which begins when Tobias kills the voracious fish in the
Tigris River, a symbolic representation of destructive chaos. Once this has been defeated,
Tobias is also able to triumph over Asmodeus, the demon responsible for the misfortune
Sarah has had in her relationships and who also personifies the dark forces of chaos. This
adventure story gives metaphorical expression to the idea that partners can descend with
each other into the chaos of the past in order to bring about a new order, through which
the future is made possible.
ATh 28/1 (2008) 176204

402 Benedikt Eckhardt, Reclaiming Tradition: The Book of Judith and


Hasmonean Politics
The book of Judith has been designated as anti-Hasmonean counter-propaganda, but the
arguments brought forward do not seem to take account of the fact that Judith is a work
of fiction. It is argued here that Judith can indeed be read as an anti-Hasmonean text,
but that this conclusion can only be reached by relating Judith to the transformation of
traditional semantics that served to legitimize Hasmonean rule. Judith employs signifiants
that have a key role in Hasmonean propaganda (1 Maccabees), but alters their scriptural
foundations so as not to inherit the signifis. Thus, Judith should be seen as an example of
literature subverting legitimizing discourses by creating a fictitious space which allows an
alternative usage of politically exploited language. This creation of a counter-discourse
is not to be confused with counter-propaganda.
JSP 18/4 (2009) 243263

403 Jeremy Corley, Septuagintalisms, Semitic Interference, and the Original


Language of the Book of Judith
The often proposed instances of Hebraic style and phraseology in the Greek text of Judith
do not necessarily indicate a Hebrew origin for the book. Accordingly, a Hebrew Vorlage
cannot be presumed, while a Greek origin is plausible.
CBQ.MS 44; Jeremy Corley et al.(eds.), Studies in the Greek Bible; Catholic Biblical Association of
America, Washington (2008) 6596 (BL)
95
404 Robert Rollinger, Altorientalisches im Buch Judith
The account of a revolt against Nebukadnezzar and the Babylonian kings triumph over
the rebel, told in Judith 1, echoes the account of Fravartishs rebellion, told in the famous
Behistun inscription. Fravartish is the historical model for the book of Judiths Arphaxad.
Claus Schedl had already understood this (Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlndischen
Gesellschaft 115, 1965, 242254), though he misunderstood the book of Judith as a book
of historiography. Note that the bibliography of this article is included in the general
bibliography of the volume (pp. 445501).
Studia Orientalia 106; Mikko Luukko et al. (eds.), Of God(s), Trees, Kings, and Scholars; Finnish
Oriental Society (2009) 429443 (BL)

405 Harald Martin Wahl, Das Buch Esther. bersetzung und Kommentar
Originally planned as part of a semi-popular commentary series, the present commentary
on the book of Esther is published as a monograph. Wahl takes Esther to have been written
in the late Persian period or in early Hellenistic times, i.e. some time between 350 and 312
BCE, with Est 9:110:3 (a text that would have challenged the Persian authorities) dating
from a later period (p. 47). The commentary includes notes, bibliography, chronological
table, and index.
W. de Gruyter, Berlin (2009) XII/1249 (BL)

406 Pierre-Maurice Bogaert, Les formes anciennes du livre dEsther.


Rflexions sur les livres bibliques traditions multiples 1occasion de la
publication du texte de lancienne version latine
The Old Latin version of Esther is an accurate rendering of the oldest Greek form of this
book, as Jean-Claude Haelewyck has shown in his critical edition. Consequently we have
three Greek forms of Esther at our disposal in addition to the Hebrew. The opportunity is
thus given to have a glance at the status of these radically different forms (original or hybrid,
early or recent, canonical or received) in exegetical research and in the churches.
RTL 40/1 (2009) 6677

407 Uriel Rappaport, The Zitz im Leben of the Masoretic Version of Esther
Scroll (Hebr., Engl. summary)
There is a wide consensus concerning the date of the composition of the story, or stories,
of the Esther Scroll around the transition period from the Persian Empire to the Hellenistic
one. Nevertheless some verses in Esther tell about a plan to exterminate all the Jews living
in the empire of Ahasueros, or in other words genocide. These verses (such as 3:6, 811,
13; 7:4) do not fit in with the dating suggested above. This essay proposes that though
Esthers story belongs to the late Persian / early Hellenistic period its form preserved in
the Masora version was not finally edited before the religious persecution by Antiochus IV
Epiphanes (167164 BCE). The bloody retaliation that the Jews brought on their enemies
(8:11; 9:12, 16) reflects the wars of Judas Maccabaeus and his successors.
Beit Mikra 53/2 (2008) 123137.10*

408 Kandy Queen-Sutherland, Naming the Enemy: Esther and the Prophets
The Book of Esther is a story of choices in the face of evil, when an enemy lives among
the enemy. Furthermore, Esther enters into the dialogue of how justice is administered.
When the world is divided between the powerful and the powerless, when life or death
are based on the whims of those in authority, help may come in the most surprising ways.
In Esther it comes in the form of a beautiful woman who knows how to throw a good
party. The plan works because real power comes in naming the enemy. That is a truth of

96
Esther and it is a key to understanding what it means to do justice: to confront injustice
and to name its cause.
PRSt 35/2 (2008) 179183

409 Kevin McGeough, Ester the Hero: Going beyond Wisdom in Heroic
Narratives
Ester clearly is a hero, for she breaks the rules of behaviour in the court setting and, through
her radical and bold departure from these norms, saves her people and brings glory to
herself and her uncle. Furthermore there are hints of wisdom motifs and traits in this
story, and they clearly make sense in association with the heroic context. Haman and the
king appear as stock wisdom characters, examples of how not to behave or the types of
people to avoid. Yet the protagonists do not fit the roles of wisdom characters. Ester may
follow wisdom advice in her initial appearances in the story, but when her people become
endangered, she must go beyond those normative models of behaviour and act heroically.
Likewise, Mordechai may also sometimes behave as a wisdom character; however, when
he stops acting according to wisdom precepts, conflict in the story begins.
CBQ 70/1 (2008) 4465

410 Michael Heltzer, Esther 3:19 and 9:10 and Plutarchus, Moralia 173 E
This Plutarchus passage and the more general notion that Persian education focussed on
learning to tell the truth (Herodotus 1:136137) are used to elucidate the meaning of
the Esther passages. Apparently, stories about paying money for doing dishonest things
were current in the Persian period. The book is available from: Archaeological Center
Publication, 7 Mazal Dagim Str., Old Jaffa, Israel.
Michael Heltzer, The Province Judah and Jews in Persian Times; Archaeological Center Publication,
Tel Aviv (2008) 253255

411 Daniel R. Schwartz, 2 Maccabees


This is a fresh English translation of 2 Macc, followed by a thorough philological and
historical commentary. The commentator feels that the book came into existence in two
stages. (1) The book was originally composed as a history of the trials and tribulations of
Jerusalem under Antiochus Epiphenes, and Judas Maccabaeuss wars down to his victory
over Nicanor in 161 BCE. That victory was perceived to be the final salvation of Jerusa-
lem; accordingly, the book culminates in the holiday celebrating that victory Nicanors
Day. (2) Over time, however, the festival of Hanukkah became more significant. It seems
that in 143/2 BCE, upon the achievement of Judaean independence, Jerusalem propagan-
dists adapted the book to their own purposes by adding a section on Hanukkah (10:18)
and appended two letters. This hypothesis rests, in part, on reading the year 148 in
2 Macc 1:10 (see pp. 524525). The book includes a long bibliography (pp. 102126).
An important commentary on a book that received its last full exegetical treatment in
1983 (by J.A. Goldstein, Anchor Bible).
Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature; W. de Gruyter, Berlin (2008) X/1-617 (BL)

412 Mark F. Whitters, Martyrdom as Cultic Death in the Books of Maccabees:


Antecedents and Later Developments
The ancient Jewish and early-Christian idea of martyrdom, exemplified by the Maccabean
martyrs (2 Macc 68; reinterpreted as the sacrificial death of priests in 4 Macc 1:11; 6:29;
17:2122) and by Christ, echoes the ideology of the noble death first developed in ancient
Greece and Rome. The handbooks on Greco-Roman mythology are full of stories about
new rites that are inaugurated by priests who sacrifice themselves; one of the versions of
the death of Iphigeneia is presented as an example.
CBQ.MS 44; Jeremy Corley et al. (eds.), Studies in the Greek Bible; Catholic Biblical Association of
America, Washington (2008) 97119 (BL)
97
Prophets

General
413 Paul L. Reddit, Introduction to the Prophets
This college textbook offers only a brief general introduction to prophecy. The corpus of
the book deals with each of the canonical prophetic books, from Isaiah to Malachi. Each
chapter is accompanied by a brief bibliography and study questions.
W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mich./Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XV/1404

414 Martti Nissinen, What Is Prophecy? An Ancient Near Eastern Perspective


The biblical prophets, like their ancient Near-Eastern counterparts, are to be seen as a
special class of diviners: diviners who, relying upon visions and dreams, get their messages
through non-inductive methods. Nissinen also comments on how in non-biblical records (of
which he provides a brief description) the process of the literary expansion of prophetic
messages can be studied. Nissinen suggests that one should distinguish between ancient
Israelite prophecy and biblical prophecy, the latter being a literary phenomenon based
on an input of ancient Israelite prophecy, but developing this input in many ways. See
also IRBS 50:494, 1280.
John Kaltner et al. (eds.), Inspired Speech: Prophecy in the Ancient Near East; T & T Clark, London
(2004) 1737 (BL)

415 Erhard Blum, Israels Prophetie im altorientalischen Kontext. Anmerkun-


gen zu neueren religionsgeschichtlichen Thesen
This contribution discusses new hypothesis that attempt to explain the pre-exilic prophets
of doom utterances over Israel/Judah as literary fiction ex eventu. It is argued that while,
on the one hand, the assumption of a radical prophecy of doom in Judah after 587 BCE
lacks any evidence and inner plausibility there were, on the other hand, fundamental
conceptual prerequisites for prophecies of doom (such as those of Amos or Isaiah) already
present in the ancient Near East. Moreover, it seems that the emergence of the Israelite
prophecy of doom, including its characteristic transmission as written prophecy, can
be linked to specific historical constellations of the 8th century BCE.
Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palstina-Vereins 37; Izak Cornelius et al., From Ebla to Stellenbosch.
Syro-Palestinian Religions and the Hebrew Bible; Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden (2008) 81115,
Table

416 Gerald L. Keown, The Prophet as Encourager


Kritische Botschaften, Vorwrfe gegen bestimmte Gruppen, Forderung von Umkehr vom
falschen Weg sind charakteristische und eindrckliche Bestandteile prophetischer Reden.
In diesem Beitrag geht es um ein selten wahrnehmbares Merkmal solcher Reden
eine ermunternde Botschaft. In der Form eines kurzen berblicks geht der Verf. auf
entsprechende Aussagen der Propheten Amos, Hosea, Micha, Jesaja, Jeremia, Ezechiel
und Maleachi ein.
PRSt 35/2 (2008) 155161 (DL)

417 John B. Geyer, Another Look at the Oracles about the Nations in the
Hebrew Bible. A Response to A.C. Hagedorn
A.C. Hagedorn has suggested that the oracles about the nations in the Hebrew Bible
are similar to the Greek manteia (VT 57/4, 2007, 4769; IRBS 54:500). He regards both
as primarily political. The context of both is war. In the Greek world there is a close
attachment of the person of the prophet/seer to his oracular speech. These speeches

98
may be unsolicited and the prophet may be regarded as mad. This article suggests that
the comparison is not valid for a number of reasons, and in particular because the Greek
oracles were uttered by individuals on particular occasions whereas the Hebrew oracles
are part of a structured whole, liturgical in nature and rooted in the cult.
VT 59/1 (2009) 8087

Isaiah: general Isaiah I Isaiah II Isaiah III


418 David G. Firth et al. (eds.), Interpreting Isaiah: Issues and Approaches
The following papers are included in this multi-authored collection: H.G.M. Williamson,
Recent issues in the study of Isaiah; N. MacDonald, Monotheism and Isaiah; T. Uhlig,
Too hard to understand? The motif of hardening in Isaiah; D.J. Reimer, Isaiah and
politics; Ph. Johnston, Faith in Isaiah; R. Schultz, Nationalism and universalism in Isaiah;
L. Wilson, Wisdom in Isaiah; J. Goldingay, The theology of Isaiah; D. Swanson, The text
of Isaiah at Qumran; R. Watts, Isaiah in the New Testament. Further chapters deal with
individual passages: Isa 9:17 (P. Wegner); 42:19 (S. Snyman); 61:13 ( J. Stromberg).
A companion for all seriously engaged in studying the book of Isaiah.
Intervarsity Press/Apollos, Nottingham (2009) 1288

419 Sigurdur rn Steingrimsson, Im Lichte des Herrn. Literaturwissen-


schaftliche Beobachtungen zur Redaktion von Jes 2,225,10a
The author offers an analysis of the following passages: Isa 2:25; 4:26; 11:10; 24:23;
25:110. Thematic chapters explore: the relationship between Isa 66:18.2122 and Isa
25:610; the noun kabd (glory); the meal motif in Isa 25:68; rest and formula of rest in
Isa 25:68; universalism on Mt. Zion; the everlasting covenant; Yahwes congregation in
Isa 66:1822. The authors exegesis is informed by the conviction that Isa 139 includes
a number of old Isaianic texts that generally deal with Israels defection from God and
Israels punishment. There is only one place name in these early passages: Zion.
Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament 85; Eos Verlag der Erzabtei St. Ottilien, St. Ottilien
(2008) X/1207

420 Hans-Georg von Mutius, Nichtmasoretische Jesaja-Zitate im Midrasch


ha-Gadol und eine Grundsatzbemerkung zum Verhltnis von Masora und
Koran
Several Isaiah quotes taken from the Midrash ha-Gadol are compared against several
parallel texts, among these the masoretic text and the LXX. The results are compared
with a strong view on the textual history. Finally, a short passage discusses the significance
and influence of the Quran for the punctuation of the Torah.
BZ 53/1 (2009) 106117 (SSt)

421 Benjamin D. Sommer, Is It Good for the Jews? Ambiguity and the Rhetoric
of Turning in Isaiah
The oracles of Isaiah are often intentionally ambiguous so that they allow for two readings
that are diametrically opposed. An example is Isa 7:15,22 where one wonders whether the
prophet announces something good or something bad. More examples of this kind can
be found in Isa 6:1113; 31:15; 29, and the idea may also be expressed in Isa 6:910,
29:912.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 321345 (BL)

99
422 Pinhas Artzi, The Mesopotamian Background of the Term ahart hayymm
in the World-Peace Vision of Isaiah 2:2a
To indicate future, Akkadian uses a similar expression; see Atramhasis I, 214: ahritish
m uppa i nishme so that we may hear the drum (also) in future days.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 427431 (BL)

423 H.G.M. Williamson, Holy, Holy, Holy: The Story of a Liturgical Formula
The threefold holy of Isa 6:3 echoes the notion of holiness ascribed to Yahweh both in
Jerusalem and, earlier, in Shiloh, where it was associated with the ark. The second half
of the angelic acclamation the whole earth is full of his glory is to be understood
in the context of Num 14:21 and Ps 72:19, texts that seem to reflect a liturgical formula.
The formula makes Yahweh a universal king whose rule is based both on past victory and
present and anticipated triumphs of his army, the heavenly hosts.
Julius-Wellhausen-Vorlesung 1; W. de Gruyter, Berlin (2008) 136 (BL)

424 Wolfgang Oswald, Textwelt, Kontextbezug und historische Situation in


Jesaja 7
The narrative in Isa 7 unfolds a particular scenario in which only the initial verse 7,1 refers
to the historical situation of the so-called Syriac-Ephraimitic war. What follows exhibits
a completely different situation involving a threat and very similar to Isa 3637. Several
elements in the narrative in Isa 7 (the way of the fullers field, Shear-Yashub, the almah,
Immanuel) only make sense within the context of Isa 3637 and other parts of the book
of Isaiah. Isa 7 is a highly intertextual entity that uses older texts to advocate its message
of trustfulness in the God of Israel.
Bib. 89/2 (2008) 201220

425 Henning Graf Reventlow, A Religious Alternative to a Political Response


to a Severe Political Crisis: King Ahaz and the Prophet Isaiah
There is no scholarly consensus about the meaning of the meeting between King Ahaz
and prophet Isaiah as recorded in Isa 7:117. Verses 79 most likely reflect the very
words of the historical prophet (minus v. 8b, a secondary addition), but we are far from
understanding what the prophet actually meant to say.
LHBOTS 444; Henning Graf Reventlow et al. (eds.), Religious Responses to Political Crisis in Jewish
and Christian Tradition; T & T Clark International, London (2008) 3651 (BL)

426 Paul D. Wegner, Whats New in Isaiah 9:17?


Wegner reviews past scholarship on this passage, commenting on each verse separately.
Apart from better knowledge about Assyrian military politics, not much exegetical advance
has been made during the past two hundred years. The prophet expected the emergence
of a future deliverer who would release the nation from Assyrian bondage.
David G. Firth et al. (eds.), Interpreting Isaiah; Intervarsity Press/Apollos, Nottingham (2009) 237249
(BL)

427 Aaron Demsky, Bym (Isa 11:15) = (Bt-)Ba in: Resolving an Ancient
Crux
Baym in Isaiah 11:15 is the Hebrew form of the dynastic eponym Ba in, and refers in
Isaiah to the head waters of the river Habur, also called the river Gozan.
DSD 15/2 (2008) 248252

100
428 Meir Lubetzki, The Land Named for an Insect
Isaiah 18 is an oracle addressed to Egypt, as can be seen from v. 1 that calls Egypt the
land of the winged beetle.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
103112 (BL)

429 Christopher B. Hays, Damming Egypt/Damning Egypt: The Parono-


masia of skr and the Unity of Isa 19,110
The verb skr in Isa 19,4 can be understood to mean dam up/stop up (like the vast
majority of W. Semitic and Akkadian occurrences of the root skr). Thus, the first part of
this verse should be translated I will dam up Egypt by the hand of a harsh overlord
a motif known also from contemporary Neo-Assyrian texts. The idea of damming up
Egypt introduces the Nile Curse section of the oracle in vv. 510, arguing for the
compositional unity of the whole.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 612617

430 Roland Kleger, Die Struktur der Jesaja-Apokalypse und die Deutung
von Jes 26,19
The question of the origin, unity, structure, perspective and interpretation of the so-called
Isaiah Apocalypse (Isa 2427) continues to be subject to great disagreement among schol-
ars. A particular source of controversy is the issue of resurrection. While a majority of
exegetes interpret Isa 26,19 (some also 25,8a) as an allusion to bodily resurrection, others
believe that this passage is more of a metaphorical indication of the national restoration
of Israel. The author of this paper postulates that the concentric structure of the differ-
ent passages or sections is an argument for the original unity of the Isaiah Apocalypse.
This should really provide the basis for an interpretation of the crux interpretum Isa 26,19
in the light of its overall context. While especially the corresponding verse 26,14 and the
announcements in 26,21 support bodily resurrection, national restoration seems rather to
be indicated by 26,10.1518 and 27,213.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 526546

431 Csaba Balogh, Blind People, Blind God. The Composition of Isaiah
29,1524
Der Artikel weist nach, dass sich Jes 29,1524 aus fnf kohrenten Segmenten zusam-
mensetzt: Das frhe jesajanische Wort 29,15+21 wurde durch einen exilischen Autor in
29,1617+20 einer neuen Interpretation unterzogen: Die angenommene Blindheit Jahwes,
die den in 29,15 Angesprochenen als Motivation fr ein gottloses Leben dient, wird neu
verstanden als Auffassung von verzweifelten Judern, die meinen, dass die Blindheit Jahwes
den gegenwrtigen desolaten Zustand von Jerusalem erklre. Die Ungerechtigkeit in der
Gesellschaft Jesajas (29,21) wird neu interpretiert als die Ungerechtigkeit eines auslndischen
Tyrannen gegenber dem Volk Jahwes. Sowohl Jes 29,18+24 (die Blindheit des Volkes)
als auch Jes 29,19+23de (das unterdrckte jahwefrchtige Volk) entwickeln das gleiche
Thema in einem breiteren Kontext weiter und setzen eine hnliche Situation und einen
hnlichen Autor voraus, wie sie aus 29,1617+21 zu erschlieen sind. Wahrscheinlich
ist der Autor mit Deuterojesaja zu identifizieren. Eine letzte Erweiterung des Textes, die
ber das Sehen Jakobs und die Verehrung Jahwes durch seine Nachkommen reflektiert
und die wahrscheinlich aus der nachexilischen Periode stammt, kann in 29,2223c fest-
gestellt werden.
ZAW 121/1 (2009) 4869

101
432 Aron Pinker, Isaiah 30,7b
Isaiah 30,7b is a long standing crux. Attempts to find any sense in rahab hem bt that is
grammatically acceptable and contextually fitting have been so far unsuccessful. In this
paper the emendation to rhb hammeabbbt Rahab (Egypt) that splinters is proposed.
Instead of amplifying the first hemistich this hypothesis adds an important Sitz im Leben
element to the political situation and an insight into Isaiahs theological thinking.
BN 136 (2008) 3144

433 Csaba Balogh, He Filled Zion with Justice and Righteousness. The
Composition of Isaiah 33
In contrast to most opinions concerning Isa 33 this pericope is far too complex to be
explained as one coherent literary unit. Isa 33 has a short anti-Assyrian woe-cry at its
bases (vv. 1+4), which once closed the woe-cries of Isa 2832. Vv. 1+4 were supplemented
first (around 598 or 587) by a communal lament, vv. 23+5+712, bringing the idea of
the punishment of Judah and the temporised destruction of the enemy in vv. 1+4 fur-
ther. Second, (shortly after 539) vv. 15.712 were expanded by a salvation prophecy, vv.
6+1324, concerning the returnees, the restoration of Jerusalem and the monarchy.
Bib. 89/4 (2008) 477504

434 Hans-Jrgen Hermisson, Deuterojesaja [Lieferung 13]


As it happens when a commentary is issued in individual fascicles, one does not always get
complete chapters or sections. In the present case, we are offered the rest of the exegesis
of Isa 49:1426 + 50:13; the complete exegesis of Isa 50:411 (pp. 97150); and the
beginning of the commentary on Isa 51:18. The commentary includes an interesting note
on a possible reference to a fiery hell (possibly echoing Egyptian notions, pp. 138139).
The author also writes that he no longer attributes Isa 48:1719 to the immediate-expec-
tation layer (vol. 1, p. 139 of the present commentary).
Biblischer Kommentar Altes Testament XI.13; Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn (2008) 81160
(BL)

435 Diana Lipton, Bezalel in Babylon? Anti-Priestly Polemics in Isaiah


4055
Deuterojesajas Texte wurden oft als ein Beispiel biblischer Verurteilung altorientalischer
Religionen interpretiert. Die in diesem Beitrag vorgelegte Analyse der von Dtrjes geu-
erten Polemik an priesterlicher Religion und der Fremdgtterverehrung kommt hingegen
zu der Einschtzung, dass es sich bei dieser Kritik um eine innerisraelitische Debatte und
nicht um eine pauschale Kritik an der Religion in Mesopotamien handelt. Der an eine
Zukunft des Volkes in Juda glaubende Prophet zeigt sich wenig interessiert an konkreter
Ausgestaltung des Tempelkults und ist bereit zur Einschrnkung des Einflusses der Prie-
sterschaft in der neu zu etablierenden nachexilischen Gesellschaft.
JANES 31 (2008) 6384 (DL)

436 L. Juliana M. Claassens, To the Captives Come Out and to Those in


Darkness be Free . . . Using the Book of Isaiah in (American) Politics?
This essay investigates the way in which the book Isaiah, and particularly Deutero-Isaiah,
is used in politics. For instance, a classic example comes from George W. Bushs May
2003 speech on the USS Lincoln where he declared an end to major combat in Iraq. In
light of the way politicians use (or abuse) Isaiah in political debates, this essay considers
the relationship between Bible and empire in Isaiah 4048, arguing that in the midst of
the brutal reality of empire in the biblical traditions there are a few texts that represent

102
a counter or subversive rhetoric. The author argues that these minor voices relate well to
the recent developments in postcolonial interpretation that turn to love or compassion
as a means to subvert empire thinking. Finally, he makes some suggestions of how this
complex understanding of the interplay of empire and counter imperial rhetoric may be
utilised in public discourse to offer and alternative vision of the world.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 618634

437 Raymond De Hoop, Isaiah 40.13, the Masoretes, Syntax and Literary
Structure: A Rejoinder to Reinoud Oosting
This study discusses Isa. 40.13, as interpreted in a recent article by Reinoud Oosting ( JSOT
32/3, 2008, 353382; IRBS 54:515). In his work, Oosting presented a new interpretation
of the Isaiah text, arguing that the accentuation of the verse suggests that the Masoretes
misinterpreted the text as a question and answer: Who has directed the spirit? Yhwh! It is
demonstrated that Oostings representation of the Masoretic accentuation and its meaning
is based on a misunderstanding. Moreover it is argued that the classical interpretation of
the Hebrew text, rendering the text Who has measured the spirit of Yhwh, and [who
is] his counsellor, that has made him know? which is rejected by Oosting, is based on
solid ground and should be preferred.
JSOT 33/4 (2009) 453463

438 Timothy M. Milinovich, Form criticism and the rb in Isaiah 41,21


42,4
This essay proposes that Isaiah 41,2142,4 represents a covenant lawsuit, or rb, based on
the structure formulated by G.E. Wright. The author argues that the passage contains a
summons (41,2122a), a case lead by prosecutor (41,22b24.2627), a list of gracious deeds
by the suzerain (41,25), an indictment / verdict (41,29), and a sentencing (42,14). The
author holds that Isaiah 4055 uses a rb form within 41,2142,4 to express the controversy
and tension that was occurring between Israel and the nations during the Exile.
BN 136 (2008) 4557

439 Werner Grimm, Er nicht! Der Gottesknecht als Verweigerer des Heiligen
Kriegs. Ein neues Verstndnis von Jes 42,14
Israel hat, wie es vor allem die Bcher Josua und Richter bezeugen, in der Frhzeit, nicht
anders als seine Nachbarvlker, Heilige Kriege gefhrt. Aber gerade das AT weist den
Weg aus der Gewalt der Heiligen Kriege heraus. Der Bruch mit dieser Weltanschauung
erfolgt erstmals in einer prophetischen Vision: Jes 42,14 zeichnet den Ebed JHWH als
eine Gegengestalt gegen die Fhrer der Heiligen Kriege, Josua und Gideon. Das Ziel
eines Heiligen Krieges, die restlose Auslschung der Gottesfeinde ( Jos 10,2227; Ri 8,20f ),
verfolgt er nicht, wie es Jes 42,3 in zwei eindeutigen Metaphern sagt. Der gewaltfreie Ebed
JHWH von Jes 42,14 ist ein Aspekt der Christologie des Matthusevangeliums.
BN 138 (2008) 4761

440 Marius D. Terblanche, The Theme of the Babylonian Exile as Impris-


onment in Isaiah 42:22 and Other Texts in Isaiah 4055
Although some scholars argue that Isaiah 42:22 has the people remaining in Judah rather
than the exiles in mind, this paper asserts, that the description of the exile as imprison-
ment is an exaggeration. Some Judean exiles were in all likelihood forced to work on royal
building projects. Their imprisonment would at most be temporary. By depicting the exile
as imprisonment 42:22 accentuates Yahwehs announcement in 42:1444:23 that he would
restore his relationship with Israel. The end of the punishment was in sight despite the
fact that Israels precarious situation could be interpreted as an indication that Yahwehs
relationship with them has ended. In the present form of the text of Isaiah 4055, 42:22

103
reveals that the one who would deliver the prisoners (42:7), he himself needed deliverance.
Isaiah 42:22 thus sets the stage for the re-commissioning of the servant in 49:16. Although
49:2426 does not give the servant a role in the return of Zions sons, the statement in
verse 25 that Yahweh himself would take up the prisoners cause forms a strong contrast
to the reproach reflected in 42:22.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 482497

441 Jean-Daniel Macchi, Ne ressassez plus les choses dautrefois. Esae


43,1621, un surprenant regard deutro-saen sur le pass
Contrary to a common opinion, this analysis of Isaiah 43,1621 shows that this text
does not belong to the earlier kernel of Second Isaiah but constitutes a late redactional
reworking of it. 43,1617 reinterprets the narrative and poetic parts of Exodus 1415;
verses 1819a do the same with the motif of Israels culpability presented as the former
things. Finally, 43,19b21 exhibits a synthesis of some theological motifs of Second
and Third Isaiah. The text with the greatest number of similarities to 43,1621 is Isa
65,1625, an eschatological text.
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 225241

442 Martin Leuenberger, Kyros-Orakel und Kyros-Zylinder. Ein religions-


geschichtlicher Vergleich ihrer Gottes-Konzeptionen
The striking similarity of the Cyrus cylinder with the contemporaneous Cyrus oracle in Is
45:17 has often been noticed, but up to now, there is no detailed comparison that concen-
trates on the conceptions of God. Due to their crucial importance for the understanding of
both texts, such a focus, however, promises to be rewarding: It allows to elaborate aspects
substantial for both documents and to illuminate their similarities and differences more
sharply. For Old Testament research, a particularly relevant result is that the monotheism
of Deutero-Isaiah can be located more precisely in the religious- and theological-historical
developments of the late Babylonian and early Persian time.
VT 59/2 (2009) 244256

443 Martin Leuenberger, Die geschichtstheologische Begrndung der Ein-


zigkeit Jhwhs im Kyros-Orakel Jes 45,17
Eine Aufbauanalyse des Kyros-Orakels in Jes 45 zeigt im Gegensatz zu einer starken
Forschungstendenz der Gegenwart , dass hier ebenso wie in weiteren dtjes Weissagungs-
beweisen die Einzigkeit Jhwhs nicht schpfungs-, sondern geschichtstheologisch mit dem
Aufstieg Kyros begrndet wird; erst auf dieser noetischen Basis werden dann ontische
Konsequenzen gezogen mit der abschlieenden Prsentation Jhwhs als des einzigen
Schpfergottes.
ThZ 64/4 (2008) 343357

444 Tina Dykesteen Nilsen, The creation of darkness and evil (Isaiah
45:6c7)
The oracle which names Cyrus as the messiah contains a passage which declares that
Yhwh is the one who makes not only light and peace, but also creates darkness and evil
(Isa 45:6c7). This article looks at how this unique statement has been interpreted by
commentators, and then proposes how it ought to be understood on the basis of a new
analysis of the verse. This analysis explores how the words of the passage are used else-
where in Isaiah 4055, and takes into consideration the socio-historical situation and the
religious environment of the prophets addressees. The prophet emerges as arguing against
adherents to Babylonian religion; Iranian dualism, however, is not on his mind.
RB 115/1 (2008) 525

104
445 Hanspeter Schaudig, Bl Bows, Nab Stoops! The Prophecy of Isaiah
xlvi 12 as a Reflection of Babylonian Processional Omens
This article argues that Isa xlvi 12 represents a prophecy given on the occasion of the
Babylonian New Years festival. It is based on the condition and behaviour of the
Babylonian cult statues carried in procession. This prophecy is not only directly dependent
upon a group of Babylonian omens, called processional omens, but also follows the
Babylonian custom of divining portents from the condition and movement of the statue
of Marduk at the New Years festival.
VT 58/45 (2008) 557572

446 Erhard Blum, Der leidende Gottesknecht von Jes 53. Eine kompositionelle
Deutung
Blum trgt Beobachtungen zur literarischen Position der ersten Gottesknechtslieder in
einer deuterojesajanischen Grundschrift vor, um anschlieend auf den Kontext des vierten
Liedes vom leidenden Gottesknecht einzugehen. Letzteres versteht er als umfassende Rlec-
ture der prophetischen Botschaft: die zwei (!) Gottesknechtsgestalten der Grundschrift
ein Prophet (der eine an Israel gerichtete Botschaft hat) und Israel sind hier zu einer
einzigen Gestalt verschmolzen.
Stefan Gehrig u.a. (Hg.), Gottes Wahrnehmungen; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 138159

447 Bla enka Scheuer, Jesaja 53 och den lidande tjnaren


This review article discusses The Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 in Jewish and Christian
Sources, edited by B. Janowski and P. Stuhlmacher (Grand Rapids 2004). This collection
of essays focuses on the effective history of Isaiah 53 from the post-biblical and early
Christian periods to medieval times, where the understanding and the significance of
Isaiah 53 for the Jewish-Christian dialogue of the time is presented. The volume draws
attention to how, on the one hand, a biblical text forms a communitys self-understand-
ing, and on the other hand, the flow of the influence goes just as much in the opposite
direction: the personal interests of a community form the understanding of the texts of
the Holy Scripture. The theological depth and the broad scope of the essays make this
anthology an indispensable starting point as well as a significant reference work for anyone
who wishes to learn more about or engage in a deeper study of Isaiah 53.
SE 73 (2008) 161173

448 John Goldingay, Isaiah 53 in the Pulpit


In its context, Isa 53 pairs with Isa 42:14 in being a passage that describes Yhwhs servant
without identifying who this servant is. Fortunately, Isa 41:810 has already done that; Israel
is Yhwhs servant. Unfortunately, the description of the role to be fulfilled by the servant
in Isa 42 makes clear that Israel as it is cannot fulfil it. Isa 53 offers no suggestion that it
is a prophecy about a servant to come in the future. When the New Testament uses this
passage as lens through which to understand Jesus, it creates a case of prophecy, which
is only after it is fulfilled or filled out by Jesus that it becomes a prophecy. More liter-
ally, one might describe the relationship between the OT passage and Jesus as involving
typology, as Jesus is like the OT suffering prophet, only more so.
PRSt 35/2 (2008) 147153

449 W. Boyd Barrick, On BWMTW in 1 QIsaa 53:9a, Again: A Response


to J.A. Emerton
Against the proposal of J.A. Emerton to interpret bwmtw in QIsaa 53:9a as a noun parallel
in form and meaning to qbrw in the same verse (PEQ 129, 1997, 116132), the author
of this paper takes bwmtw as an anatomical term (bmh II) with the extended sense of
body. However, he questions whether the MT of Isa 53:9a should be emended on the

105
basis of the QIsaa version the only ancient textual witness which does not presuppose
a form of mwt here. Therefore, bwmtw in QIsaa may be a simplification of the bmtyw of
the MTs highly unusual plural construction of mwt.
Maarav 15/1 (2008) 3955 (DL)

450 Jacob Stromberg, The Second Temple and the Isaianic Afterlife of the
sdj dwd (Isa 55,35)
It is argued in this paper that Isa 60 interpreted 55,35 in light of the Davidic promise
of a temple for Gods name, an interpretation that differs considerably from the usual
understanding of 55.
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 242255

451 Matthew J. Lynch, Zions Warrior and the Nations: Isaiah 59:15b63:6
in Isaiahs Zion Traditions
It is suggested in this paper that the divine warrior panels (Is 59:15b63:6) correlate with
chaps. 6062 in a Zion-traditioned sequence of divine war followed by the victorious return
of Yhwh to his mountain abode followed by the praise/convergence of the nations and are
interlaced with several related Zion traditions (covenant treaty, inaugural proclamation,
payment of tribute, theophanic appearance, pilgrimage). These traditions are employed
by Trito-Isaiah to counter the increasing darkness of Israels exilic rebellion, failed dreams,
and foreign domination, and to illuminate the surprising glories of Zions future a future
made secure only by the intervention and return of Zions warrior and king.
CBQ 70/2 (2008) 244263

452 Erich Bosshard, Ferne und Langzeitigkeit Jhwhs. Zur theologischen


Auseinandersetzung in Jes 63,766,4 und Ps 102
Jes 6364 und Ps 102, aus hellenistischer Zeit stammend und literarisch aufeinander
bezogen, sind durch eine vergleichbare Stimmung geprgt. In beiden Fllen sieht sich eine
Gruppe bzw. ein exemplarisches Ich aus dem Gottesvolk vor einem unverhltnismig
weiten Gottes- und Welthorizont, zu dem der Anschluss verloren ist. hnlich ist auch die
Erfahrung des Hiobbuches.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 3955 (BL)

453 Daniel K. Bediako, Isaiahs New Heavens and New Earth (Isa 65:17;
66:22)
The reference to Yhwhs creation of new heavens and new earth in Isa 65:17 and 66:22
has received much attention, though scholars are widely divided over its interpretation.
The eschatological locus and the creation language of the book of Isaiah seem to have
significant bearing on the interpretation of the phrase. Accordingly, this article attempts
to demonstrate, through contextual, linguistic, and structure analysis, that the creation
of new heavens and new earth is a hyperbolic expression of the future restoration of
the people of Judah after the captivity.
JAAS 11/1 (2008) 120

106
Jeremiah: general individual passages
454 Leslie C. Allen, Jeremiah: A Commentary
This exegetical commentary focuses on what current scholarship terms the final text
of the book of Jeremiah, yet the commentator pays close attention to earlier stages of
textual development, some of which are indicated in the prophetic book itself, and some
can be detected through a close comparison between the shorter Septuagint version
of Jeremiah (reflecting the books first edition) and the Masoretic texts (reflecting the
books amplified second edition). The commentary includes a fresh English translation,
remarkable for its occasional boldness in departing from standard vocabulary. Allen has
already published good commentaries on some of the minor prophets ( Joel, Obadiah,
Jonah, Micah, 1976) and Ezekiel (1990, 1994). He is open to scholarly notions of textual
development, but does not make any exaggerated claims in this respect. A sober and
reliable scholarly commentary.
The Old Testament Library; Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, Ky./Alban Books, Edinburgh
(2008) XXIX/1546 (BL)

455 Winfried Thiel, Ein exemplarischer Jeremia-Kommentar


Thiel summarizes the critical perspective of W.H. Schmidt, Das Buch Jeremia. Kapitel 120
(Das Alte Testament Deutsch), Gttingen 2008. Schmidt sees the nucleus of the book in
chapters 16 (= the original scroll, Urrolle). Later stages came from Baruchs additions to
this nucleus, followed by Deuteronomistic expansions. Thiel prefers this perspective to
that of Georg Fischer who in his 2005 commentary on Jeremiah claims that Jeremiah is
a pseudepigraphical work dating from late Persian or early Hellenistic times (see W. Thiel,
Das Jeremiabuch als Einheit, in: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 102, 2007, 512).
EvTh 68/6 (2008) 473478 (BL)

456 John Hill, Duhm-ed Again Back to the Future in Jeremiah Research?
The interest of contemporary Jeremiah research in the books two recensions, with their
different order and viewpoints, raises the issue of the influence of the post-exilic period on
their compositional histories. In pursuing the question, contemporary Jeremiah research,
albeit for different reasons, is faced with similar questions to those which B. Duhm con-
fronted in his 1901 commentary. In this essay, it is suggested that contemporary research
can benefit from revisiting Duhms commentary and taking a fresh look at the questions
raised by his interpretive approach to the book. A fresh examination of his questions (not
necessarily his answers) in the context of contemporary scholarships appreciation of
the post-exilic period and of the formation of prophetic books may allow exploring at
greater depth the Jeremiah tradition as a product of the second temple era.
ABR 56 (2008) 1931

457 Karel van der Toorn, From the Mouth of the Prophet: The Literary
Fixation of Jeremiahs Prophecies in the Context of the Ancient Near
East
The analysis of the passages that cast Jeremiah in the role of a writer-prophet compel us
to conclude that the only times when he actually wrote his message or had Baruch write
it down from dictation he did so in lieu of an oral delivery. Only when circumstances
prevented him from addressing his audience in person did he resort to the means of
written communication. Jeremiah was a spiritual leader, an advisor to the king, a priest
whose intercessory prayer was credited with special efficacy but he was not a literary
author. The early collection (or collections) of Jeremiah oracles goes back to one or more
anonymous authors.
John Kaltner et al. (eds.), Inspired Speech: Prophecy in the Ancient Near East; T & T Clark, London
(2004) 191202 (BL)

107
458 Mary Chilton Callaway, The Lamenting Prophet and the Modern
Self: On the Origins of Contemporary Readings of Jeremiah
In twentieth-century commentaries, Jeremiah is portrayed as a man characterized by inner
struggles with himself and with God, see e.g. G. von Rad, Message of the Prophets (1965);
W. Brueggemann, A Commentary on Jeremiah (1998). Jeremiah, it seems, is presented
as a paradigm of man in Western culture he is a person like us, a person with an
intense inner life of reflection and hesitation. Callaway demonstrates that through the
centuries, the image of Jeremiah reflects the self-understanding of his interpreters. Early
post-biblical interpreters view him as a man of action, while beginning with Rembrandt
in the seventeenth century, the prophets inner life is highlighted. Callaway sketches the
iconographic background to Rembrandts 1630 painting entitled Jeremiah lamenting the
destruction of Jerusalem.
John Kaltner et al. (eds.), Inspired Speech: Prophecy in the Ancient Near East; T & T Clark, London
(2004) 4862 (BL)

459 Leslie C. Allen, Disputations in the Book of Jeremiah


In this study, the validity D.F. Murrays analysis of the genre of disputation ( JSOT 38,
1987, 95121) is demonstrated with regard to the book of Jeremiah. The genre is presented
as appearing in four poetic and seven prose passages ( Jer 2:2325; 3:15; 8:89; 18:6;
28:24, 69, 14; 33:2326; 37:910; 42:1318; 44; 45:25a; 48:1417).
PRSt 35/2 (2008) 135146

460 Hetty Lalleman, Jeremiah, Judgement and Creation


Building on a German publication by Helga Weippert (Schpfer des Himmels und der Erde. Ein
Beitrag zur Theologie des Jeremiabuches, SBS 102, Stuttgart 1982; IZBG 29:635), it is argued
that the idea of creation can already be found in Jeremiah, not just in Isaiah 4055. Jer-
emiah 45 has parallels in Genesis 12 as well as in Jeremiah 33, and there is insufficient
ground to assume that Jeremiah 33 represents a post-Jeremiah development, as Weippert
suggests. Thus, Jeremiah uses not only the covenant as a framework for his proclamation
of judgement and doom but also creation.
TynB 60/1 (2009) 1524

461 Katho Bungishabaku, La Connaissance de YHWH Jrmie: Une tude


intra-intertextuelle
Knowledge of God is one of the key concepts in the book of Jeremiah. This essay
attempts to define its meaning. It also shows that an inner-intertextual study of this
concept can help (1) to demonstrate the progress of the deterioration of the relationship
between YHWH and Israel, (2) to underline the unity of the first part of the book of
Jeremiah, and (3) to show that the relationship between the deuteronomistic history and
Jeremiah is due to the fact that the prophets mission was not to proclaim a new message
but to remind the people of their covenant responsibilities.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 3860

462 Amy Kalmanofsky, Terror All Around: The Rhetoric of Horror in the
Book of Jeremiah
Combining her love of the Bible and horror movies, the author applies horror theory
(see Timothy K. Beal, Religion and Its Monsters, 2002; J. Kristeva, Powers of Horror, 1982;
N. Carroll, The Philosophy of Horror or Paradoxes of the Heart, 1990) to the text of Jeremiah
and examines the ways this book is designed to terrify its audience. Just as there are
monsters in the movies, there are monsters in Jeremiah. When seen as part of a horror
rhetoric, Jeremiahs monsters are not blasphemous, desperate expressions of personal pain.

108
Instead, they are part of a powerful rhetoric that works to convince Israel and God to
reform and to reconcile (p. 138).
LHBOTS 390; T & T Clark International, London (2008) IX/1164

463 Amy Kalmanofsky, The Monstrous-Feminine in the Book of Jeremiah


As this analysis shows, Jeremiah evokes the monstrous-feminine to convey a particular
message about the nature of Israels behaviour as well as to elicit a particular response
from his audience. The monstrous-feminine in Jeremiah is a lustful animal that must be
exposed in order to be removed. Jeremiah carefully constructs his monstrous-feminine. Her
body and nature represents sinful Israel and provides valuable insight into the prophets
perception of the wayward people. Like Victor Frankenstein, Jeremiah carefully creates a
female monster. And like Frankenstein, he wants to obliterate her. He wants to tear her
apart, dispersing the pieces of her body like straw in a desert wind.
lectio difficilior (2009) Ausgabe 1

464 Mayer I. Gruber, Jeremiah 3:14:2 between Deuteronomy 24 and Mat-


thew 5: Jeremiahs Exercise in Ethical Criticism
In Jer 3:1, God informs us that, contrary to the rigid standards that Deut 24:14 requires
of men and women who have exchanged partners, God is exceedingly liberal with respect
to his unfaithful spouse, the personified land of Judah. Moreover, as God explains in
Jer 3:8, he is more liberal than Deut 24 even with respect to his other spouse, whom he
had previously divorced personified Israel (Samaria). Gods contrasting the stringency
of Deut 24 vis--vis Gods own liberalism reminds one of Matth 5:2148.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 233249 (BL)

465 Joseph Fleishman, Variations on Set among Sons in Jeremiah 3:19


Jeremiah 3:1920 includes the metaphor of a father-daughter relationship. Commentators
and scholars agree that this metaphor expresses in general Gods desires and hopes, and His
wish to award immovable property to his beloved daughter on the one hand and His sharp
disappointment in Israels faithfulness to Him on the other hand. This paper interprets the
metaphor in Jer 3:19 in the sense that the father gave his daughter immovable property
as a dowry. Consequently, this verse indicates that in Israel as in the ancient Near East
and in early Jewish law, a father was permitted to grant his daughter an estate as a dowry.
This property, however, did not in fact belong to the daughter and she was not regarded
as its owner. Only her children were considered the owners of this property.
ZABR 14 (2008) 291310

466 Dirk Bchner, Boshet in Jeremiah 3:24: Disenfranchisement and the


Role of the Goddess in Seventh-Century Judah
Le terme boshet, souvent interprt comme expression polmique designant La Honte,
est en effet le nom propre dune desse, vraisemblablement Ishtar. Ce nest quavant le
verset suivant (v. 25), avec 1expression boshtnu notre honte, que le prophte attaque la
desse et son culte. Pour la discussion antrieure, cf. S. Schorch, ZAW 112 (2000) 598611;
G.J. Hamilton, CBQ 60 (2004) 228250.
Journal of Theological Studies 59/2 (2008) 478499 (BL)

109
467 Marjo C.A. Korpel, Who Is Speaking in Jeremiah 4:1922? The Con-
tribution of Unit Delimitation to an Old Problem
Study of the unit delimitation in a number of ancient manuscripts lends extra support
to the view that the speaker of the lament in Jer 4:1921 is Lady Zion and that Jer 4:22
is a later addition.
VT 59/1 (2009) 8898

468 Wilhelm J. Wessels, Prophet, Poetry And Ethics: A Study of Jeremiah


5:2629
The aim of this paper is to consider ethical issues raised by the passage Jeremiah 5:2629.
The first step is to come to grips with the prophetic message of the text, and then to relate
it to the debate on ethics, the Old Testament and the present-day context. The author
points out that many ethical questions today fall outside the scope of the Bible. The Old
Testament therefore cannot be used as precept when it comes to ethics, but it makes a
valuable contribution in terms of the examples it offers. In engaging in dialogue with the
biblical text, one is not only confronted with an ancient world, but in the process one
comes face to face with the challenges of present times.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 729744

469 Benjamin D. Thomas, Reevaluating the Influence of Jeremiah 10 upon


the Apocryphal Epistle of Jeremiah. A Case for the Short Edition
Several scholars have proposed that the book of Jeremiah circulated in at least two
editions at one time or another. A considerable portion of the debate has centred on
Jer 10,116, a polemic against worship of foreign idols. Furthermore, it is agreed that the
Epistle of Jeremiah was based primarily upon the text of Jer 10. To date, the majority has
contended that the Epistle was based on the longer text of Jer 10, their strongest piece
of evidence being the scarecrow in a cucumber patch idiom in 10,5a. This study offers
a comparative translation of the Masoretic Text (longer text), the Septuagint (short text),
and the Epistle of Jeremiah to determine precisely which text lay before the author of the
Epistle as he wrote. From this comparison, it is concluded that the Epistle was based upon
the short text of Jer 10. Among other points of argumentation, the scarecrow idiom is
discredited as the strongest piece of evidence in favour of the longer text. Consequently,
the study also provides support for the Two-Edition Theory.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 547562

470 Hannes Bezzel, Das Grnen der Frevler ein Grund zur Klage. Die
Baummetapher im Rahmen der Konfessionen Jeremias Weisheit im
prophetischen Mantel?
The double metaphor of the flourishing and the withering tree is well known as well
from Ancient Near Eastern wisdom literature as from the Old Testament. In this article,
a comparative look is taken at its different use in Amenemope 6; Jer 1112; Jer 17 and
Ps 1. While in all cases the green tree illustrates the ideal of a permanent existence in
the presence of the Deity, the way of how to achieve it is determined differently. Further-
more, while the metaphor is meant to demonstrate the divine world order in the context
of sapiental lore (Amenemope; Ps 1), it reveals its critical potentiality in the accusations
against God which are put forth by the persona of the prophet Jeremiah in some of the
so-called confessions ( Jer 1112; Jer 17).
WdO 38 (2008) 721

110
471 Herbert Migsch, Zur Deutung von Jer 17,27. Eine Korrektur nach der
Septuaginta
God considers in his word Jer 17,27, that the inhabitants of Jerusalem could not obey him
by not carrying any load through the gates to Jerusalem on the Sabbath day. Correctly, it
would have to be called of course: by carrying any load . . . The Masoretic version is cor-
rupt. A later hand inserted the copulative waw before the second infinitive-construction
erroneously. The copulative waw is to be deleted with LXX.
BN 138 (2008) 3946

472 Christof Hardmeier, Zur schriftgesttzten Expertenttigkeit Jeremias


im Milieu der Jerusalemer Fhrungseliten ( Jeremia 36). Prophetische
Literaturbildung und die Neuinterpretation lterer Expertisen in Jeremia
2123
Hardmeier considers Jer 21:1123:6 as a primary document that shows traces of several
editorial expansions dating from the post-Josianic period. Some of the expansions reflect
early adaptations, apparently dating from the year 597 BCE. Hardmeiner prints the text
of several Jeremianic passages, indicating the words that he takes to be expansions of an
originally shorter text.
FAT 62; Joachim Schaper (ed.), Die Textualisierung der Religion; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2009)
105149 (BL)

473 Paul A. Kruger, A Woman Will Encompass a Man: On Gender


Reversal in Jer 31,22b
This contribution reviews the various interpretations offered to understand the obscure
pronouncement in Jer 31,22b: A woman will encompass a man. One of the most popu-
lar proposals, being also the most plausible, is to regard the utterance as an example of
gender role reversal. What the proponents of this viewpoint fail to demonstrate satisfac-
torily, however, is how this saying in Jer 31,22b relates to the multiple other ancient Near
Eastern cultural contexts (literary, social-political and religious) where the same mundus
inversus principle is likewise attested. It is argued that this broad backdrop is a sine qua non
for the proper understanding of this enigmatic passage.
Bib. 89/3 (2008) 380388

474 Rodney R. Hutton, Are the Parents Still Eating Sour Grapes? Jeremiahs
Use of the Ml in Contrast to Ezekiel
Far from being an incidental and immaterial slip of the pen, there is in fact a critical
point that lies behind the difference in the proverb represented by Ezekiel 18:13 and
Jeremiah 31:2930. The question of whether the parents eat sour grapes or whether
instead they ate them is significant for the theological argument made by Ezekiel, on
the one hand, and Jeremiah, on the other. Whereas Ezekiels adversaries were attempting
to cast the parable as an eternally valid principle, valid as much in the present situation as
it ever was in the past, and as it would be in future, Jeremiahs use of the parable had no
such interest in mind. It understood the parable to be truly a vestige of Israels confession
of faith as much as the ark was a vestige of Israels sacred cultic infrastructure and the
exodus was a vestige of its historical memory.
CBQ 71/2 (2009) 275285

111
475 Konrad Schmid, Nebukadnezars Antritt der Weltherrschaft und der
Abbruch der Davidsdynastie. Innerbiblische Schriftauslegung und univer-
salgeschichtliche Konstruktion im Jeremiabuch
This is a study of Jeremiah 36, of which verse 30 declares the end of the Davidic dynasty.
However, Jehoiakim was neither the last ruling monarch of the Davidic dynasty, nor was
his body disposed of in an irregular way; in other words: this verse transcribes a prophetic
word that proved to be wrong. Schmid seeks to show that Jer 36:30 is based upon two
other, earlier Jeremianic passages Jer 22:1819 and 22:30 and dates from the fourth
and fifth year of Jehoiakim, which is the time when Nebukadnezar became ruler of the
world. For the prophet Nebukadnezars rule meant the end of the Davidic monarchy
(605/4 BCE). Scriptural prophecy tolerates tensions with actual reality in the interest of
being true to what has been written.
FAT 62; Joachim Schaper (ed.), Die Textualisierung der Religion; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2009)
150166 (BL)

476 Bob Becking, The Identity of Nabu-sharrussu-ukin, the Chamberlain.


An Epigraphic Note on Jeremiah 39,3. With an Appendix on The Nebu(!)
sarsekim Tablet
A recently uncovered Neo-Babylonian document contained the name of an officer: Nab-
arrussu-ukn the rab a-ri. This name elucidates the enigmatic text at Jer. 39,3, where
Nergal-Shareser, the Samgar, Nebu-Sar-Sechim, the rab-saris needs to be read. There is
a high degree of possibility that the newly uncovered Babylonian officer can be identified
with the person mentioned in Jer. 39,3. This identification, however, does not imply a full
confirmation of the story in Jer. 39.
BN 140 (2009) 3546

477 Teresa Ann Ellis, Jeremiah 44: What if the Queen of Heaven is YHWH?
Jeremiah 44 provides an image unusual within prophetic literature the prophets female
adversaries are not portrayed in terms of sexuality. Jeremiah denounces a group of Judean
women and men who revere the Queen of Heaven. His central accusation is that they
have caused YHWHs anger, and thus the fall of the kingdom of Judah. Yet, this article
maintains, there is sufficient textual evidence for readers to construct an alternate scenario
that vindicates the Queen of Heavens supporters in their counter-accusation that it was
not their actions that angered YHWH but the actions of the Judean kings who opposed
making offerings to the Queen of Heaven. In this case, it is to be evaluated what relations
between the Queen of Heaven and YHWH might be portrayed.
JSOT 33/4 (2009) 465488

Lamentations
478 Edward L. Greenstein, The Book of Lamentations: Response to Destruc-
tion or Ritual of Rebuilding?
Traditionally, it has been assumed that the book of Lamentations reflects a liturgy of
lament commemorating the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem in 586 BCE. Greenstein
argues that this assumption is unfounded. He suggests that Lamentations was presumably
written as a liturgy that precedes the rededication of the altar and the initial laying of
the temple foundations after 538 BCE, and they would have accompanied the stages of
rebuilding and rededication during the period from 520 to 515 BCE.
LHBOTS 444; Henning Graf Reventlow et al. (eds.), Religious Responses to Political Crisis in Jewish
and Christian Tradition; T & T Clark International, London (2008) 5271 (BL)

112
479 Elie Assis, The Unity of the Book of Lamentations
The Book of Lamentations is made up of five poems lamenting the destruction of Judah
and Jerusalem in the year 587 BCE. Each of the first four poems has a complete and
distinct acrostic structure. The five poems of the Book of Lamentations are one literary
work, and the different units are chapters of the whole entity. Chaps. 1 and 2 present
a reaction of despair to the Destruction. Chapter 1 contemplates the aftermath of the
Destruction, and chap. 2 describes the war of the Destruction. This despair is the problem
dealt with by the Book of Lamentations. The object is to uproot it from the surviving
people. The transition from despair to hope occurs in chap. 3. Subsequently, in chaps. 4
and 5 the author of the book returns the reader and the lamenter to the same situations
described in chaps. 1 and 2. This time, however, there is moderate hope, which is most
succinctly expressed by allowing the lamenter to direct the grievance to God in prayer.
The object is to bring the lamenter once again to form a connection with God after the
Destruction.
CBQ 71/2 (2009) 306329

480 Nancy C. Lee et al. (eds.), Lamentations in Ancient and Contemporary


Cultural Contexts
Several of the papers included in this collective volume deal with the book of Lamentations:
A. Berlin, On writing a commentary on Lamentations; F. Dobbs-Allsopp, Lamentations
from sundry angles: a retrospective; K. OConnor, Voices arguing about meaning; N. Lee,
The singers of Lamentations; C. Mandolfo, Talking back: the perseverance of justice in
lamentation; T. Linafelt, Surviving Lamentations (once more); R. Williamson, Lament and
the arts of resistance: public and hidden transcripts in Lamentations 5.
Symposium Series 43; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) XII/1274

481 Heath Aaron Thomas, The Liturgical Function of the Book of Lamentations
Recent research has produced the following interpretations: (1) the book explains why the
fall of Jerusalem happened; (2) it teaches how to handle the disaster and how to move out
of it; (3) it provides a way to complain, expressing pain to God. The present article argues
that all three interpretations offer valid points, and it focuses on (1) and (2).
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
137147 (BL)

482 Elizabeth Boase, The Characterisation of God in Lamentations


One of the dominant characters within the book of Lamentations is God. God is spoken
about and spoken to, although the voice of God is never heard. Various voices within the
text speak of God, describing both Gods actions and Gods attributes. These descriptions
give rise to various, and at times conflicting, images: God is the violent destroyer of the
city and her inhabitants; God is an absent God, whose presence is longed for; God is a
God of steadfast love and mercy; God is the one in whom future hope lies. This paper
analyses the multifaceted portrayal of the character of God as constructed in the book of
Lamentations, exploring the implications of that characterisation for the understanding
of the theology of Lamentations.
ABR 56 (2008) 3244

483 Elizabeth Boase, Constructing Meaning in the Face of Suffering: Theo-


dicy in Lamentations
This article explores the existence of theodic elements within the book of Lamentations.
Drawing on the typology outlined by A. Laato and J.C. de Moor in Theodicy in the World
of the Bible (Leiden, 2003) it is identified that Lamentations explores both retributive and
educative theodicy within its poems. Other theodic solutions are not, however, present.

113
Although these theodic solutions are present, it cannot be argued that Lamentations
constitutes a theodicy as such. Rather, the poems raise and in turn subvert a range of
possible theodic assertions in response to the existential crisis which emerged in the wake
of the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE.
VT 58/45 (2008) 449468

Ezekiel: general individual passages


484 Robert W. Jenson, Ezekiel
Jenson offers a theological interpretation of the book of Ezekiel, based on major exegetical
commentaries such as those by W. Zimmerli and M. Greenberg. The author admits not
to belong to the guild of Old Testament scholars, and to be committed to reading the
Bible a single, dramatically coherent narrative of the coming of Christ and his kingdom
(pp. 2223).
Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible; Brazos Press/Baker Publishing Group, Grand Rapids,
Mich. (2009) 1367

485 Marco Nobile, Saggi su Ezechiele


Aprs avoir publi sa thse sur le livre dEzchiel en 1982, lauteur na pas arrt ses tudes
sur ce livre prophtique. Cette collection offre la re-dition de quatorze articles parus entre
1983 et 2006. Pour lauteur, le livre dEzchiel reflte 1activit des rdacteurs postexiliques
dont on trouve les traces partout, tout spcialement dans la structure tripartite du livre:
thophanie initiale avec la vocation du prophte; infliction du chtiment divin tous les
peuples du monde, commenant par Isral et Juda; dbut de 1poque eschatologique.
Une contribution originale ltude du livre dEzchiel.
Spicilegium 40; Pontificio Ateneo Antonianum, Roma (2009) 1217 (BL)

486 Christoph Brchers, Prophetenbiographie und Biblizismus im Ezechielbuch


On doit interprter les lments autobiographiques du livre dEzchiel dans le contexte
de ce livre prophtique, sans automatiquement supposer quun prophte de ce nom ait
une fois exist. La question savoir sil sagit dune personne purement fictive et littraire
reste ouverte. Lauteur de larticle fait rfrence Karin Schpflin, Theologie als Biographie
im Ezechielbuch, Tbingen 2002, qui propose une lecture pseudo-autobiographique du
livre dEzchiel.
Zeitschrift fr Theologie und Gemeinde 14 (2009) 4664 (BL)

487 Tova Ganzel, The Purification of the People in Ezekiel: The Pentateuchal
Background (Hebr., Engl. summary)
This article demonstrates the duality of the pentateuchal background to the purification
of the people of Israel in Ezekiel, especially as distilled in Ezek. 36:25. On the one hand,
Ezekiel refers to the purification ritual for removing corpse-impurity through the water
of lustration (Num. 19). On the other hand, Ezekiels reference to the Sinaitic covenant
ceremony (Exod. 24), the heart of which is the blood ceremony, heightens the signifi-
cance of the rite through which the people of Israel hold historic importance, as was the
case for the covenant at Horeb, but it will also redefine the relationship between God
and his people.
Beit Mikra 53/1 (2008) 4758.7*8*

114
488 Baruch J. Schwarz, The Ultimate Aim of Israels Restoration in Ezekiel
The ultimate aim is to instil in them a feeling of remorse and unworthiness, see Ezek
36:31; 43:10 etc.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 305319 (BL)

489 Tova Ganzel, The Defilement and Desecration of the Temple in Ezekiel
An examination of the passages in Ezekiel related to the defilement and desecration
of the Temple through the spectrum of the Priestly Sources clearly shows a distinction
between the two concepts and reveals Ezekiels precise and deliberate usage of these terms.
Although they both relate to idolatrous practices, defilement of the Temple in Ezekiel
follows the categories of the Priestly Sources, and thus results primarily from corpse
impurity and idol worship. With regard to the Temples desecration, Ezekiel introduces
the aspect of the intense involvement of foreigners, which he viewed as the desecrating
agents of his day.
Bib. 89/3 (2008) 369379

490 Rebecca G.S. Idestrom, Echoes of the Book of Exodus in Ezekiel


This article examines the thematic connections made between the book of Exodus and
the book of Ezekiel. Both books emphasize the theme of knowing God through his divine
acts. Other themes and motifs from Exodus found in Ezekiel, including the call narrative,
divine encounters, captivity, signs, plagues, judgment, redemption, tabernacle/temple, are
considered. Several parallels between Moses and Ezekiel are noted, raising the question of
whether Ezekiel was understood as a second Moses figure; both were Levites who became
prophets and leaders of Gods people in a time of crisis. Finally, some of the implications
of these connections for interpreting the book of Ezekiel are explored.
JSOT 33/4 (2009) 489510

491 John W. Olley, Ezekiel LXX and Exodus Comparisons


Ezek. 9:112 and 20:26 LXX provide much more explicit association with the exodus
than is seen in MT. The translation reflects the late Seleucid period, with oppressive and
syncretistic leaders, an interpretation reinforced by the unexpected Abana in 20:29.
VT 59/1 (2009) 116122

492 Carol Meyers, Engendering Ezekiel: Female Figures Reconsidered


From this study two conclusions emerge: (1) passages that depict real women show them
in cultic, funereal, prophetic, and medico-religious roles; (2) the images if Judah and Jeru-
salem personified as females cannot be unproblematically labelled misogynistic. The legal
aspect of the punitive measures described is best understood as lenient.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 201297 (BL)

493 Andrew Sloane, Aberrant Textuality? The Case of Ezekiel the (Porno)
Prophet
Pornoprophetic readings of the unfaithful wife metaphors in Hosea 13, Jeremiah 2 and
3, and Ezekiel 16 and 23 criticise them as misogynistic texts that express and perpetuate
negative images of women and their sexuality. This study seeks to present an evangelical
response to Athalya Brenner and Fokkelien van Dijk-Hemmes pornoprophetic reading
of Ezekiel 16 and 23. The author outlines their claims and supporting arguments, includ-
ing their assertion that the texts constitute pornographic propaganda which shapes and
distorts womens (sexual) experience in the interests of male (sexual) power. He argues that

115
both their underlying methods and assumptions and their specific claims are flawed, and
so their claims should be rejected. While acknowledging the offensive power of the texts,
he concludes that alternative explanations such as the violence of Israels judgement and
the offensive nature of Jerusalems sin account better for the features of the texts which
they find problematic.
TynB 59/1 (2008) 5376

494 Kirsten Nielsen, Ezekiels Visionary Call as Prologue: From Complexity


and Changeability to Order and Stability?
This article reads Ezekiel 1 as a prologue to the entire book of Ezekiel and deals with
the tension between the vision of the living creatures in Ezekiel 1 and the vision of the
temple in the epilogue, Ezekiel 4048. It is argued that the vision in Ezekiel 1 signals
complexity and changeability. The prologue is characterized by various kinds of category
transgressions (cf. for instance the monstrosity of the living creatures). In Ezekiel 4048,
the new temple signals the opposite: order and stability. The book of Ezekiel uses both
aspects to describe Yahweh as a god who is able to change the situation of the exiles and
ensure future stability. A short section discusses passages from the book of Revelation as
examples of the re-use in the New Testament of motifs from the book of Ezekiel.
JSOT 33/1 (2008) 99114

495 Marjo C.A. Korpel, Kryptogramme in Ezechiel 19 und im Izbet- ar a-


Ostrakon
Ez 19 is a dirge on the downfall of the Davidic dynasty. Several scholars have suggested
that Ez 19,1.29 is a reworked version of an earlier, secular song. It is noteworthy that
no word for God occurs in the song. On the basis of an atbash-riddle, hidden in v. 15,
it may be assumed that the original song referred to Jezebel and her sons Ahaziah und
Jehoram. Ezekiel edited and actualised this ancient song (cf. v. 14) because he was struck
by the remarkable similarity between the fate of Jezebel and her two sons and that of
Hamutal and her two sons Jehoahaz and Zedekiah. Ezekiel added a dirge about the end
of the Davidic dynasty (v. 1014), a kind of lesson from history. The incongruities in the
final text can be better understood now as the result of this redactional combination of
old and new themes. That Atbash encoding was already known in the 12th cent. BCE and
therefore could certainly be used in the 9th cent. BCE is demonstrated by a completely
fresh interpretation of the hitherto puzzling text on the Izbet ar a ostracon.
ZAW 121/1 (2009) 7086

496 Karin Schpflin, Die Tyrosworte im Kontext des Ezechielbuches


Two passages seem to form the nucleus of the Ezekielian corpus of words addressed
to foreign nations: Ezek 25:117 and 26:26. Here the minor neighbours of Israel are
threatened with doom because of their gleeful reaction to the destruction of Jerusalem.
The ideological context of the expanding foreign nations corpus is the notion of Gods
universal judgement of all the nations. Eventually, Yahweh will overthrow all powers that
are proud and convinced of their superiority.
OBO 235; Markus Witte et al. (eds.), Israeliten und Phnizier; Academic Press Fribourg, Fribourg
(2008) 191213 (BL)

497 Markus Saur, Der Tyroszyklus des Ezechielbuches


Ezek 2628 tends to attract cultural historians, historians of early trade, and those inter-
ested in the reconstruction of early Israelite or Tyrian religion. The present book,
a habilitation thesis accepted by the University of Basel, Switzerland, offers a thorough
study of the Ezekielian passages, complete with collateral texts such as all biblical passages

116
referring to the city of Tyre (pp. 252314). The book also includes a section on the history
of Tyre (pp. 107181) and a chapter that seeks to evaluate the contribution of Ezek 28 to
our understanding of Tyrian religion and royal ideology (but does not consider the idea
of P.-M. Bogaert, that Ezek 28 originally dealt with the king of Jerusalem). One interest-
ing detail: the author claims to detect allusions to the conquest of Tyre by Alexander the
Great in secondary elements included in Ezek 26:714. The author is committed to the
notion that Ezekiels original book received more than one subsequent revision, especially
in the form of textual additions and expansions.
BZAW 386; de Gruyter, Berlin (2008) XII/1368 (BL)

498 Markus Saur, Tyrus im Spiegel des Ezechielbuches


The author of Ezek 2628 was well acquainted with the political, cultural, and military
history of Tyre, and much of what he echoes in his poems can be contextualized with
other known data. While the nucleus of the texts comes from the prophet Ezekiel, there are
traces of later reworking. Thus Ezek 26:714 seems to be the result of a later expansion
reflecting the conquest of Tyre by Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE.
OBO 235; Markus Witte et al. (eds.), Israeliten und Phnizier; Academic Press Fribourg, Fribourg
(2008) 165189 (BL)

499 Horacio Simian-Yofre, Gli scritti profetici e la storia del loro tempo.
Una reflessione a partire da Amos 12 ed Ezechiele 28
Neither Amos 12 nor Ezek 28 is historically accurate. In fact, one must abandon the
search for historical accuracy, for Amos 12 is to be understood rhetorically, and Ezek 28
metaphorically. A detailed commentary of Ezek 28 is offered.
J.N. Aletti et al. (eds.), Biblical Exegesis in Progress; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2009)
125150 (BL)

500 Stefan Gathmann, Im Fall gespiegelt. Der Abschluss der Tyrus-Sprche


in Ez 28,119
The nucleus of this passage can be found in Ezek 28:1119, though verses 1119 include
some secondary additions. Ezek 28:110 represents a relecture of Ezek 28:1119. In Ezek
28:1119 the following verses or parts of verses seem to be secondary: 13c. 14b. 16b. 17
(some words). 18a (some words). 18c (some words). 19. Ezek 28:110 is informed by the
will of giving the interpreted passage a more general, anthropological dimension. The
passage is not amenable to an interpretation that allows us to discern any extra-Israelite
mythology.
Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament 86; Eos Verlag der Erzabtei St. Ottilien, St. Ottilien
(2008) 1641 (BL)

501 Anja Klein, Schriftauslegung im Ezechielbuch. Redaktionsgeschichtliche


Untersuchungen zu Ez 3439
This Gttingen doctoral thesis find the oldest textual layer in Ezek 36:111; 37:16, arguing
that the vision of resurrection in 37:16 marked the conclusion of the original book that
dates from the early or mid-Persian period (and not from the original prophet Ezekiel).
This textual nucleus was subsequently expanded in several stages. Kleins approach is
close to that of K.-F. Pohlmann.
BZAW 391; W. de Gruyter, Berlin (2008) XIII/1451

502 Jacob Milgrom, Ezekiel and the Levites


The function and placement of the priests and Levites in Ezekiels temple (Ezek 44:914) is
based on Num 18:3 and 5, with one distinction: whereas in Num 3:7 and 18:3 the Levites

117
and priests share the guarding duties at the entrance to the court, in Ezekiels temple the
Levites and priests are strictly separated the Levites are in charge of the outer court
and all the gatehouses, and the priests in control of the inner court.
Shawna Dolansky (ed.), Sacred History, Sacred Literature; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008)
312 (BL)

Daniel
503 Thomas J. Finley, The Book of Daniel in the Canon of Scripture
While the Christian canon has Daniel as a prophet, in the Hebrew Bible his book is part
of the Writings. After an examination of the position of this book within the canon the
author concludes that the evidence from the first century and earlier favours the view
of Daniel originally as a part of the Prophets, and only later having been moved to the
Writings. The common proposal of an early second century pseudo-prophet as the author
of Daniel is found not convincing.
BS 165/2 (2008) 195208

504 Alan Lenzi, Secrecy, Textual Legitimation, and Intercultural Polemics in


the Book of Daniel
Secrecy functions as a positive characterization of both the deity and Daniel. In the
latters case, this characterization shows him capable and worthy of future revelation,
which contributes to the books broader construction of a rhetoric of authority and textual
legitimation. Secrecy also creates a point of conflict between Daniel and his Babylonian
colleagues, the supposed experts in secret matters, and vividly shows the Jewish mediator
as their superior. Even for Hellenistic-era readers under a different imperial oppression, the
general message would have been clear: Yhwhs accessible secret revelations, now available
in Daniels book, are more powerful than the phony secretive grasping for knowledge of
the human political establishment. The deployment of secrecy, therefore, cuts two ways:
it exalts the protagonist and his deity and it debases the imperial antagonists. Such an
interpretation could quite nicely fuel, if one may invert the imagery of Daniel 3, an anti-
imperial, ancient, postcolonial critical furnace.
CBQ 71/2 (2009) 330348

505 Michael Segal, From Joseph to Daniel: The Literary Development of


the Narrative in Daniel 2
Scholars have recognized the composite nature of the narrative in Daniel 2 based upon
certain contradictions within the story. Additional evidence is offered here to bolster this
claim, including variation in the use of divine names according to the evidence of the
Old Greek version. Furthermore, the author suggests that a more precise division of the
source material can be obtained based upon a philological analysis of the expression htjb
w m (v. 14), and its Akkadian cognates. The earlier stratum of the story presents Daniel
as a second Joseph, and closely parallels both the story of Genesis 41 and the tale in
Daniel 5. The secondary section is analyzed in an appendix as an attempt to identify its
literary and historical context, with special attention given to the relationship between
the description of God in 2:21 and the depiction of Antiochus IV Epiphanes in Daniel
7:2426.
VT 59/1 (2009) 123149

506 Terezija Snezna Vecko, Prayer in the Midst of Flames (Dan 3:2450
Greek)
The prayer of the youths, added to the shorter original text in the Greek version, reorients
the meaning of the relevant chapter, accentuating the shift from idolatry to worship of

118
the true God. The three youths stand for the Maccabean heroes models of fidelity to
God who turned the persecution of the Jews into their elevation.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
149159 (BL)

507 Alexander A. DiLella, A Textual and Literary Analysis of the Song of


the Three Jews in Greek Daniel 3:5290
This paper is in two parts: (1) a bilingual, Greek and English text of the passage, (2) a
detailed commentary elucidating this passage. The seven stanzas of the poem reflect the
seven days of creation (Gen 1). Here is a list of the stanzas (note the order!): (1) 3:5256;
(2) 5761; (3) 3:6468; (4) 3:6973; (5) 3:7478; (6) 3:62.63.79.80; (7) 3:8286. The
author also notes that this biblical passage is the most likely source of the Canticle of
Brothers Sun by St. Francis of Assisi.
CBQ.MS 44; Jeremy Corley et al. (eds.), Studies in the Greek Bible; Catholic Biblical Association of
America, Washington (2008) 4964 (BL)

508 Roy E. Gane, Hurrian Ullikummi and Daniels Little Horn


The book of Daniel includes concepts that appear in much earlier Hurrian-Hittite mythol-
ogy. Like the Song of Ullikummi, Daniel 7 and 8 portray a cluster of concepts involving
cosmic conflict between supreme celestial deities (Tessub/Yahweh) and unusual challengers
(Ullikummi/little horn) made of hard substances (rock/horn). The Song of Ullikummi
can be found in H. Hoffner, Hittite Myths, Atlanta 1990, 5261.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 485498 (BL)

509 Ryan E. Stokes, The Throne visions of Daniel 7, 1 Enoch 14, and the
Qumran Book of Giants (4Q530): An Analysis of Their Literary Relationship
In Dan 7:910, the apocalyptic seer narrates his vision of Gods heavenly throne. Accord-
ing to most scholars, Daniels vision account depends literarily on the supposedly more
primitive visionary traditions found in 1 Enoch 14 and the Book of Giants of the Dead Sea
Scrolls. Certain divergences in these traditions, however, reveal that it is in fact 1 Enoch
14 that depends on a vision account much like that found in Dan 7. The Book of Giants
and Daniel, on the other hand, both seem to make use of a common tradition, each
adapting it in a different way.
DSD 15/3 (2008) 340358

510 Benjamin E. Reynolds, The One Like a Son of Man According to the
Old Greek of Daniel 7,1314
While studies of the Old Greek (OG) of Daniel 7,1314 are not uncommon, they are
often undertaken as part of a broader examination of the one like a son of man. Rarely,
if ever, do these studies focus on the description of this figure in the OG version and
what readers of this version might have understood of this character. This study is an
examination of the interpretation of OG Daniel 7,1314, and the argument is made
that the OG portrays the one like a son of man as similar to the Ancient of Days and
as a messianic figure.
Bib. 89/1 (2008) 7080

511 Benjamin E. Reynolds, Another suggestion for hs palaios hmern in the


Old Greek of Dan 7:13
Calling the majority position into question O. Hofius is correct proposing that hs palaios
hmern in the Old Greek of Dan 7,1314 should not function as the subject of the clause

119
(ZAW 117/1, 2005, 7390; IRBS 51:643). However, Hofius point also means that hs hyios
anthrpou also does not function as the subject of its clause and requires that re-evaluation
of the majority view is needed. Since the context of Old Greek Dan 7.1314 indicates that
only one figure is described, a new translation is needed in order to clarify that hs hyios
anthrpou and hs palaios hmern are both descriptors of a single figure, while at the same
time acknowledging that neither phrase serves as the subject of its respective clause.
Hen. 30/1 (2008) 94103

512 Ronald Hendel, Isaiah and the Transition from Prophecy to Apocalyptic
Classical prophecy is not a different genus from apocalyptic. Rather, the classical prophetic
books, particularly passages such as Isaiah 6:910 (with its implied esotericism), ate their
root and source. Dan 12 is based on allusions to Isaianic texts; see Dan 12:1 and Isa 4:3;
33:2; Dan 12:2 and Isa 26:19; 66:24; Dan 12:3 and Isa 52:11,13, etc.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 261279 (BL)

Minor Prophets general


513 Gerda de Villiers, Die dodekapropheton: Twaalf klein profete of een
geheel?
The Book of the Twelve or the twelve minor prophets received scholarly attention through
the ages. Historical criticism pointed out that these prophets lived in different times, in
different historical situations and articulated the word of the Lord for different circum-
stances. However, recent scholarship tends to read the corpus of the minor prophets as a
structured whole. Such a reading raises a number of problems: the Twelve do not follow
one another chronologically and the order of the Masoretic Text does not agree with that
of the Septuagint, whilst Qumran follows yet another order. This article probes albeit
cursory some of these questions from different perspectives. Eventually it appears that a
continuous process of Fortschreibung shaped and reshaped prophetic messages to keep
them alive for following generations. A unity is created by maintaining the tensions and
differences amongst the Twelve, thereby reflecting the creative articulation and rearticula-
tion of prophecy in the different times of the history of Judah and Israel.
HTS 64/3 (2008) 13791393

514 Michael B. Shepherd, Compositional Analysis of the Twelve


Recent scholarship has taken seriously the historical evidence for the unity of the Twelve.
Numerous studies on the redaction of the Twelve have advanced the discussion toward an
understanding of how the book is able to function as a whole. This article examines the
compositional seams where the twelve parts of the book have been put together. This is
done with a view toward the compositional strategy of the Twelve as a whole.
ZAW 120/2 (2008) 184193

515 Jakob Whrle, No Future for the Proud Exultant Ones. The Exilic
Book of the Four Prophets (Hos., Am., Mic., Zaph.) as a Concept Opposed
to the Deuteronomistic History
In the research of the last years, the existence of a collection comprising the four prophetic
books of Hosea, Amos, Micah and Zephaniah as a precursor of the Book of the Twelve
has often been presumed. However, the intention of this collection has been defined inad-
equately, since the passages assigned to the redactors of this collection differ greatly from
each other in their individual content. But compared with the Deuteronomistic History,
the intent of this Book of the Four becomes evident. It presents a history of prophecy
relying on the history described in the books of Kings but with its own interpretation.

120
Not only cultic, but also social offences led to the divine wrath, and social criteria will
determine the future of the people. Thus, the exilic Book of the Four can be understood
as a concept opposed to the Deuteronomistic History.
VT 58/45 (2008) 608627

Hosea
516 Brad E. Kelle, Hosea 13 in Twentieth-Century Scholarship
Throughout the twentieth century, critical scholarship on the book of Hosea has focused
overwhelmingly on the marriage metaphor in Hosea 13, often seen as establishing the
primary interpretive issues for the message of the prophet and the book as a whole,
although a lack of consensus concerning even the most basic exegetical issues remained.
Newer studies have rightly pushed beyond this isolation of Hosea 13. This article surveys
the major trends of the modern interpretation of these chapters, with particular attention
to the second half of the twentieth century. From the early 1900s to the 1980s, critical
works focused primarily on the biographical reconstruction of the prophet and his fam-
ily life, as well as related historical and form-critical concerns. From the 1930s forward,
such study was particularly concerned to read Hosea 13 against the background of a
purported sexualized Baal cult in eighth-century Israel. Beginning in the 1980s, feminist-
critical readings of Hosea 13 came to occupy a prominent position. In subsequent years,
these concerns have been complemented by an emerging emphasis on metaphor theory,
as well as newer kinds of literary, book-oriented, and socio-historical analyses. A follow-up
article will treat recent scholarship on Hosea 414.
CBR 7/2 (2009) 179216

517 Allan Rosengren, Knowledge of God According to Hosea the Ripper.


The Interlacing of Theology and Social Ideology in Hosea 2
A semiotic reading of Hosea 2 suggests that two stories are told: The story of Hosea
and Gomer, and the story of Yahweh and Israel. This semiotic entanglement, however,
is also present in the passage of cosmic promises, Hos 2,1825. Knowing God in the
Book of Hosea is not just a question of adhering to a system of religious thoughts, it is a
question of knowing how to live ones life according to specific social rules, namely that
of patriarchy. The theology of the text cannot be separated from the ideology of the text.
This is to be tested on the text of Hos 2,1825 in which the emphasis is apparently firmly
placed on the universal signified.
SJOT 23/1 (2009) 122126

518 Wang-Huei Liang, Is She Not My Wife, and Am I Not Her Husband?
The love story of the prophet Hosea and his wife is considered a metaphor that signifies
the relationship between YHWH and his people the Israelites. For she is not my wife,
and I am not her husband (Hos 2:4) is one of the sentences uttered by the prophet Hosea
when his wife runs after other lovers. To take it literally as such, it seems that Hosea
announces divorce to his wife. But this interpretation contradicts what is known from the
context of the Scriptures. Alternatively, Hoseas statement could be read as a rhetorical
question as is mentioned by Weems. This article, based on grammatical analysis, contextual
and inter-textual analysis, proposes that it should be interpreted as a rhetorical question:
for is she not my wife, and am I not her husband? and expects the reader/audience
to respond yes.
HBT 31/1 (2009) 111

519 Rainer Kessler, Hosea 3 Entzug oder Hinwendung Gottes?


In contrast to the traditional German exegesis, the author of this paper understands Hos
3.3b to refer to Gods favour. Hos 3 does not involve the idea of legal punishment. Rather

121
God isolates Israel from all institutions which separate it from God and simultaneously shows
favour to Israel. This leads, on Israels side, to repentance and an undisturbed relationship
with God. Hos 3 thus takes up the development of thought in Hos 411, including its
final point in Hos 11, integrates it with the metaphors of relationship in ch. 12 and so
creates a conclusion to ch. 12 which makes the transition to ch. 411 and at the same
time facilitates the reading of these chapters in the light of YHWHs favour to Israel.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 563581

520 Richard D. Patterson, Portraits from a Prophets Portfolio: Hosea 4


This rehearsal of Hoseas literary artistry demonstrates that close attention to this dimension
of an authors work yields fuller and more fruitful insight into his intended meanings and
nuances. Hoseas various motifs and themes in chapter 4 cause the reader to contemplate
other passages that provide allusions or relations to other scriptural contexts where similar
ideas and truths are given. Hoseas use of figures of speech such as metaphors and simi-
les compel interpreters to seek to understand the full impact on any imagery the author
wished to convey. Also Hoseas clever plays on words demonstrate both his wit and his
disgust at what he saw in degraded Israelite society.
BS 165/3 (2008) 294308

521 Karin Adams, Metaphor and Dissonance: A Reinterpretation of Hosea


4:1314
The sexual language of this passage must be understood metaphorically; it refers neither
to sacred prostitution nor to literal sexual offenses. The passage accuses Israelite women
of engaging in cultic apostasy. The qedoshot are women whose cultic role was regarded as
non-Yahwistic by the prophet.
JBL 127/2 (2008) 291305 (BL)

522 Peter Riede, Ich aber war eine Motte fr Ephraim. Anmerkungen zu
Hos 5,12
Riede defends the traditional rendering of as as moth.
ZAH 1720 (20042007) 178187 (BL)

523 Mark S. Gignilliat, For Israel was a Child. A Case for the Causal Sense
of kj in Hosea 11,1
The kj clause of Hos 11,1 is often translated temporally. This short note presents a case
for kjs causal sense on the basis of external and internal evidence.
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 277280

524 Erhard Blum, Hosea 12 und die Pentateuchberlieferungen


Hosea was well acquainted with traditions about the patriarch Jacob and about the exodus,
two complex traditions at home in northern Israel in the eighth century BCE. Hosea 12
is an important external source that demonstrates the combination of the patriarchal
and exodus stories long before the Babylonian exile.
BZAW 400; Anselm C. Hagedorn et al. (Hg.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 291321 (BL)

122
Joel Amos
525 Barbara Schlenke et al., Hab Mitleid, Jahwe, mit deinem Volk! ( Joel
2,17). Zu Struktur und Komposition von Joel (I)
While recent research has not agreed on the structure of Joel yet, the authors intend to
present a detailed analysis of the book of Joel. This first part of the essay considering Joel
1:22:17 comprises a mainly linguistic and literary approach to the structure of Joel, but
also incorporates problems of the formation and history of origins of the text. Two main
breaks are identified after 1:20 and 2:17, while the in-depth analysis of the structure uncov-
ers a setting of multiple breaks, cyclic patterns and multi-dimensional cross references.
BZ 53/1 (2009) 128 (SSt)

526 Menahem Haran, The Historical Background of the Prophecies of


Amos
The book of Amos reflects two periods of time: (1) the period of King Jeroboam II
during which there was no known contact between Israel and Assyria (though Assyria
is mentioned in Amos 3:9 LXX, which has the correct reading); (2) a second period of
decline and anxiety in which the threat of deportation by the Assyrians is real; this must
be the time after Jeroboam II, most likely the time of the Assyrian King Tiglat-pileser
III (745727 BCE). One should not resort to attributing to subsequent editors what can
be explained as reflecting another, late period of Amoss activity.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 251259 (BL)

527 David E. Bokovoy, Invoking the Council as Witnesses in Amos 3:13


Amos 3:13 seems to invoke the heavenly council to listen and testify against Jacob, as was
suggested by G.E. Wright in 1959. Wrights idea was that heaven and earth is a polar
expression that refers to all the members of the heavenly council. A similar idea can be
found in the Vassal Treaty of Esarhaddon (ANET 534535): You are adjured by all the
gods of Sumer and Akkad, adjured by the gods of heaven and earth. Further examples
for the idea include Psalm 50:47.
JBL 127/1 (2008) 3751 (BL)

528 Matthew Goff, Awe, Wordlessness and Calamity A Short Note on


Amos v 13
Amos v 13 describes a person who perceives Gods retribution against social injustice.
The word jdm, which may refer to silence, moaning or mourning, signifies that the man
is shocked to the point of wordlessness in response to divine violence.
VT 58/45 (2008) 638643

529 Spencer L. Allen, Understanding Amos vi 12 in Light of his other


Rhetorical Questions
The MT of Amos vi 12a comprises a pair of rhetorical questions: Do horses run on the
rock(s)? Or does one plough with oxen? An analysis of Amos other pairs of rhetorical
questions, which demonstrate a high degree of semantic and structural parallelism, suggests
that the MT is corrupt. Four criteria are accordingly derived from these other rhetorical
questions to evaluate the numerous proposed solutions for vi 12a. Alan Coopers emenda-
tion is identified as most consistent with Amos general usage: Do horses run on crags?
Or does the wild ox plough in the valley?
VT 58/45 (2008) 437448

123
530 Andr Lemaire, Une guerre pour rien (Amos 6,13)
Ce verset fait rfrence la prise par Isral de deux villes situes en Transjordanie du Nord,
dans le cadre dune guerre avec le royaume de Damas (vers 760/50 avant notre re). Cette
guerre reoit quelque lumire de la publication dune inscription moabite fragmentaire
publie par S. Ahituv in Israel Museum Studies in Archaeology 2 (2003) 310 et Quadmoniot 37
(2004) 8892. Shalmn, roi de Moab, tait un alli du roi dIsral Jroboam II. Les allis
ont russi battre les armes ammonites et aramennes, envahissant la Transjordanie.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
97102 (BL)

531 Tzvi Novick, Duping the Prophet: On nk (Amos 7.8b) and Amoss
Visions
The logic and imagery of Amoss third vision (Amos 7.79), which centres on the obscure
word nk, have been the subject of much debate. This essay advances a new interpreta-
tion of the third vision that presupposes that God, in both the third and fourth visions,
prevents Amos from interceding on Israels behalf (as Amos had done after the first and
second visions) by having the prophet himself unwittingly mouth Israels sentence. The
third vision, like the fourth, depends on a pun that only a native northerner, and not a
native southerner like Amos, would have sniffed out.
JSOT 33/1 (2008) 115128

Jonah Micah Nahum


532 David J. Downs, The Specter of Exile in the Story of Jonah
Focusing particularly on elements of spatial setting in the narrative, this essay explores
the ways in which memories of exile haunt the story of Jonah. While Jonah is not a
book about exile, the traumatic experience of expatriation and captivity casts a spectral
shadow across Jonahs narrative. At the same time, intimations of Gods openness towards
Israels enemies even those ultimately responsible for the violent deportation from the
land reflect a strand of Jewish discourse with a markedly positive view of the nations.
Violent nationalism, either that of Israel or that of its oppressors, is not allowed the final
word in Jonah, in spite of the frightening reality of exile that serves as the subtext for
both Jonah and much of the biblical literature.
HBT 31/1 (2009) 2744

533 Meik Gerhards, Das Jonabuch und hellenistische Religionskultur zum


Gesprch mit U. Mell
The paper discusses the thesis of U. Mell, that the book of Jonah originated in prehel-
lenistic Jewish circles of the 3rd century BCE, who belonged to the same movement of
Hellenistic Reform-Judaism as those who supported the religious reforms of Antiochus IV.
While Mell thinks that the aim of the book is to propagate a kind of ethic monotheism
joining all people regardless of their concrete religion, the paper wants to show that the
Book of Jonah stresses the particularity of Israel among the people. There seems to be
no common basic position between Jonah and the prohellenistic reformers of the time
of Antiochus.
BN 140 (2009) 4767

534 Lowell K. Handy, Jonahs World: Social Science and the Reading of
Prophetic Story
Behind the short story of Jonah stands a vision of human society based on hierarchical
structures, norms for how people ought to behave, and a sense that the authors circle
knows better than others what these are. The world is seen through the view of those

124
who hold a certain amount of authority, though they are not independently empowered.
These scribes are educated and perceive their education as supplying an insight that is
superior to that of people placed above them (rulers) and below them (commoners). The
knowledge of the divine will puts them at odds with prophets who may receive direct
messages from Yahweh, but who are not able to interpret the message with the acumen
of a scribe. Behind the story, the real wise person in Jonah is the circle of scribes telling
and listening to the story.
Equinox Publishing, London (2007) XVI/1214

535 Sung Uk Lim, Jonahs Transformation and Transformation of Jonah from


the Bakhtinian Perspective of Authoring and Re-authoring
This article explores the transformation of both the character of Jonah and the text of
Jonah, especially in ch. 2, from the Bakhtinian perspective of (re-)authoring. Bakhtins
concept of authoring shows that the disobedient Jonah is transformed into an obedient
prophet in ch. 2 in his understanding of God and himself. Simultaneously, Bakhtins notion
of re-authoring reveals that the book of Jonah has been transformed in the history of
Bible translation as seen in the Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and Vulgate.
JSOT 33/2 (2008) 245256

536 Daniel C. Timmer, Jonah and Mission: Missiological Dichotomy, Biblical


Theology, and the Via Tertia
The book of Jonah shows that Gods saving and transforming grace does, even in the
OT period, extend beyond Israels national and ethnic borders. The book condemns an
attitude of Israelite superiority and even establishes that it is possible for those who num-
ber themselves among Gods people to be diametrically opposed to such indiscriminate
grace, and thus hardly his followers. Such people are contrasted with the sailors (and, less
directly, with the Ninevites) who, as outsiders to Israels covenant, nevertheless come to
know and worship the God of the covenant.
WThJ 70/1 (2008) 159175

537 Arcadio del Castillo, Tarshish in the Book of Jonah


The text 1.3 of the Book of Jonah says that the prophet went down to Jaffa and found
a ship bound for Tarshish. The port of Jaffas position on the Mediterranean has meant
that most scholars have thought that Jonah was going towards the Far West. The author
of this essay has already argued that Tarshish must have been close to the Red Sea. So,
the possibility of locating the Tarshish referred to in the Book of Jonah somewhere on
the Red Sea, would be to suppose that the person who wrote the Book of Jonah, believed
that the Nile canal, which was in use in his time, also had been in use in the period in
which the story of Jonah took place.
RB 114/4 (2007) 481498

538 Alviero Niccacci, Il libro del profeta Michea. Testo traduzione compo-
sizione senso
This article presents a syntactic and compositional analysis of the whole Hebrew text of
the Prophet Micah. Referring to his previous analysis and partly revising it, the author
proposes a division of the text in twenty-one units and five main sections in a chiastic
composition. Considering his theory of a coherent Hebrew verb system both for prose
and poetry he pays careful attention to the verb forms and to the resulting dynamics of
communication necessary to achieve a proper interpretation of any text. Besides underly-
ing a strong unity of composition for the whole book the author proposes a rather precise

125
date between 713 and 701 BCE for the different historical situations evoked in the book.
Thus, one single author, Micah, is seen as a concrete possibility for the whole prophecy
of the book.
LASBF 57 (2007) 83161

539 Amitai Baruchi-Unna, Do not Weep in Bethel: An Emendation Suggested


for Micah i 10
A new emendation is suggested, according to which Micah i 10 should be translated as
follows: In Gath tell it not. Do not weep in Bethel at all. Ophrah roll yourself in dust.
VT 58/45 (2008) 628632

540 Yair Hoffman, The Identity of Their King Who Will Pass Before
Them (Micah 3:13) (Hebr., Engl. summary)
This paper discusses the question of the identity of the king in Micah 3:13 analysing
various arguments already proposed. The conclusion is that the king referred to is Jehoi-
achin, and the historical venue of the prophecy is the community of the Jehoiahins exiles
in Babylon between the years 598 and 586 BCE.
Beit Mikra 53/1 (2008) 83104.10*

541 Barbara Schmitz, Kommt, lasst uns ziehen hinauf zum Berg JHWHs
(Mi 4,2). Jerusalemwallfahrt und Friedensmission
Ausgehend von den Jerusalemwallfahrtstexten Mi 4,14 und Jes 2,24 wird die Entwicklung
der Vorstellung vom mythischen Gottesberg Zion skizziert, deren biblischer Endpunkt in
diesen Friedensvisionen Belege fr die Dynamik theologischer Prozesse in der Heiligen
Schrift sind.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 242245 (CB)

542 Rafael Vincent, Praticare la giustizia . . . (Mi 6,8). Esigenze sociali della
fede biblica
This detailed exegesis of the passage Micah 6:18 highlights the necessity of paying atten-
tion to the experience of the inner word.
Sal. 70/4 (2008) 643657

543 Mordechai Cogan, The Lions of Niniveh (Nahum 2:1214): A Check


on Nahums familiarity with Assyria
While a number of commentators hold that the prophet must have been familiar with
words and images that were prevalent in neo-Assyrian inscriptions, his creative portrayal
of the lion family bears no Assyrian markings.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 433439 (BL)

Habakkuk Zephaniah
544 David Toshio Tsumura, Polysemy and Parallelism in Hab 1,89
Hab 1,89 constitutes a well-organized parallelism in which the polysemy in the pivotal
(central) colon is key both structurally and semantically. 1) V. 9 constitutes a polysemous
Janus parallelism in which qdmh means both forward and like an east wind. In the
first meaning, the first and second colons are parallel, in the second meaning, the second

126
and third colons are parallel. 2) V. 8 constitutes a pentacolon, in which a monocolon is
inserted between two bicolons, constituting an A//X//B pattern (cf. KTU 1.3 II 3841
and III 2228). prw is polysemous, meaning both his steeds and his horsemen;
thus it is a hinge between the ssw his horses in A and prw his horsemen in the
latter bicolon (B). A similar structure can be seen in Thr 1,1.
ZAW 120/2 (2008) 194203

545 Steve Cook, Habakkuk 3, Gender, and War


This article wants to place Habakkuk 3 among texts discussed as female voices in the
Hebrew Bible. Additionally, it wants to call attention to the ideological issues at stake in
making such a claim. Created with the grim realities of warfare in mind, victory hymns
do not necessarily express a liberating theology for modern women. These songs still place
their lots, ultimately, with the interests of militarism and violence. Looking at Habakkuk
3 as a multi-gendered text that enfolds many conceptions of gender, one can potentially
say something positive about ancient Israels views of gender in poetry and prophecy.
Ancient thought and literature does not require clear-cut definitions of gender to achieve
its purposes. Rather, Habakkuk 3 keeps the interests of many genders in mind to assert
an unstable yet ultimately assured confidence.
lectio difficilior (2009) Ausgabe 1

546 Shumel Ahituv, The Sinai Theophany in the Psalm of Habakkuk


A verse-by-verse commentary on Hab 3:215. The theophany contains the following ele-
ments: the Sinai theophany (combined with Gods emergence to deliver his people); literary
traces from the (reconstructed) Hebrew myth of the war with the primeval Tehom; Gods
war with Sea and River (perceived in Ps 77 as referring to splitting the Sea of Reeds); a
possible reference to the battle of Gibeon. A reconstruction of the Hebrew creation myth
can be found in U. Cassuto, Biblical and Oriental Studies, Jerusalem 1975, vol. 2, 80102.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 225232 (BL)

547 Christof Hardmeier, Zwei sptvorexilische Diskurse in Zefanja 1,13,8.


Jhwhs Schlachtopfertag (1,7) und der Tag seines Ingrimms (1,15.18)
Zephaniahs prophecy can be understood from the prophets closeness to the anti-revolu-
tionary landed nobility active after the assassination of King Amnon in 640 BCE. How-
ever, the text as we have it shows traces of subsequent exilic and postexilic editing
and expansion. The paper also includes a discussion of the present state of research on
Zephaniah, with a focus on the contribution of Hubert Irsigler.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 139183 (BL)

Haggai Zechariah Malachi


548 Elie Assis, A Disputed Temple (Haggai 2,19)
Haggai 2,19 describes the peoples derisory attitude towards the new Temple that was just
being built. This attitude was so strong that they referred to the new Temple as nothing.
Although the size and prestige of the building were important, it is difficult to understand
the derisory attitude of the people towards the Temple. This article suggests that following
the destruction of the Temple the people assumed that God had abandoned them. This
feeling did not dissipate even after the return to Zion. This could have been the reason
why the people thought that the new Temple should not be built, and that what was now
being built lacked any significance. Haggai challenged this claim by declaring decisively
that God was with them and that His spirit was among them. The people were, therefore,

127
exhorted to be resolute and continue to build the Temple. Their expectations would indeed
be fulfilled but through a difficult process. Only after the Temple had been completed the
ultimate good would be achieved: And I will establish peace in this place.
ZAW 120/4 (2008) 582596

549 Lena-Sofia Tiemeyer, Through a Glass Darkly: Zechariahs Unprocessed


Visionary Experience
Zechariahs vision report has the distinct quality of an unprocessed description of a vision-
ary experience without much ideological reflection and it attempts to impose ideological
meanings onto a multivalent experience. This statement is suggested primarily by the
often confused quality of the account, in combination with its interpretative openness.
It is further supported by the existence of later textual additions (e.g. Zech. i 1417; ii
1017; iii 8b, 10; iv 6b10a) which serve to accredit Zechariahs originally pristine report
with religious and political significance.
VT 58/45 (2008) 573594

550 Daniel F. OKennedy, The Meaning of Great Mountain in Zechariah


4:7
The book of Zechariah contains a large amount of visionary material and oracles. Some-
times it is difficult to interpret the different metaphors and symbols used in this material. In
most instances these symbols are not explained in the Hebrew text. One of these difficult
symbols is the reference to the great mountain in Zechariah 4.7. The question posed
by this article is: what is the real meaning of these words? After investigating different
hypotheses (i.a. fictional mountain, Mount Gerizim, opposite powers or world empires, a
specific group of persons, and a heap of rubble at the temple site) this article suggests a
possible interpretation, namely that it must be understood in a holistic and open-ended
way, referring to a mountain of problems or adversity that could range from a heap of
temple rubble to hostile powers.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 404421

551 Niko Bilic, Jerusalem an jenem Tag. Text und Botschaft von Sach 1214
Jerusalems Kraft grndet in Gott, nicht in den Weltvlkern, die Jerusalem angreifen, und
auch nicht im Volk Gottes, das noch der Luterung bedarf (Sach 12,1014,2). Jerusalem
ist der Ort, wo die Herrschaft der Vlker endet, Gottes Knigsherrschaft respektiert und
Jahwe angebetet wird (Sach 14,1621). Das starke und khne Bild des Durchbohrten wird
in diesem Kontext ausgelegt. Sie werden auf mich schauen, den sie durchbohrt haben
(Sach 12,10): durch seine Untreue hat das Volk seinen Gott durchbohrt! Ein prziser Ver-
gleich mit der Septuaginta, eine neue Gliederung von Sach 1214 und die ausfhrlichen
Untersuchungen zur Theologie des Sacharjabuches im Kontext des Zwlfprophetenbuches
sind der besondere Ertrag dieser Arbeit.
fzb 117; Echter Verlag, Wrzburg (2008) 1376

552 Alexander Rof, Zechariah 12:1214 and Hosea 10:5 in the Light of
an Ancient Mourning Practice
The relevant practice is the nakedness of mourners, mentioned explicitly in Micah 1:8.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 299304 (BL)

128
553 Rainer Kessler, Maleachi ein dramatisches Gedicht
Die ausfhrliche Nennung redender Gestalten im Maleachi-Buch verdeutlicht, dass es sich
um einen dramatischen Redetext handelt, der aus sechs Diskussionsworten besteht. Das
Buch Maleachi ist ein in sich geschlossenes dramatisches Gedicht.
Stefan Gehrig u.a. (Hg.), Gottes Wahrnehmungen; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 160176

554 Rainer Kessler, Jakob und Esau als Brderpaar in Mal 1,25
Detailed exegesis of Mal 1:25, with special emphasis on intertextual echos from Torah
and Prophets.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 209229

555 S.D. Snyman, Wanneer n teks tekste aanhaal. Mal. 1:614 as voorbeeld
The problem posed in this article is a fairly straightforward one: Do Pentateuch traditions
occur in Malachi 1:614 and if so, how are they used? The problem is approached by
searching for quotations, shared terminology, inversions and common themes that occur
in both the Pentateuch and Malachi. This investigation reveals that there are mainly three
ways in which Pentateuch traditions function in this pericope: The vocabulary or phrases
in the text allude to recognisable Pentateuch traditions; interpretations are applied to a
new situation and utilised in creative ways (new applications were made applicable to the
period in which the prophet lived at the time), and the combination with other known
traditions from the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible.
ATh 28/2 (2008) 86103

556 Ryan E. Stokes, I, Yhwh, Have Not Changed? Reconsidering the Transla-
tion of Malachi 3:6; Lamentations 4:1; and Proverbs 24:2122
It appears quite likely, that the masoretes and the LXX translators have in more than
one instance mistaken the root n reading it as nh. There is good reason to suspect that
this has happened in four instances in three of these (Mal 3:6; Prov 24:21,22) owing
to the roots appropriation of endings according to the III-h paradigm. In Lam 4:1 the
mistake may be due in part to the inverse assumption that nh might take III- endings.
If this misidentification has in fact happened in Mal 3:6; Lam 4:1, and Prov 24:21, then
the only remaining verse in which nh in the qal might possibly mean to change is Ps
77:11, where the word occurs in the infinite construct. In Mal 3:6, the translation I have
not hated is thus to be preferred over I have not changed.
CBQ 70/2 (2008) 264276

557 Stephan Lauber, Zur Ikonographie der Flgelsonne


Diese Abhandlung untersucht den Motivhintergrund der metaphorischen Identifikation
JHWHs mit dem Symbol der Flgelsonne in der achmenidenzeitlichen Stelle Mal 3,20.
Im Kontext der Perikope Mal 3,1321 ist die Verheiung der Sonne der Gerechtigkeit
zwar Bild fr einen von JHWH angekndigten Heilszustand. Aber angesichts der breiten
Verwendung der Flgelsonne im Alten Orient und in Israel wird sie von Beginn an gegen
die Kontexteinbindung assoziativ auch als Gottesbild aufgefasst worden sein. Ihre beiden
Hauptfunktionen in der gyptischen und altorientalischen Verwendungsgeschichte als
Symbol der Sonnengottheit, welche die kosmische und soziale Ordnung durchsetzt, und
als knigsideologisches Emblem waren nmlich, wie der ikonographische Befund zeigt,
auch in Israel rezipiert.
ZDPV 124/2 (2008) 89106

129
Psalms

General
558 Frank-Lothar Hossfeld et al., Psalmen 101150
Like an earlier volume, on Psalms 51100 (2000; see IRBS 47:563), the present one
continues the collaboration of Hossfeld and Erich Zenger. The commentary is not much
interested in the Gunkelian genre approach. Instead, the authors delight in distinguish-
ing textual layers and in speculating, often successfully, about intertextuality within the
book of Psalms. Interestingly, the relationship between Psalm 104 and ancient Egyptian
religious poetry remains unexplored, while the section on Psalm 130 quotes extensively
from collections of Akkadian ritual poetry. An introductory chapter sketches the history
of Psalms 101150 as a collection. By the early fifth century BCE, we are told, there
was a complete book of psalms, consisting of (roughly) Psalms 2100. What follows was
added later, and the notion is offered that there might have been, at one point, a collection
(Zion Psalter) consisting of Psalms 2136. Sometime between the third century BCE
and ca. 150 BCE, the book as a whole the Psalter was subjected to a final editing.
A commentary that offers much to ponder.
Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament; Verlag Herder, Freiburg (2008) 1912 (BL)

559 John Goldingay, Psalms. Volumes 2 and 3


The three volumes of Goldingays commentary on the Psalms, published between 2006
and 2008, rank among the most detailed expositions of this biblical book. The focus is on
the text as we have it, and on each individual psalm. As a consequence, the commenta-
tor prefers not to indulge in fashionable canonical readings and redactional speculation
such as known from the Hossfeld/Zenger commentary. Each psalm is first presented in
an annotated translation, followed by two sections titled interpretation and theological
implications. Each volume includes a glossary in which the author explains the meaning of
English words that he uses to translate Hebrew key words such as to acknowledge ( yda,
traditionally to know), to be against (sne, to hate), aide (malk, angel), authority
(mishpat, justice), person (nephesh, soul), restore (gal, to redeem) Useful not only
for its exposition, but also for its interaction with international scholarship.
Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms; Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, Mich.
(2007) vol. 2, 1744; vol. 3, 1812 (BL)

560 Enzo Cortese, Una teologia dei salmi storica. Storia della fede e della
preghiera dIsraele nel salterio
After the presentation of the characteristics and the contents of the five books of the
Psalter the author presents two perspectives for classification of all psalms: (1) The indi-
vidual and collective lament liturgical prayers of the king that date before the exile and
in which traces from the time of David can be investigated; (2) The praise in the td
and in the hymns poetic texts of old origin. In the last part of this article the ascent
psalms, the Hallel, the wisdom psalms and the alphabetical ones are studied as a part of
the redaction of the Psalter as a whole.
LASBF 57 (2007) 2981

561 S. Jonathan Murphy, Is the Psalter a Book with a Single Message?


This article explores the recent trend in Psalms studies to view the Psalter as a book
with a single unifying message. After discussing the holistic approaches of G.H. Wilson,
W. Brueggemann, D.C. Mitchell, J.C. McCann Jr. and N.L. Declaiss-Walford as well as
some objections to this kind of approach the author concludes that the message of the
Psalter suggested by each proponent depends on which psalms they each prefer. Every

130
scholar examined prescribes a different lens and looks at psalms of their choice. Predeter-
mined theological grids sift through individual psalms. This renders the approach selective
and thus subjective, which do not mean this approach is not significant.
BS 165/3 (2008) 283293

562 Mark D. Futato, Interpreting the Psalms: An Exegetical Handbook


Futato offers a basic introduction to the Psalms for students with some knowledge of
Hebrew. The final chapter is an exegetical analysis of Psalm 29, based on the principles
and methods explained in the handbook. The author refers to his thesis: M. Futato, A
Meteorological Analysis of Psalms 104, 65, and 29, The Catholic University of America, 1984.
The book includes a glossary.
Handbooks of Old Testament Exegesis; Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Mich. (2007) 1234

563 Carl J. Bosma, Discerning the Voices in the Psalms: A Discussion of Two
Problems in Psalmic Interpretation
The first part of this article investigates G. von Rads important modifications to the
interpretation of the Psalter and the implications of his rejection of the nineteenth-
century biographical-psychological and individual author-centred approach to the psalms
vis--vis the very popular psychologising approach to the Psalms that focuses its attention
primarily on human emotions and voices. As a more developed method R.H. Ridderboss
modified form-critical cultic and stylistic approach to the Psalms is introduced and dis-
cussed. In the second part, the status of the psalms as the inscripturated Word of God
is addressed: Gods words and human responses inside the psalms are demonstrated and
discussed.
CTJ 43/2 (2008) 183212; 44/1 (2009) 127170

564 Reinhard Mller, Jahwe als Wettergott. Studien zur althebrischen


Kultlyrik anhand ausgewhlter Psalmen
The author distinguishes three ideas associated with Yahweh in his role as weather-god in
the Psalms: triumph and enthronement (Ps 18; 29; 77; 93; 97); the royal rule of the deity
(Ps 24; 36; 48; 98); divine care for the world (Ps 104). These three notions actually belong
together, forming as they do a mythical narrative that starts with notions of a violent battle
that ends with Yahwehs triumph. The most likely setting of the myth is its recitation in
the context of the annual festival of Yahwehs enthronement in autumn. The whole idea
is present in Psalm 29 (pp. 103132) which should not be taken to be a poem originally
speaking of Baal, for Yahweh was a weather-god from the start. This is a habilitation
thesis defended at the University of Munich, Germany.
BZAW 387; de Gruyter, Berlin (2008) XII/1292 (BL)

565 Karl William Weyde, Has God forgotten mercy, in anger withheld his
compassion? Names and Concepts of God in the Elohistic Psalter
Elohim and El are preferred in references to Gods enemies, whereas Yahweh occurs most
often in references to Gods acts of salvation, especially in the past. Such use of the divine
names is also attested in Chronicles.
FAT II.33; Reinhard G. Kratz et al. (eds.), Divine Wrath and Divine Mercy in the World of Antiquity;
Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2008) 122139

566 Tova Forti, A New Criterion for Identifying Wisdom Psalms


Many Psalms show the influence of sapiential thought and motifs, though to a variety
of degrees. Thus Ps 39 is thoroughly sapiential, while Ps 32 is only slightly influenced by

131
wisdom. This emerges from an analysis of the animal motifs in the two psalms. See
also IRBS 54:642.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 365379 (BL)

567 Federico G. Villanueva, The Uncertainty of a Hearing: A Study of


the Sudden Change of Mood in the Psalms of Lament
Laments in the Old Testament often move from lament (= petition?) to praise to denote
the certainty of hearing; see Ps 13. However, some texts also move in the opposite direc-
tion, i.e., from praise to lament, denoting, it seems the uncertainty of divine hearing. The
present study offers a detailed analysis of three groups of texts: (1) psalms that juxtapose
praise and lament, with the lament preceded by thanksgiving Ps 9/10, 27; 40 (and 89);
(2) psalms that move from lament to praise, but then again return to lament (Ps 12; 28);
(3) texts that alternate between lament and praise Ps 31; 35; see also 71 and 86. Other
tests studied in this thesis include Ps 3; 6; 13; 22; Jer 20:718; and Lam 3.
VT.S 121; Brill, Leiden (2008) XIII/1285

568 Amy C. Cottrill, The Articulate Body: The Language of Suffering in


the Laments of the Individual
Disempowerment and empowerment function as a rhetorical complex in the laments
somatic idiom of distress, to be understood as aspects of the psalmists self-presentation as
a sufferer. Mention is made of Arthur Kleinmann, Social Origins of Distress and Disease:
Depression, Neurasthenia, and Pain in Modern China, New Haven 1986.
Symposium Series 43; Nancy C. Lee et al. (eds.), Lamentations in Ancient and Contemporary Cultural
Contexts; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) 103112 (BL)

569 Christine Dietrich, Biblische Psalmen as Asyltexte


Beaucoup de psaumes (trente et un psaumes, dont lauteur tudie plusieurs les Ps 3; 4;
7; 17; 27; 31; 35; 61; 63; 71; 91; 118) font cho de linstitution de lasile et permettent
la reconstitution des procds juridiques par lesquelles on pouvait acqurir le statut dun
rfugi. Les ennemis du pote sont ceux qui laccusent davoir tu quelquun, de ne pas
payer ses dettes, etc.
BWANT 182; Christine Dietrich, Asyl. Vergleichende Untersuchung zu einer Rechtsinstitution im alten
Israel und seiner Umwelt; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2008) 169206 (BL)

570 Beat Weber, Makarismus und Eulogie im Psalter. Buch- und kanonthe-
ologische Erwgungen
The formulas rj and brwk appear in the Psalter often in conspicuous places. All these
significant places are listed in tables in the article and the incidence and function of each
of these instances are discussed. The main focus of the investigation is, however, on
the analysis of those psalms in which both formulas occur together. It is shown that the
double address in these psalms in a horizontal (macarism) and vertical (eulogy) direction is
indicative of a compositional and theological intention. Since they are located in contexts
of teaching and praise, these terms point toward the basic dimensions and functions of
the Psalter as a composition. On top of that, they bring against the background of
Deut 33 and 1 Kings 10 Davidic-Salomonic perspectives to the Psalter and enhance
the fivefold structure of the Psalter, creating a clearer analogy between the Psalter and
the Pentateuch.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 193218

132
571 K. Waaijman, Awe and respect in the Psalms
This essay discusses the motif of awe in the Psalms in terms of Bubers outline of mystical
awe. In a first section, awe as the beginning of wisdom is analysed followed by a discus-
sion of the experience of Yahwehs goodness. In a third section, attention is given to awe
as the quiet waiting for the coming of Yahweh, followed, in a final part, by and analysis
of love as the result of awe.
ATh Supplementum 11; P.G.R. de Villiers et al. (eds.), The Spirit that empowers: Perspectives on
spirituality; University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (2008) 234242

572 Bernard Gosse, Linfluence de Pr 30,114 et du livre des Proverbes sur


le Psautier et les textes qui en dpendent
The influence of Pr 30,114 on psalms, and probably so the influence of the authors of
this passage, appears clearly in the whole Psalter, even if other elements of the Book of
Proverbs play a predominant part like Pr 1,2123 or 3,1.
BN 136 (2008) 7383

573 Randall Gauthier, From Formula to Quotation: A Study of Intratextual-


ity in the Hebrew Text of the Psalms with Comparisons from the LXX
and Targum
This article examines the use of the Psalms within the Psalms, where intratextual lexical
recursion arguably indicates instances of formulaic expression, allusion, rewriting, and
even quotation. Several examples from the Hebrew (MT) Psalms illustrate this phenom-
enon with comparisons from two ancient Jewish translations, the Septuagint and Psalm
Targum. From the few examples examined in this article, the translations do not appear
to replicate the same intratextual references as those of the MT. Evidence for intentional
intratextual connections in the Psalms warrants a more systematic investigation, as this
has implications for both form-critical assumptions and studies concerned with the final
form of the text.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 635652

574 Liswaniso Kamuwanga, Prayer for Protection: A Comparative Perspective


on the Psalms in Relation to Lozi Traditional Prayers
A comparative analysis of African Traditional Religion and the Old Testament detects prox-
imity and distance amid the two religions. Microcosmic similarities in prayer for protection
between biblical psalms and Lozi prayer traditions confirm closeness in religious experience
during times of danger between ancient Israelite society and contemporary African tribal
societies. Further, these similarities provide concrete points for dialogue between African
Traditional Religion and biblical psalms. Inversely, differences underscore the uniqueness
of prayer for protection in each of the biblical and African traditions.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 670691

Individual Psalms
575 Phil J. Botha et al., Killing Them Softly with this Song . . . The Liter-
ary Structure of Psalm 3 and Its Psalmic and Davidic Contexts. Part I:
An Intratextual Interpretation of Psalm 3
In this contribution, the syntax of the verbs and the aspects of time in Psalm 3 are ana-
lysed. This is correlated with a poetic analysis of the psalm. A division of three stanzas
(24//57//89) is proposed in which each of the three sections is seen to describe a
movement from prayer to a confession of trust. The first and the last stanza seem to be

133
two parts of a prayer in the present tense, spoken by a suppliant who is under attack from
a large number of enemies. The central stanza seems to contain a description of a prayer
by the same person in the past, as well as the nocturnal answer of YHWH to this prayer,
something that gave the suppliant the courage in his present situation of distress to react
with confidence to the fear instilled by the enemies and their words.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 1837

576 Phil J. Botha et al., Killing Them Softly with this Song . . . The Liter-
ary Structure of Psalm 3 and Its Psalmic and Davidic Contexts. Part II:
A Contextual and Intertextual Interpretation of Psalm 3
In this article, the second in a series of two on Ps 3, the contribution which the immedi-
ate literary context and the psalms heading makes to the interpretation of the psalm
is discussed. It is demonstrated that Ps 3 is connected to its immediate neighbours, Pss
12 on the one hand, and Pss 414 on the other, with the help of key-words and shared
motifs. The heading draws attention to intertextual connections it has with the narrative
of Absaloms revolt in 2 Sam 1519 and with Davids song of triumph in 2 Sam 22, and
through this last mentioned text also with the rest of the Psalter. Ps 3 can consequently be
viewed as part of the overture of the Psalter consisting of Pss 13, but simultaneously as
the first exemplaric prayer of David which he formulated under difficult circumstances. The
connections with 2 Sam 22 also suggest that the psalm can only be properly understood
from the perspective of Davids victory over all his enemies.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 273297

577 Jutta Hausmann, Wiederherstellung der Ordnung um den Preis von


Gewalt? berlegungen zu einem Nebenaspekt im 11. Psalm
Die Gewalt der Gottlosen in Ps 11 ist psychischer und struktureller Natur. Sie zielt auf
die Zerstrung der Grundlagen der Gesellschaft. Jahwes Eingreifen wird auch als gewalt-
same Aktion erwartet, die allerdings vom Tun-Ergehen-Zusammenhang gedeutet wird.
Die Strafe ist der Tat bereits inhrent.
Stefan Gehrig u.a. (Hg.), Gottes Wahrnehmungen; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 177185

578 Manfred Oeming, Psychoanalytische Rituale in den biblischen Psalmen.


Eine Auslegung von Psalm 15
It is unlikely that visitors of the Jerusalem temple went through a ritual in which they had
to affirm their ethical purity to be granted permission to enter the sacred precinct. Verses
25a must be seen as an oracle from God, but the psalm as a whole should be read as a
text of private piety, in fact as an instruction for critical self-analysis. The spirit of God
enables the individual for this task.
Religionswissenschaft 5; Benedikt Rothhler et al. (eds.), Mythos & Ritual; Lit Verlag, Mnster (2008)
163175 (BL)

579 Alphonso Groenewald, Psalm 16 (LXX Ps 15) and Acts of the Apostles
Psalm 16 is one of the most well-known Psalm texts of the Psalter. This can be attributed,
among other reasons, to the fact that the NT, specifically the Acts of the Apostles, applied
this text to the life of Jesus of Nazareth. The quotations from Psalm 16 in the book of
Acts thus got a messianic-Christological meaning. If one, however, takes a look at the
text of Ps 16, it seems that this psalm does not contain any direct messianic conceptions.
Neither does it refer to the resurrection of the flesh. There are, however features in the
Greek translation (LXX) of this psalm which offered an opportunity to the New Testament
authors to apply the text to Jesus specifically to his resurrection from death. In part I
this article focuses on the MT text of Ps 16, part II will focus on its application in Acts
of the Apostles, as well as the hermeneutical background of the author(s) of the Acts.

134
The author assumes that the Septuagint paved the way for this interpretation of the MT
text and that it can be regarded as praeparatio evangelica.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 89109; 21/2 (2008) 345357

580 Dieter Bhler, Der bestirnte Himmel ber mir und das moralische
Gesetz in mir? Was betrachtet der Snger von Ps 19?
Following the idea of Ps 19 as an originally intended unit, the author presents a new
argumentation for the literal origin: The use of Gods names EL and JHWH complies
with a general use in the torah, creating a (literal) band between the Psalm and the torah.
Second, a new interpretation of the literal position of Psalm 19 in the Psalter is given.
The author underlines the outstanding message of Ps 19 and advises any future reading
to consider the Psalm as an originally intended unit.
BZ 53/1 (2009) 8293 (SSt)

581 H. Viviers, Who really created? Psalm 19 and Evolutionary Psychology


in Dialogue
The beauty and awe that the natural world evokes lead humans intuitively to believe in
an all powerful creator as is convincingly exemplified by Psalm 19. The author allows
both nature and law to communicate elatedly about this god, who is believed to exist
objectively. This ease with which human beings conceptualize counterintuitive beings
(gods), has lately been confirmed by Evolutionary Psychology as well. The Theory of
Mind mental tool especially, plays a primary role in this regard. To think up a god(s),
responsible for the world and its functioning, comes naturally and intuitively. Evolutionary
Psychology, however, differs from Psalm 19, namely therein that god is a subjective con-
struct. Bringing Darwinian evolution into the conversation, the problem of the existence
of god becomes even more critical, as evolution does not need a creator god. But god(s)
persists. In reaction to the personal god of theism and the no-god of atheism, seeking
the godly (a-theism) becomes quite attractive.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 546563

582 Catherine Brown Tkacz, Esther, Jesus, and Psalm 22


Quite possibly elements of Jewish commentary linking Psalm 22 to Esther arose in reaction
against Christian association of the psalm with Jesus. When that association increased to
include every verse of the psalm, this evidently stimulated Jewish counter-interpretations,
initially of a few verses only, but ultimately of most of the psalm. In particular, it seems
to have been important to associate with Esther those verses most closely associated with
Jesus, namely those verses quoted or paraphrased in the Gospels (vv. 2, 17, 19). Construct-
ing interpretations of the superscription and of v. 17 suitable to Esther seems to have
required changing the biblical text itself. These changes seem intended to distance Jesus
from the psalm, as if to invalidate the Christian interpretation of it as prophetic of his
passion. Remarkably, Jewish scholars also developed a messianic interpretation of Psalm
22, separate from Esther. It is likely that Christian commentary at least partly influenced
this Jewish development.
CBQ 70/4 (2008) 709728

583 Erich Zenger, . . . denn du bist mit mir! Psalm 23 als ein Schlssel zum
Psalter als der kleinen Biblia
Um das Programm des Gesamtpsalters plastischer zu erschlieen erlutert der Autor im
biographisch orientierten Rckblick seinen Zugang zu seinem (ehemaligen) Lieblingspsalm
Ps 23 von der fast pietistisch geprgten Deutung in der eigenen Studienzeit ber die
Ablehnung whrend der 60er Jahre bis zur Entdeckung seines gesellschaftskritischen und
verheiungstrchtigen Potentials im Rahmen der Kanon- und Psalterexegese.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 232237 (CB)
135
584 D.F. OKennedy, Vergifnis ter wille van JHWH se Naam (Ps 25:11)
Psalm 25:11 is one of only four references in the Psalms where the Hebrew stem sl
(forgive) is found. Scholars agree that the petition for forgiveness in this verse forms the
core or centre of the entire Psalm. This article seeks for the motivation of the supplicant
who asks for forgiveness. In contrast to other forgiveness passages the Psalmist does not
regard repentance or obedience as motivation for the petition. He rather emphasized the
fact that his sin is great (v. 11b). The true motivation for this prayer for forgiveness lies in
the Name and honour of YHWH (v. 11a). The psalmist experienced YHWH as a faithful
God in the past: therefore he has the courage and honesty to plea for forgiveness.
HTS 64/2 (2008) 921934

585 Jeffrey H. Tigay, The voice of Yhwh causes hinds to calve (Psalm 29:9)
Thunder and thunder-like noises have been thought for centuries to induce labour in
animals. This supports the most common understanding of Ps 29:9 and lends further
support to the view that qol in verses 39 refers to Yahwehs voice (i.e., thunder), and
does not mean hark.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 399411 (BL)

586 Eberhard Bons, Psalm 33,7: nd oder nd, Deich oder Schlauch?
The MT of Ps 33,7 reads he gathers the waters of the sea together as a heap [= knd ].
However, most of the ancient versions and translations have another noun: as a bottle or
in a bottle. This variant requires a slightly different Hebrew noun, knd. The aim of this
article is to analyse not only the MT of Ps 33,7 but also the extant variants. It is argued
that all of them are to be explained against the background of an implicit interpretation
of verse 7: Does the gathering of the waters allude to the creation or to the Exodus?
KUSATU 8.9 (2008) 1932

587 Phil J. Botha, Annotated History The Implications of Reading Psalm


34 in Conjunction with 1 Samuel 2126 and Vice Versa
In a late phase of redaction, some of the psalms in the first and second Davidic Psalter
were supplied with headings that contain biographical references to David. One of these
psalms is Psalm 34. The shared traits between this psalm and the account of Davids flight
from Saul are investigated in detail. It is shown that 1 Samuel 2426 should be included
in the comparison. The editorial effect of the link between Davids life and Psalm 34 on
the understanding of Psalm 34 is discussed, as well as the influence of reading Psalm 34
in conjunction with this part of Davids history. The conclusion is reached that Psalm
34 does not only serve to present David as an example and object of identification for
those who read the Psalms, but that he in the first place lends authority to the exhorta-
tions directed at believers to stay true to the code of conduct of the poor pious people.
Because of this connection, the image of David is enhanced, so that he takes on the roles
of wisdom teacher, theologian, suffering servant, and inspired author as well.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 593617

588 Alec Basson, Rescue me from the Young Lions. An Animal Metaphor
in Psalm 35:17
Given the prevalence of lion imagery in the psalms of lamentation, this paper endeav-
ours to elucidate the reference to young lions in Psalm 35:17 in terms of the conceptual
metaphor theory. It is argued that the threatening associations of lions serve as an apt
metaphorical source domain to explicate the abstract experience of antagonistic human
behaviour in terms of a particular animal metaphor.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 917

136
589 Dalit Rom-Shiloni, Psalm 44: The Powers of Protest
Protest in Psalm 44 takes shape in four formal and thematic ways. Two are explicit: (1)
verbal forms present direct accusations against God; and (2) through minimizing the role of
human enemies, the psalmist highlights God as the main actor and foe. Two are implicit:
(3) the oppositional structure of the psalm, in sections of both praise and complaint, which
emphasizes the discord between God and the people; and (4) the intertextual connections
of Psalm 44 to Deuteronomistic and prophetic literature as well as to Psalm 37, which
bring sharply to the fore accusations of divine neglect and injustice. Protest gains its powers
in Psalm 44 precisely from the psalmists trust in the constancy of three interconnected
roles of God: Warrior, Lord of the people, and Judge. Protest, though harsh, does not
contradict a basic belief in God. The author of Psalm 44 continues to expect that God
will act in the future just as in the past.
CBQ 70/4 (2008) 683698

590 Bernard Gosse, Lalignement du Psaume 50 sur la redaction sapientielle


densemle du psautier
La fin du Ps 50, dans les versets 1623, intgre ce Psaume dans la perspective de la
rdaction finale du Psautier dune opposition entre le juste et limpie. B. Gosse montre
que linfluence de la tradition de Sagesse du livre des Proverbes y est trs prsente.
ETR 83/3 (2008) 419423

591 L.P. Mar, Psalm 51: Take not your holy Spirit away from me
Pentecostals believe that the presence of the Spirit of God in the lives of believers during
the Old Testament period was sporadic and temporary, and that it was only after the out-
pouring of Gods Spirit on the Day of Pentecost that the Spirit came to dwell permanently
within believers. This article challenges that assumption by analysing Psalm 51. Such
analysis reveals that the Spirit of God lived permanently in the life of an Old Testament
believer, and ascertains the role of the Spirit of God in the life of the worshipper.
ATh 28/1 (2008) 93104

592 Giancarlo Toloni, I nemeci del giusto (Sal. 54,5)


This verse reflects, in its Septuagint version, a late form of the original Hebrew text. It
must have been in Maccabean times that the zdm = the arrogant became the zrim =
the foreigners (i.e. the foreign enemies).
Studi biblici 159; G. Toloni, La sofferenza del giusto; Paideia editrice, Brescia (2009) 7396 (BL)

593 Theodor Seidl, Trnenschlauch und Lebensbuch: Syntax und Semantik


von Psalm 56,9
The focus of this publication is on Psalm 56:9. The Masoretic text is analysed in a text-
critical and syntactic manner and, where necessary, conjectured. The semantics of the
individual lexemes used in this verse is then scrutinised. The manner in which these words
are used in other Old Testament texts, as well as the images and metaphors within which
they occur, are discussed. The position and the intention of verse 9 within the context of
the whole Psalm is subsequently outlined (This paper has already been published in FS
Mller 2004; see IRBS 51:767).
OTE 21/1 (2008) 161179

594 Z. Kotz, The Witch in Psalm 59: An Afro-centric Interpretation


In the traditional western interpretation it has been argued that the enemy in the individual
lament of Psalm 59 is no more than an unbeliever and traitor. However, an afro-centric
interpretation of the Psalm reveals that this adversary shares various traits with the con-

137
temporary African witch. The Psalm contains magical formulas and a counter-curse that
is comparable to the traditional African ways of dealing with the problem of witchcraft.
It is argued that this content makes the Psalm and ideal protective text that can be added
to the list of Psalms already used by African churches for protection against magical
assaults.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 383390

595 Alphonso Groenewald, Psalm 69:36 in the light of the Zion-tradition


This article outlines the significance of the mentioning of Zion in Psalm 69:36a for the
interpretation of the whole Psalm. The text of Psalm 69 functioned as an individual lament
in the pre-exilic period. In the crisis of the exilic/early post-exilic period, as well as later
in the post-exilic period, it became a vehicle for a divided Jewish community to express
their laments as the personified I. Consequently, a new perspective has been created in
this text: the sufferer of the basic text has now come to reflect the suffering community in
the different epochs in the post-exilic Judah. Moreover, it is significant that the end of this
text discovered the hope for Zion and the cities of Judah in Gods faithfulness expressed
to the suffering individual.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 358372

596 Gianni Barbiero, The Risks of a Fragmented Reading of the Psalms.


Psalm 72 as a Case in Point
Es gibt heute, vor allem in der deutschsprachigen Exegese, eine Tendenz, im Psalm 72 die
Verse 811.15.17cd als redaktionell zu betrachten. Der Artikel berprft die vorgetrage-
nen Grnde fr die Ausscheidung dieser Verse aus ihrem Kontext. Sie erweisen sich als
nicht stichhaltig. Vielmehr birgt die Trennung dieser Verse von ihrem Kontext die Gefahr,
die Gesamtaussage des Psalms zu verkennen. Sogar die Verse 1819 und 1a.20, die fast
allgemein als redaktionell gelten und kaum eine Rolle in der Interpretation von Ps 72
spielen, gehren nach Ansicht des Vf. wesentlich zur Theologie des Psalms. Auch unter
Annahme der Hypothese, dass der Psalm Vorstufen hat, empfiehlt es sich, ihn zunchst
holistisch, kanonisch zu interpretieren.
ZAW 120/1 (2008) 6791

597 Philip P. Venter, Salvation for Earth? A Body Critical Analysis of Psalm 74
In Psalm 74 the god metaphor is strictly and forcefully male. In Israel the king was a man,
and the man was king. So the God of Psalm 74 is king, a man, and thereby the cult is
constituted. Nature, Earth and her components are simply the stage on which the cult is
enacted, and does not have intrinsic value. The values underpinning the god construct in
Psalm 74 are ethnocentric and androcentric. This text should be regarded as a cultural
artefact that renders no contribution towards an ideology which regards Earth and her
components as intrinsically valuable.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 533545

598 Amos Frisch, Ephraim and Treachery, Loyalty and (the House of ) David:
The Meaning of a Structural Parallel in Psalm 78
The parallel between the first and last unit (vv. 18, 6872) of the concentric structure that
Zakovitch (1997) discovered in Psalm 78 is interpreted here differently than in his article:
one should not infer from the first unit that Davids election, mentioned in the last unit,
is conditional. Rather, in light of language common to both two units (bjqb . . . [w]bjrl
[vv. 5, 71]), the parallel actually involves the Lords two gifts to Israel: the Torah and the
Davidic kingdom. That is, here David is an object. The emphasis that Ephraim violates
the Torah is significant, because that tribe constituted the opposition and alternative to

138
the House of David. It is possible that through the parallel with the first unit the last unit
suggests the duty of loyalty to the Lords second gift the Davidic monarchy. Similar
ideas can be found in 2 Chronicles xiii 511 and xxx 78.
VT 59/2 (2009) 190198

599 Jeffery M. Leonard, Identifying Inner-Biblical Allusions: Psalm 78 as a


Test Case
Psalm 78 draws upon other biblical texts, notably Num 11, Exod 7:20; 12:12.29; 13:21;
15:8.
JBL 127/2 (2008) 241265 (BL)

600 Hans-Georg von Mutius, Die Zitierung von Psalm 78,51 im Midrasch
ha-Gadol des David Ben Amram aus Aden (13./14. Jh.) und in der alt-
irischen Vetus Latina (Ps 77,51)
The medieval Yemenitic Midrash ha-Gadol (13th/14th century) contains a variant text
to Ps 78,51, reading br m (= in their land) instead of bm rjm (= in Egypt). The deviant
reading is testified also in the Irish Vetus Latina to Ps 77,51 (in terra eorum). The textual
relationship of Ps 78(77),51 to the parallel text of Ps 105,36 remains unclear.
BN 140 (2009) 3134

601 Dirk Human, Psalm 82: God Presides in a Deflated Pantheon to Remain
the Sole Just Ruler
Ps 82 witnesses to one of the earliest expressions of Old Testament monotheism. In
mythological language is Yahweh, the God of Israel, portrayed as the sole incomparable
God. The proclamation of this psalm to seek justice in and dependence upon the one
God gives the endeavour to maintain social justice a religious dimension. The recogni-
tion of fallibility as an aspect of the chaotic and deadly power within human activities or
in the structures of the human world should lead to the human attempt to seek justice
always in dependence upon only the Most High power. The text shows how the three
corpuses of the Hebrew canon, namely the Pentateuch, the Prophets and the Writings,
are connected.
Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palstina-Vereins 37; Izak Cornelius et al., From Ebla to Stellenbosch.
Syro-Palestinian Religions and the Hebrew Bible; Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden (2008) 154168

602 Yair Hoffman, Patterns of Religious Response to National Crisis in the


Hebrew Bible, and Some Methodological Reflections
This paper studies the inaugural prayer of Solomons temple (1 Kgs 8:1253) and Jeremiahs
temple sermon ( Jer 7:18:3) as responses to the sixth-century national crisis. Another text
that responds to a crisis (this time undefined) is Psalm 83, and in this case, the interpreter
has to be very careful not to invent a crisis or to attribute the psalm, arbitrarily, to a known
event. The most likely interpretation is that the psalmist compressed a long tradition into
his poem, creating what may be called a typical (rather than real) response to an entire
series of crises. In fact, 1 Macc 5 seems to depict an actual crisis so that it fits the model
offered by Psalm 83.
LHBOTS 444; Henning Graf Reventlow et al. (eds.), Religious Responses to Political Crisis in Jewish
and Christian Tradition; T & T Clark International, London (2008) 1835 (BL)

139
603 Nicolene Rautenbach, YHWH Loves Zion Zion Loves YHWH. An
Exploration of the Workings of Ancient Near Eastern Social Values in
Psalm 87
Despite many uncertainties that exegetes have regarding Psalm 87, almost all of them
agree that the psalm deals with Zion acting as mother city. This article attempts to shed
new light on the problem of Psalm 87 by examining it in its immediate context as a Kora-
hite psalm, and ultimately from an Ancient Near Eastern social values perspective. It is
argued that this approach aids in determining the meaning of the psalm, as these values
were an integral part of Ancient Near Eastern society. They thus not only influenced this
psalm, but also reveal a lot about the thought processes behind the psalm. In light of the
examination of the psalm, a new theory is proposed about Psalm 87s dealing with the
exclusivity of Zion rather than its universality.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 422434

604 Gianni Barbiero, Di Sion si dir: Ognuno stato generato in essa: studio
essemplare del Sal 87
Psalm 87 has nothing to do with the Diaspora (as has been suggested by some commenta-
tors). Instead, it is to be seen as an example of a universalistic text, akin to other biblical
texts that refer to an eschatological pilgrimage of the peoples to Jerusalem.
J.N. Aletti et al. (eds.), Biblical Exegesis in Progress; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2009)
209264 (BL)

605 Beat Weber, JHWH, Gott meiner Rettung! Beobachtungen und Erw-
gungen zur Struktur von Psalm lxxxviii
Psalm lxxxviii consists of two cantos, four stanzas, ten strophes, and twenty bicola. Two
bicola consistently form a strophe, and two, sometimes three strophes form larger units,
or stanzas. Two stanzas make up the psalms first half (a canto), and two stanzas make
up its second half (a second canto). The psalm-halves, which contribute to the alternating
structure of the whole (ABAB), correspond and complete one another (a diptych). The
speaker reviews the past and reports, on his persistent suffering and prayer. Verses 3, 11,
and 15 are to be understood as quotable coordinated prayers within a prayer. Along
with the recurrent apostrophes of God (verses 2, 10, and 14), they actualize the whole:
despite darkness and the lack of a reply, they keep the direct address to YHWH as the
God of my salvation (2a) alive.
VT 58/45 (2008) 595607

606 Jinkyu Kim, The Strategic Arrangement of Royal Psalms in Books


IVV
Searching for the structure of the psalms in the Books IVV this study explicates that the
royal psalms in the group are immediately followed by a doxological psalm or a group of
doxological psalms. Thus, it is highly likely that the royal psalms and doxological psalms
in Books IVV, as in Books III, were intentionally arranged by the Psalter editor(s) under
the influence of the eschatological movement in the Second Temple period. By strategi-
cally arranging the royal psalms in Books IVV, the editor(s) intended that all the psalms
in these books be understood eschatologically.
WThJ 70/1 (2008) 143157

140
607 Zbigniew ZiE ba, The Meaning of the Expression lebab kemh The Heart
of Wisdom (Ps 90:12) in the Context of the Transitory and Frail Life of
Human Beings in Psalm 90
Psalm 90 deals with the transitory nature of human life in the context of the eternal
nature of God (vv 112). Verse 12 contains the core message of this psalm, which points
to the heart of wisdom which can be gained by humans when they consent to God to
teach them how to use wisely the limited time granted them by God. Thus, the wisdom is
Gods gift which can be gained from him by prayer. God teaches humans how to interpret
wisely the time and events of their earthly journey. In the context of Psalm 90:12 and
in the other parallel biblical passages, the heart of wisdom is within the capability of
human beings with Gods assistance.
PJBR 7/2 (2008) 113124

608 Pieter Bob Van Petegem, Sur le psaume 95


Cet article part du constat que les commentateurs ont souvent t deconcerts par la
division saillante du psaume 95 entre une partie hymnique et une partie dexhortation
prophtique o lon passe au point de vue de Dieu. Lanalyse propose veut viter deux
cueils. Dabord, on ne peut pas reduire une difficult qui se situe au niveau du sens un
rsultat de la gense du texte. Car, si lhistoire peut nous expliquer comment on en est
arrive une situation prsente, elle nexplique dauune facon comment il faut grer ce
prsent. Ensuite, il serait malheureux de tenter une lecture globale du psaume en passant
sous silence le changement de ton abrupt la hauteur du troisime stique du verset 7:
Aujourdhui, si vous coutiez sa voix!. En effet, la thse dfendue dans cet article est
que le sens du psaume se dgage justement de cette rupture dans le texte. La thse est
soutenue par deux autres analyses de la structure du texte, lune sur base des personnes
grammaticales, lautre sur base de quelques mots et particules phares. En combinant les
grilles de lecture qui sortent de ces deux analyses, larticle propose de diviser le psaume
en une strophe dite paenne, un passage, et une strophe dite daction. Cest finalement
par le biais dune comparaison lanalyse structurelle de M. Girard que se fait une lecture
globale du texte.
SJOT 22/2 (2008) 237252

609 William D. Pickut, Additional Observations Relating to the Legal Sig-


nificance of Psalm ciii 12
Distinctions in morpho-syntax and meaning between Ps. ciii 12 and the Aramaic quit-
tance formulae must be taken into account, in order to avoid a misappropriation of B.C.
Gregorys observations (VT 56/4, 2006, 549551; IRBS 53:631). Legally speaking, the
psalm presents God as one who grants pardon for sin, but He cannot be shown to have
actually relinquished the grounds for litigation.
VT 58/45 (2008) 550556

610 Johan H. Coetzee, Psalm 104: A Bodily Interpretation of Yahwehs


History
In this paper Yahwehs history, as expressed in Ps 104, is examined from a bodily per-
spective. It is shown how God-constructs, animal behaviour, and descriptions of nature, as
depictions within Yahwehs history, all refer back to and are metaphorised from human
bodily experiences. Human involvement in the history of Yahweh appears to be on the
same level as the rest of creation in this psalm. This has important ethical implications
on all levels of human involvement in that history.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 298309

141
611 David Adamo, Reading Psalm 109 in African Christianity
Psalm 109 is one of the most problematic psalms in the Old Testament. It is one of the
psalms that are classified as an imprecatory psalm dealing with vengeance against enemies
instead of forgiveness. It has been given various names among some Western scholars,
who link the psalm to hate, vengeance, cursing, and violence. However, when approached
from an Africentric point of view in African Christianity, this psalm can be considered as
one of the prayers of appeal to God for justice. The purpose of this article is to discuss
how this psalm is interpreted differently in African Christianity, for example as a psalm
of protection, success, healing and, mostly as a prayer to God to get up and fight for the
righteous and the poor instead of leaving the fight to the sufferer visiting witch doctors,
herbalists, or evil ones.
OTE 21/3 (2008) 575592

612 Marc Zvi Brettler, The Riddle of Psalm 111


Psalm 111 should be seen as a riddle psalm. It contains a hint to its interpretation, since
yirat yhwh in the final verse suggests Torah. It thus joins Psalms 19 and 49, which also
contain riddles.
Deborah A. Green et al. (eds.), Scriptural Exegesis; Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009) 6273
(BL)

613 Adele Berlin, The Message of Psalm 114


The birth of the nation of Israel was earthshaking, no less a cosmic event than the
creation of the world. So, too, will be the rebirth of the nation, the return from exile.
The present on which the mythic past is brought to bear is the situation of the exilic or
postexilic Judean community.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 347363 (BL)

614 Peter Riede, Die auf JHWH vertrauen, sind wie der Berg Zion, der
nicht ins Wanken gret (Psalm 125,1). Zur Verbindung von Anthropologie
und Kosmologie in Psalm 125
This is a thorough exegetical study of Ps 125. The author highlights the notion of stability,
ascribed both to Mount Zion and the believer.
Michaela Bauks et al. (eds.), Was ist der Mensch, dass du seiner gedenkst (Ps 8,5). Aspekte einer the-
ologischen Anthropologie; Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn (2008) 421434

615 Elie Assis, Psalm 127 and the Polemic of the Rebuilding of the Temple
in the Post Exilic Period
Ps 127 is divided into two parts: The first deals with mans dependence on God, while the
second deals with the benefits afforded to a man who has many children in his youth. These
two themes are in conflict, as the first part deals with the futility of man without God, the
second emphasises the way man can achieve power. The contradiction can be resolved in
light of its proposed historical setting, following the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple
in 587 BCE. The house spoken of in the first part refers to the Temple. Ps 127 then
reflects one of the ways in which the inhabitants of Yehud grappled with their failure to
build the Temple. The psalmist tried to calm the people and suggest that the impossibility
of building the Temple was due to Gods decision. This explanation allows the people to
accept that their inability to build the Temple reflects Gods plan. However, they should
not remain distressed and passive. Instead, the second part of the psalm suggests that
meanwhile the people should concentrate on developing and building the family unit.
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 256272

142
616 John Ahn, Psalm 137: Complex Communal Laments
Ahn distinguishes two voices in this psalm: the first six verses speak about the experience of
the first wave of forced migrants in 597 BCE, the rest reflects the sentiments of those who
came in 578 BCE to Babylonia. At the core of those who came earlier was remembering
the loss of privileges and their current situation; for those who came in 587, it was not
forgetting the children both the psalmists own and daughter Jerusalem.
JBL 127/2 (2008) 267289 (BL)

617 Kit Barker, Divine Illocutions in Psalm 137. A Critique of Nicholas


Wolterstorff s Second Hermeneutic
Drawing heavily upon speech act theory in his book Divine Discourse: Philosophical reflections
on the Claim that God Speaks (Cambridge 1995), Nicholas Wolterstorff defends a model of
interpretation that prioritises authorial intention. Furthermore, his conviction that Scripture
is both human and divine discourse leads him to a two-stage hermeneutic. This paper
offers an explanation and critique of Wolterstorff s move from the first to the second her-
meneutic in his interpretation of Psalm 137. It concludes that while Wolterstorff s method
does account for the divine intention in part, it ultimately suffers from both a limited
connection to speech act theory and a failure to appreciate the nature of communication
at higher (especially generic) levels. In addressing these methodological deficiencies, the
paper presents Psalm 137 as an authoritative canonical text by clarifying how it continues
to function as divine discourse.
TynB 60/1 (2009) 114

618 Eric Peels, I Hate Them with Perfect Hatred (Psalm 139:2122)
In this article the offensive prayer of Psalm 139:2122 with its dubious utterance of
hatred is investigated with regard to its particular language, context and intentions. First,
it is argued that the central notion of hatred does not necessarily imply malicious inten-
tions. Subsequently, the immediate context of verses 2122 is studied. The structure of
the psalm strongly favours the idea of an original unity of the psalm, which prevents the
author from discarding verses 2122 as a redactional addition. Within the context, verses
2122 function as a confession in the negative mode. To the poet hating the enemy is
primarily the reverse of his turning and dedication to YHWH. The emphasis is not so
much on the emotions of the poet as well as on his choice to take a stand and on his
attitude. Next, the utterance of verses 2122 is examined within its own conceptual and
spiritual framework, and its own religious and social life-scene. By hating Gods enemies
the poet relates to Gods own hatred of the wicked and his curse on them. Finally, the
question is discussed whether in todays Christian faith and worship such prayers can still
have some function.
TynB 59/1 (2008) 3551

619 Alec Basson, Image Schemata of Containment and Path as Underlying


Structures for Core Metaphors in Psalm 142
Drawing on the most recent assumptions related to image schema research, this contribution
argues that in Psalm 142 the container image schema serves as the underlying structure
of the psalmists metaphorical reference to the hidden snare and the experience of being
led out of prison. In addition, the exploration elucidates the link between the container
image schema and the path image schema in this psalm. The investigation illustrates
how the poets bodily experience of containment and motion along a path allows for the
conceptualisation of and reasoning about particular abstract domains.
OTE 21/2 (2008) 261272

143
620 Th. Booij, Psalm 144: Hope of Davidic Welfare
Psalm 144 is a late, markedly anthological text. On account of the use made in it of
Psalm 33, vv. 1215 can be assumed to be an integral part of the psalm; they are the
new song which is announced in v. 9. The deliverance from foreign rule, prayed for in
the middle part of the psalm, is a condition for the welfare pictured in the final verses and
linked with David in prophetic texts (see esp. Ez 34:23f.). In this deliverance the speaker,
presumably of Davidic descent, credits himself with a central role.
VT 59/2 (2009) 173180

621 Th. Booij, Psalm cxlv: Davids Song of Praise


In Psalm cxlv the Taw-verse makes an inclusion with the title. This is the more remarkable
since only this psalm has in its title the word t ehill. As a song of praise of David, Psalm
cxlv recalls the books of Chronicles, especially in showing Davids part in the praise of
God. The text complies with the cultic situation in Davids time as portrayed in Chronicles.
So Psalm cxlv appears to be a text written ex persona Davidis. As such, it was meant to be
an introduction to Psalms cxlvicl.
VT 58/45 (2008) 633637

622 Th. Booij, Psalm 149,5: they shout with joy on their couches
Ps 149,5 can be understood from the literary motif of intensified spiritual activity and
receptivity in resting time, particularly in the night. Formally, the statement of this verse
is related to Cant 3,1. In vv. 59 the psalm describes the feelings and mental images of
YHWHs faithful with regard to a future judgement on the nations. The consciousness of
Israels special position, expressed in the preceding hallelujah-psalms as well, is brought
to a climax.
Bib. 89/1 (2008) 104108

Wisdom literature

General
623 T.A. Perry, Gods Twilight Zone: Wisdom in the Hebrew Bible
The nine papers collected in this volume are premised on the notion of the pervasive-
ness of sapiential thought in all parts of the Bible. The following texts and figures are
considered: Noah the righteous (Gen 6:9; 7:1); Tamar the righteous; Joseph the righteous;
Exod 1:10; Judg 14; Is Saul too among the prophets? (1 Sam 10:1112); Solomon the
sage (1 Kings 3:1623); Psalm 1; Koh 12:18; Prov 30:1820. The author is specialist in
comparative literature.
Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass. / Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XXI/1208

624 Leo G. Perdue (ed.), Scribes, Sages, and Seers: The Sage in the Eastern
Mediterranean World
An international team of specialists has authored this compendium on the role of the
sage: L.G. Perdue (introduction), Th. Schneider (ancient Egypt with much on esoteric
knowledge), B. Alster and V.A. Hurowitz (Mesopotamia), I. Mrquez Rowe (Ugarit),
Ahiqar (I. Kottsieper), K. Dell (ancient Israel before the Babylonian exile), K. Schmid
( Job), M. Oeming (sapiential psalms), R. Kratz (Ezra here rightly considered a purely
literary figure), C.-L. Seow (Koheleth insisting that the sages in Israel are not upper-
class, but commoners without much cash), F.V. Reiterer (Ben Sira), M. Kolarcik (Wisdom

144
of Solomon), A. Bedenbender (Daniel and Enoch), A. Lange (Qumran), G. Stemberger
(rabbinic Judaism).
FRLANT 219; Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gttingen (2008) VIII/1344

625 Bradley L. Crowell, A Reevaluation of the Edomite Wisdom Hypothesis


An ostracon discovered at Horvat Uzza in the eastern Negev was published in 1993 and
initially considered a Hebrew poetic text. Recently, however, this ostracon was interpreted
as an Edomite parallel to the biblical book of Job. The interpretation of this text as an
Edomite wisdom writing continues a tradition of considering Edom the home of a sig-
nificant school of wisdom in the ancient world. This article traces the Edomite Wisdom
Hypothesis in modern scholarship and analyses the possibility of a wisdom school in
Edom within the context of contemporary studies on the social location of wisdom writers
and the production of wisdom literature in the ancient world.
ZAW 120/3 (2008) 404416

626 Shamir Yona, The Influence of Legal Style on the Style of Aphorism
The formula he will not go unpunished (Prov 6:29; 11:29; 16:5; 17:5; 19:9; 28:20; Sir
9:17; 11:11) reflects legal language.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 413423 (BL)

627 Martin Leuenberger, Die personifizierte Weisheit vorweltlichen Ursprungs


von Hi 28 bis Joh 1. Ein traditionsgeschichtlicher Strang zwischen den
Testamenten
On the basis of Job 28, Prov 8,221, Sir 24, 1ApcHen 42, and Joh 1, the article traces
the conceptual interrelations and transformations of a tradition-historical line between
the testaments: the personified wisdom of antemundane origin, whose character, origin,
function, and history is depicted and compared according to the texts.
ZAW 120/3 (2008) 366386

Job: general individual passages


628 Ludger Schwienhorst-Schnberger, Das Buch Ijob. Teil 1: Ein Weg
durch das Leiden / Teil 2: Hat Ijob Schuld auf sich geladen? / Teil 3:
Ich aber wei, dass mein Erlser lebt (19,25) / Teil 4: Vershnung
Kern des Buches Ijob ist die Frage nach dem Leid, die in Gestalt Ijobs existentiell wird.
Die Reden von Ijobs Freunden verdichten sich zu vier mglichen Antworten: (1) Das Leid
ist die Folge menschlicher Schuld; (2) es gehrt zur Natur des Menschen; (3) es gehrt zur
gttlichen Pdagogik; (4) es ist eine Prfing des Frommen. Diese Interpretationen seines
Leids lehnt Ijob ab und hlt an seiner Unschuld fest. Die Gottesreden dagegen argu-
mentieren mit Gottes Schpfungsmacht. Aus der Sicht Ijobs (vgl. Ijob 16,19; 19,25) wird
man seinen Klage- und Erkenntnisprozess als fortschreitenden Wandel seines Gottesbildes
begreifen drfen. Die Hoffnung auf wahre Gottesschau in diesem Leben noch und vor
dem Ende des Leidens das ist die Lsung, die das Ijobbuch zu bieten hat. Zugleich ist
dies seine Provokation. Wenn Gottesschau die innere Seite der Lsung des Ijobbuches ist,
dann ist Ijobs Wiederherstellung im Rahmenkapitel deren uere Seite. Dazu gehren
auch die Mglichkeit, die JHWH den Freunden gibt, sich mit Ijob und ihm selbst wieder
zu vershnen sowie die Aufhebung des sozialen Todes Ijobs, die durch die Rckkehr
seiner Verwandtschaft erfolgt.
BiLi 81/14 (2008) 6366.152154.216219.289292 (CB)

145
629 Jacob Mortensen, The Book of Job The Cyclical Progression of the
Aporia
This article explores the relation between aesthetics and theology in the Book of Job.
Its overall aim is to explain the relationship between centre and periphery (poetry and
prose) and its significance for the theology of the book. It claims that Jobs problem is not
the attainment of wisdom but how to reconcile wisdom with suffering how to relate to
suffering. And this theological theme is propagated through aesthetics including stylistic,
narrative, compositional and structural features. It is impossible to point out a preferential
reading in the Book of Job because of the fundamental and structural dissonance of the
text. This destabilized, ambiguous, paradoxical, ironical and dissonance-producing text
is the hermeneutical starting point. Qua dissonance-producing text this feature is used as
foundation for the interpretative task. And to get a comprehensive grip on the book two
instruments are used: the literary and compositional means are analyzed, and the structural
elements are evaluated in their relation between frame and centre. Following this line of
interpretation reveals that the stylistic differences of the work manifest crucial theological
distinctions. In the book of Job, shape and aesthetics are meaning and theology.
SJOT 23/1 (2009) 4663

630 Dominique Mangin, Larbre et lhomme (gJob 14:717). Les prtendues


allusions laprs-vie dans la version grecque du livre de Job
The differences seen by the critics between the short Greek version of the Book of
Job and the MT, has been assigned in the years 19461954 to theological reasons, by
G. Gerleman, H.S. Gehman and D.H. Gard. This assumption has been recently taken
anew by H. Tremblay (2002). But, looking at the study of passages of the Old Septuagint,
where those researchers have found allusions to belief in the after-life, this paper reveals
their hypothesis as resulting from an over-interpretation of the text. The first part of the
article is devoted to the key-passage, gJb 14:717, the second part discusses the other
passages (gJb 5:11; 7:910; 4:20b; 3:22; 3:1819; 6:10; 14:22; 40:13) quoted by the above
mentioned researchers.
RB 115/1 (2008) 2648; 115/2 (2008) 174190

631 Mayer I. Gruber, The Book of Job as Anthropodicy


Instead of (mis-)interpreting the Book of Job as an investigation of theodicy the author
points out that this book is a highly sophisticated demonstration of what goes wrong when
highly intelligent, educated, and well-meaning people attempt to comfort mourners in their
grief and to console infirm persons in their hospital beds. The Book of Job thus attempts
by means of highly sophisticated language to convey the weightiness of the seemingly banal
message that God prefers silence to blaming the victim and invoking God in so doing. In
a word, the Book of Job is anthropodicy, the justification of suffering humans in the face
of their well-meaning friends or neighbours, who add insult to injury.
BN 136 (2008) 5971

632 Pierre van Hecke, Jobs pijn in beeld. Het gebruik van metaphoren in
Jobs zelfbeschrijvingen
The author distinguished the following clusters of metaphoric language used in the book
of Job to describe Jobs suffering: (1) life as path; (2) life and happiness as light, suffering
as darkness occasionally, inner light and inner darkness are meant; (3) well-being and
suffering are sometimes portrayed in terms of solid and liquid matter.
Coll. 39/2 (2009) 207223 (BL)

146
633 Silvia Schroer, A feminist reading of the Book of Job
Through an examination of the brief texts in Job concerning his wife and daughters, as
well as Jb 28, which critiques a mans world, it is possible to read the Book of Job from
a feminist perspective. Human beings (males) are not the centre of the world (this paper
has already been published in German in BiKi 50/2, 2004, 7377).
ThD 53/3 (2006) 239242

634 Alan Mittleman, The Job of Judaism and the Job of Kant
The Book of Job presents its chief protagonist in two discrepant ways: Job the patient and
Job the rebel. Ancient Jewish interpretations of Job praise Job the patient and condemn
the rebel. Modern Jewish interpretations by contrast, praise Job the rebel and scant the
patient, pious Job of the frame story. In this paper the author considers trends in the
Jewish interpretation of Job in order to gain perspective on the problem of theodicy as a
problem for modern Jewish thought. After looking at some samples of premodern Joban
interpretation, he attends to Kant who argued for the failure of all possible theodicies.
The author suggests that the plausibility of theodicy as an intellectual project rests on the
cogency of a supporting metaphysics. The Kantian and subsequent modernist rejection of
metaphysics, as an intellectual framework for giving the knowledge of the ultimate nature
of reality, enfeebles the project of theodicy. It is not then necessarily the case that modern
Jews doubt theodicy because of a weakness of faith. Rather, the intellectual context in
which they operate denies them the conceptual tools for making the kind of assertions
available to their ancestors.
HThR 102/1 (2009) 2550

635 Paola Ricci Sindoni, Gott unter Anklage: Jaspers und der Fall Hiob
Jasperss reading of Job intends to overcome both the Kantian interpretation that is
bound only to an ethical stance and the theological interpretation that is willing to contest
theodicy. On the level of existential clarification, the German philosopher considers Job
an emblematic figure of the transcendental movement, able to establish a relationship
with transcendence via a ciphered reading of Being. In a similar vein to Kierkegaard and
Pascal, Jaspers sees in the revolt of the innocent man, who is hurt by undeserved evil,
the highest challenge of existential freedom. The latter is addressed to transcendence,
without confessional and dogmatic solutions. Jasperss Job is an expression of the unstable
balance between existential finiteness and Being, which is only realized in the language
of ciphers.
Studia Philosophica 67; Anton Hgli et al. (Red.), Glaube und Wissen. Zum 125 Geburtstag von
Karl Jaspers. Croire et Savoir. propos du 125 e anniversaire de Karl Jaspers; Schwabe Verlag, Basel
(2008) 3952

636 David Shepherd, Strike his bone and his flesh: Reading Job from the
Beginning
Following the destruction of Jobs children and possessions in Job 1, traditional readings of
ch. 2 understand the Satan to be demanding that Job himself be struck down as a test of
his disinterested piety. Instead, this study argues that the Satans language in Job 2 invites
the reader to read it from the beginning (Gen. 13) and that when one does, the Satan
is seen to be demanding not Jobs life, but rather his wife. Such a reading complicates
traditional characterizations of Jobs wife as merely the Satans tool by introducing the
idea that she is also Satans target.
JSOT 33/1 (2008) 8197

147
637 Kenneth Ngwa, Did Job Suffer for Nothing? The Ethics of Piety, Pre-
sumption and the Reception of disaster in the Prologue of Job
This study argues that the statement about Job suffering for nothing (2.3; cf. 9.17) is not
peripheral to the story of Job. When Job begins to suffer, the Satans theoretical question
Does Job fear God for nothing? (1.9) is reframed by Yahwehs evaluative statement: You
incited me against him to swallow him for nothing (2.3). Jobs suffering is not random;
rather, it is well thought out, executed, and evaluated. In response, Job raises the issue
about the reception of suffering/disaster (2.10). The Prologue explores the reality of suf-
fering/disaster through the tripartite lens of the causal theory of suffering, the reality of
suffering, and the reception theory of suffering. Because systematic and systemic suffering
strikes at the moral, existential, and social core of humanity and divinity, it often becomes
the most powerful critique of its own causal, existential, and reception theories, regardless
of whether such theories are of divine or human origin.
JSOT 33/3 (2009) 359380

638 Richard W. Medina, Jobs Entre into a Ritual of Mourning as Seen in


the Opening Prose of the Book of Job
Joban scholarship has overlooked a ritual treatment of Job 1:2021. In view of this,
after exploring the practice of mourning rites in the context of ancient Israel and the
Near East, this essay endeavours to explain the social function of Jobs ritual acts (tear-
ing the garment, head-shaving, and descent to the ground) and speech, in terms of
A. van Genneps and T. Turners theories on ritual process, the examination of biblical
and extrabiblical parallels along with the syntax of the Hebrew verbs. It is concluded that
the mourning rites portrayed in Job 1:2021 trigger the transformation of Jobs ordinary
identity into an undefined or ambiguous identity; at the same time, they mark his transi-
tion from day-to-day life to a liminal phase as identification with the dead. He remains
in this paradoxical condition until the end of mourning when he reintegrates into normal
life and his misfortune miraculously reverses ( Job 42:717).
WdO 38 (2008) 194210

639 Alec Basson, Death as Deliverance in Job 3:1126


Despite the prevalent fear and abhorrence, a positive attitude toward death in the Ancient
Near Eastern sources can be observed. Job 3:1126 can be considered a case in point.
This pericope depicts an individual for whom life has become so unbearable that he wishes
to descend into the netherworld. Only death can liberate the supplicant from the chains
of life. This contribution highlights the positive view of death in this biblical passage. By
applying the metaphor theory of Lakoff/Turner to Job 3:1126, the author argues that
the poet regards life as bondage and death as deliverance.
Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palstina-Vereins 37; Izak Cornelius et al., From Ebla to Stellenbosch.
Syro-Palestinian Religions and the Hebrew Bible; Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden (2008) 6680

640 Bent Christiansen, Translating an Extraordinary Trope: A Note on Job


34,11
The sophisticated trope of Job 34,11, which is investigated in this short note, suggests the
value of more careful translation of text in the OT poetic corpus. The proposed translation
for Job 34,11 is: And as a man finds his path, so He makes the path to find the man.
ZAW 121/2 (2009) 281283

641 Daniel Timmer, Gods Speeches, Jobs Responses, and the Problem of
Coherence in the Book of Job: Sapiential Pedagogy Revisited
The author examines the two cycles of speeches in Job 38:142:6 (each a speech of Yhwh
and a reply of Job) and then explores how they contribute to Yhwhs final evaluation of
148
Job in the epilogue (esp. 42:7). Although at the outset Job is presented as beyond reproach,
the severe test to which he is put brings him into a crisis that changes him in significant
and eventually undesirable ways. Responding to these dynamics, Gods speeches cause
him to change yet again, so that at the books end Job is identical neither to the Job of
the prologue nor to the Job of the speeches. By chap. 42, Jobs knowledge of and rever-
ence for God have grown beyond even their remarkable stature in the prologue and now
include a more robust view of Gods justice and integrity. The divine speeches set limits
to the sapiential enterprise, especially by inculcating a reverence that exempts God from
definitive judgment and guards Gods unique status as the norm of norms.
CBQ 71/2 (2009) 286305

Proverbs: general individual passages


642 Peter T.H. Hatton, Contradiction in the Book of Proverbs: The Deep
Waters of Counsel
Despite the surge of interest in biblical wisdom literature in the 1970s and beyond, the book
of Proverbs remained marginalized. Arguing that Proverbs should be read as a crafted,
skilfully organized poetic composition, Hatton contributes to a fresh reading that draws
upon (secular) literary criticism. Central chapters deal with the marginalizing of Proverbs
in recent biblical studies; unity and diversity in the book of Proverbs; the act-consequence
construct; the powerful in Qoheleth and Proverbs; gifts and bribes in Proverbs. As the
author shows, Proverbs has more to offer than the conventional wisdom often attributed
to it. A delightful book.
Society for Old Testament Study Series; Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot (2008) XIII/1200 (BL)

643 Michael V. Fox, Concepts of Wisdom in the Book of Proverbs


Three stages of composition can be distinguished: (1) Prov 1029 with an emphasis on
wisdom = verbal skills, emotional composure, forethought, avoidance of conflicts, and
justice; (2) Prov 19 (prefixed to the earlier collection as a preface and hermeneutical
guide); here wisdom is not the pragmatic faculty of stage 1, but the religiously grounded
ability to distinguish between good and evil behaviour; (3) the third stage consists of addi-
tions or interludes within Prov 19; to these belong the five poetic units Prov 1:2033;
3:1320; 8:136; 9:118. Now wisdom, represented by a female figure, is a transcendent,
universal archetype, similar to a Platonic idea.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 381398 (BL)

644 Nancy Nam-Hoon Tan, Where Is Foreign Wisdom to Be Found in Sep-


tuagint Proverbs?
The author argues against the interpretation that the LXX translation of Prov 2:16, 17;
5:20 and the additions to 9:18 symbolize foreign wisdom. He shows that the LXX trans-
lator removed any notion of ethnic foreignness from the foreign woman, contrary to what
is attested in the Hebrew text. If one probes the reasons for this phenomenon, there are
two possibilities: first, the translator had no idea of the significance of the foreign woman
in the Hebrew text; or second, the translator understood the significance but felt that this
meaning was no longer relevant to the context for which the translation was intended.
Hence, the translator chose to portray the woman simply as a representative of the bad
women in the community the immodest seductress and the faithless adulteress.
CBQ 70/4 (2008) 699708

149
645 Bernard Gosse, Le rle du livre des Proverbes dans la constitution du
Psautier, en relation avec divers textes bibliques
La tradition de Sagesse, du livre des Proverbes, trs prsente dans le Psautier concerne
galement les Psaumes royaux comme les Ps 2 et 110 et leurs relations avec les autres
textes bibliques. Linfluence de la tradition de Sagesse sur les Psaumes entrane du reste
souvent des consquences sur leurs relations avec dautres textes Bibliques, cf. Pr 17,3,
les Ps 7; 26 et le livre de Jrmie, ou les relations entre le Ps 37 le livre des Proverbes et
le livre dIsae.
RB 114/3 (2007) 403415

646 Lechion Peter Kimilike, Poverty in the Book of Proverbs: An African


Transformational Hermeneutic of Proverbs on Poverty
This book includes a long chapter on traditional African proverbial wisdom (pp. 81153)
and a list of African proverbs (pp. 311335). Both African and biblical wisdom are com-
munity-oriented and optimistic, and thus inspire hope in a world threatened by poverty.
Biblical wisdom, the author argues, is not as conservative as some modern interpreters
have argued. A worthy addition to the slowly but steadily growing list of works that
apply anthropological insight to the study of biblical wisdom literature.
Bible & Theology in Africa 7; Peter Lang Publishing, Bern (2008) XI/1381 (BL)

647 Tova Forti, The Concept of Reward in Proverbs Divergent Paradigms


of Thinking? (Hebr., Engl. summary)
This paper deals with the various expressions of the concept of reward in The Book of
Proverbs. The two conceptual paradigms that shape this concept were often taken by
scholars of Proverbs as providing additional evidence for conceptual stratification in the
book. Opposing the diachronic approach, the author opts for a synchronic analysis that
recognizes the existence of the divergent paradigms of thinking that is, a religious-moralistic
(theocentric) view, and a didactic view that grants humans the responsibility for their fate
(anthropocentric). Thus, the didactic personality of the teacher in Proverbs is viewed as
reflective of a multi-faceted outlook which is both pragmatic and dogmatic.
Beit Mikra 53/1 (2008) 105123.10* 11*

648 Bruce K. Waltke, Righteousness in Proverbs


In drei Schritten nhert sich der Autor dieses Aufsatzes einer Definition der Rechtschaffen-
heit im Buch der Sprche: (1) Das Konzept der Weisheit, ihrer Quellen und ihres Aus-
drucks durch die Schpfung in Spr; (2) Das Kontrastverhltnis zwischen der Weisheit
Salomos und dem mosaischen Gesetz; (3) Die Verwandtschaft zwischen Weisheit und
Rechtschaffenheit. Vor diesem Hintergrund definiert der Verf. die Rechtschaffenheit in Spr
als richtiges Verhalten im konkreten sozialen Umfeld entsprechend gttlichen Standards
zum rechten Verhalten.
WThJ 70/2 (2008) 225237 (DL)

649 Luis Antonio Balderas Tovar, Proverbios 2. Un Encomio de la Sabiduria


(Parte I)
In diesem ersten Teil des Beitrags stehen die Auseinandersetzung mit der Forschung
zu Sprche 2 sowie methodologische berlegungen im Vordergrund. Im Diskurs mit
R.N. Whybray und R.E. Murphy versteht Balderas Tovar Spr 2 als Belehrung, wobei
er hervorhebt, dass die Gattungszuordnung durch die uneinheitliche Verwendung der
diesbezglichen Terminologie erschwert werde. Whybrays Unterscheidung zwischen

150
heiliger und profaner Weisheit sowie die damit verbundenen redaktionsgeschichtlichen
berlegungen lehnt Balderas Tovar ab. Eine ausfhrliche linguistische Analyse des Textes
erfolgt im zweiten Teil des Beitrags.
QOL 48 (2008) 1532 (SP)

650 Jutta Krispenz, Gotteswahrnehmungen im Buch der Sprche?


Krispenz untersucht, in welchen syntaktischen Zusammenhngen im Buch der Sprich-
wrter (Sammlung II = Spr 10,122,16) von Gott die Rede ist und welche sprachlichen
Stereotypen vorliegen. Die Untersuchung achtet besonders auf die Unterschiede zwischen
der Sammlung II und den anderen Teilsammlungen des biblischen Buches.
Stefan Gehrig u.a. (Hg.), Gottes Wahrnehmungen; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 186206

651 Michael V. Fox, The Formation of Proverbs 22:1723:11


This essay reconstructs the procedure by which the editor of Prov 22:1724:22 received
and adapted the wisdom of Amenemope. This editor had access to all or almost all of the
book of Amenemope, probably in Aramaic translation, and used it closely and sequentially
to form 22:1723:11. He cycled through Amenemope in five passes or sweeps, in each
one focusing on passages of interest and recasting them to compose his own maxims.
Moreover, the diffuseness and distribution of Amenemopes influence in several sections of
Proverbs indicates that much, perhaps all, of the book was known in Israel and indirectly
became a popular source of Hebrew wisdom.
WdO 38 (2008) 2237

652 Christophe Rico, Lenigme aux chemins effacs: Pr 30,1820


Aus syntaktischen und berlieferungskritischen Grnden schlgt der Verf. dieser kurzen
Notiz vor, den Begriff lmh am Ende von Spr 30,19 zu lmyw zu korrigieren.
RB 114/2 (2007) 273277 (DL)

Koheleth: general individual passages


653 Craig G. Bartholomew, Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastes (Koheleth) is the only biblical book that may be classified as philosophy. As
this commentator explains, Ecclesiastes dates from the Hellenistic period and reflects the
tensions between Greek thinking and Israelite tradition (p. 59). This fine commentary
on Ecclesiastes is by a philosopher who is also a theologian and a well-published expert
on wisdom literature (see C.G. Bartholomew, Reading Ecclesiastes: Old Testament Exegesis and
Hermeneutical Theory, Rome 1998). In addition to philological and exegetical elucidation,
often developed in dialogue with M. Fox and C.L. Seow, the commentator also offers
philosophical perspectives and interpretations, and he occasionally ventures into politics
(p. 200 mentions the war waged by the United States and Great Britain against Saddam
Hussein of Iraq). A commentary that informs, educates, and delights by its wisdom.
Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms; Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, Mich.
(2009) 1448 (BL)

654 Ethan Dor-Shav, Ecclesiastes, Fleeting and Timeless: Part I


The central message of Ecclesiastes may be encapsulated in a single word: hevel, usually
translated as vanity. This term is in Hebrew also the name of Abel, Cains brother, and
the first human being to die. As this paper shows, what is important about the life of Abel
is not its futility, but its transience. This, too, is the meaning of hevel in Ecclesiastes: Not
the dismissive vanity, but the more objective transience, referring strictly to mortality
and the fleeting nature of human life. Without the negative connotations of vanity, one
discovers in Kohelet a man who is tormented not by the meaninglessness of life, but by how

151
swiftly it comes to an end. He seeks to confront his listeners with mans own mortality
the underlying premise of any inquiry into the meaning of life in this world.
JBL 36/4 (2008) 211221

655 J. Gerald Janzen, Qohelet on Life Under the Sun


The rule of the sun, for Qohelet, is oppressive in two ways: First, although it shines on
an individual, it illumines a world where the harshness of existence is alleviated only by
periodic occasions of joy. Second, despite the visionary hopes expressed in Isaiah 60, the
sun will inevitably set on each life, until at long last as chap. 12 has it when read as the
life cycle of the cosmos the suns light will go out in a death of the cosmos that has
no sequel. The expression under the sun thus establishes the books overall atmosphere
in a world where Gods direct, unmediated activity is seldom to be seen, and Gods rule
is embodied almost entirely in the orders and forces of nature and human society. The
one place where Qohelet may identify Gods direct activity is in the joy that may arise
in the human heart in the context of ones work, ones family, and ones table. That,
despite his general sense of futility, Qohelet is capable of celebrating this as Gods gift
is remarkable.
CBQ 70/3 (2008) 465483

656 Katharine J. Dell, The Cycle of Life in Ecclesiastes


This paper explores the way in which the voice of the earth is heard in a cyclical view of
nature presented in Ecclesiastes, notably in passages such as Eccl. 1:47 and 11:35. It also
investigates into the way in which imagery is used from the natural world in the book as
a whole, looking especially at the use of animal imagery, as from members of the earth
community outside the human and yet integrally related to the human. The argument is
pursued that instead of simply illustrating human life as part of the dualistic worldview
of the book (e.g. in 3:1821) in many ways the earth and its creatures define human life
within the context of the earths character, cycles and abundance.
VT 59/2 (2009) 181189

657 Bertrand Pinon, Lnigme du bonheur: Etude sur le sujet du bien dans
le livre de Qohlet
The author studies the seven passages that are often described as choruses of happi-
ness (Koh 2:2425; 3:1213; 3:22; 5:1719; 8:15; 9:79; 11:9). There is also an eighth
relevant word (Koh 7:14). The present commentator suggests that Koheleths book is a
two-step work. In chapters 1 to 6, the negative aspect of human experience is highlighted;
the only thing left to man is to enjoy the simple pleasures of life. Chapters 7 to 12 are
about the future of man. Now some kind of realism as well as an encouragement to be
happy stand out. What is left to man is to enjoy occasions for happiness that are already
available. As soon as the two-step organisation of the book is recognized, the issue of the
status of happiness finds an answer: since there are two different parts, there are also two
approaches to wisdom and two ways of thinking about happiness. The book includes a
French translation of Koheleth (pp. 280298) and an English summary.
VT.S 119; Brill, Leiden (2008) XIV/1311 (BL)

658 Alison Lo, Death in Qohelet


There is a consensus that Qoh. 1:2 and Qoh. 12:8 form an inclusio, bracketing the whole
Book of Qohelet. The thesis statement vanity of vanities, all is vanity is first voiced at
1:2 and reaches its climax at 12:8. This study argues, however, that the theme of death
serves to set the stage for Qohelets arguments, and that this theme links the whole book
together within the frame of 1:2 and 12:8. It analyzes first how the notion of death
germinates and develops in the opening poem (1:48). It then proceeds to examine the
relationship between the death theme and Qohelets seven exhortations to joy. Next it turns
to investigate Qohelets attitude towards death, and how death and life mutually define
152
each other. Finally this paper studies how the death theme culminates in the final poem
(12:17) and how this concluding poem echoes the opening poem (1:48).
JANES 31 (2008) 8598

659 Jean-Jacques Lavoie, Quelques rflexions sur le pluralisme inter- et


intrareligieux partir des tudes comparatives du livre de Qohlet. I: Le
pluralisme interreligieux; II: Le pluralisme intrareligieux
This article presents a synthesis of the comparative studies between, on the one hand, the
book of Qohelet and the extrabiblical texts, and, on the other hand, the book of Qohelet
and the rest of the Bible. Following this double synthesis, this article suggests a reflection
about inter- and intrareligious pluralism.
ScEs 60/3 (2008) 229257; 61/1 (2009) 3950

660 Martin Shuster, Being as Breath, Vapor as Joy: Using Martin Heidegger
to Re-read the Book of Ecclesiastes
This article is a philosophical re-examination of Ecclesiastes using the work of Martin
Heidegger, particularly his early work in Being and Time. Heideggers focus on death, tempo-
rality, and history provides a powerful and compelling framework for understanding these
same themes in Ecclesiastes. In elaborating these philosophical motifs and correspondences,
this article proposes that hkl should be understood as an analogy to Heideggers concept
of Geschichtlichkeit (historicity). If hkl is understood as such, then most of the traditionally
puzzling terms in Ecclesiastes (e.g. hlm, ml, m h) can be made sense of using the afore-
mentioned philosophical framework. This framework additionally shows that Ecclesiastes
(like Being and Time) cannot be understood as a proto-existentialist text.
JSOT 33/2 (2008) 219244

661 Otto Kaiser, Vom offenbaren und verborgenen Gott. Studien zur spt-
biblischen Weisheit und Hermeneutik
Most of the thirteen papers included in this volume deal either with the book of Koheleth
or with Jesus Sirach, but there are also studies on the experience of time in the Old Testa-
ment, the threefold aspect of the holiness of God in the Old Testament, on illness and
healing, faith and history, and life after death in biblical Israel. Kaiser (b. 1924), emeritus
professor of Old Testament studies at the University of Marburg, Germany, is the Nestor
of German Old Testament scholars.
BZAW 392; W. de Gruyter, Berlin (2008) IX/1371

662 Aron Pinker, The Principle of Irreversibility in Kohelet 1,15 and 7,13
This study suggests that Koh 1,15 consists of a hemistich that is a general philosophical
statement about irreversibility of actual states in the world, and of a hemistich that explains
this statement. Similarly, Koh 7,13b is a rhetorical question repeating the principle of
irreversibility, while Koh 7,13a asserts that this principle has been built-in by God into
the world that He created.
ZAW 120/3 (2008) 387403

663 Aron Pinker, Qohelet 2,12b


It is suggested in this paper that kj mh in Qoh 2,12b should be emended to jkmh he
should much desire. This minimal emendation, of transposing two letters, results in a
reading that textually and contextually fits the logical framework of royal legacy to suc-
cessor, and smoothly connects with the following verse (2,13). Thus, Qoh 2,12b is (or
153
should be) the departing kings legacy to his successor. Based on actual data of wisdom,
boastfulness, and folly, being desired by royal heirs, Qohelet advises his successor (or a
kings successor) to strive for wisdom and its short-term value, well aware that it can be
argued that wisdom cannot save any one from the ultimate end death and disappear-
ance form human memory.
BZ 53/1 (2009) 94105

664 Brian P. Gault, A Reexamination of Eternity in Ecclesiastes 3:11


Dieser Beitrag untersucht gegenwrtige Interpretationsoptionen des Ausdrucks Gott hat
Ewigkeit in das Herz des Menschen gesetzt in Koh 3,11. Als das crux interpretum bezeichnet
der Verf. den Begriff holm innerhalb dieses Satzes. Drei mgliche Deutungen werden
analysiert: (1) holm als Ausdruck fr Ewigkeit, Bestndigkeit in der Bildsprache des
Erzhlers; (2) Emendation von holm zu hml Werkzeug, allerdings ohne einen Text-
zeugen fr diese Lesart; (3) Revokalisierung von holm zu hlm Dunkelheit: Diese
Option schafft zwar ein hapax legomenon der Substantivform, doch sie passt etymologisch
zu anderen hebrischen Ausdrcken und bietet eine schlssige Fortsetzung des Textes in
Koh 3 Gott hat menschliches Wissen eingeschrnkt, indem er Dunkelheit in das Herz
des Menschen eingesetzt hatte, so dass dieser seine gttliche Ordnung nicht umfassend
erkennen kann.
BS 165/1 (2008) 3957 (DL)

665 Aron Pinker, Qohelet 4,1316


It is suggested that Qohelet 4,1316 consists of two loosely connected units: a gut-spruch
unit (Qoh 4,1314); and, an observation unit (Qoh 4,1516). The gut-spruch unit asserts
that a wise child is from birth endowed with the intelligence to eventually rule, while a
foolish king has been intellectually deficient from birth, being in office would not improve
him, and his liability increases with age. The observation unit records that having an old
but foolish king many people would naturally vie for his heir, only later to become disap-
pointed, because the heir is apparently no different than his father. The moral of both
units is that there is advantage to innate intelligence.
SJOT 22/2 (2008) 176194

666 Jean-Jacques Lavoie, Ironie et ambiguts en Qohlet 4,1316


The author presents the state of research about source and form criticisms concerning Qo
4,1316, and then provides a structural and literary analysis of these verses. He pursues
his inquiry further, showing that the ambiguities of Qo 4,1316 are not purely accidental.
On the contrary, these ambiguities are part of a rhetorical strategy that emphasizes the
irony of the text and that aims at appealing the reader to test various readings.
SR 37/1 (2008) 1539

667 Jennifer Barbour, Like an error which proceeds from the ruler: The
Shadow of Saul in Qoheleth 4:175:6
The three chapters 1 Sam 1315 culminate in Samuels famous word, To obey is better
than sacrifice, and to listen than the fat of rams (1 Sam 15:22). These words, and the
whole of 1 Sam 1315, supply Koheleth with a number of ideas. In 1 Sam 13:9, Saul
offers the burnt offering rather than waiting for the prophet Samuel (echoed in Koh 4:17
= Engl. 5:1). In 1 Sam 14 Saul makes two rash promises (echoed in Koh 5:3). Many
commentators find in Koh 4:17 (guard your steps when you go to the house of God) an
allusion to Samuels rebuke to Saul in 1 Sam 15:22. It may be that as Koheleth repeats
Samuels words about listening rather than sacrifice, he also recalls their original narrative
setting, and the original target of these words, Saul, hovers behind Koheleths text.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
113128 (BL)

154
668 Hans Debel, What about the Wicked? A Survey of the Textual and
Interpretational Problems in Qoh 8,10a
The reading weyishtabbehu is to be accepted. This verse is only concerned with the
wicked the opposition between the wicked and the righteous is not introduced before
Qoh 8,14.
BEThL 224; Hans Ausloos et al. (eds.), Florilegium Lovaniense; Peeters, Leuven (2008) 133150 (BL)

669 Jean-Jacques Lavoie, Ironie et ambiguites en Qohlet 10,1620


This paper presents first the sate of research about the source criticism and the structural
and literary analysis of Qohelet 10,1620. Then, it evaluates how the irony of Qohelet bor-
rows the ways of the semantic and structural ambiguity, the hyperbole and the parody.
SR 37/2 (2008) 183209

670 Philip Nel, Remember the Spring of Your Youth: The Vanity of Male
Power in Qohelet 12
In patriarchal and phallic cultures the loss of power to create life as well as the implicit
loss of potency are symbolized in the decaying or breaking of the phallic simulacrum
representing the male genital member often at the very fountain of its power exhibi-
tion. This paper is a close reading of Qoh 11:712:8 (a highly contested text in critical
reading) by means of an analysis of the metaphoric references whereby an argument
is construed in favour of the idea that, according to Qohelet, male power and virility
are the ultimate expressions of meaningful life. Should fate strike in this realm it is also
considered the worst of disasters (hebel) that may befall man. The passage centre-stages
the opposition between youth and old age, and accordingly, the teacher advises the young
man to celebrate his youth and carnal pleasures before the bodily deterioration of old age
and impotence brings him to the brink of the grave.
OTE 21/1 (2008) 149160

Song of Songs Wisdom of Solomon


671 Kenton L. Sparks, The Song of Songs: Wisdom for Young Jewish
Women
The thesis of this paper is that the Song of Songs originated as a wisdom composition,
as a collection of love songs edited to teach young Jewish women propriety in matters
of love and sex.
CBQ 70/2 (2008) 277299

672 Martti Nissinen, Song of Songs and Sacred Marriage


The author sketches the impact the notion of sacred marriage and fertility ritual made
on the interpretation of the Song of Songs in the twentieth century in the work of
Th.J. Meek, G. Widengren, H. Schmkel, H. Ringgren, and (though idiosyncratically)
M. Pope. Many consider the theory of sacred or cultic eroticism as outdated and irrelevant.
However, a closer look makes one pause. The poetry of the Song of Songs does indeed
reflect ancient Near Eastern poetry celebrating love between divine partners, notably
the Akkadian Nab and Tashmetu. See also M. Nissinen, Love Lyrics of Nab and
Tashmetu: An Assyrian Song of Songs?, in: M. Dietrich et al. (eds.), Und Mose schrieb
dieses Lied auf, AOAT 250, 1998, 585634
M. Nissinen et al. (eds.), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual metaphor from Sumer to Early
Christianity; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008) 173218 (BL)

155
673 H. Viviers, Afwesigheid van God en teenwoordigheid van god(e) in
Hooglied
The absence of the Israelite God in the Song of Songs is conspicuous. The poet of the
Song is far too sophisticated to attribute this to a slip of the mind. Among many reasons
offered for the absence of Israels societal stereotype of God, might the Songs alterna-
tive views on gender relations, within a love setting, perhaps be a reason for prohibiting
the ultimate Patriarch to interfere? Interestingly the Song contains quite a number of
other notions of counter-intuitivity (gods) confirming humans propensity, since early
evolution, to create gods to fulfil certain needs. Although it is an ancient love-song the
Song has much to offer on gender and god constructs and the implications thereof for
the civilization of society today.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 447460

674 Jean-Louis Chrtien et al., Le lumineux abme du Cantique des Cantiques


The three essays included in this volume rely on Jewish exegesis (C. Chalier), the history
of Christian spirituality ( J.-L. Chrtien), medieval exegesis (R. Imbach), and modern
poetry (D. Millet-Grard).
Editions Parole et Silence, Paris (2008) 1133

675 Jean-Marie Auwers, Le prologue du Cantique, monologue ou dialogue?


Cant 1:24, sometimes called the prologue, is today generally thought to be spoken by the
female voice. Some of the early Greek manuscripts and commentators were of a different
opinion. Today, H. Ausloos and B. Lemmelijn suggest the reading dadayik (your breasts)
in Cant 1:2b, thus attributing the verse to the male voice.
BEThL 224; Hans Ausloos et al. (eds.), Florilegium Lovaniense; Peeters, Leuven (2008) 4956 (BL)

676 Jonathan Grossman, Eat, Friends; Drink Deep, O lovers!: The Narra-
tors Interjection in Song of Songs (5:1) (Hebr., Engl. summary)
As the Song of Songs is a collection of monologues spoken by a man and woman, the
reader faces the challenge of identifying the speaker in each poem and, occasionally,
in each verse. Usually, it is easy to identify the speaker as a man or a woman based on
language or content. One of the verses that pose particular difficulty in identifying the
speaker is the second half of 5:1. This article contends that this sentence was spoken
by neither the man nor the woman, but rather are the words of the books author who
functions in this verse as the narrator. The literary contribution of the authors interjec-
tion into the book relates to the moulding of the special intimacy shared by the couple
described in the book.
Beit Mikra 53/2 (2008) 7988.8*9*

677 Markus Witte, Jakob der Gerechte Beobachtungen zum Jakobsbild


der Sapientia Salomonis (Sap 10,1012)
Das in Gen 28 und Gen 35 angelegte Bild Jakobs wird im Buch der Weisheit besonders
ausgemalt: Jakob ist gerechter Empfnger mystischer Offenbarung und Vorbild von Frm-
migkeit ein Hhepunkt der Stilisierung des Erzvaters.
BZAW 400; Anselm A. Hagedorn u.a. (Hg.), Die Erzvter in der biblischen Tradition; W. de Gruyter,
Berlin (2009) 323345 (BL)

156
Jesus Sirach (Ben Sira): general individual passages
678 Roger A. Bullard et al., A Handbook on Sirach
This book is meant as a handbook for those who work on the translation of the book of
Jesus Sirach in a minority language. In keeping with the format of the series, the present
volume is based primarily on the Revised Standard Version and the Good News Transla-
tion, though other versions are considered and many helpful suggestions made. The book
includes a bibliography of translations and special studies on the book of Jesus Sirach,
a glossary of linguistic terms, and an index. Available from Dr. Donald Slager, United
Bible Societies, W 7602 Hwy 33, Beaver Dam, Wisc. 53916, USA.
UBS Handbook Series; United Bible Societies, New York (2008) XI/11051

679 Angelo Passaro et al. (eds.), The Wisdom of Ben Sira: Studies on
Tradition, Redaction, and Theology
The following papers are included in this collection: M. Gilbert, Methodological and
hermeneutical trends in modern exegesis on the book of Ben Sira; J. Corley, Searching
for structure and redaction in Ben Sira; G. Bella, An historical-anthropological reading
of the work of Ben Sira; E. Puech, Ben Sira and Qumran; N. Calduch-Benages, The
hymn to the creation (Sir 42:1543:33): polemic text?; P.C. Beentjes, Full wisdom from
the Lord: Sir 110 and its place in Israels wisdom literature; A. Passaro, The secrets
of God: investigation into Sir 3:2124; S. Manfredi, The true sage or the Servant of the
Lord (Sir 51:1330 Gr); J. Liesen, A common background of Ben Sira and the Psalter: the
concept of torah in Sir 32:1433:3 and the Torah Psalms; F.V. Reiterer, The interpretation
of the wisdom tradition of the Torah within Ben Sira; A. Di Lella, ben Siras doctrine on
the discipline of the tongue; A. Minissale, The metaphor of falling: hermeneutic key
to the book of Sirach; G. Rizzi, Christian interpretations in the Syriac version of Sirach;
R. Pistone, Blessings of the sage, prophecy of the scribe: from ben Sira to Matthew;
A. Passaro et al., Sirach, or the metamorphosis of the sage.
Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Studies 1; W. de Gruyter, Berlin (2008) XIII/1411

680 Jean-Sbastien Rey, Quelques considrations sur le vocabulaire sapientiel


de Ben Sira et de 4QInstruction
Cette tude montre que 4QInstruction et Ben Sira faisaient un usage particulier du terme
n lh pour dsigner un don particulier de Dieu lhomme. En particulier, le terme est li
chez les deuxs auteurs au don de la vie ternelle. Avec le vocabulaire de la connaissance,
lauteur de lInstruction sinsre davantage dans le courant sapientiel trac par le livre des
Proverbes et par le livre de Ben Sira que dans le courant littraire propre la pense
qumrnienne. En ce qui concerne le vocabulaire relatif la pauvret, ces deux auteurs
divergent considrablement. Cette dissimilitude sexplique aisment par les diffrents
publics auxquels ils sadressent. En tout cas, cette analyse rappelle et confirme les liens
qui unissent ces deux textes, qui doivent tre tudis conjointement.
KUSATU 8.9 (2008) 119134

681 Renate Egger-Wenzel, The Change of the Sacrifice Terminology from


Hebrew into Greek in the Book of Ben Sira. Did the Grandson Under-
stand his Grandfathers Text Correctly?
One may assume that Sira was very familiar to the cult because of his extensive offer-
ing vocabulary. Whether he could have belonged to the cult personnel or not, cannot be
decided. Sira knew the shaped language of cult, selected however often rare references,
which presuppose a founded knowledge of Israels literature. Siras grandson is however
no longer so completely common to the language of cult. He often takes well known
terms from the context of sacrifice, but apparently doesnt know the usual practice of

157
translation or he uses consciously like his grandfather own ways in art-fullest Greek.
Thus he creates to Siras rare Hebrew new phrases, whereby he seems to sense, which
material of sacrifice is hidden behind the Hebrew words.
BN 140 (2009) 6993

682 Renate Egger-Wenzel, Ein neues Sira-Fragment des MS C


The new Ben Sira fragment of manuscript C, which S. Elizur had published recently
in Tarbiz 76/1, 2008, 1724 shows only the lines of the manuscript. In addition her
numbering could confuse a little. The purpose of this investigation is therefore to proof
the cola and compare them with the text editions. In summary there were found the fol-
lowing cola: Sir 3,27a.b(A); 6,5a10b(A).12a15b(A).18a.ba; 20,30a31b; 21,22a23b,26a.b;
22,11a12b.21a22b; 23,11a.b; 25,7c.d; 36,24b(B,Bm) und 37,la.2a2b(B,Bm,D). Italic font marks
the new Hebrew cola.
BN 138 (2008) 107114

683 Michael M. Winter, Theological Alterations in the Syriac Translation


of Ben Sira
Ben Sira was first translated by an Ebionite and was then revised by a mainstream ortho-
dox Christian for its inclusion in the Peshitta. In the Syriac version Ben Sira we also find
two clear alterations that bear the imprint of Essene influence. This phenomenon can be
explained by the following theory: after the Essenes disappeared from the pages of his-
tory, some of their ideas were incubated in the patrimony of the Ebionites, among whom
there emerged the scholar who translated Ben Sira into Syriac. Thus the Essene ideas
and influence have come into the Syriac version of Ben Sira, in spite of the fact that they
flourished at a time well before Christianitys penetration into Syria, which prompted the
Syriac version of the Bible.
CBQ 70/2 (2008) 300312

684 Markus Witte, Barmherzigkeit und Zorn Gottes im Alten Testament


am Beispiel des Buchs Jesus Sirach
Den einschlgigen Aussagen des Sirachbuches eignet konfessorischer und doxologischer
Charakter.
FAT II.33; Reinhard G. Kratz et al. (eds.), Divine Wrath and Divine Mercy in the World of Antiquity;
Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2008) 176202

685 Martti Nissinen, Wisdom as Mediatrix in Sirach 24: Ben Sira, Love
Lyrics, and Prophecy
One obvious biblical precedent of Sir 24 has gone unnoticed thus far: the Song of Songs.
This essay demonstrates the affinity of Sir 24 with passages in the Song of Songs. Also
studied is the underlying ideology of the goddess as mediator of divine knowledge. Song
of Songs 4:125:1 seems to be an important subtext of Sir 24, a passage that reads like
an early commentary of the Song of Songs (p. 389). Note that the bibliography of this
article is included in the general bibliography of the volume (pp. 445501).
Studia Orientalia 106; Mikko Luukko et al. (eds.), Of God(s), Trees, Kings, and Scholars; Finnish
Oriental Society (2009) 377390

158
686 Tzvi Novick, Wisdoms Wandering Wandering: On the Evolution of a
Motif
In chapter 24 of the book of Ben Sira, Wisdom is portrayed as seeking out a home among
the nations before taking her inheritance in Israel. This essay traces the evolution of the
motif of wandering Wisdom, from its possible pre-history in Greek myth to a late echo
in a narrative in the Babylonian Talmud.
Hen. 30/1 (2008) 104118

687 Maria Carmela Palmisano, Salvaci, dio delluniverso! Studio delleuco-


logia di Sir 36H,117
Cet article sur Sirach 36 (texte Hbreu) est le prcis dune thse publie sous le mme titre
dans la srie Analecta Biblica (no. 163, Rome 2006). Ce texte manifeste une conception
prophtique de lhistoire, comparable celle dEzchiel et des cercles sacerdotaux, selon
lesquels elle est conue comme le lieu o Dieu intervient, dans le prsent, en exerant
le jugement et en rtablissant la justice. Lhistoire est le domaine privilgi o le salut se
ralise sans aucune mdiation humaine.
BEAT 55; Matthias Augustin et al. (eds.), Thinking towards New Horizons; Peter Lang, Bern (2008)
129135 (BL)

688 Johannes Marbck, Mit Hand und Herz. Der schriftgelehrte Weise und
das Handwerk in Sir 38,2434
The paper on the neglected part I of the diptych about the wise scribe follows, after an
overview concerning the position of artisans in the Hellenistic environment of Ben Sira,
the text of Sir 38,2434 with the presentation of handicraft in Jerusalem. There seems
to be no devaluation or contempt of manual labour in Ben Sira. In accordance with his
view of double aspects in creation (Sir 39,21.34) both, artisans and scribes, are important
for the society. The evaluation of manual labour must not be separated from the social
position of the wise scribe between artisans and the leading classes in culture and society
of his time. Ben Sira bears witness to the attempt of establishing a new class of scribes
and tries to strengthen their position and authority by theological arguments.
BN 139 (2008) 3960

689 Marko Marttila, Israelin historia Sirakin kirjan esi-isien ylistyksess


(Sir. 4449)
Ben Sira, a Jewish sage who lived in the Hellenistic period, was the first known author
to combine wisdom teachings and the history of his own people. He was not a historian
in modern sense, but highly selective in his use of sources. Retelling the past served
theological purposes. The Praise of the Ancestors is the most extensive textual unit in
the Wisdom of Ben Sira. In this survey of history, Ben Sira focuses on Israels great men
(no women are mentioned by name). In particular, Ben Sira emphasizes the concept of
covenant, prophetic succession and the duties of the priests. It is also noteworthy that Ben
Siras attitude towards foreign nations is not exclusively negative. Rather, it seems that
Ben Sira even mitigates the biblical stories by leaving aside some cruel details related to
foreigners. Perhaps Ben Siras reluctance to accept national particularism was one reason
why he omitted Ezra from his Praise of the Ancestors.
TAik 113/4 (2008) 301313

690 Bradley C. Gregory, Abraham as the Jewish Ideal: Exegetical Traditions


in Sirach 44:1921
In the verses on Abraham in his encomium, Ben Sira incorporates several exegetical tra-
ditions in order to highlight Abrahams faithfulness and obedience to the covenant. Ben

159
Sira incorporates these exegetical traditions, however, in a theological framework that is
slightly different from other Second Temple contexts, in which these exegetical traditions
appear primarily as exhortations to law-keeping. By weaving together various portions of
Scripture and their corresponding interpretive elements, Ben Sira calls his readers, like
Simon, to keep their glory unblemished through obedience to the law and faithfulness
to God. According to Ben Sira, yielding to the Tora is the type of faith and obedience
that characterizes the path of wisdom, leading to the actualization of the eschatological
promises to Abraham.
CBQ 70/1 (2008) 6681

691 Markus Witte, Ist auch Hiob unter den Propheten? Sir 49,9 als Testfall
fr die Auslegung des Buches Jesus Sirach
Angesichts der Qumranfunde und einer fortschreitenden LXX Forschung stellt sich oft
die Frage, welche Gestalt eines biblischen Buches bersetzt und ausgelegt werden soll.
Besonders deutlich ist dieses Problem hinsichtlich der komplizierten Quellenlage des
Buches Jesus Sirach. Mit Sir 49,9 als einem Testfall diskutiert der Verf. fnf verschiedene
Auslegungsmodelle, denen unterschiedliche Ausgangsbasis zugrunde gelegt ist: (1) gr. Text
G-I; (2) hebr. Text H-I; (3) Hebr. Text H-I und H-II unter Auffllung der Leerstellen
durch Rckbersetzung von G-I, G-II und Syr; (4) Hebr. Text soweit erhalten, ansonsten
gr. Text; (5) Hebr. Text H-I und gr. Text G-I unter Bercksichtigung von H-II, G-II und
Syr. Der Verf. pldiert fr das letzte, wenn auch aufwendigste Verfahren.
KUSATU 8.9 (2008) 163194 (DL)

NEW TESTAMENT EXEGESIS

Introduction general
692 Peter Oakes (ed.), Book List 2009
This issue of JSNT presents a Book List, which contains 246 reviews of recently
(2007/2008) published books on NT issues organized in following chapters: (1) New
Testament General; (2) New Testament Topics; (3) Jesus; (4) Gospels; (517) New Testa-
ment Books in canonical order; (18) Judaism; (19) Graeco-Roman; (20) Early Christianity;
(21) Language; (22) Textual Criticism; (23) Reception. Attached is a list of some fur-
ther books not reviewed in this journal as well as the indexes of authors, titles, and the
publishers.
JSNT 31/5 (2009) IVI. 1189 (DL)

693 V. George Shillington, The New Testament in Context: A Literary and


Theological Textbook
This is a well-written textbook of New Testament introduction for the beginning student.
Four appendices are added to enhance its value: a list of the Roman emperors from
Augustus to Hadrian; the rise and fall of the Herodian dynasty; glimpses at ancient phi-
losophers (19 philosophers are listed chronologically and briefly explained); examples of
variants in the King James Version that lack support.
T &T Clark, London (2008) XI/1337

694 Charles B. Puskas, An Introduction to the Gospels and Acts


This is an introductory textbook on the canonical gospels (including John) and the book
of Acts, complete with bibliographical notes. Key literary and theological themes are

160
isolated and discussed, research methods are summarized, and Luke-Acts is treated as a
single work all to the benefit of the student.
W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mich./Alban Books, Edinburgh (2008) XVII/
1210

695 Klaus Haacker, Was zhlt im Studium des Neuen Testaments? Blicke
zurck und nach vorn
In his farewell lecture after teaching New Testament exegesis for more than thirty years,
the author offers a critical evaluation of traditional training in this field within the Ger-
man academic context. He calls for a revision of priorities with regard to the importance
attributed to textual criticism in undergraduate studies and to literary criticism over against
the interpretation of the extant texts. In view of the general decrease of Biblical and
religious knowledge among students as in society at large he urges teachers of the New
Testament to take nothing for granted. Instead of wasting time with controversial details
or dated theories they ought to concentrate on the basics.
TBe 39/4 (2008) 232243

696 Walter Schmithals, Der Ausschluss der Christen aus der Synagoge und
das Neue Testament
More than a few scriptures of the New Testament were written to cope with the situation
that had arisen from the expulsion of the Jewish Christians from the synagogue. This
treatise shows what significance must be attached to that event with regard to the gospel
according to St. John, the synoptic sayings source, the collection of the Pauline letters,
the epistle to the Hebrews and the gospel according to St. Matthew.
BThZ 25/1 (2008) 169198

697 Vadim Wittkowsky, Pagane Zitate im Neuen Testament


In the New Testament there are quotations from pagan texts which are normally explained
as a sign of Paul and Lukes acquaintance with Greek literature. A more accurate examina-
tion of the relevant texts shows, however, that each of these quotations makes more sense
if considered against the background of early Jewish practice. The connection with pagan
literature serves at the same time as an intertextual reference to Jewish polemics against
paganism. This conclusion confirms once more the well-known thesis of M. Hengel, namely
that there is no direct dependence of early Christianity on non-Jewish thought.
NT 51/2 (2009) 107126

698 Birger Gerhardsson, Beknnelsetexten Shema i urkristendomen


In the Jewish tradition three things were emphasized through the Shema-Prayer: One
should obey God (1) with an undivided and unfeigned heart, (2) even if it costs ones
life (soul), and (3) one should also place all outer resources (belongings and might) at his
disposals. The author of this paper shows that a number of NT texts are formulated
with this sophisticated midrashic interpretation of this prayer/creed as the formative
principle. Most of the texts seem having been created by an Early Christian teacher with
a scribal, probably Pharisaic, schooling. This mans teaching has been best preserved in
the Matthean tradition. 1 Cor 13 shows that the ex-Pharisee Paul could allude to the
learned interpretation of the Shema in an independent way.
SE 73 (2008) 6586

699 David Crump, Are Practical Prayers Pagan Prayers?


Despite the Apostle Pauls encouragement to present your requests to God, the NT
contains few examples of petitionary prayer for the mundane concerns of daily life. The

161
Jewish, Greco-Roman and magical practices of petitionary prayer are examined in order
to explain the apparent incongruity between NT practice and teaching.
ET 120/5 (2009) 231235

Gospels and Acts of the Apostles

Gospels: general synoptic problem


700 Ulrich Busse, Jesus im Gesprch. Zur Bildrede in den Evangelien und
der Apostelgeschichte
The following papers are included in this collection: Der verrckte Bauer: Mk 4,38
(1987); In Souvernitt anders. Verarbeitete Gotteserfahrung in Mt 20,116 (1996);
Die Unterweisung des Lesers im sog. Reisebericht, dargestellt an Lk 10,2542 (2003);
Dechiffrierung eines lukanischen Schlsseltextes (Lk 19,1127) (1998); Das Evangelium
des Lukas. Die Funktion der Vorgeschichte im lukanischen Doppelwerk (1991); Begegnung
mit dem Wort nach Lk 5,111 (2005); Das lukanische Jesusbild aus der Retrospektive
Petri (Apg 10,3443) (1977); The relevance of social history to the interpretation of the
gospel according to John (1995); Metaphorik in neutestamentlichen Wundergeschichten?
(1990); Metaphorik und Rhetorik im Johannesevangelium: Das Bildfeld vom Knig (2006);
Tempelmetaphorik als ein Beispiel von implizitem Rekurs auf die biblische Tradition
im Johannesevangelium (1997); Johannes und Lukas: Die Lazarusperikope, Frucht eines
Kommunikationsprozesses (1992); Sprachkonomisch optimierte Kommunikation in Joh
6 (2009); Theologie und Christologie in drei Evangelien (2003).
SBAB 43; Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart (2009) 1317

701 Raymond E. Brown, Lire les Evangiles pendant la Semaine sainte et


Pques
Brown offre un commentaire exgtique (mais adress au grand public) des textes no-
testamentaires qui portent sur la passion et la rsurrection du Christ. Il prend soin de ne
pas mlanger les rcits bibliques; pour cette raison, il consacre un chapitre chaque rcit
biblique la passion selon Marc; la passion selon Matthieu; la rsurrection en Marc; la
rsurrection en Jean, etc. Le texte anglais est traduit par Dominique Barrios.
Lire la Bible; Editions du Cerf, Paris (2009) 1181 (BL)

702 Ulrich Victor, Textkritischer Kommentar zu ausgewhlten Stellen des


Lukas- und des Johannesevangeliums
Because of the completely contaminated textual tradition of the NT, it is essential that
the textual critic as a rule confines himself to the instruments of philology and exegesis,
the so-called internal criteria. The customary evaluation of manuscripts and manuscript
groups according to their assumed quality and value within the tradition or according to
their geographical distribution on the one hand ignores the reality of the transmission,
and is on the other hand not a rationally defensible procedure. In this contribution the
author demonstrates on some examples for Luke and John the arbitrary nature of the
customary approach, while showing at the same time the gains to be made for the text
by applying internal criteria.
NT 51/1 (2009) 3077

703 Matthias Klinghardt, Erlesenes Verstehen. Leserlenkung und implizites


Lesen in den Evangelien
Presented is an analysis of Mk and Mt under the view of reader-response criticism. Accord-
ing to the author, Matthews gospel pushes the reader to become one of the uncounted
162
disciples (10:6, 28:19). Jesus is presented as a teacher, whose education mainly consists
of verbal instruction. The Sermon on the Mount (57) is cited as a paradigm, where his
disciples (5:1) are addressed only through pronouns and inflected verb forms, integrating
and educating the reader. The reader is assigned an explicit role, therefore being able
to self-apply Jesus teachings directly. This is connected to a second thought: The norms
being transported are distinct, as is Matthews Jesus. In contrast, Mark is said to be the
opposite: To interpret the context and connections, an active reception is needed, which
however underlies a certain narrative strategy. An exemplary explanation of Marks nar-
rative strategy is presented (3:78:21). A short view on the canonical order of the gospels
and the gospels in general gives new ideas on reading the New Testament as one coherent
text and introduces new perspectives on exegesis of the gospels.
ZNT 21 (2008) 2737 (SSt)

704 Samuel Byrskog et al., Reviews of Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the
Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony (2006)
Five New Testament scholars S. Byrskog, D. Catchpole, H. Marshall, S. Patterson, and
T. Weeden comment on Bauckhams much-discussed book, and R. Bauckham responds.
Marshall is in wholehearted agreement with Bauckhams book. Bauckham specifically
comments on personal names as indication of eyewitness sources, variations between the
gospels, the identity of the beloved disciple (= the author of the gospel of John), models
of oral tradition, and Mark as a Petrine gospel. Byrskogs work was one of the inspirations
for Bauckhams book. Reference is made to Simon Hornblower, Personal Names and the
Study of the Ancient Greek Historians, in: S. Hornblower et al. (eds.), Greek Personal Names:
Their Value as Evidence, Oxford 2000, 129143; Christopher Pelling, Plutarchs Adaptation
of His Source-Material, Journal of Hellenic Studies 100 (1980) 127140.
JSHJ 6/2 (2008) 157253 (BL)

705 Jens Schrter et al., Review Discussion: Richard Bauckham: Jesus and
the Eyewitnesses, 2006
The following papers discuss the book of R. Bauckham, in which the author claims, inter
alia, that the group of the Twelve constitutes an official body of eyewitnesses: J. Schrter,
The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony; C.A. Evans, The Implications of Eyewitness Tradi-
tion; R. Bauckham, Eyewitness and Critical History. Evans finds little to disagree with
in Bauckhams book. Schrter, however, argues that Bauckham moves too easily from
literary observations to historical facts.
JSNT 31/2 (2008) 195234

706 Walter Schmithals, Das Messiasgeheimnis und die Spruchquelle


The article represents a new way of looking at the complexity with regard the Messianic
Secret as it was found by W. Wrede in the Synoptic Gospels. The author aims to resolve
the riffle by also taking the Sayings Source Q into consideration. Q is seen as located
in the disciple group of John the Baptist and this groups adherents. The article argues
that Mark developed the Messianic Secret as theme to adapt the unmessianic message
of Q. As effect, Mark initiated a christological use of this motif within the Church.
The thesis of the article represents a modification that is a progression of some of the
authors earlier opinions.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 353375

707 Dan Batovici, The Oxford Conference on the Synoptic Problem


The past two centuries have witnessed a wide spectrum of solutions for the Synoptic
Problem. Even though quite far from a consensus, the problem tends to incorporate new
domains from ongoing connected research: the relevance of the Gospel of Thomas, the
Synoptic authors use of the Old Testament or recent studies on communication media in

163
antiquity. This article surveys a number of issues presented in the papers of the Oxford
Conference on the Synoptic Problem, held in May 2008, ranging from challenging past
and present solutions of the Synoptic Problem from different perspectives to new direc-
tions of research on this topic.
CBR 7/2 (2009) 245271

708 David J. Neville, The Phantom Returns. Delbert Burketts Rehabilitation


of Proto-Mark
In 2004 Delbert Burkett published a book entitled Rethinking the Gospel Sources: From Proto-
Mark to Mark (London 2004; IRBS 51:981), the first of a projected three-volume study
of the sources of the canonical gospels. In this first volume, Burkett first challenges the
widely accepted assumption that the synoptic gospels stand in direct literary relation to
each other and subsequently reconstructs various recensions of an original Proto-Mark
to explain the similarities and differences in the so-called Markan tradition. If Burkett
is correct that no two canonical gospels stand in direct literary relation to each other, this
has significant implications for their interpretation. Thus, this study appraises the cogency
of his argument against any direct literary relations between the synoptics.
EThL 84/1 (2008) 135173

709 Rainer Riesner, Mndliche berlieferung und Synoptische Frage. Zu


einer auergewhnlichen Neuerscheinung von Armin D. Baum
In der Form eines kurzen Berichtes wird hier die als Habilitationsschrift von der Theolo-
gischen Fakultt der Universitt Heidelberg abgelehnte und nun als ein Buch verffent-
lichte Arbeit von Armin D. Baum, Der mndliche Faktor und seine Bedeutung fr die synoptische
Frage. Analogien aus der antiken Literatur, der Experimentalpsychologie, der Oral-Poetry-Forschung und
dem rabbinischen Traditionswesen, Tbingen 2008, besprochen. Aufgrund der untersuchten
Analogien lehnt A.D. Baum die klassische Annahme von abgeschlossenen Werken Q und
Mk als Vorlagen fr Mt und Lk ab und rechnet vielmehr mit gemeinsamen mndlichen
Traditionen, aus welchen alle drei Synoptiker geschpft haben.
TBe 39/5 (2008) 306309 (DL)

710 John C. Poirier, Statistical Studies of the Verbal Agreements and their
Impact on the Synoptic Problem
The patterns of verbal agreement between the gospels have long been considered a key
for solving the synoptic problem, and a subdiscipline within gospel source criticism of
tabulating and interpreting these patterns of agreement has slowly emerged in the name
of gathering the most objective evidence available. Studies of the verbal agreements have
steadily grown in their sophistication (esp. in combinatory analysis), as well as in their
appreciation for the nature of the gospel text as something more than a mere compila-
tion. The question of whether this approach can substantially further the field, however,
has yet to be answered. This article surveys and critiques all published statistical studies
of the verbal agreements known to the author.
CBR 7/1 (2008) 68123

Sayings Source (Q)


711 A.J. Droge, Cynics or Luddites? Excavating Q Studies
In the last 20 years the Sayings Gospel Q has come to play an increasingly important
role in the reconstruction of Christian origins. One might argue in fact that the field has
reached a tipping point. The canonical myth of Christian origins running along the
traditional axis of Mark, Paul, and Luke-Acts is now on the verge of collapse. Q has
thus become a crucial site of conflict and contestation in the struggle over origins, and as

164
such Q-studies is particularly revealing of the ideological investments of professionals on
both sides of the fight. This article identifies some of the stakes involved in this disciplin-
ary crisis, and worries that the new counter-history of Christian origins has not entirely
divested itself of the commitments of its more conservative adversaries.
SR 37/2 (2008) 249269

712 Ronan Rooney et al., The Social Origins of Q: Two Theses in a Field
of Conflicting Hypotheses
This article examines current written- and oral-tradition views of Q. Two theses are argued:
(1) The case seems the stronger that Q was an elaborated written texts in Greek rather
than an oral-derived text. Moreover (2), there is good evidence that Q originated in oral
Aramaic Jesus sayings, perhaps some of which were written down, either as maxims or
pointed, brief chreiai. However these theses are evaluated, Jesus scholarship must account
for several important socio-cultural transitions in this picture, notably: from Jesus material
in oral (Aramaic?) form to written Greek form; from non-elite origin to documentation
by scribes in service of the elites; from Jesus material with pointed political significance
within Herodian social relations to polemical theological material within Judean political
religion.
BTB 38/3 (2008) 114121

713 Migaku Sato, Ist Q noch eine Art von Prophetenbuch? Zum Thema
Q an der Kreuzung von Prophetie und Weisheit
Dieser Beitrag fragt nach der Makrogattung der Quelle Q und der dahinter liegenden
traditionsgeschichtlichen Wirklichkeit. Trotz einiger weisheitlicher Elemente gibt der Verf.
dem vermutlich beabsichtigten prophetischen Charakter der Quelle Vorrang und bezeichnet
sie als weisheitliches Prophetenbuch.
AJBI 32 (2006) 93126 (DL)

714 Paul Foster, The Pastoral Purpose of Qs Two-Stage Son of Man Chris-
tology
It is argued that Q constructs a two-stage Son of Man Christology. The first stage presents
a suffering figure whose experiences align with the contemporary situation and liminal
experience of the audience of Q. The second stage focuses on the future return of the Son
of Man. It is at this point that group members will receive both victory and vindication.
However, these two stages are not always maintained as discrete moments. By employing
the title the coming one, Q at some points collapses this temporal distinction to allow
the pastorally comforting message that some of the eschatological rewards can be enjoyed
in the contemporary situation of the community.
Bib. 89/1 (2008) 8191

715 Stephen Hultgren, The Apostolic Churchs Influence on the Order of


Sayings in the Double Tradition. Part I: From John the Baptist to the
Mission Discourse; and the Rest of Matthew
The preservation, transmission, and order of significant parts of the sayings material in the
double tradition are best explained not on the basis of a written document Q , understood
as a collection of sayings of Jesus, but on the basis of other factors: 1.) the larger narrative
framework of the gospel tradition, including also single-tradition material in Luke; 2.) the
christological and pneumatological interests of the early Jerusalem church; 3.) the mission-
ary and didactic activities of the early church, especially the Jerusalem church.
ZNW 99/2 (2008) 185212

165
Parallel passages parables
716 Erkki Koskenniemi, The Traditional Roles Inverted. Jesus and the Devils
Attack
Evil spirits often tempted famous men in early Jewish literature and the stories have an
exemplary function: The men passed the text and the readers should follow in their
footsteps. 11Q11 as well as L.A.B. 60 report how an attacking demon is expelled with
Davids psalm, thereby assigning the attacker his proper place in the cosmological order.
However, in Matt 4 / Luke 4 (Q) an interesting detail reveals that the roles are inverted:
the Devil quotes the psalm, which was commonly used to expel him. This indicates a
different kind of temptation: Who is now breaking the cosmological order, the Devil or
Jesus, who claims to be the Son of God Almighty?
BZ 52/2 (2008) 261268

717 Esther Snchez et al., En nombre del Padre: algunas consideraciones


sobre la Ipsissima Vox del Padrenuestro
Joachm Jeremias Interesse an den ipsissima verba Jesu folgend, errtern die Verf. die Mg-
lichkeit eines theologischen Zentrums des Gebetes Vater unser in den verschiedenen
Bestimmungen der Gttlichkeit innerhalb dieses Gebetes. Die Entdeckung des Wesens
des Vaters durch das Modell Jesu ist fundamental fr das Abba-Konzept der neutesta-
mentlichen Theologie.
DavarLogos 7/2 (2008) 101112

718 Sinai Turan, A Neglected Rabbinic Parallel to the Sermon on the Mount
(Matthew 6:2223; Luke 11:3436)
The gospel similes background is to be sought in ancient Jewish physiognomic specula-
tion that posits a symptomatic relation between the eye and the body. If a brides eyes
are beautiful, the assumption is that her body is also beautiful; if her eyes are judged to
be problematic, one would inspect her body closely. The relevant rabbinical sources are
Mishnah Ketubbot 7:7 and Canticles Rabbah 4:1.
JBL 127/1 (2008) 8193 (BL)

719 Ulrich Schmidt, Zum Paradox vom Verlieren und Finden des Lebens
Jesus paradox of losing and finding ones life is well attested (Mt 10,39; 16,25; Mk 8,35;
Lk 9,24; 17,33; Joh 12,25). According to its contexts, interpreters relate the logion pre-
dominantly to martyrdom and death. But a closer look reveals that this word is an asser-
tion in favour of life which functions as a maxim of Jesus teaching and view of life. It is
the context of many of his sayings and behavioural patterns. The issue of recompense
after death is merely a consequence of the original intention.
Bib. 89/3 (2008) 329351

720 Hanna Stettler, Die Bedeutung der Tuferanfrage in Matthus 11,26


par Lk 7,1823 fr die Christologie
Jesus messianic self-understanding has been put into question from Bultmanns days to
the present. If he did not think of himself as the Messiah, one would be left with the
riddle of a Jesus who never actually said who he claimed to be. However, Jesus reply to
the inquiry of John the Baptist in Mt 11,26 par is an important clue to his own under-
standing of his mission. A careful reconsideration of the criteria for authenticity leads to
the conclusion that Jesus claimed to be not simply a prophet announcing the kingdom,
but the Messiah who healed and brought good news to the poor, thus doing what in the

166
OT God had promised to do at the end of time. 4Q521 confirms that ancient Judaism
expected this kind of miracle to occur at the time of the Messiah.
Bib. 89/2 (2008) 173200

721 Thomas E. Phillips, Will the wise person get drunk? The Background
of the Human Wisdom in Luke 7:35 and Matthew 11:19
The closing words of this passage should be read not against the background of the Old
Testament tradition of personified divine wisdom, but rather against the Greco-Roman
background of philosophical discourse (Philo of Alexandria, Seneca) regarding the wise
persons conduct and drunkenness. The wisdom in the concluding proverb is not divine
wisdom, but rather human wisdom.
JBL 127/2 (2008) 385396 (BL)

722 Alison Jack, For those Outside, Everything Comes in Parables: Recent
Readings of the Parables from the Inside
The recovery of the historical intention behind the parables of Jesus remains a contentious
issue in recent parable research. Some commentators maintain a belief in the possibility
of recovering something of the intention of Jesus, while others study the intention of
the evangelists in their adaptation and interpretation of the parables. Also of interest are
socio-scientific readings of the texts, which read the parables through the lens of various
social theories; and feminist readings, which place less emphasis on the historical situation
of the parables, and more on the response of modern readers to their surface structure
or underlying message. Theological and homiletic concerns are also well represented in
the literature of the past ten years.
ET 120/1 (2008) 815

723 Douglas S. Mccomiskey, Exile and the Purpose of Jesus Parables (Mark
4:1012; Matt 13:1017; Luke 8:910)
The contention of this article is that Jesus adopts a meaning for Isa 6:910 virtually identi-
cal to the original meaning in Isaiah. Jesus is declaring that most Jews are still corporately
in exile whereas his disciples as a group are restored from Exile and are in the kingdom.
Jesus employment of parables suits this division.
JETS 51/1 (2008) 5985 (BF)

724 Dorothea Sattler, Gottes Selbstauslieferung an die Menschen. Das


Winzergleichnis als Zeugnis fr das Vielleicht in Gottes Handeln Mk 12/
Lk 20/Mt 21
Das Winzergleichnis in der lukanischen Fassung kann mit seinem vielleicht so gedeutet
werden, dass Gott darum bangt, ob ihm von den Menschen die geschuldete Achtung
geschenkt wird, wenn er seinen geliebten Sohn zu ihnen schickt. Er liefert sich so schlielich
selbst der ttigen Einsicht der Menschen in das Gute aus.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 253257 (CB)

Matthew: general individual passages


725 Huub van de Sandt et al. (eds.), Matthew, James, and Didache: Three
Related Documents in Their Jewish and Christian Settings
Working on the assumption that the three early-Christian documents share a similar
background, the contributions to this volume study the social and religious milieu of these

167
writings (D. Sim, O. Wischmeyer, J. Zangenberg), reconstruct historical developments in
Antioch (M. Zetterholm), sketch transformations in post-70 CE Judaism (P. Tomson),
Jewish Christianity ( J. Verheyden), functionaries in the early-Christian communities
( J. Draper), the ideal community of perfect believers (W. Weren), poverty and piety
( J. Kloppenborg, with a good argument that James does not seek to undermine ancient
society by promoting revolutionary ideas, but actually calls for generous behaviour toward
the poor), the Jesus tradition ( J. Schrter), problems with pluralism ( J.A. Overman), the
love commandment (M. Konradt), ethics (P. Hartin), law and ethics (H. van de Sandt),
paraenesis and baptism (A. Stewart-Sykes), the prohibition of oath (M. Vahrenhorst), and
purity (B. Repschinski).
Symposium Series 45; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) XII/1475 (BL)

726 Thomas R. Hatina (ed.), Biblical Interpretation in Early Christian Gospels.


Volume 2: The Gospel of Matthew
The following papers are included in this volume: M. Apodaca, Myth theory, comparison
and embedded Scripture texts: Ibn Ishaqs biography of Muhammad and the mythologizing
function of Isa 7:14 in Matt 1:23; W. Carter, Love as societal vision and counter-imperial
practice in Matt 22.3440; J. Cousland, Matthews earliest interpreter: Justin Martyr on
Matthews fulfilment quotations; C.A. Evans, The book of the genesis of Jesus Christ: the
purpose of Matthew in light of the incipit; M. Goodacre, Mark, Elijah, the Baptist and
Matthew: the success of the first intertextual reading of Mark; C. Ham, Reading Zecha-
riah Matthews Olivet discourse; Th. Hatina, From history to myth and back again: the
historicizing function of Scripture in Matt 2; M. Knowles, Plotting Jesus: characterization,
identity and the voice of God in Matthews gospel; J. Nolland, The king as shepherd:
the role of Deutero-Zechariah in Matthew; L. Novacovic, Matthews atomistic use of
Scripture: messianic interpretation of Isa 53:4 in Matt 8:17; A.G. Van Aarde, Matthews
intertexts and the presentation of Jesus as healer-messiah; L.M. Wills, Scribal methods in
Matthew and Mishnah Abot.
LNTS 310; T & T Clark International, London (2008) XII/1232

727 Elisa Estvez Lpez, Mediadoras de sanacin. Encuentros entre Jsus y


las mujeres: una nueva mirada
Selon les vangiles, Jsus a guri plusieurs femmes. Cette tude notestamentaire propose
une nouvelle interprtation des rcits respectifs: ces rcits ne sont pas centr exclusivement
sur Jsus le gurisseur; les femmes quil a guri fonctionnent comme des mdiatrices du
salut. Trois rcits sont analyss en dtail: Mt 8,1415; 15,2128; Luc 13,1017. Lauteur
invoque deux grandes mthodes: la lecture fministe de la Bible et la thorie de la mmoire
collective. Lauteur enseigne le Nouveau Testament 1Universit Pontificale Comillas
(Madrid).
Universidad Comillas, Madrid (2008) 1375 (BL)

728 Ulrich Luz, Geschichte und Wahrheit im Matthusevangelium. Das


Problem der narrativen Fiktionen
Das neue Interesse an der Geschichtserzhlung in heutiger Geschichtstheorie ffnet neue
Perspektiven fr die Beurteilung der evangelischen Erzhlungen der Geschichte Jesu.
Anhand der Leitfrage nach dem Wahrheitsverstndnis untersucht dieser Aufsatz das
Verhltnis des Matthusevangeliums zu den verschiedenen Typen antiker Geschichts-
schreibung einerseits und zu den biblischen traditionalen Geschichtswerken andererseits.
Das Matthusevangelium ist reich an Fiktionen, die dem Verfasser auch als solche bewusst
gewesen sein mssen, und ist trotzdem eine durch und durch traditionsorientierte Erzhlung.
Matthus kennt aber keinen Begriff der Fiktion, und sowohl das Wahrheitsverstndnis als
auch die verschiedenen Typen griechischer Geschichtsschreibung sind ihm fremd. Verschie-
dene grundlegende Merkmale des Matthusevangeliums, etwa sein Bezug auf die Bibel
als einzige genannte Quelle, seine Anonymitt, das Fehlen eines die Leser ansprechenden

168
Vorworts und die Transparenz seiner bibelhnlichen Grundgeschichte fr die Erfahrungen
der Leserinnen und Leser zeigen, dass es voll und ganz dem Typ biblisch-traditionaler
Geschichtsschreibung zuzurechnen ist. Mit dem Versuch, einige berlegungen zum mat-
thischen Wahrheitsverstndnis zu formulieren, schliet der Aufsatz ab.
EvTh 69/3 (2009) 194208

729 David C. Sim, Matthew and the Pauline Corpus: A Preliminary Intertex-
tual Study
This study investigates the possibility that the author of Matthews Gospel had access to
the letters of Paul. Using the methods of intertextuality, it establishes criteria for deter-
mining whether this was indeed the case and concludes that it is more probable than not
that the evangelist did know the Pauline epistles. An intertextual relationship between the
Gospel and the Pauline corpus becomes clear once it is understood that Matthew, as a
Law-observant Christian Jew, was opposed to the more liberal theology of Paul. A single
test case reveals that the evangelist was reacting to certain claims of the apostle expressed
in his letters, and raises the prospect of further intertextual connections between these
early Christian documents.
JSNT 31/4 (2009) 401422

730 Dale C. Allison Jr., Matthew and the History of its Interpretation
Over the past two decades, scholars have become increasingly interested in the history of
the interpretation (Wirkungsgeschichte) of Matthew. Four lessons are already obvious. First,
the history of interpretation helps to evaluate contemporary proposals about intertextu-
ality. Second, some credible interpretations that were once popular have unaccountably
fallen out of the modern commentaries and need to be recovered. Third, engagement
with earlier interpreters helps to understand better ones own context and to appreciate
ones own limitations. Finally, the post-history of texts can be viewed as belonging to the
revelatory process itself.
ET 120/1 (2008) 17

731 J.R. Daniel Kirk, Conceptualising Fulfilment in Matthew


The question of how to understand the formula citations in the Gospel of Matthew is as
important as it is disputed. This study begins by reviewing the avenues previously pursued
for making sense of this collection of texts. Finding that typology is a helpful but ultimately
insufficient means of making sense of Matthews formula citations, a diachronic, narratival
typology is proposed. Rather than seeing Jesus as the one who embodies abstract or lim-
ited typological concepts, the author recognizes that Jesus life takes the shape of Israels
story. In assigning Israels role to Jesus, however, Matthew also opens up new avenues for
interpreting this story. And so Jesus is found as giving new substance to a narrative whose
shape is given by the scriptures of Israel. This conception of narrative embodiment in
Matthew holds promise not only for understanding Jesus relationship to the prophets but
also for understanding his relationship to the law.
TynB 59/1 (2008) 7798

732 Anders Runesson, Rethinking Early Jewish-Christian Relations: Matthean


Community History as Pharisaic Intragroup Conflict
The Matthean communities must be understood as Pharisaic communities, as was suggested
by Wolfgang Roth and Sean Freyne. The reason why the gospel of Matthew was written
was twofold: (1) to consolidate the emerging separate Christian association, providing a
foundation for its particular identity; (2) to convince Mattheans who had remained within
the Pharisaic association to join them.
JBL 127/1 (2008) 95132 (BL)

169
733 lian Cuvillier, Torah Observance and Radicalization in the First Gos-
pel. Matthew and First-Century Judaism: A Contribution to the Debate
Larticle analyse la tension, reprable dans quelques passages du premier vangile, entre
lobissance aux commandements se situant lintrieur du cadre donn par la Loi, et la
radicalisation laquelle invite le Jsus matthen. Lenqute dbute par une exgse dtaille
de Mt 5,1720. Dans un second temps, elle sintresse trois pisodes o la tension entre
obissance et radicalisation est apparente: les antithses du Sermon sur la Montagne
(5, 1748); la controverse sur le divorce (19,19); lpisode du jeune homme riche (19,1622).
Dans une troisime partie, linterrogation porte sur la cohrence des passages analyss avec
la dclaration de Jsus en Mt 23,23. Il rsulte de lenqute le constat que le rfrent du
premier vangile sest dplac: la colonne vertbrale structurant la thologie de Matthieu
et donc son identit religieuse nest plus prioritairement la Loi et lobissance aux
commandements, mais le Messie et son enseignement.
NTS 55/2 (2009) 144159

734 Matthias Konradt, Davids Sohn und Herr. Eine Skizze zum davidisch-
messianischen Kolorit der matthischen Christologie
The Davidic messiah is son of God, shepherd of Israel, and healer, but there is no recep-
tion of David the warlord in the gospel of Matthew.
Thomas Naumann u.a. (Hg.), Diasynchron. Beitrge zur Exegese, Theologie und Rezeption der hebrischen
Bibel; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009) 249277 (BL)

735 Andries van Aarde, Op die aarde net soos in die hemel: Matteus se
eskatologie as die koninkryk van die hemel wat reeds begin kom het
In the article time as both imagined and experienced is explained against the back-
ground of the first-century Mediterranean conceptualisation of time. The author argues
that Matthews narration of the demolition of the temple in Jerusalem concurs with his
belief that the first followers of Jesus experienced the vision of the coming of the Son of
man and that both these experiences are presented in Matthew as though Jesus crucifixion
and resurrection are incidents of the past. Matthews eschatology centres on the view that
the final consummation of time has already begun. The article explores the ethical appeal
which is communicated through such an eschatological reading scenario and finds it in
Jesus words On earth as it is in heaven.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 529565

736 tienne Grenet, La filiation selon Matthieu 12


The author studies the filiation theme in the first two chapters of the first gospel, a theme
which Matthew brings out in five cross-related waves of references to the OT. He didacti-
cally shows, the originality of the New Testament which progressively breaks free from the
old one: it is as if, on the threshold of the NT, a father were teaching his sons to talk.
NRT 130/3 (2008) 529549

737 Francois P. Viljoen, The significance of dreams and the star in Matthews
infancy narrative
The phenomena of dreams and the star of Bethlehem in Matthews birth narrative
(Mt 12) have intrigued scholars through the ages. Scholarship in this regard went through
the stages of identifying the origin of the material and of arguing the historicity of these
events. Currently scholarship is moving into a new stage of investigating the meaning
of these narratives. Without engaging the arguments developed by the first two stages

170
mentioned, the author investigates the significance of these unusual forms of revelation
in this article.
HTS 64/2 (2008) 845860

738 Irene Nowell, Jesus Great-Grandmothers: Matthews Four and More


Regarding the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (Mt 1:117), commentators
since Jerome have puzzled over the four women who interrupt the list. The author of
this paper asks if Matthews four Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Bathsheba maybe remind the
reader to look at all the women in the line that leads to Jesus. The great-grandmothers
named by Matthew appear at critical junctures in Israels history. Tamar is the last in the
ancestral period, proceeded by Sarah, Rebekah, and Lea. Rahab begins the pioneer period
and Ruth ends it. Bathsheba begins the monarchic period; the other queen with an extended
story is Athaliah. The most frequent characteristics noted for Matthews four women are
(1) that they were regarded as sinners or (2) foreigners; that (3) their relationships to the
fathers of their children are extraordinary or irregular; and (4) that their initiative led
to the furtherance of Gods plan and revealed the work of the Holy Spirit.
CBQ 70/1 (2008) 115

739 Leroy Andrew Huizenga, Matt 1:1: Son of Abraham as Christological


Category
Matt 1:1 raises interpretive questions regarding its scope as a potential title and the import
of the phrases son of David and son of Abraham. This article contends that son of
Abraham introduces a significant sacrificial Christological category centred on the figure
of Isaac which complements the Messianic aspects of Jesus Christs ministry associated
with the title son of David. Son of David and son of Abraham therefore stand in
parallel at the beginning of the Gospel of Matthew as two titular designations specify-
ing two Christological categories of the greatest import for the Gospel: Messiah (son of
David) and new Isaac (son of Abraham). Thus is solved the difficulty of a crucified
Messiah: Jesus is indeed the Messiah but also the anti-type of Isaac, whose sacrifice was
paradigmatic in Jewish tradition.
HBT 30/2 (2008) 103113

740 Benedict Thomas Viviano, The Adoration of the Magi: Matthew 2:123
and Theological Aesthetics
This article reexamines Matt 2:123 in the light of the late twentieth century movement
called theological aesthetics. After briefly sketching the movement with its emphasis on
beauty rather than truth or goodness as the starting point for this approach to theology
and the Bible, the article considers the often conflicted relationship between beauty and
truth in western civilization and the Bible. It then attempts a close reading of Matthew 2,
resulting in a new awareness of how carefully the evangelist has interwoven elements of
beauty and ugliness, truth and mendacity into his narrative.
RB 115/4 (2008) 546567

741 Klemens Stock, Nur einer ist euer Lehrer, Christus, nur einer ist euer
Vater, der im Himmel (Mt 23,810). Personale Beziehungen als Funda-
ment des Handelns nach der Bergpredigt
The most characteristic feature of the moral guidelines given in the Sermon on the Mount
is not the individual injunctions, but the underlying ethos. This ethos is one of relationship:
believers must act as sons and daughters of God and follow Gods example.
J.N. Aletti et al. (eds.), Biblical Exegesis in Progress; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2009)
299333 (BL)

171
742 Armand Puig i Trrech, Jesus and the Commandment not to steal
Despite the fact that Matt does not directly typify stealing as an antithesis in Mt 5, generos-
ity represents the radicalisation of the commandment not to steal. If ones heart is full of
generosity, then it does not want to steal nor, when robbed, want to respond with revenge.
Jesus position with regard to this commandment has to be seen in a broader context: his
assessment of riches and money as barriers to entry to the Kingdom. The decisive text is
the logion that states the impossibility of having two masters (Matt 6,24 par). Generosity
is possible because the heart, which is able to give up the riches of this world, focuses on
the treasure of the Kingdom alone. In Jesus ethics, then, the commandment not to steal
is easily kept to. The question is not about sharing out inheritances (Luke 12,1314) but
about understanding Lukes summary of Jesus position: a mans life does not consist in
the abundance of his possessions (Luke 12,15).
SaSc 6/1 (2008) 5872

743 Petra von Gemnden, Anger and aggression as dealt with in classical
antiquity and in the Sermon on the Mount
The problem of managing ones own anger, and dealing with the aggression of others,
and overcoming both was tackled in ancient pagan times as well as in Early Christianity.
This paper describes the ways antiquity treated this issue in different historical contexts,
firstly, with two examples taken from pagan Greco-Roman times (Seneca and Plutarch);
secondly, with two examples from the Jewish tradition (Prov. and Sir.); and finally, by looking
at the first and the last two antitheses of the Sermon on the Mount. As a distinguishing
feature of the last text the author entitles the insistence of ones own value, of ones own
superiority when dealing with the anger and aggression of others.
AJBI 32 (2006) 157196

744 F.P. Viljoen, The double call for joy, Rejoice and be glad (Matt. 5:12),
as conclusion of the Matthean macarisms
The double call for joy in Matt. 5:12 functions as an interpretation, climax and conclusion
of the preceding beatitudes, but also as a transition to the following theme of being the
salt of the earth and the light of the world. (Matthews) Jesus uses here a typical Gattung
of macarisms which developed from ancient literature, and which relates specifically to their
use in Jewish literature. These macarisms referred to prophesied eschatological salvation
which would instil joy to righteous people under current hostile circumstances. The climax
in the sequence of macarisms is found in the double call for joy which can be regarded
as the tenth macarism, though in an elaborated form, thus interpreting the meaning and
implications of the preceding macarisms.
ATh 28/1 (2008) 205221

745 Mayer I. Gruber, Jeremiah 3:14:2 between Deuteronomy 24 and Mat-


thew 5: Jeremiahs Exercise in Ethical Criticism
Matt 5:2148 with its departure from Old Testament legal regulations has a precedent in
prophetic ethical criticism. In Jer 3:1, God informs us that, contrary to the rigid standards
that Deut 24:14 requires of men and women who have exchanged partners, God is
exceedingly liberal with respect to his unfaithful spouse, the personified land of Judah.
Chaim Cohen et al. (eds.), Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible; Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. (2008),
vol. 1, 233249 (BL)

746 Gnter Rhser, Die Antithesen der Bergpredigt in neueren Bibelber-


setzungen
A comparison of three of the latest German Bible translations of Mt 5:1748 (Gute
Nachricht Bibel, K. Berger / C. Nord, Bibel in gerechter Sprache) shows that in all of
172
them the reader is directed towards a certain theological concept. This is achieved through
the headlines as well as through individual translations. The headline Taking the will of
God seriously, which is chosen by GNB, illustrates best that Gods manifested will is not
simply interpreted or surpassed by Jesus, but fulfilled, made perfect. Therefore a
translation like And I say unto you (Ich nun sage euch) is better than But I say unto
you, because the former wording expresses the double aspect of Jesus unique authority
as well as the continuity between the former and the eschatological will of God, which
Jesus proclaims.
TBe 40/2 (2009) 110124

747 David W. Jones, The Betrothal View of Divorce and Remarriage


The practice of betrothal in Bible times involved a time period, usually twelve months in
length, during which a couple was considered morally and legally married, even though
they had not yet consummated their relationship. This practice as the background for an
interpretation of Matthew 5:32 and 19:9 is a position that deserves a place at the table
of moral discussion.
BS 165/1 (2008) 6885

748 Reinhard Neudecker, Rabbinic Literature and the Gospels: The Case
of the Antithesis of Love for Ones Enemies
Matth 5:44 seems to reflect an exegesis of Lev 19:18. The relevant rabbinical tradition,
recorded in the Talmud, is much later than the New Testament, but may nevertheless
echo old tradition. The Talmudic passage explains love of the enemy as follows: if
someone is chopping meat and in doing so strikes his other hand, does he then avenge
himself on the hand that held the knife by striking that hand as well? Since all Israelites
form one single body, anyone who takes vengeance on his neighbour punishes himself
(Talmud Jerushalmi, Nedarim 9,4 = 41c). The article also comments on two standard
collections of rabbinical texts for New Testament exegesis: the manuals of Paul Billerbeck
and Jean Bonsirven.
J.N. Aletti et al. (eds.), Biblical Exegesis in Progress; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2009)
265297 (BL)

749 Michael Joseph Brown, Performance Anxiety: the Use of hypokrits in


Matthew 6:18
Matth 6:18 aims at reorienting the Christian appropriation of the Jewish cultic prac-
tices of almsgiving, prayer, and fasting, at least as perceived by the author. Through the
introduction of the hypocrite, the author is able to assess the adequacy of these perfor-
mances in terms of intended audience and outcome. Contrary to the self-importance of
the hypocrite, the image presented in the narrative is one of a religious practitioner who
takes with utmost seriousness his obligation to perform these acts.
NT.S 129; Patrick Gray et al. (eds.), Scripture and Traditions; Brill, Leiden (2008) 115136 (BL)

750 Uwe-Karsten Plisch, Perlen vor die Sue Mt 7,6 im Licht von
EvThom 93
The pearls and swine saying is presumably a proverb, while the dog saying originated as
a rule about not giving the sacrificial meat to dogs. The ones that turn around to attack
are of course the dogs.
ZAC 13/2 (2009) 5561 (BL)

173
751 Eric Ottenheijm, Learning and Practicing: Uses of an Early Jewish
Discourse in Matthew (7:2427) and Rabbinic Literature
The Matthean passage has parallels in Mishna Avot 4:10; 3:18 and Avot de Rabbi Nathan
a 24. The rabbinic and the Matthean communities shared a reservoir of parabolic meta-
phors to address the problem of learning and practicing. The issue at stake is the ideal
social structure of the community and in particular its elite.
Jewish and Christian Perspectives 17; Marcel Poorthuis et al. (eds.), Interaction between Judaism and
Christianity in History, Religion, Art and Literature; Brill, Leiden (2009) 4564 (BL)

752 Dale C. Allison, Healing in the Wings of His Garment: The Synoptics
and Malachi 4:2
Why do the sick touch specifically Jesus kraspedon (fringe: Matt 9:2021; 14:36; Mark
6:56; Luke 8:44)? Allison surveys the answers given by recent exegetes, adding that in
the Testimony Book of Ps-Epiphanius 7:30 (R.V. Hotchkiss, trans., A Pseudo-Epiphanius
Testimony Book, Missoula, Mont. 1974, 38) another explanation can be found: That the
fringe of his garment would heal Malachi says: to those who fear his name, the sun of
righteousness rises, having healing in his wings (Mai 4:2). Allison explores this exegetical
tradition, arguing that it may well be very old, and even current among first-generation
Jewish Christians.
J. Ross Wagner et al. (eds.), The Word Leaps the Gap; Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich. (2008)
132146 (BL)

753 Peter Phillips, Casting out the Treasure: A New Reading of Matthew
13.52
Matthew 13.52c has been translated, since the time of the Church fathers, as though
referring to a householder selecting items from a storehouse to share a metaphor of
display. However, this translation does not deal adequately with the verb ekballei. This
article explores an alternative reading which maintains the normative semantic domain
for the verb in terms of disposal or expulsion. The use of the verb elsewhere in Greek
and biblical literature in general and in the Gospel of Matthew in particular is studied
and the results of this study applied to apparent exceptions within Matthews Gospel. The
article argues that these exceptions are unnecessary and that the verb is used consistently
in terms of disposal or expulsion. This thesis is then applied to Mt. 13.52 to provide
a new reading. The article finally offers a possible reconstruction of why Patristic writers
chose to re-interpret the original text.
JSNT 31/1 (2008) 324

754 Michael H. Crosby, Rethinking a Key Biblical Text and Catholic Church
Governance
For years Matthew 16:1719 has been used in the Roman Church to legitimize a certain
approach to its institutional form of governance that virtually excludes all the baptized
but the hierarchy. Using the historical-critical method accepted by the Pontifical Biblical
Commission (PBC), this article shows that this Petrine text is absent in its parallels in
Mark and Luke. Furthermore, in official church teaching, which stresses Peters binding
and loosing as a key justifier for this form of governance, no discussion is made of the
parallel text of binding and loosing in Matthew 18:1720, which articulates how this
power is to be used in and by the community. Using the PBCs document on the appropri-
ate Interpretation of the Bible in the Church, this article argues that such a selective approach
to Matthew 16:1719 reveals an example of the PBCs warning against texts being used
in fundamentalistic ways which support ideological positions.
BTB 38/1 (2008) 3743

174
755 Susan M. Rieske, What Is the Meaning of This Generation in Matthew
23:36?
No major theological doctrine rests on the meaning of a single phrase. However, a phrase,
properly interpreted, often serves as an important signpost on the journey toward a correct
theology. This is precisely the case for the phrase this generation in the sayings of Jesus.
This article examines the usage of this phrase in Jesus judgment against the scribes and
Pharisees in Matthew 23:36. Using the Old Testament as a key for unlocking the meaning
of this phrase, the author postulates that with this generation Jesus was referring to the
wicked people of all time. These individuals are grouped together corporately in guilt and
in judgment as an evil family whose spiritual origins are not from God.
BS 165/2 (2008) 209226

756 Jan Lambrecht, The Line of Thought in Matthew 24,135. A Discussion


of Vicky Balabanskis Reading
A reading of Mt 24,335 is possible without assuming the two-sequences schema as Vicky
Balabanski proposes in her recent article (NTS 54/2, 2008, 161175; IRBS 54:802). In
vv. 4b14 the beginning of the birth pains is referred to; in vv. 1528 the great tribulation
caused by the destruction of the temple is depicted; and in vv. 2931 the parousia of the
Son of Man is briefly narrated. In vv. 3235 the Matthean Jesus confirms that his disciples
will be able to observe events that announce his return as Son of Man in glory as well as
the end of the age; he equally confirms that his words will remain valid. The two ques-
tions in v. 3 are answered, the first concerning the destruction of the temple in vv. 1522,
the second with regard to the sign in v. 30. The evangelist, most probably influenced by
his postpaschal church experiences, twice broadens the scene, at the end of vv. 914 (no
longer strictly the beginning) and at the end of vv. 2328 (no longer just the temple and
Judea). Like other authors, the evangelist does not and cannot affirm all his favourite ideas
everywhere and at the same time. Not all his texts are mutually significant; 24,135 and
28,1828 should not be read in dialogue.
EThL 84/4 (2008) 519528

757 Hermann Josef Riedl, Seid wachsam und bereit! Das Gleichnis von
den zehn Jungfrauen (Mt 25,113) im Kontext rabbinischer Gleichnisse
Ein intertextueller Vergleich zwischen Mt 25,113 und dem Gleichnis vom unbestimmt
angesetzten Gastmahl geht der Frage nach, ob sich aus der Kenntnis rabbinischer Gleich-
nisse Folgerungen fr die Interpretation der Parabel von den zehn Jungfrauen ergeben und
welche gemeinsamen narrativen Konventionen in diesen Texten vorliegen. Der leserori-
entierte und textzentrierte Ansatz verdeutlicht, dass die Leser der Gleichnisse durch eine
Reihe von Erzhltechniken kognitiv und emotional gefhrt werden.
SNTU 33 (2008) 175190

758 Margit Eckholt, Das Gleichnis von den trichten und klugen Jungfrauen
Mt 25,113
Anhand des Gleichnisses von den trichten und den klugen Jungfrauen wird hier erzh-
lerisch, exegetisch und im Rckgriff auf die Ikonografie der Eingangshalle des Freiburger
Mnsters dargelegt, was im Christentum eschatologische Existenz bedeutet: Leben im
Angesicht des Endes und in der Hoffnung auf Gottes Entgegenkommen.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 245248 (CB)

175
759 Bettina Eltrop, Das Jngste Gericht im Horizont von Gerechtigkeit, Liebe
und Solidaritt. Mt 25,3146 von seinen alttestamentlichen Bezugstexten
her gelesen
Der Gott des Alten Testaments ist der Gott des Neuen Testaments und der Gott Jesu: ein
Gott der Liebe, der gegen Unterdrckung, Lebensverachtung und todbringende Mchte
und damit fr gelingendes Leben fr alle steht. Von seinen atl. Wurzeln her gelesen geht
es in Mt 25,3146 um die Hoffnung auf Gottes Gerechtigkeit, die nichts anderes ist als
das Offenbarwerden Gottes selbst und die Vollendung seines guten Willens fr die gesamte
Schpfung.
BiKi 63/4 (2008) 219225

760 Sigurd Grindheim, Ignorance Is Bliss: Attitudinal Aspects of the Judg-


ment according to Works in Matthew 25:3146
This paper argues that the righteous in Matt 25:3146 stand out not only by their works
of mercy, but also by their attitudes. Comparable descriptions of judgment emphasize the
self-confidence of the righteous, based on their own knowledge of their good deeds. In
contrast, those acquitted in Matt 25:3146 are characterized by their ignorance of their
own righteousness and their overall inability to help themselves. The passage therefore
serves as a fitting conclusion to the teaching on discipleship in the Gospel of Matthew,
contrasting the true disciples with the hypocrites (cf. 7:2123) and bringing together the
twin Matthean emphases on the faith of the helpless and the works of the righteous.
NT 50/4 (2008) 313331

761 Olivier-Thomas Venard, La parole comme enjeu narratif et thologique


dans la passion selon saint Matthieu: un commentaire littraire de Mt
2628
In the context of an overall investigation of literary artistry in the Gospel according to Mat-
thew, this study shows how the Passion Narrative gives rise to a particular view of the
proclamation of the Good News in its origin, development, and meaning. Then a few
possible consequences are drawn concerning the quest of the historical Jesus.
RB 115/1 (2008) 5696

762 Catherine Sider Hamilton, His Blood Be Upon Us: Innocent Blood
and the Death of Jesus in Matthew
Explicating the paradigm of innocent blood, the author demonstrates how the legend
of the death of Zechariah informs and interprets Jesus death and the peoples climactic
words in Mt 27:25. The result is twofold. (1) The paradigm of innocent blood places the
narrative squarely within a Jewish pattern of reflection on the destruction of Jerusalem.
(2) Precisely that pattern of reflection suggests a more nuanced reading of the fate of
Jerusalem in Matthew, and so of the peoples words in 27:25, than either the traditional
or the ironic reading allows. With the traditional reading, the paradigm of innocent blood
insists on the ominous character of the peoples cry. Yet it leaves room also for hope: the
people who bear the real consequences of innocent blood are still Gods people, and it is
for their salvation, now in Jesus as many times before, that God acts.
CBQ 70/1 (2008) 82100

176
763 David C. Sim, Matthew, Paul and the origin and nature of the gentile
mission: The great commission in Matthew 28:1620 as an anti-Pauline
tradition
The Great Commission at the conclusion of Matthews Gospel is one of its key texts. In
this tradition the risen Christ overturns the previous restriction of the mission to Israel
alone and demands that the disciples evangelise all the nations. The gospel they were
to proclaim included the observance of the Torah by Jew and Gentile like. Matthews
account of the origin and nature of the Gentile mission differs from Pauls view as it is
found in the epistle to the Galatians. Paul maintains that he had been commissioned by
the resurrected Lord to evangelise the Gentiles and that the gospel he was to preach did
not involve obedience to the Torah. The later and alternative version of Matthew can be
understood as an attempt by the evangelist to undermine these claims by Paul. Such an
interpretation is consistent with Matthews anti-Pauline polemic that emerges elsewhere
in the Gospel.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 377392

Mark: general individual passages


764 Martin Ebner, Das Markusevangelium. Neu bersetzt und kommentiert
Ebner offers a fresh German translation of Mark that aims at being literal in order to
convey the spirit of the original as closely as possible. Ebner dates Mark to the years
immediately following 70 CE. The most likely place of writing is the city of Rome, for
which the Roman coin (quadrans) mentioned in Mark 12:42 is but one piece of evidence.
The commentary includes an interesting theological map of Mark 38 (p. 176): a map
that shows that the author sets the scenes either west of the Sea of Galilee (in Jewish
territory) or east of the Sea of Galilee (in Gentile territory).
Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart (2008) 1176 (BL)

765 Udo Schnelle (ed.), Texte zum Markusevangelium


Wettstein (16931754), professor in Amsterdam, published in 1751/2 a critical edition of
the New Testament in two heavy tomes. Of particular relevance is the apparatus with
copious references to parallel passages from classical and Hellenistic authors. Various col-
lections of ancient sources relevant for the study of the NT have benefited from Wettsteins
work. In 1996, a new Wettstein began to be published, now with the ancient references
in German translation, with occasional addition of individual words or expressions in
the original language. The present volume uses the material collected by Wettstein, adds
further excerpts, and presents it in the form of a running commentary to the gospel of
Mark. Although the relevance of the parallel passages is not always clear, this is a most
valuable scholarly resource, and it is to be hoped that the material here collected will
challenge scholars to consider the fact that early Christianity belongs more to Hellenistic
Judaism than to proto-rabbinic Judaism (as suggested by the analogous commentary on the
NT from Talmud and Midrash, by Paul Billerbeck). Occasionally, one wonders whether
the editors decision was wise, e.g. when offering a reconstruction of what may have been
the original wording of the Testimonium Flavianum rather than the text found in the
Manuscripts of Josephuss Jewish Antiquities (p. 14); or when using an eighteenth-century
German translation of an ancient Greek source (pp. 13, 42); or when translating tribn as
Kutte (rather than Mantel, p. 41).
Neuer Wettstein. Texte zum Neuen Testament aus Griechentum und Hellenismus, Band I.1.1; de Gruyter,
Berlin (2008) VII/1879 (BL)

177
766 Hans F. Bayer, Das Evangelium nach Markus
This evangelical commentary relies for its historical perspective upon the work of Richard
Bauckham ( Jesus and the Eyewitnesses, 2006). Fifteen special studies, scattered through the
commentary, discuss important historical questions in the form of small essays; some of
the subjects are the Pharisees, 7Q5 (the author does not commit himself to seeing it as
a fragment of Mark), Hellenism, the messianic kingdom, the Roman system of taxation,
the relationship between following Jesus and loyalty to ones family, Pontius Pilate, the
chronology of Mark 15:25 and John 19:14. This commentary forms part of what is the
first scholarly New Testament commentary in German that is written from an American-
style evangelical perspective.
Historisch-theologische Auslegung; SCM R. Brockhaus, Witten (2008) 1651

767 Johannes Majoros-Danowski, Elija im Markusevangelium. Ein Buch im


Kontext des Judentums
The way in which the gospel of Mark presents John the Baptist and Jesus is strongly remi-
niscent of the figure of Elijah (and occasionally Elisha) as found in the Old Testament.
Unlike earlier research on this striking fact, Majoros strives to offer a complete, rather than
piecemeal, exegesis of the relevant passages. The authors conclusion is that Mark uses a
haggadic method for his presentation. Among the many suggestions made by the author,
the following ones merit mentioning: (1) the gospel of Mark most likely originated some
time between 59 and 61 CE; (2) the institution of baptism seems to echo the baptism of
Naaman the Syrian by Elisha, as told in 2 Kings 5:14; (3) the allusion to the heavenly
ascent of Elija in Mark 15:3339 (of which the language is based on 2 Kings 2:1115)
implies the heavenly ascent of Jesus. This is a fresh and valuable new perspective on
the gospel of Mark. Oddly, the gospel of Mark does not figure in the otherwise very
complete scriptural index.
BWANT 180; Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2008) 1284 (BL)

768 Susanne Pramann, Point of View im Markusevangelium


Diese narratologische Analyse des Point of View im Markusevangelium kommt zu dem
Ergebnis, dass das Markusevangelium keine unmittelbare Erzhlung ist. Es berwiegen
diegetische Erzhlstrategien, der Rezeptionsprozess wird von der Stimme der Erzhlerin
gesteuert. Eine individuelle Haltung der Erzhlerin zu den erzhlten Ereignissen wird dabei
jedoch nicht sichtbar. Weder reflektiert die Erzhlerin die erzhlten Ereignisse, noch tut
sie ihre Meinung kund. Im Hinblick auf die Darstellung von Innenwelt der Figuren ist
ein interessantes Ergebnis dieser Studie, dass innere Regungen der Figuren in der Regel
uerlich zum Ausdruck kommen, zum Beispiel in Form von Gesten und Gebrden oder
indem sie zur Sprache gebracht werden.
Europische Hochschulschriften Reihe XXIII Theologie 887, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main (2008)
1323 (SP)

769 Friedrich Gustav Lang, Maarbeit im Markus-Aufbau. Stichometrische


Analyse und theologische Interpretation
Der Markus-Aufbau ist uerst kunstvoll gestaltet: inhaltlich analog einer antiken Tragdie,
formal mit ausgefeilter, stichometrisch rekonstruierbarer Disposition. Prolog (1,113) und
Epilog (16,18) rahmen fnf Akte: 1,143,6; 3,78,21; 8,2210,45; 10,4613,37; 14,1
15,47. Mit dem 15-Silben-Stichos als Mazeile betrgt der Umfang insgesamt 48 34 =
1632 Stichoi; davon entfallen z.B. auf Galila (1,148,21) und Juda (10,116,8) jeweils
genau 21 34 = 714. Die Gliederung in Tabellenform zeigt im Einzelnen vielfach Ringkom-
positionen sowie Proportionen des Goldenen Schnitts, was literarischen Anspruch erkennen
lsst. Theologisch hchst reflektiert unterscheidet der Autor ( Johannes Markus?) zwischen
Christus (Knig Israels) und Gottessohn (universale Herrschaft), zwischen vorsterlichem

178
Anfang des Evangeliums und sterlichem Evangelium, wobei Galila via relecture
zum Ort der Ostererscheinungen wird.
BN 140 (2009) 111134; 141 (2009) 101115

770 C. Clifton Black, Mark as Historian of Gods Kingdom


In every major aspect of Marks Gospel Jesus teaching, couched in riddles (4:134;
12:112); his works, at once blatant yet secreted, unsatisfying, and inexplicable (3:712;
4:3541; 5:120; 6:4556; 7:3137; 8:1121; 11:1320); a messiahship crowned by
contemptuous execution and Gods silence (15:2239); a vindication announced though
never witnessed and immediately hushed (15:38; 16:18) ambivalent traces of Gods
intervention are acknowledged without rational explanation or any verification whatever.
At days end Mark proves nothing. It is as though the author realized, as both theologian
and historian, that such kingdom as Jesus presented is intrinsically impatient of proof,
even or especially for sympathetic readers. By intuitive understanding, the historian of
Gods kingdom attempts to convey the inner being of the future as it has pushed its way
into the past.
CBQ 71/1 (2009) 6483

771 Camille Focant, Une christologie de type mystique (Marc 1.116.8)


Comment lidentit narrative de Jsus se dcline-t-elle dans lvangile selon Marc? La
question est traite en quatre tapes, commencer par un examen de limpact christolo-
gique des limites du rcit marcien, son prologue et sa finale suspendue. Dans un deuxime
temps, lattention se porte sur le dveloppement de 1intrigue de situation partir des
actions du protagoniste et des ractions quelles suscitent. En troisime lieu, 1intrigue de
rvlation et lvolution des manires de dsigner Jsus est analyse. Enfin, sous mode de
synthse, lhypothse est avance dune christologie mystique de Marc, hypothse prfre
la thorie devenue classique du secret messianique.
NTS 55/1 (2009) 121

772 David J. Neville, Moral Vision and Eschatology in Marks Gospel: Coher-
ence or Conflict?
Neville offers a review of recent interpretations of Markan eschatology by J. Carroll,
T.-S. B. Liew, M.A. Tolbert, K.D. Dyer, N.T. Wright, J. Riches. The traditional parousia
interpretation of Marks future-oriented Son-of-Man sayings has not been overturned.
On the other hand, the main alternative interpretation of these sayings has not relieved
the tension between Marks moral vision and his eschatology, except perhaps in K.D.
Dyer, The Prophecy on the Mount: Mark 13 and the Gathering of the New Community, 1998. Both
interpretations incline toward envisaging God resorting to violent retribution to achieve
the divine purpose, despite Marks vastly different idea of Gods way of working in the
world via the ministry of Jesus.
JBL 127/2 (2008) 359384 (BL)

773 Ernest van Eck, Eskatologie en koninkryk in die Markusevangelie


This article investigates the concepts of eschatology and kingdom in Mark from a nar-
ratological point of view. Special attention is given to the narrators use of story time
and plotted time, the narrative function of Mark, 13, and the Son of man sayings in the
Gospel. The two most important conclusions reached are that Mark uses the Son of man
sayings in a non titular way, and that the coming of the Son of man (parousia) refers to
Jesus vindication by God at his resurrection. In Mark the kingdom is equated with Jesus
new household, a household that replaces the temple. The concepts of kingdom (new
household), eschatology and Son of man are thus so closely linked in Markss narrative
that eschatology is the kingdom and the kingdom is eschatology. A possible socio-historical

179
setting for Marks community, in which the above understanding of the concepts of king-
dom, eschatology and Son of man sayings would have made sense is also postulated.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 567597

774 Mark McVann, The Passion of John the Baptist and Jesus before Pilate:
Marks Warnings about Kings and Governors
This article compares the fates of John the Baptist and Jesus in Marks Gospel by exam-
ining the parallel structures of their encounters with unjust authority: Herod and Pilate.
It is argued that herodian and Roman justice are indistinguishable and that Mark warns
his readers that they should expect no better treatment from the authorities with whom
they may have to deal than John and Jesus had. It is also argued that because of this
portrayal of both Judean and Roman authorities as shameless, Mark is not in any way
trying to illustrate that Jesus is politically neutral and that Rome therefore has no reason
to regard Christians with suspicion: the last thing Mark does in his Gospel is flatter unjust
and shameless men, no matter their social rank. His objective is instruction in disciple-
ship, nothing less.
BTB 38/4 (2008) 152157

775 A. Edward Gardner, Bad News and Good News: Comparing the Nar-
ratives of the Death of John and the Anointing of Jesus in Mark
The narrative analogies of Johns death (Mk 6:1429) and the anointing of Jesus
(Mk 14;111), when compared and contrasted, show how interconnected and parallel the
narratives are. They illumine one another and the death of Jesus and the death of John.
The death of John is the central crisis of the Gospel of Mark, and, for Jesus, it is his
defining moment. The anointing of Jesus defines Jesus way forward to his sacrificial death
on the cross as his response to Johns death and the precedent that it provided. The bad
news of Johns death become transformed in Jesus anointing as the good news of Gods
saving purpose. Johns life is taken from him, but Jesus gives his life for the world.
Encounter 69/4 (2008) 6573

776 Angelika Strotmann, Der markinische Petrus im Kontext des antiken


Mnnlichkeitskonzeptes. Ein Charakter in Entwicklung
Die markinische Petrusdarstellung scheint sich an der Mnnlichkeitskonstruktion der
griech.-rm. Antike zu orientieren, zeichnet aber keinen perfekten mnnlichen Cha-
rakter. Die Lebendigkeit des markinischen Petrusbildes basiert dabei auf der Mischung
aus Eigenschaften, die in der Antike jeweils als mnnlich und weiblich definiert wurden.
Problematisch fr christliche Frauen und Mnner heute ist jedoch die positive Bewertung
mnnlich definierter Eigenschaften.
BiKi 63/3 (2008) 156161

777 Johannes Klein, David, Jesus und der Sabbat (Mk 2,2328; 1 Sam 21,16).
Eine Rabbinische Diskussion
In Mk 2,2328 weist Jesus auf ein Ereignis aus 1 Sam 21,7 hin, wonach David Schau-
brote gegessen habe, um seinen Hunger zu stillen. Der Evangelist referiert die Ereignisse
aus 1 Sam jedoch ganz anders, als sie dort berliefert sind. In der Forschung ist deshalb
allgemein anerkannt, dass Mk 23,25f sekundr in seinem Kontext sind. Im vorliegenden
Beitrag wird anhand von Talmudtexten und Targum Jonathan gezeigt, dass es sich in den
genannten Versen nicht um einen Zuwachs, sondern lediglich um eine fehlerhafte Wieder-
gabe der Worte Jesu handelt. In bMen 95b vertritt R. Simeon die Auffassung, dass David

180
die Diener des Hohenpriesters am Sabbat beim Brotbacken antraf. Dieser Hohepriester
ist es dann auch, der das Essen der Schaubrote am Sabbat erlaubt. Die Jnger Jesu raufen
am Sabbat hren aus, so wie die Diener des Hohenpriesters am Sabbat Brot backten.
Jesus erlaubt das Essen der ausgerauften hren, so wie der Hohepriester das Essen der
Schaubrote erlaubt hatte. Damit wird deutlich, dass sich Jesus nicht in Parallele zu David,
sondern zum Hohenpriester gesetzt hat.
SaSc 6/1 (2008) 2029

778 John J. Vincent, Outworkings: Twelve as Christian Community


Practice Interpretation of Gospel passages was pursued in the Expository Times with
Mark chapter 2 as heard and lived within a small street-corner inner-city congregation
(ET 118/7, 2007, 326330; IRBS 53:801). Here, distinctive aspects of the tradition of the
calling and tasking of the Twelve disciples in Mark chapter 3 are responded to in the life
of the alternative group, intentional community, and Christian para-church. The growing
phenomenon of post-denominational fresh expressions communities and congregations
might find commonality also in the Twelve-type Christian community.
ET 119/12 (2008) 582588

779 Peter-Ben Smit, Eine neutestamentliche Geburtstagsfeier und die Cha-


rakterisierung des Knigs Herodes Antipas (Mk 6,2129)
The celebration of Herods birthday is analyzed with a close look to similar general con-
temporary ceremonies. Not only are Herods qualities as a ruler disqualified by the motif
of the birthday celebration and its references to pagan traditions, the reputation of all the
guests is called into question by the conversation and the dance performed by Herodias
daughter. The celebration can therefore be seen as an anti-celebration, negating the usual
attributes of a sovereign. The characterization of Herod may lead to a further examination
of the feeding in Mk 6:3244 under comparative views. Seven aspects of comparison are
presented, leading to the final conclusion that Herods anti-gospel clearly contrasts, and
thus emphasizes the glory of the kingdom of god.
BZ 53/1 (2009) 2946 (SSt)

780 Jason Robert Combs, A Ghost on the Water? Understanding an Absurdity


in Mark 6:4950
According to ancient belief, water is not the ideal location for a specters nightly stroll. In
fact, it represents a hazard for ghosts. It is clear that no one familiar with this tradition
would believe that a ghost could walk on water.
JBL 127/2 (2008) 345358 (BL)

781 Kenneth Bailey, A Banquet of Death and a Banquet of Life: A Con-


textualized Study of Mark 6:152
Als ein markinisches Mosaik versteht der Verf. die Zusammenstellung einzelner Ereignisse
aus dem Leben Jesu durch den Evangelisten. Die auf den ersten Blick unabhngigen
Episoden ergeben durch ihre Verknpfung ein greres, theologisch durchdachtes Bild.
In diesem Beitrag wird dies anhand Mk 6:152 demonstriert: Dem herodianischen Mahl
des Todes wird hier die Speisung der Menschen durch ihren guten Hirten und neuen
Moses Jesus entgegengestellt.
ThRev 29/2 (2008) 6782 (DL)

181
782 Jrgen K. Zangenberg, Observations on the Function, Character and
Localization of the New Testament Toponym Gennesareth (Mark 6:53;
Matthew 14:34)
Before the period of the crusades the toponym referred to the lake and the plain el-Guwr
west of it. The toponym in Mark and Matthew does not refer to an individual settlement
but to the fertile plain north of Magdala.
NT.S 130; Rieuwerd Buitenwerf et al. (eds.), Jesus, Paul, and Early Christianity; Brill, Leiden (2008)
439470 (BL)

783 Yvan Bourquin, Point de vue et vision floue chez Marc


La gurison relate en Mc 8,2226 a toujours intrigu: que vient-elle faire cet endroit de
la narration de Marc, au milieu dune squence o il est essentiellement question de Jsus et
des disciples? Lexgse historico-critique tend ne voir dans ce rcit quune interpolation
maladroite. Dans lanalyse narrative quil en propose, H.V. Bourquin dfend lhypothse
quil pourrait sagir dune mise en abyme de lensemble du deuxime vangile.
ETR 83/3 (2008) 405412

784 Wim Hendriks, Marc 8:26: ne le dis personne dans le village


The prohibition to the healed blind man, do not even go into the village, is rather remark-
able: if the blind man doesnt live in the village, the prohibition is superfluous, but on
the other hand, if his house is in the village, the prohibition is nonsensical. According to
Marie-Joseph Lagrange, the intention of Jesus, when he sends the man home, clearly is to
keep the man from speaking. But the canonized text does not say such a thing. Did Jesus
say: go to thy house and tell no one in the village? According to Willoughby Charles Allen, this
reading of Codex Bezae may be original.
RB 114/2 (2007) 255272

785 Simon S. Lee, Jesus Transfiguration and the Believers Transformation:


A Study of the Transfiguration and Its Development in Early Christian
Writings
The transfiguration of Jesus and three of his closest followers is told in Mark 9:210,
and often retold in other contexts. The author of this monograph offers a long exegetical
chapter on Mark 9 (pp. 948), and then considers: Paul and the transfiguration (with special
emphasis on 2 Cor 3); the transfiguration story rewritten in Matthew and Luke; further
accounts in 2 Peter and the non-canonical Apocalypse of Peter; finally, Acts of Peter 2021.
One structural feature pointed out by the author is that in Marks account, three earthly
figures (Peter, James, and John) are opposed to three heavenly figures (Moses, Elijah, and
Jesus). While in Mark (and the other gospels), only Jesus is transformed, Pauline and later
texts refer to the transformation of believers as well. Lee traces the transfiguration motif
back to its scriptural source that he finds in the account of Moses transfiguration on
Mt Sinai (Exod 34:29). The Old Testament echo can also be discerned in the fact that
the six days of Mark 9:2 echo Exod 24:16.
WUNT II.265; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2009) XI/1244 (BL)

786 Peter Spitaler, Welcoming a Child as a Metaphor for Welcoming Gods


Kingdom: A Close Reading of Mark 10.1316
The purpose of this article is threefold: to analyze the structural markers in Mk 10.1316
that signal that the reader should render the simile in 10.15 welcoming the kingdom
of God as one welcomes a child, to sketch the narrative and symbolic functions of this

182
simile within its immediate literary context, and to highlight those aspects of 10.1316
that indicate this passage is an expanded Markan relecture of 9.3337.
JSNT 31/4 (2009) 423446

787 Andrew D. Clarke, Do not Judge who is Worthy and Unworthy: Clem-
ents Warning not to Speculate about the Rich Young Mans Response
(Mark 10.1731)
Since the earliest commentators, Marks account of the rich man has almost universally
been read as evidently suggesting the characters ultimate rejection of Jesus call. However,
if this man is typical of Marks portrayal of minor characters, then he may be regarded
as a positive foil to the disciples; and his sadness in departure is nonetheless consistent
with considered reflection on the severe cost of discipleship. Such a reading is also con-
sistent with Mk 810, which challenges that true discipleship is indeed costly, and not
to be entered upon lightly. Jesus subsequently gives a critical rejoinder to the precipitate
self-congratulation of the disciples many who are first will be last, and the last will be
first. Marks silence about whether or not the rich man did, after due reflection, accept
Jesus invitation encourages the reader to focus rather on the cost of following Jesus, than
speculating about what has been left unstated.
JSNT 31/4 (2009) 447468

788 John M. McDermott, Didnt Jesus Know He Was God? Mark 10:1722
Criticizing Benedict XVIs Jesus of Nazareth, G. Vermes argued from Mark 10:18 that
Jesus did not consider himself divine. After reviewing current exegetical opinion, this
article analyzes the text in the context of Marks whole Gospel to demonstrate Jesus
consciousness of his divinity, his use of analogy (negative theology), and the congruence
of his claim for absolute adherence with his preaching of the Kingdom of God. The
pericopes implications for discipleship and evangelical poverty are further explicated in
Mark 10:2331. Gods love demands an absolute response since he first emptied himself
for mankinds redemption.
IThQ 73/34 (2008) 307333

789 Ernest van Eck, Jesus en geweld: Markus 12:112 (en par) en Thomas 65
An ideological-critical reading of Mark 12:112 (and par) indicates that the canonical
versions of the Tenants in which Jesus condones violence cannot be seen as reflecting
the historical Jesus attitude towards violence. Jesus stance on violence is rather reflected
in GThom 65, in which Jesus is pictured as criticizing all kinds of violence. This study also
reiterates the necessity of reading the Biblical text from an ideological-critical perspective
to avoid the peril of gospelizing Jesus.
HTS 64/4 (2008) 17351765

790 Jean-Pierre Lmonon, Der Denar des Kaisers. Eine Fangfrage der
Phariser
Phariser und Anhnger des Herodes stellen Jesus die Frage (Mk 12,1317): Muss man, darf
man angesichts des Umstands, dass die Rmer das Land mit Gewalt besetzt halten, dem
Kaiser Steuern zahlen? Die Frage klingt zunchst einfach, doch verbergen sich dahinter
vielschichtige ideologische und spirituelle Zusammenhnge. Das zeigt die Antwort Jesu,
die ebenfalls einfach klingt, aber tiefgrndig ist: Er relativiert die Legitimitt des Kaisers
von Gott her und verweist darber hinaus den Einzelnen auf seine eigene freie Willens-
entscheidung. Jesus verndert mit seiner Aussage das Verhltnis des glubigen Menschen
zum Geld und zur Macht.
WUB 47 (2008) 5255

183
791 Nicole Wilkinson Duran, The Power of Disorder: Ritual Elements in
Marks Passion Narrative
The passion of Christ was not staged as a ritual, but it is described in ritual terms so as
to make it meaningful. To make this point, Duran draws upon J. Derrida, E. Durkheim,
M. Douglas, V. Turner, and R. Girard.
LNTS 378; T&T Clark, London (2008) VI/1134

792 Heinz-Jrgen Grtz, Das Gebet in Getsemani Mk 14,3242


In Ort und Zeit konkret: in Getsemane und der Stunde dort kommt das spannungsreiche
Ereignis gott-menschlicher Begegnung zum Ausdruck. Der Vollzug des Ringens und der
Hingabe Jesu ereignet sich hier wie auf Golgata im Gebet. Die sprachliche Gestalt der
Getsemane-Erzhlung Mk 14,3242 lsst so auf eigene Weise sehen, inwiefern die Bibel
als Zeugnis und Ereignis gottmenschlicher Beziehung aufgeschlossen werden kann.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 258263 (CB)

793 Rupert Allen, Mark 14,5152 and Coptic Hagiography


The question of the identity of the young man who flees naked at the end of the Markan
Passion narrative has elicited a great variety of responses from exegetes. Early commenta-
tors merely refer to existing hagiography, often identifying the man as James, the brother
of the Lord because of his supposed aestheticism. In the 19th century the idea that the
young man was a type of signatory device by the evangelist came to the fore in critical
biblical literature. Research into Coptic MSS now reveals the identification of the young
man with the Evangelist in fact finds its root in 13th century Egyptian hagiography.
Bib. 89/2 (2008) 265268

794 Adela Yarbro Collins, Ancient Notions of Transferral and Apotheosis


in Relation to the Empty Tomb Story in Mark
The story of the empty tomb is a Markan innovation, implying that Jesus has left the
world of human beings and been transferred to the heavenly realm. Behind this story
one can recognize two models of transformation: (1) the first is Elijah whose appearance
at the transfiguration of Jesus reveals that Jesus resurrection would be analogous to the
transferral of Elijah to heaven; (2) the second model is the apotheosis of Roman emperors
with the story of Romulus as the prototype.
Ekstasis 1; Turid Karlsen Seim et al. (eds.), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative
Practices in Early Christianity; W. de Gruyter, Berlin (2009) 4157 (BL)

795 Ulrike Metternich, Die Seherinnen des Lichtes (Mk 16,18). Wie
Auferstehungs- und Heilungserzhlungen sich gegenseitig auslegen
Heilungs- und Auferstehungsgeschichten in Mk teilen ein gemeinsames Vokabular, mit
dem sie die Intensitt und Hochspannung menschlichen Empfindens einzufangen suchen.
Eindrcklich schildert Mk 16,18 die Intensitt der Gotteserfahrung der Frauen, die den
Glanz des himmlischen Lichtes gesehen und die Botschaft des Jnglings gehrt haben.
Die Erzhlung ist wie eine groe Heilungsgeschichte ausgestaltet, sie reit den Himmel
auf, verbindet mit der Kraft Gottes ffnet den Blick auf eine neue Wirklichkeit und gibt
eine Erfahrung in Sprache wieder, die sich eigentlich nicht mit Worten zum Ausdruck
bringen lsst.
BiKi 64/2 (2009) 99103

796 Matthijs J. de Jong, Mark 16:8 as a satisfying Ending to the Gospel


The gospel of Mark implies that the meeting between the raised Christ and the disciples
in Galilee would happen, and from the perspective of the readers had happened. Marks
184
reason for not narrating it is that it fell outside the scope of his story: the earthly ministry
of Jesus.
NT.S 130; Rieuwerd Buitenwerf et al. (eds.), Jesus, Paul, and Early Christianity; Brill, Leiden (2008)
123147 (BL)

Luke: general individual passages


797 Franois Bovon, Das Evangelium nach Lukas. 4. Teilband: Lk 19,28
24,53
This is the fourth and concluding instalment of Bovons magisterial commentary on the
gospel of Luke, presented in Peter Strausss German translation of the French manu-
script. From volume to volume one could see how during the two decades of work on
his commentary, Bovons interest in reception history or the history of interpretation
has increased. Thus each section of the commentary ends with several pages in which a
certain passage was understood or responded to from patristic times onwards (generally
until the theology of Karl Barth). At the end of the volume, there are indexes that cover
all four volumes: passages from Luke and Acts, Greek words, subjects.
Evangelisch-katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament III.4; Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn
(2009) VIII/1670

798 Christopher M. Hays, Marcion vs. Luke: A Response to the Pldoyer of


Matthias Klinghardt
In his 2006 paper Markion vs. Lukas: Pldoyer fr die Wiederaufnahme eines alten Falles (NTS 52/4,
2006, 484513; IRBS 53:822) M. Klinghardt offered reasons to reject the traditional view
that Luke preceded Marcions Gospel, pointing especially to the apparently inconsistent
redactional practice implied by the theory, as well as the lack of analogy for the phenomena
of textual excision without corresponding expansion. In turn, he resumed the thesis of
Marcionite priority, which he substantiated through an alternative interpretation of the
redactional function of Luke 4, as well as an appeal to a canonical redaction in the Lukan
prologue. This essay examines Klinghardts case sequentially for the purpose of critically
evaluating both his rejection of Lukan priority and his positive case for Marcionite priority.
A discussion of the plausibility of the timeframe implicit in Klinghardts construction caps
the analysis, and the author concludes with some methodological suggestions for future
research on the relations between Marcions and Lukes Gospels.
ZNW 99/2 (2008) 213232

799 Peter Egger, Dass sie alle seine Taten und Worte bei sich erwgen.
Der Agricola des Tacitus und das Evangelium nach Lukas: eine Kon-
frontation
Der Verf. untersucht das LkEv (zwischen 8090 n.Chr. verfasst) und Tacitus lateinische
Erstlingsschrift Agricola (um 96 n.Chr.), die beide wegen ihrer biographischen Bausteine
eine gattungsmige hnlichkeit zeigen. Beide Schriften beginnen mit einem Promium,
whrend die Protagonisten ( Jesus; Iulius Agricola) erst nach einer kurzen Vorgeschichte
in Erscheinung treten. Bei Tacitus klingt eine Vielzahl an Motiven schon im Promium
an, die erst im Verlauf der Schrift ihre Auflsung erfahren. Lk hingegen nimmt mehrere
Motive vorweg, die spter entfaltet werden; insbesondere Jesu Positionierung als begna-
deter, mit Weisheit erfllter Sohn Gottes. Sowohl Lk als auch Tacitus deklarieren das
Weiterleben einer speziellen Lehre (Lehre vom auferstandenen Christus; die vorbildhafte
virtus Agricolas) in Wort und Tat, welche Vorbildcharakter fr alle Welt besitzt. Whrend
Agricolas Ruhm auf eigener Leistung beruht, fgt sich Jesus widerspruchslos dem Willen
Gottes, und fhrt dessen Heilsplan aus.
Thomas Schmeller (Hg.), Neutestamentliche Exegese im 21. Jahrhundert. Grenzberschreitungen; Verlag
Herder, Freiburg (2008) 82113 (Lew)

185
800 Brigid Curtin Frein, Genre and Point of View in Lukes Gospel
This study examines how the relationships between Lukes Gospel and other extant literary
works shape the Gospels narrative point of view. It discusses and evaluates the major pro-
posals for identifying the genre of Luke-Acts and shows that none of the proposed genres
alone can account for all the major literary characteristics of the Gospel. The second sec-
tion considers how the genre characteristics of Gospel, Hellenistic historical/biographical
narrative, and biblical narrative each convey elements of the ideological, spatial/temporal
and psychological aspects of point of view of Lukes Gospel.
BTB 38/1 (2008) 413

801 Harry T. Fleddermann, The Doublets in Luke


Scholars often puzzle over Lukes response to the doublets he encountered in Mark and
Q , and some have suggested that Luke avoids doublets. A complete survey of Lukes
gospel demonstrates, though, that Luke creates doublets on his own, and he frequently
enhances the doublets he takes over from Mark and Q by assimilating the two forms to
each other. When Luke omits doublets, he always drops the Marcan form; and most often
the omission occurs because he drops a Marcan block while pursuing a broad compositional
goal like integrating Q smoothly into the Marcan outline. Luke does not omit doublets
because they are doublets.
EThL 84/4 (2008) 409444

802 Claire-Antoinette Steiner, Lenfant malgr tout. Passions et enfante-


ment dans lvangile de Luc
Lvangile de Luc met en relation la mort du Fils et la destruction de Jrusalem. Le
rejet du Fils fait planer lombre du jugement sur la ville qui est reprsente, au travers de
lpisode des pleureuses du chemin du Golgotha, comme une femme menace dans sa
maternit. Malgr son expulsion hors de la ville cependant, celui qui meurt aux cts des
criminels soffre une ultime fois comme lenfant, le Fils donn aux hommes. C.A. Steiner
propose de lire cette mort en cho la promesse aux femmes sans enfants du dbut de
lvangile, Marie et lisabeth.
ETR 83/2 (2008) 177185

803 Christopher M. Hays, Hating Wealth and Wives? An Examination of


Discipleship Ethics in the Third Gospel
The Gospel of Luke often couples instructions on the proper use of wealth with teachings
on family relations, sometimes addressing these topics in atone that smacks of antipathy.
This essay contends that the twin hostilities towards wealth and family in the Gospel of
Luke derive from theological roots, specifically, from Lukes endorsement of the imitation
of Christ and his teaching on eschatological judgement. To support this thesis, and to
delineate certain contours of Lukan ethics, this investigation offers examinations of Luke
9:5762; 14:2535, and 17:2035.
TynB 60/1 (2009) 4768

804 Garwood P. Anderson, Seeking and Saving What Might Have Been Lost:
Lukes Restoration of an Enigmatic Parable Tradition
A distinguishing feature of the Lucan parables is their startling employment of characters
of questionable rectitude who respond to crises with dubious virtue. Lukes parabolic
characters resist binary labels as good or bad. Not a few, but indeed most, of the
lucan parables are beset with moral ambiguity. This is the enigmatic parable tradition
that Luke inherited. But Luke is anything but a passive tradent. He bears witness to the
polyvalence of parables detached from performative contexts, even while he set himself

186
to safeguarding his performance of the parables from the same fate. Luke is a conserva-
tor of a tradition so enigmatic that it required an abundant supplement of interpretative
coordinates. Although perhaps still the best explanation for Lukes preponderance of
parable material remains the supposition of Lucan Sondergut, it cannot be ruled out that
some, perhaps several, of the Lucan parables were no less available to the other evan-
gelists. Finally one must say that if Luke has domesticated the parables, softening their
sharper edges, tying up their looser ends, he has still offered the NTs most radical and
decentring picture of Jesus.
CBQ 70/4 (2008) 729749

805 Elizabeth Dowling, Slave Parables in the Gospel of Luke Gospel


Texts of Terror?
Several of the parables in the Gospel of Luke feature slaves and their master, and dem-
onstrate both the vulnerability of the slaves bodies to physical abuse and the slaves status
as non-persons. As such, some of these parables may be considered Gospel texts of ter-
ror. Furthermore, translations and interpretations frequently diminish the impact of the
violence suffered by the slaves, marginalising the significance of the slaves bodies. Other
Lukan parables and texts, however, partially subvert this dominant image and counter
some of the terror aspects of the Lukan portrayal of slaves. An exploration of Lukes
slave texts must be nuanced, but any text or interpretation which ignores the violence
inflicted on slaves calls for critique.
ABR 56 (2008) 6168

806 Ph. Wargnies, Le tiers inclus dans lvangile de Luc


The Gospel of Luke gives a great deal of attention to mercy. Numerous scenes and parables
insist on this disposition and enable the reader to see how it is put into practice. In this
regard one encounters in the narrative of the third Gospel a typical and recurrent con-
figuration of triangular relations between persons, real or in parables. Deepened through
some more representative episodes, these relations clearly reveal the invitation offered to
the reader: it is a matter of receiving this gift in order to share oneself in the way that
Christ lavishes the mercy of the Father upon all without exception.
NRT 131/1 (2009) 322

807 Robert Simons, The Magnificat: Cento, Psalm or Imitatio?


Scholars have already long noted the prominence of LXX words and themes in the
Magnificat (Luke 1.4655). Various attempts have been made to explain this prominence.
Some have suggested that the Magnificat is a sort of cento, others that it is modelled
upon the OT Psalms. This study proposes that it is an example of what was known in
the Graeco-Roman rhetorical tradition as speech in character (prospopoia) employing the
technique of imitation, and shows that many details in the text of the hymn seem to
support this hypothesis.
TynB 60/1 (2009) 2546

808 Jess Luzarraga, El Magnificat (Lc 1:4655) a travs del arameo


After having offered his own translation of the Benedictus (Luke 1:6879; Bibl. 80, 1999,
305359) into Palestinian Aramaic, the author now presents his Aramaic version of the
Magnificat. The Aramaic text is printed on p. 28 and begins mermem naphsh le-mary.
Gr. 90/1 (2009) 528

187
809 Verlyn D. Verbrugge, The Heavenly Army on the Fields of Bethlehem
(Luke 2:1314)
There are two (spiritual) armies at war in the New Testament: the legions at the bidding
of Satan and the legions under the command of Jesus. In the story of the birth of the
Saviour, Christ the Lord, these spiritual soldiers are ready to serve, to do battle on behalf of
the Son of God. They are ready to fight against the spiritual hosts of wickedness that are
gearing up to destroy Jesus. This is the stratia ouranios that appears on the hills of Bethlehem.
CTJ 43/2 (2008) 301311

810 Bradley S. Billings, At the age of 12: The Boy Jesus in the Temple
(Luke 2:4152), the Emperor Augustus, and the Social Setting of the
Third Gospel
Several childhood stories about the emperor Augustus circulated. According to one, he
at the age of twelve delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother (Suetonius, Lives of
the Caesars: Augustus 8). Luke, who writes for an audience of Greeks and Romans, presents
Jesus as superior to the deified emperor.
Journal of Theological Studies 60/1 (2009) 7089 (BL)

811 John C. Poirier, Jesus as an Elijianic Figure in Luke 4:1630


Reading the entire account of Jesus preaching in his home synagogue (Luke 4:1630)
through an Elijianic lens a lens incorporating a priestly (rather than prophetic) messianic
model presents several challenges to the usual interpretation. For one thing, an Elijianic
reading of the Isaian passage emphasizes the compositional unity of the entire Lucan
passage by showing that vv. 2527 fit more naturally with the rest of Jesus words. In other
words, the Elijah and Elisha analogy is not likely to be the stray logion that scholars have
often supposed it to be. Furthermore, the crowds violent reaction to what Jesus says about
Elijah and Elisha has nothing to do with any sort of insularity or anti-Gentile sentiments,
as scholars have often claimed, but rather with Jesus implying that the Nazareth crowd
is the antitype to the Israel of Elijahs and Elishas day.
CBQ 71/2 (2009) 349363

812 Yvan Mathieu, Pierre, Lvi et les douze aptres en Luc 5,16,19. Les
consquences thologiques dune mise en discours
A study of the textual indicators of Luke 5:16:19 reveals a concentric seven branch
structure with 5:2739 as the central element. However, this does not mean that the call
of Levi (5:2728) is more important than the call of Simon Peter (5:111) and the vocation
of the Twelve (6:1216). First, the central element in the chiastic structure of the entire
text is not limited to the call of Levi, but it includes five units that form one pericope.
Furthermore, in 5:2739, Levi and the publicans are mere agents in the development of
the plot. The protagonists of the episode are Jesus and the other disciples. The pericope
at the end of the chiasm (6:1229) confirms and develops the characterization of the
disciples begun in the central pericope: the disciples are configured to the Master and
prepared for future mission. Peter and the other apostles, however, cannot be considered
in isolation of the other disciples: without the latter, they lose their raison dtre.
ScEs 60/2 (2008) 101118

813 Rudolf Hoppe, Lk 5,111 unter anthropologischem Aspekt


The episode of the massive catch of fish is an ideal scene, featuring Peter as the ideal
disciple, to explain to the reader of the gospel the possibilities that are given to humans
in the context of the Kingdom of God inaugurated by Jesus.
BEThL 218; J. Verheyden et al. (eds.), Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John; Peeters, Leuven
(2008) 3545 (BL)
188
814 Paul Hoffmann, Blinde Fhrer? Christliche Gemeindeleitung im Visier
des Lukas
Lk 6,3940 ist in Lk 6,2049 eingefgt. Die Einfgung macht Sinn im Rahmen des
Makrotextes, nmlich des lukanischen Doppelwerks: Hier fand der Evangelist den pas-
senden Ort, um zu sagen, dass die verantwortlichen Fhrer an den Mastab des Lehrers
Jesus gebunden sind.
BEThL 218; J. Verheyden et al. (eds.), Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John; Peeters, Leuven
(2008) 133 (BL)

815 John J. Kilgallen, Mysteries in Luke 8,10


The term mysteries is used only once by Luke. The reference is to truths about the
kingdom of God, revealed by Jesus; as can be seen from the parables, to these mysteries
belong the universality of Gods kingdom, its growth, insight into its reception (and non-
reception), use of money and possessions, and the teaching about prayer.
J.N. Aletti et al. (eds.), Biblical Exegesis in Progress; Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma (2009)
335370 (BL)

816 John B. Weaver, The Noble and Good Heart: kalokagatha in Lukes Par-
able of the Sower
Luke 8:15 uses a standard formula of Greco-Roman culture. The noble hearts hold on
the word in Luke 8 recalls ancient descriptions of the persistent pursuit and preservation
of philosophical and religious teachings by the kals kai agaths.
NT.S 129; Patrick Gray et al. (eds.), Scripture and Traditions; Brill, Leiden (2008) 151171 (BL)

817 Louise J. Lawrence, The Stilling of the Sea and the Imagination of
Place in a Cornish Fishing Village
This article documents the contextualizing of the Stilling of the Sea (Lk 8:2225) in the
Cornish fishing village of Newlyn. The images of the boat, the journey to the other
side, the sea and storm and the sailors offered vivid touchstones not only with past
experiences but also compelling incentives for future development.
ET 120/4 (2009) 172177

818 Patrice Galup, Trois remarques sur la parabole dite du bon Samaritain
(Lc 10, 2537)
P. Galup analyse ici trois termes cls de la parabole dite du bon Samaritain (Lc 10,
2537): plsion (v. 27, 29 et 36), antiparlthen (v. 31 et 32) et tis (v. 30, 31 et 33).
ETR 83/3 (2008) 413418

819 R. Zimmermann, The etho-poietic of the parable of the good Samaritan


(Lk 10:2537). The ethics of seeing in a culture of looking the other way
Within a culture of Looking the Other way there are not only empirically ascertainable
reasons why help is not given in acute emergency situations there is also a Theory of
Not-Helping that attempts to demonstrate argumentatively why it may even be better
not to help. According to the article, the parable of the good Samaritan invites the
readers, however, to look closely. Four invitations of the text are developed, each with
an emphasis on ethics: 1) The narrated Samaritan (The appeal structure of ethics); 2) The
touched Samaritan (Ethics in the Context of Love); 3) The partisan Samaritan (Universal
ethos of helping or: Ethics of open partisanship); 4) The charitable Samaritan (Social
ethics instead of ethics of conscience).
Verbum et Ecclesia 29/1 (2008) 269292
189
820 Sandra Hbenthal, Das Notwendige erkennen. Christus im Hause der
Maria und Martha Lk 10,3842
Mit Hilfe des Bildes Jesus im Hause der Maria und Martha (1552) von Pieter Aertsen
wird die gleichnamige Perikope als Aufruf zur Entscheidung zwischen dem Einen, dem
Eigentlichen, und dem Vielen, die immer wieder zu treffen ist und zu stndiger Sorge
verfhrt, gedeutet.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 263267 (CB)

821 F. Gerald Downing, On Avoiding Bothersome Busyness: Q/Luke


12.2231 in Its Greco-Roman Context
In Luke 12:2231 and Matt 6:2534, fifteen subjects can be isolated and studied in ancient
Greco-Roman sources that deal with the general theme of tranquillity: concerns, body
and soul, inner resources, wild animals, flowers, kings and wealthy others, human worth,
women and men (in the gospels represented by spinning and weaving and sowing
and reaping), toil as such, possessions, food as readily available, divine provision, human
limitations, Gods kingdom, sufficient to the day. Parallels from Jewish sources, sometimes
adduced, are irrelevant, for they use the nature analogy to encourage, rather than dis-
courage, work. The gospel text, written in a very natural Greek, is richly paralleled in
non-Jewish Greco-Roman sources, and most closely in Cynic ones. The passage, in other
words, is clearly Cynic in inspiration.
The Social World of Biblical Antiquity, Second Series 2; F.G. Downing, God with Everything; Sheffield
Phoenix Press, Sheffield (2008) 91114 (BL)

822 Genoveva Nieto Guerrero, Cuando los Cuerpos Hablan. Relectura del
Texto de Lucas 13,1017
Diese Lektre der Erzhlung von der Heilung der gekrmmten Frau versteht die Haltung
der Frau als Krpersprache, die fr unterdrckte Bevlkerungsgruppen Partei ergreift und
deren Rechte einfordert. Jesus versteht die Krpersprache der Frau als Imperativ, der ihn
zum handeln auffordert und er folgt dieser Aufforderung.
QOL 48 (2008) 5789 (SP)

823 Rainer Schwindt, Zu Christologie und Zeitverstndnis in Lk 13,3133


The short episode 13:3133 taken from Lukes special material is discussed with an eye
on Lukes comprehension of time. As 13:32 implies continuance, but 13:33 focuses on
progression, a Lukan understanding of Christology comprising a comprehensive view
on Jesus work not only in, but also on his way to Jerusalem is presented. Further, the
author gives a detailed analysis of the narrative structure of the short dialogue, a broad
discussion on the context and a short exegesis, being summed up to an understanding of
Lukes concept of historical and theological time.
BZ 53/1 (2009) 4768 (SSt)

824 Claus-Peter Mrz, Das Fest des gttlichen Erbarmens Lk 14,124


Das Mahl als Realisierung von Gemeinschaft und Freude ist in der Bibel als Gabe Gottes
auch Bild und vorgreifende Erfahrung der kommenden Vollendung. Diese Verkndigung des
Mahlgedankens ist einerseits mehr und mehr auf alle ausgerichtet, Grenzen berschreitend,
zeigt aber andererseits auch Verwerfungen und Blindheit fr konkrete reale Situationen
auf. Trotz allem bleibt das Mahl jedoch das groe Bild auf die Vollendung hin.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 249253 (CB)

190
825 Detlev Dormeyer, Das Gleichnis von den zwei Brdern (dem verlorenen
und dem daheimgebliebenen Sohn) und dem gtigen Vater (Lk 15,1132).
Narrative Erzhltextanalyse und grenzberschreitende Auslegungsmglich-
keiten
Ausgangspunkt des Verf. ist die narrative Analyse des Gleichnisses von den zwei Brdern
von J. Ratzinger Benedikt XVI. Im Vergleich mit der historisch-kritischen Methode
werden die Chancen der narrativen Analyse, die vor allem in einem Identifikationsangebot
fr die Leser bestehen, deutlich hervorgehoben. Wie nachgewiesen werden kann, ist diese
Methode auch fr Fragen nach der Rezeption biblischer berlieferungen im Koran ein
groer Gewinn.
Thomas Schmeller (Hg.), Neutestamentliche Exegese im 21. Jahrhundert. Grenzberschreitungen; Verlag
Herder, Freiburg (2008) 3350 (EB)

826 Joseph Verheyden, The Violators of the Kingdom of God: Struggling


with Q Polemics in Q 16:1618
Q 16:16 can be read as a fabricated piece of criticism its opponents (the Pharisees) express
against the invitation Jesus extends to all who want to hear the message. The saying does
not reflect what these would actually have said. Rather, it is a hyperbolical representation
of how Q assesses their opposition to the Christian mission.
NT.S 130; Rieuwerd Buitenwerf et al. (eds.), Jesus, Paul, and Early Christianity; Brill, Leiden (2008)
397415 (BL)

827 John S. Kloppenborg, The Parable of the Prodigal Son and Deeds of
Gift
The author illustrates the parable or more properly, Luke 15:12 from ancient documents
relating to the transfer of property. The most likely source of the wealth of a prodigal
young man is such a transfer or deed of gift.
NT.S 130; Rieuwerd Buitenwerf et al. (eds.), Jesus, Paul, and Early Christianity; Brill, Leiden (2008)
169174 (BL)

828 T.S. Maluleke, Justice in post-apartheid South Africa: Towards a Theol-


ogy of Restitution
Having dabbled with the metaphors of liberation, reconstruction and reconciliation, the
time may have come for (South) African prophetic theology to seriously consider the
metaphor of restitution. In this essay, the author outlines the contours of a theology of
restitution. The starting point is the existing but mostly unspoken theologies for and against
various forms of restitution. An exploration of the contours of a theology of restitution
is conducted. In order to illustrate the tasks and challenges of a theology of restitution,
the author refers to the parable of Lazarus and the rich man (Lk 16,1931). For him
a credible theology of restitution is a theology capable of restoring Lazarus before not
after he dies.
Verbum et Ecclesia 29/3 (2008) 681696

829 Kenneth E. Bailey, The New Testament Job: The Parable of Lazarus and
the Rich Man. An Exercise in Middle Eastern New Testament Studies
Eingebettet in eine Festrede zum 75. Jahrestag der Near East School of Theology befindet
sich eine Analyse der Parabel von Lazarus (Lk 16,1931), wobei das besondere Augenmerk
des Verf. den berlieferungs- bzw. bersetzungsunterschieden in diversen Sprachen und
kulturellen Rumen gilt. Lazarus wird dabei zu einem Middle Easterner, und dessen

191
irdisches Leid zum Leid der Kirche im Nahen Osten. Die bersetzung seiner Erfahrun-
gen fr die restliche Welt bleibt nach der Ansicht des Verf. eine wichtige Aufgabe fr die
Theologen im Nahen Osten.
ThRev 29/1 (2008) 1230 (DL)

830 John J. Kilgallen, Luke 20,13 and iss


Many translations understand the father of the vineyard (parable in Luke 20,919) think-
ing that he will send his beloved son to the vineyard workers because they possibly might
accept him; this seems faulty reasoning on the part of the father. It seems better to re-read
iss (v. 13) in accord with its basic sense, which in turn allows the father a proper logic:
they will give my son a treatment that is equal to his dignity as my beloved son.
Bib. 89/2 (2008) 263264

831 Marc Rastoin, Simon-Pierre entre Jsus et Satan: La thologie lucanienne


loeuvre en Lc 22,3132
In the history of research, Luke 22:3134 has been on the whole judged to be a rather
awkward composition consisting of traditional material and Lucan wording. This article
intends to show the completely Lucan character of the passage as well as the theological
meaning Luke attached to it. In these verses, Luke reveals his literary mastery as well as
his theological overall project in Luke-Acts: the primacy of Peter is rooted in the prayer
of Jesus Christ himself during His Passion.
Bib. 89/2 (2008) 153172

832 Carlos Olivares, Quiasmos y paralelos en Lucas 24:146. Anlisis e


implicaciones
This article discusses various structures in Luke 24, highlighting the presence of two chi-
asms, both of which meet around a thematic hinge, that strengthens, in the structural
relation of the chiasms, the unity of the chapter. As opposite thematic topics the chiasms
emphasise the credibility and the incredibility of the empty grave.
DavarLogos 7/1 (2008) 3350

833 Adelbert Deneaux et al., The Meaning of the Double Expression of


Time in Luke 24,29
Luke understands the double expression as pointing to the period between noon and sunset.
He situates the meal at Emmaus around 3 p.m., the time of the evening sacrifice.
BEThL 218; J. Verheyden et al. (eds.), Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John; Peeters, Leuven
(2008) 6788 (BL)

John: general individual passages


834 Michael Theobald, Das Evangelium nach Johannes. Kapitel 112
This first instalment of a major German commentary on John understands the Fourth
Gospel as a dramatic narrative (dramatische Erzhlung), i.e. a highly literary text. Nev-
ertheless, Theobald also systematically tries to uncover the authors sources and, beyond
these, historical events. Theobald thinks that the Fourth Gospel originated between 80
and 90 CE, most likely in Syria. Theobald offers a long introduction (pp. 1399), a com-
mentary on chaps. 112 (pp. 100844), a series of special studies scattered through the
commentary (the Johannine Logos; the word about the lamb; traditions pertaining to
John the Baptist in John and in the Synoptic tradition; the wedding at Cana and the cult
of Dionysos, and many others); a bibliography (pp. 845883), indexes, and maps. The

192
author humbly admits that most of what scholars claim to know about the Fourth Gospel
remains conjectural. A major reference work on John.
Regensburger Neues Testament; Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg (2009) 1903 (BL)

835 John F. McHugh, John 14


The late author (d. 2006) was to write the volume on the gospel of John for the International
Critical Commentary series. He managed to finish the manuscript of the commentary
on chaps. 14, which is here offered in print. So what we get is the fragment of a larger
book that the author could never write. The commentary is full of detail, but there is
no general introduction. The reader will find that McHugh finds traces of the history
of salvation in John (e.g., p. 17), a perspective that according to R. Bultmann was quite
foreign to John. Fourteen thematic notes are included in the book, dealing with subjects
such as: the structure of the prologue; the meaning of monogens in John 1:14.18; Bethany
beyond the Jordan; the Son of Man; a literary source for John 2:111?; the interpretation
of John 3 in the twentieth century; John the Baptist and his followers; and others. A
valuable addition to Johannine scholarship.
International Critical Commentary; T & T Clark International, London (2009) XL/1324 (BL)

836 Folker Siegert, Das Evangelium des Johannes in seiner ursprnglichen


Gestalt. Wiederherstellung und Kommentar
Siegert suggests a new hypothesis concerning the origin and the original form of the gospel
of John. Living as a Christian teacher in Ephesus, John composed this book exclusively
orally, though he wrote 2 John and 3 John. Only after his death was his gospel written
down by his disciples, who subsequently added material. Literary criticism permits us to
reconstruct the original text that began at John 1:1 and ended at 20:31. Siegert reconstructs
the beginning as follows: John 1:131; 3:2930; 1:3550; 2:112; 4:4654. The result is
a gospel without dualism (which is a typical second-century CE ingredient, then fashion-
able in Christian circles) and Gnosticism-like elements. Jesus appears as a kind of Socratic
figure, someone who enjoys engaging in dialogue. See also: F. Siegert, Der Erstentwurf
des Johannes, Mnster 2004.
Schriften des Institutum Judaicum Delitzschianum 7; Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gttingen (2008)

837 Warren Carter, John and Empire: Initial Explorations


The gospel of John, written in Ephesus toward the end of the first century CE, reflects
the program of a distanced relationship to the Roman imperial power. The gospel resists
those who would be more open to and involved in societal participation. The sectarian
scenario used by much of recent Johannine research is deemed inadequate. An appendix
deals with the Johannine letters and their Christology. Following M. Coloe, Warren argues
that John 14 evokes Jewish temple traditions to create a temple-as-community identity
for those who believe in Christ. The author makes full use of ancient sources and refers
to the methods suggested by postcolonial studies.
T & T Clark International, London (2008) XII/1423

838 Tom Thatcher et al. (eds.), Anatomies of Narrative Criticism: The Past,
Present, and Futures of the Fourth Gospel as Literature
In the introductory paper, T. Thatcher (Anatomies of the Fourth Gospel: Past, Present
and Future Probes, pp. 135) reports on narrative research on the gospel of John. The
work of the following authors is highlighted: R. Bultmann (1941), R. Fortna (1970), J.L.
Martyn (1968), H. Leroy (1968), D. Wead (1970), M. de Jonge (1977), A. Culpepper
(1983 a turning point in the history of Johannine research). Culpepper draws upon
the narrative theorist S. Chatman (1978) who distinguishes between the abstract story
world behind a narrative and the presentation of that world to the audience. Chapmans

193
paradigm allowed Culpepper to approach central questions in the interpretation of the
gospel of John without reference to the history of the texts composition. The other
contributions to the volume pursue the perspective introduced by Culpepper. One paper,
on John 19:2627, is by Culpepper himself.
Resources for Biblical Study 55; Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, Ga. (2008) X/1304 (BL)

839 Georg Rubel, Erkenntnis und Bekenntnis. Der Dialog als Weg der Wis-
sensvermittlung im Johannesevangelium
Im Vergleich zu den Synoptikern weist das Johannesevangelim einen deutlich hheren
Anteil an Dialogen auf. Besondere Bedeutung kommt den Dialogen Jesu mit Einzelper-
sonen zu, in deren Verlauf Nathanal, die Samaritanerin, der Blindgeborene, Martha,
Maria Magdalena und Thomas zur Erkenntnis seiner Person gefhrt werden. Die neu
gewonnene Einsicht wird jeweils abschlieend in einem christologischen Bekenntnis des
Dialogpartners zum Ausdruck gebracht. ber die Form des Dialogs lsst der Johannes-
evangelist den Leser die Wissensvermittlung nachvollziehen. Die Arbeit enthlt einen
Abriss der Geschichte des Dialogs in nichtchristlicher Literatur (S. 1115).
Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen NF 54, Aschendorff Verlag, Mnster (2009) XIII/1385

840 Maria Neubrand, Das Johannesevangelium und die Juden. Antijuda-


ismus im vierten Evangelium?
In the course of history (Wirkungsgeschichte) the term the Jews in the Gospel of John (and
especially Joh 8:44) has been interpreted univocally and the Gospel therefore has been
seen as being anti-Semitic or anti-Jewish. An exact semantic analysis of the texts and its
meaning in the historical context do not admit such an interpretation. It is not the Gospel
of John which is anti-Jewish but its readings. New Testament Exegesis is challenged to
provide a non-anti-Jewish reading of the New Testament.
Theologie und Glaube 99 (2009) 205217

841 Corina Combet-Galland, La Bible, le bruissement de ses langues, le


grain de ses voix
Passant du jardin de lvangile de Jean celui du Cantique des cantiques, C. Combet-
Galland sinterroge non seulement sur les contenus des noncs bibliques, mais sur la
voix qui les parle, le grain de cette voix, le poids du corps dans la musicalit de la voix.
Elle suggre ainsi que la question de la voix touche la qute de lorigine, que la voix de
lamour se livre dans les Je Suis fragiles et souverains de Jsus, que lamour se chante
en duo par la voix de lhomme et de la femme, rythm par llan de la fugue et larrt de
ladmiration mutuelle, color par le jeu imaginatif du langage avec les sens et les sons.
ETR 83/2 (2008) 153175

842 Frdric Manns, Traditions sacerdotales dans le quatrime Evangile


The author studies the priestly traditions present in the Gospel of John. He doesnt accept
the thesis that the Gospel was written by a Sadducee, since the idea of the resurrection
is accepted in the Gospel. After a short enumeration of the priestly traditions the author
tries to explain the importance of such traditions in a Gospel written after the destruc-
tion of the Temple.
LASBF 57 (2007) 215228

843 Jrg Frey, . . . dass sie meine Herrlichkeit schauen ( Joh 17.24): Zu Hin-
tergrund, Sinn und Funktion der johanneischen Rede von der doxa Jesu
The idea of doxa is a crucial theme of the Fourth Gospel and a test case for scholarly
approaches. Starting from two recent monographs, the article develops the central issues

194
to be discussed. In debate with the approaches of Bultmann, Ksemann, and Bornkamm,
it is shown that the Johannine narrative is focussed on the act of glorification in Jesus
hour, which the author considers foretold in Isaiah and in which the universal salvation is
rooted. The Johannine image of Christ as revealing his glory during his earthly ministry
is, therefore, a retrojection from the post-Easter perspective. Even more is the notion of
his preexistent glory a final consequence rooted in the view of the glorification of the
crucified one in his hour.
NTS 54/3 (2008) 375397

844 Mavis M. Leung, The Narrative Function and Verbal Aspect of the
Historical Present in the Fourth Gospel
The author analyzes the historical presents narrative function in the light of recent studies
on verbal aspect and discourse analysis. The two predominant usages are for introducing
new participants and for initiating speeches. Less frequently, the historical present is also
used to begin new paragraphs, to portray closing events or to indicate the movement of
individuals to different geographical settings. Expressing prominence is the most obvious
use observed in the pericopae where a number of historical presents are clustered, such as
in chapters 13 and 20 of the Gospel. The results of this study, however, do not comport
with the simplistic assumption that all historical presents in the Fourth gospel are used
for discourse purposes or signalling prominence. Authorial idiosyncrasies and particular
writing styles need to be taken into consideration as possible factors behind the use of a
particular tense in any given work.
JETS 51/4 (2008) 703720

845 Jerome H. Neyrey et al., Telling time in the Fourth Gospel


Learning to tell time entails three theoretical considerations: a definition of time, key
classifications of it, and special attention to what the ancients meant by past, present and
future. Through these lenses the Fourth Gospel is analysed in this paper. As the authors
consider each classification, they suggest a brief meaning of it from the experts on time,
then present a body of Greco-Roman materials illustrative of the classification, and finally
use it to gather and interpret data in John.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 291320

846 John C. Poirier, Hanukkah in the Narrative Chronology of the Fourth


Gospel
It is almost universally supposed that the narrative chronology of the Fourth Gospel does
not turn to Hanukkah until 10.22, but the first explicit reference to the feast of Dedication
need not represent the point at which the narrative first turns to that feast. This article
argues, in turn, for a Hanukkah setting throughout John 10, then throughout chap. 9,
and finally throughout chap. 8 (minus vv. 111). Thus Jesus claim to be the light of the
world (8.12) invokes the symbolism of Hanukkah rather than of Sukkoth.
NTS 54/4 (2008) 465478

847 Nicole Chibici-Revneanu, The hour comes and now is here ( John
4,23; 5,25). The eschatological meaning of the Johannine hra
Several times, the Fourth Gospels announces and states the coming of a certain hour.
While it is obvious that this hour is linked to Jesus Passion, this contribution argues
that the link extends to the present of the believers which is understood to be part of
the hra. By the term hra, the Evangelist links the Passion as a basic event in the past
to the eschatological age determined by this event. This hra concept could account for
the hermeneutische Horizontverschmelzung stated in the Fourth Gospel as well as for
some aspects of the Gospels juxtaposition of realized and future eschatology: The hour

195
has already come, it is present; yet there is also a future within the hour that is still to be
waited for. The hra comprises both present and future and ties them back to the decisive
initial event in the past: the Passion, the beginning of the hra.
SaSc 6/1 (2008) 7394

848 Christina Petterson, Moses and Abraham Go Arctic


This paper reads the Gospel of John as expounded by Musa W. Dube in her article Savior
of the World but not of This World: A Post-Colonial Reading of Spatial Construction in
John (1998) alongside the religious situation in contemporary Greenland, itself an often
ignored example of the dilemmas of colonisation and postcolonialism. Tensions between
the Danish Lutheran State Church and anti-Danish members of the indigenous Inuit
populations over the place of Christianity in contemporary Inuit identity are analogous
to the tension in Johns gospel over who can claim to be Israel. It is concluded that both
the New Testament and the contemporary situation reveal the complexity of identities
which simple categories of coloniser and colonised do not encompass.
BI 16/4 (2008) 363374

849 Gerhard Voss, Astralsymbolische Charakterisierungen der Jnger Jesu


im Johannesevangelium
Die Astrologie bietet einen bisher vernachlssigten Schlssel zum Verstndnis des Johannes-
evangeliums, insbesondere zur Charakterisierung der Jnger Jesu. Folgende Perspektiven
ergeben sich: der Widdertyp Petrus; Andreas, Erbe und Reprsentant der Stierzeit; das
Kommen des Lammes (= Christus) im Widderzeitalter; Nathanael, die Gabe Gottes im
Zeichen des Wassermanns; Konfrontation mit Judas Iskariot die Auseinandersetzung
um Leben und Tod im Zeichen des Skorpions; die Brcke zu denen, die nicht sehen und
doch glauben: Thomas, der Zwilling.
US 63/4 (2008) 279303 (BL)

850 A. van de Beek, Waren Judas en Thomas gnostici? Het evangelie naar Johannes
met gnostische ogen gelezen
The discoveries of Gnostic texts since the mid of the twentieth century challenge biblical
scholarship to read NT texts from new point of view. It is remarkable that Jesus disciples
who are prominently present in Gnostic texts, especially Jude, Thomas and Philip are also
more conspicuous characters in the Gospel of John than in the synoptic gospels. This
challenges scholars to read these sections in relation to Gnosticism. The article aims at
reading the scenes dealing with Jude and Thomas in Johns gospel with a Gnostic frame-
work in mind. These texts gain more profile than by a traditional reading which is often
based on a psychological understanding of Jude and Thomas. The article demonstrates
that the author of Johns gospel uses these passages in an anti-Gnostic discourse. Thomas
is a Gnostic who could fully understand Jesus words in a Gnostic way until he encounters
the bodily risen Lord. Jude does not make such a conversion and disappears in the night.
These are the options for Gnostics: either convert to the type of Christianity the Gospel
of John teaches or being lost in darkness.
HTS 64/1 (2008) 395413

851 Jan van der Watt et al., Geweld in n evangelie van liefde: Die Evangelie
van Johannes se perspektief op geweld teen Jesus en sy dissipels
This article is the first of two articles in which violence in the Gospel of John is discussed.
In these articles strong techniques of vilification in the Gospel are pointed out, accord-
ing to which the status of the opposing group is radically discredited by the Jews on the
one hand, and the followers of Jesus on the other hand. In this first article violence and
vilification by the Jews, or disciples of Moses against the followers and disciples of Jesus

196
are investigated. It is argued that the central issue of the conflict revolves around the
question: Where is Gods presence to be found among the Jews or among the followers
of Jesus? The conflict and violence in John could be understood against the backdrop of
this important question.
HTS 64/4 (2008) 17931812

852 Jan van der Watt et al., Jesus en sy dissipels se reaksie op geweld in
die Johannesevangelie
This article is the second of two articles in which violence in the Gospel of John is dis-
cussed. It is argued that Jesus disciples used techniques of vilification in the Gospel, inter
alia as way of dealing with the violence they experience at the hands of their opponents.
Closer investigation reveals that they use vilification against their opponents as a pragmatic
device for missionary purposes.
HTS 64/4 (2008) 18131835

853 Douglas S. Earl, (Bethany) beyond the Jordan: The Significance of a


Johannine Motif
There are three occurrences of the phrase peran tou Iordanou in John (1.28; 3.26; and 10.40)
at a location identified in 1.28 (problematically) as Bethany. The significance of the phrase
and location is developed first by exploring Bethany as Bashan via Micah 7.1415, Jer
50.1920 and Ps 68, and secondly by considering the significance of crossing the Jordan
in the OT and 1QS. The gospel is shown to invert the traditional motif; for John one
finds life with God in Jesus by crossing the Jordan out of Israel, to Bashan, indicating an
unexplored symbol in the Fourth Gospel.
NTS 55/3 (2009) 279294

854 Hans Weder, Ursprung im Unvordenklichen. Eine theologische Auslegung


des Johannesprologs
John 1:118 uses an early-Christian liturgical hymn that has been reworked and adapted
for its present location in the gospel of John. Weder offers an interpretation both of the
(reconstructed) hymn and the present biblical text. The message of the Logos remains
concealed in the prologue, but the message is then given in the course of the subsequent
narration.
BThSt 70; Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn (2008) 1156

855 Gnter Kruck (ed.), Der Johannesprolog


The following papers are included in this volume: G. Kruck, Zur theologischen Bedeutung
des Prologs im Johannesevangelium; C. Sticher, Frau Weisheit hat ihr Haus gebaut. Alt-
testamentliche Anknpfungspunkte der johanneischen Logos-Christologie; J. Zumstein, Der
Prolog, Schwelle zum vierten Evangelium; J. Beutler, Der Johannes-Prolog Ouvertre
des Johannesevanegliums; A. Wucherpfennig, Gnostische Lektre des Johannesprologs am
Beispiel Herakleons; L. Hell, Wort vom Wort. Augustinus, Thomas von Aquin und Calvin
als Leser des Johannesprologs. Beutler highlights the fact that the author of the gospel
opens his account with the quotation of an early-Christian hymn that was composed for
worship. The work lacks an index.
Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt (2009) 1153 (BL)

197
856 Saskia Wendel, Der Johannesprolog Joh 1
Im Anfang war dem Urtext des Prologs entsprechend nicht allein das schpferische Wort,
sondern die schpferische Vernunft. Das Wort ist demnach als pars pro toto fr das gesamte
schpferische Vermgen zu deuten. In seinem Wort hat sich nun Gott selbst mitgeteilt,
sich selbst zum Teil seiner Schpfung gemacht. Dies drckt sich im Fleisch aus, im Leib
Jesu. Umgekehrt ist der leibliche Ausdruck schon Realisation des Wortes. Das Wort des
Johannes-Prologs wird demnach nicht nur hrend vernommen und intellektuell gedeutet,
sondern von den Zeugen der gttlichen Gegenwart tatschlich geschaut.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 268272 (CB)

857 Johannes Beutler, Und die Finsternis hat es nicht ergriffen. Zur Deutung
von Joh 1,5
There is a whole spectrum of interpretations, but the most likely one is: the humans, who
were supposed to welcome the divine Logos, have not done so. The expression is to be seen
as an echo of a wisdom myth Wisdom came into the world, but did not find a home.
Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen 52; Konrad Huber et al. (eds.), Im Geist und in der Wahrheit; Aschen-
dorff Verlag, Mnster (2008) 2940 (BL)

858 Maarten J.J. Menken, Born of God or begotten by God? A Transla-


tion Problem in the Johannine Writings
In spite of the universal tendency of Bible translations to render ek to theo gennsthai
( John 1:13; 1 John 2:29, etc.) as to be born of God, the evidence the article presents
from ancient authors such as Plutarch and Cassius Dio point to the alternative rendering.
To be begotten ascribes a (metaphorical) male sexual role to God.
NT.S 130; Rieuwerd Buitenwerf et al. (eds.), Jesus, Paul, and Early Christianity; Brill, Leiden (2008)
329347 (BL)

859 Stephen S. Kim, The Relationship of John 1:1951 to the Book of Signs
in John 212
The Johannine Testimonium ( John 1:1951) prepares the reader for the messianic revela-
tions about Jesus in the Gospel narrative, particularly the sign miracles in the Book of Signs
(chaps. 212) and their attendant contexts. Seven messianic titles of Jesus are highlighted
in the Testimonium: the Lamb of God (1:19, 36), the Chosen One of God (v. 34), the
Messiah (v. 41), the One about whom the Scriptures spoke (v. 45), the Son of God (v. 49),
the King of Israel (v. 49), and the Son of man (v. 51). These seven titles portray Jesus as
the divine Messiah promised in the Old Testament. Literarily the Testimonium and the
Prologue (vv. 118), prepare the reader for the kind of revelations to come about Jesus
Christ as He is introduced in clear messianic terms.
BS 165/3 (2008) 323337

860 Tze-Ming Quek, A text-Critical Study of John 1.34


Scholars continue to divide over whether John the Baptist acclaims Jesus as the Son of
God or the Chosen One of God at John 1.34. This article argues that transcriptional
and intrinsic probabilities, supported by the testimony of a few early manuscripts, favour
the latter reading. However, in adopting this reading, the claims that (a) the variation
took place in the course of a battle against adoptionism and (b) the Chosen One of
God supplies corroboration that the original tradition underlying the Synoptic baptismal
accounts was based solely on Isa 42.1, are found to be unnecessary and methodologically
problematic respectively.
NTS 55/1 (2009) 2234

198
861 Lars Kierspel, Dematerializing Religion: Reading John 24 as a Chiasm
After offering a critical analysis of F.J. Moloneys synthetical parallelism for John 24
( JSNT.S 2, 1980, 185213, IZBG 28:971), this article argues for a chiastic structure of
the Cana-to-Cana cycle which directs the reader from the visible signs (2,112+4,4354)
and physical properties of religion (2,1322+4,142) to Jesus as the metaphysical agent of
Gods salvation and judgment (3,121+3,2236). The new dematerialized faith thereby
subverts expectations of material restoration and reorients the believing eye not towards
a sanctuary but towards the Son.
Bib. 89/4 (2008) 526554

862 Wilfried Eisele, Jesus und Dionysos. Gttliche Konkurrenz bei der
Hochzeit zu Kana ( Joh 2,111)
Das Dionysos-Mosaik aus Sepphoris zeigt unter anderem vier Motive, die auch fr die
Erzhlung von der Hochzeit zu Kana konstitutiv sind: den (Wein)gott, die Mutter bzw.
die Amme des Wundertters sowie dessen Jnger. Obwohl dieses Mosaik nach der Kana-
Erzhlung entstanden ist, verarbeitet es dionysische Motive, die auch schon in frherer Zeit
im Umkreis von Kana belegt sind. Anhand des Mnzfundes von Nysa-Skythopolis ist ein
solcher Nachweis mglich. Die Mnzen zeigen nicht nur den Weingott Dionysios als die
wichtigste Gottheit der Stadt, sondern bringen ihn seit dem 1. Jh. n. Chr. nachweislich
auch mit seiner Amme Nysa in enge Verbindung. Der auffallende Auftritt Jesu in Kana
zusammen mit seiner Mutter und das bei diesem Anlass gewirkte Weinwunder entpuppen
sich als Gegenbild zum Weingott Dionysios und seiner Amme Nysa. Die einfache Erzhlung
vom Sieg Jesu ber Dionysos bildet dann in der Semeia-Quelle die erste Offenbarung
seiner Herrlichkeit. Der jdische Messias demonstriert mit seinem Weinwunder seine
souverne berlegenheit ber den heidnischen Gott des Weines, ja mehr noch: im Wein
ist nicht mehr Dionysos, sondern Jesus.
ZNW 100/1 (2009) 128

863 Pierre-Marin Boucher, Genthnai anthen: La valeur de ladverbe anthen


en Jn 3,3 et 7. Ire partie: La rception chrtienne
This article investigates the Christian reception of John 3,3 and 7 (modern translations,
Old Versions, Greek Fathers) and questions the validity of resorting to the ambiguity of
the word anthen to explain the narrative of John 2,233,21.
RB 115/2 (2008) 191215

864 Pierre-Marin Boucher, Gennthnai anthen: La valeur de ladverbe anthen


en Jn 3,3 et 7. IIe partie: Les acceptions du terme anthen en grec classique
et koin smitis
In order to shed some light upon the understanding of the syntagm gennthnai anthen ( John
3, 3. 7), this article relates the polysemic evolution of the adverb anthen (desuper denuo)
in classical and non semitized koin Greek and takes stock of the spatial and temporal
senses of the Greek word.
RB 115/4 (2008) 568595

865 Tobias Nicklas, Jesus zweites Zeichen ( Joh 4,4345.4654): Abgrnde


einer Glaubensgeschichte
Recent exegetes have offered a variety of conflicting interpretations of this passage. Nicklas
argues that the text is ambiguous and open to such a variety. What we have here is an
open work of art (U. Eco).
BEThL 218; J. Verheyden et al. (eds.), Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John; Peeters, Leuven
(2008) 89104 (BL)

199
866 Nicole Chibici-Revneanu, Kniglicher Glaube. Der basilikos in Joh
4,4654 als Paradigma eines nachsterlichen Jngers
Die Wundergeschichte in Joh 4,4654 wird oft im Sinne einer Kontrastierung von Wort-
glauben auf der einen und Wunderglauben auf der anderen Seite verstanden. In diesem
Beitrag wird die Ansicht vertreten, dass zwar tatschlich der Glaube im Zentrum des
Interesses steht, aber in seinem Bezug auf das Wort Jesu, das durch das Wort von Zeugen besttigt
wird. Der basilikos, dessen Sohn aus der Ferne geheilt wird, lsst sich als Paradigma eines
nachsterlichen Jngers verstehen, der die Erfahrung macht, dass Jesus Leben geben kann,
ohne unmittelbar (leiblich) anwesend zu sein. Er ist in diesem Sinne ein basilikos, der zu
dem basileus der johanneischen Passionserzhlung gehrt: dem gekreuzigten Jesus.
BN 136 (2008) 85104

867 Stephen S. Kim, The Christological and Eschatological Significance of


Jesus Miracle in John 5
This article analyzes the first of five sign miracles in the Festival Cycle Jesus miracle of
healing the lame man at the Pool of Bethesda (5:115) and its attendant narrative and
discourse. This miracle demonstrates Jesus authority to forgive sin and to judge, and His
work as the Messiah who will give Sabbath rest to the nation Israel.
BS 165/4 (2008) 413424

868 Reinhart Ceulemans, The Name of the Pool in Joh 5,2. A Text-Critical
Note Concerning 3Q15
Since 3Q15 11,12 offers no external evidence, one has to rely on the internal criteria for
establishing the correct spelling of the pools name in Joh 5,2. Bethzatha then is the least
unsatisfactory reading.
ZNW 99/1 (2008) 112115

869 Tim ODonnell, Complementary Eschatologies in John 5:1930


The text of 5:1930 presents two visions of judgement and eternal life as complementary. They
are not resolved into a single coherent teaching. Instead, the two viewpoints remain in a
thematic tension, but the text links them artfully through a series of verbal and syntactical
parallels that serve to express a complementary relationship at the level of ideas. Each view
is, in principle, complete, but together they offer a fuller vision of the Son as life-giver and
judge than either one could achieve on its own. Read this way, the eschatological teach-
ings of the speech support its central Christological message, both for the audience in the
narrative (the Jews listening in the temple precinct) and for the presumed audience of
the Fourth Gospel (Christians within and beyond the Johannine community).
CBQ 70/4 (2008) 750765

870 J. Albert Harrill, Cannibalistic Language in the Fourth Gospel and


Greco-Roman Polemics of Factionalism ( John 6:5266)
Anthropophagy served Greek and Roman culture as a traditional way of thinking about
threats to society. Anthropophagy articulated a poetics of consumption in which the
human became the beast. A version of such language can be found in Josephus, Jewish
War 4:540542; 5:25; 5:526. A likely scenario for explaining the presence of cannibal-
istic language in John 6 is this: the Johannine community was polemically charged with
cannibalism, but responded by appropriating that charge. Cannibalism was used in a
way to offend the Jewish interlocutors. Here we have another case of the Fourth Gospels
message of alienation.
JBL 127/1 (2008) 133158 (BL)

200
871 Mary B. Spaulding, Commemorative Identities: Jewish Social Memory
and the Johannine Feast of Booths
John 710 reflects numerous themes that derive from Sukkot, the Jewish feast of Booths;
but they no longer function within a festal context. Instead, they are being transferred
to the person of Christ. Spaulding argues that the notion of commemorative identity
provides the key to understanding this phenomenon. Both Jews and Christians have inher-
ited a festal tradition that flourished in Second Temple times. After the destruction of the
temple in 70 CE, this tradition was re-appropriated and served to forge new identities
Jewish or Christian.
LNTS 396; T & T Clark International, London (2009) XIII/1198 (BL)

872 Joseph Verheyden, Een irenische dialoog met Wim Weren over geweld
in Johannes 7:538:11
This essay engages in a dialogue with Wim Werens contribution in the same volume. It
first discusses some hermeneutical perspectives on violence in the pericope on the adulter-
ess woman in John 7:538:11. It then discusses the use of Deuteronomy in this passage
against the background of Jesus radical new perspective on violence.
HTS 64/4 (2008) 17871791

873 Wim J.C. Weren, Het gebruik van geweld bij het bestraffen van overspel
in Bijbelse teksten (Deuteronomium 22:1329 en Johannes 7:538:11)
In this article, the focus is on the extent to which in biblical texts violence is deemed
acceptable in punishing adultery. Jesus attitude to this severe punishment is discussed.
Jesus concurs with the sanction imposed by Moses but the effect of his requirement that
each individual in the group of executioners be without sin, is in fact that the punishment
cannot be carried out. The way in which Jesus intervenes is in line of discussions in the
Old Testament and in early Judaism that are aimed at imposing restraints of the use of
violence in punishing sexual offences. The article concludes with and evaluation of the
topical relevance or irrelevance of the two discussed biblical passages.
HTS 64/4 (2008) 17671785

874 Edward W. Klink III, Expulsion from the Synagogue? Rethinking a


Johannine Anachronism
The expulsion from the synagogue in John 9 has been dominated for nearly four decades
by reconstructed glimpses popularized in the two-level reading of the Fourth Gospel by
J. Louis Martyn. The key insight Martyn provided the last generation of students of John
is the anachronism in 9:22, an insight that although it has been criticized at the level of
historical reconstruction, has dominated nearly every reading of the gospel. But Martyn
has guided his students to an exaggerated reading of the expulsion from the synagogue
passages, and his focus on the situation behind John has minimized the Gospels explicit
interest in the past. Even the term aposynaggos, the key evidence for Martyn, reflects a
historicity that has been too easily suppressed. This paper argues that a fresh examination
of the historical reflections in the expulsion of the synagogue passage in John 9 reveals
not only Johns theological interest in the past, but also some potential glimpses on the
life and ministry of the historical Jesus.
TynB 59/1 (2008) 99118

201
875 Johann Maier, Das jdische Verstndnis des Psalms 82 und das Zitat aus
Ps 82,6a in Joh 10,3435
Der Evangelist hat wahrscheinlich eine berlieferung aufgegriffen, in der Ps 82,6 zur
Abwehr eines Blasphemievorwurfs gegen Jesus diente, wobei lohim auf Richter gedeutet
war.
Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen 52; Konrad Huber et al. (eds.), Im Geist und in der Wahrheit, Aschen-
dorff Verlag, Mnster (2008) 1528 (BL)

876 Bart J. Koet et al., The Image of Martha in Luke 10,38 and in John
11,112,8
In Luke 10, Martha is invited to grow in discipleship by learning from Jesus teachings. In
Johns interpretation of Lukes material, her capacity to do so is exploited to the full.
BEThL 218; J. Verheyden et al. (eds.), Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John; Peeters, Leuven
(2008) 4766 (BL)

877 Sonja Angelika Strube, Bibelverstndnis zwischen Alltag und Wissen-


schaft. Eine empirisch-exegetische Studie auf der Basis von Joh 11,146
Die empirisch-exegetische Studie vergleicht zehn Alltagsbibellektren (fnf christliche/fnf
nichtreligise Leserinnen und Leser) und zehn neuere exegetische Auslegungen von Joh
11,146 mittels Methoden qualitativer Sozialforschung. Herausgearbeitet werden das
jeweilige Profil alltglichen und exegetischen Bibellesens sowie prgnante Parallelen und
Unterschiede zwischen den Lesarten. Die Alltagslektren wurden mittels Einzelinterviews
erhoben. Sie werden qualitativ auf ihre Inhalte, Methoden und implizit praktizierte Her-
meneutiken ausgewertet; in gleicher Weise werden die Exegesen analysiert. Zahlreiche
inhaltliche wie methodische Konvergenzen verweisen auf solide und reflektierte Leseweisen
bei den Alltagslesern, einige markante Divergenzen auf hermeneutische Reflektions- bzw.
Kommunikationsdefizite der Exegese; sie erffnen aber auch positiv eine neue Sicht ihrer
theologischen Dimension. Erstmals bringt eine bibelwissenschaftliche Studie Exegese
und Alttagsauslegung direkt und gleichrangig miteinander ins Gesprch. Den Abschluss
bildet eine auf der Basis der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse formulierte Auslegung von Joh
11,146.
Tbinger Perspektiven zu Pastoraltheologie und Religionspdagogik; Lit-Verlag, Mnster (2009) 1464
(Sonja Strube)

878 Silvia Pellegrini, Lultimo segno. Il messaggio della vita nel racconto
della risurrezione di Lazzaro
Die Auferweckung des Lazarus ( Joh 11) fasziniert und befremdet die Leser aller Epo-
chen: Warum zgert Jesus zu retten? Wie ist der Zusammenhang zwischen Glaube und
Wunder zu verstehen? Kann man glauben, dass der Glaube den Tod berwindet ( Joh
11,25f )? Bezieht sich der Evangelist auf die gegenwrtige oder auf die eschatologische
Wiedererweckung? Ist Lazarus wirklich wiedererweckt worden? Als Antwort auf diese
und andere Fragen bietet die Monographie eine ganzheitliche Interpretation des Textes
nach den Prinzipien der semiotischen Lektre. Exegetisch fundiert und hermeneutisch
orientiert, bildet sie Beispiel fr die berwindung des traditionellen Auslegungsansatzes.
Der Leser wird an den Text herangefhrt, indem der reale Leserhythmus respektiert und
reflektiert wird. Die Darstellung der zeitgenssischen Auferstehungshoffnung, die Inter-
pretation relevanter Knotenpunkte des Textes, die Zeichen-Theologie des 4. Evangeliums,
die systematische Reflexion ber die Auferstehung und die historische Frage betreffs der
Wunder finden in der Abhandlung einen eigenen Platz. Der Leser erhlt neben einem
Forschungsbericht (S. 1372) und einer Einfhrung in die Theologie des 4. Evangeliums
ausfhrliche historische und literarische Information. Den im Text angesprochenen exi-
stenziellen Fragen wird nicht ausgewichen.
Scienze religiose, nuova serie 20; Edizioni Dehoniane, Bologna (2009) 1273
202
879 Scott Celsor, The Human response in the Creation and Formation of
Faith: A Narrative Analysis of John 12:2050 and its Application to the
Doctrine of Justification
One area of lingering tension between Lutherans and Roman Catholics on the doctrine
of justification relates to the necessity, or even the possibility, of a human response in
ones justification. In this article, the author argues that the Gospel of John can address
this lingering tension and, in doing so, it acts as a counter balance to the Pauline corpus.
Through narrative and inner-textual analysis, the article claims that John 12:2050 informs
the reader that Christ, the light of the world which allows humanity to see where to walk,
has been sent into the world by God the Father. In this critical passage, the point at which
the light of Christ is to be taken out of the world, one discovers that John corroborates
Catholic concerns that the gift of Gods grace, Gods light, empowers and requires a
human response. Such a response, however, must not be understood as independent of
Gods gift of grace, or light, both in its origin and continuing efficaciousness.
HBT 30/2 (2008) 115135

880 Joseph L-Minh-Thng, Aimer sa vie et Har sa vie ( Jn 12,25) dans


le quatrime vangile
Beginning with the contrasted expressions of Jn 12:25, the one loving his life and the
one hating his life, this article deals with the link between love and hate in the Gospel
of John. To love his life is what those do who love the darkness and hate the light
(cf. 3:1020). Face to face with those who want his own death, Jesus is the first one who
hates his life (12:25), like the fallen grain of wheat that bears fruit (12:24). In their turn
his disciples should face the worlds hate (15:1825) by hating their own life, i.e. by giving
it (cf. 15:13). Therefore they have not only to love, but also to hate. The hostile world also
uses these two attitudes: it hates Jesus and his disciples, whereas it loves what is its own
(15:19). The closer context of 12:25, as well as the whole gospel, shows the complexity
of the Johannine use of the verbs of love and hate: depending on their object, they can
evoke either the access to eternal life or the loss of life.
RB 115/2 (2008) 216244

881 Luise Abramowski, Der Apostel von Johannes 13,16


Die Parallele doulos/apostolos in Joh 13,16 enthlt einen Hinweis auf einen ganz bestimm-
ten Apostel, nmlich auch Paulus und seine Selbstbezeichnung als doulos und apostolos.
Hierbei muss allerdings auch der grere Kontext, d.h. die Situation des letzten Mahls,
in die die Fuwaschung eingepasst ist, bedacht werden. Die Deutungen der Fuwaschung
durch ihren Stifter sind ja ebensoviel Begrndungen fr die Einfhrung dieses neuen
Elements ins Abschiedsmahl. Der nur leicht anonymisierte Hinweis auf Paulus und auf
den begrenzten Auftrag eines Apostels ist mit seinem kritischen Unterton nur sinnvoll,
weil Paulus einer der Tradenten der lteren Abendmahlsberlieferung war, welche die
nun proklamierte Einsetzung einer weiteren heilsnotwendingen Handlung der Fuwa-
schung nicht kannte.
ZNW 99/1 (2008) 116123

882 D. Franois Tolmie, Jesus, Judas and a Morsel: Interpreting a Gesture


in John 13,2130
Some exegetes (W. Howard-Brook, J. Buckley) link the eating of the morsel to Satan
entering Judas. The author of the present paper rejects this interpretation. What we have
here, he argues, is a case of Johannine irony.
BEThL 218; J. Verheyden et al. (eds.), Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John; Peeters, Leuven (2008)
105124 (BL)

203
883 Jan A. du Rand, The Johannine Group and Grid: Reading John
13,3114,31 from Narratological and Sociological Perspectives
The Johannine community is what sociologists call a closed group. In Mary Douglass
anthropology, the Johannine community as portrayed in John 1314 corresponds to the
strong group, high grid register: a constraining group boundary dominates; life support
comes from the group which controls individual behaviour, and emphasis is on behaviour
and group loyalty (p. 135).
BEThL 218; J. Verheyden et al. (eds.), Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John; Peeters, Leuven (2008)
125139 (BL)

884 Giorgio Giurisato, Gv 16,1633: analisi retorico-letteraria, struttura e


messaggio
The literary structure of John 16,1633 is still fluctuating. This article analyses the com-
position of the paragraphs and their connection on the ground of the verbal parallelism.
Particular attention is given to the rhetorical figurae. The pericope is shown to be
divided into eight paragraphs, connected two by two; their parallelism delimitated the
text. The paragraphs can be read one after the other or according to their parallelism.
This second reading strategy points out the dialectical rhythm, which characterizes the
paschal message of the pericope: from seeing to not seeing and to seeing again, from
suffering to joy, etc. These antitheses are founded upon two times indications: till now
and the hour will come.
LASBF 57 (2007) 171214

885 Peter G. Kirchschlger, Die Frage nach der Wahrheit im Johannes-


evangelium anhand der Pilatusfrage ( Joh 18,3338a)
Die Rede Jesu von seinem Knigtum hat bei Pilatus Gehr gefunden, da ein solches
geistiges Knigtum fr das Rmische Reich nicht zum Problem werden konnte. Pilatus
reprsentiert den rmischen Kaiser, und Kaiser Augustus hatte Apollo, den Gott der
Philosophie und des Logos, ins Zentrum der Gottesverehrung gerckt und den Versuch
unternommen, dadurch das Goldene Zeitalter wieder zu erreichten. Die Frage des Pilatus
(V. 38) ist als Hinweis darauf zu verstehen.
STAC 51; Rainer Hirsch-Luipold u.a. (Hg.), Religise Philosophie und philosophische Religion der frhen
Kaiserzeit; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2009) 251269

886 Beate Kowalski, Was ist Wahrheit? ( Joh 18,38a). Zur literarischen und
theologischen Funktion der Pilatusfrage in der Johannespassion
Joh 18,38 fllt aufgrund sprachlicher Merkmale als Leserlenkungssignal auf, ist es doch
der letzte altheia-Beleg im Evangelium und die einzige Frageformulierung. Wahrheit ist
im Johannesevangelium personal und auf Offenbarung hin ausgerichtet. Sie wird mit der
Sendung Jesu identifiziert.
Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen 52; Konrad Huber et al. (eds.), Im Geist und in der Wahrheit; Aschen-
dorff, Mnster (2008) 201227 (BL)

887 Peter-Ben Smit, The final verdict. A note on the structure of Jesus trial
in the Gospel of John
Commonly, Jn. 19:16 is subdivided into two parts, the first is the end of Jesus trial and
the second is the beginning of the narrative of Jesus crucifixion, thus neatly distinguishing
between trial and execution. This paper challenges this view of things on grammatical
and narratological grounds, arguing that even though some shifts take place in Jn. 19:16,
the narrative of Jesus trial in fact continues against the background of the crucifixion

204
until Jn. 19:22, after which the narrative undergoes a much clearer shift in focus and
thematic from Jn. 19:23 onwards. This leads to the conclusion that not Pilates handing
over of Jesus in Jn. 19:16, but rather his statement in Jn. 19:22, What I have written
I have written, upholding his proclamation of Jesus as King of the Jews, is his final
verdict on Jesus.
RB 115/3 (2008) 383395

888 David Crump, Who Gets What? God or Disciples, Human Spirit or Holy
Spirit in John 19:30
Interpretations of John 19:30 historically have divided themselves into three categories:
(1) Jesus surrenders his spirit in death (traditional view); (2) Jesus gives the Holy Spirit
to disciples at the cross (E.C. Hoskyns); and (3) a combination of these two, wherein
the explicit description of death also implies the Spirits future denouement. Here a new
interpretation is offered that is more congruent with Johannine theology and vocabulary:
Jesus is actually returning the Holy Spirit to his Father in preparation for the sending of
the Paraclete as promised in John 7:39.
NT 51/1 (2009) 7889

889 Vera Krause, Hautnah: so oder ganz anders Joh 20


Der auferstandene Christus lsst sich von Thomas und Maria finden, jedoch ist das jeweilige
Geschehen ganz gegenstzlich zu deuten. Was Maria loslassen muss, muss Thomas erst
einmal begreifen. Dies zeigt, dass Wege zu Gott nicht exklusiv sind, sondern dass sich die
lange Geschichte Gottes nur im eigenen Leben je anders erfahrbar macht.
BiLi 81/4 (2008) 272277 (CB)

890 William Meacham, What did John see and believe in the tomb? Countless
Easter sermons and many Bible commentators may have got it wrong
This article examines the varying interpretations of John 20:69. There is a 1,600-year
division of opinion on the subject, with eminent figures in church history on opposing sides
of the issue. Simply put, the two interpretations are (1) the mundane, that the evangelist
believed what the women had said (the body was removed); or (2) the miraculous, that
he believed Christ had risen from the dead. In the last two centuries, opinion has shifted
significantly away from the mundane interpretation, due in part to a misunderstanding or
mistranslation of the terms used for burial cloths. The author argues that the mundane
is more consistent with the wording, the style of the gospel, and the relevant passages
in Luke.
ET 120/7 (2009) 322326

891 Karlijn Demasure, Noli me tangere: A Contribution to the Reading of


Jn 20:17 Based on a Number of Philosophical Reflections on Touch
This article examines the encounter between the risen Christ and Mary Magdalene in the
light of recent philosophical reflections on the sense of touch. Drawing especially upon
the works of Z. Baross, J.-L. Nancy, and L. Irigaray, the author highlights the theological
depth and the rich interpretative potential of the enigmatic words of Jesus to Mary, Noli
me tangere, in John 20:17. The meanings attributed to these words range from prohibition
to a declaration regarding the distance between the human and the divine. This article
weighs the claims of recent interpreters and invites the reader to reflect on the existential
significance of this irreducibly ambiguous passage.
LouvSt 32/3 (2007) 304329

205
892 Ulrike Bechmann, Der Lebenshauch Gottes. Die Verwandlungskraft des
Geistes Gottes am Beispiel von Ez 37,114 und Joh 20,1923
Die erste Begegnung mit dem Auferstandenen im Joh-Ev. ( Joh 20,1923) steht in der
Tradition biblischer Geisttheologie. Gottes Atem und Geist war der Anfang allen Lebens,
seine ruah belebte am Beginn der Schpfung die Menschen, durch diese ruah berwanden sie
den Tod. Gen 2,7 und Ez 37 markieren Wegstrecken der alttestamentlichen Geisttheologie,
die das verliehene Leben zunchst innerweltlich versteht, spter aber auch ber den Tod
hinaus denkt. Joh 20,1923 verknpft die Auferstehung Jesu mit der Gabe seines Leben
spendenden Hauchs, der die Gemeinde erst zum Leben in der Nachfolge Jesu befhigt.
BiKi 64/2 (2009) 8792

893 Tobias Hgerland, The Power of Prophecy: A Septuagintal Echo in


John 20:1923
As it is demonstrated in this paper with the example of John 20:1923, the fourth evan-
gelist repeatedly associated Jesus with prophetic characteristics that are found also in the
LXX Balaam cycle and its earliest interpretations. Among these can be mentioned the
following: 1. Inspiration by the Spirit; 2. Hearing and seeing hidden things (the mantic
function); 3. Obedience to Gods word; 4. Speaking the word (the prophetic function);
5. Distance to the mediated message; 6. Disinterest in personal gain and honour. These
characteristics serve to portray the Johannine Jesus in terms of a Balaam typology. In fact,
most of them are to be viewed more properly as emulating Mosaic traditions. They do
indicate, however, that John knew of Hellenistic Jewish reinterpretations of prophecy and
that he did not hesitate to employ these categories to characterize Jesus.
CBQ 71/1 (2009) 84103

894 Christoph Rau, Die Summe des Ganzen: 153 groe Fische
The 153 fish ( John 21:11) can be explained by gematry: it is the sum of the three key
words of the gospel of John logos, phs, agape. A similar view was suggested by R. Bauck-
ham in NTS 36 (2002) 8284.
Christoph Rau, Die Vier um den Einen. Wesensart und spiritueller Hintergrund der Evangelien; Verlag
Dieter Winkler, Bochum (2008) 122125 (BL)

895 Ilaria Ramelli, Simon Son of John, Do You Love Me? Some Reflec-
tions on John 21:15
In John 21:15 the much-debated expression agapas me pleon toutn ought to be interpreted
Do you love me more than you love these things?, i.e. all the rest. This conclusion is
strongly supported by compelling arguments concerning grammar (primarily the absence
of sy as a subject and the frequently attested use of pleon toutn in the sense of pleon
tauta [accusative]), Johannine, NT and first-century linguistic usage (in John and the NT
nominative personal pronouns are always expressed whenever emphasis lies on them, even
when they are not particularly stressed, and in John the only other occurrence of pleon
+ genitive precisely corresponds to pleon + plural accusative neuter pronoun), context
and sense, ancient versions of this passage (Latin, Coptic, and Syriac), and some Patristic
interpretations.
NT 50/4 (2008) 332350

Luke-Acts general Acts: general individual passages


896 Christoph Stenschke, Neue Monographien zum lukanischen Doppelwerk.
Ein Forschungsbericht
This review gives a detailed survey and evaluation of eight new German and English
monographs on Lukes double work. The books chosen are representative of the differ-
206
ent problems and methods developed in recent research and are repeatedly applied to
one another. The beginnings of different perspectives that emerge from interaction with
these studies are shown. The report facilitates a visit to the workshop of contemporary
international work on the Lucan writings and demonstrates where further work can and
must be undertaken.
JETh 22 (2008) 69105

897 Patricia Walters, The Assumed Authorial Unity of Luke and Acts: A
Reassessment of the Evidence
Lvangile de Luc et le livre des Actes des Aptres se prsentent comme un seul ouvrage
(Actes 1,13), et la majorit des historiens du Nouveau Testament accepte ce que cet
ouvrage nous affirme lui-mme. Une autre possibilit serait de considrer lunit comme
le rsultat dune manipulation rdactionnelle (datant du deuxime sicle ap. JC?), comme
lont propos Albert C. Clark (1933) et A.W. Argyle (1974). Cest cette dernire hypothse
que Patricia Walters explore. Elle montre quil est tout fait difficile daffirmer la cohrence
parfaite des deux ouvrages. Selon les statistiques que Walters tablit tout spcialement
pour les textes rdactionnels (sommaires et textes de transition), cest surtout le style lit-
traire et le langage qui sont diffrents, mais on peut y ajouter que cest aussi vrai pour
le vocabulaire employ et la thologie. Walters sadresse un public des chercheurs dont
elle espre quils sintresseront au problme quelle a expos. Or, il semble bien que la
gense littraire de Luc/Actes est plus complique quon a cru.
SNTS.MS 145; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2009) XV/1238 (BL)

898 Scott Shauf, The Word of God and Retribution Theology in Luke-
Acts
The connection between the prophetic portrayal of the protagonists of Acts, the idea
of divine retribution, and the proclamation of the divine word (= the word preached by
the Christian missionary) is particularly evident in the response Paul receives to his first
reported missionary speech, at Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:4252). In rejecting the divine
word, Paul tells the Jews, you judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life (v. 46).
NT.S 129; Patrick Gray et al. (eds.), Scripture and Traditions; Brill, Leiden (2008) 173191 (BL)

899 Allen Black, Your sons and your daughters will prophesy . . .: Pairings
of Men and Women in Luke-Acts
Blacks paper includes lists of male-female pairings in Luke and Acts; one example of
such a pairing is Mary and Zechariah (Luke 1), another women at the tomb Peter at the
tomb of Christ (Luke 24). Prophetic texts Joel 2:28; Isa 43:67; 49:22; 60:4 have been
repeatedly overlooked in discussions of the pairing of men and women in Luke-Acts.
NT.S 129; Patrick Gray et al. (eds.), Scripture and Traditions; Brill, Leiden (2008) 193206 (BL)

900 David G. Peterson, The Acts of the Apostles


This monumental commentarys emphasis is on Lukan theology. The introduction includes
a long sketch of Lukan theology as it emerges from the book of Acts (pp. 5397), with
the following sections: God and his plan; Jesus as Messiah and Lord; the Holy Spirit;
salvation; the gospel; the atoning work of Jesus; witness and mission; miracles; magic and
the demonic; the church. Peterson thinks highly of the historiographical reliability of the
work, and suggests that it may have been composed as early as 6264 CE.
The Pillar New Testament Commentary; Apollos, Nottingham (2009) LV/1790

207
901 Mikeal C. Pearsons, Acts
The book of Acts, written within the first two decades of the second century, ca. AD
110 (p. 3), is here explained in a straightforward yet scholarly way, with much information
given in boxed inserts that give outlines of the biblical text or explain subjects such as
embedded letters (p. 217) and the rhetorical devices of refining (expolitio, p. 61), inflection
(p. 71), and reduplication (p. 74). The help of tables and plates is also enlisted to make
this a very useful and accessible work. Bibliography, index of modern authors, and index
of scriptural passages are included and enhance the works value for scholars.
Paideia Commentaries on the New Testament; Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, Mich. (2008) XXV/1
438 (BL)

902 Alan J. Thompson, One Lord, One People: The Unity of the Church in
Its Literary Setting
The themes of unity and disunity are prominent in ancient discussions of the reigns of
rulers, evaluations of laws and forms of government. Equally prominent are discussions
of the contrasting effects of unity and disunity in the destruction and preservation of
people and cities. The theme of unity in ancient discussions of kingship (particularly
Roman imperial claims) provides a plausible context for the juxtaposition of Christologi-
cal claims for the kingship of Christ and ecclesiological claims for the unity of his people
in the book of Acts.
LNTS 359; T & T Clark International, London (2008) XIV/1218

903 Alan J. Thompson, Unity in Acts: Idealization or Reality?


This article briefly notes those studies that regard this material (= references to unity in
Acts) as evidence of unrealistic idealization; then several assumptions about the nature of
historicity relevant to the theme of unity in Acts is clarified. The article then argues that
the evidence of ancient discussions of unity and the narrative of Acts itself indicate that
it is misreading Luke to assume his portrait of the unity of the Christian community is
simply unrealistic idealization.
JETS 51/3 (2008) 523542

904 James A. Meek, The Gentile Mission in Old Testament Citations in Acts:
Text, Hermeneutic, and Purpose
Four passages are studied in this doctoral dissertation: Acts 2:1721 (reflecting Joel 3:15),
and 3:25 (Gen 22:18); 13:47 (Isa 49:6); 15:1618 (Amos 9:1112). All four quotations are
used in a manner consistent with the sense in their original contexts. The quotations func-
tion as proof from prophecy, cited to demonstrate the legitimacy of the gentile mission
as conducted by the early church.
LNTS 385; T & T Clark International, London (2008) VIII/1179

905 Detlef Ziegler, Dionysos in der Apostelgeschichte eine intertextuelle


Lektre
This study, a thesis accepted by the Technical University of Dortmund, Germany, explores
the Dionysian cults of Hellenistic-Roman times as a reality that shaped the cultural world
of the book of Acts. The following correspondences are explored: Gamaliel Teiresias
(voices of warning); Maenadic existence Stephanus; Theomachus Pauls change of
status, liberations out of prison; the new Dionysus Paul. This work is remarkable for
its authors idea of abandoning the notion that early Christianity has little to do with
ancient paganism.
Religion und Biographie 18; Lit Verlag, Mnster (2008) 1223

208
906 Eric Noffke, Il libro degli Atti tra sinagoga e impero
This article proposes to see the Acts of the Apostles in the frame of the New Testament
view about the relationship between the Kingdom of God and the Empire (and political
power in general). Indeed, Luke doesnt wish to talk to the Empire, he rather urges believ-
ers of his time to respect political authority, but also to stand firm when it over-steps its
boundaries. In order to make these boundaries clear, Luke uses symbolic historical figures:
Jewish authorities or King Agrippa I, whose terrible death gives Luke the opportunity to
condemn every form of cult of the emperor.
Protest. 63/4 (2008) 315328

907 David H. Wenkel, Imprecatory Speech-Acts in the Book of Acts


Theologies of prayer in Acts have long neglected imprecatory prayers or curses as integral
to the theological agenda of Luke. This article seeks to survey the instances of imprecations
in Acts to determine how they function as speech-acts. The article makes two conclu-
sions about imprecations in Acts based on the survey. First, imprecations identify the true
People of God in the midst of competing claims. Second, imprecations reveal how one
can participate in the salvific work of God.
AsbJ 63/2 (2008) 8193

908 Gail R. ODay, The Citation of Scripture as a Key to Characterization


in Acts
Luke interprets Scripture through his characters, but also characterizes his protagonists
through quoting Scripture, as is shown here with reference to Peter in Acts 1; 2; 15.
NT.S 129; Patrick Gray et al. (eds.), Scripture and Traditions; Brill, Leiden (2008) 207221 (BL)

909 Kristell Khler, Unterwegs in gttlicher Mission. Paulus in der Apo-


stelgeschichte
Mit dem zweiten Teil des lukanischen Doppelwerkes erffnet sich fr den interessierten
Leser der Bibel eine einmalige Chance. Sind die Texte selbst sonst die einzige Mglich-
keit, mehr ber die Verfasser und damit ber die Personen hinter den neutestamentlichen
Schriften zu erfahren, so bietet die Apg die Gelegenheit, Paulus aus der Perspektive eines
externen Beobachters kennenzulernen. Von keinem anderen Apostel werden so ausfhr-
lich Begebenheiten und Reden erzhlt, kein anderer wird so facettenreich gezeichnet wie
Paulus.
WUB 51 (2009) 6872

910 William O. Walker Jr., The Portrayal of Aquila and Priscilla in Acts:
The Question of Sources
This study argues in three stages that virtually everything the Book of Acts says about
Aquila and Priscilla can be derived or inferred from materials in the Pauline letters or can
plausibly be attributed to the authors own literary, theological, and/or apologetic agenda.
The argument supports the following propositions: (a) that the author of Acts knew and
used at least some of the Pauline letters, (b) that Acts reflects a distinctly anti-feminist bias,
(c) that the authors agenda included an anti-Marcionite component, and (d) that Acts is
to be dated in the second century and perhaps as late as the middle of the century.
NTS 54/4 (2008) 479495

209
911 David P. Moessner, Lukes Plan of God from the Greek Psalter: The
Rhetorical Thrust of the Prophets and the Psalms in Peters Speech at
Pentecost
Psalm 16 (15 LXX) and 110 (109 LXX) are basic to the understanding of Acts 2. Jesus
path to life at the right hand of the Lord God has already been blazoned through Davids
path to life at his right hand.
NT.S 129; Patrick Gray et al. (eds.), Scripture and Traditions; Brill, Leiden (2008) 223238

912 Michael Zugmann, Hellenisten in der Apostelgeschichte


Das Wort hellenistai wird in der Apostelgeschichte nur dreimal gebraucht (Apg 6,1; 9,29;
11,20), doch es gewhrt uns einen Einblick in die sozialen Verhltnisse der frhen christli-
chen Gemeinde. Es handelt sich um Rckwanderer aus der griechischsprachigen Diaspora,
die wegen ihrer Sehnsucht nach Tempel, Tora und Heiligkeit des Landes nach Palstina
gekommen waren. Wie uns der Fall Stephanus (Apg 6,814) lehrt, gab es unter den
Hellenisten in Jerusalem zwei Parteien eine christliche und eine antichristliche Partei.
Fr die christliche Richtung (der Stephanus zugehrte) verloren Tempel und Tora ihre
Bedeutung, whrend die antichristliche Partei auf deren Bedeutung insistierte. Das Buch
enthlt ein wertvolles Kapitel ber Hellenisten im jdischen Bereich: griechischsprachige
Juden (S. 89294 eigentlich ein eigenes Buch!).
WUNT II.264; Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen (2009) XII/1497 (BL)

913 Craig Keener, Novels Exotic Places and Lukes African Official (Acts 8:27)
Aus literar-kritischer Sicht enthlt die Erzhlung von der Taufe eines thiopiers in Apg
8,2640 keine typischen novellistischen Zge: Lukas scheint nicht am Fremden bzw.
Exotischen in der Episode interessiert zu sein. Die Nchternheit, mit der er die Erzhlung
gestaltet, deutet auf eine genuin historische Erzhlung aus dem Bereich jdisch-nubischer
Kulturkontakte.
AUSS 46/1 (2008) 520 (DL)

914 James H. Park, Overcoming Internal Barriers: The Conversion of


Ananias and Peter in Acts 910
While external barriers such as language, culture, and worldview are often recognized by
the church in its mission, the invisible, but very real internal barriers which exist in the
hearts of the members, are often overlooked. The story in Acts 10 which has often been
called The conversion of Cornelius could just as well be known as The conversion of
Peter. This study uses this pericope and the parallel narrative of Saul and Ananias in
Acts 9 in order to uncover the hidden internal barriers and make recommendations for
the present witness of the church.
JAAS 12/1 (2009) 1935

915 Rieuwerd Buitenwerf, Acts 9:125. Narrative Theology based on the


Letters of Paul
The basic elements of the story told in Acts 9 are all present in Galatians and 1 and 2
Corinthians. The structure of the passage parallels that of Gal 1, and there are also verbal
agreements between Acts 9 and the Pauline correspondence. The authors choice of the
pattern of punishment and repentance echoes Pauls own account of his calling in Gal
1:1117 and 1 Cor 15:810.
NT.S 130; Rieuwerd Buitenwerf et al. (eds.), Jesus, Paul, and Early Christianity; Brill, Leiden (2008)
6188 (BL)

210
916 Teresa Reeve, Divine Ritualizing and the Transformation of Paul in
Acts 9
The narrators account of Sauls experience on the road to Damascus in Acts 9:120 is
particularly rich in detail characteristic of rites of passage recorded elsewhere in Luke-Acts
and in Greco-Roman narrative. This study examines the account from the standpoint of
ritual studies to consider the validity of such an approach and what it can reveal about
the narrators presentation of this event and its significance in the work of Luke-Acts as
a whole.
JAAS 11/2 (2008) 129143

917 Jason T. Lamoreaux, Social Identity, Boundary Breaking, and Ritual:


Sauls Recruitment on the Road to Damascus
Within the context of collectivist cultures, moving from one group to another, or chang-
ing identities, is an arduous and sometimes violent task. Sauls move from zealous Judean
to follower of Jesus is depicted as a violent time of separation and aggregation. In this
study, the author uses the anthropology of Ritual and Social Identity to construct a model
of Social Identity and Boundary Breaking Ritual so that modern interpreters can better
understand what is happening to Saul on the road to Damascus. Furthermore, utilizing
terminology from the study of New Religious Movements, he argues that recruitment
be used as a more accurate term than conversion in this context. He also compares the
passage to other similar passages found in the literature of the Greco-Roman world. The
models and comparisons provide a methodological framework to help modern interpreters
better avoid anachronistic readings of Acts 9:119a.
BTB 38/3 (2008) 122134

918 Jean-Pierre Sterck-Degueldre, Eine Frau namens Lydia. Erstbekehrte


nach dem Apostelkonvent
In Apg 16,1115 berichtet Lukas von der Erstbekehrung nach dem Apostelkonvent: An
einer Frau vollzieht sich nun vollends die auf dem Konzil beschlossene ffnung zum
Heidentum. Der Verfasser arbeitet historisch solide Angaben zur Gemeindegrndung in
Philippi und der Taufe der Lydia geschickt ein, deren Verhalten fr den Leser paradig-
matischen Charakter erhlt.
BiKi 64/1 (2009) 3943

919 Stephen B. Chapman, Saul/Paul: Onomastics, Typology, and Christian


Scripture
The book of Acts consistently refers to Saul prior to Acts 13:9 and Paul thereafter.
Why? The theory that Saul took the name Paul from Sergius Paulus, the proconsul of
Cyprus whom he met, is to be rejected; Saul most likely inherited the name of Paul from
his parents (who likely gained the name through manumission or the bestowal of citizen-
ship). In the context of the book of Acts, the shift from Saul to Paul is occasioned by the
reference to the Old Testament figure Saul the son of Kish (Acts 13:21). The reference
to Saul son of Kish established an unsettling analogy with Saul of Tarsus: Saul son of
Kish is a type for those Jews who oppose the gospel of Jesus, Son of David, just as Saul
of Tarsus had done in his life before being confronted with the resurrected Jesus on the
road to Damascus.
J. Ross Wagner et al. (eds.), The Word Leaps the Gap; Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich. (2008)
214243 (BL)

211
920 Friedrich Gustav Lang, Neues ber Lydia? Zur Deutung von Purpur-
hndlerin in Apg 16,14
Fr die historische Lydia lsst sich als Ergebnis festhalten: nichts spricht dagegen, sie
als Hndlerin zu verstehen, ob sie nun Rohwolle oder fertigen Stoff verkaufte; auch wenn
denkbar ist, dass sie mit einem Frbereibetrieb in Verbindung stand, wird sie deswegen
noch nicht zur Arbeiterin am Farbtrog. Auch wenn das Wort Purpur bisweilen fr
Purpur-Ersatz verwendet wurde, darf man weiterhin annehmen, dass Lydias Purpur
echt war und dann stammten jedenfalls ihre Kunden nicht aus dem Arbeitermilieu.
Fr die lukanische Lydia wird man sagen knnen: Das Stichwort Purpur gehrt mit
Gold, Silber und Edelsteinen in die Reihe der sprichwrtlichen Luxusgter (vgl. z.B. Ez
27,16; Lk 16,19; Offb 18,12.16). Mit Lydias Berufsbezeichnung hat Lukas wohl bewusst
ein Zeichen gesetzt. Er hat ein deutliches Interesse am gesellschaftlichen Status der
Bekehrten. Wenngleich keine reiche Dame aus der Oberschicht, so kann er immerhin
eine Unternehmerin, die mit Luxuswaren handelt, erwhnen.
ZNW 100/1 (2009) 2945

921 Lorenzo Scornaienchi, Paolo, Luca, Cicerone: il dibattito sulla natura


della divinit e la citazione di Arato di Soli in Atti 17,28
The theology of early-Christian authors is in no way innovative. Pauls speech in Acts 17
has a clear idea of the variety of religious perspectives held by people living in the first
century CE. It presents the Christian message as part of the philosophical debate about
God and as a critique of pagan religious practice with the help of a quote from Aratos.
Protest. 63/3 (2008) 209230 (BL)

922 Christos Karakolis, Alle schlugen Sosthenes, Gallio aber kmmerte


sich nicht darum (Apg 18,17). Zur Bedeutung eines narrativen Details
Bei der in Apg 18,1217 geschilderten Situation ist anzunehmen, dass bereits eine Ver-
bindung des Sosthenes zu Paulus bestanden hat. Mit Apg 18,17 wollte Lukas speziell auf
das Verhalten der Juden gegenber einem spter zum Christen gewordenen Volksgenossen
hinweisen, aber auch exemplarisch auf ihr Verhalten gegenber zum Glauben an Christus
gekommenen Juden berhaupt. Mit der Erfolglosigkeit ihrer Anklage mssen die Juden
letztlich die Macht Jesu Christi besttigen.