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Cell membrane

Structure and Function

Dr. Tapan Kr. Dutta


Panskura Banamali College
Chemical composition
Membranes are lipid-protein assemblies held
together by non-covalent bonds
The core is a sheet of lipids bimolecular layer
serving as
Structural backbone
Barrier
Proteins have specific functions
Integral, peripheral, transmembrane
Carbohydrates are anchors
Glycolipids, glycoproteins
History of the Plasma Membrane
1665: Robert Hooke
1895: Charles Overton - composed of lipids
1900-1920s: must be a phospholipid
1925: E. Gorter and G. Grendel - phospholipid
bilayer
1935: J.R. Danielli and H. Davson proteins also
part, proposed the Sandwich Model
1950s: J.D. Robertson proposed the Unit
Membrane Model
1972: S.J. Singer and G.L. Nicolson proposed
Fluid Mosaic Model
Plasma Membrane
Defines the cell as a distinct entity (p52)
Micelle, Liposome and bilayer
Formation and function
Detergent and Membrane
Detergent and Membrane
Formation of Definite
and stable layer
Plasma Membrane
enlarged area

cytoplasm

plasma
membrane

Fig. 4-5b, p.53


Characteristic feature
Highly diversified Sheet like structure (16 100 ) which forms a closed
boundary of cell and gives individuality and integrity.
Does not constitute a very inert barrier rather selectively permiable in nature.
The membrane has unique self-Sealing properties.
Membrane composed of lipids and proteins and their ration may ranges from
4:11:4
Lipids of the membrane are Amphipathic molecule.
Membrane proteins are as compared to icebergs floating in the sea of the
phospholipid bilayer and perform either of enzymatic activity, cellular
communications or architectural support.
The membrane protein forms specific gates channels, receptors and its
permeability is highly selective in nature.
Specific bonds involved between the lipids and proteins and it is non-covalent in
nature.
Membrane are highly asymmetrical, the overall distribution of the lipid and
proteins is random.
It is neither solid nor liquid but is quasifluid in nature.
Due to dynamic, the protein molecules can move freely in the liquid-sea of the
lipid bilayer.
Phospholipid Bilayer
Membrane lipid
Membrane lipid
Membrane lipid
Membrane lipid
Lipid Bilayer

Main component of cell membranes


Membrane is a continuous boundary
layer that selectively controls the flow of
substances across it
Two layers of phospholipids
Gives the membrane its fluid properties
Plasma Membrane is
made of Phospholipids
Gorter + Grendel
Red Blood Cells analyzed
Enough for Phospholipid bilayer
Polar heads face out and
Nonpolar tails face in
Does not explain why some
nonlipids are permeable
Plasma Membrane Models
Sandwich Model
(Danielli + Davson)
2 layers of globular proteins with phospholipid
inside to make a layer and then join 2 layers
together to make a channel for molecules to
pass

Unit Membrane Model


(Robertson)
Outer layer of protein with phospholipid bilayer
inside, believed all cells same composition,
does not explain how some molecules pass
through or the use of proteins with nonpolar
parts, used transmission electron microscopy

Fluid Mosaic Model


(Singer + Nicolson)
Phospholipid bilayer with proteins partially or
fully imbedded, electron micrographs of freeze-
fractured membrane
Which membrane model is correct?
1) Rapidly freeze specimen
2) Use special knife to cut membrane in half
3) Apply a carbon + platinum coating to the surface
4) Use scanning electron microscope to see the surface

According to the electron micrograph which membrane model is correct?


Why?

Fluid-Mosaic Model
Fluid Mosaic Model
Membrane is a mosaic of
Phospholipids
Glycolipids
Sterols
Proteins
Most phospholipids and some proteins can
drift through membrane
Fluid-Mosaic Model
Fluid the plasma membrane is the consistency of olive oil at body
temperature, due to unsaturated phospholipids. (cells differ in the
amount of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid tails)
Most of the lipids and some proteins drift laterally on either side.
Phospholipids do not switch from one layer to the next.
Cholesterol affects fluidity: at body temperature it lessens fluidity by
restraining the movement of phospholipids, at colder temperatures it
adds fluidity by not allowing phospholipids to pack close together.

Mosaic membrane proteins that differs on either side of the


membrane and from cell to cell (greater than 50 types of proteins),
proteins span the membrane with hydrophilic portions facing out and
hydrophobic portions facing in. Provides the functions of the
membrane
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
Fluid Mosaic Model

passive recognition phospholipid


adhesion transporter
protein cholesterol
protein receptor
Lipid bilayer
active transporter
(ATPase pump)
active transporter Cytoplasm
(calcium pump)

Plasma
cytoskeletal proteins just Membrane
beneath the plasma
membrane

Fig. 5.4, pg. 77


Membrane Lipids
Phospholipids form bilayers in water
The lipid bilayer

Assembled into closed bimolecular sheets


Continuous, never have a free edge
Extensive interconnected networks
Phospholipid composition and ratio of lipid to protein
variable
Differences are correlated with function of cell/organelle
Flexible
Locomotion, cell division
Endocytosis, secretion
Types of phospholipids
Types of phospholipids
Cholesterol
Cholesterol
Asymmetric distribution of lopids
Membrane lipids
Lipid Bilayer

Phospholipid
Phospholipid Bilayer
Proteins Embedded in Lipid Bilayer
Nonpolar regions of the lipid bilayer
lock proteins into membranes
Fig. 4.7
Membrane Carbohydrates
Cell-cell recognition: Glycolipid: Covalently
Cells ability to distinguish bonded to lipids.
one cell from another. Glycoprotein: Most are
Is a crucial process for bonded to proteins.
cells.
Human blood type is
Recognition occurs when
binding b/w cells occurs to dependent on membrane
surface molecules (carbs.) carbohydrates (A, B, AB,
Usually short, branched O) on red blood cells.
chains of 15 or less
sugars.
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer

Phospholipid
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tails

Cholesterol

Proteins
Transmembrane/
Intrinsic/Integral
Peripheral/Extrinsic

Cytoskeletal filaments

Carbohydrate chain

Glycoproteins

Glycolipids
Proteins
Membrane Proteins
Two major protein
transmembrane structures

1. -helical - ubiquitously distributed

2. -barrel
- outer membranes of Gram-
negative bacteria, chloroplasts, and
mitochondria
Proteins of the Plasma Membrane
Provide 6 Membrane Functions:

1) Transport Proteins
2) Receptor Proteins
3) Enzymatic Proteins
4) Cell Recognition Proteins
5) Attachment Proteins
6) Intercellular Junction
Proteins
Transmembrane Proteins
Top of protein is N-
terminus.
Bottom left is C-
terminus.
This is a ribbon model
of the protein
(secondary structure)
1) Transport Proteins
Channel Proteins
channel for lipid
insoluble molecules
and ions to pass freely
through
Carrier Proteins bind
to a substance and
carry it across
membrane, change
shape in process
2) Receptor Proteins
Bind to chemical
messengers (Ex.
hormones) which
sends a message into
the cell causing
cellular reaction
3) Enzymatic Proteins
Carry out enzymatic
reactions right at the
membrane when a
substrate binds to the
active site
4) Cell Recognition Proteins
Glycoproteins (and
glycolipids) on
extracellular surface
serve as ID tags
(which species, type of
cell, individual).
Carbohydrates are
short branched chains
of less than 15 sugars
5) Attachment Proteins
- Attach to cytoskeleton (to
maintain cell shape and stabilize
proteins) and/or the extracellular
matrix (integrins connect to
both).
- Extracellular Matrix protein
fibers and carbohydrates
secreted by cells and fills the
spaces between cells and
supports cells in a tissue.
- Extracellular matrix can
influence activity inside the cell
and coordinate the behavior of
all the cells in a tissue.
6) Intercellular Junction Proteins
Bind cells together
Tight junctions

Gap junctions
Types of Cell Junctions
Tight Junctions

Desmosomes

Gap Junctions
Tight Junctions
Transmembrane Proteins of opposite cells
attach in a tight zipper-like fashion
No leakage
Ex. Intestine, Kidneys, Epithelium of skin
Desmosomes
Cytoplasmic plaques of two cells bind with
the aid of intermediate filaments of keratin
Allows for stretching
Ex. Stomach, Bladder, Heart
Gap Junctions
Channel proteins of opposite cells join together
providing channels for ions, sugars, amino
acids, and other small molecules to pass.
Allows communication between cells.
Ex. Heart muscle, animal embryos
How do materials move into and
out of the cell?
Materials must move
in and out of the cell
through the plasma
membrane.
Some materials
move between the
phospholipids.
Some materials
move through the
proteins.
Plasma Membrane Transport
Molecules move across the plasma
membrane by:
What are three types of
passive transport?

1) Diffusion
2) Facilitated Diffusion
3) Osmosis
ATP energy is not
needed to move the
molecules through.
Passive Transport 1: Diffusion
Molecules can move directly
through the phospholipids of the
plasma membrane

This is called
What is Diffusion?

Diffusion is the net


movement of molecules
from a high
concentration to a low
concentration until
equally distributed.

Diffusion rate is related


to temperature,
pressure, state of matter,
size of concentration
gradient, and surface
area of membrane.

http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif
Transporters vary enormously in their architecture and size: from
small organic molecules and peptides to multi-subunit complexes (the
V-type and Fo-type ATPase may have more that 10 subunit in a
complex). The size of the individual molecules could be as large as
5000 amino-acid residues (Ryanodine receptor)

Some transporters are ubiquitous (aquaporins, glycerol


facilitators, copper-transporting ATPases), others are kingdom
specific (bacteria and yeast cells lack Na+,K+-ATPase, one of the
most abundant transporter in higher eucaryots. At the same time,
only bacterial cells have phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent
phosphotranspherase system)

Transporters often have dual function acting as enzymes or


receptors in addition to transport function
Despite their enormous variety, the
transporters utilize common rules to
transport ions and molecules across
cell membranes
The Modes of Membrane
Transport
Two major modes of membrane transport

I. Simple
(Passive)Diffusion
no carriers is involved
Molecules that are transported through the
cell membrane via simple diffusion include
organic molecules, such as benzene and
small uncharged molecules, such as H2O,
O2, N2, urea, glycerol,and CO2

II. Mediated Diffusion


is carried out by proteins,
peptides, and small molecular
weight carriers
(ions, uncharged organic compounds, peptides,
and even proteins can be transported)
There are two major modes of mediated diffusion: passive
transport (or facilitated diffusion) and active transport
Passive transport (facilitated diffusion)
energy independent, down the concentration
gradient
Mobile carriers -ionophores
(valinomycin, nigericin,
dinitrophenol, etc)

Protein-translocators - (Band
3, porins, erythrocyte glucose
transporter)

Channels - channels-forming
ionophores (gramicidin)
- voltage-gated channels (Na+-,
K+- and Ca2+ -channels)
- ligand-gated channels
- mechanosensitive channels
Active transport
- energy-dependent, against
concentration gradient
Primary Active Transport - utilizes energy of
ATP hydrolysis

P-type ATPases (Na,K-


ATPase, H,K-ATPases, Ca-
ATPase, Zn2+/Pb2+transporting
ATPase of bacteria)
V-type ATPasesand F1F0-
ATPases (Na+-ATPase and
H+-ATPase)
ATPases that transport
peptides and drugs (multidrug-
resistance protein, P-
glycoprotein, yeast a-factor
transporter
Secondary Active (Coupled) Transport -
utilizes ion-gradients generated by primary
transporters
Types of Secondary Transporters

Symporters (two solutes


move in same direction)
Lac- permease,
Na+/glucose transporter)

Antiporters (two solutes


move in opposite
directions
Na+/Ca2+ exchanger)

Uniporters (mitochondrial
Ca2+ uniporter and NH+4-
transporter in plants require
H+ gradient)
Thermodynamics of
membrane transport
Simple (passive) diffusion
is a non-mediated and non-saturable
transport

Molecules that are transported through the cell membrane via simple diffusion
include small organic molecules, H2O, O2, N2, urea, glycerol,and CO2
Applications of simple diffusion: drugs delivery, analysis of membrane topology
using membrane-permeable and impermeable reagents, regulation of osmotic
pressure, etc.
Simple diffusion of molecules through
the membrane thermodynamically
resembles chemical equilibrium.

A chemical potential is generated by


the differences in concentration of
the transported molecules.

If C2<C1 then DG is negative and


transport occurs spontaneously down
the concentration gradient DG= DG2- DG1=RTln([C2]/[C1])
If C2>C1 then DG is positive and then
the energy source, such as ATP, is
required to transport the molecules
against concentration gradient
For Uncharged Molecules
Rate of flow or flux Jc can be expressed as follows:
Jc= -P (C2-C1)
where P is permeability coefficient and C1 and C2 are concentrations of the
transported molecule in two different compartments across the membrane.

P reflects dependence of the rate of simple diffusion on charge, hydrophobicity, size


of the molecules, as well as the effect of the membrane thickness and composition
on the rate of flow
P=KD/X
K - partition coefficient ( in general, it depends on properties of the solute,
such as hydrophobicity and charge)
D - diffusion coefficient (in general, it depends on the size of the transported
molecule and the membrane viscosity)
X- thickness of the membrane

Therefore Jc can be expressed as Jc= -KD(C2-C1)/X Ficks


equation
For Charged Molecules
the rate of flow depends not only on difference in the solute concentration
on the both sides of the membrane, but also on charge difference across
the membrane
Consequently, DG for transfer of charged
molecules across the membrane includes both

+
- chemical and electrical components

+ - +
chemical electrical
+ +
- - DG= RTln([C2]/[C1]) +
ZFDY
- -
+
- +

+ - -

DG - electrochemical potential
C2 and C1 concentrations of the
molecule
Y2-Y1=DY < 0
Z- ionic charge of the molecule
Z= + 1
T - absolute temperature
ZF DY < 0 R - gas constant
F - Faraday constant
DY - membrane potential
Facilitated diffusion - transport of molecules in an energy-
independent
fashion down the electrochemical gradient
Protein or carrier-mediated

Characterized by saturation kinetics

much faster than simple diffusion

Facilitators have chemical and


stereochemical specificity for
transported molecules (for example,
glucose transporter would transport D-
glucose, but not L-glucose, valinomycin
transport K+ ions 20,000 times better
than Na+)

susceptible to competitive inhibition


How to distinguish experimentally facilitated
diffusion and passive diffusion?
Passive-Mediated Glucose Transport
facilitates glucose uptake about 50,000 fold

Erythrocytes glucose transporter is a 55 kDa glycoprotein with 12


transmembrane segments
The transporter is believed to function through alternating
conformation mechanism
Transport can occur in either direction and serves mainly to equilibrate
glucose concentration
Mobile carriers (ionophores)
the non-protein transporters and small organic molecules
Ionophores serve as simple models for
analysis of the mechanisms of
membrane transport

They transport ions down the


concentration gradient to equilibrium,
and often used as convenient tools to
load cells with certain ion or to analyze
property of more complex transporters
by disrupting concentration gradients.

number of antibiotics function as


ionophores
Key feature: have two forms with markedly different hydrophobicity:
hydrophylic ion-free form and lipid-soluble ion-bound form
Valinomycin

A potassium ionophore

A dodecadepsipeptide (has both


peptide and ester bonds). It is a cyclic
structure composed of 4-unit
sequence repeated three times

Exists in two forms with markedly


different hydrophobicity

Destroys K+-gradient without affecting


DpH

Increases K-permeability up to 10,000


K-ions/sec

Highly selective for K+


High selectivity of valinomycin for
K-ion is due to:

a) perfect fit into coordination


sphere

b) more favorable energetics

(K + ion radius is 0.133 A, radius


of Na+ is smaller 0.095, but the
free energy of hydration is
significantly higher for Na + (300
kJ/mol) than for K + (230 kJ/mol),
consequently it takes more energy
to dehydrate Na +)
These two major principles of ion selection are also
utilized by other more complex transporters !
Channels
Greatly increase permeability for the transported
molecules

Have the highest rate of transport among all the


transporters, 105 - 107 ions/sec
valinomycin (carrier) transports up to 104 K+/sec
gramicidin (channel) permeability is up to 107 K+/sec

Transport through the channels is unaffected by


temperature, while facilitated transport mediated by
the mobile carrier is temperature- dependent

The selectivity of channels towards transported molecules varies. As a rule,


the b-barrel-based channels (pores and porins) and antibiotic-based
channels are less selective and not as highly regulated as the channels that
utilize the a-helix as their major structural element
Simple channels

Gramicidin A:
a 15-mer polypeptide composed of alternating L and D amino-acids
forms a b-helix (6,7 amino acid residues per turn), which then dimerizes
head-to head by hydrogen bonding association between their N-formyl
ends to cross the membrane. The diameter of the pore is 4 A.
greatly increases permeability for monovalent cations, but not divalent
cations; i.e. it is less selective than valinomycin, but much more permeable
What molecules pass through the
plasma membrane by diffusion?
Gases (oxygen, carbon
dioxide)
Water molecules (rate
slow due to polarity)
Lipids (steroid
hormones)
Lipid soluble molecules
(hydrocarbons, alcohols,
some vitamins)
Small noncharged
molecules (NH3)
Why is diffusion important to cells
and humans?
Cell respiration
Alveoli of lungs
Capillaries
Red Blood Cells
Medications: time-
release capsules
Passive Transport 2: Facilitated
Diffusion
Molecules can move through the
plasma membrane with the aid of
transport proteins
This is called
What is Facilitated Diffusion?

Facilitated diffusion
is the net movement
of molecules from a
high concentration to
a low concentration
with the aid of
channel or carrier
proteins.
What molecules move through the plasma
membrane by facilitated diffusion?
Ions
(Na+, K+, Cl-)

Sugars
(Glucose)

Amino Acids

Small water
soluble molecules

Water (faster rate)


How do molecules move through the
plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion?

Channel and Carrier proteins are specific:


Channel Proteins allow ions, small solutes, and water
to pass
Carrier Proteins move glucose and amino acids
Facilitated diffusion is rate limited, by the number of
proteins channels/carriers present in the membrane.
Why is facilitated diffusion important
to cells and humans?
Cells obtain food for
cell respiration
Neurons
communicate
Small intestine cells
transport food to
bloodstream
Muscle cells contract
Passive Transport 3: Osmosis
Water Molecules can move directly
through the phospholipids of the
plasma membrane

This is called
What is Osmosis?

Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a


semipermeable membrane. Water molecules bound
to solutes cannot pass due to size, only unbound
molecules. Free water molecules collide, bump into
the membrane, and pass through.
Osmosis in action
What will happen in
the U-tube if water
freely moves through
the membrane but
glucose can not pass?

Water moves from side


with high concentration of
water to side with lower
concentration of water.
Movement stops when
osmotic pressure equals
hydrostatic pressure.
Why is osmosis important to cells
and humans?
Cells remove water
produced by cell
respiration.
Large intestine cells
transport water to
bloodstream
Kidney cells form
urine
Osmosis and Tonicity
Tonicity refers to the total solute
concentration of the solution outside the
cell.
What are the three types of tonicity?
1) Isotonic
2) Hypotonic
3) Hypertonic
Isotonic
Solutions that have the same concentration of
solutes as the suspended cell.

What will happen to a cell placed in an Isotonic


solution?
The cell will have no net movement of water and
will stay the same size.
Ex. Blood plasma has high concentration of
albumin molecules to make it isotonic to tissues.
Hypotonic
Solutions that have a lower solute concentration
than the suspended cell.

What will happen to a cell placed in a Hypotonic


solution?
The cell will gain water and swell.
If the cell bursts, then we call this lysis. (Red blood
cells = hemolysis)
In plant cells with rigid cell walls, this creates
turgor pressure.
Hypertonic
Solutions that have a higher solute concentration
than a suspended cell.

What will happen to a cell placed in a Hypertonic


solution?
The cell will lose water and shrink. (Red blood
cells = crenation)
In plant cells, the central vacuole will shrink and
the plasma membrane will pull away from the cell
wall causing the cytoplasm to shrink called
plasmolysis.
Review: Passive Transport

Diffusion O2 moves in and CO2 moves out


during cell respiration

Facilitated Diffusion glucose and amino


acids enter cell for cell respiration

Osmosis cell removal or addition of water


Review Tonicity
What will happen to a red blood cell in a
hypertonic solution?
What will happen to a red blood cell in an
isotonic solution?
What will happen to a red blood cell in a
hypotonic solution?
What are three types of
Active transport?

1) Active Transport
1) Primary
2) Secondary (no ATP)
2) Bulk Transport
1) Exocytosis
2) Endocytosis
1) Phagocytosis
2) Pinocytosis
3) Receptor-Mediated ATP energy is
endocytosis required to move the
molecules through.
Active Transport
Molecules move from areas of low
concentration to areas of high concentration
with the aid of ATP energy.
Requires protein carriers called Pumps.
The Importance of Active Transport
Bring in essential molecules: ions,
amino acids, glucose, nucleotides
Rid cell of unwanted molecules (Ex.
sodium from urine in kidneys)
Maintain internal conditions different
from the environment
Regulate the volume of cells by
controlling osmotic potential
Control cellular pH
Re-establish concentration
gradients to run facilitated diffusion.
(Ex. Sodium-Potassium pump and
Proton pumps)
The Sodium-Potassium Pump
3 Sodium ions move out of
the cell and then 2
Potassium ions move into
the cell.
Driven by the splitting of
ATP to provide energy and
conformational change to
proteins by adding and then
taking away a phosphate
group.
Used to establish an
electrochemical gradient
across neuron cell
membranes. http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/biology107/bi107vc/fa99/terry/images/ATPpumA.gif
Secondary Active Transport
Via Facilitated Diffusion of Na
Counter Transport the transport
of two substances at the same time
in opposite directions, without ATP.
Protein carriers are called
Antiports.
Co-transport the transport of
two substances at the same time in
the same direction, without ATP.
Protein carriers are called
Symports.
Gated Channels receptors
combined with channel proteins.
When a chemical messenger binds
to a receptor, a gate opens to allow
ions to flow through the channel.
Bulk Transport: Exocytosis
Movement of large
molecules bound in
vesicles out of the cell
with the aid of ATP
energy. Vesicle fuses
with the plasma
membrane to eject
macromolecules.
Ex. Proteins,
polysaccharides,
polynucleotides, whole
cells, hormones, mucus,
neurotransmitters, waste
Bulk Transport: Endocytosis
Movement of large molecules into the cell
by engulfing them in vesicles, using ATP
energy.
Three types of Endocytosis:
Phagocytosis
Pinocytosis
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Phagocytosis
Cellular Eating engulfing large
molecules, whole cells, bacteria
Ex. Macrophages ingesting bacteria or worn
out red blood cells.
Ex. Unicellular organisms engulfing food
particles.
Pinocytosis
CellularDrinking engulfing liquids and
small molecules dissolved in liquids;
unspecific what enters.
Ex. Intestinal cells, Kidney cells, Plant root
cells
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Movement of very specific
molecules into the cell with the
use of vesicles coated with the
protein clathrin.
Coated pits are specific
locations coated with clathrin
and receptors. When specific
molecules (ligands) bind to the
receptors, then this stimulates
the molecules to be engulfed
into a coated vesicle.
Ex. Uptake of cholesterol (LDL)
by animal cells
Review Types of Endocytosis

What is phagocytosis?

What is pinocytosis?

Whatis receptor-
mediated endocytosis?
Overview of
Membrane Proteins

Adhesion Communication
Proteins Proteins
Fig. 5.6, p.78
Overview of
Membrane Proteins

Receptor Recognition Passive Active


Proteins Proteins Transporters Transporters

Fig. 5.6, p.79


Transport Proteins
Span the lipid bilayer
Interior is able to open to both sides
Change shape when they interact with
solute
Play roles in active and passive transport
Concentration Gradient
Means the number of molecules or ions in
one region is different than the number in
another region

In the absence of other forces, a


substance moves from a region where it is
more concentrated to one one where its
less concentrated - down gradient
Diffusion

The net movement of like molecules or


ions down a concentration gradient

Althoughmolecules collide randomly, the


net movement is away from the place with
the most collisions (down gradient)
Diffusion

Stepped Art
Fig. 5.7a, p.80
Diffusion

Stepped Art
Fig. 5.7b, p.80
Factors Affecting
Diffusion Rate
Steepness of concentration gradient
Steeper gradient, faster diffusion
Molecular size
Smaller molecules, faster diffusion
Temperature
Higher temperature, faster diffusion
Electrical or pressure gradients
Membrane Crossing
Mechanisms
Diffusion across lipid bilayer

Passive transport

Active transport

Endocytosis

Exocytosis
Cell Membranes Show
Selective Permeability
oxygen, carbon glucose and other large,
dioxide, and other polar, water-soluble
small, nonpolar molecules; ions (e.g.,
molecules; some H+, Na+, K+, Ca++,
water molecules Cl); water molecules

Fig. 5-8, p.80


Membrane Crossing: Overview I
High

Concentration
gradient across
cell membrane

ATP
Low

Diffusion of Passive transport of water- Active transport


lipid-soluble soluble substances through ATPase;
Substances through channel protein; requires energy
across bilayer no energy input needed input from ATP
Fig. 5-9, p.81
Membrane Crossing: Overview II

Endocytosis (vesicles in)

Exocytosis (vesicles out)

Fig. 5-9, p.81


Passive Transport
Flowof solutes through the interior of
passive transport proteins down their
concentration gradients

Passive
transport proteins allow solutes to
move both ways

Does not require any energy input


Passive Transport
glucose transporter
solute (glucose) high

low

Stepped Art

Fig. 5.10, p.80


Active Transport
Net
diffusion of solute is against
concentration gradient
Transport protein must be activated
ATP gives up phosphate to activate
protein
Binding of ATP changes protein shape
and affinity for solute
Active Transport

ATP gives up phosphate to activate


protein
Binding
of ATP changes protein
shape and affinity for solute
Active Transport
higher calcium
concentration

ATP

Pi

Stepped Art
ADP
Fig. 5-11, p.83
Osmosis
Diffusion of water molecules across a
selectively permeable membrane
water molecules protein molecules
Direction of net flow is
determined by water
concentration gradient

Side with the most


solute molecules has
the lowest water semipermeable membrane
between two compartments
concentration
Osmosis

p.84
Tonicity
Refers to relative solute concentration of
two fluids
Hypotonic - having fewer solutes

Hypertonic - having more solutes

Isotonic - having same amount


Tonicity and Osmosis

2% sucrose
solution

1 liter of 1 liter of 10% 1 liter of 2%


distilled water sucrose solution sucrose solution
2%
sucrose
Tonicity and
solution
Osmosis

1 liter of 1 liter of
1 liter of 10% sucrose 2% sucrose
distilled water solution solution

Hypotonic Hypertonic Isotonic


Conditions Conditions Conditions
Fig. 5-13, p.85
Pressure and Osmosis
Hydrostatic pressure
Pressure exerted by fluid on the walls that
contain it
The greater the solute concentration of the
fluid, the greater the hydrostatic pressure
Osmotic pressure
Amount of pressure necessary to prevent
further increase of a solutions volume
Increase in Fluid Volume

first second
compartment compartment

hypotonic hypertonic
solution solution
membrane fluid volume
permeable to rises in
water but not to second
solutes compartment

Fig. 5.14, p.85


Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Exocytosis: A cytoplasmic vesicle fuses
with the plasma membrane and contents
are released outside the cell
Endocytosis: A small patch of plasma
membrane sinks inward and seals back on
itself, forming a vesicle inside the
cytoplasm membrane receptors often
mediate this process
endocytosis exocytosis
a
Endocytosis
coated pit
b
and
Exocytosis

d c

f
e

Fig. 5-15, p.86


Endocytosis of cholesterol

plasma membrane cholesterol


Macrophage engulfing
Leishmania mexicana

parasite macrophage

Fig 5.17, p.87


Phagocytosis

bacterium phagocytic vesicle


Fig. 5-17b, p.87
vesicle membrane
fuses with plasma
membrane

How Proteins Get


to the Surface

Golgi body

endoplasmic reticulum

Fig. 5.18, pg. 87


Contractile Vacuole

contractile vacuole filled

contractile vacuole emptied

Fig. 5.21, pg. 89


adhesion passive recognition receptor
protein transporter protein protein

lipid
bilayer

cytoskeletal
proteins cytoplasm

active transporter active transporter


(calcium pump) (ATPase pump)

Fig. 5-19, p.88


Membrane Fluidity
Membranes are not Proteins are much
static, they have the larger and move
ability to move. slowly.
Membrane is held Some seem to move in
together through a directed manner.
hydrophobic interactions,
much weaker than Membrane remains
covalent bonds. fluid as temperature
Most of the lipids can decreases until it is
drift laterally (side-to- tightly packed &
side). solidifies (like bacon
Movement occurs about grease does).
107 times/second.
Membrane can travel
about 2 m/second
Membrane Fluidity (cont.)
Membrane Fluidity (cont.)

Cholesterol
(steroid), wedged b/w
phospholipids has different effects on
membrane fluidity.
Warm temps. cause it to be less fluid by
restraining phospholipid movement.
Lowers the temp. for membranes to solidify.
Membranes must be fluid to work properly.
Solidified membranes change permeability,
causing enzymatic proteins to function
improperly.
Membrane Fluidity
Membrane Fluidity (cont.)

Do membrane proteins move?


The mixing of the mouse & human membrane
proteins shows that at least some membrane
proteins move sideways within the plane of the
plasma membrane.
Studying Membranes

human mouse
cell cell

fusion into
hybrid cell

proteins from
both
in fused Stepped Art
membrane Fig. 5.5b, pg. 77
Studying Membranes

Stepped Art
Fig. 5.5a, pg. 77
Freeze-Fracture
Method of preparing cells for
microscopy.
The frozen cell is fractured down
the middle of the membrane
bilayer
The proteins do not split, but
follow either of the membrane
layers
A mist of platinum is sprayed onto
the surface at an angle creating
shadows indicating depth.
Carbon is added to strength and
the specimen is digested, leaving
the platinum-carbon film which is
then examined by electron
microscopy.
When viewed, interior layer looks
cobblestoned, w/ proteins
dispersed in matrix.