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CHAPTER -1 SOLID STATE

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What do you mean by coordination number ?
Ans.
The no of atoms to which central atom is touching 1
2. What is meant by doping in a semiconductor?
Ans.
Doping is defined as addition of impurities from outside to a crystal. 1
3. What are paramagnetic substances.?
Ans.
Substances which are attracted by external magnetic field due to presence of
unpaired electrons . 1
4. Name two type of voids present in a crystal lattice.
Ans.
a) Tetrahedral voids
b) Octahedral void
5. What is piezoelectricity?
Ans.
Ability of a substance to produce electric current on application of mechanical 1
stress.
6 How many lattice points are there in one unit cell of bcc unit cell ?
Ans.
8 (at corner ) +1 (at body centre) 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
7 Define Packing efficiency? What is packing efficiency of hcp.
Ans.
It is the percentage of total space occupied by constituent particles (atoms, 1
molecules or ions) in a unit cell.

Packing efficiency of hcp is 74% 1


8 What are F- centers ? Why are the solids containing the F- centers are
paramagnetic?
Ans .
The free electrons trapped in the anion vacancies are termed as the F- centers. 1
The solids containing the F-centres are paramagnetic because the electrons 1
occupying the vacant sites are unpaired.
9 A unit cell consists of a cube in which there are anions at each corner and one at

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the center of the unit cell. The cations are the center of the each face. How many
A) cations and B) anions make up the unit cell C)What is the simplest formula of
the compound ?

Ans.
A) The cation at the center of each face is shared by two unit cells.
Hence no. of cations= 6 X = 3
B) The anion at each corner is shared by 8 unit cells . the anion at the center is not
shared by any other unit cell.
Hence no. of anions= 8 X 1/8 + 1 = 2
C) Since there are 3 cations and 2 anions the simplest formula of the compound is 1
A3B2.

10. Distinguish between


(i)Hexagonal and monoclinic unit cells
(ii) Face-centred and end-centred unit cells.
Ans.
(i)
Hexagonal unit cell
For a hexagonal unit cell,
a=bc
= = 90
= 120
Monoclinic unit cell
For a monoclinic cell,
abc
= = 90
90
(ii)
Face-centred unit cell
In a face-centred unit cell, the constituent particles are present at the corners
and one at the centre of each face.
End-centred unit cell
An end-centred unit cell contains particles at the corners and one at the centre
of any two opposite faces.
THREE MARK QUESTIONS

11. State any three differences between Schottky and Frankel defect?
Ans.
Schottky defect
I. It occurs due to missing of equal no of cations and anions from lattice
point.

II. It decreases the density of the crystal.
III. It occurs in compounds with high Co-ordination number.
OR

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It occurs in compounds in which cations and anions are of similar size.
Examples: NaCl, KCl, KBr, Ag Br CsCl.

Frankel defect

I. It occurs due to missing of cations from their lattice point and occupies
interstitial sites

II. It does not decrease the density of the crystal.
III. It occurs in compounds with low Co-ordination number.
OR

It occurs in compounds in which cations and anions differ in their size to a


large extent. Examples: ZnS, AgCl, AgBr, Agl.

12. Explain the following with suitable example


I. Paramagnetism
II. Ferrimagnetism
III. Antiferromagnetism
Ans.
I. Paramagnetism

The substances that are attracted by a magnetic field are called paramagnetic
substances. Due to one or more unpaired electrons substances get magnetized in a

magnetic field in the same direction, but lose magnetism when the magnetic field is
removed.
Some examples of paramagnetic substances are O2, Cu2+, Fe3+, and Cr3+
II. Ferrimagnetism

The substances in which the magnetic moments of the domains are aligned in
parallel and anti-parallel directions, in unequal numbers, are said to have

ferromagnetism.
Examples include Fe3O4 (magnetite), ferrites such as MgFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4.

Schematic alignment of magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic substances


(iii) Antiferromagnetism
Antiferromagnetic substances have domain structures similar to ferromagnetic
substances, but are oppositely-oriented. The oppositely-oriented domains cancel
out each others magnetic moments.

Example - MnO

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TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
13. Why Glass panes fixed to windows of old buildings are invariably found to be
thicker at the bottom than the top ?
Ans.
Glass is a Pseudo solid so behaves like fluid. 1
14. Graphite is soft and generally used as a lubricant. Give reason.
Ans.
Because it has layered structure having weak van ders wall forces one layer can
slide on another. It is slippery in nature. 1
15. If ===90 and abc, identify the type of crystal system and give one example?
Ans.
Orthorhombic
Example: Rhombic Sulphur
16. Solid A is soft, a conductor of electricity and has a layered structure. Identify solid A
and its type ?
Ans.
Graphite and covalent ,
17. What are the number of tetrahedral voids generated if the number of close packed
sphere be N in a crystal?
Ans. 2N 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
18. Excess of potassium in the KCl makes the crystal appears violet. Explain why?
Ans.
When KCl is heated in an atmosphere of K metal vapour , the metal K deposits on
the surface of the KCl crystal . The chloride ions diffuse into the surface and 1
combine with K atoms.

The electrons produced by the ionization of the K Atoms then diffuse into the 1
crystals and are then trapped in the anion vacancies called F- centers . the excess
of the K+ ions in KCl makes the crystal appear violet
19. Atom of element B forms hcp lattice and those of the element A occupy 2/3 rd of
tetrahedral void .what would be the formula of the compound ?
Ans.
Suppose number of atom B in hcp = N
No. of Tetrahedral void = 2N 1
Atom A occupying tetrahedral void = 2/3* 2N
Ratio A:B A4B3 1

20. Ferromagnetic and Ferrimagnetic substances become paramagnetic upon heating .


Why?

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Ans. 1
The temperature at which they are changed into paramagnetic is called curie
temperature. 1
This is because the realignment of electrons spin or their magnetic moments which
are now oriented in one particular direction.
THREE MARK QUESTIONS

21. In the mineral spinal; having the formula MgAl2O4. The oxide ions are arranged in
CCP, Mg2+ ions occupy the tetrahedral voids. While Al3+ ions occupy the octahedral
voids.
(i) What percentage of tetrahedral voids is occupied by Mg2+ ions ?
(ii) What percentage of octahedral voids is occupied by Al3+ ions ?

Ans.
1
According to the formula, MgAl2O4. If there are 4 oxide ions, there will be 1 Mg2+
ions and 2 Al3+. But if the 4 O2 ions are ccp in arrangement, there will be 4 1
octahedral and 8 tetrahedral voids.
1
(i) Percentage of tetrahedral voids occupied by Mg2+ = (1 / 8) 100 = 12.5%
(ii) Percentage of octahedral voids occupied by Al3+ = (2 / 4) 100 = 50%

22. Classify the following solids in different categories based on the nature of
intermolecular forces operating in them:
Potassium sulphate , benzene, urea, ammonia, water, silicon carbide.
Ans :
Potassium sulphate Ionic solid
Benzene Molecular (non-polar) solid each
Urea Polar molecular solid
Ammonia Hydrogen bonded molecular solid
Water Hydrogen bonded molecular solid
Silicon carbide Covalent or network solid

23. Classify each of the following as being either a p-type or an n-type semiconductor:
(i) Ge doped with In (ii) B doped with Si (iii) Si doped with In
Ans:

(i) Ge (a group 14 element) is doped with In (a group 13 element). Therefore, a hole


will be created and the semiconductor generated will be a p-type semiconductor. 1

(ii)B (a group 13 element) is doped with Si (a group 14 element). So, there will be an 1
extra electron and the semiconductor
generated will be an n-type semiconductor
(iii ) Si (a group 14 element) is doped with In (a group 13 element). Therefore, a hole 1
will be created and the semiconductor generated will be a p-type
semiconductor.

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TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
24. How many spheres are in contact with each other in a single plane of a close
packed structure?
Ans.
Six(6) 1
25. What other elements may be added to silicon to make electrons available for the
conduction of an electric current?
Ans.
Phosphorous or Gallium. 1
26. How many Tetrahedral sites per sphere are there in a cubic closest packed
( face centered cubic) structure.?
Ans.
Two 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
27. Analysis shows that nickel oxide has the formula Ni 0.98 O. What fraction of the
nickel exist as Ni 2+ and Ni 3+.
Ans.
let Ni 2+ = x and Ni 3+ 98-x
2*x + 3(98-x) +2= 0
Fraction of Ni 2+ = 94/98*100 =95.9% 1
Fraction of Ni3+ = 4/98*100 =4.08% 1
28. A compound forms hexagonal close packed structure . What is the total number of
void in 0.5 mol of it .How many of these are tetrahedral void ?
Ans.
Number of atom in the close packing = 0.56.0231023 = 3.0111023
Number of octahedral void = 13.0111023 1
Number of tetrahedral void 2 3.0111023= 6.0331023 1
29. An element with molar mass 27 g /mol forms a cubic unit cell with edge length
4.05*10-8 cm if its density is 2.7g/cm3 what is the nature of the cubic cell .
Ans.
= ZM/a3NA
2.7 = Z 27/(4.05*10-8)36.023 *1023
Z = 1080.29*10-1 / 27
1
Z = 4 , FCC

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
30. Niobium crystallizes in body-centered cubic structure. If density is 8.55 g cm3,
calculate atomic radius of niobium using its atomic mass 93 u.

Ans.
It is given that the density of niobium, d = 8.55 g cm3
Atomic mass, M = 93 gmol1
As the lattice is bcc type, the number of atoms per unit cell, z = 2
We also know that, NA = 6.022 1023 mol1

1
Applying the relation:

= 3.612 1023 cm3


So, a = 3.306 108 cm
For body-centred cubic unit cell:

1
8
= 1.432 10 cm
= 14.32 109 cm
= 14.32 nm
31. Ferric oxide crystallizes in a hexagonal close-packed array of oxide ions with two out
of every three octahedral holes occupied by ferric ions. Derive the formula of the
ferric oxide.
Ans .
Let the number of oxide (O2) ions be x.
So, number of octahedral voids = x
It is given that two out of every three octahedral holes are occupied by ferric ions. 1
So, number of ferric (Fe3+) ions =2/3x
1
Therefore, ratio of the number of Fe3+ ions to the number of O2 ions,
Fe3+ : O2

=2:3
Hence, the formula of the ferric oxide is Fe2O3.
32. Aluminium crystallises in a cubic close-packed structure. Its metallic radius is 125
pm.
(i) What is the length of the side of the unit cell?
(ii) How many unit cells are there in 1.00 cm3 of aluminum?

Ans.
(i) For cubic close-packed structure

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= 353.55 pm
= 354 pm (approximately)

(ii) Volume of one unit cell = (354 pm)3


= 4.4 107 pm3
= 4.4 107 1030 cm3
= 4.4 1023 cm3

Therefore, number of unit cells in 1.00 cm3 = 1

= 2.27 1022

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CHAPTER -2 SOLUTIONS

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE
Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE
POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What is molarity?
Ans.
No. of moles of solute dissolved per litre of a solution 1
2. State Henrys law.
Ans.
The partial pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its mole fraction in solution.
P = KH x 1
3. What do you mean by vapour pressure?
Ans.
The pressure exerted by vapours above the liquid surface at equilibrium is called vapour
pressure. 1
4. How would you define, an Ideal solution?
Ans.
The solution which obey Raoults law at all temperature and pressure is called an ideal 1
solution which also have mixH and mixV= 0
5. Give an example of Ideal solution.
Ans.
n-Hexane and n-Heptane or any other suitable example. 1
6. Define Colligative Properties and give one example.
Ans.
The properties which depends on number of solute particles but independent of its nature.
e.g. Elevation in boiling point / Depression in freezing point
7. Why are the equimolar solutions of NaCl and glucose not isotonic?
Ans.
Isotonic solutions are those having same concentrations and osmotic pressure but NaCl and 1
Glucose have not the same osmotic pressure due to the different Vant Hoff factor .
8. What is Vant Hoff factor?
Ans.
Vant Hoff factor is the ratio of normal molar mass/abnormal molar mass or any other 1
suitable formula.
9. What is the Vant Hoff factor in K4[Fe(CN)6] and BaCl2 ?
Ans.
5 and 3 respectively assuming that it is fully dissociated in solution. +
10. What is the value of vant Hoff factor for a compound which undergoes tetramerisation in an
organic solvent?
Ans.
because the four molecules gets associated to one. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
11. What is molal elevation constant or ebullioscopic constant? Write its units.
Ans.
Molal elevation constant or ebullioscopic constant is the elevation in boiling point for one
molal solution. 1
Its unit is KKgmol-1 1

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12. Define Raoults law for non volatile solute solution. Give its mathematical form.
Ans.
Vapour pressure of a solution is directly proportional to the mole fraction of volatile
component. 1
Psol= P0solvent Xsolvent 1
13. Calculate the amount of KCl which must be added to 1Kg of water so that the freezing point is
depressed by 2 kelvin. (Kf for water = 1.86 K Kg mol-1 )
Ans.
Tf = i X Kf X m
2 = 2 X 1.86 X ( n/1)
N = 1/ 1.86
= 0.537 mol
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
14. Define Azeotropes? What are maximum and minimum boiling azeotropes ? Explain with
example.
Ans.
Azeotropes are constant boiling mixture which has same composition in liquid phase as well 1
as in vapour phase.

The non ideal solutions which exhibit negative deviation from ideal solution at a particular
composition are called as maximum boiling azeotropes.
e.g 68% aqueous solution of HNO3 or any other suitable example.

The non ideal solutions which exhibit positive deviation from ideal solution at a particular
composition are called as minimum boiling azeotropes.
e.g 95% aqueous ethanol by volume or any other suitable example.

TYPOLOGY UNDERSTANDING

ONE MARK QUESTIONS


15. Which is better method for expressing concentration of solution Molarity or Molality
Ans.
Molality 1
16. Write one example each of solid in gas and liquid in gas solution?
Ans.
Solid in Gas-dust in gas & Liquid in Gas Moisture in air +
17. Which of the following mode of concentration is affected by temperature?
Molarity, Molality, mole fraction and Normality.
Ans.
Molarity and Normality +
TWO MARK QUESTIONS

18. Vapour pressure of pure water at 350C is 31.82 mm Hg when 27.0g of solute is dissolved in
100 g of water (at the same temperature) vapour pressure of the solution thus formed is
30.95mm Hg. Calculate the molecular mass of the solute.
Ans.
P A0 - P A = X B
P A0
31.82 - 30.95 = 27/MB +

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= 0.87 = 27 x 18
31.89 100/18 31.82 MB 100 + +

MB = 177.75 g mol-1

19. What is the molar concentration of solute particles in human blood if the osmotic pressure is
7.2 atm at normal body temperature, i.e. 370 C?
Ans.
= CRT
or C = /RT
= 7.2 atm
R = 0.0821 L atm K-1 mol-1
T = 370C = 37 + 273 = 310 K.

Molar concentration (C) = (7.2 atm)


(0.082L Latm K-1mol-1) x (310K)
= 0.283 mol-1
= 0.283 M.
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
20. A 1.00 m solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in benzene has a freezing point depression of 2.6
K. Calculate the value for i and suggest an explanation for its value.
Ans.
Tf = i X Kf X m 1
2.6 = i X 5.12 X 1 1
i = 2.6 / 5.12 = 0.502 1
I < 1 the result suggest that acetic acid undergoes association in organic solvent.

TYPOLOGY APPLICATION
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
21. What happens when blood cells are placed in pure water?
Ans.
Blood cells swell up due to osmosis (plasmolysis). 1
22. Name the substances which are used by deep sea divers to neutralize the toxic effects of
nitrogen dissolved in the blood.
Ans.
Helium (11%) 1
23. Why is Anoxia disease very common at higher altitudes?
Ans.
As concentration of oxygen is less in air at high altitude. 1
24. Name the substance used as cell membrane in reverse osmosis.
Ans.
Cellulose acetate 1
25. During the preparation of solution for intravenous injection which essential factor should be
kept in mind?
Ans.
The solution should be isotonic with RBC. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
26. Why is the freezing point depression of 0.1 M KCl solution nearly twice than that of 0.1 M

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sucrose solution?
Ans.
Both have same concentration but in aqueous solution KCl undergoes dissociation whereas 1
sucrose does not.
KCl on dissociation provides two particles. 1
27. The freezing point depression of a 0.10 m solution of HF (aq) solution is -0.201 C. Calculate
the percent dissociation of HF (aq).
Ans.
Tf = i X Kf X m
0.201 = iX 1.86 X 0.1
i = 0.201 / 0.186 = 1.08
= (i-1) / ( n-1)
=1.08 1 = 0.08
% dissociation of HF is 8%
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
28. A 0.2 m aqueous solution of KCl freezes at -0.680C. Calculate i and the osmotic pressure at
00C. Assume the volume of solution to be that of pure H2O and Kf for H2O is 1.86 KKg/mol.
Ans. 1
(Tf)normal = Kf x m = 1.86 x 0.2= 0.372
i= Observed colligative property/Normal colligative property
= 0.68/0.372 1
Observed osmotic pressure= i x Normal osmotic pressure
= i x c RT
= 1.83 x 0.2 x 0.082 x 273 +
= 8.2 atm
29. Calculate the freezing point depression expected for 0.0711 m aqueous solution of Na2SO4. If
this solution actually freezes at -0.320oC, what would be the value of Vant Hoff factor?
Ans.
Tf = Kf X m 1
= 1.86x .0711 = .132 0C 1
i = .320/.132 = 2.42 1
30. At 25oC, 3g of a solute A in 100 ml of an aqueous solution gave an osmotic pressure of 2.5
atm. What is the nature of the solute (associated or dissociated) if its normal molar mass is
246?
Ans.
=iXCXRXT 1
2.5 = i X ( 3/246) X( 0.0821 / 0.1) X 298
i = 2.01 1
As i > 1 the solute A undergoes dissociation. 1

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CHAPTER -3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY

TYPOLOGY KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Can absolute value of electrode potential be measured ?
Ans:
No, Absolute value of electrode potentials cannot be measured as electrode
1
reaction cannot take place by its own.
2. What is electrode potential?
Ans:
The potential difference between electrolyte Solution and electrode is called
1
electrode potential.
3. Consider a cell given below :
Cu | Cu2+ || Cl- | Cl2 , Pt(s)
Write the reactions that occur at anode and cathode.
Ans :
Cu Cu2+ + 2e At anode Cl2 +2e 2 Cl- At cathode +
4. What is the function of salt bridge?
Ans:
(i) To maintain the electrical neutrality of the electrolytes
1
(ii) To complete the internal circuit of the cell.
5. Give an example of secondary cell.
Ans:
Lead storage battery. 1
6. What would happen if the protective tin coating over an iron bucket is
broken in some places?
Ans:
Iron will corrode faster as the oxidation potential of Fe is higher than that of
tin. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
7. Calculate the emf of the cell in which the following reactions takes place
Ni(s) + 2 Ag+(0.002M) Ni2+ (0.16 M) + Ag(s)
o
Given that E cell = 1.05 V.
Ans:
Ecell= E0 -0.0591/n x log 0.16/(2 x 10-3)2 1
= 1.05 -0.0591/2 x log 16 x 104/4 1
=0.91 volt
THREE MARK QUESTIONS

8. H2-O2 fuel cell was the most commonly used cell to provide electrical power
in Apollo space programme amongst all the fuel cells. The cell runs
continuously as long as the reactants are supplied.
Answer the following questions.(K)
(i) Write the reactions which occur at cathode.

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12. Calculate the reduction potential of cell consisting of a platinum electrode
immersed in 2.0 M Fe2+ and 0.02 M Fe3+ solution (Eo Fe3+ | fe2+ = 0.771 V).
Ans:
(ii) Write the reaction which occur at anode.
3+ 2+ o 3+ 2+
E0Fe the
(iii) Write /Fe name of catalyst
- E Fe / fe that is used in the fuel cell. 1
(iv) Give the values associated with using fuel cell.
Ans:- 0.0591/1log 2/0.02 1
= 0.6528
(i) At cathodeVolt 1
O2(g)+2H2O(l)+4e-4OH-(aq)
(ii) At anode
2H2(g)+4OH-(aq)4H2O+4e-

Overall reaction

2H2(g)+O2(g)2H2O(l)

(iii) Finely divided platinum and palladium acts as a catalyst.
(iv)
(a)Fuel cell has efficiency of more than 70%.
(b)Fuel cell does not create any environmental pollution.
(c)During the reaction, water vapours are produced, which upon
condensation can be used for drinking purpose.
9. Represent the cell in which the following reaction takes place
Mg(s) + 2Ag+ (0.0001M) Mg2+ (0.130 M) + 2Ag(s)
o
Calculate its Ecell if E cell = 3.17 V .
Ans:
Ecell = Eocell (RT /2F) x ln{[Mg2+]/[Ag+]2 1
=3.17V - 0.059/2 x log 0.130/(0.0001)2 1
= 2.96 V 1
10. Depict the galvanic cell in which the reaction
Zn(s) +2Ag+ (aq) Zn2+ (aq) +2Ag(s) takes place.
Further show:
i) which of the electrode is negatively charged?
ii) the carriers of the current in the cell.
iii) Individual reaction of each electrode.
Ans:
Zn(s)|Zn2+(aq) || Ag+ (aq) | Ag (s)
I) Zn- electrode 1
ii) electrons flow from anode to cathode, current flows from cathode to 1
anode
iii) Reaction at Anode:
Zn (s) Zn 2+(aq) + 2e-
Reaction at Cathode:
Ag+(aq) + e Ag(S)

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TYPOLOGY UNDERSTANDING
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
11. Which solution will show greater conductance of electricity, 1M NaCl at 293K
or 1MNaCl at 323K and Why?
Ans:
1M NaCl at 323K 1
as the ionic mobilities increase with increase in temperature. 1
12. Can a nickel spatula be used to stir a solution of copper sulphate? Justify
your answer.
(ENi2/Ni= -0.25V E Cu2+/Cu=0.34V)
Ans:
No, 1
Because Reduction potential of Ni is less than Cu. Ni will replace the Cu from 1
CuSO4.
13. Which out of 0.1M HCl and 0.1M NaCl, do you expect have greater mand
why?
Ans:
0.1M HCl will have greater m because 1
H+ (aq) being smaller in size than Na+ (aq) and have greater mobility. 1
14. Which of the following pairs will have greater conduction and why?(E)
(a) Copper wire at 25C and Copper wire at 50C.
(b) 0.1M acetic acid solution or 1M acetic acid solution?
Ans:
(a) Copper wire at 25C because with increase in temperature, resistance 1
increase, metallic conduction decrease with increase in temp .due to
vibration of kernels.
(b) 0.1M acetic acid solution because with dilution degree of dissociation 1
increases and hence number of ions.
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
15. Consider the electrochemical cell:(APP)
Zn (s)/Zn2+ (aq)// Cu2+ (aq)/Cu. It has an electrical potential of 1.1V when
concentration of Zn2+ and Cu2+ions is unity.
State the direction of flow of electrons and also specify if Zinc and Copper
are deposited or dissolved at their respective electrodes.

When:
(a) An external opposite potential of 0.8 V is applied.
(b) An external opposite potential of 1.1 V is applied.
(c) An external opposite potential of 1.4 V is applied.
Ans:
(a) Electrons flow from Zn rod to Cu rod. 1
(b)No flow of electrons and current. No change observed at Zinc and Copper
electrodes (system is equilibrium). 1
(c) Electrons flow from Cu rod to Zn rod.
Zinc is deposited and Copper gets dissolved. 1

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TYPOLOGY APPLICATION
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
16. Rusting of iron is quicker in saline water than in ordinary water. Why is it so?
Ans:
In saline water, NaCl helps water to dissociate into H+ and OH-. Greater the 1
number of H+, quicker will be rusting of iron. 1
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
17. For the reaction:
2Ag+ + 2Hg 2Ag + Hg22+
EAg+/Ag = 0.80 V EHg22+/Hg = 0.79 V
Predict the direction in which the reaction will proceed if:
[Ag+] = 10-1mol/h [Hg2+] = 10-3mol/h

Ans:
Cell reaction is:
2Ag+ + 2Hg 2Ag + Hg22+ 1
E cell = E cell 0.0591/2 log [Hg22+]/ [Ag+]2
= (0.80V-0.79V) -0.0591/2 log 10-3/ (10-1)2
= 0.01V- 0.0591/2 (-1) = 0.01+0.0295
= 0.0395V
Since E cell is positive,
the reaction will be spontaneous in the forward direction.
18. Given that: (R)
CO3+ + e- CO2+ E = 1.82V
2H2O O2 + 4H+ + 4 e- E = -1.23V
Explain why CO3+ is not stable in aqueous solution?
Ans:
The E cell can be calculated as:
4[CO3+ + e- CO2+] E= 1.82V
2H20 O2 + 4H+ + 4e- E= -1.23V
Cell reaction: 4CO3+ + 2H2O CO2+ O2 + 4H+
E cell = 1.82V-(-1.23V) = 3.05V
Since E cell is positive,
the cell reaction is spontaneous. CO3+ iron will take part in the reaction and
hence

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CHAPTER - 4 CHEMICAL KINETICS

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE
Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE
POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Define rate of reaction?
Ans.
The change in concentration w.r.t. time is called rate of reaction. 1
2. How would you define activation energy?
Ans.
The minimum excess energy which must be supplied to reacting species to cross the 1
energy barrier.
3. Write relationship between rate constant and frequency factor?

Ans. 1
K= Ae-Ea/RT
K= rate constant , A = frequency factor
4. What is the effect of temperature on rate of a reaction?

Ans.
The rate of a reaction generally increases with increase in temperature. For a chemical
reaction with every rise in temperature by 10 0,the rate of the most reactions is almost
doubled. 1
K= Ae-Ea/RT
5. What are the units of rate of reaction for gaseous phase?

Ans.
atms-1 or bars-1 1
6. On increasing the concentration of all or any one of the reactants the rate of reaction
does not change. What can you say about the order of reaction?

Ans.
It is a zero order reaction 1
7. What is rate determining step?

Ans.
In complex reactions, the slowest step determines the overall rate of the reaction. This 1
step is known as rate determining step.

TWO MARK QUESTIONS


8. What is the effect of catalyst on rate of reaction with help of graph?

Ans.
The catalyst increases the rate of a reaction by providing an alternate route for the 1
reaction which is having less activation energy and hence speeds up the reaction rate.

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1

9. Define effective collision and collision frequency?

Ans.
The collision that leads to the formation of product is called effective collision
and the no. of collisions per second per unit volume is called collision frequency. 1+1

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
10. How would you compare the rate constant and rate of reaction?

Ans.
Rate constant has different units for different order of reaction but rate of reaction has 1
fixed units.
11. What do you understand by most probable kinetic energy?

Ans.
K.E of maximum fraction of molecules is called most probable K.E. 1
12. Write the relationship between activation energy and rate constants at two different
temperatures (say T1 and T2)?

Ans.
2 1 1
Log = [ ]
1 2.303 1 2 1
13. What are Arrhenius parameters?

Ans.
K= Ae-Ea/RT A=Frequency factor,Ea = Activation Energy 1

TWO MARK QUESTIONS


14. What do you understand by the half-life a reaction. What is the relationship of between
rate constant and half-life of a zero order reaction?

Ans.
The time required by a reaction to become half of its reactant concentration is known
as half-life of a reaction. 1
0
t1/2=
2 1

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15.
Expt. No. [A] [B2] Rate
-1 -1
(mol L ) (mol L ) (mol L-1 s-1)
1 0.50 0.50 1.610-4
2 0.50 1.00 3.210-4
3 1.00 1.00 3.210-4
Write the most probable equation for the rate of reaction giving reason for your
answer.

Ans.
From an examination of above data, it is clear that when the concentration of B2is
1
doubled, the rate is doubled. Hence the order of reaction with respect to B2is one.
Further when concentration of A is doubled, the rate remains unaltered. So, order of
1
reaction with respect to A is zero.

OR

The probable rate law for the reaction will be = k[B2]1[A]0 = k[B2] 1

Alternatively Rate = k[B2]x
1.6 10-4 = k[0.5]x 1
3.2 10-4 = k[1]x
On dividing we get x = 1 1
.. Rate = k[A]0 [B2]1 = k[B2]
15. Differentiate between the activation energy and threshold energy ?

Ans.
The energy requied by the reacting species to form the activated complex is called
Activation energy. 1
Minimum energy associated with reacting species to cross over the potential barrier is
called threshold energy. 1
Eth= Average K.E + Ea

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
16. The conversion of molecules X to Y follows second order kinetics. If concentration of X is
increased to three times how will it affect the rate of formation of Y?

Ans.
The reaction follows second order kinetics.
Therefore, the rate equation for this reaction will be: 1
If the concentration of X is increased to three times, then the rate of formation will
increase by 9 times.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
17. In a reaction, Products, the concentration of A decreases from 0.5 mol L-1 to 0.4 mol L-1
to in 10 minutes. Calculate the rate during this interval?

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Ans.


Average rate

= 0.005 mol L 1 min 1


= 5 10 3M min 1 +

18. Time required to decompose SO2Cl2to half of its initial amount is 60 minutes. If the
decomposition is a first order reaction, calculate the rate constant of the reaction.

Ans.
We know that for a 1st order reaction,

It is given that

+
= 1.11 x 10-2 min-1

19. A first order reaction has a rate constant 1.1510-3sec-1 . How long will 5 g of this
reactant take to reduce to 3 g?

Ans.
From the question, we can write down the following information:
Initial amount = 5 g
Final concentration = 3 g
Rate constant =
We know that for a 1st order reaction,
Rate constant = 1.1510-3sec-1

We know that for a 1st order reaction,


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= 444.38 s
= 444 s (approx.
= 444.38 s
= 444 s (approx.)
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
20. The time required for 10% completion of first order reaction at 298 K is equal to that
required for its 25% completion at 308K. If the pre-exponential factor for the reaction is
3.56 109 s1, calculate the energy of activation.

Ans.


Ea = 76.65 kJ/mol

21. The rate law for the reaction, 2Cl2O 2Cl2 + O2 at 200 oC is found to be
rate = k[Cl2O]2
(a) How would the rate change if [Cl2O] is reduced to one-third of its original value?
(b) How should the [Cl2O] be changed in order to double the rate?
(c) How would the rate change if [Cl2O] is raised to threefold of its original value?

Ans.
(a) Rate equation for the reaction,
r = k[Cl2O]2
Let the new rate be r'; so
1
r' = k[(Cl2O)]2 = times
9
(b) In order to have the rate = 2r, let the concentration of Cl2O be x.
So 2r = kx2 .... (i)
We know that r = k[Cl2O]2 .... (ii)

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Dividing Eq. (i) by (ii),
2 2
=
2 2
2
or 2 =
2 2
or x2 = 2[Cl2O]2
or x = [Cl2 O] 2

(d) New rate = k[3Cl2O]2 = 9k[Cl2O]2 = 9r +


22. The decomposition of NH3 on platinum surface is a zero order reaction. What are the
rate of production of N2 and H2. If k= 2.5 x 10-4

Ans.

2NH3 N2 + 3H2

1 3 2 1 2
- = =
2 3

rate = k x [NH3]0
= 2.5 X 10-4 molL-1sec-1
2 1 2
=
3
1
= 2.510-4 molL-1sec-1
2

d[H2]/dt = - 3/2( d[NH3]/dt) = 3/2 x2.5x10-4

= 3.75x10-4molL-1sec-1
Rate = - d[NH3]/dt = k x[NH3]0

= 2.5 x 10-4 molL-1sec-1 +


Rate of production of N2 = 2.5X10-4 molL-1sec-1

23. The following data were obtained during the first order thermal
decomposition of N2O5(g) at constant volume
2N2O5(g) 2N2O4(g) + O2(g)

S.No. Time/s Total Pressure/(atm)


1. 0 0.5
2. 100 0.512
Calculate the rate constant

Ans.
Let the pressure of N2O5(g) decreases by 2x atm.As two moles of N2O5 decomposes to give
two es of N2O4(g) and one mole of O2(g) ,the pressure of N2O4(g) increases mol by 2x
atm.and that of O2(g) increases by x atm.

2N2O5(g) 2N2O4(g) + O2(g)


Start t=0 0.5 atm. 0 atm 0 atm.
At time t (0.5 2x) atm. 2x atm. x atm.

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pt= p N2O5 +p N2O4 +p O2

= (0.5 2x) + 2x + x = 0.5 + x


x = pt 0.5
p N2O5 = 0.5 - 2x

= 0.5 2(pt 0.5) = 1.5 2pt


At t =100 s +
pt=0.512 atm

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CHAPTER -5 SURFACE CHEMISTRY
TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What is a solid sol ?

Ans.
Colloids which have both dispersed and dispersion medium in solid phase. 1
2. Define adsorption?

Ans.
The accumulation of molecules of a species at the surface rather in the bulk 1
of a solid or liquid is termed adsorption.
3. What is the sign of free energy change during heat of adsorption?

Ans.
Negative 1
4. What are dispersed phase and dispersion medium in cheese?

Ans.
Dispersed phase- liquid ; Dispersion medium solid. +
5. What do you understand by reversible and irreversible colloids and why are
these called so?

Ans.
In reversible colloids constituents can be separated easily and colloid is +
formed on mixing again while it can not be done in irreversible colloids.
6. A little quantity of egg albumin was shaken with water , Name the type of
colloid formed .

Ans.
Macromolecular lyophilic colloid there is attraction between disperse phase
and dispersion medium.Egg albumin is protein polymer having size of colloidal +
dimension.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
7. What is a multimolecular colloid? Give two examples?

Ans.
Colloidal particle are formed by aggregation of large number of atoms or 1
molecules.
Gold sol and Sulphur sol. +
8. What is hydrophilic colloid? How these colloids are prepared?

Ans.
Colloids have dispersion medium is water and the particles of disperse phase 1
have attraction towards water ,
These are prepared by mixing dispersed phase with water. 1

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
9. 1. Define following.
i) Micelle ii)FOAM iii)Gel

Ans.
i) The substance at low concentration behave as strong electrolytes, 1
molecules above C.M.C. aggregate and aggregated particle having size of
colloidal range.
ii) The colloid in which dispersed phase is gas and dispersion medium is liquid. 1
iii) The colloid in which dispersed phase is liquid and dispersion medium 1
solid.

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
10. Why Gold sol can not be prepared by shaking gold with water ?

Ans.
Lyophobic colloid do not form colloid by mixing two phases. 1
11. What is the role of enzyme?

Ans.
These catalyse the biochemical reactions. 1
12. How would you explain the selectivity of catalyst?

Ans.
On the basis of pore size of the catalyst and size of reactant and products 1
13. Name the catalyst in the manufacture of sulphuric acid and give its function?

Ans.
V2O5 accelerates the rate of reaction by the formation of an activated
complex with reactants. +
14. How would you differentiate adsorption and absorption?

Ans.
Adsorption is a surface phenomena while absorption is bulk phenomena. 1
15. Why is it necessary to remove CO when ammonia is obtained
by Habers process?

Ans.
CO acts as poison catalyst for Habers process and lowers the
activity of solution therefore it is necessary to remove when NH3
obtained by Habers process. 1

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TWO MARK QUESTIONS
16. What do you understand about adsorption isotherm? Show graph.

Ans.
The variation in the amount of gas
adsorbed by the adsorbent with pressure
at constant temperature can be expressed 1+1
by means of a curve termed as adsorption
isotherm.

17. How is adsorption of a gas related to its critical temperature? Give reason.

Ans.
Higher the critical temperature of the gas. Greater is the
ease of liquefaction. i.e. greater Vander walls forces of attraction
and hence large adsorption will occur. 1+1
18. What is meant by Shape Selective Catalysis?

Ans.
In the Shape Selective Catalysis, the rate depends upon pore size
of the catalyst and the shape & size of the reactant and products
molecules. 1+1
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
19. What is hardy Schulz rule? Which of the following electrolyte will coagulate
most easily to positively charged colloid and why?
a )NaCl b)Na2 So4 c)Na3Po4

Ans.
Coagulating power of a coagulating ion is directly proportional to the 1
charge on the ion.
Na3Po4will coagulate a positively charged colloid most easily because it has 1+1
most negative valence.
TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
20. Name the types of emulsion .Which of these is less stable and how are these
stabilized ?
Ans.
W/O and O/W type. O/W type are less stable .By adding an emulsifying agent
1
like soap detergent etc.
21. Why does sky look blue?
Ans.
Dust particles along with water particles scatter blue light maximum.
1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
22. How alum removes suspended impurities?
Ans.
1
Ions Alum neutralize the charge of colloidal soil particles and precipitates.

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23. Name two food articles which are colloids .

Ans.
Ice cream , Butter ,milk etc. +
24. Explain the following:-
i) Delta formation ii) Some medicines are given in colloidal form

Ans.
i) Soil particles in river water is a colloid and is precipitated by electrolytes of 1
sea water and river stream splits in two streams and so on.

ii) In medicines colloidal form have larger surface area and are effectively 1
absorbed.
25. Comment on the statement that colloid is not a substance but state of a
substance?

Ans.
Given statement is true. This is because the substance may exist as colloid under
certain conditions and as a crystalloid under certain other conditions. 1
E.g: NaCl in water behaves as a crystalloid while in benzene, behaves as a
colloid (called associated colloid). It is the size of the particles which matters
1
i.e. the state in which the substance exist. If the size of the lies in the range
1nm to 1000nm it is in the colloid state.

26. What is demulsification ? Give two methods of demulsification ?

Ans.
Separating an emulsion in constituent liquids. 1
Heating and freezing. +
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
27. Write short notes on followings:-
(a)Tyndall effect (b)Brownian Movement (c)Hardy Schulze Rule

Ans.
(a)Tyndall effect-scattering of light by colloidal particles by which path of
beam becomes clearly visible. this effect is known as tyndall effect. 1
(b) Brownian movement-zig-zag motion of colloidal particles.
(c) Hardy Sehulze Law - Coagulating value of a coagulating ion is 1
directly proportional to the charge on the ion.
e.g: Na +<Ca++< Al 3+ for negatively changed sol. +
Cl-< CO32-< PO43-< [Fe (CN) 6 ]4 - for positive sol.

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CHAPTER -6 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF ELEMENTS

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS

1. Name an element which can be refined by zone refining.

Ans.
Si Or Ge. 1
2. Name a method which is used for refining of metal having low melting point.

Ans.
Liquation process. 1
3. Name a method which is used for refining of metal having low boiling point.

Ans.
Distillation method 1
4. Which type of elements are extracted by reduction method?

Ans.
Metals 1
5. Which types of elements are extracted by oxidation method?

Ans.
Nonmetals 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
6. What is the principle of vapour phase method ?

Ans.
Metal should form volatile compound with given reagent at low temperature. 1
Volatile compound of metal should be unstable at high temperature. 1
7. Write the principle of following.
i) Zone refining ii) Electrolytic refining

Ans.
ZONE REFINING Impurities are more soluble in the molten state than the pure
metals i.e. on cooling pure metal crystallize out on cooling while impurities will 1
remain behind.
ELECTROLYTIC REFINING Pure metal deposit at cathode from electrolyte by
passing electricity while crude metal from anode decompose to electrolyte. 1
8. Name two alloys of copper and write their composition.

Ans.
Brass- Cu 60%,Zn 40% 1
Bronze Cu 80 %, Zn 10%, Sn 10 % 1

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
9. (a) What are the two phases of chromatographic method ?
(b) Name a compound which is filled in column during chromatographic method.
(c) What type of metals can be refined by chromatographic method?

Ans.
a) Stationary phase and mobile phase. 1
b) Alumina 1
c) This method is used for the extraction of such metals which are present in
minute amount and the impurities are not very different in chemical properties. 1
10. Write the principle method and equation of electrolytic refining.

Ans.
Principle- On passing electric current pure metal collected at cathode. 1
Method- Thick plate of impure metal is taken as anode and thin plate of pure
metal is taken as cathode. Electrolyte is an aqueous salt solution of metal. On 1
passing electric current pure metal is collected at cathode and impurities settle
down as anode mud.
Reaction at anode M Mn+ + ne-
n+ -
Reaction at cathode M + ne M

11. What are the different methods used for reduction of metal oxide used for
reduction of metal oxide into metal?

Ans.
I. By heating 1
II. By chemical Smelting, Aluminothermite process. 1
III. Auto reduction 1
OR
IV. Electrolytic reduction

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

ONE MARK QUESTIONS


12. Name a method of refining of metal which are available in minute quantities and
impurities are not very different in chemical properties.

Ans. 1
Chromatographic method.
13. Name a metal which is extracted by oxidation method?

Ans.
Au/Ag 1
14. Name an alloy of aluminium used in making aero plane?

Ans.
Duralumin 1
15. What type of metal oxide are reduced by electrolysis?

Ans.
Highly reactive metal or highly electropositive. e.g. Na2O 1

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16. Why we add cryolite or fluorspar in alumina during Halls Heroults process?

Ans.
To reduce the melting point of alumina and make it more conductive. 1
17. Why graphite rods gradually consume during Halls Heroults process?

Ans.
Because oxygen liberates at anode and in presence of oxygen , graphite rod get
consume to produce CO2. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
18. What is the role of iodine in the refining of Titanium? Write equation also?

Ans.
Iodine reacts with titanium to form volatile TiI4 which is thermally decomposable 1
to give pure Titanium.
Low temp High temp. 1
Ti + 2I2 ------ [TiI4] ------ Ti + 2I2
19. Out of molten NaCl and aqueous NaCl, which is used for the extraction of sodium
and why?

Ans.
Molten NaCl is preferred because 1
Molten NaCl on electrolysis gives sodium but aqueous NaCl produces NaOH 1
instead of Sodium.
20. How is chlorine extracted from brine? Write equation?

Ans.
Chlorine is extracted from brine by oxidation method
NaCl(aq) Na+ + Cl-

At anode
2Cl - + 2H2O Cl2 + H2 + 2OH- 1

At cathode
2H+ +2e- ------ H2 1
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
21. Name 3 types of iron? Write the differences among them.

Ans.
Pig iron, cast iron and wrought iron. 1
I. Pig iron contains 4% carbon, 1
II. Cast iron contains 3% iron 1
III. Wrought iron contains 0.2-0.5% Carbon.
22. Copper can be extracted by hydrometallurgy but not zinc. Explain?

Ans.
E0 (standard reduction potential) of Zn and Fe both are lower than that of copper. 1
So both can displace copper from salt solution of copper. But being a cheaper iron 1
scrap is used in hydrometallurgy of Copper.
Fe(s) + Cu2+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + Cu(s) 1

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23. Name a metal which can be extracted by oxidation method. Explain this method
with equation.

Ans.
Silver. 1
Silver is extracted by cyanide process in which it is leached with dilute NaCN
solution in presence of O2, from which the silver is obtained by later displacement 1
by zinc.
4Ag + 8CN- +H2O + O2 4[Ag(CN)2]- + 4OH- 1
-
2[Ag(CN)2] + Zn 2Ag + [Zn(CN)4]2-

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

ONE MARK QUESTIONS


24. Name a metal used for making foil for chocolate.

Ans.
Aluminium 1
25. Name a metal used in galvanization of iron.

Ans.
Zinc 1
26. Name a metal which is used in making electrical wires and coins.

Ans.
Copper 1
27. How much amount of graphite is consumed to get 2Kg Aluminium?

Ans.
1 Kg 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
28. What is German silver? Write its use.

Ans.
German silver is an alloy of Cu. Its composition is Cu=25-30%,
Zn= 25-30%, Ni= 40-50%. 1
It is used for making artificial jewelry. 1
29. Name two factors which are considered in electrolytic reduction during extraction
of metal.

Ans.
a) Reactivity of metal 1
b) Suitable electrodes 1
30. Why copper is used in making
a) Electrical wires
b) Utensils
Ans.
a) Copper is used in making electrical wires because it is ductile and good 1
conductor of electricity.
b) Copper is used in making utensils because it is good conductor of heat. 1

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
31. Write one alloy for each of the following metal along with its use.
Copper, Aluminium, Iron

Ans.
Copper - BRONZE - COINS +
Aluminium - MAGNALUM - PRESSURE COOKER +
Iron - STAINLESS STEEL - UTENSILS +
32. a) Name the impurities deposit as anode mud during electrolytic refining of
copper.
b) What type of metal can be refined by liquation method.
c) Name the method for refining of metals which are used as semiconductors.

Ans.
a) Sb, Se, Te, Ag, Au, Pt +
b) Those metals which have low melting points. e.g. Tin +
c) Zone refining +

Value Education with Training


CHAPTER -7 p- BLOCK ELEMENTS

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What is laughing gas ?

Ans.
N2O( nitrous oxide) is known as laughing gas 1
2. Name the gas use to preserve biological specimen

Ans.
Liquid N2 1
3. What are the different allotropes of sulphur?

Ans.
Rhombic and monoclinic 1
4. Which form of sulphur is stable at room temperature?

Ans.
Rhombic sulphur 1
5. Write the name of shape of sulphur .

Ans .
Crown shape 1
6. Why is sulphuric acid used as a dehydrating agent?(Level2) 1 mark

Ans .
It has a strong affinity with water. 1
7. Halogens have maximum negative electron gain enthalpy. Why?

Ans.
Halogens have the smallest size in their respective periods 1
8. Why are halogens colored?

Ans.
Due to presence of unpaired electron. 1
9. Fluorine exhibits only 1 oxidation state whereas other halogens exhibit +1, +3,
+5 and +7 oxidation states also. Explain.

Ans.
Fluorine is the most electronegative element and absence of d orbital. +
10. Name two poisonous gases prepared from chlorine gas.

Ans.
Phosgene gas(COCl2), Mustard gas Cl-C2H4-S-C2H4Cl +

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11. Give the reason for bleaching action of Cl2.

Ans.
Cl2+H2O HCl+[O]
Coloured substance + [O] Colourless 1
12. Noble gases have comparatively largest atomic sizes.

Ans.
In noble gases we can measure only Vander Waals radii which are larger than
covalent radii. 1
13. What is the colour of HNO3 in pure form?

Ans.
Yellow 1
14. Noble gases have comparatively largest atomic sizes.

Ans.
In noble gases we can measure only Van der Waals radii which are larger than ionic
radii. 1
15. Noble gases exhibit very high ionization enthalpy.

Ans.
Due to stable electronic configuration these gases exhibit very high ionisation
enthalpy. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
16. How is ozone prepared? State the condition of reaction.
Ans.
3O2 silent electric discharge 2O3
1
The formation of ozone is an endothermic reaction; it must be carried out at high
temperature 1
17. What happens when SO2 reacts with water? (Level2) 2markIt
Ans.
It breaks up in water to give sulphurous acid 1
SO2 + H2O H2SO3
Sulphur dioxide Water Sulphurous acid 1
18. What is transition temperature for allotropic forms of sulphur?
Ans.
It is a temperature at which both the allotropes of sulphur are stable ; 369K is called 1+1
transition temperature.
19. Two examples to show the anomalous behavior of F2

Ans.
1.It shows (-1) oxidation state only 1
2. It has less negative electron gain enthalpy than chlorine. 1

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20. The elements of group 18 are known as noble gases. Give two reasons?

Ans.
The elements present in Group 18 have their valence shell completely filled and, 1
therefore, react with a few elements only under certain conditions. Therefore, they 1
are now known as noble gases.
21. Draw the structure of nitric acid in gaseous state.

Ans.

1+1

22. Which chemical compound is formed in the ring test of NO3- ions?

Ans.
[Fe(H2O)5NO]SO4 is formed which is pentaaquanitrosyl iron (II) sulphate. 1+1
23. Give reasons-
a)Xenon readily forms compounds but Krypton does not form compounds easily.
b) He and Ne does not form compounds with fluorine.

Ans.
a)Xenon has lower ionization energy than Krypton, therefore, Xe forms compounds 1
b)Due to non-availability of vacant d-orbital. 1
24. Why Xe does not forms compounds such as Xe F3 and XeF5.

Ans.
By the promotion of one, two or three electrons from filled p-orbital to the vacant d-
orbital in the valence shell, 2,4 or 6 half filled orbitals are formed. Thus Xe can 1
combine only with even number of fluorine and not odd. 1
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
25. Explain the formation of sulphuric acid with contact process?

Ans.
The contact process involves three steps.
Step -I:
Production of sulphur dioxide : S + O2 SO2
1
Step -II:
1
Formation of sulphur trioxide: SO2 + O2 SO3

Step -III
Conversion of sulphur trioxide into sulphuric acid: The sulphur trioxide formed in the
second step is dissolved in 98% sulphuric acid to give pyrosulphuric acid or oleum. 1
Oleum is then diluted with water to give sulphuric acid of the desired concentration.

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SO3 (Sulphur triioxide) + H2SO4 (Sulphuric acid 98%)
H2S2O7 (Pyrosulphuric acid -Oleum)

H2S2O7 (Pyrosulphuric acid -Oleum) + H2O (Dilution ) 2H2SO4(Sulphuric acid)


26. Write the balanced chemical equation for the action of Cl2 with hot and
concentrated NaOH.Is this reaction a disproportionation reaction? Justify.
Ans.

3 Cl2 + 6 NaOHConc 5 NaCl + NaClO3 + 3 H2O 1


Yes 1
Chlorine from zero oxidation state is changed to 1 and +5 oxidation states. 1
27. When HCl reacts with finely powdered iron, it forms ferrous chloride and not ferric
chloride. Why?

Ans.
Its reaction with iron produces H2. 1
2Fe+2HClFeCl2+H2 1
Liberation of H2 prevents the formation of ferric chloride. 1
28. How are XeF2 XeF4, XeF6, XeO3, XeOF4 prepared?

Ans: (i) Xe (g) + F2 (g) XeF2(s) Temp= 673K, Pressure=1bar


1
(xenon in excess)

(ii) Xe (g) + 2F2 (g) XeF4(s) Temp= 873 K, Pressure=7 bar 1


(1:5 ratio)
1
(iii) Xe (g) + 3F2 (g) XeF6(s) Temp= 573 K, Pressure=60 -70bar

Value Education with Training


TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
29. What is the covalence of Nitrogen in N2O5 ?

Ans.
4 1
30. Why ; SO2 acts as a reducing agent?

Ans.
It easily expands its oxidation state form +4 to +6 1
31. Why is ozone thermodynamically unstable?

Ans.
It decomposes to oxygen and nascent oxygen 1
O3 --------- O2 + [O]
32. What happens when SO2 reacts with NaOH?

Ans.
It reacts promptly with sodium hydroxide solution to give sodium sulphite. 1
SO2 + 2NaOH Na2SO3 + H2O
33. Why is boiling point of sulphuric acid high?

Ans.
It is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. 1
34. Why is sulphuric acid known as an oxoacid?(level1) 1 mark

Ans.
It is due the presence of OH group which releases H+ ion. 1
35. What happens when H2SO4 is poured on sugar? (level2) 1 mark

Ans.
White sugar turns into black . 1
36. Deduce the molecular shape of BrF3 on the basis of VSEPR theory.
Ans.
There are three(3) bond pairs and two(2) lone pairs. The two lone pairs will occupy
the position at equatorial which are cause for the distraction of molecule hence it has 1
a distorted T shape structure.
37. Why is ICl more reactive than I2?
Ans.
I-Cl bond is weaker than I-I bond 1
38. Why are halogens strong oxidizing agents?

Ans.
Due to low bond dissociation energy, high electronegativity and large negative
electron gain enthalpy 1

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39. Although electron gain enthalpy of fluorine is less negative as compared to chlorine,
fluorine is a stronger oxidizing agent than chlorine. Why?

Ans.
It is due to
I. Low enthalpy of dissociation of F-F bond

II. High hydration enthalpy of F
40. What happens when NaCl is heated with sulphuric acid in the presence of MnO2.
Ans.
4NaCl+MnO2+4H2SO4MnCl2 + 4NaHSO4 +Cl2 +H2O 1
41. Why Noble gases exhibit very high ionization enthalpy.

Ans.
Due to stable electronic configuration (ns2np6) these gases exhibit very high
1
ionization enthalpy.
42. Why Noble gases form compounds with fluorine and oxygen only.

Ans.
Because fluorine and oxygen are strong oxidizing agents (most electronegative
1
elements)
43. N2 is considered as a inert gas at room temperature; why ?

Ans.
Due present of triple bond it has very high bond dissociation energy. 1
44. Why metals such as Cr,Al do not dissolve in con. HNO3?

Ans. 1
Due to the formation of a passive film of oxide on the surface.
45. PH3 has lower boiling point than NH3; why

Ans.
There is Inter molecular hydrogen bonding in NH3 1
46. Noble gases form compounds with fluorine and oxygen only.Why?

Ans.
Because fluorine and oxygen are strong oxidizing agents (most electronegative
1
elements)
47. Helium is used for inflating aeroplane tyres & filling balloons for metrological
observations.Why?

Ans. 1
Helium is a non-inflammable and light gas
48. Nitrogen does not form pent halide. Give reason.

Ans.
Nitrogen does not expand its covalence beyond four due to absence of d- orbital
1

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TWO MARK QUESTIONS
49. In vapour phase sulphur is paramagnetic; why?

Ans.
It exists in S2 form which has unpaired electrons in antibinding p orbital. 1+1
50. How SO2 reacts with ferric ion and molecular halogens?

Ans.
i) It reduces ferric salts to ferrous salts, and
2Fe3+ + SO2 + 2H2O 2Fe2+ + SO42- + 4H+ 1
Ferric Sulphurdioxide ferrous salt
ii) it reduces halogens to halogen acids.
X2 + SO2 + 2H2O SO42- + 2X - + 4H+ 1
Halogen Sulphur water halogen acid
51. How ozone reacts with i) KI ii) PbS

Ans.
i) 2KI + H2O + O3 2KOH + I2 + O2 1
ii) 4O3 + PbS 4O2 + PbSO4 1
52. Explain why fluorine forms only one oxoacid, HOF.

Ans.
Due to high electronegativity and absence of d-orbitals 1+1
53. Write two uses of ClO2.

Ans.
It is powerful oxidizing agent and chlorinating agent 1+1
54. Noble gases are mostly chemically inert.Why?

Ans.
Their inertness to chemical reactivity is attributed to the following reasons:
(i) The noble gases except helium (1s2) have completely filled ns2p6 electronic 1
configuration in their valence shell.
1
(ii) They have high ionization enthalpy and more positive electron gain enthalpy
55. Does the hydrolysis of XeF6 lead to a redox reaction?

Ans.
No, the products of hydrolysis are XeOF4 and XeO2F2 where the oxidation states of all 1+1
the elements remain the same as it was in the reacting state.

56. Noble gases are mostly chemically inert.

Ans.
Their inertness to chemical reactivity is attributed to the following reasons:
(i) The noble gases except helium (1s2) have completely filled ns2p66 electronic 1
configuration in their valence shell.
1
(ii) They have high ionisation enthalpy and more positive electron gain enthalpy.

Value Education with Training


THREE MARK QUESTIONS
57. What happens when SO2 reacts with : i) Cl2 ii) O2

Ans.
i) It reacts with chlorine within the presence of charcoal as an impetus to give
1
sulphuryl chloride (SO2Cl2).
SO2+ Cl2 SO2Cl2
Sulphur dioxide Chlorine (Catalyst) Sulphuryl Chloride
ii) Within the sight of vanadium penta oxide ( catalyst) , it gives sulphur trioxide.
V2O5
SO2 + O2 ----- SO3 1
Sulphur dioxide Oxygen Sulphur trioxide
58. Are all five bonds in PCl5 molecule equivalent? Draw structure.

Ans.
No, 1

There are three equatorial bonds and two axial bonds. Axial bonds are longer than 1
equatorial bonds

59. Write the hydrolysis products of XeF2 XeF4, XeF6.

Ans.
i) 2XeF2 (s) + 2H2O(l) 2Xe (g) + 4 HF(aq) + O2(g
ii) 6XeF4 + 12 H2O 4Xe + 2Xe03 + 24 HF + 3 O2
iii) XeF6 + 3 H2O XeO3 + 6 HF 1
Partial hydrolysis of XeF6 gives oxyfluorides, 1
XeF6 + H2O XeOF4 + 2 HF 1
XeF6 + 2 H2O XeO2F2 + 4HF

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION
Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE
POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
60. What is the purpose of formation of oleum during contact process?
Ans.
Oleum is diluted with water to give sulphuric acid of the desired concentration. 1
61. Bond dissociation energy of F2 is less than that of Cl2.Why?
Ans.
In F2, large repulsion occur between non bonding electrons on small sized fluorine 1
atom in the fluorine molecule.

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62. Why the acid strength of acids increase in the order HF < HCl < HBr < HI.

Ans. 1
Due to increasing bond length of H-X from HF to HI, It is easy to release H+ ion by HI.
63. Why fluorine shows abnormal behavior ?
Ans.
Due to very small size, high electro negativity and high polarizing power.(any two
1
reasons)
64. Why are Inter Halogen compounds more reactive than Halogens?

Ans.
Inter halogen compounds are more reactive than halogens because the X-X bond in
1
inter halogen compounds is weaker than the X-X bonds in halogen compounds. It
breaks easily and thus compounds react more.
65. HF is liquid at room temperature. Give reason
1
Ans.
Due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding in HF.
66. Of the noble gases only Xenon is known to form real chemical compounds.

Ans. 1
The ionization energy of xenon is relatively low and therefore, it is possible to excite
the paired electrons from np orbitals to nd sub-shell
67. What happens whenPCl5.is heated ?

Ans. 1
PCl5 PCl3 + Cl2
68. It has been difficult to study the chemistry of radon.

Ans.
Radon is radioactive element. 1
69. Which compound led to discovery of compounds of noble gases?
1
Ans: O2+PtF6-
70. How many spheres are in contact with each other in a single plane of a close
packed structure?
Ans.
Six(6) 1
71. What other elements may be added to silicon to make electrons available for the
conduction of an electric current?
Ans.
Phosphorous or Gallium. 1
72. How many Tetrahedral sites per sphere are there in a cubic closest packed (
face centered cubic) structure.?
Ans.
Two 1

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TWO MARK QUESTIONS
73. Why; does NO2 dimerise ? Explain.

Ans.
NO2 Contain odd number of valence electrons. It behaves as a typical molecule. In
the liquid and solid state, it dimerise to form stable N2O4 molecule, with even 1+1
number of electrons. Therefore, NO2 is paramagnetic, while N2O4 is diamagnetic in
which two unpaired electrons get paired.
74. Give reasons
(i) Ammonia is a good complexing agent.
(ii) In group 15 elements ,the bond angle H-M-H decreases in the following order
NH3( 107.80 ),
PH3 ( 93.60 ), AsH3 ( 91.80 ).
Ans.

(i) Ammonia has a lone pair of electron therefore it is a good complexing agent. 1
(ii) With the increase in the size of group 15 element as bond length increases the
bond pair-bond pair repulsion decreases. Therefore the angle H-M-H decreases from 1
NH3 to AsH3 .
75. Explain the following:-
(i) Nitrogen exists as diatomic molecule whereas phosphorous exists as tetra atomic
molecule.
(ii) NF3 is an exothermic compound but NCl3 is an endothermic compound.

Ans.
(i) N-N single bond is very weak due to its small size 1
(ii) F is highly electronegative and N-F bond energy is higher than N-Cl bond energy. 1
76. How is monoclinic sulphur prepared?

Ans.
When we take a dish and melt rhombic sulphur in that dish we obtain monoclinic
sulphur after cooling it. 1
In this process we make two holes in the crust and pour out the remaining liquid.
After this we get colourless needle-shaped crystals of -sulphur when the crust is 1
removed
77. Give any four uses of sulphur.

Ans.
i) Sulphur is used for vulcanization of rubber.
ii) Many of its compounds are used as insecticides in crops.
iii)Many bleaching agents can be manufactured using sulphur.

iv)It is also used in manufacturing of carbon disulphide which in turn is used in skin
ointments and other such products.

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78. Write balanced reactions of conc. H2SO4 reacts with i) Cu ii)C

Ans.
i) Cu + 2H2SO4 CuSO4+ SO2 + H2O 1
ii) C + 2H2SO4 CO2 + 2SO2 + 2H2O 1
79. How does Cl2 react with
(i) cold and dilute NaOH (ii) hot and concentrated NaOH

Ans.
When Chlorine reacts with cold sodium hydroxide, it forms sodium chloride.
(i) 2NaOH + Cl2 = NaCl + NaOCl + H2O
When Chlorine reacts withhot sodium hydroxide, it forms sodium 1

chloride and other products.


1
(ii) (ii) 6NaOH + 3Cl2 = 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O

80. PCl3 gives fumes in moisture,why?Give equation.

Ans.
It is hydrolysed in moisture and form fumes of HCl. 1

PCl3 + 3H2O----- 3HCl (Fumes) + H3PO4


1
81. Complete the reactions:-

1. S8 + 48 HNO3 -------

2. P4 + 20HNO3 -------- ________________+ 20NO2 + 4H2O

Ans.
1. 8H2SO4 + 48NO2 + 16H2O 1

2. 4H3PO4 1

82. Give Reasons-


(i) Noble gases exhibit very high ionization enthalpy.
(ii) Of the noble gases only Xenon is known to form real chemical compounds.

Ans.
(i) Due to stable electronic configuration these gases exhibit very high 1
ionisation enthalpy.
(ii) The ionization energy of xenon is relatively low and therefore, it is possible 1
to excite the paired electrons from np orbitals to nd sub-shell

Value Education with Training


CHAPTER - 8 d- & f- BLOCK ELEMENTS
TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
One Mark Questions
1. Why do transition elements show variable oxidation states?

Ans.
Small energy gap between ns and (n-1) d sub shells, both ns and (n-1) d electrons
take part in bond formation 1
2. Name a transition element which does not exhibit variable oxidation state

Ans.
Scandium(Z=21) 1
3. Name a member of lanthanoids series which is well known to exhibit +4 oxidation 1
state
Ans.
Cerium(Z=58)
Two Mark Questions
4. Define transition elements? Which group of d- block elements is not considered as
transition element and why?
Ans.
Transition elements have partly filled d sub shell in its ground state or any of its 1
oxidation.
Group 12 elements are not considered as transition elements due to completely 1
filled d- orbital in ground state as well as oxidation states.
5. Write electronic configuration of following species.
i) Cr (24) ii) Mn2+ (25)

Ans.
i) Ar(18) 3d54s1 ii) Ar(18)3d5 1+ 1
6. Describe the method of preparation of KMnO4 from MnO2.

Ans. It takes place in two steps:


(i)Conversion of MnO2 into K2MnO4
(ii) Conversion of K2MnO4into KMnO4
Following reactions take place
2MnO2+4KOH +O2 2K2MnO4 + 2H2O 1
2--
3MnO +4H+
4 2MnO4-+MnO2 +2H2O 1
Three Marks Questions
7. (i)Write the steps involved in the preparation of K2Cr2O7 from chromite ore.
(ii)What is the effect of pH on dichromate ion solution?

Ans.
(i) It takes place in three steps:
Conversion of chromite ore into sodium chromate
4FeCr2O4+ 4Na2CO3 + 7O2 Na2CrO4+ Fe2O3 + 8CO2 1

Conversion of sodium chromate into sodium dichromate 1


2Na2CrO4 + 2H+ Na2Cr2O7 + 2Na++ H2O
Conversion of sodium dichromate into potassium dichromate
Na2Cr2O7 + 2KCl K2 Cr2O7 + 2NaCl
(ii)Dichromate ion (orange) changes to chromate ion (yellow) in basic solution. 1
Cr2O72- + 2 OH- 2CrO4-2+ H2O

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
One Mark Questions
+
8. Explain why Cu is not stable in aqueous medium?

Ans.
Cu+ disproportionate into Cu2+, and Cu due to higher hydration enthalpy of Cu++. 1
9. Actinoid contraction is greater from element to element than
LanthanoidContraction. Why?

Ans.
Due to poor shielding by 5f electrons in the Actinoids than that of the 4f electron in 1
the Lanthanoids.
10. Write electronic configuration Cu+(Z=29)

Ans.
Ar(18)3d10 1
11. Explain why Ce+4is a stronger oxidizing agent ?

Ans.
This is because Ce+4 tends to change Ce+3 by losing an electron +3 oxidation state is 1
more stable.
Two Mark Questions
12. Explain giving reason:
(i) Transition metals and their many compounds act as good catalyst.
(ii)Transition metals have a strong tendency to form complexes.

Ans.
(i) Transition metals and their many compounds act as good catalyst It is due to 1
(a) partially filled(n1)d orbital (b) Variable oxidation state (c) Ability to change
oxidation state frequently.
(ii) Transition metals have a strong tendency to form complexes .Most of transition 1
elements form complex compounds due to -(a) small size (b) high charge (c)
presence of vacant dorbital of suitable energy.
13. What is lanthanide contraction? How does it affect the chemistry of elements,
which follow lanthanoids?

Ans.
Decrease in atomic / ionic radii across lanthanoid series with increase in atomic 1
number.
Due to lanthanoid contration the atomic/ionic radii 5d Series elements decrease 1
Consequently the properties of 4d and 5d series elements become similar.
Three Mark Questions
14. Assign giving suitable reason which of the following pairs exhibits the property
indicated against each.
(i)Sc3+ or Cr3+ exhibits Para magnetism
(ii)V or Mn exhibits more number of oxidation states exhibits
(iii)V4+or V5+exhibits colour

Ans.
(i) Cr3+has three unpaired electron in 3d sub shell hence it is paramagnetic. 1

(ii)Mn exhibits more no. of oxidation states as it has five unpaired electrons in (n-1)d 1
and two electrons in ns orbital take part in bonding.

(iii)V4+ is coloured as it has 3d1configuration while V5+has 3d0configuration, hence 1


electrons on V4+ undergoes d-d transition.

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION
Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE
POINTS
One Mark Questions
15. Why Cobalt (II) is stable in aqueous solution but in the presence of strong ligands it
can be easily oxidized to Co(III) ?

Ans.
Strong ligands force cobalt (II) to lose one more electron from 3d sub shell hence 1
oxidised into Co (III) to form stable complex by undergoing d2sp3 hybridisation.
16. A tripositive metal ion has electronic configuration 3d54s0 in ground state, to which
group of periodic table does this element belong to? Name the element also.

Ans.
It is iron and has atomic no 26.
It belong s to 8th group.
17. La(OH)3 is stronger base than Lu(OH)3Why?

Ans.
Due to larger size of La3+ as compared to Lu3+, it has a greater ionic character
hence gives more no. of OH ions.
Two Mark Questions
18. Comment on the following:
i) Zr and Hf have similar sizes
ii) Actinones show greater no. of oxidation state than Lanthanones.

Ans.
i) As a consequence of Lanthanoid contraction Zr and Hf have similar sizes. 1
ii) As energies of 5f, 6d and 7s are comparable therefore electrons can easily be
promoted from lower to higher orbital, hence more no. of oxidation states are 1
shown. Another reason is that the 5f electrons are available for bonding unlike 4f in
lanthanides.
19. Give reasons for the following:
(i) Fe has higher melting point than Cu.
(ii) [Ti (H2O)6]3+ is coloured while [Sc(H2O)6]3+ is colourless.

Ans.
(i) This is because Fe (3d64s2) has four unpaired electrons in 3d-subshell. While Cu 1
(3d10, 4s1) only one unpaired electron in 4s shell. Hence metallic bonding is stronger
in Fe than those in Cu.
(ii) The oxidation state of Ti in [Ti (H2O)6]3+ is +3 and its configuration is [Ar] 3d1 i.e
one unpaired electron and hence it is coloured. Whereas the oxidation state of Sc in +
[Sc (H2O)6]3+ is +3 and its configuration is [Ar] 3d0 i.e no unpaired electron and hence
it is colourless.
20. Calculate the magnetic moment of a divalent ion in aqueous solution if its atomic
number is 25.

Ans.
With atomic number 25, the divalent ion in aqueous solution will have d5
1+1
configuration (five unpaired electrons). The magnetic moment, is 5.92 BM
Three Mark Questions
21. For the first row of transition metals
0
the E values are:-
E0 values V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu
M2+/M -1.18 -0.91 -1.18 -0.44 -0.28 -0.25 +0.34
Explain the irregularity in the above values.

Ans.
i) From V to Cr E0 value becomes less negative because I.E and enthalpy of 1
atomisation both increase.
ii)And then from Cr to Mn it becomes more negative due to dip in M.P. of Mn. 1
Now From Mn to Fe its value again decreases due to increase in Enthalpy of
atomisation and I.E of Fe.
iii) From Fe to Ni the value becomes less and less negative and in the end Cu its 1
positive, as enthalpy of atomisation and I.E both increase.
22. Give examples and suggest reasons for the following features of the transition metal
chemistry :
(i)The lowest oxide of transition metal is basic, the highest is amphoteric / acidic.
(ii) A transition metal exhibits highest oxidation state in oxides and fluorides.
(iii)Of the d4 species, Cr(II)is strongly reducing while manganese (III) is strongly
oxidizing.

Ans.
(i) In lower oxidation state transition metal has less positive charge as a result it has
a tendency to give electron. While in higher oxidation state due to high positive 1
charge it shows a tendency to gain electron (Lewis acids).

(ii)A transition metal exhibits higher oxidation states in oxides and fluorides because
oxygen and fluorine are the most electronegative elements and thus easily can 1
unpair electrons of metal atom.

(iii) Because oxidizing and reducing property depends on E0 value. Since E0value of
Cr3+/Cr2+is negative while that of Mn3+/Mn2+is positive ,as a result Cr(II)act as 1
reducing agent and Mn(III)is strong oxidizing.

23. Explain giving reasons:


(i)Transition metals and many of their compounds show paramagnetic behaviour.
(ii)The enthalpies of atomization of the transition metals are high.
(iii) The transition metals generally form colored compounds.

Ans.
i) Transition metals and many of their compounds show paramagnetic behavior due 1
to presence of unpaired electrons in (n1) d orbital.

(ii) The enthalpies of atomization of the transition metals are high because of large 1
number of unpaired electrons in their atoms, they have stronger inter atomic
interaction and hence strong metallic bonding is present between atoms.
1
(iii) The transition metals generally form coloured compounds due to presence of
unpaired electrons in(n1) d orbital and thus they can undergo dd transition.
CHAPTER - 9 CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS
TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Give one analytical use of transition metal complexes.

Ans:
Transition metal ions may be estimated by adding reagents to a metal ion solution
to form insoluble precipitate of metal-ligand complex.
E.g-Ni2+is estimated using dimethyl glyoxime. +
2. Give two biological applications of complexes.

Ans.
Chlorophyll contains Mg used in photosynthesis .
Vitamin B12 contains cobalt is used to prevent anemia. +
3. How complexes are used in metallurgical processes?

Ans. 1
Au and Ag are extracted by forming cyanide complex and then adding Zn as
reducing agent.
4. What is the coordination entity formed when excess of aqueous KCN is added to an
aqueous solution of copper sulphate?

Ans.
[Cu(CN)4]2- 1
2+
5. What is the hybridisation of Cu in [Cu(NH3)4] ?

Ans.
dsp2 1
6. NH3 is strong ligand but NH4+isnotwhy?

Ans.
Because NH3 has lone pair . 1
7. Name one complex which is used in medicine.

Ans.
Cisplatin is used in the treatment of cancer.(chemotherapy) 1

TWO MARK QUESTIONS


8. State any two factors which govern the stability of complexes.

Ans.
1 Charge on metal ion
2. Nature of ligands 1
3.Nature of metal (any two) 1

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9. Discuss the nature of bonding in metal carbonyls.

Ans
The metal-carbon bonds in metal carbonyls have both and characters. A bond
is formed when the carbonyl carbon donates a lone pair of electrons to the vacant 1
orbital of the metal. A bond is formed by the donation of a pair of electrons from
the filled metal d orbital into the vacant anti-bonding *orbital (also known as back
bonding of the carbonyl group).The bond strengthens the bond and vice-versa.
Thus, a synergic effect is created due to this metal-ligand bonding. This synergic
effect strengthens the bond between CO and the metal.

THREE MARK QUESTIONS


10. Predict the number of unpaired electrons in the square planar [Pt(CN)4]2
ion.

Ans.

[Pt(CN)4]2, In this complex, Pt is in the +2 state. It forms a square


planar structure. 1

This means that it undergoes dsp2 hybridization. Now, the


electronic configuration of Pd(+2) is 5d8. 1

CN being a strong field ligand causes the pairing of unpaired electrons. Hence,
there are no unpaired electrons in[Pt(CN)4]2 1

11. Specify the oxidation numbers of the metals in the following coordination
entities:
(i) [Co(H2O)(CN)(en)2]2+
(ii) [PtCl4]2

Ans. (i)[Co(H2O)(CN)(en)2]2+
Let the oxidation number of Co be x.
The charge on the complex is +2.

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(ii)[PtCl4]2
Let the oxidation number of Pt be x.
The charge on the complex is 2. 1

x + 4(1) = 2
x=+2

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
12. Define a ligand. Give an example also.

Ans.
Ligand is an atom/ion/molecule which is capable of donating pair of electrons to 1
the metal atom or ion .
E.g Cl-
13. Which type of ligands forms chelates?

Ans.
Polydentate ligands forms chelates 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
14. What is meant by the chelate effect? Give an example.

Ans.
When a ligand attaches to the metal ion in a manner that forms a ring, then the
metal- ligand association is found to be more stable. In other words, we can say
that complexes containing chelate rings are more stable than complexes without
rings. This is known as the chelate effect.
1
For example:

15. Explain term complex ion. Give Example.

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Ans.
Complex ion is eclectically charged species formed by co-ordination of a simple
cation with a number of neutral or charged ligands. 1

E.g hexacyanoferrate(III) 1

16. CuSO4.5H2O is blue in color while CuSO4 is colorless. Why?

Ans.
In CuSO4.5H2O,water acts as ligand as a result it causes crystal field splitting.
Hence d-d transition is possible in field splitting is CuSO4.5H2O and shows color. 1

In the anhydrous CuSO4 due to the absence of water (ligand), crystal not possible 1
and hence no color.

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
17. Amongst the following which is the most stable complex & Why?
3+
A) [Fe(H2O)6]
3-
B) [Fe(C2O4)3]

Ans.
B, due to chelation.
+
18. Why complexes are preferred in the electrolytic bath for electroplating?

Ans.
1
They dissociate slowly and hence give a smooth and even deposit.
19. Why are low spin tetrahedral complexes are not formed?

Ans.
1
Because for tetrahedral complexes the crystal field stabilization energy is
lower than pairing energy.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
20. Why only transition metals are known to form pi-complexes? Give one
example.

Ans.
Transition metals have empty d-orbitals into which the electron pairs can 1
be donated by ligands containing pi electrons.
Example Zeises salt K[PtCl3].H2O 1
21. Calculate the overall complex dissociation equilibrium constant for the
2+ 13
Cu(NH3)4 ion, given that 4 for this complex is 2.110 .

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Ans.
4= 2.11013 1
The overall complex dissociation equilibrium constant is the reciprocal of the overall
stability constant,4. 1
13 -14
1/4=1/ 2.110 =4.710
22. If to an aqueous solution of CuSO4 in two tubes, we add ammonia solution in
one tube and HCl(aq) to the other tube, how the colour of the solutions will
change ? Explain with the help of reaction.

Ans.
In first case, colour will change from blue to deep blue.
[Cu (H2O)4]2+ + 4 NH3 [Cu (NH3)4]2+ + 4 H2O 1
deep blue
While in second case, its colour will change to yellow. 1
[Cu (H2O)4]2+ + 4 Cl [CuCl4]2- + 4 H2O
Yellow

23. On the basis of the following observations made with aqueous solutions,
assign secondary valences to metals in the following compounds:
Formula Moles of AgCl precipitated per mole of
the compounds with excess AgNO3
(i) PdCl2.4NH3 2
(ii) NiCl2.6H2O 2
(iii) PtCl4.2HCl 0
(iv) CoCl3.4NH3 1

Ans.
(i) Secondary valence 4
(ii) Secondary valence 6
(iii) Secondary valence 6
(iv) Secondary valence 6
24. Explain the reason behind a colour of some gem stone with the help of
example.

Ans.
The colours of many gem stones are due to the presence of transition metal
ions & colour are produced due to d-d transition. For example the mineral 1
corundum Al2O3 is colourless when purebut when various M3+ transition
metal ions are present in trace amounts various gem stones are formed. 1
Ruby is Al2O3 containing about 0.5 1% Cr.
25. Why is the silver plating of copper, K [Ag (CN)2] is used instead of AgNO3 ?

Ans.
This is because if AgNO3 is used Cu will displace Ag+ from AgNO3. The deposit 1
so obtained is black, soft, non-adhering.
To get a good shining deposit, [Ag (CN)2] are used as it is a stable complex,

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the conc. of Ag+ is very small in the solution. As such no displacement of Ag+ 1
ions with Cu is possible.
26. How many EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetate) ion are required to make
an octahedral complex with a Ca2+ ion. Why?

Ans.
1
Only one EDTA ion is required to form octahedral complex.
1
Because EDTA is a hexadentate ligand
27. [Fe(CN)6]4 and [Fe(H2O)6]2+ are of different colours in dilute solutions. Why?

Ans.
The colour of a particular coordination compound depends on the
magnitude of the crystal-field splitting energy, . 1
This CFSE in turn depends on the nature of the ligand.

In case of [Fe(CN)6]4 and [Fe(H2O)6]2+. The colour differs because there is a


difference in the CFSE. Now, CN is a strong field ligand having a higher CFSE value as
compared to the CFSE value of water. This means that the absorption of energy for 1
the intra d-d transition also differs.
Hence, the transmitted colour also differs.
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
28. Discuss briefly giving an example in each case the role of coordination compounds
in:
1. Biologicalsystem
2. Medicinal chemistry
3. Analytical chemistry

Ans.
Role of coordination compounds in biological systems:
We know that photosynthesis is made possible by the presence of the chlorophyll 1
pigment. This pigment is a coordination compound of magnesium. In the human
biological system, several coordination compounds play important roles.
For example, the oxygen-carrier of blood, i.e. haemoglobin is a coordination
compound of iron.

Role of coordination compounds in medicinal chemistry:


Certain coordination compounds of platinum (for example- cis-platin) are used for 1
inhibiting the growth of tumours.

Role of coordination compounds in analytical chemistry:


During salt analysis, a number of basic radicals are detected with the help of the 1
colour changes they exhibit with different reagents. These colour changes are a
result of the coordination compounds or complexes that the basic radicals form with
different ligands.

29. Explain on the basis of valence bond theory that [Ni(CN)4]2 ion with square planar
structure is diamagnetic and the [NiCl4]2 ion with tetrahedral geometry is
paramagnetic.

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Ans.
Ni is in the +2 oxidation state i.e., in d8 configuration.

There are 4 CN ions. Thus, it can either have a tetrahedral geometry or square
planar geometry. Since CN ion is a strong field ligand, it causes the pairing of
unpaired 3d electrons.

It now undergoes dsp2 hybridization. Since all electrons are paired, it is diamagnetic.
In case of [NiCl4]2, Cl ion is a weak field ligand. Therefore, it does not lead
to the pairing of unpaired 3d electrons. Therefore, it undergoes sp3 hybridization.

Since there are 2 unpaired electrons in this case, it is paramagnetic in nature.

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CHAPTER -10 HALOALKANES AND HALOARENS
TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. The C-X bond in haloalkanes is a polar covalent bond, why ?

Ans.
Due to difference in electronegativity between the carbon and halogen,the shared
pair of electron lies closer to the halogen atom. 1

2. How does the bond length and bond enthalpy changes with size of halogen atom in
halomethanes ?

Ans.
The C-X bond length increases with the increase of size of halogen atom and bond 1
enthalpy decreases.
3. How does the dipole moment in halomethanes changes ?

Ans.
The dipole moment decreases with increase of halogen atom except fluoromethane.
( chloromethane > fluoromethane> bromomethane > iodomethane ) +

4. Name the only primary alcohol which gives iodoform test.

Ans.
Ethanol. 1
5. Give the IUPAC name of Carbon Tetra Chloride.

Ans.
1, 1, 1, 1---Tetra Chloro methane. 1
6. What is the difference between Ethylene Chloride and Ethylidene chloride?

Ans.
Cl CH2CH2Cl (Ethylene Chloride) Vicinal Dihalides
CH3CHCl2 (Ethylidene chloride) Gem Dihalides
+
7. Chlorobenzene is less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. Give two
reasons.

Ans.
Chlorobenzene is less reactive towards nucleophillic substitution due to
1. resonance , C- Cl bond acquires a partial double bond character and becomes
stronger than a single bond.
2. sp2 hybridisation in C of C-X bond, the carbon becomes more electronegative and
holds the electron pair of C-X bond more tightly decreasing the bond length
or

Explanation with the help of resonating structure.

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TWO MARK QUESTIONS
8. Arrange the compounds in increasing order of their boiling pts.
(a) CH3CH2CH2CH2Br, CH3CH2CHBrCH3,(CH3)3C Br
(b) CH3Br, CH2Br2, CHBr3
Ans.

(a) (CH3)3C-Br< CH3CH2CHBrCH3< CH3CH2CH2CH2Br 1


Boiling point decreasing on increasing the branching
(b) CH3Br< CH2Br2< CHBr3 1
Boiling point increases due increasing molecular mass.
9. Why 1% ethanol should be added to chloroform sample while storing? Give
equation.

Ans .
Ethanol reacts with phosgene to give harmless diethyl carbonate 1
COCl2 + 2C2H5OH (C2H5)2CO3 + 2HCl 1
10. Write the formula , I.U.P.A.C. name and structure of D.D.T.

Ans .

I.U.P.A.C. Name : 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2 bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane

Common name: D.D.T. (p,p'-Dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane)

THREE MARK QUESTIONS


11. Differentiate SN1 and SN2 reactions with example.

Ans.

SN1 REACTION

I. SN1/ Nucleophilic Substitution is also called as Unimolecular Nucleophilic



Substitution.
II. In this reaction, only one species is involved in the formation of activated
species

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1

SN2 REACTION
I. SN2 / Nucleophilic Substitution is also called as Bimolecular Nucleophilic
Substitution.

II. In this reaction, two species are involved in the formation of the activated
species.

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
12. Cyanide ion acts as an ambident nucleophile. From which end it acts as a stronger
nucleophile in aqueous medium? Give reason for your answer.

Ans.
It acts as a stronger nucleophile from the carbon end because it will lead to the
formation of C C bond which is more stable (bond between two similar atoms) 1
than C N bond.
13. Why thionyl chloride is preferred for converting alcohol to haloalkane.

Ans.
Thionyl chloride is preferred for converting alcohol to haloalkane because the by-
products formed are all gases which escape into the atmosphere. 1

2 ROH +SOCl 2 RCl +SO2(g)+HCl(g)

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14. Why HNO3 is added during iodination of benzene.

Ans.
When benzene is reacted with iodine, the reaction is reversible in nature. It leads to
the formation of reactants back. Therefore and oxidizing agent like HNO3 oxidizes 1
the HI formed in the reaction to I2 keeps the reaction in forward direction.

15. Out of o- and p-dibromobenzene, which one has higher melting point and why?
p-Dibromobenzene has higher melting point than its o-isomer.

Ans.

Due to symmetrical structure has close packing in the crystal.

TWO MARK QUESTIONS


16. Give reason for the following
(a)Allyl chloride is hydrolysed more readily than n-propyl chloride.
(b)Vinyl chloride is hydrolysed more slowly than ethyl chloride
Ans.

(a) Allyl chloride readily undergoes ionization to produce resonance stabilized allyl
carbocation. Since carbocation are reactive species, therefore allyl carbocation
readily combines with OH ions to form allyl alcohol. In contrast n-propyl chloride 1
does not undergo ionization to produce stable carbocation.

(b)Vinyl chloride gets ressonance stabilization Carbon-chlorine bond acquires some


1
double bond character. In contrast in ethyl chloride, the carbon-chlorine bond is a
pure single bond. Thus Vinyl chloride under goes hydrolysis more slowly than ethyl
chloride.
OR
Explanation of both with the help of structures.
17. What is the correct increasing order of boiling points of the following compounds?
Explain.
1-Bromoethane, 1-Bromopropane, 1-Bromobutane, Bromobenzene
Ans. 1
1-Bromoethane < 1-Bromopropane < 1-Bromobutane < Bromobenzene
Boiling point increases with increase in molecular mass of the alkyl halide. 1

18. Which one of the following has the highest dipole moment, and why?

(a) CH2Cl2 (b) CHCl3 ( c) CCl4

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Ans.

CH2Cl2 has the highest dipole moment since both the Cl- atoms are present on one 1
side (on the head) of c atom and therefore cause a maximum dipole moment.

In CHCl3 and CCl4, two Cl atoms and four Cl atoms cancel out their dipole 1
moments.

OR
Explain with the help of structure

THREE MARK QUESTIONS


19. How will you bring about the following conversions?

(i) But-1-ene to but-2-ene


(ii) Benzene to biphenyl
(iii) 1-Chlorobutane to n-octane

Ans.

HBr

(i)CH3CH2CHCH2 CH3CH2CH(Br)CH3

Markovnikov Addition 2-Bromobutane


1
KOH(alc), -HBr

CH3CH=CHCH3
But-2-ene
(ii)

(iii)

20. Account for the following


a) Haloarenes are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions .
b) Grignard reagents should be prepared under anhydrous conditions .
c) Melting point of p- dichlorobenzene is more than O & m isomers.

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Ans.

a)due to resonance a partial double bond character is developed between C & X or 1


any other suitable reason 1
b)because they are highly reactive towards any source of H+ 1
c) due to more symmetry of p-dichlorobenzene.

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
21. Why the dipole moment of fluoromethane is lower than chloromethane?

Ans.
The reason being that although the magnitude of ve charge on the F is much higher
than that on the Cl atom but due to small size of F as compared to Cl, the C-F bond
distance is so small that the product of charge and distance i.e dipole moment turns 1
out to be smaller.
22. Explain why C X bond in the haloarenes is extremely less reactive towards
nucleophilic substitution than in haloalkanes.

Ans.
Reactions due to:
(i) Resonance effect: C X bond acquires a partial double bond character and it
becomes difficult to break C X bond.
(ii) In C X bond, C atom attached to halogen is sp2 hybridised. The sp2 hybridised
carbon with a greater s character is more electronegative and can hold the electron
pair of C X bond more tightly than sp3 hybridised carbon in haloalkane with less 5-

character.
23. Phenol cannot be converted to chlorobenzene by reacting with HCl.Why?

Ans.
In phenol, due to resonance, the carbon oxygen bond has a partial double bond
character and is difficult to break being stronger than a single bond. Therefore it can 1
not be converted to chlorobenzene by reacting with HCl.

TWO MARK QUESTIONS


24. Give reasons: (i) C-Cl bond length in chlorobenzene is shorter than C-Cl bond length
in CH3-Cl. (ii) The dipole moment of chlorobenzene is lower than that of cyclohexyl
chloride.

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Ans.

(i) In chlorobenzene each carbon atom is sp2 hybridised. Due to resonance


1
there is a partial double bond character , so bond length is short.
(ii) In chlorobenzene carbon to which chlorine is attached is sp2 hybridised and 1
and is more electronegative than the corresponding carbon in cyclohexyl
chloride which is sp3 hybridised.

25. Arrange the following halo alkanes in the increasing order of density. Justify your
answer.
CCl4, CH2Cl2, CHCl3
Ans.

For the same number of carbon atoms (i.e., one) and same halogen (Cl), more the 1
number of halogen atoms, more is the density.
1
Thus, the increasing order of density is : CH2Cl2 < CHCl3 < CCl4
OR
Explanation with the help of the structures

26. How will you test pure chloroform?

Ans.

Impure chloroform give white powder of ethyl carbonate by the addition of ethanol 1
Chloroform is oxidized by air in presence of light to form Phosgene gas and HCl. 1

THREE MARK QUESTIONS


27. Chlorobenzene is less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. Give any
three justifications.

Ans.

Chlorobenzene is less reactive towards nucleophillic substitution due to

1. Resonance , C- Cl bond acquires a double bond character

and becomes stronger than a single bond.

2. SP2 hybridisation in C of C-X bond, the carbon becomes more electronegative and

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holds the electron pair of C-X bond more tightly decreasing the bond length 1

3. Instability of phenyl cation. 1

4. Repulsion for incoming nucleophile from electron rich ring.

28. How can you distinguish between 1, 1-dichloroethane and 1, 2-dichloroethane ?Give
reactions also.

Ans.

1,1-Dichloroethane on reaction with aq.KOH gives ethanal a pungent smelling


aldehyde, which gives insoluble yellow 2,4-DNP derivative with 2,4-dinitro
phenylhydrazine.

Cl O
+ aq. KOH (2 mol)
2,4 - DNP
CH3 CH Cl CH3 C H Yellow ppt. 1
-2KCl, -H2O
1,1-Dichloroethane Ethanal (pungent)

1,2- Dichloroethane on reaction with aq. KOH gives ethane-1,2-diol which is


odourless and gives no ppt. with 2,4 - DNP reagent.

Cl Cl OH OH
+ aq. KOH (2 mol)
2,4 DNP
1
CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 No ppt.
-2KCl, -H2O
1,2 - Dichloroethane Ethane - 1,2-diol

(odorless)

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CHAPTER -11 ALCOHOLS PHENOLS AND ETHERS

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Name the primary alcohol which gives iodoform test.

Ans
1
Ethanol.
2. Name one reagent which is used for the distinction of primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols.

Ans.
Lucas reagent (anhyd. ZnCl2 + conc. HCl ) or any other suitable test 1
3. Arrange the following compounds in the decreasing order of acid strength.
Propan-1-ol, 2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 3,5-dinitrophenol

Ans.
2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol> 3,5-dinitrophenol>3-nitrophenol>propan-1-ol 1

4. Diethylether does not react with sodium. Why?

Ans.
Because Diethylether does not contain any active hydrogen. 1

5. Why the dipole moment of diethyl ether (1.18 D) is lower than that of water (1.84
D)?

Ans.
Due to less electro-negativity difference between carbon and oxygen compared to
1
that of oxygen and hydrogen. C-O bond is less polar than O-H bond.
6. How will you know whether a given -OH group is alcoholic or phenolic in nature?
Ans.
Phenolic -OH group gives blue or violet colorations with neutral FeCl3 while
alcoholic -OH group does not.
OR
1
Phenol gives white ppt with Br2 water where as alcohol does not.
7. Write IUPAC name of following CH3-O-CH-CH2-CH2-CH3

CH3

Ans. 1
2-Methoxypentane
8. Write the structure of the molecule of a compound whose IUPAC name is 1-
phenylpropan-2-ol.
Ans. 1
C6H5CH2 CH(OH)CH3

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TWO MARK QUESTIONS
9. Arrange the following in order of increasing boiling points. State reason.
(i) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH, (ii) CH3CH2CH2CH3, (iii )CH3CH2OCH2CH3,
(iv)CH3CH2CH2CHO

Ans.
(ii) < (iii) < (iv) < (i)
1
Reason :This is due to the reason that there is increase in the magnitude of
intermolecular forces in this order, as polarity of C-O bond is increasing ,its
tendency to form H-bond also increases and hence boiling point which 1
depend on the intermolecular forces also increases.
10. Predict the products of the following reactions
i. Butanol + HCl
ii. Tertiary butyl bromide + KOH(alc)

Ans.
i. Butanol + HCl CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2Cl + H2O 1
ii. Tertiary butylbromide + KOH (alc) 2-methylpropene + KBr +H2O 1
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
11. Write the mechanism of acid-catalysed dehydration of ethanol to yield ethene.

Ans.
The mechanism of acid dehydration of ethanol to yield ethene involves the following
three steps:
Step 1:
Protonation of ethanol to form ethyl oxonium ion:

Step 2:
Formation of carbocation (rate determining step):
1

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Step 3:
Elimination of a proton to form ethene:

The acid consumed in step 1 is released in Step 3. After the formation of ethene, it is
removed to shift the equilibrium in a forward direction.

12. Account for the following:


(a) Propanol has higher boiling point than butane
(b) O-nitrophenol is more acidic than o- methoxyphenol
(c) Phenol does not give protonation reaction readily

Ans.
(a) both are of comparable masses but because of intermolecular H-bonding in
1
propanol , it has higher boiling point.

(b) -NO2 group is an electron withdrawing group and tend to decrease the electron
density on OH thereby increasing its tendency to lose H+ ions ,consequently 1
increasing the acidic nature .but in o-methoxyphenol, -OCH3 group has +I effect and
hence less is acidic .

(c ) C-OH in phenol is stabilized due to resonance and electron pair at oxygen atom 1
in phenol is not readily available to proton ,thus protonation not occurs readily
13. Give names of the reagents to bring about the following transformations:
(i) Ethanoic acid to ethanol
(ii) Propane-1-ol to propanal
(iii)Pent-3-en-2-ol to pent-3-en-2-one

Ans.
(i) LiAlH4 / H3O+ 1
(ii) PCC 1
(iii) PCC 1

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TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
14. Why 1% ethanol should be added to chloroform sample while storing?

Ans .

Chloroform forms phosgene gas which is highly poisonous.



Ethanol reacts with phosgene to give harmless diethyl carbonate

COCl2 + 2C2H5OH (C2H5)2CO3 + 2HCl

15. Phenol has smaller dipole moment than methanol. Why?

OR

Why are dipole moments of phenols smaller than dipole moments of alcohols?

Ans.
Due to electron withdrawing effect (-I effect)of the benzene ring, the C-O bond in
phenol is less polar but in case of methanol due to electron-donating (+I effect) 1
effect of CH3 group, C-O bond is more polar.
16. What is the IUPAC name of the alcohol: HC C-CH2OH ?

Ans . 1
Prop-2-yn-1-ol
17. Why o & p nitrophenol are more acidic than phenol ?

Ans.
Due to - Ieffect ( electron withdrawing ) of NO2 group.
i)The resulting phenoxide ion is more stable
ii)increase the polarity of O-H bond., hence increases acidic character.

18. Why the C-O-C bond angle in ethers is higher than the H-O-H angle in water though
oxygen is sp3-hybridized in both these cases ?

Ans .
It is due to the greater steric repulsions between bulky R(alkyl) groups. 1

TWO MARK QUESTIONS


19. Write the IUPAC name of the following

(i) CH3 C C CH2OH

H3C Br

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(ii) C6H5 CH2 CH CH3

OH

Ans.

(i) 2-Bromo-3-methylbut-2-en-1-ol (ii) 1-Phenylpropan-2-ol 1+1

20. a) Why is preparation of ethers by acid catalyzed dehydration of 2 and 3


Alcohols not a suitable method?
b) Phenol has much less pka than alcohol, explain.
Ans.
a) Because it is accompanied by the formation of alkenes and is not a suitable
method for the preparation of ether from acid catalyzed dehydration of 2 and 1
3alcohol, as this reaction involve SN2 mechanism, but dehydration of 2 and 3
alcohol, it follows SN1 due to steric hindrance and tend to form alkenes
preferably.
b) Because of electron withdrawing nature of benzene, phenoxide ion formed after
removal of H+ is more stable than the alkoxide ion formed. Hence phenol is more 1
acidic than alcohol having high ka and less pka

THREE MARK QUESTIONS


(a) How can we produce nitro phenol from phenol ?
21. (b)Why are reactions of alcohol/phenol and with acid chloride in the presence of
pyridine?
(c) How is tert-butyl alcohol obtained from acetone?

Ans .
(a) by nitration of phenol:
C6H5OH + dil.HNO3 o-nitrobenzene + p- C6H4 (NO2)OH
C6H5OH + 3HNO3 (conc. ) 2, 4, 6- C6H3 (NO2)3

(b) Alcohol/ phenol reacts with acid chloride in the presence of pyridine to form
ester.
1
R/Ar-OH + R-COCl pyridine R/Ar-OCOR + HCl

(c) tert-butyl alcohol obtained by treating acetone with Grignards reagent

CH3COCH3+ CH3MgBr [(CH3)3C-OMgBr] H+/H2O (CH3)3C-OH + Mg (OH) Br

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TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
22. How will you prepare 1- Butanol from 1-bromobutane

Ans .
CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + (aq KOH) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH 1

23. How will you prepare Phenol from chlorobenzene

Ans .

b) C6H5Cl + NaOH i) (623K, 300atm) ii)H2O/H+ C6H5OH 1

TWO MARK QUESTIONS


24. How is tert-butyl alcohol obtained from acetone?

Ans.

This is obtained by treating acetone with Grignards reagent


CH3COCH3+ CH3MgBr [(CH3)3C-OMgBr] H+/H2O (CH3)3C-OH + Mg (OH) Br 1+1

25. Give a test to distinguish between

i. phenol and Benzyl alcohol.


ii. ethanol and phenol.

Ans.

(i) Phenols give violet colour with ferric chloride while benzyl alcohol does not give
this colour. Or any other test 1

(ii) phenol turns blue litmus red, but Ethanol donot have effect on litmus paper

Or any other test 1

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
26. (a)Account for the following

(i) Propanol has higher boiling point than butane


(ii) Ortho-nitrophenol is more acidic than ortho-methoxyphenol
(iii) Preparation of ethers by acid dehydration of secondary or tertiary
alcoholis not a suitable method

Ans.

(i) It is because propanol can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds. 1


(ii) It is because NO2 group is electron withdrawing and OCH3 group is electron
releasing. Therefore o-nitrophenoxide is more stable than o-methoxyphenoxide 1
ion.
(iii) It is because secondary and tertiary alcohols on dehydration lead to the
formation of alkene and not ethers due to stability of secondary and tertiary
1
carbocation.
27. (i) Answer the following

a. What is the order of reactivity of 10, 20 and 30 alcohols with sodium metal?

b. How will you account for the solubility of lower alcohols in water?

(ii)Give one chemical test to distinguish between the following pair of compounds :
1-propanol and 2-propanol

Ans.

a. 10 > 20 > 30 1

b. HereOH group is predominant and the alcohol molecules can form 1


hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

(ii)Add I2 and NaOH to each (iodoform test)

2- propanol will give yellow ppt. of iodoform (CHI3) whereas 1-propanol will not give
yellow ppt. 1

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CHAPTER -12 ALDEHYDE, KETONE AND CARBOXYLIC ACID

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Q1. What is called carbonyl group?

Ans. -C=O group is known as carbonyl group


1
2. Name the reagent used in Rosenmund reduction.
Ans.
Pd-BaSO4 and S 1
3. Why Carboxylic acid have higher boiling point than alcohols as both have
intermolecular hydrogen bonding?
Ans.
Carboxylic acid forms a dimer due to double H-bonding. So it has higher boiling point
1
than alcohols.
4. Arrange the following in increasing order of acidic character :
HCOOH, CH2ClCOOH , CF3COOH , CCl3COOH

Ans.
HCOOH < CH2ClCOOH < CCl3COOH < CF3COOH +
5. Why is the boiling point of an acid anhydride higher than the acid from which it is
derived?
Ans.
Acid anhydrides are bigger in size than corresponding acid. These have more surface
area so have strong van der Waals Force of attractions. Hence they have higher
boiling point. 1
6. Why do Carboxylic acids not give the characteristic reactions of a carbonyl group?
Ans.
Due to resonance, It does not have free carbonyl group. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
7. Q1. Identify the product.
(i) CH3CH2OH PCC
(ii)CH3CH(OH)CH3 Cu/573K

Ans. 1
(i) CH3CHO
(ii) CH3COCH3 1
8. Give Fehling solution test for identification of aldehyde group (only
equations). Name the aldehyde which does not give Fehlings soln. test
Ans. R CHO + 2 Cu2+ + 5 OH RCOO + Cu2O + 3 H2O 1
(Reddish brown ppt.)
Benzaldehyde does not give Fehling soln. test (Aromatic aldehydes do not 1
give this test.)

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9. Which of the following acid shown here would you expect to be stronger?
CH3COOH or FCH2COOH

Ans.
FCH2COOH is stronger acid than CH3COOH. Due to -I effect of Fluorine electron 1
density is low in the O H bond and greater stability of FCH2COO ion over CH3COO 1
ion.
10. Although phenoxide ion has more no. of resonating structures than carboxylate ion,
even though carboxylic acid is a stronger acid why?

Ans.
The phenoxide ion has non- equivalent resonance structures in which-ve charge is
on less electronegative C atom and +ve charge is on more electronegative O-atom. 1
Carboxylate ion has equivalent resonance structure in which ve charge is
delocalized on two electronegative O-atoms hence resonance is more effective.

So Carboxylic acid is stronger acid.


THREE MARK QUESTIONS
Write the IUPAC name of the compound having the given formula
11. (a) CH3COCH2COCH3
(b) CH3-CH2-CH(CHO)-CH2CH3
(c) CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CHO

Ans.
(a) Pentane-2,4-dione 1

(b) 2-Ethylbutanal 1

(c) 3- Hydroxypentanal 1
a) What type of aldehydes undergo Cannizaro reaction ?
12. b) Out of acetophenone and benzophenone, which gives iodoform test? Write the
reaction involved.

Ans.
a) Aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes which do not contain hydrogens undergoes
cannizaro reaction. 1
b) The compound should have CH3CO-group to show the iodoform test.
Acetophenone (C6H5COCH3) contains the group CH3CO attached to carbon and
hence given iodoform test while benzophenone does not contain this group and 1
hence does not give iodoform test.
C6H5COCH3 + 3 I2 + 4 NaOH CHI3 + C6H5COONa + 3 NaI + 3 H2O
Acetophenone Iodoform 1
C6H5COC6H5 + I2 + NaOH No reaction

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TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
13. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their boiling points.
CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, CH3CH2CH3

Ans. 1
CH3CH2CH3< CH3OCH3< CH3CHO < CH3CH2OH
14. What happens when Ethanoyl chloride is subjected to rosenmund reduction?
Ans.
Ethanoyl chloride is converted in to Ethanal.
OR
CH3COCl + H2 Pd-BaSO4/S CH3CHO + HCl 1
15. Why does solubility decreases with increasing molecular mass in carboxylic acid?

Ans. 1
Because with increase of molecular mass size of hydrophobic carbon chain length
increases.
16. Why PCC cannot oxidize methanol to methanoic acid while KMnO4 can?

Ans.
1
This is because PCC is a mild oxidizing agent and can oxidize methanol to methanal only.
While KMnO4 is strong oxidizing agent which oxidizes it to methanoic acid.
17. Aromatic acids are solid while most of aliphatic acids are liquids. Why?
Ans.
1
Aromatic acids have higher molecular weight and strong Vander Waals force of attraction
as compared to aliphatic acids so they are solids.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
18. Explain why ketones are less reactive towards nucleophilic addition reactions than
aldehydes.

Ans.
Ketones are less reactive due to following reasons
(i)+I effect: The alkyl group in ketones due to their e releasing character decreases the
electrophilicity or + ve charge on c-atom and thus reduces its reactivity. 1

(ii) Steric hindrance: Due to steric hindrance in ketones, they are less reactive. 1
19. Give the structural formula of
(a) 2-hydroxy butanal
(b) Acetophenone
Ans.
(a) CH3CH2CH(OH)CHO 1
(b) C6H5COCH3 1

20. Which acid is stronger and why?


F3C-C6H4COOH and CH3C6H4COOH

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Ans.
CF3C6H4COOH is much stronger acid than CH3-C6H4COOH.
1
CF3 has strong (-I) effect whereas CH3has strong (+I) effect. Due to which stability of
F3CC6H4COO- ion increases over CH3-C6H4COO-ion. 1
21. Why is carboxyl group in benzoic acid meta directing?

Ans.
In benzoic acid the Carboxyl group is meta directing because it is electron-withdrawing
group with R effect. There is +ve charge on ortho and para positions. So Electrophillic 1
substitution takes place at meta position.

22. Suggest a reason for the large difference in the boiling points of butanol and butanal,
although they have same solubility in water.

Ans.
The b. pt. of butanol is higher than that of butanal because butanol has strong 1
intermolecular H-bonding while butanal has weak dipole-dipole interaction.
1
However both of them form H-bonds with water and hence are soluble
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
23. Would you expect benzaldehyde to be more reactive or less reactive in nucleophilic
addition reactions than propanal ? Explain your answer.

Ans.
C-atom of carbonyl group of benzaldehyde is less electrophilic than C-atom of carbonyl
group in propanal. Polarity of carbonyl group is in benzaldehyde reduced due to resonance 1
making it less reactive in nucleophilic addition reactions.
1
There is no such resonance effect in propanal and so the polarity of carboxyl group
in it is more than in benzaldehyde. This makes propanal more reactive than benzaldehyde.

O
||
C O
1
H
H
+

24. Answer the following questions


a) Why does methanal not give aldol condensation while ethanal gives?
b) Arrange the following in order of increasing boiling points:
CH3CH2CH2OH, CH3CH2CH2CH3, CH3CH2OCH2CH3, CH3CH2CH2CHO

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Ans.

a) This is because only those compounds which have alpha hydrogen atoms can undergo
aldol condensation. Ethanal possesses alpha -hydrogen and Methanal has no alpha
hydrogen atoms, hence does not undergo aldol condensation. 1

b)

CH3CH2CH2CH3 < C2H5OC2H5 < CH3CH2CH2CHO < CH3 (CH2)2 OH


1
(hydrocarbon) (ether) (aldehyde) (alcohol)


Increase in bond polarity. 1

25. Distinguish the following pair of compounds


a) Propanal and Propanone
b) Acetophenone and benzophenone
c) Phenol and benzoic acid

Ans.
a) Propanal gives a silver mirror or greyish ppt. on oxidation by Tollens reagent but
propanone does not. 1
CH3CH2CHO 2[AgNH32]+ 3 OH- CH3CH2COO- 2Ag 2H2O 4NH3

Propanal Tollens reagent silver mirror

Or any other suitable test.

b) Acetophenone gives a positive iodoform test with sodium hypo iodide as it has a
terminal methyl ketonic -COCH3 group unlike benzophenone 1
C6H5COCH3 + 3 I2 + 4 NaOH CHI3 + C6H5COONa + 3 NaI + 3 H2O
Acetophenone Iodoform
C6H5COC6H5 I2/NaOH No reaction

Or any other suitable test.

c) Benzoic acid on treatment with sodium hydrogen carbonate produces efferversence due
to evolution of CO2, as it is more acidic than phenol.

C6H5COOH NaHCO3 C6H5COONa CO2 H2O

Benzoic acid (effervescence)


1
Or any other suitable test.

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
26. The boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are lower than that of the corresponding
acids. Why?

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Ans. This is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding in carboxylic acids. 1

27. How will you convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone?

Ans.

28. Why HCOOH doesnt give HVZ reaction while CH3COOH does?

Ans.
CH3COOH contains -hydrogens and hence gives HVZ reaction but HCOOH doesnt contain 1
-hydrogen and hence doesnt give HVZ reaction
29. Why formic acid is stronger acid than acetic acid?

Ans. 1
Due to +I effect, CH3 group in acetic acid increases density on carbonyl carbon atom which
makes it a weak acid.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
30. Give IUPAC name and formula of functional isomer of acetophenone.

Ans. 2-Phenylethanal C6H5CH2CHO 1+ 1

31. Give the products obtained by ozonolysis of 2-Methylbut-2-ene.

Ans. (i) O3

CH3-C=CH-CH3 (ii) H2O, Zn CH3COCH3 + CH3CHO 1+1

CH3 (Acetone) (Acetaldehyde)

32. During preparation of esters from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of acid
catalyst water or ester formed should be removed as soon as it is formed. Why?

Ans. The formation of esters from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of acid
catalyst is a reversible reaction.
1

1
To shift the equilibrium in forward direction ,the water or ester formed should be
removed as fast as it is formed.

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
Q.No. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS VALUE
POINTS
33. Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Ans. (i)

(ii)

(iii)

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34. How will you carry out the following conversions (Write chemical equations):
(a) Toluene to Benzaldehyde
(b) Benzene to acetophenone
(c) Benzoyl chloride to benzaldehyde

Ans. (a)C6H5CH3 (i) CrO2Cl2 C6H5CHO 1


(ii) H3O+
or by using CrO3 1
(b) C6H6 + CH3COCl Anhyd. AlCl3 C6H5COCH3
1
(c) C6H5COCl Pd-BaSO4/S C6H5CHO
35. A compound having molecular C3H6O forms a crystalline white ppt. with sodium bisulphite
and reduces Fehlings solution. Suggest the structural formula and IUPAC name of this
compound. Name an isomer for it from a group other than its own.
Ans.
Structural Formula - CH3CH2CHO 1
IUPAC name- Propanal 1
Isomer Propanone CH3COCH3 1
36. Distinguish the following pair of compounds
a) Benzoic acid and ethyl benzoate
b) Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one
c) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone

Ans
a) Benzoic acid on treatment with sodium hydrogen carbonate produces efferversence due
to evolution of CO2, as it is more acidic than phenol. 1
C6H5COOH NaHCO3 C6H5COONa CO2 H2O
(Benzoic acid) (efferversence)
Or any other suitable test.
b) Pentan-2-one gives a yellow ppt. of iodoform on treatment with a mixture of NaOH 1
and I2 but not Pentan-3-one, as it lacks the terminal methyl ketone group.
NaOI
CH3CH2CH2-CO-CH3 CH3CH2CH2COONa CHI3
pentan-2-one iodoform
Or any other suitable test.

c)Benzaldehyde gives a brick red precipitate on treatment with Fehlings A and B solution
1
on oxidation but acetophenone does not.

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C6H5CHO Cu2 5 OH- C6H5COO- Cu2O 3H2O
Benzaldehyde (brick red ppt.)
Or any other suitable test.
37. Q5. Compound AC6H12O2 on reaction with LiAlH4 yielded two compounds B and C. The
compound B on oxidation gave D, which on treatment with aqueous alkali and subsequent
heating furnished E. E on catalytic hydrogenation gave C. D was oxidized to form F which is
a monobasic carboxylic acid with molecular mass 60. Deduce the structures of A, B, C, D.
Ans.
Molecular mass of F is 60 and it is a monobasic acid. Thus it contains two oxygen atoms.
Let the formula of the acid be CnH2nO2.
CnH2nO2= 60 12n 2n 32=60
*6
14n=60-32 n=28/14=2
Thus F is C2H4O2 or CH3COOHethanoic acid. The sequence of the reaction would be-

C6H12O2 LiAlH4 C2H5OH Oxid. CH3-CHO CH3COOH


(A) (B) (D) Aq. Alkali (F)
heat
+
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2OH Pd/H2 CH3-CHCH-CHO
(C) (E)
38. a) Convert acetone into tertiary butyl alcohol
b) Out of p-nitro benzaldehyde and benzaldehyde which is more reactive towards
nucleophilic addition reactions and why ?

Ans. a).

b) In p-nitrobenzaldehyde, the NO2group is a powerful electron-withdrawing group. It


1
withdraws electrons both by inductive and resonance effect thereby decreasing the
electron density on the carbon atom of carboxyl group. This facilitates the attack of the
nucleophile and hence makes it more reactive than benzaldehyde.

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1

39. An organic compound (A){C8H16O2} was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid to give a

carboxylic acid (B) and an alcohol (C). Oxidation of (C)with chromic acid produced(B).(C) on
dehydration gives but-1-ene.Identity A,B,C

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CHAPTER -13 AMINES
TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Write the IUPAC name of:

Ans.
N,N-Dimethylethanamine 1
2. What is the hybridisation of N in (CH3)3N and shape of (CH3)3N ?

Ans.
Hybridisation of N in (CH3)3N is sp3 and shape of (CH3)3N is trigonal pyramidal. +
3. Classify the following amines as primary, secondary or tertiary:

(i) (C2H5)2CHNH2 (ii)

Ans.
(i) Primary Amine (ii) Primary Amine +
4. Why amines act as Lewis Base ? Give example.

Ans.
Amines have an unshared pair of electrons on nitrogen atom due to which they behave
as lewis base.

5. Illustrate ammonolysis with the help of an example.

Ans.

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6. What happens when Aniline is treated NaNO2 and dil. HCl at 273-278 K.

Ans.

When aniline is treated with NaNO2 and dil.HCl at 273 278K Benzenediazonium
chloride is formed.

7. Write the name of C6H5N2 F.

Ans.
Benzenne diazonium floride. 1
8. Which diazonium salt is stable at room temprature.

Ans.
Benzene diazonium floro borate(C6H5N2 F). 1
9. Which diazonium salt is insoluble in water at room temprature?

Ans.
Benzene diazonium floro borate (C6H5N2 F). 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
10. Complete the following reactions :-
(i)C6H5NH2 + Conc. H2SO4
(ii)CH3CH2NH2+ CHCl3 + KOH(alc.)
Ans.

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11. What is diazotization ? Write any example.

Ans.
The conversion of primary aromatic amins into diazonium salts is known as 1
diazotitatio.
1

12. What is coupling reaction with example

Ans.
Benzene diazonium chloride reacts with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its para 1
position is coupled with the diazonium salt to form p-hydroxyazobenzene. This type of
reaction is known as coupling reaction. Similarly the reaction of diazonium salt with
aniline yields p-aminoazobenzene.
1

THREE MARK QUESTIONS


13. Write short notes on the following:
(i) Carbylamine reaction (ii) Diazotisation (iii) Bezoylation

Ans.
(i) Carbylamine reaction - Carbylamine reaction is used as a test for the identification of
primary amines. When aliphatic and aromatic primary amines are heated with
chloroform and ethanolic potassium hydroxide, carbylamines (or isocyanides) are
formed. These carbylamines have very unpleasant odours.
Secondary and tertiary amines do not respond to this test.

(ii) Diazotisation

Aromatic primary amines react with nitrous acid (prepared in situ from NaNO2 and a

mineral acid such as HCl) at low temperatures (273-278 K) to form diazonium salts. This
conversion of aromatic primary amines into diazonium salts is known as diazotization.

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For example, on treatment with NaNO2 and HCl at 273278 K, aniline produces benzene
diazoniumchloride, with NaCl and H2O as by-products

(iii) Benzoylation -Amines react with benzoyl chloride (C6H5COCl).This reaction is


known as benzoylation.

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
14. Out of CH3NH2 and CH3CH2NH2 which has higher boiling point and why ?
Ans.
CH3CH2NH 2because bigger the alkyl group more is the surface area higher is the
magnitude of van der Waals force. +
15. Why are primary amines higher boiling than tertiary amines ?

Ans.
Primary amines have two hydrogen atoms on the N atom and therefore form
intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Tertiary amines do not have hydrogen atoms on the N 1
atom and therefore,these do not form hydrogen bonds
16. Write the structure and IUPAC name of t-butylamine.

Ans.

2-Methylpropan-2-amine +

17. Which one is more basic CH3NH2 or (CH3)3N in gaseous phase and why ?
Ans.
(CH3)3N is more basic because greater number of alkyl groups increase the magnitude of
+I effect so increase the basicity . +

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18. Out of Butan-1-ol and butan-1-amine ,which will be more soluble in water and why?

Ans.
Butan-1-ol are more polar than amines and forms stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds +
with water molecules than amines.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
19. Why Ethylamine is soluble in water whereas aniline is not ?

Ans.
Ethylamine when added to water forms intermolecular Hbonds with water. Hence, it is
soluble in water.
1

But aniline Can form Hbonding with water to a very small extent due to the presence of 1
a large hydrophobic C6H5 group. Hence, aniline is insoluble in water.
20. Write structures of different isomers corresponding to the molecular formula,
C3H9N.
Ans.

Propan-1-amine (10)

N,N-Dimethylmethanamine (3o)
21. What happens when diazonium chloride treated with KI?

Ans.
Iodobenzene is obtained. 1

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22. What happens when diazonium salts heated with phasphinic acid or ethanol? Give
equation.

Ans.
It gets converted into benzene 1

1
23. Name the dye and colour of which is obtaind by the reaction of diazonium chloride and
aniline. write equation .

Ans.
p-aminoazobenzene which is yellow in colour. 1

24. How phenol is obtaind from diazonium salts.

Ans.
By treating with water.
1

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
25. Give one application of quaternary ammonium salts.

Ans.
Quaternary ammonium salts of long chain carbon atoms are used in detergents
[CH2(CH2)15N(CH3)2]+Cl- 1

26. Why are amines less acidic than alcohols of comparable molecular masses?

Ans.
Loss of proton from amines gives amide ion whereas loss of proton from alcohol gives an
alkoxide ion. Since O is more electronegative than N Therefore RO- can accommodate the 1
negative charge more easily than RNH-.Thus alcohols are more acidic than amines.

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TWO MARK QUESTIONS
27. Arrange the following
(i)NH3, C2H5NH2 , (C2H5)2NH , (C2H5)3N (Decreasing order of basicity in gaseous phase)
(ii) CH3CH2CH3 , CH3CH2NH2 , CH3CH2OH ( Increasing order of Boiling Point)

Ans.
(i) (C2H5)3N > (C2H5)2NH > C2H5NH2 > NH3 1
(ii) CH3CH2CH3 < C2H5NH2 < C2H5O 1
28. Why aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction ?

Ans.
Friedel-Crafts reaction is carried out in the presence of AlCl3. But AlCl3 is acidic in nature,
while aniline is a strong base. Thus, aniline reacts with AlCl3 to form a salt (as shown in the 1
following equation).

Due to the positive charge on the N-atom, electrophilic substitution in the benzene ring is
deactivated. Hence, aniline does not undergo the Friedel-Crafts reaction.
1

29. Give reason


(i)Although amino group is o,p directing in aromatic electrophilic substitution reactions,
aniline on nitration gives a substantial amount of m-nitroaniline.
(ii) pKb of aniline is more than that of methylamine

Ans.
(i)Nitration is carried out in an acidic medium. In an acidic medium, aniline is protonated
to give anilinium ion (which is meta-directing). 1

For this reason, aniline on nitration gives a substantial amount of m-nitroaniline.


Ans (ii) Aniline undergoes resonance and as a result, the electrons on the N-atom are
delocalized over thebenzene ring. Therefore, the electrons on the N-atom are less 1
available to donate.

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On the other hand, in case of methylamine (due to the +I effect of methyl group), the
electron density on the N-atom is increased. As a result, aniline is less basic than
methylamine. Thus, pKb of aniline is more than that of methylamine.

30. Accomplish the following conversions:


1 Benzene diazonium chloride to benzoic acid
2 Aniline to 2,4,6-tribromoaniline

Ans.

H2O/H+

ArN2Cl +CuCN ArCN ArCOOH


1

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
31. Give one chemical test to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.(A)
(i) Methylamine and dimethylamine
(ii) Secondary and tertiary amines
(iii) Aniline and benzylamine

Ans.

(i) Methylamine and dimethylamine can be distinguished by the carbylamine test.

Carbylamine test: Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines on heating with chloroform
and ethanolic potassium hydroxide form foul-smelling isocyanides or carbylamines. 1
Methylamine (being aliphatic primary amine) gives a positive carbylamine test, but
dimethylamine does not.

(ii) Secondary and tertiary amines can be distinguished by allowing them to react with
Hinsbergs reagent (benzenesulphonyl chloride, C6H5SO2Cl). Secondary amines react 1
with Hinsbergs reagent to form a product that is insoluble in an alkali. For example, N,
Ndiethylamine reacts with Hinsbergs reagent to form N,
Ndiethylbenzenesulphonamide, which is insoluble in an alkali. Tertiary
amines,however, do not react with Hinsbergs reagent.

(iii) Aniline and benzylamine can be distinguished by their reactions with the help of
nitrous acid,which is prepared in situ from a mineral acid and sodium nitrite. 1
Benzylamine reacts with nitrous acid to form unstable diazonium salt, which in turn
gives alcohol with the evolution of nitrogen gas.

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On the other hand, aniline reacts with HNO2 at a low temperature to form stable
diazonium salt.
32. How will you convert 4-nitro toluene into 2-bromo benzoic acid

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CHAPTER -14 BIOMOLECULES

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Which functional groups are present in monosaccharides?

Ans.
OH and CHO or OH and >CO 1
2. What is animal starch?

Ans.
Glycogen 1
3. Which types of bonds are present in a protein molecule?

Ans.
Peptide bonds, hydrogen bonds, disulphide bonds, ionic bonds etc. 1
4. What is the name given to the linkage that holds two monosaccharide units together?

Ans.
Glycosidic linkage 1
5. Name a protein which is insoluble in water.

Ans.
Keratin 1
6. What are vitamins? Give Example.

Ans.
Organic compounds necessarily required in small amount ,for proper functioning of the body, +
example: Vitamin A, Vitamin B
7. How are vitamins classified?

Ans.
On the basis of solubility vitamins are classified as------- +
a) Water soluble: 1. Vitamin B & C b) Fat Soluble: Vitamin .A,D,E,K etc.
8. Name any two types of RNA?

Ans. +
m-RNA, t-RNA & r-RNA
9. Name the base which is only present in RNA.

Ans.
Uracil 1
10. What type of linkage is present in nucleic acids or two nucleotides?

Ans.
Phosphodiester linkage. 1

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11. Define nucleic acids. Give example.

Ans.
These are polymers of nucleotides, example : RNA & DNA 1
12. What do you understand by glycosidic linkage?

Ans.
During condensation of two monosaccharides, a water molecule is given out and two
monosaccharides get linked together by an oxide or ethereal linkage (O) called as 1
glycosidic linkage
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
13. Give any four characteristics of ENZYMES ?

Ans.
a].Enzymes are highly specific.
b].they can speed up an uncatalysed reaction to an extent of a ten million times.
c].they are active at room temperature and moderate pH.
d].action can be controlled or even inhibited by certain organic or inorganic substance.
14. What are essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids? Give examples

Ans.
The amino acids that can be synthesized by the body are called non- essential +
amino acids .eg .glycine, Alanine.
The amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained through diet +
are called essential amino acids eg. Valine, leucine.
15. What is Denaturation of proteins? What is its effect?

Ans.
When a native protein is subjected to change in pH, temperature or chemicals, the tertiary 1
structure of protein gets unfolded, the protein gets denatured.
This causes the protein to change biological activity .eg boiled egg, curdling of milk. 1
16. Write purines & pyrimidine bases present in DNA & RNA.

Ans.
DNA----A,G,C,T 1
RNA---A,G,C,U 1
17. Give the differences b/w nucleotide & nucleoside.

Ans. 1
Nucleotide------Nitrogen base, pentose sugar & phosphate
1
Nucleoside------Nitrogen base, pentose sugar
18. Write short notes on- (i) Co-enzymes (ii) Prosthetic groups
Ans.
(i) Co-enzymes:- These are usually derived from vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin
etc. They are loosely held to the protein and can be easily separated by dialysis. 1
(ii) Prosthetic groups:- They are also derived from vitamins such as biotin but are tightly held
to the protein molecule by covalent bonds. They can be separated only by careful hydrolysis. 1

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
Differentiate B/W Fibrous and globular proteins? Give any three differences.
19.
Ans.
FIBROUS PROTIEN
Polypeptide chains run parallel to form fibre like structure.
H-bonds and disulphide bonds hold the chains together
Generally insoluble in water.
Eg-Keratin, Myosin.
GLOBULAR PROTIEN
Polypeptide coil around to give a spherical shape.
Mainly Hydrogen bonded.
Generally soluble in water.
eg-Insulin, Albumin.
20. Differentiate primary, secondary and tertiary structure of protein.

Ans.
I. In primary structure specific sequence of amino acids are joined by covalent bonds.
II. secondary structure is responsible for the shape of a protein. -helix and -pleated in 1
which polypeptide chains have peptide linkages. 1
III. tertiary structure represents overall folding of polypeptide chain and give rise to the 1
fibrous or globular molecular shape.
21. Discuss the specificity and mechanism of enzyme action.

Ans.
In case of enzymatic reaction the enzyme is so built that it binds to the substrate in a specific
manner. An enzyme carries out specific leach only .Enzymatic reaction involves following
1
steps (Lock and Key Model)-
Step (i): Binding of substrate(S) to enzyme (E) to form complex
E + S -----------> [ES] (Enzyme substrate complex)
Step (ii): Product formation in complex
[ES] ------> EP (Enzyme product complex) 1
Step (iii): Dissociation of enzyme product complex, leaving enzyme unchanged
EP---------- -> E + P
The specificity of enzyme is due to presence of some specific regions called active site on 1
their surface.
22. Name the deficiency diseases due to following vitamins-----A,B1,B2,B6,B12,C

Ans.

S No. VITAMINS DISEASES


1 A Night blindness, Xeropthlamia
2 B1 Retarded growth, Beri-Beri
3 B2 Cracking of corners of lips, Digestive disorder, burning
sensation of skin
4 B6 Convulsions
5 B12 Pernicious anemia
6 C Scurvy, Bleeding of gums

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23. Name the deficiency diseases due to following vitamins-----D,E,K

Ans.

D Rickets & Osteomalacia 1


E Muscular weakness, Increased fragility of R.B.C.
1
K Delayed blood clotting 1

24. Give the sources of the following vitamins------- A,B1,B2,B6,B12,C

Ans.

S .No. SOURCES
VITAMINS
1 A Milk,butter,carrot,fish liver oil
2 B1 Milk,green vegetables,cereals,yeast
3 B2 Milk,egg white,liver,kidney
4 B6 Milk,egg yolk,cereals,gram,yeast
5 B12 Curd,meat,milk,fish,egg
6 C Cirtus fruits

25. Give the sources of the following vitamins-------D,E,K

Ans.

D Egg yolk,fish,exposure to sunlight 1


E Sunflower oil,wheat germ oil & other oil
1
K Green leafy vegetables 1

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
26. Where does the water present in the egg go after boiling the egg?

Ans.
On boiling during denaturation process water gets adsorbed/absorbed in the
1
denatured proteins.
27. Glycine does not show optical activity .why?

Ans.
Central carbon atom is not surrounded by 4 different groups i.e. it is not chiral .
1
Hence it is not optically active.
28. Which -helix or -helix is more stable?

Ans.
-helix is right handed and is more stable due to intermolecular H bonding between
1
first and fourth amino acid.

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29. The sequence of bases in one strand of DNA is TACGGACA. What is the sequence of
bases of complementary strand of DNA.

Ans. 1
ATGCCTGT.
30. Why must vit. C be supplied regularly in diet?
Or
Why cannot Vit.C be stored in our body?

Ans.
As it is water soluble & easily excreted in urine.
1
31. Define DNA fingerprinting.

Ans.
Information regarding sequence of bases on a DNA strand . 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
32. Glucose or Sucrose are soluble in water but cyclohexane and benzene are insoluble
in water. Explain

Ans.
Glucose contains five-OH groups and Sucrose contains eight-OH groups, because of
1
this they form intermolecular hydrogen bonding, so they are soluble in water.

But benzene and cyclohexane do not contain OH groups, hence do not form
1
intermolecular hydrogen bonding, so they are not soluble in water.
33. Glucose forms an oxime but glucose penta acetate does not. Explain.

Ans.
Glucose reacts with NH2OH via the open chain form which has the free CHO group
1
to form glucose oxime.
Glucose penta acetate, on the other hand, cannot be converted into the open chain
form because its anomeric hydroxyl group is acetylated and hence does not form 1
the oxime.
34. Glucose or Sucrose are soluble in water but cyclohexane and benzene are insoluble
in water. Explain

Ans.
Glucose contains five-OH groups and Sucrose contains eight-OH groups, because of
1
this they form intermolecular hydrogen bonding, so they are soluble in water.
But benzene and cyclohexane do not contain OH groups, hence do not form
1
intermolecular hydrogen bonding, so they are not soluble in water.
35. Enumerate the reactions of D- Glucose which cannot be explained by its open chain
structure.

Ans.
The following reactions could not be explained by open chain structure of D-glucose:
1
1. The pentaacetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the
absence of free- CHO group.

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2. Despite having aldehyde group glucose does not form hydrogen sulphite addition 1
product with sodium hydrogen sulphite and glucose does not give Schiff's test.
3. Glucose exists in two different crystalline form which are known as -D- glucose
and -D- glucose
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
36. Give reasons for the following-
(i) Amphoteric nature of amino acids.
(ii) Stable -helix structure of proteins.

Ans.
i) In aqueous solution, the carboxyl group of an amino acid can lose a proton and the
amino group can accept a proton to give a dipolar ion known as zwitter ion.
1
NH3+
NH2
O-
OH R 1
R
O
O
Therefore, in zwitter ion . amino acid can both as an acid as a base.
(ii) The H Bond formed between the N-H group of each amino acid residue and 1
-
COO group of adjacent turn of -helix helps in stabilizing the helix.
37. The melting points and solubility in water of amino acids are generally higher than
those of corresponding Haloacids . Explain.

Ans.
The amino acids exists as Zwitter ions H3N+-CHRCOO-, due to this dipolar salt like 1
character, they have dipole- dipole interactions.
Therefore, their melting points are higher than corresponding haloacids which do 1
not have salt like character.
Due to salt like character amino acids interact strongly with water. As a result their
1
solubility in water is higher than corresponding haloacids which do not have salt like
character.

TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
38. How many peptide bonds will be formed when ten amino acids polymerise?
Ans.
9 1
39. What makes hair, wool, and silk insoluble in water?
Ans.
Fibrous structure. i.e. Polypeptide chains run parallel and are held together by hydrogen 1
bonds

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40. Fresh tomatoes are a better source of Vitamin C or those have been stored for some time.
Why ?
Ans.
Vitamin C is destroyed on prolonged exposure to air due to its oxidation. 1
41. Why is cellulose not digested in human body?
Ans.
It is due to the fact that human beings do not have enzyme cellulase to digest
cellulose. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
42. Justify
a. Sucrose is a non reducing sugar, even though it is made up of glucose and fructose, out
of which glucose is a reducing sugar.
b. Sucrose is dextrorotatory, but after hydrolysis the mixture is laevorotatory.
Ans.
a. The reducing group of glucose(C1) and C2 of fructose are involved in glycosidic bond
formation in sucrose, therefore sucrose is not reducing. 1
b. Sucrose on hydrolysis gives glucose with dextrorotation(+52.5) and fructose with
laevorotation(-92.40), which is higher than the dextrorotation. 1
43. A tripeptide on complete hydrolysis gives glycine, alanine and phenylalanine using three
letter symbols .Write down the possible sequence of tripeptide.
Ans.
Each amino acid may be present at the N-terminal as well as C-terminal.
(i) Gly-Ala-Gly (ii) Gly-Phe-Ala +
(iii) Ala-Gly-Phe (iv) Ala- Phe-Gly
+
(v) Phe-Ala-Gly (vi) Phe-Gly-Ala (ANY FOUR)
44. Name the following :
a) an alpha amino acid which is not optically active.
b) the sweetest carbohydrate.
Ans.
a) Glycine 1
b) Fructose. 1
45. Give the example of water soluble & fat soluble vitamins.
Ans.
On the basis of solubility vitamins are classified as-------
Water soluble----ex Vitamin & C b) fat soluble-------ex Vitamin A,D,E,K etc. 1+1
46. Vitamins are required in very small amount even than they are essential part of our diet.
Why?

Ans.
Because deficiency of these causes specific diseases & 1
required for normal maintenance, optimum growth &health of an organisms. 1

47. Mention two types of nucleic acid & their functions.


Ans.
Nucleic acids are of two types as RNA( ribo nucleic acid) & DNA (deoxy ribo nucleic acid). +
a) Synthesis of proteins by RNA.
+
b)Heredity transmission by DNA.

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
48. Why vitamin B is called B-COMPLEX?

Ans.
It is a group of vitamins as B1,B2,B6,B12,B5,B3.
each
49. Write the products of hydrolysis of DNA &RNA.

Ans.
DNA----- 2-deoxyribose sugar+Thymine+Phosphoric acid.
1+1
RNA-----it is single strand hence there is no specific relationship among the quantity of
1
hydrolysed product.
50. Despite having an aldehyde group,Glucose does not give 2, 4-DNP test.
What does this indicate? What is the significance of D and (+) here?

Ans.
Glucose does not have open chain structure and hence it does not have a free CHO 1
group. Actually CHO group combines with C5 OH to form a hemiacetal.
Glucose largely exists in the cyclic hemiacetal form along with a very small amount (0.5%)
of the open chain form. Since the concentration of the open chain form is low and its
1
reaction with 2, 4DNP is reversible, therefore, formation of 2,4DNP derivative cannot
disturb the equilibrium to generate more of the open chain form from the cyclic
hemiacetal form and hence it does not react with 2,4DNP.

The capital letter D in the name D-(+)-glucopyranose indicates that the C5OH group is 1
oriented towards right while the sign (+) indicates that glucopyranose is dextrorotatory.
51. An organic compound X with formula C5H6(OH)5CHO forms hexane on prolonged heating
with HI. X also forms an oxime Z with hydroxyl amine, and gets oxidized with a mild
oxidizing agent, Br2/H2O to Y. write equations and identify X,Y and Z.

Ans.
X with HI forms hexane, this shows X contains 6 carbons in a straight line. 1
X gives oxime, this indicates the presence of carbonyl group. 1
X is oxidized by bromine water, indicates the presence of aldehyde group.
1
Therefore X should be glucose, Y should be gluconic acid and Z should be an oxime of
glucose.
52. Write the following protein synthesis-
(i) Name the location where the protein synthesis occurs?
(ii) How do 64 codons code for only 20 amino acids?
(iii) What is the native state of protein?

Ans.
i) Protein synthesis occurs at the ribosome in cytoplasm.
1
(ii)The 64 codons for 20 amino acids; more than one codon can code for same amino
1
acids, e.g., CUC and CUU both can code leucine. Proline is encoded by CCU, CCA, CCG, and
CCC.
(iii)The energetically most stable shape of the protein at normal pH and temperature is 1
called native state.

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CHAPTER -15 POLYMERS

TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Write Commercial Importance of Glyptal .

Ans:
It is used in manufacturing of paints and lacquers. 1
2. Why addition polymers cannot be broken down by hydrolysis?

Ans.
The C-C bonds are too strong. 1
3. Which colligative property is used to determine the molecular masses of the polymers ?

Ans.
Osmotic pressure is the colligative property used to determine the molecular masses of
polymer.
1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
4. Define the term polymerization. Give Example.

Ans.
The process of formation of polymers from some simple and reactive molecules (monomers)
1
linked together by covalent bonds is called polymerization.
eg:-hexa methylene diamine and adipic acid form nylon-6, 6.
n HOOC (CH2)4 COOH + n H2N (CH6) NH2 ---
adipic acid hexamethylene n H2O
diamine
( NH (CH2)6 NH CO (CH2)4 CO )n 1
nylon-6, 6.
5. What is a biodegradable polymer ? Give an example of a biodegradable aliphatic polyester.

Ans.
Polymers which decomposes over a period of time due to environmental degradation by 1
bacteria, etc are called biodegradable polymers. 1
e. g. PHBV
6. Differentiate between Homopolymers and Copolymers with example.

Ans.
Homopolymers
The addition polymers formed by the polymerisation of a single monomeric unit are called
Homopolymers.
E.g. Polythene.

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Copolymers
The polymers formed by the addition polymerisation of two different monomers are termed as
copolymers
E.g. Buna-S
THREE MARK QUESTIONS

7. Q. How are polymers classified on the basis of structure?.Write with examples.

Ans.
On the basis of structure, the polymers are classified as below:
(i) Linear polymers such as polythene, polyvinyl chloride, HDP etc. 1
(ii) Branched chain polymers such as low density polythene, LDP, etc. 1
(iii) Cross linked polymers such as Bakelite, melamine, etc. 1

TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
8. Arrange the following polymer in increasing order of their molecular forces : nylon-
6, 6, Buna-S, polythene.

Ans.
Buna- S < Polythene < Nylon-6, 6. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
9. What is meant by PTFE? Give its popular name.

Ans.
Polytetrafluoroethylene. It is called Teflon. 1+1
10. Classify the following as addition and condensation polymers:
Terylene, Bakelite, polyvinyl chloride, polythene
Ans.
Addition- Poly vinyl chloride, Polythene +
Condensation- Terylene, Bakelite +
11. Give two examples of biodegradable polymers?

Ans.
1
(1) PHBV
1
(2) Nylon-2, nylon-6
12. How do you explain the functionality of a monomer ? Give suitable example.
Ans.
The functionality of a monomer is the number of binding sites that are present in
1
the monomer.
Eg. : The functionality of monomers such as ethane and propene is one and that of
1,3-butadiene and adipic acid is two. 1

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13. How LDP and HDP are synthesized?

Ans.
Low density polythene: It is obtained by the polymerization of ethene under high
pressure of 1000 to 2000 atmospheres at a temperature of 350 K to 570 K in the 1
presence of traces of dioxygen or a peroxide initiator (catalyst).

High density polythene: It is formed when addition polymerisation of ethene takes


place in a hydrocarbon solvent in the presence of a catalyst Ziegler-Natta catalyst at 1
a temperature of 333 K to 343 K and under a pressure of 6-7 atmospheres.
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
14. A polymer is represented as [-CH2-CH(C6H5)-]-n
(i) Is it a homopolymer or a copolymer?
(ii) Is it an addition or condensation polymer?
(iii) Name the monomer of the above polymer.

Ans.
i) Homopolymer ii) Addition iii) Styrene 1+1+1
15. How are polymers classified on the basis of structures?

Ans.

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TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION
Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE
POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
16. Which artificial polymer is present in bubble gum or chewing gum ?

Ans.
Bubble gum or chewing gum contains synthetic Styrene-butadiene rubber. 1
17. Name the polymer used for making medicinal Capsule.

Ans.
PHBV Polyhydroxy butyrate-CO--hydroxy valerated. 1
18. Which polymer is used in making electrical goods and why ?

Ans.
Bakelite ,because of its electrical insulator property. +
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
19. Write use of each orlon and Nylon-6.

Ans.
Use of orlon is clothing as a substitute for wool. 1
Nylon-6 is used as fabrics. 1
20. Explain the difference between Buna S and Buna N.

Ans.
Buna N is a copolymer of 1, 3-butadiene and acrylo nitrile, 1
Buna S is a copolymer of 1, 3-butadiene and styrene. 1
21. Give the common name and the IUPAC name of the monomer of natural rubber.

Ans.
cis-Isoprene & 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene 1+1
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
22. Write the names of monomers and structure used for getting the following polymers ?
PMMA, PVC, Teflon
Ans.
(i) PVC monomer Vinylchloride, CH2 = CH Cl 1
(ii) Teflon monomer Tetrafluoro ethylene, F2C = CF2 1
(iii) PMMA monomer Methyl methacrylate,CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3 1
23.

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Ans.

24. A customer demanded a polybag for storing the goods he had bought but the shopkeeper
handed over a paper bag instead.
a) Why the shopkeeper did not give a polybag to the customer?
b) Give two harmful effects of polythene bags.
c) What is the value associated with it?

Ans.

a) Plastic is non biodegradable 1

b) Plastic releases harmful dioxin into the air. People who work in plastic industries are at
a greater risk for cancer and other diseases. Plastic bags discarded in fields decrease the 1
productivity of fertile land, Coloured plastic bags contain harmful toxic metals like
chromium and copper which can cause allergies.
1
c) Awareness of harmful effects of polythene bags on the environment

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CHAPTER -16 CHEMISTRY IN EVERY DAY LIFE
TYPOLOGY : KNOWLEDGE

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What is chemotherapy?

Ans.
The word chemo means chemicals and therapy means treatment. The treatment of 1
a disease with the help of chemicals.
2. Define antibiotics. Give one example.

Ans.
An antibiotic is a substance produced by one microorganism that is toxic to other
micro-organisms.
+
Eg. Pencillin, Chloroamphenicol or any other example of antibiotics.
3. What are cationic detergents? Give an example.

Ans.
Cationic detergents are acetates, chlorides or bromides of quaternary ammonium
salts. Cationic part possesses a long hydrocarbon chain and positive charge. +
E.g. Cetylmethyl ammonium bromide
4. Why are paracetamol preferred over aspirin?

Ans.
Aspirin gets hydrolysed to salicylic acid in the stomach which may cause ulcers and 1
bleeding in stomach. Paracetamol do not cause any harm.
5. What are the main constituents of dettol?

Ans. +
Chloroxylenol and Terpineol.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
6. Differentiate between disinfectant and an antiseptic. Give one example of the
substance which can act as disinfectant as well as antiseptic.

Ans.
Antiseptics do not harm living tissues whereas disinfectant harms living tissues . 1
0.2% solution of phenol is antiseptic while its 1% solution is disinfectant 1
7. Name the macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets.(any four)

Ans. +
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, Nucleic acids +
8. Define each of the following with example. (i) Antipyretics (ii) Ant fertility drugs

Ans.
(i) Antipyretics are the chemical substances which are used to lower the +
temperature of the body in high fever. E.g. Aspirin, Paracetamol

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(ii) Antifertility drugs are those which are used to control birth rate. +
E.g. Norethindrone, novestrol etc.
9. What are biodegradable detergents? Give one example .

Ans.
Biodegradable detergents: Detergents, having straight hydrocarbon chains are 1
easily degraded or decomposed by micro-organisms. 1
Eg: Sodium Lauryl sulphate

10. What is the advantage of using antihistamines over antacids in the treatment of
acidity?

Ans.
Antacids work by neutralizing the acid produced in the stomach but dont control
the excess production of acid. Antihistamines are the drug that suppresses the 1
action of histamine which is chemically responsible for the stimulation of secretion
of HCl in the stomach.

They influence and prevent the binding of histamine with the receptors present in
the stomach walls resulting in lower acid production and therefore provides better 1
treatment.
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
11. Define the following in terms of their functions:
a) Enzymes b)anionic detergents c) food preservatives.

Ans.
a) the proteins which perform role of biological catalyst in the body. 1
b) these are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. Eg
1
sodium lauryl sulphate. 1
c) the chemical substances which are used to protect food against bacteria , yeast
and moulds.
12. Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways?

Ans.
We need to classify drugs in different ways:

(i) to provide doctors the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a
1
particular type of disease.
(ii) to provide medicinal chemists a range of drugs those act on a particular and 1
molecular target.
(iii) to provide drugs which share common structural features and similar 1
pharmacological activities.
(iv) to provide drugs for inhibition of disorders in a particular biological process.
(Any three from above)

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TYPOLOGY : UNDERSTANDING

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
13. Why is it safer to use soap from the environmental point of view?

Ans.
Soaps are biodegradable. 1
14. What problem arises in using alitame as artificial sweetener?

Ans.
Its sweetness cannot be controlled. 1
15. Why do we require artificial sweetening agents?

Ans.
To control calorie intake and as a substitute of sugar for diabetics. 1
16. Why detergents are known as soapless soaps?

Ans.
Synthetic detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps, 1
but actually dont contain any soap. That is why these are called soapless soaps.
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
17. List two major classes of antibiotics with an example of each class.

Ans.
Bacteriocidal antibiotics: Antibiotics which kill the organism in the body. E.g.
+
Pencillin, Ofloxacin etc.
Bacteriostatic antibiotics: Antibiotics which inhibit or arrest the growth of the
+
organism. E.g. Tetracyclin, Chloramphenicol etc.
18. Explain the role of allosteric site in enzyme inhibition?

Ans.
Drugs can bind to different sites of enzyme called allosteric sites. 1
It changes the shape of active site of enzyme such that substrate cant recognize it
and E-S complex is not formed and enzyme action is inhibited. 1

19. Why are cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids than sodium hydrogen
carbonates, magnesium or aluminium hydroxides?

Ans.
Antacids like sodium hydrogen carbonates, magnesium or aluminium hydroxides
neutralize the excess acid produced in stomach but their excess use causes
production of excess of HCl in the stomach which is harmful and may results in
ulcers.
Cimetidine and ranitidine work without such side effects as they prevent the
interaction of histamines with receptors of stomach wall as histamines stimulates
the secretion of the acid.

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THREE MARK QUESTIONS
20. How are synthetic detergents better than soaps?(any three points).

Ans.
(i) Synthetic detergents can be used even in acidic solutions. 1
(ii) They can be used even in hard water. 1
(iii) They have stronger cleansing action than soaps. 1
21. What are analgesic medicines? Give examples. How are they classified and when are
they recommended for use?

Ans.
Analgesics: The chemical substances which are used to relieve pain. 1
They are of two types: +
(i) Narcotics (ii) Non-narcotics
Non-narcotic drugs are effective in relieving skeletal pain, preventing heart attack,
viral inflammation, etc.
Narcotic drugs are recommended for the relief in postoperative pain, cardiac pain
and terminal cancer.
TYPOLOGY : APPLICATION

Q.NO. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS VALUE


POINTS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
22. Where are receptors located?

Ans.
Receptors are embedded in the cell membranes. 1
23. Which class of drugs used in sleeping pills?

Ans.
Tranquilizers. 1
TWO MARK QUESTIONS
24. State the reason in each of the following:
a) soaps do not work well in hard water.
b) aspartame is not suitable for high temperature.

Ans.
a) due to presence of Ca2+ & Mg2+ions in hard water that result in scum formation
1
with soap.
1
b) it gets decomposed at high temperature.
25. To which class of drugs does Salvarsan belong and for what disease it is used?

Ans.
a) Salvarsan is an antimicrobial agent. 1
b) It is used for the treatment of syphilis. 1

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26. Why the medicines should not be taken without consulting doctors?

Ans.
Medicines should not be taken without consulting doctors because:
(i) Improper medicine may cause severe side effects. 1
(ii) Overdoses of medicines may act as poisons. 1
THREE MARK QUESTIONS
27. a) Differentiate between broad spectrum antibiotics and narrow spectrum
antibiotics?
b) Which forces are involved in holding the drugs to the active site of enzymes.

Ans.
a)Broad spectrum: which kill or inhibit a wide range of gram positive and gram
1
negativebacteria.eg: Chloramphenicol
Narrow spectrum antibiotics: which are effective against gram positive or gram 1
negative bacteria. Eg: Penicillin G
b) Ionic bonding, hydrogen bonding, dipole- dipole and vander waals forces. 1
28. Mention one use of following drugs
a) bromopheniramine
b) tincture of iodine
c) streptomycin

Ans.
a) antihistamine 1
b) antiseptics 1
c) antibiotics 1

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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
SOLID STATE

1. A compound formed by elements X and Y crystallizes in a cubic structure in which


atoms X are at the centers of the cube and atoms Y are at the face centers. The
formula of the compound is: a) X3Y b) XY c) XY2 d) XY3
2. How many unit cells are present in a cube shaped ideal crystal of NaCl of mass 1.0 g?
a) 5.141021 b) 1.28 1021 c) 1.711021 d) 2.571021
3. A compound formed by elements A and B crystallizes in the cubic structure where A
atoms are at the corners of the cube and B atoms are at the face centers. The
formulae of the compound is:
a)AB3 b) AB c) A3B d) A2B2.
4. When molten zinc is cooled to solid state, it assumes hcp structure. Then the
number of nearest neighbors of zinc atom will be:
a) 4 b) 6 c) 8 d) 12.
5. Schottky defect in crystals is observed when:
a) unequal number of cations and anions are missing from the lattice
b) equal number of cations and anions are missing from the lattice
c) an ion leaves its normal site and occupies interstitial site
d) density of the crystal is increased.
6. The interparticle forces in solid hydrogen are:
a) Van der Waals forces b) Covalent bonds
c) hydrogen bonds d) Coordinate bonds.
7. Which one has highest melting point:
a) ionic crystal b) molecular crystal
c) covalent crystal d) Metallic crystal.
8. The normal spinel structure is adopted by:
a) CsCl b) MgAl2O4 c) FeO d) Fe3O4.
-2
9. In the zinc blende structure (ZnS), S adopt ccp arrangement andZn2+ occupy :
a) octahedral sites b) tetrahedral sites
c) alternate tetrahedral sites d) both octahedral and tetrahedral sites.
10. Some polar crystals produce small electric current on heating. This phenomenon is
called:
a) Piezo electricity b) pyro electricity
c) ferro electricity d) anti ferroelectricity.
11. An example of ferroelectric is:
a) Quartz b) Barium titanate
c) Tourmaline d) lead zirconate.
12. If the radius of an octahedral void is r and the radius of atom in close packing is R,
then the relation between r and R is:
a) R=0.414r b) r=0.732 R
c) r=0.414R d) r= 0.532 R
13. In a solidAB having NaCl structure, A atoms occupy the corners of the cubic unit
cell. If all the face centred atoms along one of the axes are removed, then the
resultant stoichiometery of the solid is:
a) AB2 b) A2B c) A4B3 d) A3B4.

SOLUTION

1. A mixture of 9.8 g H2SO4 & 500mL of 1/2M H3PO3 was neutralized by x% NaOH solution. The
value of x is:
a) 7 b) 14 c) 21 d) 28.
2. 2 litres of NH3 at 30C and 0.9 atmospheric pressure neutralized 134 mL of a solution of
sulphuric acid, the normality of acid is:
a) 0.27N b) 0.54N c) 0.81N d) 1.08N.
3. A sample of Na2CO3.H2O weighing 0.62 gm is added to 100mL of 0.1 N H2SO4. The resulting
solution is :
a) Neutral b) Basic c) Acidic d) Amphoteric.
4. When a litre of 0.5 N HCl solution was heated, 2.675 gm of HCl was lost and volume of the
solution left was 750mL. The normality of resultant solution is:
a) 0.269 N b) 0.369N c) 0.469N d) 0.569 N.
5. What volume of 0.05 M KMnO4 solution will be required to oxidize 1.52 gm of FeSO4 in
dilute acid solution?:
a) 50mL b) 40mL c) 30mL d) 25mL.
3
6. A 5cm solution of H2O2 liberated 0.508 gm of I2 from an acidified KI solution. The volume
strength of H2O2 solution at STP is:
a) 1.48 volume b) 2.48 volume c) 4.48 volume d) 5.48 volume.
7. 20mL of a solution of ferrous salt is required 18.4 mL of a deci normal solution of potassium
dichromate for complete oxidation. What is % of Fe in the solution:
a) 0.5152% b) 0.2576% c) 5.152% d) 2.567%.
8. What volume of 0.5M-K2Cr2O7 solution will be required to oxidize 20mL of 22.4 volume
sample of H2O2?:
a) 13.34 mL b) 32mL c) 16mL d) 26.67mL.

9. The commercial 22.4 volume H2O2 sample is a solution with a strength of:
a) 3.8% b) 6.8% c) 10.8% d) 22.4%.
10. The volume of 0.1 M CuSO4 solution required by 100 mL of 0.1N BaCl2 solution for the
complete precipitation of BaSO4 is :
a) 25mL b) 50 mL c) 75 mL d) 100 mL.

11. Increase in boiling point of aqueous solution of urea is 0.1K. The increase in the
boiling point of aqueous solution of NaCl of same concentration is nearly:
a) 0.3 K b) 0.2K c) 0.1K d) 0.05K.
12. Which of the following have same value of vant hoffs factor (i) as that of Al2(SO4)3:
a) Na2S2O3 b) K4[FeCN)6] c) Na2SO4 d) Al(NO3)3.
13. A deci normal solution of potassium ferrocyanide is 50% dissociated at 300K.
Osmotic pressure of the solution is:
a) 0.0738 atm b) 0.738 atm c) 7.38 atm d) 73.8 atm.
14. Freezing point of a 3% aqueous solution of A is equal to the freezing point of 9%
aqueous solution of B. If M.wt of A is 60, then M.wt of B is:
a) 45 b) 60 c) 90 d) 180.
15. Osmosis results from :
a) increase in entropy in semipermeable membrane
b) decrease in entropy in less diluted solution
c) decrease in entropy of more diluted solution
d) decrease in internal energy of less diluted solution.

CHEMICAL KINETICS
1. The rate constant for AB is 0.610-3 Ms-1. The concentration of B after 20 minutes
is which of the following if [A} = 5 M:
a) 0.72M b) 7.2M c) 0.36M d) 3.6M.
2. The rate of a first order reaction is 0.04 mol 1 s at 10 sec and 0.03 mol1-1 s-1 at
-1 -1

20 seconds, after initiation of reaction. The half life period of the reaction is:
a) 24.1sec b) 34.1 sec c) 44.1 sec d) 54.1 sec.
3. If the half life of a first order reaction is 50 minutes. How long will it take for the
concentration of the reactant to reach at 25% of its initial concentration?:
a) 200 minute b) 150 minute c) 100 minute d) 125
minute.
4. If T1/2 and T3/4 for a reactions are 100 & 150 minutes respectively. The order of
reaction is: a) 2 b) 0 c) 1 d) -1.
-4 -1
5. Rate constant for A(g) 2B (g) reaction is 2.4810 s . The time required for [B]/[A]
=1 is:a) 7.25 min b) 17.25 min c) 27.25 min d)
54.25 min.
6. Half-life period for thermal decomposition of a gas at 750mm of initial pressure is
105 minutes. If at 250 mm of initial pressure half-life is 945 minutes, the order of
reaction is: a) 3 b) 2 c) 1
d) 0.
7. What % fraction of number of molecules will cross over the enrgy barrier at 200K
for 36.84kJ activation energy if R = 8J mol-1K-1:
a) 5% b) 10% c) 15% d) 25%.
10
8. What weight of C-14 having half-life 5720 years will give 3.710 disintegration
parsec?:
a) 22.5 gm b) 2.25gm c) 0.225 gm d) 0.0225gm.
9. The ratio of Kp/Kc for CO(g) +1/2O2 CO2 (g) reaction is:
a) (RT)1/2 b) RT c) (RT)-1/2 d) 1.
10. In a reaction X+2Y 2Z, if 4 moles of X, 6 moles of Y and 4 moles of Z were taken in
a flask of 4 litre capacity and equilibrium concentration of Z was found to be 0.5M,
the value of equilibrium constant is:
a) 0.15 b) 0.1 c) 0.05 d) 0.025.

11. The rate of reaction between A & B increases by a factor of 1000 when
concentration of A is changed from 0.5 mol L-1 to 5 mol L-1. The order of reaction is
with respect to A is :
a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3.
-4
12. The velocity constant of a reaction at 280K is 1.610 . The velocity constant of the
same reaction at 300K is:
a) 1.610-4 b) 0.810-4 c) 6.4 10-4 d) 3.210-4.
13. The basic hydrolysis of ester is:
a) order is 2, molecularity is 1 b) order is 1, molecularity is 2
c) order is 2, molecularity is 2 d) order is 3, molecularity is 2.

14. There are two reactions X Products and Y Products have rate constants k1 and k2
temperature T and activation energies E1 & E2 respectively. If k1>k2 and E1<E2.
Assuming that the Arrhenius factor is same for both the temperatures, then:
a) on increasing the temperature, the increase in k2 will be greater than increase in
k1
b) on increasing the temperature, the increase in k1 will be greater than increase in
k2
c) At lower temperature k1 will be closer to k2
d) At lower temperature, k1<k2.
15. For the reaction AB with activation energy Eq and rate constant k = Ae-Ea/RT . The
rate of reaction rate = k[A] increases by increasing temperature because:
a) Activation energy decreases with increase in temperature
b) the factor-Ea/RT factor decreases
c) less number of collisions take place
d) the value of [A] increases.

ELECTROCHEMISTRY
1. In a reaction 4 moles of HNO3 accept 12 moles electron from a reducing agent. The
nitrogeneous reduction product of HNO3 is:
a) N2 gas b) NO2 gas c) NH3 gas d) NO gas.

2. Oxidation number of S,C and N atom in Fe(SCN)3 are respectively:


a) 0, +4, -3 b) +2, +4, -3 c) 0, +2, -3 d) +2, +2, -3.

3. Oxidation number of Cr in CrO5 and in Cr2O72- are respectively:


a) +10, +6 b) +10, +12 c) +6, +6 d) +6, +12.

4. A compound Y is formed due to loss of 10 moles of electrons from 1 mole of N2H4. If Y


contains same number of atom of N as N2H4, the oxidation number of N in Y is:
a) -1 b) -3 c) +10 d) +3.
5.
6. Oxidation number of C in which of the following compounds is not zero:
a) Fe(SCN)2 b) CH2Cl2 c) C6H12O6 d) HCHO

7. When certain equivalents of N2H4 is oxidized to N2 gas by 30 mL of 1 M K3[Fe(CN)6]


which is reduced to K4[Fe(CN)6], the millimoles of N2H4 required for complete
reaction is:
a) 15 b) 22 c) 7.5 d) 30.

8. In electrolysis of dil H2SO4 using pt. electrode the anodic and cathodic products
respectively are:
a) O2, SO2 b) H2, SO2 c) O2, H2 d) SO2, H2.

9. Bromine can be liberated from potassium bromide solution by the action of:
a) sodium chloride b) potassium iodide c) Chlorine solution d) Iodine solution.
10. How long 2 amperes of current should be supplied to produce 144000 coulomb of
electricity:
a) 2 hr b) 20hr c) 30 hr d) 40hr.
11. CuSO4 solution was electrolyzed with Pt-electrodes. After decolourisation of the
solution electrolysis was stopped. The colourless solution contains:
a) Pt(OH)2 b) CuO c) PtSO4 d) H2SO4.

12. A current of 2.0 ampere passed for 5 hrs through molten salt deposits 22.2 gm of
metal (at.wt = 177). The oxidation number of metal in the meal salt is:
a) +4 b) +3 c) +2 d) +1 .

13. Equal amount of electricity is passed through two electrolytic cells connected in
series and containing AgNO3 and CuSO4 solutions. If 10.8 gm Ag is deposited, then
volume of gas liberated at anode in electrolytic cell containing CuSO4 is:
a) 1120 mL at STP b) 224 mL at STP c) 336 mL at STP d) 560 mL at STP

14. The standard electrode potential of Cu/Cu2+ electrode is -0.34 volt. The
concentration of Cu2+ at which this electrode potential be zero is:
a) 1.12 10-12 M b) 3.1210-12 M c) 1.12 10-12 M d)3.1210-12 M.

15. E Cu2+/Cu = 0.34V. Calculate E Cu2+ /Cu at pH = 14 it Ksp[Cu(OH)2] = 110-19 ;


a) -0.11V b) +0.11V c) +0.22 V d) -0.22V .

16. The pressure of H2 required to make the potential of H2 electrode zero in pure water
at 298K is:
a) 10-4 atm b) 10-10 atm c) 10-12 atm d) 10-14atm.

17. pH of the solution in Pt, H2/H2SO4 half cell is which of the following at 298K if its
oxidation potential is +0.3V?:
a) 5.85 b) 3.085 c) 5.085 d) 3.85.

18. A cell Ag/Ag+// Cu2+/Cu initially contains 1M Ag+ and 1M Cu2+ ions. After passage of
9.65 amperes of current for 1 hour, the change in emf of the cell is:
a) 0.01V b) 0.02V c) 0.03V d) 0.004V.

19. E for a lead storage battery is 2.01 V. How much energy is available is 0.2 mole of Pb
is consumed on assuming 5M H2SO4 remains constant:
a) 41.865 kJ b) 83.731 kJ c) 125.596 kJ d) 10.466 kJ.
20. A cell consisting of two hydrogen electrodes has emf 0.118 V at 298K. If negative
electrodes is in contact with 10-6 M[H+], the pH of solution in positive electrode is:
a) 4 b) 2 c) 8 d) 10.

21. PbO2 PbO, E = +Ve and SnO2 SnO, E = -ve. The most probable oxidation
states of Pb and Sn will be:
a) Pb2+ & Sn4+ b) Pb2+ & Sn2+ c) Pb4+ & Sn2+ d) Pb4+ & Sn4+ .

22. The equivalent conductivity of 1M H2SO4 solution having conductivity 2610-2


ohm-1 cm-1 is :

a) 13.0 ohm-1cm2 eq-1 b) 130 ohm-1cm2 eq-1


c) 4.90 ohm-1cm2 eq-1 d) 49.00 ohm-1cm2 eq-1 .

23. The conductivity of N/10 KCl solution at 20C is 2.1210-2 ohm-1 cm-1 and resistance
of this cell is 55 ohm at 20C. The cell constant containing this solution is:

a) 4.616 cm-1 b) 3.324 cm-1 c) 2.173 cm-1 d) 1.166 cm-1 .

24. Ionic mobility of an ion:


a) increases with hydration b) decreases with hydration
c) increases with hydration energy d) decreases with hydration energy.

25. The minimum equivalent conductance in fused state is shown by:


a) MgCl2 b) BeCl2 c) CaCl2 d) SrCl2.

26. The equivalent conductivity of 0.1M weak acid is 100 times less than that at infinite
dilution. The degree of dissociation of weak electrolyte at 0.1M is:
a) 100 b) 10 c) 0.01 d) 0.001.

27. The em.f of a cell is 0.265 at 25C and 0.25958 at 35C is :


a) -41.4kJ b) -82.8kJ c) -124.2kJ d) -165.6kJ.

SURFACE CHEMISTRY
1. The colloidal system in which the disperse phase and dispersion medium are both
liquids is known as :
a) a gel b) an aerosol c) an emulsion d) a foam.
2. The presence of electric charge on the colloidal particle is indicated by the
experiment: a) Osmosis b) electrolysis c) dialysis d) electrophoresis.
3.
4. The process of separation of colloids by passing through semi-permeable membrane
is called :
a) Filtration b) Electrophoresis c) Dialysis d) Ultrafiltration.

5. The size of colloidal particles is in the range of ;


a) 0.1-1nm b) 1nm-100nm c) 100nm-1000nm d) 1000-10000nm.

6. An example of micelle is:


a) Sodium stearate b) Gold sol c) Solution of NaCl d) Ruby glass.

7. The average molecular mass of colloidal particles can be accurately determined by:
a) Measurement of osmotic pressure b) Tyndall effect
c) Brownian movement d) Flocculation movement.

8. Colloidal particles exhibit Tyndall effect due to :


a) polarization of light b) scattering of light
c) relflection of light d) refraction of light.

9. Cheese is a colloidal solution of :


a) gas in liquid b) liquid in solid
c) gas in solid d) solid in gas.

10. Which of the following will be most effective in coagulation of gold sol?:
a) NaNO3 b) K4[Fe(CN)6] c) Na3PO4 d) MgCl2.

11. Which of the following is adsorbed by charcoal to maximum extent?:


a)N2 b) CO2 c) Cl2 d) O2.

12. Which type of property is the Brownian movement of colloidal sol?:


a) Electrical b) optical c) mechanical d) colligative.
13. For adsorption of a gas on a solid, the plot of log x/m vs log P is linear with a slope
equal to ( n being a whole number):
a) k b) log k c) n d) 1/n.
More than one correct answer
14. Which of the following are positively charged sols?:
a) Fe(OH)3 b) TiO2 c) Sb2S3 d) silver sol

15. In which of the following liquid is dispersed in gas medium?:


a) foam rubber b) mist c) gold sol d) insecticide spray.

16. The lyophobic colloids are :


a) starch sol b) As2S2 sol c) Fe(OH)3 sol d) gelation sol.

17. Which of the following statements are true about lyophilc and lyophobic colloids?:
a) Lyophobic sols donot show Tyndall effect
b) the viscosity of lyophobic sol is nearly the same as that of dispersion medium
c) lyophilic sols are unstable
d) lyophobic sols are formed by direct mixing.

18. The macromolecular colloids :


a) consists of aggregates of atom or molecules which generally have diameter less
than 1nm
b) have usually lyophobic character
c) have molecules which are flexible and can take any shape
d) have molecules containing both lyophilic and lyophobic groups.

19. Rate of physical adsorption increases with :


a) decrease in temperature
b) decrease in pressure
c) increase in temperature
d) decrease in surface area.

PASSAGE: The particles of colloidal solution possess electrical charge which are
responsible for the stability of these solutions. The charge on colloidal particles arises
because of selective adsorption of ions which are common with their own lattice. The
presence of charge on colloidal particles can be determined with the help of a
phenomenon known as electrophoresis. However, when electrolyte is added, the charge
on the particles of dispersed phase gets neutralized and preicipitation takes place. This
process is also called coagulation. The coagulation is given by Hardy Schulze rules.
According to these rules the ions carrying the charge opposite to that of sol particles are
effective and coagulating power of an electrolyte is directly proportional to the fourth
power of the valency of the ion. Coagulation can also occur by mutual precipitation, by
electrophoresis, by persistent dialysis or by heating or cooling.

Answer the following questions:


20. The charge of colloidal particles can be determined by the phenomenon:
a) electrodialysis b) electrophoresis c) Bredigs arc method d) electro-osmosis
21.
22. The flocculation values of NaCl and AlCl3 are 51 and 0.093 millimoles/litre for arsenic
sulphide sol. This means that :
a) AlCl3 has 51 times more coagulating power than NaCl
b) NaCl has 548 times more coagulating power than AlCl3
c) AlCl3 has 548 times more coagulating power than NaCl
d) The ratio of coagulating power of AlCl3: NaCl is 51: 0.093

23. Which of the following electrolyte is most effective for coagulating Fe(OH)3 sol?:
a) K3[Fe(CN)6] b) Na2C2O4 c) K2SO4 d) KCl.

24. The stability of colloidal solution is due to :


a) size of colloidal particles b) charge of colloidal particles
c) movement of colloidal particles under applied electric field
d) tendency to show Tyndall effect.

25. Which of the following electrolyte requires maximum concentration to cause


coagulation of As2S3 sol?
a) AlCl3 b) MgSO4 c) K3[Fe(CN)6] d) KCl.
ALCOHOL, PHENOL & GLYCOL
1. The product formed when p-chloro
benzoic acid is treated with NaOH 5. When salicyclic acid is heated with
followed by decarboxylation by bromine water, then the product
sodalime is : formed is:
Cl OH

a)
COOH
Br
a)
OH

b)
OH

c) Br Br
b)
COOH

d) Br

2. Phenol can be prepared from C6H5Br: OH


a) Reaction with NaOH at room COOH
c)
temperature
b) Treatment with Mg, followed by
reaction with O2 & hydrolysis Br
c) Treatment with Mg followed by OH
hydrolysis Br COOH
d) All of these. d)
3. Which of the following will give p-cresol p
as major product: 6. Which of following reactions are
OH correct?:
a) R-OH + Na2CO3 RONa + H2CO3
a) AlCl 3 (anhydrous) b) ROH + NaOH RONa + H2O
+ CH 3Cl
c) PhOH + NaOH PhONa + H2O
OH d) ROH + NaHCO3 RONa + H2CO3
7. Which of the following on reaction with
+ CH 3OH ZnCl2
Br2 water will not give 2,4,6 tribromo
b)
(anhydrous) phenol?
c) a) & b) both are correct a) Phenol
d) None of these b) 4-hydroxy benzene sulphonic
acid
4. Phenol reacts with PCl5 to give . c) salicyclic acid
As major product: d) None of these
a) Chlorobenzene 8. The acidic strength of methoxy phenols
b) Triphenyl phosphate is
c) No reaction takes place a) m> Phenol>p>o
d) Both a) & b). b) m>Phenol>o>p
c) p>o>phenol>m
d) p>o>m>phenol 15. When ketones are treated with Grignard
9. Which of the following will not give reagent followed by hydrolysis with dilute acid,
benzene? the product is:
a) Phenol + Zn dust
Heat a) Primary alcohol
b) Phenol+ 3H2 Ni
'X'
HI Pt
'Y' 'Z' b) Secondary alcohol
red P
c) Phenol + H2
MoO3 770 K c) Tertiary alcohol
Heat d) all the three.
d) Phenol + Benzene diazonium chloride?
16. Treatment of ethyl alcohol with conc. H2SO4 at
10. Which of the following reactions are not 443 K gives:
given by phenol?: a) Diethyl ether
a) Riemer Tiemann reaction b) ethylene
b) Kolbes reaction c) ethyl hydrogen sulphate
c) Schotten Baumann reaction d) Acetic acid.
d) Wurtz reaction 17. The treatment of sodium phenoxide with CO2
11. Which of the following reactions are at 400K and 4-7 atmosphere pressure followed
phthalein reactions?: by acidification of the reaction product gives
Conc H 2SO4
a) Phenol + Phthalic anhydride Phenolphthalein a) salicyaldehyde
b) salicyclic acid
K S O c) cumene
b) Phenol 2 2 8 Quniol
d) benzaldehyde.
AlCl3 18. On distilling with zinc dust, phenol gives
c) Phenol + HCN + HCl Salicylaldehyde a) benaldehyde
b) benzoic acid
d) all c) benzophenone
12. Which of the following is used as d) benzene.
medicines obtained from phenol? 19. Which enzyme decomposes glucose into
a) Aspirin ethanol & CO2?
b) Methyl salicylate a) diastase
c) Phenyl salicylate b) maltase
d) All c) invertase
13. The acidic strength of phenols when d) Zymase.
substituted with NH2 group is: 20. Tertiary alcohols on treating with copper at
a) p>o>m>phenol 575K give:
b) m> Phenol>p>o a) Aldehydes
c) phenol >m>o> p b) ketones
d) m>Phenol>o>p c) ethers
d) alkenes.
14. Ethylethanoate on reduction with LiAlH4
gives: 21. In Lucas test, a primary alcohol gives
a) Butanol a) turbidity readily
b) Ethanol b) a turbidity slowly
c) Ethanoic acid, ethanol c) turbidity very slowly
d) Ethanol, propanol d) a turbidity on heating.
22. The compound which reacts fastest wth Lucas c) 4
reagent at room temperature is:L d) 5.
a) 2-Methylpropan-2-ol 30. Which of the following is soluble in water?
b) 2-Methylpropan-1-ol a) CHCl3
c) Butan-2-ol b) CS2
d) Butan-1-ol. c) C2H5OH
23. Ethylene glycol on oxidation with periodic acid d) CCl4.
gives: 31. Phenol can be industrially prepared from
a) glycollic acid cumene. It is:
b) glycol a) Isoprophl benzene
c) Oxalic acid b) ) o-Dimethylbenzene
d) Formaldehyde. c) Phenyl acetate
24. Phenol can be distinguished from alcohols with d) 2-Acetoxybenzoic acid.
a) Schiffs base 32. Which of the following compounds is obtained
b) Tollens reagent by the reaction of phenol and benzene
c) FeCl3 diazonium chloride?
d) lime water. a) azobenzene
25. Chlorobenzene can be converted to phenol by b) aniline
heating it with caustic soda under the c) Chlorobenzene
pressure. This is known as : d) p-Hydroxyazobenzene.
a) Dows process 33. Bakelite is formed when phenol condenses
b) Kolbes process with
c) ) Fittig reaction a) acetaldehyde
d) Reimer Tiemann reaction. b) formaldehyde
26. Which of the following is most acidic? c) ) benzaldehyde
a) Phenol d) ethanol.
b) m-cresol 34. Which of the following is the most viscous
c) o-cresol liquid?
d) o-nitrophenol. a) Ethyl alcohol
27. Tonics in general contain b) Glycerol
a) Methanol c) Ethylene glycol
b) Ethanol d) water.
c) Ether 35. Glycerol on strongly heating with oxalic acid at
d) Reactified spirit. 503K gives
28. Primary, secondary & tertiary alcohols can be a) Allyl alcohol
distinguished by: b) Glyceraldehyde
a) Fehling solution test c) Meso-oxalic acid
b) Hinseberg reagent test d) Acrolein.
c) Dye test 36. Glycerol is commercially prepared from
d) Victor Mayers test. a) Cumene
29. The total number of isomers of the molecular b) 1,3-Butadiene
formula C3H8O is: c) Propylene
a) 2 d) Propanoic acid.
b) 3
37. When glycerol is heated with excess of HI, it b) presence of bad smelling compound in
forms: liquor
a) isopropyl iodide c) presence of ethyl alcohol
b) glycerol tri-iodide d) presence of traces of water.
c) propylene 44. Which of the following gives characteristic
d) n-propyl iodide. deep colour with FeCl3:
38. Fentons reagent is: a) Acetone
a) FeSO4 + H2O2 b) Acetic acid
b) ZnCl2 + conc.HCl c) Ethanol
c) Anhyd.AlCl3 d) Phenol.
d) CuSO4 & potassium tartrate. 45. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is found in:
39. Pyrogallol is: a) o-bromophenol
a) 1,2-Dihydroxybenzene b) o-nitrophenol
b) Methoxy benzene c) m-nitrophenol
c) 2-Bromophenol d) p-nitrophenol.
d) 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene. 46. Which of the following does not react with
40. Carbolic acid is: metallic sodium?
COOH a) CH3CH(OH)CH3
b) CH3OCH3
c) CH3COOH
a)
OH d) CH3CH2OH.
NO2 47. Iodoform is formed when ethanol is heated
b) with
OH a) KI & NaOH
b) I2 + aq.KOH
c) c) CHCl3 & I2
COOH
OH d) I2 + KI.
48. Acetaldehyde reacts with CH3Mg Br and the
d) product on hydrolysis gives
41. Saponification means hydrolysis of an ester a) Acetone
with: b) ethyl alcohol
a) dil.H2SO4 c) n-propyl alcohol
b) dil. NaOH d) isopropyl alcohol.
c) enzymes 49. Phenol is converted into salicylaldehyde by:
d) soaps. a) Etard reaction
42. The compound known as oil of winter green is: b) Kolbe reaction
a) Phenyl salicylate c) Reimer-Tiemann reaction
b) Methyl salicylate d) Cannizzaro reaction.
c) Ethyl salicylate 50. Phenol is less acidic than:
d) Anisole. a) Ethanol
43. Widespread deaths due to liquor poisoning are b) Methanol
because of the : c) o-Nitrophenol
a) presence of methyl alcohol d) p-Methyl phenol
ANSWERS
20. d 39. d
1. b 21. d 40. c
2. b 22. a 41. d
3. c 23. d 42. b
4. c 24. c 43. a
5. b 25. a 44. d
6. c 26. d 45. b
7. b 27. b 46. b
8. a 28. d 47. b
9. d 29. b 48. d
10. d 30. c 49. c
11. a 31. a 50. c
12. d 32. d
13. c 33. b
14. b 34. b
15. c 35. d
16. b 36. c
17. b 37. a
18. d 38. a
19. d
ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
1. Silver mirror test is not given by
a) HCHO b) CH3CHO c) CH3COCH3 d) CH3CH2CHO
2. Acetone is obtained by the ozonolysis of
a) 1-butene b) 2-butene c) 2-butyne d) isobutene.
3. When calcium benzoate is distilled with calcium formate, the product is:
a) benzaldehyde b) benzophenone c) phenol d) benzoic acid.
4. The C-atom in carbonyl group involves:
a) sp-hybridisation b) sp2 hybridisation c) sp3 hybridisation d) none of these.
5. The reaction of CH3CH2MgBr with formaldehyde after acidification gives:
a) an aldehyde b) a primary alcohol c) a ketone d) secondary alcohol.
6. Acetaldehyde reacts with ethyl magnesium chloride to give a product which on hydrolysis gives:
a) Butan-1-ol b) 2-Methylpropan-2-ol c) Butan-2-ol d) Petan-1-ol.
7. The molecule that can give Cannizaros reaction is:
a) acetaldehyde b) butyraldehyde c) formaldehyde d) propionaldehyde.
8. Formaldehyde is obtained on a commercial scale by oxidation of:
a) methanol b) ethane c) acetylene d) ether.
9. Formalein is an aqueous solution of :
a) methyl formate b) formic acid c) formyl chloride d) Formaldehyde.
10. Ketones are formed by the oxidation of:

a) aldehydes b) primary alcohols c) secondary alcohols d) tertiary alcohols.


11. Which of the following gives positive Tollens test:
a) Acetaldehyde b) diethyl ether c) acetic acid d) acetone.
12. Acetaldehyde cyanohydrin on hydrolysis gives :
a) ethylene glycol b) acetone c) acetic acid d) hydroxypropionic acid.
13. Which of the following will not give haloform reaction?
a) Acetone b) 2-Pentanone c) 3- Pentanone d) 2-Butanone.
14. Benzaldehyde on reduction with NaBH4 gives:
a) benzoic acid b) phenol c) benzyl alcohol d) Acetaldehyde.
15. Paraldehyde is a:
a) dimer of acetaldehyde b) trimer of acetaldehyde
c) hexamer of acetaldehyde d) equimolar mixture of formaldehyde & acetaldehyde.
16. Paraldehyde is used in medicines as
a) antibiotic b) analgesic c) hypotonic d) disinfectant.
17. Three moles of acetone condense in the presence of dry HCl to form
a) phorone b) mesitylene c) trioxane d) paraldehyde.
18. Which of the following is most difficult to oxidise?
a) Ethanal b) Butanal c) Propanone d) Propanal.
19. Formaldehyde reacts with ammonia to give white percipitate of hexamethylene tetramine. It is also
called :
a) Urotropine b) Formose c) Trioxane d) Formalin.
20. With zinc amalgam and hydrochloric acid, carbonyl compounds are reduced to:
a) alcohols b) ethers c) alkanes d) acids.
21. When propyene is treated with aqueous H2SO4 in the presence of HgSO4 the major product is:
a) n-Propyl hydrogen sulphate b) Propnal c) Acetone d) Propanol.
22. Aldehydes having no -hydrogen atoms undergo:
a) Aldol condensation b) Cannizzaros reaction
c) Rosenmund reaction d) Schotten Bauhmann reaction.
23. Hydrogenation of benzoyl chloride in the presence of Pd & BaSO4 gives:
a) Benzyl alcohol b) Benzaldehyde c) Benzoic acid d) Phenol.
24. The alkene which on ozonolysis gives acetone is:
a) CH3CH=CH-CH3 b) CH2=CH2 c) (CH3)2 C=C (CH3)2 d) CH3-CH3CH=CH2.
25. Lindlars catalyst is:
a) Pd + BaSO4 b) Ni + BaSO4 c) Hg + BaSO4 d) Zn + HCl.
26. Which of the following is hypotonic?
a) Acetaldehyde b) Paraldehyde c) Metaldehyde d) Formaldehyde.
27. Formaldehyde solution on evapouration of dryness gives:
a) Trioxane b) Para formaldehyde c) Formalin d) CO & H2.
28. When acetaldehyde is treated with phenyl hydrazine, the medium should be:
a) highly basic b) highly acidic c) moderately acidic d) neutral.
29. Aldol condensation of acetaldehyde invloves the formation of which of the following
intermediates?
a) acetate ion b) a carbonium c) a carbanion d) a free radical.
30. If formaldehyde and KOH are heated, the product obtained is:
a) Acetylene b) Methanol c) Formic acid d) Methyl Formate.
31. Benzaldehyde can be prepared by the oxidation of toulene by :
a) acidified KMnO4 b) acidified K2Cr2O7 c) CrO2Cl2 d) all.
32. Acetal is formed by reacting alcohol in the presence of dry HCl with:
a) ether b) acetone c) acetaldehyde d) acetic acid.
33. Reduction of aldehydes with HI give:
a) Primary alcohols b) Secondary alcohols c) Alkanes d) Tertiary alcohols.
34. Reaction between diethyl cadium and acetyl chloride leads to the formation of :
a) dimethyl ketone b) ethylmethyl ketone c) diethyl ketone d) acetaldehyde.
35. What is the main reason for the fact that carboxylic acid can undergo ionization?
a) absence of -hydrogen b) resonance stabilization of the carboxylate ion
c) high reactivity of -hydrogen d) hydrogen bonding.
36. The reagent with which both acetaldehyde and acetone react easily is:
a) Tollens reagent b) Schiffs reagent c) Grignard reaction d) Fehling solution.
37. Formaldehyde reacts with ammonia to give:
a) hexamethylene tetramine b) formamide c) pyridine d) formalin.
38. The IUPAC name of diethyl ketone is:
a) Butanal b) 2- Pentanone c) 3-Pentanone d) 2-Butanone.
39. When two molecules of acetaldehyde condense in the presence of adilute alkali, it forms:
a) acetal b) trioxan c) mesitylene d) aldol.
40. The compound formed by reducing acetone with LiAlH4 is:
a) Propane b) n-Propyl alcohol c) Isopropyl alcohol d) Propylene.
41. Three moles of acetone condense in the presence of dry HCl to form:
a) phorone b) mesitylene c) trioxane d) paraldehyde.
42. In Clemmensens reduction of aldehydes and ketones, the reducing agent used is:
a) Zn(Hg), HCl b) HI, P c) LiAlH4 d) NaBH4.
43. Acetone on reduction with Zn(Hg), HCl gives:
a) Propane b) Acetaldehyde, carbon dioxide c) Acetic acid d) Ethyl alcohol.
44. Benzaldehyde reacts with ammonia to give:
a) Benzoic acid b) Benzamide c) Hydrobenzamide d) Urotropine.

***********************
Multiple Choice Questions

1. Rate law for the reaction A + 2B C is found to be Rate = k [A][B] Concentration of


reactant B is doubled, keeping the concentration of A constant, the value of rate
constant will be_____
(i) the same (ii) doubled (iii) quadrupled (iv) halved
2. A first order reaction is 50% completed in 1.26 1014 s. How much time would it
take for 100% completion?
(i) 1.26 1015 s (ii) 2.52 1014 s (iii) 2.52 1028 s (iv) infinite
3. The value of rate constant of a pseudo first order reaction ____________.
(i) depends on the concentration of reactants present in small amount.
(ii) depends on the concentration of reactants present in excess.
(iii) is independent of the concentration of reactants.
(iv) depends only on temperature.
4. Which of the following statements are applicable to a balanced chemical equation of
an elementary reaction?
(i) Order is same as molecularity.
(ii) Order is less than the molecularity.
(iii) Order is greater than the molecularity.
(iv) Molecularity can never be zero.
5. In any unimolecular reaction ______________.
(i) only one reacting species is involved in the rate determining step.
(ii) the order and the molecularity of slowest step are equal to one.
(iii) the molecularity of the reaction is one and order is zero.
(iv) both molecularity and order of the reaction are one.
6. At high pressure the following reaction is zero order. 2NH3 (g) 1130 K
Platinum catalyst N2(g) + 3H2 (g) Which of the following options are correct for this
reaction?
(i) Rate of reaction = Rate constant
(ii) Rate of the reaction depends on concentration of ammonia.
(iii) Rate of decomposition of ammonia will remain constant until ammonia
disappears completely.
(iv) Further increase in pressure will change the rate of reaction

ANSWERS Multiple Choice Questions 1. (ii) 2. (iv) 3. (ii) 4. (i), (iv) 5. (i), (ii) 6. (i), (iii), (iv)

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Q1 The role of catalyst in the reaction is to ------------------------ the rate of reaction

1- Increase 2- decrease 3- both 1 and 2 4- none of the above

Ans- (1) Catalyst increases the rate of reaction without participation in the reaction

Q2 During the enthalpy of adsorption the sign of free energy change is

1- negative 2- positive 3- both 1 and 2 4- none of the above

Ans- (1) - free energy change is a spontaneous process

Q3 During heat of adsorption enthalpy change is

1- positive 2- negative 3- both 1 and 2 4 none of the above

Ans- (2) during heat of adsorption heat is released so enthalpy change is negative

Q4 The cause of physical adsorption is

1- van der waals forces 2- chemical bond 3- both 1 and 2 4- none of the above

Ans (1) In physical adsorption bonds are weak

Q5 In the Habers process, molybdenum act as

1- catalyst 2- promoter 3- both 1 and 2 4 none of the above

Ans (2) promoter increases the activity of catalyst iron

Q6 Unimolecular layer is formed by

1- physical adsorption 2- chemical adsorption 3- both 1 and 2 4 none of the above

Ans (2) Chemical adsorption is irreversible process and specific in nature

Q7 During hydrogenation of oil the catalyst use is

1- nickel 2- platinum 3- palladium 4- none of the above

Ans- (1) the catalytic activity of nickel is highest

Q8 Biochemical catalyst are

1- enzyme 2- nucleic acid 3- carbohydrates 4- none of the above

Ans- (1) enzymes are the complex nitrogenous organic compound found in living plants and
animals which increase the biological activity

Q9 Nature of physical adsorption is

1- reversible 2- irreversible 3- both 1 and 2 4- none of the above

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Ans- (1) Because physical adsorption is not specific in nature

Q10 Sorption is used to describe


1- adsorption 2- absorption 3- both 1 and 2 4- none of the above
Ans- (3) Bulk phenomena and surface phenomena are used by term sorption

Assertion and Reason Type

Note: In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason


is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(i) Both assertion and reason are correct and the reason is correct explanation of
assertion.
(ii) Both assertion and reason are correct but reason does not explain assertion.
(iii) Assertion is correct but reason is incorrect..
(iv) Both assertion and reason are incorrect.
(v) Assertion is incorrect but reason is correct.
1. Assertion : Order of the reaction can be zero or fractional.
Reason : We cannot determine order from balanced chemical equation.
2. Assertion : Order and molecularity are same.
Reason : Order is determined experimentally and molecularity is the sum of the
stoichiometric coefficient of rate determining elementary step.
3. Assertion : The enthalpy of reaction remains constant in the presence of a catalyst.
Reason : A catalyst participating in the reaction, forms different activated complex and
lowers down the activation energy but the difference in energy of reactant and product
remains the same.
4. Assertion : All collision of reactant molecules lead to product formation.
Reason : Only those collisions in which molecules have correct orientation and sufficient
kinetic energy lead to compound formation.
5. Assertion : Rate constants determined from Arrhenius equation are fairly accurate for
simple as well as complex molecules.
Reason : Reactant molecules undergo chemical change irrespective of their orientation
during collision.

ANSWERS.
V. Assertion and Reason Type 1. (ii) 2. (v) 3. (i) 4. (v) 5. (iii)

Questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the


correct answer out of the following choices.
(i) Both assertion and reason are wrong.
(ii) Both assertion and reason are correct statements but reason is not correct explanation
of assertion.
(iii) Assertion is correct statement but reason is wrong statement.
(iv) Both assertion and reason are correct statements and reason is correct explanation of

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assertion.
(v) Assertion is wrong statement but reason is correct statement.
1. Assertion : Acylation of amines gives a monosubstituted product whereas alkylation
of amines gives polysubstituted product.
Reason : Acyl group sterically hinders the approach of further acyl groups.
2. Assertion : Hoffmanns bromamide reaction is given by primary amines.
Reason : Primary amines are more basic than secondary amines.
3. Assertion : N-Ethylbenzenesulphonamide is soluble in alkali.
Reason : Hydrogen attached to nitrogen in sulphonamide is strongly acidic.
4. Assertion : N, N-Diethylbenzenesulphonamide is insoluble in alkali.
Reason :Sulphonyl group attached to nitrogen atom is strong electron withdrawing
group.
5. Assertion : Only a small amount of HCl is required in the reduction of nitro
compounds with iron scrap and HCl in the presence of steam.
Reason : FeCl2 formed gets hydrolysed to release HCl during the reaction.
6. Assertion : Aromatic 1 amines can be prepared by Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis.
Reason : Aryl halides undergo nucleophilic substitution with anion formed by
phthalimide.
7. Assertion : Acetanilide is less basic than aniline.
Reason : Acetylation of aniline results in decrease of electron density on nitrogen.
Answers
1 iii 2 iii 3 iv 4 ii
5 iv 6 1 7 iv

Multiple Choice Questions

1-What is the role of Zinc metal in the extraction of Silver.

(i) As oxidising agent (ii) As Reducing agent (iii) Both of them (iv) None of them

1-Ans.(ii)

2-Name the method that is used for the refining of Nickel

(i)Monds Process (ii) Electrolytic Refining (iii) Zone Refining (iv) All of them

2-Ans.(i)

3-Which reducing agent is employed to get copper from leached low grade copper ore.

(i)N2(ii) H2(iii) Coke (iv) CO

3-Ans.(ii)

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4-Name the depressant which is used to separate ZnS and PbS ores in froth flotation
process.

(i) NaCN (ii)NaOH (iii) NaCl (iv) KCl

4-Ans.(i)

5-Silica is used as a flux in the extraction of Metals which is an example of

(i)Basic (ii) Neutral (iii) Acidic(iv) Amphoteric

5-Ans.(iii)

6- What name is given to Carbon Reduction process for extracting the metal.

(i)Roasting (ii) Calcination (iii) Electrolytic (iv) Smelting

6-Ans.(iv)

7-Which process is generally used for the concentration of sulphide ores

(i)Hydraulic Washing (ii) Magnetic Separation (iii) Froth Flotation (iv) Distillation

7-Ans.(iii)

8-Which metal is obtained by reacting the ore with dilute cyanide solution.

(i)Gold (ii) Silver (iii) Iron (iv) Gold

8-Ans.(ii)

9-Which one of the purest form of commercial iron

(i)Pig Iron (ii) Steel (iii) Wrought Iron (iv) None of them

9-Ans.(iii)

10-Name the process by which an ore of tin containing FeCrO4 is concentrated.

(i)Magnetic Separation (ii) Liquation (iii) Froth Flotatio (iv) Leaching

10-Ans.(i)

Multiple Choice Question

Q.1 Which of the following elements does not show allotropy ?

(a) Nitrogen (b) Bismuth

(c) Antimony (d) Arsenic

Q.2 On heating ammoniun dichromate and barium azide separately we get

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(a) N2 in both cases

(b) N2 with ammonium dichromate and NO with barium azide.

(c) N2O with ammonium dichromate and N2 with barium azide.

(d) N2O with ammonium dichromate and NO2 with barium azide.

Q.3 Which of the following oxide of nitrogen is the anhydride of nitrous acid ?

(a) NO (b) N2O3

(c) N2O4 (d) N2O5

Q.4 The largest bond angle is in

(a) NH3 (b) PH3

(c) AsH3 (d)BiH3

Q.5 NH3 molecule can enter into complex formation through

(a) ionic bond (b) covalent bond

(c) coordinate bond (d( electron deficient bond.

Answer 1. (a) 2. (a) 3.(b) 4.(a) 5. ( c)

Assertion And Reason Type Questions

Note: In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a reason is given.

Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(a) Both assertion and reason are correct statement, and reason is the correct explanation
of the assertion.

(b) Both assertion and reason are correct statement, but reason is not the correct
explanation of the assertion.

(c) Assertion is correct ,but reason is wrong statement.

(d) Assertion is wrong , but reason is correct statement.

Q.1 Assertion : N2 is less reactive than P4 .

Reason : Nitrogen has more electron gain enthalpy than Phosphorous.

Q.2 Assertion : The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic in nature.

Reason : The aqueous solution of ammonia turns red litmus blue and phenolphthalein
pink.

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Q.3 Assertion : Nitrogen is the only element of the group which can form H-Bond.

reason : Due to its small size and high electronegativity.

Q.4 Assertion : Ammonia is a good complexing agent.

Reason : NH3 has a lone pair of electron therefore it is a good complexing .

Q.5 Assertion: When NO react with FeSO4, a brown coloured complex is formed.

Reason : In the complex , the coordination number of Fe is + 6 .

Q.6 Assertion: Ammonia is highly soluble in water .

reason: It gives brown precipitate with Nessler,s reagent.

Q.7 Assertion : Nitrogen monoxide is very reactive and neutral gas.

Reason : Due to presence of odd electron.

ANSWERS

Q.1 (c) Q.2 (b) Q.3 (a ) Q.4 (a ) Q.5 (b ) Q.6 (b ) Q.7 (a )

MCQ Assertion-Reason Type Questions

NOTE-In each of the following questions a statement of Assertion is given followed by a


corresponding statement of Reason just below it .Of the statement mark the correct option
as:

(a) If both assertion and reason are true, and reason is the correct explanation of the
assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true, but reason are not the correct explanation
of the assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If the assertion and reason is false.

Q1.Assertion: Nitric acid makes iron passiveReason: Nitric acid forms a protective layer of
ferric nitrate on the surface of iron. Ans: (c)

Q2.Assertion: HNO3 is highly corrosive in nature


Reason: It causes painful blisters when it comes in contact with skin . Ans: (a)

Q3:Assertion: P4 is more reactive than N2.

Reason: P-P single bond is much weaker as compound toNN Triple bond Ans: (a)
Q4:Assertion: Red phosphorus is less volatile than white phosphorus

Reason: Red phosphorushas a discrete tetrahedral structure. Ans: (c)

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Q5:Assertion: PCl5is covalent in gaseous and liquid states but ionic in solid state.

Reason: PCl5in solid state consist of tetrahedralCation and octahedral anion. Ans: (b)

Q6: Assertion: PCl5and PbCl4 are thermally unstable .

Reason: They produce same gas on thermal decomposition Ans: (b)

Q7:Assertion: HNO3is stronger than HNO2 .

Reason: nHNO3there are two nitrogen to oxygen bonds whereas in HNO2there is only one. Ans: (c)

MCQ on d and f block elements

Q1.Which of the following arrangements does not represent the correct order of the
property stated against it? [JEE MAIN 2013]

A V2+ < Cr2+ < Mn2+ < Fe2+ : paramagnetic behaviour

B Ni2+ < Co2+ < Fe2+ < Mn2+ : ionic size

C Co3+ < Fe3+ < Cr3+ < Sc3+ : stability in aqueous solution

D Sc < Ti < Cr < Mn : number of oxidation states

Q. 2

Which of the following lanthanoid ions is diamagnetic? [NEET 2013]

(At. nos. Ce = 58, Sm = 62, Eu = 63, Yb = 70)

A Ce2+

B Sm2+

C Eu2+

D Yb2+

Q. 3

KMnO4 can be prepared from K2MnO4 as per the reaction:

3MnO42 2H2O 2MnO4 + MnO2 + 4OH

The reaction can go to completion by removing OH ions by adding [NEET 2013]

A KOH

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B CO2

C SO2

D HCl

Q. 4

Which of the following statements about the interstitial compounds is incorrect? [NEET
2013]

A They retain metallic conductivity

B They are chemically reactive

C They are much harder than the pure metal

D They have higher melting points than the pure metal

Q. 5

All the metals form oxides of the type MO except

A copper

B barium

C silver

D lead

Q.6

Among the following, the coloured compound is

A CuCl

B K3 [Cu(CN)4]

C CuF2

D [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4

Q.7

How many d electrons are in present Cr2+ ion

AAAA4

B 5

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C 6

D 3

Q.8

Cyanide process is used for extraction of

A Ag

B Ni

C Pt

D Zn

Q.9

Extraction for zinc blende is achieved by

A electrolytic reduction

B roasting followed by reduction with carbon

C roasting followed by reduction with another metal

D roasting followed by self reduction

Q.10

Formation of coloured solution is possible when metal ion in the compound contains

A paired electrons

B unpaired electrons

C lone pair of electrons

D none of these

Q.11

Identify the incorrect statement among the following

A d-Block elements show irregular and erratic chemical properties among themselves

B La and Lu have partially filled d orbitals and no other partially filled orbitals

C The chemistry of various lanthanoids is very similar

D 4f and 5f orbitals are equally shielded

Answers: 1. A 2. D 3. C 4 C 5 B 6 B 7 A 8 A 9 B 10 B 11 D

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Q.12 Which one of the following ions exhibits colour in aqueous solution

A Sc3+

B Ni2+

C Ti4+

D Zn2+

Q.13

Which one of the following is a diamagnetic ion?

A CO2+

B Cu2+

C Mn2+

D Sc3+

Q.14

Which ore contains both iron and copper?

A Cuprite

B Chalcocite

C Chalcopyrite

D Malachite

Q.15

Which pair of compounds is expected to show similar colour in aqueous medium?

A FeCl2 and CuCl2

B VOCl2 and CuCl2

C VOCl2 and FeCl2

D FeCl2 and MnCl2

Q.16

Zn does not show variable valency because of

A complete d sub-shell

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B inert pair effect

C 4s2 sub-shell

D None of these

Q.17

When copper pyrites is roasted in excess of air, a mixture of CuO + FeO is formed. FeO is
present as impurities. This can be removed as slag during reduction of CuO. The flux added
to form slag is:

A SiO2, which is an acid flux

B Lime stone, which is a basic flux

C SiO2, which is basic flux

D CaO; which is basic flux

Q.18

Hydride Gap is referred to which region of the periodic table?

A Groups 3, 4 and 5

B Groups 5, 6 and 7

C Groups 4, 5 and 6

D Groups 7, 8 and 9

Q.19

Which of the statements is not true?


A K2Cr2O7 solution in acidic medium is orange
B K2Cr2O7 solution becomes yellow on increasing the pH beyond 7

C On passing H2S through acidified K2Cr2O7 solution, a milky colour is observed

D Na2Cr2O7 is preferred over K2Cr2O7 in volumetric analysis

Q.20
Which one of the following sets correctly represents the increase in the paramagnetic
property of the ion?

A Cu2+ < V2+ < Cr2+ < Mn2+

B Cu2+ < Cr2+ < V2+ < Mn2+

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C Mn2+ < V2+ < Cr2+ < Cu2+

Mn2+ < Cu2+ < Cr2+ < V2+


D
Answers: 1. A 2. D 3. C 4. C 5. B 6 . B 7. A 8. A 9. B 10. B 11. D 12. B
13. D 14. C 15. B 16. A 17. A 18. D 19. D 20. A

Multiple Choice Questions


Q1-Which of the following acid is a vitamin?

1) Aspartic acid 2) Ascorbic acid 3) Adipic acid 4) Saccharic acid

Q2-Dinucleotide is obtained by joining two nucleotide together by phosphodiester

Linkage. Between which carbon atoms of pentose sugar of nucleotides are these linkages
present?

1) 5 & 3 2) Y & 3 3) 5 & 5 4) 3 & 3

Q3-Nucleic acids are the polymers of

1) Nucleoside 2) Nucleotide 3) Bases 4) Sugars

Q4-DNA & RNA contain four bases each.Which of the following base is not present in RNA?

1) Adenine 2) Cytosine 3) Uracil 4) Thymine

Q5-Which of the following B group vitamins can be stored in our body?

1) B1 2) B2 3) B12 4) B6

Q6-Which of the following base is not present in DNA?

1) Adenine 2) Thymine 3) Uracil 4) Cytosine

Q7-Which of the following are purine bases?

1) Guanine 2) Adenine 3) Thymine 4) Uracil

Q8-Which vitamin cannot be stored in the body?

1) Vit.A 2) Vit.B & C 3) Vit. K 4) Vit.E

ASSERTION & REASON----------


Q9AssertionVit.D can be stored in our body.

ReasonVit.D is a fat soluble vitamin.

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Q10AssertionDNA & RNA are two nucleic acids.

ReasonBoth have same nitrogeneous bases.

ANSWERS---------------------
1) 2 2) 1 3) 2 4) 4 5) 3 6) 3

7) 1&2 8) 2 9) Reason is correctly explain the assertion.


10) Reason is not correct .

Multiple Choice Questions

ALDEHYDE, KETONE AND CARBOXYLIC ACID

MCQS Based on : Aldehydes, Ketones and Haloalkanes


Q01. The general molecular formula of aldehydes and ketones is
1) CnH2n-1.O 2) CnH2nO
3) CnH2n+2O 4) CnH2n+4O
Q02. Aldehyde functional group can occur
1) Any where in the carbon chain 2) In the middle of the carbon chain
3) Only at the second carbon atom 4) only at either end carbon atom of the chain
Q03. Propan-2-ol on treatment with copper at 3000c forms
1) Acetone 2) Acetaldehyde
3) Ethane 4) Both 1 and 2
Q04. Which of the following is correct?
1) Aldehydes undergo Cannizzaros reaction
2) Aldehydes are less susceptible to oxidation than ketones
3) Aldehydes are more susceptible to oxidation than ketones
4) Formaldehyde forms CuO with Fehlings solution
Q05. IUPAC name of CH3CHOHCH2CHO is
1) 2-hydroxybutanal 2) 2-hydroxypropanal
3) 3-hydroxybutanal 4) b-hydroxybutanal
Q06. The reagent which can be used to distinguish acetophenone from benzophenone
is
1) 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine 2) Benedicts solution
3) Tollens reagent 4) I2 and Na2CO3
Q07. Toluene on reacting with chromyl chloride gives:
1) Chlorotoluene 2) Benzyl chloride
3) Benzaldehyde 4) Benzoic acid
Q08. Mesitylene is prepared from
1) CH3CHO and conc. HNO3 2) CH3COCH3 and conc. H2SO4
3) CH3COCH3 and conc. HCl 4) CH3CHO and conc. H2SO4
Q09. (CH3)2C = CHCOCH3 can be oxidised to (CH3)2C = CHCOOH by
1) Chromic acid 2) NaOI

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3) Cu at 3000c 4) KMNO4
Q10. Oppenaur oxidation is the reverse process of
1) Wolff Kishner reduction 2) Rosenmunds reduction
3) Clemmensen reduction 4) Meerwein-Pondorf-Verely reduction
Q11. In the reaction CH3CHO + CH2(COOH)2 ----------pyridine/heat ------->A. The
compound A is
1) CH3COOH 2) C2H5COOH
3) CH3CH = CHCOOH 4) COOHCH = CHCOOH
Q12. Benzaldehyde reacts with alcoholic KCN to give:
1) C6H5CH(OH)CN 2) C6H5CH(OH)COC6H5
3) C6H5CH(OH)COOH 4) C6H5CH(OH)CH(OH)C6H5
Q13. Aldehydes and ketones do not react with
1) sodium bisulphite 2) phenyl hydrazine
3) semi carbazide 4) di hydrazine sodium phosphate
Q14. Which of the following will undergo aldol condensation?
1) CH2=CHCHO 2) CH=CCHO
3) C6H5CHO 4) CH3CH2CHO
Q15. Which type of isomerism is shown by the pentanone
1) Chain isomerism 2) Position isomerism
3) Functional isomerism 4) All 1, 2 and 3
Q16. Paraldehyde is formed as a result of polymerisation of
1) CH3CHO 2) HCHO
3) CH3OH 4) CH3CH2CHO
Q17. Aromatic aldehydes in the presence of CN- ion give acyloins. The reaction is
known as
1) Perkin reaction 2) Benzoin condensation
3) Claisen condensation 4) Cannizzaros reaction
Q18. Which of the following method is used to convert ketone into hydrocarbon
1) aldol condensation 2) Reimer Tieman reaction
3) Cannizzaros reaction 4) Clemmensens reduction
Q19. Which will not give formaldehyde on heating or upon distillation?
1) Formalin 2) Trioxane
3) Paraldehyde 4) Paraformaldehyde
Q20. When ethanal is heated with Fehlings solution it gives a precipitate of
1) Cu 2) CuO
3) Cu2O 4) CuO+Cu2O+Cu
Q21. When CH3CHBrCH2CH3 is reacted with alcoholic KOH the major product is
1) CH3CH=CHCH3 2) CH2=CHCH2CH3
3) CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3 4) CH3CH2CH2CH3
Q22. Benzene reacts with n-propyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 to give
1) 3-propyl-1-chlorobenzene 2) n-propyl benzene
3) No action 4) Isopropyl benzene

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Q23. Identify Z in the following series:
CH2=CH2 -----HBr---> X ------Hydrolysis ----> Y -----I2 / excess NaOH ----> Z
1) C2H5I 2) C2H5OH
3) CHI3 4) CH3CHO
Q24. Bromoethane reacts with silver nitrite to form
1) Nitroethane 2) Ethane
3) Ethylnitrite 4) Nitroethane and ethylnitrite
Q25. Which of the following compounds on oxidation gives benzoic acid?
1) o-Chlorophenol 2) p-Chlorotoluene
3) Chlorobenzene 4) Benzyl chloride
Q26. Reaction between alkyl halide and sodium metal is called
1) Wurtz reaction 2) Kolbes reaction
3) Clemmensens reaction 4) Wurtz - Fittigs reaction
Q27. Which compound gives iodoform by reaction between I2 and NaOH?
1) CH3OH 2) C2H5OH
3) C3H7OH 4) C2H5OC2H5
Q28. The reactivity order of halides in dehydrohalogenation reaction is:
1) R-F > R-Cl> R-Br > R-I 2) R-I > R-Br > R-Cl> R-F
3) R-I >R-Cl> R-Br > R-F 4) R-F > R-I > R-Br > R-Cl
Q29. Which of the following undergoes nucleophilic substitution exclusively by SN1
mechanism?
1) ethyl chloride 2) isopropyl chloride
3) chlorobenzene 4) benzyl chloride
Q30. SN2 mechanism proceeds through intervention of:
1) carbocation 2) transition state
3) free radical 4) carbanion
ANSWERS
Q 01 2 Q 11 3 Q 21 1
Q 02 4 Q 12 2 Q 22 4
Q03 1 Q 13 4 Q 23 3
Q 04 3 Q 14 4 Q 24 4
Q 05 3 Q 15 4 Q 25 4
Q 06 4 Q 16 1 Q 26 1
Q 07 3 Q 17 2 Q 27 2
Q 08 2 Q 18 4 Q 28 2
Q 09 2 Q 19 3 Q 29 4
Q 10 4 Q 20 3 Q 30 2

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Multiple Choice Questions of topic : Carbohydrates, Proteins and Enzymes
Ques. 1
Sucrose (cane sugar) is a dissacharide. One molecule of sucrose upon hydrolysis gives
(a) 2 molecules of glucose (b) 2 molecules of glucose + 1 molecule of fructose
(c) 2 molecule of fructose (d) 1 molecule of glucose + 1 molecule of fructose
Ques. 2
Which one is not fibrous protein?
(a) Globulin (b) Collagen (c ) actin (d) Keratin
Ques. 3
Which of the following has an imino (>NH) group instead of amino group (- NH2)?
(a) Proline (b) Isoleucine (c) Tyrosine (d) Serine
Ques. 4
A compound give negative test with ninhydrin and positive test with Benedicts solution.
The compound is
(a) A protein (b) An amino acid (c) A lipid (d) A
monosaccharide
Ques. 5
The change in optical rotation of freshly prepared solution of glucose is known as
(a) Tautomerism (b) Mutarotation (c) Specific rotation (d)
Racemerisation
Ques. 6
Which amino acid has imidazole ring in it?
(a) Alanine (b) leucine (c) Histidine (d) Tyrosine
Ques. 7
When glucose reacts with bromine water, the main product is
(a) Acetic acid (b) Saccharic acid (c) Glyceraldehydes (d)
Gluconic acid
Ques. 8
The term anomers of glucose refers to
(a) isomers of glucose that differ in configuration at carbons 1
(b) a mixture of D- Glucose and L- Glucose
(c) enantiomers of Glucose
(d) isomers of glucose that differ in configuration at carbon one and four (C- 1 and C- 4)
Ques. 9

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Which of the following is the example of ketohexose?
(a) Mannose (b) Galactose (c) Fructose (d) Maltose
Ques. 10
Number of chiral carbon atoms in - D- (+) glucose is
(a) Five carbons (b) Six carbons (c) Three carbons (d) Four
carbons
Ques. 11
Which of the following set consists of only essential amino acid?
(a) Alanine, tyrosine, cysteine
(b) Leucine , phenylalanine, tryptophan
(c) Alanine, glutamine, lysine
(d) Leucine, proline, glycine
Ques. 12
Which of the following is a conjugated protein?
(a) Phospho protein (b) Glycoprotein (c) Chromoprotein (d) All of these
Ques. 13
Glycogen is a branched chain polymer of - D- glucose units in which chain is formed by C1-
C4 glycosidic linkage whereas branching occurs by the formation of C1- C6 glycosidic linkage.
Structure of glycogen is similar to _________.
(a) Amylose (b) Amylopectin (c) Cellulose (d) Glucose
Ques. 14
Each polypeptide in a protein has amiono acids linked with each other in a specific
sequence. This sequence of amino acids is said to be ________
(a) Primary structure of proteins (b) Secondary structure of proteins
(c) tertiary structure of proteins (d) Quaternary structure of proteins
Ques. 15
In fibrous proteins, polypeptide chains are held together with
(a) Van der Waals forces (b) Hydrogen bonding (c) Disulpide
linkage (d) Both (b) and (c)
SOLUTIONS:
Q1. (d) Q2. (c) Q3. (a) Q4. (d) Q5. (b) Q6. (c) Q7. (d) Q8. (a) Q9. (c) Q10. (b) Q11. (b) Q12.
(d) Q13. (b) Q14. (a) Q15. (d)

MCQS OF CHAPTER: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE


Question 1
Which one of the following is employed as Antihistamine?
(a) Omeprazole (b) Chloramphenicol (c) Diphenhydramine (d) Norethindrone
Question 2
Which one of the followings is employed as a Tranquilizer drug?
(a) Promethazine (b) Valium (c) Naproxen (d) Mifepristone

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Question 3
Arsenic containing medicine used for the treatment of syphilis, is
(a) Tetracycline (b) Ofloxacin (c) Erythromycin (d)
Salvarsan
Question 4
The artificial sweetener containing chlorine that has the appearance and taste as that of
sugar and is stable at cooking temperature is
(a) Aspartame (b) Saccharin (c) Sucralose (d) Alitame
Question 5
The class of drugs used for the treatment of stress is
(a) Analgesics (b) Antiseptic (c) Antihistamine (d) Tranquilizers
Question 6
The dyes which are used in reduced state and are then oxidized in the fabric by air are
called
(a) Azo dyes (b) Dispersed dyes (c) Basic dyes (d) Vat dyes
Question 7
Aspirin is
(a) Acetyl salicylic acid (b) Benzoyl salicylic acid (c) Chloro benzoic acid (d)
Anthranilic acid
Question 8
Which one of the following is employed as a tranquilizer?
(a) Naproxen (b) Tetracycline (c) Chlorpheniramine (d) Equanil
Question 9
The role of phosphate in detergent powder is to
(a) Control pH level of the detergent water mixture
(b) Remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from the water that causes the hardness of water
(c) Provide whiteness to the fabrics
(d) Form solid detergent as phosphate-less detergent are liquid in nature
Question 10
The oxidant which is used as an antiseptic is
(a) KBrO3 (b) KMnO4 (c) CrO3 (d) KNO3
Question 11
Bithional is generally added to the soaps as an additive to function as a/an
(a) Softener (b) Dryer (c) Buffering agent (d) Antiseptic
Question 12
Which among the following is not an antibiotic?
(a) Erythromycin (b) Oxytocin (c) Penicillin (d) Tetracycline
Question 13

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Which of the following is used as a "morning after pill"?
(a) Mifepristone (b) Ethynylestradiol (c) Norethindrone (d) Promethazine
Question 14
Tincture of iodine is
(a) alcoholic solution of I2 (b) solution of I2 in aqueous KI
(c) aqueous solution of I2 (d) aqueous solution of KI
Question 15
2-Acetoxy benzoic acid is used as
(a) Antiseptic (b) Antidepressant (c) Antimalarial (d)
Antipyretic
Question 16
The most useful classification of drugs for medicinal chemists is ___
(a) on the basis of chemical structure (b) on the basis of drug action
(c) On the basis of molecular targets (d) on the basis of pharmacological effect
Question 17.
Polyethylene glycols are used in the preparation of which type of detergents?
(a) Cationic detergents (b) Anionic detergents (c) Non-ionic detergents
(d) Soaps
Question 18.
Which of the following is not a target molecule for drug function in body?
(a) Carbohydrates (b) Vitamins (c) Proteins (d) Lipids
Question 19.
Which of the following statements is not true about enzyme inhibitors?
(a) Inhibit the catalytic activity of the enzyme
(b) prevent the binding of substrate
(c)Generally a strong covalent bond is formed between an inhibitor and an enzyme
(d) Inhibitors can be competitive or non-competitive
Question 20.
Veronal and luminal are derivatives of barbituric acid which are ______
(a) Tranquilizers (b) Non-narcotic analgesic
(c) Antiallergic drugs (d) Neurologically active drugs

SOLUTION:
Q1: (c) Q2. (b) Q3. (d) Q4. (c) Q5. (d) Q6. (d) Q7. (a) Q8. (d) Q9.
(b) Q10. (b) Q11. (d) Q12. (b) Q13. (a) Q14. (a) Q15. (d)
Q16. (c) Q17. (c) Q18. (b) Q19. (c)
Q20. (a) and (d)

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 1
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

VSA SA I
SA II VBQ LA
S.No. UNIT (1 (2 Total
(3 marks) (4marks) (5 marks)
mark) marks)

1. Solid State 1(1) - 3(1) - -


2. Solutions - 2(1) 3(1) - -
3. Electrochemistry - 2(1) 3(1) - - 23(9)

4. Chemical Kinetics - - - - 5(1)


5. Surface chemistry 1(1) - 3(1) - -
General principles & -
6. Processesof isolation of - - 3(1) -
elements
7. p-Block Elements - 2(1) 6(2) - - 19(6)
8. d- & f-Block Elements - - - - 5(1)
Coordination -
9. - - 3(1) -
Compounds
Haloalkanes & -
10. 1(1) - 3(1) -
Haloarenes
Alcohols, Phenols & -
11. 1(1) - 3(1) -
Ethers
Aldehydes, Ketones & -
12. 1(1) - - 5(1)
Carboxylic Acids 28(11)
13. Amines - 4(2) - - -
14. Biomolecules - - - 4(1) -
15. Polymers - - 3(1) - -
Chemistry in Everyday -
16. - - 3(1) -
Life
Total 5(5) 10(5) 36(12) 4(1) 15(3) 70(26)

S.No Typology of Questions (VSA) (SA-I) (SA-II) VBQ (LA) Total %


(1 (2 (3 (4 (5 Marks Weightage
Mark) Marks) Marks) Marks) Marks)
1. Remembering - 2 1 1 - - 7 10%
2. Understanding - 2 4 - 1 21 30%
3. Application - 2 4 - 1 21 30%
4. High order Thinking skills 2 - 1 - 1 10 14%
5. Evaluation and Multi- 1 - 2 1 - 11 16%
Disciplinary
TOTAL 5x1=5 5x2=10 12x3=36 1x4=4 3x5=15 70(26) 100%

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CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours
SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

General instructions:

(i) All questions are compulsory.

(ii) Question numbers 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Question numbers 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv) Question numbers 11to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

(v) Question numbers 23 is value based question and carries 4marks.

(vi) Question numbers 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use Log Tables if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

1. Name the point defect which increases the density of a solid. 1


2. What is shape selective catalysis? 1
3. In the following pair of halogen compounds, which would undergo SN2 reaction faster and why?

1
4. Write the IUPAC name of the following: 1
(CH3CH2)2NCH3
5. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity towards nucleophilic
addition reaction :
(i) CH3 COCH3, C6H5 COCH3, CH3 CHO
6(a) What are azeotropes? Give an example. 1
(b) Define Molal elevation constant? 1
7. What are non-ideal solutions? Explain as to why non- ideal solutions deviate from Raoults law?
2
8. Draw the structures of the following compounds: 2
(a) H2S2O8
(b) XeO3
OR
Arrange the following in the order of property indicated for each set:
(i) F2, Cl2, Br2, I2- increasing bond dissociation enthalpy.
(ii) HF, HCl, HBr, HI - increasing acid strength.
9. Explain the following name reactions with the help of an example: 2
(a) Rosenmund reduction
(b) Cannizzaro reaction
10. Arrange the following in increasing order of the pKb values: 2
(a) C2H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, (C2H5)2NH and C6H5NH2
(b) C6H5NH2, C2H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, NH3
Q11. Explain what is observed and why? 3
(i) when a beam of light is passed through a colloidal sol.

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(ii) an electrolyte, NaCl is added to hydrated ferric oxide sol.
(iii) electric current is passed through a colloidal sol? 3
12. Conductivity of 2.5 x 10-4 M methanoic acid is 5.25 x 10-5 S/cm. Calculate its molar conductivity
and degree of dissociation.
Given: o(H+) = 349.5S cm2mol-1 and 0 (HCOO-) = 50.5 S cm2 mol-1. 3
13 . 0.5 g of KCl was dissolved in 100 g of water and the solution originally at 200C, froze at -0.240C.
Calculate the percentage dissociation of the salt. (Given :Kf for water = 1.86 K kg /mol, Atomic mass:
K = 39 u, Cl= 35.5 u) 3
14. (a) In terms of band theory, what is the difference between a conductor and an insulator
between a conductor and a semiconductor
2
(b) Define unit cell. 1
15. What is the role of (i) cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium? 1
(ii) Graphite rod in the electrometallurgy of aluminium? 1
(iii) Silica in the metallurgy of copper? 1
OR
Write the principle involved in the following processes:
(i) zone refining 1
(ii) Monds process 1
(iii) Froth floatation process 1
16. Complete the following equations:- 3
(a) PCl3 + H2O
(b) NaOH + Cl2
(hot & conc.)
(c) C2 H4+ O2
17. Account for the following: 3
(a) H3PO3 shows reducing character.
(b) H2S is less acidic than H2Te.
(c) NO2 dimerises.
18. (a) What is meant by ambidentate ligands? Give an example. 1
(b) What is crystal field splitting energy? On the basis of crystal field theory, write the electronic
configuration of d4 in terms of t2g and eg in an octahedral crystal field when
(i) o > P (ii) o < P 2
19. Aniline on heating with an organic compound (A) and ethanolic potassium hydroxide forms
another compound (B) which has foul smell. Identify A and B. Also write the chemical equation for
the reaction involved. 3
20. (a) Write the mechanism of hydration of alkene to form alcohol. 2
(b) Write the structure of 2-Ethoxypropane. 1
21. (a) Define thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers with two examples of each. 2
(b) What is the role of benzoyl peroxide in polymerization of ethene? 1
22. (a) Why do soaps not work in hard water? 1
(b) What is the difference between antiseptics and disinfectant? 1
(c) What are food preservatives? Give an example. 1
23. DNA test is used to determine paternity of an individual. Govt. of Uttarakhand asked to test the
DNA of the Victims of Kedarnath tragedy.
(i) What are the bases present in DNA? 1

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(ii) What products would be formed when a nucleotide from DNA containing thymine is hydrolysed?
1
(iii) Mention any two differences between DNA and RNA. 1
(iv)What values are shown by the Government of Uttarakhand? 1
-14 -1
24. (a) A first order reaction is found to have a rate constant,k = 5.5 10 s . Find the half-life of
the reaction. 2
(b) Mention the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. 2
(c) What are pseudo first order reactions? 1
OR
(a) Distinguish between molecularity and order of a reaction. 2
5 1 1
(b) Identify the reaction order from rate constant k = 2.3 10 L mol s- . 1
(c) The rate of a reaction quadruples when the temperature changes from 293 K to 313K. Calculate
the energy of activation of the reaction assuming that it does not change with temperature. 3
25. (a) Complete the following equations: 2
- + -
(i) MnO4 + 4H + 3 e
(ii) Cr2O72 + H+ + Fe2+
(b) Account for the following: 3
(i) Cobalt (II) is stable in aqueous solution but in the presence of complexing reagents it is easily
oxidised.
(ii) Cr2+ is reducing whereas Mn3+ oxidising when both have d4 configuration.
(iii) Transition metals and their many compounds act as good catalyst.
OR
(a) Complete the following equations: 2
(i) MnO4 - + 8H+ + 5 e-
(ii) Mn2+ + H2O+ S2O82-
(b) Account for the following: 3
(i) Copper (I) compounds are unstable in aqueous solution and undergo disproportionation.
(ii) The highest oxidation state of a metal is exhibited in its oxide or fluoride only.
(iii) Interstitial compounds are well known for transition metals.
26. (a) Give a chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: 2
(i) Phenol and Benzoic acid
(ii) Methanoic acid and Ethanoic acid
(b) Account for the following: 3
(i) Although phenoxide ion has more number of resonating structures than carboxylate ion,
carboxylic acid is a stronger acid than phenol.
(ii) Chloroacetic acid is stronger than acetic acid.
(iii) Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones in nucleophilic addition reactions.
OR
(a) Give a chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: 2
(i) Benzophenone and Acetophenone
(ii) Benzaldehyde and Acetaldehyde
(b) How will you carry out the following conversions: 3
(i) Aniline to bromobenzene
(ii) Chorobenzene to 2-chloroacetophenone
(iii) Chloroethane to butane

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MARKING SCHEME
Q.No Expected Answers/ Value Points Marks
.
1. Interstitial defect 1
2. The catalytic reaction that depends upon the pore structure of the catalyst and the
size of the reactant and product molecules is called shape-selective catalysis. 1
3. 1/2
1/2
due to less steric hinderance
4. N-Ethyl- N methylethanamine 1
5. C6H5 COCH3 < CH3 COCH3 < CH3 CHO 1
6.(a) Azeotropes are binary mixtures having the same composition in liquid and 1
vapour phase and boil at a constant temperature
e.g : Ethanol (95%)-water (5%)mixture.
(b) Molal elevation constant : Elevation in boiling point of 1 molal solution 1

When m=1 ,

7. When a solution does not obey Raoults law over the entire range of 1
concentration, then it is called non-ideal solution. The non- ideal solutions deviate
from Raoults law because intermolecular attractive forces between the solute-
solvent molecules are not equal to those between the solute-solute and solvent-
solvent molecules. 1
8 (a)

(b)

OR(a I2 , F2 ,Br2 ,Cl2 1


)
(b) HF, HCl, HBr, HI 1
9 (a) 1

(b) 1

10 (C2H5)2NH , C2H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, C6H5NH2 1

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(a)
(b) (C2H5)2NH, C2H5NH2, NH3, C6H5NH2 1
11.(i) Tyndall effect is observed due to scattering of light by colloidal particles. 1
(ii) Coagulation takes place due to neutralization of charge. 1
(iii) Electrophoresis takes place due to movement of charged colloidal particles. 1
12. m = 1000 x S cm2 mol-1 1/2
M
m = 1000 x 5.25 x 10-5S cm2mol-1
2.5 x 10-4 1/2
= 210cm2 mol-1
m0 HCOOH = 0 HCOO- + 0H+ 1/2
(50.5 + 349.5) S cm2mol-1 = 400S cm2 mol-1 1/2
= m/mo 1/2
= 210/400 = 0.525 1/2
13. Normal molar mass of KCl= 39+ 35.5= 74.5g/mol

1
MKCl =1.86 x 0.5x 1000
0.24 x 100
=930/24 = 38.75g/mol
1

i= 74.5/38.75 = 1.923
= i-1 = 0.923
n-1 1
Percentage ionization = 0.923 x 100 = 92.3
14.(a (i) In Conductors there is no energy gap between valence band and conduction
) band or the two bands overlap due to which electrons can easily move from
valence band to conduction band.
In insulators there is a large energy gap between valence band and conduction
band and electrons are unable to move from valence band to conduction band. 1
ii) In Conductors there is no energy gap between valence band and conduction
band or the two bands overlap due to which electrons can easily move from
valence band to conduction band.
In semiconductors there is a small energy gap between valence band and
conduction band due to which the electrons may jump from valance band to 1
conduction band.
(b) Unit cell is the smallest portion of a crystal lattice which, when repeated in 1
different directions, generates the entire lattice.
15.(i) It lowers the melting point of alumina and makes it conducting. 1
(ii) It reacts with the oxygen liberated at anode and prevents oxidation of aluminium 1
(iii) It acts as a flux to remove the impurities of iron oxide 1

.
OR(i) The impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the solid state of the metal. 1

(ii) The metal should form a volatile compound with an available reagent. The volatile 1
compound should be easily decomposable, so thatthe recovery is easy.
(iii) The mineral particles become wet by oils while the gangue particles by water. 1
16(a) PCl3 + 3H2O H3PO3 + 3HCl 1
(b) 2NaOH + Cl2 NaCl +NaOCl + H2O 1
(c) C2H4 +3O2 2CO2 +2 H2O 1

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17.(a Due to presence of P-H bond 1
)
(b) Due to the decrease in bond (EH) dissociation enthalpy down the group, acidic 1
character increases
(c) NO2 contains odd number of valence electrons. 1
18.(a Ligand which can ligate through two different atoms 1/2
) e.g. NO2- / SCN- (or any other correct example) 1/2
(b) The splitting of the degenerate levels due to the presence of ligands in a definite 1
geometry is termed as crystal field splitting and the energy separation is called
crystal field splitting energy .
(i) If o >P then configuration for d4 is t2g4 eg 0
(ii) If o <P then configuration for d4 is t2g3eg 1 1/2
1/2
19. A is chloroform 1
B is Phenyl isocyanide 1
C6H5NH2 + CHCl3+ 3KOH (alc) C6H5NC + 3KCl + 3H2O 1
20.(a
) 1/2

1/2

(b) 1

21.(a Themoplastics soften upon heating and can be remoulded into desired shapes.
) e.g. PVC, polythene (or any other correct example) 1
Themosets do not soften upon heating and cannot be remoulded into desired
shapes. e.g. Bakelite,melamine 1
(b) Act as initiator 1
22.(a Due to formation of insoluble Ca / Mg salt (scum) 1
)
(b) Antiseptics are applied on living tissues to kill or stop the growth of microbes while
disinfectants are applied on inanimate objects to kill or stop the growth of
microbes 1
(c) Food preservatives prevent spoilage of food. 1/2
e.g. sodium benzoate 1/2
23.(i) Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and cytosine 1
(ii) Deoxy ribose sugar, Phosphoric acid and thymine 1
(iii) -D-2-deoxy ribose sugar is present in DNA while -D- ribose sugar is present in 1/2
RNA.
DNA is double helical while RNA is single stranded 1/2

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(iv) Responsible, caring 1
24(a) t1/2 = 0.693/k 1/2
= 0.693/5.5x10-14 1/2
=1.26x1014 s 1
(b) The factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction are 1/2x4=
1. Temperature 2
2. Catalyst
3. Concentration Of Reactants
4. Presence Of Light

(c) The reactions which are not first order reactions but under certain conditions
behaves as first order reaction are called pseudo first order reactions.
eg Inversion of cane sugar 1

OR(a Molecularity Order


The number of reacting species The sum of powers of the
(atoms, ions or molecules) taking part concentration of the reactants
in an elementary reaction, in the rate law expression is called the
which must collide simultaneously in order of that chemical 1
order to bring about a reaction.
chemical reaction is called
molecularity of a reaction.
It cant be 0 or fractional. It can be 0 or fractional. 1
(b) 2
1
(c)
1/2

Ea = 2.303x 8.314x[293x313/313-293]xlog4 1/2


=52.86 kJ mol- 1
25(a) MnO4 - + 4H+ + 3 e- MnO2 +2 H2O 1
(i)
(ii) Cr2O72 +14 H+ + 6Fe2+ 2 Cr3+ + 6 Fe3+ + 7 H2O 1
(b)(i) More energy is released on interaction with complexing reagent which
compensates for third ionization enthalpy. 1
(ii) Cr2+ is reducing as its configuration changes from d4 to d3, the latter having a half-
filled t2g level while the change from Mn2+ to Mn3+ results in the half-filled (d5)
configuration which has extra stability. 1
(iii) Due to their ability to adopt multiple oxidation states and to form complexes. 1
OR(a MnO4 - + 8H+ + 5 e- Mn2+ + 4H2O 1
) (i)
(ii) 1
(b)(i) 2Cu+ Cu2+ + Cu
The stability of Cu2+ (aq) rather than Cu+(aq) is due to the much more negative
hydHo of Cu2+ (aq) than Cu+, which more than compensates for the second 1
ionisation enthalpy of Cu.

(ii) Due to small size and high electronegativity. 1


(iii) Because small atoms like H, C or N are trapped inside the crystal lattices of 1

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transition metals.

26(a) Benzoic acid + NaHCO3 soln. brisk effervescences of CO2


(i) Phenol + NaHCO3 soln. No brisk effervescences of CO2. 1
(or any other correct test)
(ii) Methanoic acid + Tollens reagent silver mirror
Ethanoic acid + Tollens reagent No silver mirror 1
(or any other correct test)
(b)(i) The negative charge is delocalised over two electronegative oxygen atoms in
carboxylate ion whereas it is less effectively delocalised over one oxygen atom and
less electronegative carbon atoms in phenoxide ion. 1
(ii) Chloro group is electron withdrawing group and therefore it stabilizes the 1
conjugate base.
OR due to I effect of chloro group.
(iii) due to steric hindrance by two relatively large substituents in ketones. Moreover
two alkyl groups reduce the electrophilicity of the carbonyl more effectively. 1
OR(a Acetophenone + I2 + NaOH(aq) CHI3
) (i) Iodoform (Yellow ppt) 1
Benzophenone + I2 + NaOH(aq) No yellow ppt.of iodoform
(or any other correct test)
(ii) Acetaldehyde + Fehling soln. (A+B) reddish brown ppt.
Benzaldehyde + Fehling soln. (A+B) No reddish brown ppt. 1
(or any other correct test)
(b)(i)
1

(ii)
1

Dry Ether, Na
(iii) CH3 CH2 -Cl CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3
1

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 2
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

S.NO. NAME OF UNIT VSA SA(I) SA(II) LONG VBQ TOTAL

1 SOLID STATE 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

2 SOLUTION 5(1) 5(1)

3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)

4 CHEMICAL KINETICS 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)

5 SURFACE CHEMISTRY 4(1) 4(1)

6 GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF EXTRACTION 3(1) 3(1)

7 P BLOCK 2(1) 6(2) 8(3)

8 THE d-& f-BLOCK ELEMENTS 5(1) 5(1)

9 CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS 3(1) 3(1)

10 HALOALKANES& HALO ARENES 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

11 ALCOHALS, PHENOLS & ETHERS. 4(2) 4(2)

12 ALDEHYDE, KETONES & CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 1(1) 5(1) 6(2)

13 AMINES 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

14 BIOMOLECULES 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

15 POLYMERS 3(1) 3(1)

16 CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE 3(1) 3(1)

TOTAL 5(5) 10(5) 36(12) 15(3) 4(1) 70(26)

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CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

Instructions
All questions are compulsory
Q. No 1 to 5 carry marks 1 each
Q. No 6 to 10 carry marks 2 each
Q. No 11 to 22 carry marks 3 each
Q. No 23 is value based question & carries 4 marks.
Q. No. 24 to 26 carry 5 marks each.
Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

01 A compound contains two types of atoms X & Y. It crystallises in a cubic lattice with 01
atom X at the corners of the unit cell & atoms Y at the body centre. What is the
simplest possible formula of this compound?

02 Which compound in the following pair undergoes SN1 reaction & why? 01

03 Draw the structure of Hex -2 en- 4-yn-l-oic acid. 01

04 Write down the IUPAC name of C6H5NHCH3 01

05 Why vitamin C cannot be stored in the body? 01

06 A solution of Ni(NO3)2 is electrolysed between Pt-electrodes using a current of 5.0 02

ampere for 20 mints. What mass of Ni will be deposited at the cathode? (At. mass of Ni=58.7g)

OR
Write down the electrode reactions of a Pb Storage battery during discharging.

07 The decomposition of NH3 on Pt surface is zero order. What are the rates of 02 production of N2
& H2 if K=2.5X10-4 mol L-1S-1?

08 i. What does happen when H3PO3 is heated? 02


ii. Complete the following reaction:

P4 + NaOH + H2O

09 Give the Mechanism for the acidic dehydration of ethanol to ethene? 02

10 Illustrate the following reactions with suitable examples 02

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18 Account for the following 03

18 Account for the following 03

Willamsons synthesis
Riemer-Tiemann reaction

11 Aluminum crystallizes in an fcc structure. Atomic radius of the metal is 125 pm. 03

What is the length of the side of the unit cell.


What type of semiconductor is produced when Si is doped with boron.

12 Calculate emf o and Gofor the following cell at 298 K 03

Mg(S)|Mg2+(10-3M)||Cu2+(10-4M)|Cu(s)
Given, EoMg2+/Mg= -2.36V, EoCu 2+
/Cu =+0.34V (1F=96500CMol-1)

13 A reaction of first order with respect to A & 2nd order with respect to B 03
Write differential rate equation
How is the rate affected on increasing the conc. of B three times
How is the rate affected when conc. of both A & B is doubled.

OR

a) Derive the integrated rate equation for 1st order reactions


b) Give an example of a pseudo first order reaction

14 Write the principle involved in the refining of metals by the following methods 03
a) Zone refining
b) Vapour phase refining
c) Electrolytic refining

15 Account for the following : 03


NH3 is a stronger base than PH3

Bi(v) is a strong oxidizing agent


Bond dissociation energy of F2 is less than that of Cl2

16 Write the reactions involved in the manufacture of Sulphuric acid by contact process 03

17 .Draw the diagram for crystal field splitting of d-orbital is octahedral field. On the basis of
crystal field theory., write the electronic configuration of d4 in terms of t2g & eg in octahedral field
when (a) o>P (b) o<P 03

18. Account for the following- 03

I. Haloarenes are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions


II. Grignard reagents should be prepared under anhydrous conditions
III. Melting point of p- dichlorobenzene is more than O & m isomers

19 Chemically distinguish between 03


I. Aniline & Ethylamine
II. Methyl amine & dimethylamine
Complete the reaction:

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III. C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O

20 What do you understand about the following, supply suitable examples (if any) 03
a) Denaturation of proteins
b) Inversion of sugar
c) Peptide linkage

21 a) What are thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers. Give one examples of each. 03

b) Arrange the following in increasing order of their intermolecular forces


Nylon 6,6 , Buna-S, Polythene

22 a) How do antiseptics differ from disinfectant? Name a substance which can act 03 both as an
antiseptic and a disinfectant at different concentration.

b) Why is the use of aspartame limited to cold food & drinks?

23 In thermal power stations, coal is burnt to produce steam for generation of electricity. 04
The smoke produced is passed through electrostatic precipitators Answer the following:

I. Why is the smoke passed through electrostatic precipitators?


II. Which property of colloidal solution is used in an electrostatic precipitator?
III. How does coal ash effect environment?
IV. Which value is promoted through the use of this precipitators?

24 i. What do you mean by the following: 05


a) Ideal solution
b) Azeotrope
c) Vapour pressure

II. A solution of glucose (C6H12O6) in water is labeled as 10% by weight. What would be
the molality of the solution? (molar mass of glucose = 180 gmol-1)
OR

Define osmotic pressure. Mathematically, show that how osmotic pressure of a solution is
used to calculate molar mass of a solute

1.00g of a non-electrolyte solute dissolved in 500g of benzene lowered the freezing point of
benzene by 0.40k. The Kf for benzene is 5.12KKgmol-1. Find the molar mass of the solute.

25 i. Complete the following chemical equations 05

a) Cr2O72- + H+ + I-
-
b) MnO4 + Fe2+ + H+

ii. What is Lanthanoid Contaction? What is its cause? Write its two consequences?

OR

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Give reasons :
I. Although F is more electronegative than O, the highest Mn fluoride is MnF4 whereas
the highest oxide is Mn2O7
II. The transition metals & their compounds are generally colored.
III. Transition metals act as good catalyst.

IV. Write the reactions involved in the preparation of KMnO4 from pyrolusite (MnO2)
ore.

26 i. Write the steps involved in the conversion of 05


Aceto phenone to ethyl benzene
Benzoic acid to benzaldehyde

ii Give reasons
Carboxylic acids are stronger acid then phenol
Acetaldehyde gives aldol condensation while formaldehyde does not.
Cyclohexanone forms cyanohydrins in good yields but 2,2,6- trimethyl cyclohexanone does
not.

OR

Complete the following reactions

CH3CHO dil NaOH

Conc + Conc H
HNO SO
b) C6H5COOH 3 2 4

An organic compound (A) with molecular formula C8H16O2 was hydrolysed with dil H2SO4 to give a
carboxylic acid (B) and alcohol (C). Oxidization of C with chromic acid gives B,. C on dehydration gives
but-1-ene. Identity A, B, & C & also write the equations for the reactions involved.

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Page 1 of 6

MARKING SCHEME

SUBJECT : CHEMISTRY

MARKS
SL NO KEY ANSWERS
ALLOTED

1 XY 1

will undergo SN1 reaction faster because it is tert alkyl


halide
3 H3C-CC-HC=CH-COOH 1

4 N-Methyl Aniline 1

5 Because vitamin C is water soluble & is readily excreted through urine 1


Quantity of electricity passed
=IXt
=5 X 20 X 60
=6000
The electrode reaction is Ni2+ + 2e- Ni
6 2 X 96500 C deposit Ni = 58.7g 1
=>6000 C will deposit Ni=
= 1.825g
OR
Anode : Pb(s) + SO42-(aq) PbSO4(s) + 2e- 1
Cathode: PbO2(s) + SO42-(aq)+4H+(aq) + 2e- PbSO4(S) + 2H2O(l) 1

2NH3 N2 + 3H2
Rate = -1/2 = =1/3 =k
7 For zero order reaction, Rate=K=2.5X10-4 molL-1S-1

Rate of production of N2=d[N2]/dt=2.5 X10-4mol l-1S-1

Rate of production of H2=d[H2]/dt=3 X 2.5 X 10-4=7.5 X 10-4mol l-1s-1

1
1. 4H3PO3 PH3 + 3H3PO4
8 1
2. P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O PH3 + 3NaH2PO2

1|Page
Page 2 of 6

1. Formation Of Protonated Alcohol


1
CH3 CH2- OH+ H+ CH3 CH2- OH2+
2. Formation Of Carbocation
+
CH3-CH2-OH2 CH3-CH2+H2O 3.
REMOVAL OF H+

1/2

1. CH3-Cl+CH3ONa CH3OCH3 + NaCl 1

2.

10

1. FOR FCC,
r= a/2

a= 2 r

11 = 2X 1.414 X 125
= 353.5 pm 1
2. P-type semiconductor

2|Page
Page 3 of 6

Cell reaction :

Mg + Cu2+ Mg2+ + Cu; n=2
ECELL= E0CELL - LOG

12 ECELL=0.34-(-2.36)- LOG
ECELL = 2.7-0.02955
ECELL = 2.67V
GO=-nFE0CELL 1
GO=-2 x 96500 x 2.7 1
=-5.21 x 105JMOL-1

1. RATE = = K[A][B]2 1
Rate Will Be Increase By 9 Times 1
2.
1
3. Rate Will Be Increase By 8 Times
OR
13 1. CORRECT DERIVATION OF INTEGRATED ROLE EQUATION FOR 1st ORDER K= LOG
2
2. C12H22O11 + H2O H+ C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 1
Or Any Other Suitable Example.

1. Zone refining is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble
1
in the melt than in the solid state of metal.
2. In this metal is converted into its volatile compound and then decomposed
to give pure metal.
14. 1
3. In electrolytic refining impure metal is made as anode & pure metal is
made as cathode. They are put in a suitable electrolyte of salt of the same
metal. When electric current is passed, impure metal dissolves at anode as
1
metal ions and pure metal is deposited as cathode.

1. Due to small size of N-atom


2. Due to inert pair effect, Bi is more stable in +3 states. Therefore Bi(V) 1
15 gains electron & change to +3 state. 1
3. Due to small size of F atom & more inter-electronic repulsions between 1
valence electrons.
1
1
16 Check the reactions and give marks accordingly.
1

3|Page
Page 4 of 6

Correct diagram showing the splitting of d-orbital in octahedral field 1


17 i. t2g4ego 1
ii. t2g3eg1 1

i. due to resonance a partial double bond character is developed


1
between C & X or any other suitable reason
18 1
ii. because they are highly reactive towards any source of H+ 1
iii. due to more symmetry of p-dichlorobenzene

i. a. by azo dye test or any other suitable test 1


19 b. by carbylamines test or any other suitable test 1
ii. C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O C6H6 1

1. a protein when subjected to change in temp or PH gets destroyed & +


loses its biological activity eg.hardening of egg on boiling
2. sucrose is dextrorotatory. On hydrolysis, it produces a mixture of D+ 1
glucose & D- fructose which is laevorotatory & is called inversion of
20
sugar.
3. The CONH- bond formed between two amino acids with loss of water 1
molecule is called peptide linkage.

a. Two correct differences between thermosetting & thermoplastics with


1+1
21 one examples of each
1
b. Buna s < polythene < nylon 6,6
a. Both antiseptic & disinfectant are chemical substances which kill or
1
resist the growth of microorganisms but antiseptic can be applied
22 in living tissues while disinfectant are harmful to living tissues.
0.2% of phenol acts as antiseptic & 1% of phenol acts as disinfectant
1
b. Because Aspartame decomposes at high temp.
i. To prevene t the passage of particulates in atmosphere
ii. Electrophoresis 1
iii. Coal ash contaminates air & water pollution, environmental 1
23
concern, or any other values. 1
iv. Reducing air & water pollution, environmental concern or 1
any other value.
a.
i. Ideal solution obeys Raoults law over a wide range of
concentration at a particular temp.
ii. Azerotropes are binary mixtures having the same composition
24 in liquid & vapor phase & boil at a constant temp. 1
iii. Vapor pressure: the pressure exerted by the vapors of a liquid at
a state of equilibrium between the liquid & its vapor. 1
b. Molality= (10% glucose means 1o gm of glucose
1
4|Page
Page 5 of 6

present in 90 gm of water)
m= = = =0.61m
+
OR
a. The extra pressure that must be applied on the solution side in order to
prevent osmosis is called osmotic pressure. 1
Mathematically,

CRT= RT= = 1

1
b. Tf=

MB= =256gmol-1 1+1

1
a. 1
1. Cr2O72- + 6I- + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 3I2 + 7H2O
2. MnO4- + 5Fe2+ + 8H+ Mn2+ + 5Fe 3+ + 4H2O 1
b. The gradual decrease in atomic size of Lanthanoids with increasing
atomic number 1
Reason: due to ineffective shielding of electrons in 4f orbitals
Any two consequences +
25 OR
a.
i. Because oxygen is capable of forming bonds 1
ii. Due to presence of unpaired d-electrons & d-d-transition
1
iii. Due to their variable oxidation states & large surface area
1
b. 2MnO2-2 + 4KOH + O2 2K2MnO4 + 2H2O
MnO4
+
+ 4H
4-
2MnO + 2H2O 1
1

5|Page
Page 6 of 6

a.

i. C6H5COCH3 ZN-Hg +HCL C6H5CH2CH3 1

ii. C6H5COOH SOCL C6H5COCl

+1/2
H2, Pd-BaSO4

C6H5CHO
b.
i. Carboxylate ion is more stable than phenoxide ion as the ve
charge in carboxylate ion is dispesed on two more electronegative
O-atoms. 1
ii. Due to presence of H-atom in acetaldehyde
iii.Due to more sterric hindrance in 2,2,6- trimethyl cyclohexanone 1
OR 1
a.

i. 2CH3CHO dil NaOH CH3 CH(OH) CH2CHO


1

26 ii.

b. CH3-CH2-CH2-COO-CH2CH2CH2CH3

(C8H16O2) (A)
Dil. H2SO4
1
CH3CH3CH2-COOH(B) + CH3CH2CH2CH2OH(C)

1
CH3CH2CH2COOH CrO3CH3CH2CH2CH2OH (C)
1
(B) -H2O

CH3-CH2-CH=CH2

***************************************
6|Page
SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 3
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

S No Name of the unit VSA SAI SAII VBQ LA Tot


1mark 2marks 3 marks 4marks 5marks al
1 Solid state 1(1) 3(1) 4

2 Solution 2(1) 3(1) 5

3 Electrochemistry 2(1) 3(1) 5

4 Chemical Kinetics 5(1) 5

5 Surface Chemistry 1(1) 3(1) 4

6 General principles and 3(1) 3


processes of isolation of
element
7 p- Block elements 1(1) 5(1) 6

8 d- and f- Block elements 2(1) 3(1) 5

9 Co-ordination 2(1) 3(1) 5


compounds
10 Haloalkanes and 1(1) 3(1) 4
Haloarenes
11 Alcohols ,Phenols and 1(1) 3(1) 4
Ethers
12 Aldehyde ,Ketones and 2(1) 3(1) 5
Carboxylic acid
13 Organic compounds 5(1) 5
containing nitrogen
14 Biomolecules 3(1) 3
15 Polymers 3(1) 3

16 Chem. in everyday life 4(1) 4

total 1(8) 2(10) 3(9) 5(3) 70

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XII- CHEMISTRY

Duration : 3 hours Max. Marks : 70

INSTRUCTIONS :
(i) All questions are compulsory .

(ii) Q.No. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q.No. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv) Q.No. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

(v) Q.No. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 mark .

(vi) Q.No. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii)Use Log Table,if necessary.Use of calculators is not allowed.

Q.1.What is the effect of temperature on adsorption ?

Q.2.Name an alloy of lanthanoides .

Q.3.Why p-Chlorobenzene has high melting point than o- and m- isomers ?

Q.4.Write the IUPAC name of CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH .

Q.5.What is the atomic packing fraction in FCC ?

Q.6.Write the equation for the preparation of Patassium dichromate .

OR

Complete and balance the following reactions-

(i) Cr2 O72- + SO3 2- ----------

(ii) Mn O 2 +KOH + O 2 --------

Q.7.(a)Write the chemical formula of Potassium hexacyanidoferrate(lll) .

(b)What is synergic bond ?

Q.8.Define the following name reacton with equation

(a)Cannizzaro reaction

(b) Aldol condensation

Q.9.`(a) When is the value of vant Hoff factor more than one ?

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(b)What type of deviation from ideal behavior will be shown by solution of chloroform and

Acetone ?

Q.10.(a) What is the relationship between degree of dissociation and dissociation constant?

(b)Why a mercury cell gives constant voltage throughout its life ?


3
Q.11.The density of KBr is 2.75 g/cm .The length of edge of the unit cell is 654pm. Predict the

type of the cubic lattice to which unit cell of KBr belongs ? (Atomic mass: K=39,Br=39)

Q.12.A solution prepared by dissolving 8.95 mg of a gene fragment in 35.0 ml of water has an

osmotic pressure of 0.335 torr at 270 C.Assuming that the gene fragment is a non-electrolyte,

Calculate its molarmass ?

Q.13.Calculate the cell potential of a cell having following cell representation-


2+ +
Mg(s)/Mg (0.130M) // Ag ( 0.0001M) /Ag (s)
0 2+ 0 +
Given : E Mg/Mg =+2.37 V ; : E Ag/Ag =+ 0.80 V

Q.14.What happens when-

(a) A beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution

(b)NaCl is added to ferric hydroxide sol

(c)Electric current is passed through a colloidal sol

Q.15.(a)Write the name of metals which are refined by the following process-

Monds process , Zone refining

(b)What is the role of depressant in froth floatation process ?


2+
Q.16.(a)What is the magnetic moment of Cu ?

(b)Name a transition element which does not shows variable oxidation state .

(c)Why Actinoid contraction is greater than Lanthanoid contraction ?


3-
Q.17.Compare the magnetic nature of [Fe(CN) 6] and [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ with the help of crystal

Field theory .Draw the diagram and write the electronic configuration also .
1
Q.18.Draw the isomers of Bromobutane and arrange them in increasing order of showing SN
reaction.

Q.19.Write the mechanism of formation of ethene from ethanol .

Q.20. Distinguish between the following pairs-

(a)Methanoic acid and Ethanoic acid

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(b)Pentanone -2 and Pentanone -3

(c)Acetaldehyde and Benzaldehyde

Q.21.(i)Name a nitrogen base which is found in RNA but not in DNA .

(ii)Name the bonding present in secondary structure of proteins.

(iii) Name a water soluble vitamin.

OR

Define the following-

Zwitter ion , Mutation , Glycosidic linkage

Q.22. Write the preparation of following polymers

Teflon ,Nylon 66, PHBV

Q.23.Analgesics are the chemical substances which give relief to the body from pains and act on

Our nervous system.these are of 2 types-narcotics and nonnarcotics. Whereas the former

Leades to addiction and are highly toxic but the latter are not.

(i)Name a substance which act as analgesic as well as antipyretics.

(ii)What is its IUPAC name .

(iii)How does it help heart patients?

(iV)What precautions must be taken while taking it ?

Q.No.24.Identify A,B,C,D and E in the following reaction .


A NaNO2 /HCl Cu/HCl NaOH, 623K

C6 H5CONH2 -------- C6H5NH 2-------------- B ---------- C--------------- D

E 300 atm

C 6H6

OR

(a)Give reason why-

(i) Aniline does not undergo Friedel craft alkylation ?

(ii)Acylation is carried out before nitration of aniline ?

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(iii) Boiling point of primary amines are higher than tertiary amines ?

(iv) pKb value of aniline is more than methyl amine ?

(b)What is Hinsbergs reagent ?Write its one application.

Q.25.(a) Draw the structures of the following-

XeOF4 , H3PO2

(b)Complete and balance the following equation-

(i) P4 + NaOH + H2O -----------

(ii) H2 S2O7 + H2O -----------

(iii) NH3 + Cl2 (excess) -----------

OR

(a) What is the difference between bleaching action of Cl2 and SO2 ?
(b) Why NH3 is more basic than BiH3 ?
(c) Name a halogen which form one oxoacid.Write its formula.
(d) What is the basicity of H3PO3 ?[
(e) Draw the structure of BrF3 .

Q.No.26.(a)Three-fourth of a reacton is completed in 32 minutes.What is the

Half life period of the reacton ?

(b)Why does the rate of any reaction decreases during the reaction?
-2
(c)Value of rate constant of a reaction is 5.2 x 10 MolL -1 sec -1.

What is the order of reaction ?

OR

(i)The rate constant of a reaction are 1x10 -3 sec -1 and 2x 10 -3 sec -1

at 27 0 C and 37 0 C respectively.Calculate the activation energy of

this teaction .

(ii)The rate law f a reaction is as follows-

Rate = K [A] 2 [B]0

What will be the rate of reaction if the concentration of A is double?

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MARKING SCHEME

S.No Answer Marks


1 On increasing temperature physical adsorption decrease and chemical adsorption increase . 1
2 Mischmetal 1
3 Due to symmetry 1
4 Propan-1,2,3-triol 1
5 74% 1
6 4 FeCr 2 O 4 + 16NaOH + 7O2 8Na 2 Cr O4 + 2Fe 2 O 3 + 8 H2 O 1
Chromite ore Sod. Chromate
2Na 2 Cr O4 + 2H + Na 2 Cr2O7 + 2Na +
Na 2 Cr2O7 + 2KCl K 2 Cr2O7 + 2NaCl
Sod. Dichromate Pot. dichromate
OR

(i) Cr2 O72- + 3SO3 2- + 8H + ----------2Cr 3+ + 3SO4 2- + 4 H2 O 1

(ii)2 MnO 2 + 4KOH + O 2 -------- K 2 MnO4 + 2 H2 O 1

Pot. manganate

7 (a) K 3 [Fe (CN) 6 ] 1


(b) Bond between transition metal and carbonyl compound
1
8 (a) Definition and equation of Cannizzaro reaction 1
(b) Definition and equation of Aldol condensation 1
9 (a) In case of dissociation of solute 1
(b) Negative deviation due to formation of intermolecular hydrogen bond 1

10 (a) K = C x 2 / (1-x) 1
(b) Because overall reaction does nt have any ion 1

11 d= Z x M / N o x a 3 1
2.75 = Z x 119 / 6.022x 10 23 x (654 x 10 -10
) 1
Z= 4(fcc) 1

12. V=wRT/m 1
-3 -3
(0.335/760)(35 x10 )= (8.95 x x10 )x0.0821 x298 /m 1
M=14193.3 g/mol 1

13. E 0 cell = E 0 (cathode) - E 0 (anode) 1/2


=0.80 ( -2.37 ) = 3.17 Volt 1/2
E cell = E 0 cell -0.0591 /n log [Mg 2+ ] / [Ag +
] 2
1
E cell = E 0 cell -0.0591 /2 log( 0.130/ 10 -8
1/2
E cell = 3.17 -0.21 = 2.96 volt 1/2

14. (a) Tyndall effect 1

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(b) coagulation 1
(c)Electrophorasis 1
15. (a) Ni by Monds process ,Si by zone refining 1+1
(b) It prevent one of the sulphide ore out of two to form the froth 1
16. (a)1.73 B.M. 1
(b) Sc 1
(c)due to poor shielding effect 1

17. Diagram of crystal filled splitting of [Fe(CN) 6] 3- and [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ 1


[Fe(CN) 6] 3- is less paramagnetic but [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ is more paramagnetic 1
E.C. [Fe(CN) 6] 3- =t2g 5 .eg 0 and E.C. [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ t2g 3 .eg 2 1

18. CH3- CH2 -CH2 -CH2 -Br < CH3- CH( CH3 ) CH2 -Br < CH3- CH( Br ) CH2 CH3 < ( CH3) 3 Br 2+1
( 2 marks for writing isomers and I mark for correct order )

19. Mechanism of formatin of ethene from ethanol 3


(each step carry I mark )
20. (a)On adding tollens reagent ,methanoic acid gives silver mirror but ethanoic acid does not . 1
(b)On adding Iodine and NaOH ,Pentanone-2 gives yellow ppt. of iodoform but Pentanone-3 1
does not. 1
(c)On adding Fehling solution A and B ,Acetaldehyde gives red ppt. but Benzaldehyde does
not .
21. Uracil 1
(a) Hydrogen bond 1
Vitamin C 1
(b) OR
1 mark for each definition Definations 3
(c)
22. One mark for each preparation 3

23. (i)Aspirin 1
(ii) 2- Acetoxybenzoic acid 1
(iii)It prevent the coagulation of blood in body 1
(iv) It should not be taken empty stomach 1

24. Br 2 /KOH NaNO2 /HCl Cu/HCl NaOH, 623K 5

C6 H5CONH2 -------- C6H5NH 2----------- C6H5N 2 + Cl - --------- C6H5Cl--------- C6H5OH

H 3PO 2, 300 atm

C 6H6

OR

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(a) 1

(i) Aniline is basic while anhy AlCl 3 is lewis acid,so they react to form salt 1

(ii) To prevent the formation of meta product 1

(iii) Due to formation of inter molecular hydrogen bonding 1


(iv) Aniline is less basic due to C6H5 Which shoes I effect while Methyl amine
contains CH3 group which shows +I effect 1
(c) Benzeneslphonyl chloride (C6H5SO 2 Cl ).It is used to distinguish between pri., sec.
,tert. amnes

25. (a) 1 mark for each structure 2


(b) (i) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O ----------- PH 3 + 3 NaH 2PO 2
1
Phosphine

(ii) H2 S2O7 + H2O ----------- 2 H 2 SO4( Sulphuric acid ) 1

1
(iii) NH3 +3 Cl2 (excess) ----------- NCl 3 + 3HCl

OR

(a)Bleaching action of Cl2 is due to oxidizing property while of SO 2 is due to reducing 1


property
1
(b)due to more electron density on NH 3

1
(c)Fluorine,HOF
1
(d)two

(e) structure of BrF 3 1

26. (a) K= 2.303 /t log a/a-x 1


K=2.303/32 log 4 =(2.303/32)(2x0.3010)=.693/16 1
t = 0.693/k =16 minutes 1
(b)Because concentration of reactants decrease 1
(c)Zero order 1
OR
(i) Log k2/k1 =E a/2.303R(1/T 1 - 1/ T 2 ) 1
Log 2x10 -3 / 1x10 -3 =Ea /2.303/8.31 (1/300 -1/ 310) 1
Log 2 = Ea/19.137 (10/300x310) 1
Ea =53.6 kj/mol 1
(ii) Rate of reaction increases 4 times 1

Value Education with Training


SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 4
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

VSA VALUE
SA I SAII LA II
S.NO. UNIT (1 BASED TOTAL
(2MARKS) (3MARKS) (5MARKS)
MARK) (4MARKS)
1 Solid state 1(1) - 3(1) - 4(2)
23
2 Solutions - 2(1) 3(1) - 5(2)
3 Electrochemistry - 2(1) 3(1) - 5(2)
4 Chemical kinetics - - - 5(1) 5(1)
5 Surface chemistry 1(1) - 3(1) - 4(2)
General principles
& processes of 19
6 - - 3(1) - 3(1)
isolation of
Elements
7 p-block elements 1(1) 2(1) - 5(1) 8(3)
d-& f- block
8 - 2(1) 3(1) - 5(2)
elements
Coordination
9 - - 3(1) - 3(1)
compounds
Haloalkanes &
10 1(1) - 3(1) - 4(2)
Haloarenes
Alcohol, Phenols&
11 1(1) - 3(1) - 4(2)
ethers
Aldeydes,Ketones 28
12 - 2(2) 3(1) - 5(2)
& Carboxylic acids
13 Amines - - - 5(1) 5(1)
14 Biomolecules - - 3(1) - 3(1)
15 Polymers - - 3(1) - 3(1)
Chemistry in 4(1)
16 - - - - 4(1)
everyday life
TOTAL 5(5) 10(5) 36(12) 4(1) 15(3) 70(26)

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SUBJECT : CHEMISTRY(043)
Time Allowed: 3 Hrs Maximum Marks : 70

General Instructions:-
(a) All questions are compulsory.
(b) Q.no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(c) Q.no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(d) Q.no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each
(e) Q.no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
(f) Q.no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each
(g) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

Q.1 Why does PCl3 fume in moisture?


Q.2 Give IUPAC Name of CH2 =CH-CHOHCH2-CH=CH2.

Q.3Arrange the following set of compounds in order of increasing boiling point. 1-Chloropropane,
Isopropyl chloride, 1-Chlorobutane.
Q.4 Why does solubility decreases with increasing molecular mass in carboxylic acid?
Q. 5 Which substance exhibit both schottky and Frenkel defects.
Q.6 (a)Why do the transition elements exhibit higher enthalpies of atomization?
(b) Why is the E0 value for the Mn3+/Mn2+ couple much more positive than that for Cr3+/Cr2+ or
Fe3+/Fe2+ ? Explain.
Q.7Important allotropic forms of phosphorus are white phosphorus, red phosphorus and black
phosphorus. Among these which allotropic form is most reactive? Why?

Q.8Write down the following reactions


(i) Riemer - Tiemann reaction. (ii)Clemmensons reduction

Q.9 What is meant by positive and negative deviations from Raoult's law and how is the sign of mixH
related to positive and negative deviations from Raoult's law?
OR
State Henrys law and mention some important applications?

Q.10Represent the cell in which the following reaction takes place


Mg(s) + 2Ag+(0.0001M) Mg2+ (0.130M) + 2Ag(s)
Calculate its E(cell) if Eocell = 3.17 V.

Q.11An element has a body-centred cubic (bcc) structure with a cell edge of 288 pm. The density of
the element is 7.2 g/cm3. How many atoms are present in 208 g of the element?

Q.12The boiling point of benzene is 353.23 K. When 1.80 g of a non-volatile solute was dissolved in
90 g of benzene, the boiling point is raised to 354.11 K. Calculate the molar mass of the solute.
Kb for benzene is 2.53 K kg mol1.

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Q.13 Explain the following:-
(i)Electrophoresis
(ii) Coagulation
(iii) Shape selective catalysis
Q.14(a)What is the role of depressant in froth floatation process?
(b)State the role of silica in the metallurgy of copper.
(c)Out of C and CO, which is a better reducing agent at 673 K ?
OR
Explain the following:-
(a) Zone refining
(b)At a site, low grade copper ores are available and zinc and iron scraps are also available.
Which of the two scraps would be more suitable for reducing the leached copper ore and
why?
(c)Why the reduction of a metal oxide is easier if the metal formed is in liquid state at the
temperature of reduction?
Q.15 How many grams of chlorine can be produced by the electrolysis of molten NaCl with a current
of 1.02 A for 15 min?
Q.16 Describe the preparation of potassium dichromate from iron chromite ore. What is the effect
of increasing pH on a solution of potassium dichromate?
Q.17 a) Draw the structures of optical isomers of: [Cr(C2O4)3]3
b) Cr(NH3)6]3+ is paramagnetic while [Ni(CN)4]2 is diamagnetic. Explain why?
Q.18 Arrange in increasing order of boiling points.
(a)Bromobenzene, Bromoform, chloromethane,Dibromo-methane
(b)1-chloropropane, Isopropyl chloride, 1-Chlorobutane.
(c) Predict the order of reactivity in SN1
C6H5CH2Br,C6H5CH(C6H5)Br,C6H5CH(CH3)Br, C6H5C(CH3)(C6H5)Br
Q.19 i)Alcohols are comparatively more soluble in water than hydrocarbons of comparable
molecular masses. Explain.
ii)What is meant by hydroboration-oxidation reaction? Illustrate it with an example.

Q.20write down the following reactions;


(a)Aldol condensation
(b)Gattermann Koch reaction
(c)Give a chemical test to distinguish between propanal and prapanone.

Q.21 i)What is the basic structural difference between starch and cellulose?
ii)What is the effect of denaturation on the structure of proteins?
iii)What happens when D-glucose is treated with the HI ?

Q.22Arrange the following polymers in increasing order of their intermolecular forces.


(i) Nylon 6,6, Buna-S, Polythene.
(ii)What is a biodegradable polymer ? Give an example of a biodegradable aliphatic polyester.
(iii)Discuss the main purpose of vulcanisation of rubber.

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Q.23Ashraf is 50 years old and has diabetes. He uses saccharine as sweetening agent in tea and
coffee and sugar free in sweets. Lakshmi too is diabetic. She controls her sugar level in diet by
using less sugar and by exercising.
a.)Who is able to handle diabetes more efficiently and why?
b.)What value do you derive from this?
c.) What are the harmful effects of artificial sweeteners?
d.)Give any one example of an artificial sweetener.

Q.24(a)Define the following terms :


(i) Half-life period
(ii) Pseudo first order reactions
(iii)Activation energy
b) The rate constant of a reaction w.r.t.the reactant A is 6 min-1. If we start with [A]=0.8 moL-1,
when would [A] reach the value of 0.08 molL-1?

OR
For a certain chemical reaction variation in the concentration in [R] vs. time in (s) plot is given
below .
For this reaction write/draw

A) What is order of the reactions ?


B) What are the units of rate constant K ?
C) Give the relationship between K and t (half life period)
D)What does the slope of the above line indicates ?
E)Draw the plot log Vs Time t(s).

Q.25Answer the following questionns


I) Explain: fluorine forms only one Oxoacid , HOF.
II)Enthalpy of dissociation for F2 is smaller than that for Cl2. Why?
III)How is NH3 used for the detection of Cu2+ ions?
IV)How does Cl2 react with cold and dilute NaOH.
V)How can SO2 be tested using KMnO4 solution?
OR
I) Oxygen exists as gas at room temperature while sulphur is solid. Why

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II)What is Aqua regia? How does it dissolve gold metal?
III) Give reasons for the following:
a) Aqueous solution of ammonia is slightly basic.
b) The bond angle in PH4+ higher than in PH3.
c) Axial bonds in PCl5 longer than equatorial bonds.

Q.26I) How will you differentiate in between primary, secondary and tertiary amines?
II) Why aniline does not undergo Friedel Crafts reaction?
III) How is the basic strength of aromatic amines affected by the presence of electron releasing
group on the benzene ring?
OR
I)An aromatic compound A on treatment with aqueous ammonia and heating forms compound B
which on heating with Br2 and KOH forms a compound C of molecular formula C6H7N. Write
the structures and IUPAC names of compounds A, B and C.
II) Complete the following reactions:

CH3NH2 + C6H5COCl + ..
III) Explain the coupling reaction with example.

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MARKING SCHEME

Q. No. Expected Answers / Value Points Marks

Q.1. In the presence of (H2O) , PCl3 undergoes hydrolysis giving fumes of HCl . 1
PCl3 + 3H2O H3PO3 + 3HCl

Q.2. Hex-1,5-diene-3-ol 1

Q.3. Isopropyl Chloride < 1-Chloropropane < 1-Chlorobutane. 1

Q.4. Because of increase in alkyl chain length which is hydrophobic in nature. 1

Q.5. AgBr 1

Q.6. (a) Larger number of unpaired electrons and stronger bonding 1,1
(b) Due to much larger third I.E. of Mn

Q.7. White phosphorus.Due to considerable angle strain and weaker forces of attraction 1,1

Q.8. a) 1

1
Zn-Hg
b) RCHO+4H RCH3+H2O
HCl

Q.9. Proper explation with signs of H


OR 1, 1
Statement,any two applications
Q.10. The cell can be written as Mg

Ecell = EOcell - RTln[Mg2+] 1/2


+ 2
2F [Ag ]
=3.17 -- 0.059 log (0.130)
2 (0.0001)2
1/2
= 3.17 V 0.21V = 2.96 V
Q.11. DENSITY = Z X M
a3 No
7.2 = 2xM 1
288x 10-10 x 6.02x1023

M = 51.8

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1
208gm of the element contains atoms = 6.02x1023 x 208 = 24.17x 1023
51.8
Q.12. The elevation (Tb) in the boiling point = 354.11 K 353. 23 K = 0.88 K 1

M2 = 2.53 K kg mol1 1.8 g 1000 1,1


1
0.88 K 90 g =58 g mol

Q.13. (a)Movement of colloidal particles under the influence of electric field 1

(b)Process of aggregation of colloidal particles 1

( c ) The catalytic reaction that depends upon the pore size of the catalyst 1
and the size of reactant and product molecules is called shape selective
catalysis. e.g. Zeolites are good shape selective catalysts.

Q.14. (a) To prevent one type of sulphide ore particles from forming froth (with example) 1

(b)To act as flux (proper explation) 1

(c)At 673 K (Low temp) CO is better reducing agent. At higher temp. carbon I is better 1
reducing agent

OR
1
(a) Correct Explanation
(b)Zinc being above iron in the electrochemical series (more reactive metal is zinc), the 1
reduction will be faster in case zinc scraps are used. But zinc is costlier metal than iron so
using iron scraps will be advisable and advantageous 1
.
(c )The entropy is higher if the metal is in liquid state than when it is in solid state. The
value of entropy change (S) of the reduction process is more on +ve side when the
metal formed is in liquid state and the metal oxide being reduced is in solid state. Thus
the value of G0
becomes more on negative side and the reduction becomes easier.
Q.15. 2NaCl(l) 2Na+(l)+2Cl-(l)

- - 1
2 Cl Cl2(g) + 2e 2 mole 1mol

Q= nf

Q= 2 x 96500 C/mol= 1.93 x 105C

Quantity of electricity used = It

= 1.02 A X (15 X 60)sec


1
= 900C

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-1 5
Molar mass of Cl2 = 2 X 35.5 = 71 gmol X 10 C of charge produce chlorine = 71g

5
1.93 X 10 C of charge produce chlorine = 71gm

900 C of charge produce chlorine 71 X 900


1
5
1.93 X 10

= 0.331 gm

Q.16. 4 FeCr2O4+ 4 Na2CO3 +7O2 2 Na2CrO4+ 2Fe2O3 +8 CO2 1


1
2Na2CrO4 + 2 H+
1
Na2Cr2O7+Na++H2O
Na2Cr2O7 + 2 KCl K2Cr2O7 + 2 NaCl

Q.17.

B) Cr(NH3)6]3+ -----------> d2sp3 hybridisation ,unpaired electrons 1

[Ni(CN)4]2 ----------> dsp2 hybridisation ,strong field ligand, no unpaired electron 1

Q.18. (a)chloromethane<Bromobenzene<Dibromo-methane< , Bromoform 1

(b),Isopropylechloride<1-chloropropane<1-Chlorobutane 1

(As Branching increases, boiling point decreases) 1


(c) C6H5C(CH3)(C6H5)Br>C6H5(C6H5)Br> C6H5CH(CH3)Br>C6H5CH2Br
30>20>10(SN1)

Q.19. a) Intermolecular H-Bonding (Explanation) 1


b) CH3-CH=CH2 + BH3 ----------> CH3-CH-CH2CH3-CH=CH2>(CH3- CH2- CH2)2 BH
l1
H BH2
CH3-CH=CH2>(CH3- CH2- CH2)3 B H2-O , OH->CH3- CH2- CH2OH + H3BO3 2

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Q.20. Aldol.Condensation:-
OH
dil NaOH 1
2 H3C CHO H3C CH CH2 CHO H3C CH CH CHO

Gattermann Koch Reaction :-


CO,+HCl
--CHO
1
Anhyd.AlCl3/CuCl

Benzene >benzaldehyde
1
(a) Tollen s test or Fehlings test (with equations)

Q.21. (a) Starch is a polymer of -glucose and consists of two components 1


Amylose and Amylopectin. Cellulose is a straight chain
polysaccharide composed only of -D-glucose units which are
joined by glycosidic linkage between C1 of one glucose unit and
C4 of the next glucose unit.
(b) During denaturation 2 and 3 structures are destroyed but
1 structure remains intact. 1
(c) On prolonged heating with HI, it forms n-hexane,(Reaction)
1

Q.22. (a) Buna-S <, Polythene < Nylon 6,6 1


(b) Definition, PHBV 1
(c) Vulcanized rubber has excellent elasticity. low water absorption tendency and 1
resistant to action of organic solvents
Q.23. a.)Lakshmi is able to handle diabetes better, because exercises activate the pancreases 1
to produce insulin. Exercise keeps one fit and fine. 1
b.) It is necessary to lead a disciplined life. 1
c.) Researches have shown that the artificial sweeteners have harmful effect on the
1
body because they are not excreted easily.
d) Anyone artificial sweetner

Q.24. (a) Correct definitions 1,1,1

(b) Ans:- For first order reaction t = 2.303/k log [R]0/[R] 2


[R]0 = o.8 mol L-1 [R] = 0.08 mol L-1 k = 6 min-1
t = 2.303/6 min-1 log [0.8mol L-1/0.08 molL-1]
= 2.303/6 min-1 x log 10
= 0.38 min
OR
Ans:- A. First order.
1
-1
B. time (s )
1
C. K=
1

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D. Rate constant K of reaction . 1

E. 1

Q.25. I)Because of the absence of d subshell. 1


II)Enthalpy dissociation for F2 is smaller than thatfor Cl2 because of the large electron-
electron repulsion among the lone pairs in F2 molecule. They are very close to each other 1
than in Cl2.
III): N in NH3 has a lone pair of electronwhich it can donates to Cu2+ ions and form 1
linkage with the metal.This leads to the formation of a deep blue colored complex which
helps in the detection of Cu2+ ions. 1
Cu2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq)
1
(IV) 2NaOH + Cl2 NaCl + NaOCl + H2O 1

V) when SO2 is passed through acidified potassium permanganate solution. Itact as a


reducing agent and decolorizes the solution .
5SO2 + 2MnO4- + 2H2O 5SO42- + 4H+ + 2Mn2+ 1
OR
I)Oxygen exists as O2 i.e. O=O with weak vander wall forces and low molecular mass.
Therefore, it is in gaseous form at room temperature. While sulphur exists as S8 at room 1

temperature, its molecular mass is much higher and the forces of attraction are
stronger. Therefore, it is solid at a room temperature.
1
II)Aqua regia is formed by mixing 3 parts of concentrated HCl and 1 part of concentrated
1
HNO3. It can dissolve gold as per the following reaction:
1
Au + 4H+ NO3- + 4Cl-AuCl4- + NO + 2H2O

III): a) N in NH3 has a lone pair of electrons that can be donated to form linkage with the
metal ions and hence NH3 acts as Lewis base.
b) Lone pair of electronsare not present in PH4+ but in PH3,theseare present and repel the
bonds, giving a smaller bond angle.
c) Axial bonds are longer than equatorial bonds in PCl5 because of the higher repulsion
experienced by the axial bond pairs as three pairs of electrons repel them whereas only
two pairs of electrons atrracts the equatorial bonds.

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Q.26. I)In Friedel crafts reaction AlCl3 is used as the catalyst with which anilines give salts. so 1
the reaction is not possible for aniline
II) An electron releasing group increases the electron density on the N-atom. So, its
tendency to donate an electron pair to a proton increases and hence the basicity of the
amine.
1
III) ) We can differentiate primary, secondary and tertiary amines by Hinsberg test.
When amines are treated with benzene sulphonyl chloride, the following changes occur: 1
-
1
(i) Primary amines form monoalkyl benzene sulphonamide, which is soluble in KOH.

RNH2 + C6H5SO2Cl C6H5SO2NHR C6H5SO2NKR 1

Primary Benzene sulphonyl Monoalkyl Potassium salt of


Monoalkyl Chloride sulphonamide Amine sulphonamide
(ii) Secondary amines form dialkyl benzene sulphonamide, which is insoluble in KOH.

R2NH + C6H5SO2Cl C6H5SO2NR2 insoluble


dialkyl sulphonamide
(iii) Tertiary amine does not react.
OR

I)It is given that compound C having the molecular formula, C6H7N is formed by heating
compound B with Br2 and KOH. This is a Hoffmann bromamide degradation
reaction. Therefore, compound B is an amide and compound C is an amine. The
only amine having the molecular formula, C6H7N is aniline, (C6H5NH2).The given
reactions can be explained with the help of the following equations:
1, 1, 1

II) CH3NH2 + C6H5COCl CH3NHCOC6H5 + HCl

III) Benzene diazonium chloride reacts with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its
para position is coupled with the diazonium salt to form p-hydroxybenzene. This 1
type of reaction is known as coupling reaction.

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 5
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

S.No. Type of question Marks for each No. of questions Total marks
question
1 VERY SHORT 1 5 5
ANSWER

2 SHORT ANSWER 2 5 10

3 SHORT ANSWER 3 12 36

4 VALUE BASED 4 1 4

5 LONG ANSWER 5 3 15
TYPE
6 TOTAL 26 70

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QUESTION PAPER
CLASS XII
SUBJECT : CHEMISTRY
MM : 70 TIME : 3 Hours
General Instructions:
a) All the questions are compulsory.
b) There are 26 questions in total.
c) Questions 1 to 5 are very short answer type questions and carry one mark each.
d) Questions 6 to 10 carry two marks each.
e) Questions 11 to 22 carry three marks each.
f) Questions 23 is value based question carrying four marks.
g) Questions 24 to 26 carry five marks each.
h) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question
of
two marks, one question of three marks and all three questions in five marks each. You have
to attempt only one of the choices in such questions.
Use of calculators is not permitted. However, you may use log tables if necessary .

Q.1 Which point defect in the crystals of a solid decrease its density?
Q.2 Nitrogen is relatively inert as compared to phosphorus. Why?
Q.3 Write the IUPAC name of CH3 CH Cl - CH2 CH=CH2 .
Q.4 What is an oil/water (O/W) type emulsion? Give an example.
Q.5 p nitrophenol is more acidic than p methylphenol. Why?
Q.6 What is the unit of rate constant for zero order reaction? Give an example of zero order
reaction.
Q.7 Give a chemical test to distinguish between 10,20 and 30 amines. Write the reactions
also.
OR
i) Alkyl amines are more basic than aryl amines. Explain .
ii) Why does aniline not undergo Friedel Craft reaction?
Q.8 a) Why does the tetrahedral complex of the type [MA2B2] not show geometrical
isomerism?
b) What is an ambidentate ligand ? Give one example.
Q.9 Write the anode and cathode reactions and the overall reaction occurring in a lead
storage battery.
Q.10 State Henrys law correlating the pressure of a gas and its solubility in a solvent and
mention two applications of the law.
Q.11 Silver crystallizes in fcc lattice.The edge length of its unit cell is 4.077 x 10 8 cm and
its
density is 10.5 g/cm3. Calculate the atomic mass of silver.
Q.12 A reaction is second order in A and first order in B.
(i) Write the differential rate equation.
(ii) How is the rate affected on increasing the concentration of A three times?
(iii) How is the rate affected when the concentrations of both A and B are doubled?
OR
(i) A first order reaction takes 40 minutes for 30% decomposition. Calculate t1/2 for this
reaction.
(Given log 1.428 = 0.1548)
(ii) What is the unit of rate constant k for zero order reaction?

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Q.13 Define the following terms: (i) Mole fraction (ii) Vant Hoff factor (iii) Colligative
properties.
Q.14 Write the name ,state of hybridization ,the shape and magnetic behavior of following
-
complexes : [CoCl4]2- , [Ni(CN)4]2- and [Cr(H2O)2(C2O4)2]
Q.15a) Give an example of a bio degradable polymer.
b) Define thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Give one example of each.

Q.16 Give a chemical equation for each of the following reactions:


(i) Williamsons synthesis
(ii) Reimer-Tiemann reaction
Q.17 (a) State Kohlrauschs law of independent migration of ions.
(b) Calculate m for acetic acid. Given that m (HCl) = 426 S cm2 / mol m (NaCl) = 126
S cm2 /mol and m (CH3COONa) = 91 S cm2 / mol.
Q.18 How will you convert the following:
(i) Aniline to chlorobenzene
(ii) Ethanoic acid to methanamine
(iii) Benzene diazonium chloride to phenol
Q.19 a)Explain as to why haloarenes are much less reactive than haloalkanes towards
nucleophilic substitution reactions.
b) Complete the following chemical equation:
CH3CH2CH= CH2 + HBr peroxide
c) Which of the following shows faster SN2 reaction and why
CH3CH2CH2CH2I or CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl.
Q.20 What happens in the following activities and why?
(i) An electrolyte is added to a hydrated ferric oxide sol in water.
(ii) A beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution.
(iii) An electric current is passed through a colloidal solution.
Q.21. Describe the role of the following:
(i) NaCN in the extraction of silver from a silver ore
(ii) Iodine in the refining of titanium
(ii) Cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium.
Q.22 Mention one use of each of the following :
(i) Ranitidine (ii) Aspartame (iii) Sodium benzoate
Q.23 Sheela did not eat fruits inspite of her mothers constant reminders.She became very
weak.Her roommate Sarita took her to a doctor.The doctor told her that fruits and
vegetables contain vitamins which are essential for maintenance of normal growth and
health of the people. Vitamins are required only in small amounts and should not be taken
in excess.
Answer the following questions:
(i) Out of water soluble and fat soluble vitamins which can be stored in our body?
(ii) Name any two water soluble and two fat soluble vitamins.
(iii) Name any two values shown by Sarita?
Q.24 a) Explain the following observations:
(i) With the same d-orbital configuration (d4) Cr2+ ion is a reducing agent while Mn3+ ion is an
oxidising agent.
(ii) Cu+ ion is not stable in aqueous solutions.

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(iii) Among the 3d series of transition elements, the largest number of oxidation states are
exhibited by manganese.
b) Complete the following chemical reaction equations:
2 +
(i) MnO4 (aq) + C2O4 (aq) + H (aq)
2 2 +
(ii) Cr2O7 (aq) + Fe (aq) + H (aq)
R
a) How would you account for the following:
(i) Many of the transition elements and their compounds can act as good catalysts.
(ii) The metallic radii of the third (5d) series of transition elements are virtually the same as
those of the corresponding members of the second series.
(iii) There is a greater range of oxidation states among the actinoids than among the
lanthanoids.
(iv) Many of the transition elements are known to form interstitial compounds.
(v) There is a general increase in density from titanium (Z = 22) to copper (Z = 29).
Q.25 (a) Complete the following equations:
(i) XeF2 PF5
(ii) Cl2 ( g) + NaOH (aq )
( hot and conc.)
(b) Explain the following observations:
(i) +3 oxidation state becomes more and more stable from As to Bi in the group.
(ii) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetism.
(iii) Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state.
OR
(a) Draw the molecular structures of the following species:
(i) H3PO3 (ii) BrF3
(b) Explain the following observations:
(i) No distinct chemical compound of helium is known.
(ii) Phosphorus has a greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen.
(iii) In solutions of H2SO4 in water, the second dissociation constant Ka 2, is less than the first
dissociation constant Ka 1.
Q.26 (a) Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following:
(i) Propanal and propanone
(ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone
(b) How would you obtain :
(i) But-2-enal from ethanal?
(ii) Butanoic acid from butanol?
(iii) Benzoic acid from ethylbenzene?
OR
(a) Describe the following reactions giving a chemical equation in each case:
(i) Cannizzaro reaction
(ii) Decarboxylation reaction
(b) Complete the following chemical equations:
(i) C6H5 CH2CH3 KMnO4 KOH, Heat

(ii) SOCl2 Heat


C

COOH
(iii) C6H5CONH2 H3O+ heat

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MARKING SCHEME

Ans. Answer Marks


No.
1 Schottky defect 1
2 N2 molecule has high bond enthalpy due to the presence of triple bond whereas 1
P4 has angle strain
3 4-Chloropent-1-ene. 1
4 In such emulsions oil is the dispersed phase and water is the dispersion 1
medium, e.g., milk, vanishing cream.
5 - Nitro group is electron withdrawing group,increasing the acidity whereas 1
methyl group is electron releasing group which decreases the acidic nature.
6 mol/Ls , any example of zero order reaction 1+1
7 Hinsberg test,reactions of Hinsberg reagent with 10,20 and 30 amine 1+1
OR i)Due to resonance ,lone pair of electrons on N of arylamine is not available for
donation. ii) Aniline is a base which reacts with AlCl3 which is a Lewis acid. 1+1
8 a)In tetrahedral complexes of unidentate ligands the relative positions of 1+1
ligands attached to the central atom are the same with respect to each other.
b) A unidentate ligand which is capable of ligating through 2 donor atoms is
ambidentate ,eg. (CN - ,NC- ) ( - NO2 , - ONO) or any other
9 When lead battery operates, the following cell reactions occur:

Anode half cell reaction: Pb (s) + SO4 2 (aq) PbSO4 (s) + 2e
Cathode half cell reaction: 1

PbO2 (s) + 4 H+ (aq) + SO4 2 + 2e PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l) 1
Net reaction, Pb(s) + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 (aq) 2PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l)
10 It states that at constant temperature the mass of a gas(m) dissolved in a given 1
volume of the liquid(solubility) is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas
(P) present in equilibrium with the liquid. Mathematically , p = KH. x
Applications of Henrys law are
(i) To increase the solubility of CO2 in soft drinks and soda water, the bottle is +
sealed under high pressure.
(ii) To minimize the painful effects accompanying the decompression of deep
sea divers, oxygen diluted with less soluble helium gas is used as breathing gas.
11 a = 4.077 x 10 8 cm , d =10.5 g/cm3 NA = 6.022 x 10 23 for fcc
lattice z = 4
d = z.M M = d. a3.NA 1
3
a .NA z
M = 10.5 x (4.077 x 10 8) 3 x 6.022 x 10 23 = 107.9 g/mol 2
4
12 i) Rate = d R = k [A]2 [B] 1+1+1
dt
(ii) When concentration of A is tripled ,Rate = k [3A]2[B] = 9k [A]2[B]
i.e., Rate of reaction will become 9 times.
(iii) When concentration of both A and B is doubled Rate = k [2A]2[2B] = 8k [A]2[B]
i.e., Rate of reaction will become 8 times.
OR (i)For a first order reaction
k 2.303log [R0] when t 40 minutes k=2.303log 10
t [R] 40 7 1
k = 2.303 x 0.1548 k 8.91 103 min

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40
t1/2 0.693 = 0.693 t1/2 = 77.78 min. 1
k 8.91 103
(ii) mol /Ls
1
13 Correct definition of Mole fraction ,Vant Hoff factor & Colligative properties. 1+1+1
2- 3
14 [CoCl4] Tetrachloridocobaltate (II) ion,sp hybridisation,tetrahedral shape and 1
paramagnetic nature ,[Ni(CN)4]2- Tetracyanonickelate (II) ion,dsp2
-
hybridisation,square planar structure and diamagnetic nature [Cr(H2O)2(C2O4)2] 1
2 3
Diaquadioxalatochromate(III) ion,d sp hybridisation,octrahedral shape and
paramagnetic in nature 1
15 a)PHBV/Nylon- 2 Nylon -6 or any other example 1
S.No. Thermoplastics Thermosetting plastics
1 (i) These polymer are linear or (i) These polymers are cross linked or
slightly branched chain molecules heavily branched molecules
2 (ii) Soften on heating and harden (ii) On heating undergo extensive cross
on cooling and can be remoulded. linking in moulds and become
infusible.
3 (iii) Some common examples are (iii) Some common examples are
polyethene, PVC, polystyrene, bakelite,urea-formaldehyde resins,
etc. terylene, etc. 1+1

16 Williamsons Synthesis: 1
CH3CH2Cl + CH3ONa CH3CH2OCH3 + NaCl
haloalkane sodium alkoxide ether 1
(ii) Reimer-Tiemann reaction:
C6H5OH + CHCl3 + 3KOH OH C6H4 CHO + 3KCl +2H2O
Phenol chloroform salicylaldehyde

17 (a) Kohlrausch Law: The molar conductance of an electrolyte at infinite dilution is 1


equal to the sum of the molar conductances of the two ions, i.e., the cation and the
anion. Mathematically, m0 =
(b) Expression for the molar conductivity of acetic acid:
1
m0 HCl = 426 S cm2 /mol m0 NaCl = 126 S cm2 /mol m 0 (CH COONa) 91 S cm2 /mol
m0 CH COOH) 91.0 426 126 S cm2 /mol = 391.0 S cm2 /mol 1
18 (i) C6H5-NH2 + NaNO2 /HCl C6H5N2Cl Cu2Cl2/HCl C6H5Cl 1
Aniline 273 278 K Diazonium salt Chlorobenzene

(ii) CH3COOH + NH3 CH CONH2 Br 2 + KOH --- CH 3NH2 1


Ethanoic acid Ethanamide Hoffmann bromamide reaction Methanamine
(iii) C6H5N2Cl + Water CCl 1
Benzene Diazonium chloride Phenol

19 a)In haloarenes CX bond acquires a partial double bond character due to resonance. 2
As a result the bond cleavage in haloarenes is difficult than haloalkanes and therefore,
they are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reaction/and Hybridisation of C is
sp2 in haloarenes, greater electronegativity ,smaller bond length, lesser reactivity
1
b) CH3CH2CH= CH2 + HBr peroxide CH3CH2CH2 CH2Br 1-Bromobutane(antiMarkovnikov)
20 . (i) The positively charged colloidal particles of Fe(OH)3 gets coagulated by the 1
negatively charged ions provided by electrolyte.
(ii) The path of light becomes visible due to scattering of light by colloidal particles 1
(Tyndall effect).
(iii) Electrophoresis takes place in which colloidal particles move towards the oppositely
charged electrode where they lose their charge and get coagulated. 1
21 i) NaCN is used in the leaching of argentite (Ag2S). Argentite is leached with 1+1+1
dilute aqueous solution of NaCN in the presence of air
Ag2S + 4NaCN 2 Na [Ag (CN)2] + Na2S.

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(ii) Iodine in the refining of titanium.
The crude metal is heated with iodine in an evacuated vessel to form volatile
compound. Ti (impure) + 2I2 TiI4 (volatile compound)
Metal iodide decomposes on heating at 1800C on a tungsten filament. The pure
metal deposit on the filament.
TiI 4 Ti(pure) + 2I 2
(iii) Cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium: In the metallurgy of Al, purified
Al2O3 is mixed with cryolite (Na3AlF6) which lowers the melting point of the
mixture and increase the conductivity.
22 (i) Ranitidine is an antacid. 1+1+1
(ii) Aspartame is a low calorie sweetener for cold drinks and cold food.
(iii) Sodium benzoate is a food preservative.
23 (i) Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in our body. 1
(ii) Water soluble vitaminsvitamin C and vitamin B6. 1+1
Fat soluble vitaminsvitamin A /D/E/K
1
(iii) Kindness,compassion for her friend,Quick decision making,or any other.
24 (i) Cr 2is reducing as its configuration changes from d 4 to d 3 , the latter having a half 1+1+1
filled t2g configuration. On the other hand, the change from Mn 3to Mn 2results in the
half-filled d5 configuration which has extra stability therefore Mn 3is oxidising.
(ii) Because the high hydration enthalpy of Cu 2easily compensates the second
ionization enthalpy of Cu.
(iii) This is because manganese has electronic configuration [Ar]3d54s2, with five
unpaired electrons in 3d orbitals.
b)(i) 2MnO4 - +5 C 2O 4 - - 16H + 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2 O 1+1
(ii) Cr 2O7 2- + 6Fe2+ + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ +7H2O
OR 1x5
(i) The catalytic activity of transition metals is attributed to the following reasons:
(a) Because of their variable oxidation states transition metals form unstable intermediate
compounds and provide a new path with lower activation energy for the reaction.
(b) In some cases, the transition metal provides a suitable large surface area with free
vacancies on which reactants are adsorbed.
(ii) This due to filling of 4f orbitals which have poor shielding effect or due to lanthanoid
contraction.
(iii) This is due to comparable energies of 5f, 6d and 7s orbital in actinoids.
(iv) Interstitial compounds are well known for many of the transition elements because
the transition elements are capable of entrapping small sized atoms such as H,C and N in
the interstitial sites in their crystal lattices. These trapped atoms get bonded to the atoms
of transition elements, for example, TiC, Fe3H and Mn4N, etc.
(v) The decrease in metallic radius coupled with increase in atomic mass results in a
general increase in density from titanium to copper in the first series of transition
elements.
25 a) (i) XeF2 PF5 [XeF][PF6 ] 1+1
(ii) 3Cl2 ( g) + 6 NaOH (aq ) 5NaCl + NaClO 3 H2O
hot and conc.

(b) (i) This is due to inert pair effect.


(ii) In vapour state sulphur partly exists as S2 molecule having two unpaired electrons in 1+1+1
the anti bonding orbitals like O2 and, hence exhibits paramagnetism.
(iii) This is because fluorine is the most electronegative element and does not have d
orbitals in its valence shell. F
OR O ..
II Br F
(a)(i) P (ii)
H OH
OH F
(b) (i) This is due to small size, high ionisation enthalpy and stable electronic
configuration of helium.
(ii) This is because PP single bond is stronger than NN single bond.
(iii) Ka2 << Ka1, because HSO4ion has much less tendency to donate a proton to H2O
as compared to H2SO4.

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26 (a) (i) Propanal and propanone 1
Tollens reagent test: Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Tollens reagent to silver
mirror but propanone being a ketone does not.
CH3CH2CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + 3OH CH3CH2 COO - 2Ag4NH3 2H 2O
Propanal silver mirror
CH3COCH3 + Tollen's reagentNo silver mirror
(ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone 1
Iodoform test: Acetophenone being a methyl ketone on treatment with I2/NaOH
undergoes Iodoform reaction to give yellow ppt. of iodoform but benzaldehyde does not.
C 6H 5COCH3 + 3NaOI C H3 COONa - + CHI3
Acetophenone yellow ppt.

(b) (i) Aldol condensation


2CH3CHO NaOHCH3CHOH-CH2CHO CH3CH=CHCHO
Ethanal Aldol - H2O But 2 enal
CrO3 ,H2SO4
(ii) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH CH 3CH2 CH2 COOH
Butan l ol Butanoic acid
KMnO4 KOH heat
(iii) C6H5CH2CH3 CC

OR
(a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an -hydrogen atom
undergoe disproportionation reactions on treatment with concentrated alkali to give a
mixture of carboxylic acid salt and alcohol.
Conc. NaOH
2 HCHO HCOONa + CH3 OH
Formaldehyde Sod.formate Methyl alcohol

(ii) Decarboxylation: Carboxylic acids lose carbon dioxide to form hydrocarbons when
their sodium salts are heated with sodalime.
NaOH and CaO
RCOONa RH + Na2CO3

(b) (i) C6H5 CH2CH3 KMnO4 KOH, Heat CC

(ii) SOCl2 Heat


CCOCl
COCl
COOH
(iii) C6H5CONH2 + H3O+ heat C6H5COOH + NH3

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 6
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

Sl.No Name of the Chapter VSA SA-I SA-II VB LA TOTAL WEIGHTAGE


01 The Solid States 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

02 Solutions 5(1) 5(1)


03 Electrochemistry 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)
04 Chemical Kinetics 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)

05 Surface Chemistry 1(1) 3(1) 4(2) 23

06 General Principles and Processes 3(1) 3(1)


of Isolation of Elements

07 The p-Block Elements 1(1) 2(1) 5(1) 8(3)

08 The d and f Block Elements 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)

09 Coordination Compounds 3(1) 3(1)


19

10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)

11 Alchohols,Phenols and Ethers 3(1) 3(1)

12 Aldehydes, Ketones and 1(1) 5(1) 6(2)


Carboxylic acids
13 Amines 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)
14 Biomolecules 3(1) 3(1)
15 Polymers 3(1) 3(1)
16 Chemistry in Everyday life 4(1) 4(1) 28

5(5) 10(5) 36(12) 4(1) 15(3) 70(26) 70


TOTAL

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SUBJECT CHEMISTRY CLASS XII
TIME 3 HRS MAX. MARKS 70
a. All questions are compulsory.
b. Question nos. 1 to 5 is very short answer question and carries 1 mark each.
c. Question nos. 6 to 10is short answer question and carries 2 marks each.
d. Question nos. 11 to 22are also short answer question and carry 3 marks each.
e. Question no. 23 is value based question and carry 4 marks.
f. Question nos. 24 to 26is long answer question and carries 5 marks each.
g. Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

1 Why is glass considered a super cooled liquid. 1

2 Why is ferric chloride preferred over potassium chloride in case of a cut leading to 1
bleeding.

3 Why does PH3 act as a lewis base. 1

4 Give the IUPAC name of (CH3)2C=CH-CO-CH3. 1

5 Why is alkylamine is more basic than ammonia. 1

6 (a) Arrange the following metals in increasing order of their stability 2


Al, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn
(b) Also arrange these metals in increasing order of reducing power.

7 Derive an expression to calculate time required for completion of zero order reaction. 2

8 What is the oxidation state of phosphorous in the following. 2


(a) H3PO3 (b) Na3PO4

9 Write down the electronic configuration of Cr3+& Cu+. 2


OR
Give reasons:1. KMnO4 titrations should not be carried out with HCl
2. KMnO4 is purple in colour.

10 Name the reagents which are used in the following conversions: 2


(a) Butan-2-one to Butan-2-ol (b) Phenol to 2,4,6,-tribromophenol

11 By giving suitable examples for each, explain the following. 3


(a) Linkage isomerism
(b) Ambi-dentate ligand
12 What are enantiomers? Draw the structures of the possible enantiomers of 3- 3
. methylpent-1-ene.

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13 Write the main product formed in the following chemical reactions 3
(a) CH3 CH3 DRY ETHER
H3C C Cl + 2Na + Cl C CH3
H
H
HEAT
(b) H3C Br + AgF

14 An element with molar mass 2.7 x 10-2 kg mol-1 forms a cubic unit cell with edge length 3
405 pm. If its density is 2.7 x 103 kg m-3, what is the nature of cubic unit cell.

15 Calculate m NH4OH from the following values. m for Ba(OH)2 , BaCl2, NH4Cl are 3
257.6, 240.6, 129.8 Scm2 mol-1 respectively.

16 The rate of a reaction quadruples when the temperature changes from 293K to 313K. 3
calculate the energy of activation of the reaction assuming that it does not change with
temperature.

17 Explain the following observations- 3


(a) lyophilic colloid is more stable than lyophobic colloid.
(b) Coagulation takes place when sodium chloride is added to a colloidal solution of ferric
hydroxide.
(c) Sky appears blue colour.

18 Write the chemical reactions which take place in the following operations- 3
(a) Electrolytic reduction of Al2O3
(b) Isolation of zinc from zinc blende
(c) Monds process for refining nickel

19 Calculate the number of unpaired electrons in the following gaseous ions. 3


Mn3+, Cr3+, Ti3+

20 Account on the following- 3


(a) Ethylamine is soluble in water whereas aniline is not.
(b) Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction.
(c) Gabriel pthalimide synthesis is preferred for synthesizing primary amines.

21 (a) Name the purines present in DNA. 3


(b) Give two examples of water soluble vitamins.
(c) Give the chemical name of vitamin B12.

22 Write the equations for the synthesis of 3


(a) Glyptal
(b) Teflon
(c) PVC

OR

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1.What is meant by biodegradable polymer? Name one biodegradable polyester.
2.Name the polymer used for making unbreakable crockery.

23 Suresh observed that his friend Ajay was showing a change in behavior from past couple 4
of weeks. He stayed aloof, did not play with friends and became easily irritable. He
avoided going in any functions and parties. Suresh shares his concerns with his class
teacher. The teacher called Ajays parents and advised them to consult a doctor. Doctor
prescribed antidepressant drugs for him.
(a)Name two antidepressant drugs.
(b)Mention the values shown by Suresh.
(c)How should Ajays family help him other than medicines?

24 (a) Define the following terms- 5


(i) Mole fraction
(ii) Ideal solution
(iii) Saturated solution
(b) 15 g of an unknown molecular material is dissolved in 450 g of water. The resulting
solution freezes at -0.34C. What is the molar mass of the material?
( Kffor water = 1.86 K kg mol-1)
OR
(a) Henrys law constant for the molarity of methane in benzene at 298K is 4.27 x 10 5
mm Hg. Calculate the solubility of methane in benzene at 298K under 760mm Hg.
(b) Give reasons-
(i) At higher altitudes, people suffer from a disease called anoxia. In this disease they
become weak and cannot think properly.
(ii) When mercuric iodide is added to an aqueous solution of KI, the freezing point is
raised.
(iii) Cutting onions taken from the fridge is more comfortable than cutting onion lying at
room temperature.

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KVS/CHEM/ TOTAL PAGES-06
25 (a) Complete the following chemical reactions- 5
(i) Ca3P2(s) + H2O(l)

(ii) Cu2+(aq) + NH3(aq)


(excess)

(iii) F2(g) + H2O(l)


(b)Draw the structures of the following-
(i) BrF3
(ii) XeF4
OR
Give reasons-
(i) NCl3 gets readily hydrolyzed while NF3 does not.
(ii) Elemental nitrogen exists as a diatomic molecule whereas elemental phosphorous is a
tetraatomic molecule.
(iii) Nitric oxide becomes brown when released in air.
(iv) Ammonia is act as a ligand.
(v) Solid phosphorous pentoxide exhibit some ionic characters.
26 (a) Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of Compounds- 5
(i) Propanal and Propanone
(ii) Phenol and benzoic acid
(iii) Benzoic acid and ethyl benzoate
(b)Draw the structures of the following-
(i) p-Nitropropiophenone
(ii) p-Methylbenzaldehyde
OR
An organic compound A (C4H6O3) on treatment with ethyl alcohol gives carboxylic acid
B (C2H4O2)and compound C(C4H8O2). Hydrolysis of C under acidic conditions gives B
and D(C2H6O). Oxidation of D with KMnO4 also gives B. B on heating with Ca(OH)2
gives E with molecular formula C3H6O. E does not give Tollens test or reduce fehling
solution but forms 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine. Identify A,B,C,D & E.

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TIME 3 HRS MARKING SCHEME MAX. MARKS 70

1 Glass is an amorphous solid. Like liquids it has a tendency to flow, though very slowly. It is
evident from the fact that the glass panes in windows in old buildings are invariably found
1
to be slightly thicker at the bottom than the top.

2 Fe3+ ions has greater coagulating power than K+ ions as Fe3+ has higher charge.
1
3 Because N-atom is having a lone pair of electron.
1
4 4-Methylpent-3ene-2-one.
1
5 Due to the presence of lone pair on N-atom and +I effect of alkyl group.
1
6 (a) Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Cu
(b) Cu, Fe ,Zn, Al, Mg 1x2=2

7 t= [R]0- [R] / k 1
for completion, [R] = 0 , so t = [R]0 / k
1
8 (a) +3 (b) +5 1x2=2
3+ 3
9 Cr = [Ar]3d Cu+= [ Ar] 3d10
OR
1.itoxidisesHCl to chlorine gas. 1x2=2
2. due to charge transfer.

10 (a) LiAlH4/ Ether (b) Br2/ H2O


1x2=2

11 (a) The isomers which have same molecular formula but differ in the linkage of
donor atom in ligand to the central metal atom are called linkage isomers and 1
the isomerism is called linkage isomerism. E.g. [Co(NH3)5 NO2] Cl2 and [Co(NH3)5
ONO] Cl2.

1
(b) Aambidentate ligand which can bind to the central metal atom through any of
two donor atom. E.g. NO2 Can bind to metal either from N-atom i.e. Nitrito-N
(O2N) or through O-atom i.e. Nitrito-O (O=N-O).

12 Stereoisomers which are non-superimposable mirror images of each other are called enantiomers . 1
. The enantiomers of 3-methylpent-1-ene are-

13 1

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1

14 Density d= z x M / a3 x NA or z = d x a3 x NA / M 1

z = (2.7 x 103 kg m-3) (4.05 x 10-10 m)3 (6.022 x 1023 mol-1) / 2.7 x 10-2 kg mol-1 1

1
z = 3.99= 4 i.e. the cubic unit cell is face-centred.

15 m (NH4OH) = NH4+ + OH- 1

= ( NH4+ + Cl-) + (Ba++ + 2OH-) 1

= -1/2 (Ba++ + 2Cl-)



= 129.8 + x 457.6- x 240.6

= 238.3 Scm2 mol-1

16 k2= 4k1 or k2/k1 =4


log k2/k1 = Ea /2.303 R[T2-T1/ T1T2]
1
log 4 = Ea / 2.303 x 8.34 [313-293 / 293 x 313]

2 x log 2 = Ea /19.147 [20 / 91709]

Ea = 2 x 0.3010 x 19.147 x 91709 / 20 = 52.85 KJ/ mol 1

17 (a) because the stability of lyophobic colloid is only due to the presence of charge on the colloid 1
particles. On the other hand the stability of lyophilic colloid is due to the charge as well as solvation
of colloidal particles.

(b) Fe(OH)3 sol is positively charged which is coagulated by negatively charged Cl- present in sodium
chloride solution. 1

(c) Due to the scattering of light by dust particles. 1

18 (a) Cathode: Al3+ (melt) + 3 e- Al 1


/2 x 2=1

Anode: C(s) + O2-(melt) CO(g) + 2 e-

C(s) + 2O2-(melt) CO2(g) + 4 e- 1


(b) Roasting 2ZnS + 3 O2 2 ZnO + 2 SO2 /2 x 2=1

Reduction ZnO + C + 1673K Zn + CO

(c) Ni + 4 CO + 330-350 K Ni(Co)4 1


/2 x 2=1

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Ni(CO)4 + 450-470K Ni + 4 CO

19 Mn3+ = 3d4= 4 unpaired electrons


1 x 3 =3
Cr3+ = 3d3 = 3 unpaired electrons

Ti3+ = 3d1 = 1 unpaired electron

20 (a) Due to the H-Bonding

(b) because aniline is a lewis base and it is form a salt with lewis acid AlCl3 i.e. C6H5N+H2AlCl3- . 1 x 3 =3

(c) Gabrialphthalimide reaction gives pure primary amine without any contamination like secondary
and tertiary amine.

21 (a) Adenine and Guanine

(b) Vitamin B & C 1 x 3 =3

(c) Cyanocobalmin

22

1 x 3 =3

OR
1 Those which are degraded by microbes. PHBV
2. MELAMINE FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

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23 (a) Iproniazid and Phenelzine etc. 2

(b) Caring, better understanding , humanity etc. 1

(c) Even they can also pay extra care and take him to a psychiatrist for proper 1
counseling him.

24 (a) (i) Mole fraction is the ratio of the number of moles of one component(solute or solvent) to the 1
total number of all the comonent. xA = nA / nA+nB and xB = nB / nA+nB.

(ii) A solution which obeys Roult's law over the entire range of temperature , and during the
formation of solution no change in enthalpy and volume called ideal solution.
1
i.e. PA = P0A xA and PB= P0B xBand H mix = 0 and V mix = 0.

(iii) when in a solulution there is no possibility for addition of more solute than the solution is called 1
saturated solution.

(b) WB = 15.0 g , WA = 450g, Kf = 1.86 K kg mol-1

Tf= 0 - (-0.34 o c) = 0.34 o c or 0.34 K

MB = Kfx WB x 1000 / WA X Tf

MB = 1.86 K kg mol-1 x 15 g x 1000 g kg-1/ 450 g x 0.34 K


MB = 182.35 g mol -1

OR
(a) kH = 4.27 x 10 5 mm Hg , p = 760 mm Hg

According to Henry's law, p = kH x XCH4

X CH4 = 760 mm Hg / 4.27 x 10 5 mm Hg = 1.78 x 10 -3 1

so mole fraction of methane in benzene X CH4 = 1.78 x 10 -3


(b) (i) Due to the lower availability of oxygen so concentration of oxygen decreases in blood and
tissues.
1

(ii) Due to the formation of complex K2[HgI4] , number of particles in solution decreases and
hence the freezing point raised. 1

(iii) at low temperatue the Vapour pressure is low so less tear- producing chemical produced.
1
25

1 x 3 =3

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1x2= 2

OR

(i) In NCl3, Cl has vacant d-orbitals to accept lone pairs of electrons donated by O- atom of water 1
molecule But in NF3 it does not happen.

(ii) because nitrogen is a small atom and high electronegative so it forms p-p multiple bonds. So it 1
can form triple bond with other N-atom and form diatomic molecule. In case of phosphorous due to
the larger size and low electronegativity it does not form p-p bond. so it is prefer P-P single bond
and hence form tetraatomic molecule.

(iii) Nitric oxide NO readily combine with O2 of air to form NO2 which is brown in colour. 1
(iv) Due to the presence of lone pair on N-atom.
1
+ -
(v) Solid PCl5 exists as [PCl4] [PCl6] and hence exhibit some ionic characters.
1

26 (a) (i) Propanone gives iodoform test but propanal not. 1

(ii) Benzoic acid Reacts with NaHCO3 to give CO2 gas with effervescence but Phenol does not. 1
(iii) Benzoic acid Reacts with NaHCO3 to give CO2 gas with effervescence but ethyl benzoate does
not.
1

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OR

1x5= 5

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 7
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

S.No UNIT VSA(1) SAI(2) SAII(3) LA(5) TOTAL WEIGHTAGE


MARKS
1 The solid state 1 (1) --- 3(1) --- 4 4

2 Solutions --- 2 (1) 3(1) --- 5 5

3 Electrochemistry --- --- --- 5(1) 5 5

4 Chemical Kinetics --- 2 (1) 3(1) --- 5 5

5 Surface Chemistry 1 (1) --- 3(1) --- 4 4

6 General Principles and --- --- 3 (1) --- 3 3


processes of isolation
of elements

7 p-block elements --- --- 3(1) 5 (1) 8 8

8 d and f-block --- (1) 3 (1) --- 5 5


elements

9 Coordination --- - -- 3(1) --- 3 3


Compounds

10 Haloalkanes and 1 (1) -- 3(1) --- 4 4


Haloarenes -

11 Alcohols, Phenols and 1 (1) --- 3 (1) --- 4 4


Ethers

12 Aldehydes, Ketones 1 (1) --- --- 5 (1) 6 6


and Carboxylic acids

13 Amines --- 2(2) --- --- 4 4

14 Biomolecules --- --- 4(1) VB --- 4 4

15 Polymers --- --- 3(1) --- 3 3

16 Chemistry in everyday --- --- 3(1) --- 3 3


day life

TOTAL 1(5) 2 (5) 3 (12) 4 (1) 5 (3) 70

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CLASS----XII SUBJECTCHEMISTRY

TIME---3hours M.M---70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS----
1.Questions 1-5 are 1mark each
2.Questions 6-10 are 2marks each
3.Questions 11-22 are 3marks each
4. Question 23 is value based and of 4marks
5.Questions 24-26 are 5marks each
6.Use log table if necessary.
1.What type of magnetism is observed when magnetic moments are aligned in parallel and
antiparallel directions in unequal numbers?
2. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their acid strengths;
(CH3)2CHCOOH ,CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH,CH3CHBrCH2COOH
3 .Give IUPAC name of the following compound;
C6 H5-CH(OH)-CH=CH-CHO
4. Why is enthalpy of physisorption low?
5 .What happens when CH2=CH CCH reacts with one mole of HCl? Write chemical equation.
6. 2.5g of a compound (molar mass- 256g per mole) to be dissolved in 85g of benzene . Calculate
depression in freezing point.( Kf = 5.12 K Kg per mole).
OR
What are Pseudo first order reactions? Give one example.
7.In the reaction P+RQ+S , the time taken for75%reaction of P is twice the time taken for 50% of
the reaction of P .The concentration of R varies with reaction time as shown in the figure. What is
overall order of reaction? What are the units of K ?

8 i).How do you prepare Na2CrO4 from FeCr2O4


ii)Why Cu+ ion is not stable in aqueous solutions?
9. How will you convert
i)Nitrobenzene to Aniline
ii)Ethanenitrile to Aniline
10.Explain the mechanism of the following reaction:
CH3CH2OHH+ (413k)CH3CH2 OCH2 CH3 +H2O

11.What is the difference between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids? Give one example
of each.
12. i)What is the basic principle of Zone refining?
ii)How do we separate PbS from ZnS in froth flotation process?
iii)What is the role of KCN in extraction of silver.

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13.i)Analysis show that ferrous oxide has formula Fe0.96 O1.00. What fraction of iron exists as Fe2+
and Fe 3+ ions?
ii)What are Photovoltaic substances?
OR
Sodium has bcc structure and nearest neighbours distance is 365.9pm. Calculate its density.
(Atomic massof Na=23)

14.i)What type of deviation from Raoults law is shown by Chloroform and Acetone mixture?
ii)State Henrys law.
iii)A Solution becomes cold on mixing .What type of deviation is shown by this solution?
15.i)What is meant by Activation energy?

ii)The rate of reaction becomes double when temperature is increased from 300K to 310K.Calculate
activation energy.

16i).Write IUPAC name [ Cr( NH3)4(H2O)2]Br3


ii)What type of isomerism is shown by the following complex?
[Cr( NH3)6] [ Co(CN)6]
iii)Why is[ Co( en)3]3+more stable than[ Co( NH3)6]3+
17.i)Why is Ti3+ Coloured whereas Sc3+ Colourless?
ii)Why does Zinc has lowest enthalpy of atomization in 3d series?
iii) Name one Lanthanoid which is radioactive .
18.i)Why Bithional added to soap?
ii)Name sodium salt of organic acid used as preservative in cold drinks.
iii)Which class of drugs is used in sleeping pills?
19.i)Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of basic strength in aqueous solution
NH3, CH3NH2, ( CH3)2 NH, ( CH3)3 N
ii)Write the chemical equation involved in
a)Reimer-Tiemann reaction
b)Carbylamine reaction

20.Identify X Y Z

CH3CH=CH2 + HBr peroxide X KOH(aq) Y conc.H2SO4 Z

21.i)Write the monomers of Bakelite. What type of polymer is it?

ii)Is natural rubber homolytic or copolymer?

iii)Arrange the following in increasing order of forces of attraction;


Nylon-6, Neoprene, PVC
22.i)Complete the following reactions:
a) Ca3N2 + H2O
b)C+ conc.H2SO4
ii)What is the basicity of H3PO3and Why?
23. After watching a programme on TV about on adverse effect of junk food and soft drinks on the
health of school children , Sonali , a student of class XII ,discussed the issue with school Principal.
Principal immediately instructed the canteen contractor to replace the fast food with the FIBRE and

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VITAMINS rich food like sprouts, salad, fruits etc. This decision was welcomed by the parents and
the students.

Answer the following questions-


i).What are Vitamins?
ii).Give the examples of two water soluble vitamins.
iii)What values are expressed by Sonali and the Principal of the school?
iv)Write the name of disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C .
24.Give reasons-
i) Sulphur exhibits tendency for catenation but oxygen does not.
ii)PCl5 is known but NCl5 not known.
iii)SbF5 is known but BiF5 is not known.
iv)Amongst all noble gases ,only xenon is known to form compounds with oxygen and fluorine.
v)Interhalogen compounds are more reactive than halogens.
OR
Complete the following reactions:
i)NH4Cr2 O7 heat
ii)P4 +NaOH+H2O
iii)XeF6 +H2O
iv)XeF6+ NaF
v)H3PO3 heat
25. An organic compound( A) with molecular formula C8H8O forms an orange red precipitate with
2,4-DNP reagent and gives yellow ppt. on heating with Iodine in presence of NaOH .It neither
reduces Tollen reagent or Fehling reagent nor does it decolourises bromine water or Beayer
reagent. On drastic oxidation with chromic acid ,it gives a carboxylic acid (B) having molecular
formula C7H6O2. Identify compounds (A) and (B) .Write chemical equations involved.
OR

a)How will you prepare


i)Benzaldehyde from Toluene
ii)Acetophenone from Benzene
b)Distinguish between the following pair of compounds by suitable chemical test:
Benzaldehyde and Acetone
c)Write short note on Cannizaros condensation.
26.a)How many coulombs of charge is needed to convert 0.1mole of Cr2O72- to Cr3+ ions in
acidic medium.
b)Write the chemistry involved in discharging of lead storage battery.
c) Why does conductivity of a solution decrease with dilution?
OR
a)Represent the cell in which the following reaction takes place -
Mg(s) + 2Ag+(0.0001M) Mg2+(0.130M) + 2Ag(s)
Calculate its E(cell) if E0(cell)= 3.17 V.

b) A solution of CuSO4 is electrolysed for 10 minutes with a current of 1.5 amperes .


What is the mass of copper deposited at the cathode?

-------------------------------------------------

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MARKING SCHEME
S.NO VALUE POINTS/ANSWERS MARKS

1. Ferrimagnetism 1

2 (CH3)2CHCOOH< CH3CHBrCH2COOH < CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH 1

3. 4- Hydroxy-4-phenylbut-2-enal 1

4. Due to weak forces of attraction between adsorbate and adsorbent less energy
is released. 1

5. CH2=CHC(Cl)=CH2 1

1
6.

=5.12 2.5 256


1
= 0.59

7. Since t75%=2t50%,it means order is 1 w.r.t P.The conc. Of R vs t is straight line


shows order w.r.t R is zero.

Rate of reaction =k [p]1 [R]0


1
Overall order=1

Unit of K=S-1 1

i)4FeCr2O4 +8 Na2CO3+7O22Fe2O3+8Na2CrO4 + 8CO2


8.
ii) Hydration enthalpy of Cu+ is much greater than the 1x2
second ionization enthalpy and
so the electron from large Cu+ is lost spontaneously.
9. i)By reduction in presence of Sn/ HCl

ii) CH3 C N+ 4[ H]Na/C2H5OHCH3 CH2 NH2 1


( Reduction with Na/C2H5OH)

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10. Mechanism of dehydration of alcohols 2

11. Multimolecular colloids are formed by aggregation of atoms or molecules 1


having size less than 1nm. Example-Sulphur or gold sol.
Macromolecular colloids are formed by disintegration of large( molecular 1
mass)molecules in suitable solvent. Example-Starch or proteins.

12. i) It is based on the principle that impurities are more soluble in the melt than
in solid metal.
ii)NaCN will prevent ZnS from entering the froth by forming complex with it ,
whereas PbS will enter froth and will get separated.
iii) Ag2S+ 4KCN 2K[ Ag (CN)2] + k2S
KCN forms a soluble complex with Ag2S whereas impurities do not react. 1x3

13 i).Let Fe2+ be x therefore Fe3+ will be 0.96-x.


Since electroneutrality is maintained,
Total +ve charge = Total ve charge
2x + 3 ( 0.96-x) = 2
x=0.88
fraction of Fe2+ = 0.88/ 0.96 == 0.92
fraction of Fe3+ = 1- 0.92 = 0.08 2
ii) Those substances which convert sunlight into electricity are called
Photovoltaic substance.
1
OR

Z=2, 2r =365.9pm, 4r = 3a in bcc


1
a =4r/ 3 = 4 / 3 365.9 /2 = 422.52pm

1
3 3 -30 23
d= Z M / a NA = 2 23 / ( 422.52) 10 6.023 10
= 1.0125g cm -3
1
14. i) Negative deviation
ii) Partial pressure of a gas dissolved in liquid is directly proportional to its mole 1
fraction. 1
iii) Positive deviation 1

15. i) The extra energy which must be supplied to the reactants so that these can
undergo effective collisions is called Activation energy. 1

ii)Log K2 / K1 = Ea /2.303 R (1/T11 / T2 )


1
Log 2 == = Ea /2.303 (1/3001 / 310 ) 1

Ea== 53.60 KJ mol-1


1
16. i) tetraamminediaquachromium( III )bromide

ii)Co-ordination isomerism 1

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iii)It is because bidentate ligand (en) forms more stable complex
than NH3 which is monodentate ligand. 1

17. i) Ti3+ has one unpaired electron and undergoes d-d transition by absorbing
visible light and radiates complementary colour. 1
Sc3+ does not have unpaired electron and hence colourless.

ii)Zn has weak metallic bonds due to large size and does not have unpaired
electrons. 1

iii) Promethium 1

18. i) It acts as antiseptic. 1


ii)Sodium benzoate 1
iii)Tranquilizers are used in sleeping pills . 1

19a) 1

b) i)chemical equation 1

1
ii)

20. X = CH3-CH2 CH2Br 1x3


Y= CH3-CH2 CH2OH
Z =CH3-CH=CH2

21. i) Phenol and formaldehyde. It is a thermosetting plastic. 1x3


ii) Natural rubber is a homopolymer.
iii) Neoprene <PVC < Nylon-6

22. a) 3 Ca(OH)2 + 2NH3


b) CO2 + 2SO2 + 2H2O
ii) H3PO3 is dibasic acid due to presence of two ionisable ( OH) groups. 1x3

23. i)Vitamins are the organic nutrients required for proper growth and 1
development of living organisms.
ii) Vitamin B and VitaminC 1
iii)Sonali-Caring nature,helpful and socially active.
Principal-caring,commanding and active for the welfare of the students. 1
iv)Scurvy 1

24. i) S-S bond enthalpy is higher than that of O=O


ii) Nitrogen does not have d- orbitals ,so cannot extend its covalency beyond
4.
iii) Due to Inert pair effect

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iv) Because Flourine and Oxygen have high electro-negativities.
v) Because bond between two dissimilar halogen atoms X-X is weaker than 1x5
the bond between two similar halogen atoms X-X.

OR
Heat
i) (NH4)2 Cr2 O7-- ---------- N2 + Cr 2O3 + 4 H2O
ii) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O ------ 3NaH2PO2 +PH3
iii) XeF6 + 2H2O ----XeO2F2 + 4HF
iv) XeF6 + NaF---- Na +[ XeF7 ]-
v) H3PO3 --H3PO4 + PH3 1x5

25. A =CH3COC6H5 Acetophenone


B=C6H5COOH Benzoic acid 5

Chemical equations invovled

OR
a) i) Oxidation by CrO2Cl2 followed by acid hydrolysis( H2O/H+)
Ii)Frediel craft Acetylation of benzene in presence of anhydrous AlCl3
b) Add I2 and NaOH. Acetone will give yellow ppts. Whereas 1
benzaldehyde will not react. 1
c) Note on Cannizaros condensation with example. 1

a) 6e- +14H+ + Cr2O72- -- Cr3+ +4 H2O 2


0.1 mole of Cr2O72- will need 0.1 6 96500=57900C.
26. b)Chemistry of discharging of lead storage battery 1
c)Explanation 1
2
1
OR

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 8
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

Unit VSA(1) SA-I(2) SA_II(3) Value based(4) LA(5) Total

Solid State 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

Solution 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)

Electrochemistry 5(1) 5(1)

Chemical Kinetics 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)

Surface chemistry 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

General principles& extraction of elements 3(1) 3(1)

p-Block Elements 2(1) 3(2) 8(3)

d-Block Elements 5(1) 5(1)

Coordination Compound 3(1) 3(1)

Haloalkanes &haloarenes 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

Alcohols,Phenols &Ethers 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)

Aldehydes,Ketones &carboxylic acid 1(1) 5(1) 6(2)

Compounds containing Nitrogen 2(2) 4(2)

Biomolecules 4(1) 4(1)

Polymers 3(1) 3(1)

Chemistry in everyday life 3(1) 3(1)

*Total Marks (Total NO. Of Question) 5(5) 10(5) 36(12) 4(1) 15(3) 70(26)

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CHEMISTRY (THEORY)

Time: 3 Hours Maximum Marks:70


General Instructions:

(i) All questions are compulsory.


(ii) Question number 1 to 5 are short answer question and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Question number 6 to 10 are short answer question and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Question number 11 to 22 are also short answer question and carry 3 marks each.
(v) Question number 23 is value based question and carry 4 marks .
(vi) Question number 24 to 26 are long answer question and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

1. Write IUPAC name of the following compound. (1)


CH3CHClCH(CH3)CH(CH3)CH2OH
2. What is shape selective catalysis ? (1)
2
3. Which compound in the following pair will react faster in SN reaction (1)
(CH3)3CCl & (CH3)2CHCl
4. What changes occurs when AgCl is doped with CdCl2 ? (1)
5. Give the chemical test to distinguish between Benzophenone and acetophenone? (1)
6. Define the following terms. (2)
(i) Azeotropes
(ii) Colligative Properties
7. Draw the structure of the following compound. (2)
(i) XeOF4
(ii) H4P2O7
8. Arrange the following (2)
(i) C2H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, (C2H5)2NH& C6H5NH2(In decreasing order of the pkb value )

(iii)C6H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH , C2H5NH2( In increasing order of solubility in water.

9. Write short note on the following. (2)


(i) Hoffmanns Bromamide reaction
(ii) Diazotisation Reaction

10. For a first order reaction show that time required for 99% completion is twice the time
required for the completion of 90% of reaction. (2)
OR
A reaction is first order with respect to A & second order with respect to B
(i) How is the rate affected on increasing Concentration of B three times.
(ii) How is the rate affected when concentration of A is reduced to half & that of B is
doubled.

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11. An element has a bcc structure with a cell edge of 288pm . The density of the element is 7.2
g/cm3. How many atoms are present in 208 g of the element. (3)

12. Explain the following terms . (3)

(i) Electrophoresis

(ii) Desorption

(iii) Associated Colloid

13. 1.00 g of non electrolyte solute dissolved in 50 g of benzene lowered the freezing point of
benzene by 0.40 K .Find the molar mass of the solute .

( Kf for benzene =5.12KKg/mol) (3)

14.State the role of (3)

(i) Silica in the metallurgy of copper

(ii) Cryolite in the metallurgy of Aluminium.

(iii) Limestone in the metallurgy of Iron from iron oxide in blast furnace.

15. In a reaction between A and B the initial rate of reaction (r0) was measured for different initial
concentrations of A and B as Given below? (3)

A/molL - 0.20 0.20 0.40


B/mol L - 0.30 0.10 0.05
- -
r0/mol L s 5.07x10-5 5.07x10-5 1.43x10-4
What is the order of reaction with respect to A & B?

16. Account for the following? (3)

(i) Pcl5 is formed while NCl3 is not

(ii) Sulphur has a greater tendency of catenation than oxygen.

(iii) PCl5 is more covalent than PCl3.

17. What happens when (Write in terms of balanced chemical equation ? (3)

(i) Cl2 is passed over hot & concentrated NaOH solution

(ii) NH3(aq) reacts with a solution of Cu2+ .

(iii)PCl3 reacts with moisture .

18. (i) Write IUPAC name of [CoBr2(en)2]Cl. (3)

(ii) Draw geometrical isomers of [Cr(NH3)3Cl3]


(iii)A solution of [Ni(H2O)6]2+ is green but a solution of [Ni(CN)4]2- is colourless . Expain why?
19.Explain the following terms with suitable examples. (3)

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(i) Broad spectrum antibiotic
(ii) Biodegradable detergent
(iii)Tranquillizer
OR

Give the use of the following

(i) Ranitidine
(ii) Aspartame
(iii) 1% phenol solution

20. Give Reason? (3)

(i) Why is Propanol soluble in water although it is an organic compound?


(ii) Why is o- Nitrophenol more acidic than o- Methoxyphenol?
(iii)Why is preparation of ethers by acid dehydration of 2 &3 alcohols not a suitable method.?

21.Write major product in the following reactions? (3)


(i) C6H5-CH2-CH=CH2 + HBr P.O.

(ii)C6H5Cl + CH3COCl Anhy.AlCl3

(iii)CH3CH2CH2Br + AgCN ethanol

22. Write the names & structure of monomers of following polymers. (3)

(i) Neoprene
(ii) Terylene
(iii)Teflon

23. Two dead bodies found in an accident. They were totally burnt so they couldnt be identified
by observation. (4)
(i) As a chemistry student suggest a way to identify them .
(ii) What value is associated with your suggestion ?
(iii) Name the pentose sugar found in RNA.
(iv)Write one functional difference between DNA and RNA.

24.(a) Write relationship between m and . Explain the effect of concentration change on both the
conductivities. (5)
(b) For the reaction

Fe2+ (aq) + Ag+ (aq) Fe3+ (aq) + Ag (s)

Calculate r G & equllibrium constant of reaction

(E Fe3+/Fe2+ = 0.77v , E Ag+/Ag= 0.80v)

OR

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(a)What are fuel cells? Give its one advantage & two substances other than Hydrogen which can be
used as fuel.

(b)Three electrolytic cells A,B ,C containing solutions of ZnSO4, AgNO3 and CuSO4 respectively are
connected in series. A steady current of 1.5 ampere was passed through them until 1.45 g of silver
deposited at the cathode of cell B. How long did the current flow? What mass of copper & zinc were
deposited?

25.(a) Complete and balance the following equation. (5)

(i) MnO4- + H+

(ii) Fe2+ + S2O82-

(b) Explain giving reason:-

(i) Although F is more electronegative than O the highest Mn Fluoride is MnF4 whereas highest oxide
is Mn2O7
(ii) Cu(I) ion is not known to exist in aqueous solution
(iii)Actinoid contraction is greater from element to element than lanthanoid contraction. why?
OR
(a) Complete and balance the following equation
(i) Cr2O72- + Fe2+ + H+
(ii) MnO4- + H2O + I-
(b) How would you account for the following
(i) Mn3+ is a good oxidising agent.
(ii) The enthalpies of atomisation of transition element are high.
(iii) The chemistry of actinoid elements is not so smooth as that of the lanthanoids.

26.(a) Give a chemical test to distinguish between. (5)

(i) Acetaldehyde & Acetone


(ii) Benzaldehyde & Formaldehyde
(b) How will you carry out the following conversions
(i) Propanone to Propan-2-ol
(ii) Ethanal to 2-Hydroxy propanoic acid
(iii)Ethyl benzene to Benzoic acid
OR

(a) Write the product of the following reactions


(i) CH3-CO-CH3 Zn-Hg
Con.HCl
(ii) C6H5COOH Br2/FeBr3

(iii)C6H5COCl + H2 Pd/BaSO4

(b) Which Acid of each pair shown here would you expect stronger & why
(i) F-CH2-COOH Or Cl-CH2-COOH
(ii) C6H5OH Or CH3COOH

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MARKING SCHEME

Q.No. Answer Marks


1 4-Chloro-2,3-dimethylpentan-1-ol 1

2 The catalytic reaction that depends upon the pore structure of the 1
catalyst and the size of reactant & product molecule

3 (CH3)2CHCl 1
4 Cationic vacancies are produced 1
5 Acetopenone gives Iodoform test(Yellow ppt), while Benzophenone 1
does not
6 (i) Binary mixtures having the same composition in liquid and 1.
vapour phase and boil at a constant temperature.
(ii) All properties which depend on the number of solute 1.
particles irrespective to their nature to the total no. of
particles present in the solution.
7 (i) Correct structure 1
(ii) Correct structure 1
8. (i) C6H5NH2< C6H5NHCH3<C2H5NH2<(C2H5)2NH 1
(ii)C6H5NH2<(C2H5)2NH < C2H5NH2 1
9. (i) RCONH2 + Br2 +4 NaOH RNH2 +Na2CO3 +2NaBr+2H2O 1
(ii) C6H5NH2 NaNO2+HCl C6H5N2Cl + NaCl +2H2O
1
10. t 99% = 2.303 log 100 1
k 1
t 90% =2.303 log 100
k 10
t 99% = 2.303/k log 100/1
t 90% 2.303/k log 100/10
t 99% = 2 log10
t 90% 1 log10
t 99% = 2xt 90% 1
OR

(i)R1 = k [A] [B]2


R2 = k [A] [3B]2

R2 = K[A] [B]2 x9
R1 K[A] [B]2
R2 = 9xR1 9 times 1
(ii)R1 = K[A] [B]2
R2 =K[A] [B]2 x 4
R2=2 R1 2times 1

11. Volume of the unit cell =a3 1


= (288pm)3
=(288x10-12m)=(288x10-10cm)3
=2.39x10-23cm3
Volume of 208 g of the element= mass/density

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=208g/7.2gmcm-3=28.88cm3
Number of unit cells in this volume
=288.88cm3
2.39x10-23cm3/unit cell 1
=12.08x1023 unit cells
Since each bcc cube unit cell contains 2 atoms,
therefore, the total number of atoms in 208g
=2(atoms/unit cell)x12.08x1023 unit cells
=24.16 x1023 atoms 1
12. (i) Movement of colloidal particles under electrical field 1
(ii) The process of removing an adsorbed substance from a surface of
adsorbate. 1
(iii)At higher concentration when aggregation of molecules comes in
colloidal range 1
13 M2= Kf x W2 x 1000 1
TfxW1
= 5.12KKg/mole x 1.00gm x 1000g/kg 1
0.40x50gm
= 256 gm/mole 1
14 (i)As Acidic flux, to remove impurity of FeO 1
(ii) To increase conductivity& decrease m.p. of Alumina 1
(iii)as basic flux(CaO) to remove impurity of silica/ in production of CO
,a reducing agent of lower temp. zone 1
15 L et order of reaction wrt A is x & wrt B is y
R1=K [A]x.[B]y
R1= K(0.20)x .(0.03)y=5.07x10-5
R2=K(0.20)x .(0.10)y=5.07x10-5 1
R3=K(0.40)x.(0.05)y=14.3x10-5
R2=(0.30)y =1
R1 (0.10)y 1
So Y=0
R3= (0.40)x.(0.05)y=14.3x10-5
R2 (0.20)x.(0.10)y 5.07x10-5
Since y=0
(2)x=2.8
Taking log on both sides
Xlog2= log2.8
X=log2.8/ log2 1
=1.5
Order wrt A =1.5
Order wrt B=0
16 (i) Absence of d orbitals in Nitrogen. 1
(ii) S-S is stronger than O-O ,due to less interelectronic
repulsion 1
(iii) As per Fajan rule 1
17 (i) 3Cl2 + 6 NaOH 5NaCl +NaClO3 + 3 H2O 1
(ii) Cu2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]2+ 1
(iii) PCl3 + 3 H2O H3PO3 + 3HCl 1
18 (i) Dibromidobis(ethane1,2-diamine)cobalt(III) chloride 1
(ii) Facial , Meridional forms (Draw structure) +
(iii) 2 unpaired e as it undergoes sp3d2 hybridisation +
No unpaired e- it undergoes dsp2 hybridisation

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19 (i) Antibiotics which kill or inhibit a wide range of Gram +1/2
positive and Gram negative bacteria
,Amoxycilin/Chloramphenicol(or any other eg.) + 1/2
(ii) Sodium salt of sulphonic acids containing unbranched
chains ,which are easily degraded by
microorganism.,Sodium lauryl sulphonate orany other
example
(iii) Class of chemical compounds used for treatment of stress +
and mild or even severe mental
disorder,Equanil/chlordiazepoxide/any other
20 (i) Due to intermolecular H bonding B/w Alcohol &water 1
molecules
(ii) NO2 group due to its e- withdrawing tendency increases 1
the polarity of O-H bond,While OCH3 is e- releasing group
(iii) 2 &3 Alcohols do not undergo SN2 reaction but undergo
elimination reaction and form alkenes 1
21 (i) C6H5-CH2-CH2-CH2Br 1
(ii) 4-Chloroacetophenone(structure) 1
(iii) CH3CH2CH2NC 1
22 (i) Chloroprene, CH2=CCl-CH=CH2 +1/2
(ii) Ethylene glycol+ terephthalic acid, CH2OH-CH2OH +HCOO-
C6H4- COOH +1/2
(iii) Tetra fluoro ethane, CF2=CF2
+1/2
23 Ans :- (i) By DNA finger printing 1
(ii) Everyone has his own individuality, which should be
honoured./application of theoretical knowledge in life/any 1
other relevent value.
(iii) Ribose sugar 1
(iv) DNA helps in transmission of inherent charactrs i.e.
heredity while RNA helps in protien synthesis 1
24 (a) m= K x 1000 1
M +
K decreases on decreasing concentration
m increases on decreasing concentration
Ecelll = E(cathod) - E (anode)
=0.80-0.77
=0.03 volt 1
rG= -nFE
= -1 x 96500 x 0.03
= -2895J/mol or -2.895KJ/mol 1
Log Kc = nE /0.059
= 1 x 0.03/0.059=0.508
Kc =(anti) 0.508
= 3.22 1
OR
(a) Galvanic cells designed to convert the energy of combustion of
fuels into electrical energy
Pollution free/ High Efficiency
CH4 , CH3OH
(b) 108 g Ag is deposited by = 965000C +
1.45 g is deposited by =96500 x 1.45/108
=1295.6C

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Q = I x t
1295.6 = 1.5 x t
t= 863s
2 x96500c deposits Zn = 65.3g 1
1295.6c deposits zn = 65.3 x 1295.6/2 x96500
= 0.436g
1
2 x96500c deposits Cu= 63.5g
1295.6c deposits Cu = 63.5 x 1295.6/2 x96500
=0.426 g
1
25 (a) (i)3MnO42- + 4 H+ 2 MnO4- + MnO2 + 2H2O 1
(iii) 2Fe2+ + S2O82- 2Fe 3+ + 2SO42-
1
(b) (i) because of oxygens ability to form double bond
(ii) Second I.E. is compensated by hydration enthalpy/It 1
undergoes disproportionation
(iii)5f e- have poorer shielding than 4f e- 1
OR
(i)Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6Fe2+ 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ +7H2O 1
- -
(ii)2MnO4 + H2O + I 2MnO2 + 2OH- +IO3-
(b) (i) Mn2+ has stable d5 configuration 1
(ii) Because of involvement of (n-1)d &ns electrons in bond formation 1
(iii)Lanthanoids show limited o.s.(+2,+3,+4) due tolarge gap b/w 5d 1
&4f Subshell than that of 6d &5f subshell of actinoids ,which is
responsible for large no. of o.s 1
26 Acetaldehyde gives Tollen/Fehling test,Acetone does not. 1
(a) Formaldehyde gives Fehlings test,Benzaldehyde does not 1
(or any other test )

(b)(i)CH3COCH3 + H2 Ni CH3CHOHCH3
1

(ii)CH3CHO+ HCN CH3CH(OH)CN H3O+


CH3CHOHCOOH (Complete) 1

(iii)C6H5C2H5 MnO4-/H+ C6H5COOH 1

OR
(a) (I) CH3CH2CH3(Clemmensen Reduction)

(ii)m-Bromo benzoic acid(Electrophilic Substitution) 1


(iii)C6H5CHO(Rosenmund Reaction)
(b) (i)FCH2COOH , high electronegativity of F increases polarity of 1
O-H bond 1
(ii)CH3COOH, Acetate ion is more stable anion than phenoxide 1
ion . 1

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 9
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

S No Name of the unit VSA SAI SAII VBQ LA Total


Q. Q. Q. 4marks Q
1mark 2marks 3 marks 5marks
1 Solid state 1(1) 3(1) 4

2 Solution 2(1) 3(1) 5

3 Electrochemistry 2(1) 3(1) 5

4 Chemical Kinetics 5(1) 5

5 Surface Chemistry 1(1) 3(1) 4

6 General principles and 3(1) 3


processes of isolation of
element
7 p- Block elements 1(1) 5(1) 6

8 d- and f- Block elements 2(1) 3(1) 5

9 Co-ordination 2(1) 3(1) 5


compounds
10 Haloalkanes and 1(1) 3(1) 4
Haloarenes
11 Alcohols ,Phenols and 1(1) 3(1) 4
Ethers
12 Aldehyde ,Ketones and 2(1) 3(1) 5
Carboxylic acid
13 Organic compounds 5(1) 5
containing nitrogen
14 Biomolecules 3(1) 3
15 Polymers 3(1) 3

16 Chem. in everyday life 4(1) 4

total 1(5) 2(5) 3(12) 4(1) 5(3) 70

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XII-CHEMISTRY

Duration : 3 hours Max. Marks : 70


INSTRUCTIONS :
(i) All questions are compulsory .
(ii) Q.No. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Q.No. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q.No. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v) Q.No. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 mark .
(vi) Q.No. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii)Use Log Table,if necessary.Use of calculators is not allowed.

Q.1.What is the effect of temperature on adsorption ?


Q.2.Name an alloy of lanthanoides .
Q.3.Why p-Chlorobenzene has high melting point than o- and m- isomers ?
Q.4.Write the IUPAC name of CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH .
Q.5.What is the atomic packing fraction in FCC ?
Q.6.Write the equation for the preparation of Patassium dichromate .
OR
Complete and balance the following reactions-
(i) Cr2 O72- + SO3 2- ----------
(ii) Mn O 2 +KOH + O 2 --------
Q.7.(a)Write the chemical formula of Potassium hexacyanidoferrate(lll) .
(b)What is synergic bond ?

Q.8.Define the following name reacton with equation


(a)Cannizzaro reaction
(b) Aldol condensation
Q.9.`(a) When is the value of vant Hoff factor more than one ?
(b)What type of deviation from ideal behavior will be shown by solution of chloroform and
Acetone ?
Q.10.(a) What is the relationship between degree of dissociation and dissociation constant?
(b)Why a mercury cell gives constant voltage throughout its life ?
Q.11.The density of KBr is 2.75 g/cm 3 .The length of edge of the unit cell is 654pm. Predict the
type of the cubic lattice to which unit cell of KBr belongs ? (Atomic mass: K=39,Br=39)
Q.12.A solution prepared by dissolving 8.95 mg of a gene fragment in 35.0 ml of water has an
osmotic pressure of 0.335 torr at 270 C.Assuming that the gene fragment is a non-electrolyte,
Calculate its molarmass ?
Q.13.Calculate the cell potential of a cell having following cell representation-
Mg(s)/Mg 2+ (0.130M) // Ag + ( 0.0001M) /Ag (s)
Given : E 0 Mg/Mg 2+ =+2.37 V ; : E 0 Ag/Ag + =+ 0.80 V

Q.14.What happens when-


(a) A beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution
(b)NaCl is added to ferric hydroxide sol
(c)Electric current is passed through a colloidal sol

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Q.15.(a)Write the name of metals which are refined by the following process-
Monds process , Zone refining
(b)What is the role of depressant in froth floatation process ?
Q.16.(a)What is the magnetic moment of Cu 2+ ?
(b)Name a transition element which does not shows variable oxidation state .
(c)Why Actinoid contraction is greater than Lanthanoid contraction ?
Q.17.Compare the magnetic nature of [Fe(CN) 6] 3- and [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ with the help of crystal
Field theory .Draw the diagram and write the electronic configuration also .
1
Q.18.Draw the isomers of Bromobutane and arrange them in increasing order of showing SN
reaction.

Q.19.Write the mechanism of formation of ethene from ethanol .

Q.20. Distinguish between the following pairs-


(a)Methanoic acid and Ethanoic acid
(b)Pentanone -2 and Pentanone -3
(c)Acetaldehyde and Benzaldehyde
Q.21.(i)Name a nitrogen base which is found in RNA but not in DNA .
(ii)Name the bonding present in secondary structure of proteins.
(iii) Name a water soluble vitamin.

OR

Define the following-


Zwitter ion , Mutation , Glycosidic linkage
Q.22. Write the preparation of following polymers
Teflon ,Nylon 66, PHBV

Q.23.Analgesics are the chemical substances which give relief to the body from pains and act on
Our nervous system.these are of 2 types-narcotics and nonnarcotics. Whereas the former
Leades to addiction and are highly toxic but the latter are not.
(i)Name a substance which act as analgesic as well as antipyretics.

(ii)What is its IUPAC name .

(iii)How does it help heart patients?

(iV)What precautions must be taken while taking it ?

Q.No.24.Identify A,B,C,D and E in the following reaction .


A NaNO2 /HCl Cu/HCl NaOH, 623K

C6 H5CONH2 -------- C6H5NH 2-------------- B ---------- C--------------- D

E 300 atm

C 6H6

OR

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(a)Give reason why-

(i) Aniline does not undergo Friedel craft alkylation ?

(ii)Acylation is carried out before nitration of aniline ?

(iii) Boiling point of primary amines are higher than tertiary amines ?

(iv) pKb value of aniline is more than methyl amine ?

(b)What is Hinsbergs reagent ?Write its one application.

Q.25.(a) Draw the structures of the following-

XeOF4 , H3PO2

(b)Complete and balance the following equation-

(i) P4 + NaOH + H2O -----------

(ii) H2 S2O7 + H2O -----------

(iii) NH3 + Cl2 (excess) -----------

OR

(a) What is the difference between bleaching action of Cl2 and SO2 ?
(b) Why NH3 is more basic than BiH3 ?
(c) Name a halogen which form one oxoacid.Write its formula.
(d) What is the basicity of H3PO3 ?[
(e) Draw the structure of BrF3 .

Q.No.26.(a)Three-fourth of a reacton is completed in 32 minutes.What is the

Half life period of the reacton ?

(b)Why does the rate of any reaction decreases during the reaction?
-2
(c)Value of rate constant of a reaction is 5.2 x 10 MolL -1 sec -1.

What is the order of reaction ?

OR

(i)The rate constant of a reaction are 1x10 -3 sec -1 and 2x 10 -3 sec -1 at 27 0 C and 37 0 C
respectively. Calculate the activation energy of this reaction .
(ii)The rate law f a reaction is as follows-
Rate = K [A] 2 [B]0
What will be the rate of reaction if the concentration of A is double?

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S.No. Answer Marks
1 On increasing temperature physical adsorption decrease and chemical adsorption increase . 1
2 Mischmetal 1
3 Due to symmetry 1
4 Propan-1,2,3-triol 1
5 74% 1
6 4 FeCr 2 O 4 + 16NaOH + 7O2 8Na 2 Cr O4 + 2Fe 2 O 3 + 8 H2 O 1
Chromite ore Sod. Chromate
2Na 2 Cr O4 + 2H + Na 2 Cr2O7 + 2Na +
Na 2 Cr2O7 + 2KCl K 2 Cr2O7 + 2NaCl
Sod. Dichromate Pot. dichromate
OR

(i) Cr2 O72- + 3SO3 2- + 8H + ----------2Cr 3+ + 3SO4 2- + 4 H2 O 1

(ii)2 MnO 2 + 4KOH + O 2 -------- K 2 MnO4 + 2 H2 O 1

Pot. manganate

7 (a) K 3 [Fe (CN) 6 ] 1


(b) Bond between transition metal and carbonyl compound
1
8 (a) Definition and equation of Cannizzaro reaction 1
(b) Definition and equation of Aldol condensation 1
9 (a) In case of dissociation of solute 1
(b) Negative deviation due to formation of intermolecular hydrogen bond 1

10 (a) K = C x 2 / (1-x) 1
(b) Because overall reaction does nt have any ion 1

11 d= Z x M / N o x a 3 1
2.75 = Z x 119 / 6.022x 10 23 x (654 x 10 -10
) 1
Z= 4(fcc) 1

12. V=wRT/m 1
(0.335/760)(35 x10 -3 )= (8.95 x x10 -3 )x0.0821 x298 /m 1
M=14193.3 g/mol 1
13. E 0 cell = E 0 (cathode) - E 0 (anode) 1/2
=0.80 ( -2.37 ) = 3.17 Volt 1/2
E cell = E 0 cell -0.0591 /n log [Mg 2+ ] / [Ag + ] 2 1
E cell = E 0 cell -0.0591 /2 log( 0.130/ 10 -8
1/2
E cell = 3.17 -0.21 = 2.96 volt 1/2

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14. (a) Tyndall effect 1
(b) coagulation 1
(c)Electrophorasis 1
15. (a) Ni by Monds process ,Si by zone refining 1+1
(b) It prevent one of the sulphide ore out of two to form the froth 1
16. (a)1.73 B.M. 1
(b) Sc 1
(c)due to poor shielding effect 1

17. Diagram of crystal filled splitting of [Fe(CN) 6] 3- and [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ 1


[Fe(CN) 6] 3- is less paramagnetic but [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ is more paramagnetic 1
E.C. [Fe(CN) 6] 3- =t2g 5 .eg 0 and E.C. [Fe(H 2 O ) 6] 3+ t2g 3 .eg 2 1

18. CH3- CH2 -CH2 -CH2 -Br < CH3- CH( CH3 ) CH2 -Br < CH3- CH( Br ) CH2 CH3 < ( CH3) 3 Br 2+1
( 2 marks for writing isomers and I mark for correct order )

19. Mechanism of formatin of ethene from ethanol 3


(each step carry I mark )
20. (a)On adding tollens reagent ,methanoic acid gives silver mirror but ethanoic acid does not . 1
(b)On adding Iodine and NaOH ,Pentanone-2 gives yellow ppt. of iodoform but Pentanone-3 1
does not. 1
(c)On adding Fehling solution A and B ,Acetaldehyde gives red ppt. but Benzaldehyde does not .
21. Uracil 1
(a) Hydrogen bond 1
Vitamin C 1
(b) OR
1 mark for each definition Definations 3
(c)
22. One mark for each preparation 3

23. (i)Aspirin 1
(ii) 2- Acetoxybenzoic acid 1
(iii)It prevent the coagulation of blood in body 1
(iv) It should not be taken empty stomach 1

24. Br 2 /KOH NaNO2 /HCl Cu/HCl NaOH, 623K 5

C6 H5CONH2 -------- C6H5NH 2----------- C6H5N 2 + Cl - --------- C6H5Cl--------------- C6H5OH

H 3PO 2, 300 atm

C 6H6

OR

(a)

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(i) Aniline is basic while anhy AlCl 3 is lewis acid,so they react to form salt 1

(ii) To prevent the formation of meta product 1

(iii) Due to formation of inter molecular hydrogen bonding 1

(iv) Aniline is less basic due to C6H5 Which shoes I effect while Methyl amine contains 1
CH3 group which shows +I effect

(c) Benzeneslphonyl chloride (C6H5SO 2 Cl ).It is used to distinguish between pri., sec. ,tert. 1
amnes

25. (a) 1 mark for each structure 2


(b) (i) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O ----------- PH 3 + 3 NaH 2PO 2
1
Phosphine

(ii) H2 S2O7 + H2O ----------- 2 H 2 SO4( Sulphuric acid ) 1

1
(iii) NH3 +3 Cl2 (excess) ----------- NCl 3 + 3HCl

OR

(a)Bleaching action of Cl2 is due to oxidizing property while of SO 2 is due to reducing property 1
(b)due to more electron density on NH 3
1
(c)Fluorine,HOF
1
(d)two
1
(e) structure of BrF 3
1

26. (a) K= 2.303 /t log a/a-x 1


K=2.303/32 log 4 =(2.303/32)(2x0.3010)=.693/16 1
t = 0.693/k =16 minutes 1
(b)Because concentration of reactants decrease 1
(c)Zero order 1
OR
(i) Log k2/k1 =E a/2.303R(1/T 1 - 1/ T 2 ) 1
Log 2x10 -3 / 1x10 -3 =Ea /2.303/8.31 (1/300 -1/ 310) 1
Log 2 = Ea/19.137 (10/300x310) 1
Ea =53.6 kj/mol 1
(ii) Rate of reaction increases 4 times 1

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 11
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

S.No UNITS VSA SA-i SA-ii VBQ LA TOTAL


1 Mark 2 Mark 3 Mark 4 Mark 5 Mark
1 SOLID STATE 1 9 (23)
2 SOLUTION 1
3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY 1 1 1
4 KINETICS 1 1
5 SURFACE CHEMISTRY 2
6 PRINCIPAL OF 1 1 8 (19)
EXTRACTION
7 p-BLOCK ELEMENTS 1 2 1
8 d-BLOCK ELEMENTS 1
9 CO-ORDINATON 1
CHEMISTRY
10 HALO-ALKANES AND 1 9 (28)
HALO-ARENES
11 ALCOHOLES 2 1
12 ALDEHYDES ACID & 1
KETONES
13 AMINES 1
14 POLYMER 1
15 BIOMOLECULES 1
16 CHEMISTRY IN 1
EVERYDAY LIFE
5(5) 5(10) 12(36) 1(4) 3(15) 26(70)

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Subject : Chemistry

Max.Marks: 70 Duration: 3 Hr.

General Instructions:

1. All questions are compulsory


2. Question numbers 1 to 5 are very short questions, each of 1 mark.
3. Question numbers 6 to 10 are short answer questions of 2 marks each.
4. Question numbers 11 to 22 are short answer questions of 3 marks each.
5. Question number 23 is value based question of 4 marks.
6. Question numbers 24 to 26 are long answer questions of 5 marks each.
1. What is Total no. of atoms per unit cell in fcc crystal structure?
2. Express the relation between the conductivity and molar conductivity of a solution?
3. Why is the froth floatation method selected for the concentration of sulphide ores?
4. Why is Bi(V) a stronger oxidant than Sb(V) ?
5. Write the structure of 2-Bromo-3-methylbut-2en-1-amine.

6. What type of cell is lead storage battery ? Write anode and the cathode reaction and the
overall cell reactions occurring in the recharging of a lead storage battery.

7.Give the principle involved in following process :

(a) Monds Process (b) Zone Refining

8. Complete the following chemical reactions :

i) P4(s) +NaOH(aq) + H2O(l) --------


ii) I- + H2O(l) +O3(g) -----------------

9. For the decomposition reactions the values of rate constant K at two different
temperatures given below: K1 = 2.15 X 10 -8 L mol-1 s-1 at 650K

K2 = 2.39X 10 -7 L mole -1 s-1 at 700 K

Calculate the value of Ea for this reaction (R = 8.314 JK-1 mol-1)

10. Give explanation in support of the following observations :


a) Sulphuric acid has low volatility.
b) Oxoanions of a metal show higher oxidation state.
OR

Account for the following:


i) Oxidizing power in the series VO2+< Cr2O72-<MnO4-
ii) In the first transition series only Cu has positive electrode potential.
11. a) Calculate the charge in coulombs required for the oxidation of 2 mole of water to
oxygen? (Given 1F = 96500C mol-1)

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b) Zn/AgI oxide cell is used in hearing aids and electric watches where following reactions
occur:

Zn(s) Zn2+ (aq) +2e- E0 (Zn2+(aq)/ Zn = -0.76V

Ag2S+H2O +2e- 2Ag+2OH-E0(Ag+ /Ag) = 0.344V

Calculate the i) Standard potential of the cell ii) standard Gibbs energy.

12. Give reasons for the following observations:


a) Colloids stabilize due to Brownian movement.
b) Cottrells smoke precipitator is fitted at the mouth of chimney used in factories.
c) Colloidal gold is used for intramuscular injection.

13. (a)Which compound in each of the following pair reacts faster in SN2 reaction with OH-?

(i) CH3Br or CH3I (ii) (CH3)3CCl or CH3Cl

(b) Give distinguish test between CHCl3 & CCl4 .

14. (i) Write chemical reaction for the following reactions:


a) oxidation of oxalate ion by MnO4- in acidic medium.
b) Disproportionate of manganese (VI) in acidic medium.
(ii) What is the effect of increasing pH on dichromate ion with the help of structures.
15.Give plausible reason for each of the following:
a) p-nitrophenol is more acidic than p-methoxyphenol.
b) Alcohols are easily protonated in comparison to phenols
c) The relative ease of dehydration of alcohols is 30> 20>10 .
16.a) Give one reaction of D-glucose which cannot be explained by its open chain structure.
b) Give one example each for the essential and non-essential amino acids .
c) Differentiate between keratin and insulin.

17. a) (i)Identify aliphatic biodegradable polyester which is used in packaging and


orthopedic devices.
(ii) Write its full form ( name )
(iii) Give the structure of monomers from which it is formed.
b) Arrange the following in order of their increasing strength PVC, Nylon 66, vulcanized
rubber.
18. (i) Justify why : Sleeping pills are recommended to patients suffering from
sleeplessness but it is not advisable to take them without consulting the doctor.
(ii) Asprin belongs to which class of drugs? Give its structure.
(iii) Give constituents of Dettol.
19. A) Give chemical test to distinguish between :
i) Isopropyl alcohol and n-propylalcohol.
ii) Phenol and ethyl alcohol

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iii) Methyl ethanoate and ethyl ethanoate.

20. (a)Give the one major difference between lyophillic and lyophobic colloids.
(b)Explain:
(i)Sky appears blue in colour.
(ii) A freshly formed precipitate of ferric hydroxide can be converted to a colloidal sol by
shaking it with a small quantity of ferric chloride.

21.In a hydrolysis reaction, 5 grams ethyl-acetate is hydrolyzed in the presence of dilute HCl
in 300 minutes.if the reaction is first order and initial concentration of ethyl-acetate is 22
gram/litre,Calculate the rate constant of the reaction.

22. (a) Write the IUPAC name for [Co(en)3]2(SO4)3


(b) How many geometrical isomers are possible in the coordination entity [Co (NH3)3(NO3)3]?
(c) Give the number of unpaired electrons in [Ni(CN)4]-2. (Atomic no of Ni = 27)
OR

Predict hybridization, shape, magnetic properties of hexachloridochromate(III)ion on


the basis of VBT.

23. Mohan heard a lot of noise and weeping in nearby jhuggis .He look courage and went to
inquire what had happened. He found that some people has taken spurious alcohol
containing methanol and were crying with pain and were complaining of loss of eyesight. He
immediately hired an auto rikshaw and packed it with 4 persons who has consumed
spurious alcohol.

a. How does methanol in drinking alcohol cause problem?


b. What treatment might the doctors have undertaken to save the patients?
c. What message would you give to the person who consumed spurious
alcohol?
d. What values had Mohan showed in this incident?

24. Methanol is a crystalline substance with peppermint taste. A 6.2% solution of methanol
in cyclohexane freezes at -1.95 0C.Determine the formula mass of methanol. The freezing
point and molal depression constant of cyclohexane are 6.5 0C and 20.2 K kg mol-1
respectively.

b) State Henrys law and mention its two applications.


c) Which of the following has higher boiling point and why? 0.1 M NaCl or 0.1 M glucose.
OR
(a) Define azeotropes and explain briefly minimum boiling point azeotropes by taking
suitable examples.

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b) The vapour pressure of pure liquid A and B are 450mm and 7oo mm of Hg respectively at
50 K .Calculate the composition of liquid mixture if total vapor pressure is 600mmof Hg .also
find the composition of the mixture in vapor phase.

25. (i) Account for the following:


(a) Nitrogen gas is inert at room temp.
(b) F2 is better oxidizing agent than Cl2. Why?
(c) In aqueous solution HI is stronger acid than HCl.
(d) Noble gases have low boiling point.
(ii) Draw the structure of XeO3
OR
(a) Write balanced equations for the following:
(i) Hydrolysis of Calcium Nitride.
(ii) The reaction of Cl2 with hot and concentrated NaOH.
(iii) The reaction of platinum with aqua-regia
(b) Write the chemical equations involved in Brown ring test for nitrate ion.
26 (a) (i) Ketones are less reactive towards nucleophiles than aldehydes. (ii) Benzoic acid is stronger
acid than ethanoic acid. (iii) Which acid is stronger- Phenol or Cresol? Explain. (b) Write chemical
tests to distinguish the following pair of compounds

i) Phenol and Benzoic acid


ii) 2-Phenyl ethanol and Acetone

OR
.(a). Show how you would synthesize the following alcohols from appropriate alkenes.

(b) Explain the following with help of a suitable example

(i) Clemmensen reduction.

(ii) Cannizzaros reaction.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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MARKING SCHEME

Ans1. There are 4 atoms per unit cell in fcc crystal structure. 1

Ans2 . ^m=K/C , ^ m is molar conductivity. 1

K is conductivity.

C is the concentration in mol L-1.

Ans3. Because sulphide ore particles are preferentially wetted by the oil and gaunge
particles by water. Thus, the sulphide ore particles become lighter and come to the froath
leaving behind impurities in water. 1

Ans4 : In Bi (V) the inert pair effect is more prevalent than Sb(V) , so , it accepts two
electrons and easily changes to Bi(III) Bi 5+ to Bi (III)

Bi5+ + 2 e --- Bi 3+1

Ans 5. : Structure of 2-Bromo-3-methylbut-2en-1-amine. 1

Ans 6 .Secondary cell. *4

Anode: Pb(S) +SO42- (aq) ---PbSO4 +2e-

Cathode: PbO2 (s) +SO42- +4H+ +2e ------ PbSO4(s) + 2H2O

Overall reaction will be :Pb(s) +PbO2 (s) +2H2SO4(aq)---- 2PbSO4(s) +2H2O(l)

On charging the battery cell is operated like an electrolyte cell and reaction is reversed i.e.
PbSO4 deposed on electrodes I converted back into Pb and PbSO4 and H2SO4 is reproduced.

Ans 7: Principle of Monds Process and Zone refining. 1+1

Ans 8. 3NaH2PO4 +PH3(g) 1+1

I2(g) +O2(g) + 2OH-

Ans 9: log k2/k1 = Ea/2.303R[ T2-T1/T1T2] 1/2

Given : k1 = 2.15X 10 -8, K2 = 2.39X 10 -7 , t1 =650K , t2 = 700K

R= 8.314 JK-1 mol-1

Ea = 2.303X 3.14 Jmol-1K-1X 650K X 700K/ 700K-600K log 2.39X10 -7 / 2.15X 10 -8 1

(1.045Jmol-1

Ea = 182.16 KJmol-1(answer with correct unit) 1/2

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10. a) because of hydrogen bonding. 1+1

b) Due to high electronegativity and multiple bond formation with metal & oxygen

OR

i) this is due to the increasing stability of the lower species to which they are reduced.

ii)Cu has high ionization enthalpy for transforming Cu(s) to Cu 2+ (aq) and this is not balanced
by its hydration enthalpy.

Ans 11 .2H2O ------------- 4H+ +O2 +4e- 1+1+1

2mol 4mol or 4F)

Therefore , charge (Q) required for converting 2 moles of H2O to Oxygen =4F= 4X 96500C
mol-1= 386000C mol-1

a) Zn(s) oxidation- Zn2+ )aq) +2e-


b) Ag2O +H2O +2e- ----reduction- 2Ag +2OH-
Zn(s) +Ag2O +H2O-- Zn2+ (aq) + 2Ag + 2OH-.

i) E0 cell = E0Cathode= E0 anode= 0.344-(.76V) = 1.104V


ii) G0 = -nFE0Cell = -2X96500X1.104 = -2.13X10 5 jmol-1

Ans.:12 a) Brownian movement is random motion of the colloidal participles in a colloidal


solution. It counters the force of gravity on the colloidal particles and hence helps in
providing stability to colloidal solutions by not allowing them to settle down.

b) The precipitators contains plates having a charge opposite to ath carried by smoke
particles which lose their charge and get precipitated and smoke is thus , free from carbon
and dust particles after passing through chimney.

c) Because colloidal gold has greater surface area and easily get assimilated with the
colloidal blood. 1+1+1

Ans 13. : a) (i) CH3I, (ii) CH3Cl

(b) Carbyl amine test : CHCl3 will give foul smell of carbylamine

Ans 14: (i) a)5C2O42- + 2MnO4- + 16H+ ----------> 2Mn2+ +8H2O +10CO21+1+1

b) 3MnO42- + 4H+ -------- 2MnO42- + MnO2 + 2H2O.

(ii) Structures refer to page No.225

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2- 2-

O
O O O
O Cr Cr O Cr
O
O O
O O

pH < 7 pH > 7

Ans: 15 a) Due to strong R and I effect of NO2 group , electron density in the -OH bond
decreases thus it release H+ easily to form more stable conjugate base (p-nitrophenoxide
ion).

b) In alcohols, lone pair of electrons on the oxygen is available for proton due to the
absence to resonance while in phenol lone pair of electrons at oxygen atom are not
available for donation due to resonance.

c) Due to order of stability of carbocations30> 20>10

Or tertiary alcohols form more substituted alkenes. 1+1+1

Ans16.: a) Despite of having the presence of aldehyde group , glucose does not give 2, 4
DNP test / Schiff test , does not form the adduct with NaHSO3.

b) Essential amino acids valine

Non-Essential amino acids: glycine.

c)Keratin is a fibrous protein whereas insulin is a globular protein. 1+1+1

Ans 17.a) (i)PHBV

ii)3-Hydroxy butanoic acid and 3- Hydroxypentanoic acid.

iii) Reaction of formation of PHBV.

b) vulcanized rubber< PVC<nylon 66 +1/2+1+1

Ans18: (i) Because most of the drugs act as poison in high doses and may lead to death. 1
X3
(ii) Analgesic as well as antipyretic. Structure of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid.(Asprin)
(iii) Composition of dettol :Chloroxylenol and terpinol.
Ans 19.i) Isopropyl alcohol and n-propyl alcohols: 1X3
On adding NaOH/I2 and NaOI and heating isopropyl alcohol forms yellow ppt. of iodoform
(CHI3)Whereas n-propyl alcohol does not.
ii)Phenol and alcohol
On adding neutral FeCl3 solution, phenol red- violet complex whereas alcohol does not.

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iii)Methylethanoate and ethyl ethanoate: On hydrolysis , ethylethanoate gives ethanol
which on heating with NaOI gives yellow ppt of CHI3 whereas methyl ethanoate on
hydrolysis gives negative test.

Ans 20 a) lyophilic colloids: they have strong forces of attraction between the dispersed
phase and dispersion medium.
lyophobic colloids: weak force
b) (i) dust particles in the air scatter blue light.
ii) it breaks down into smaller particles of the size of colloid. 1X3
Ans 21 a=22 initial concentration

a-x=(22-5)=17final concentration 1

t=300min

K= 2.303/t loga/a-x 1

=2.303/300 log 22/17

=7.6 * 10-3log 1.29

=7.6 * 10-3* 0.11

=8.36 * 10-4min-11 (with correct answer and unit)

Ans 22. (i) Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) sulphate 1X3


(ii)2 (fac and mer)
(iii)dsp2 square planar

OR

d2sp3apply VBT then answer, Octahedral , paramagnetic because of 3 unpaired electrons.


Magnetic moment = 3.9 BM

Ans 23.(a) methyl alcohol is easily oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Which
may cause blindness and death
(b) doctors given an intra venous infusion of diluted ethanol. The enzyme responsible for
oxidation of HCHO to acid is swamped allowing time for kidneys to excrete methanol

( c) people should be educated not to drink cheap alcohol from unauthorized sources. It is
not worth saving money when the life get endangered. It at all one has to drink, the stuff
must be purchased from an authorized source.

(d) Mohan applied knowledge of chemistry, showed humanitarian behavior. 1+1+1+1

Ans. 24. Let the mass of the solution= 100g

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WA = 100-6.2 = 93.8g WB = 6.2 g
Tf = 6.5-(-1.95) = 8.450C = 8.45 K
Tf = Kfm = Kf* WB*1000g/WA* 1/2
8.45 K=20.2KKg mol-1 X 6.2 gX1000 /93.8g X MB1/2
MB= 158 gmol-11
b) Henrys law: This law states that the solubility of gas in a liquid is directly proportional to
the pressure of the gas. Application: 1+1
1) Solubility of CO2 is increased at high pressure.
2) Mixture of He and O2 are used by deep sea divers because He is less soluble than
nitrogen.
c) 0.1 M NaCl has higher boiling point than 0.1 M. Glucose because 0.1 M NaCl dissociates
in solution and furnishes greater number of particles per unit volume while glucose does
not dissociate. 1

OR

(a) Azeotropesis a liquid mixture which boils at constant temperature without


undergoing change in composition. 1+1

Example Amixure of 95% ethanol and 3% water by mass forms minimum boiling azeotropes
i.e. it boils at a temperature lower than expected from ideal behavior , as it shows positive
deviation from ideal behavior.

b) PA0 = 450mmHg ,PB0 =700mmHg

PT = PA0XA+PB0XB
600= 450XA+ 700 (1-XA) 1
On solving , we get XA= 0.4 , XB = 0.6
In vapor phase
PA = 0.4X 450mmHg= 180mmHg +1/2
PB = 0.6X700mmHg = 420mmHg
XA= 180mm/600mm = 0.3
XB = 1-XA = 1-0.3 = 0.7 1 =3
25. (a) Due to smaller size nitrogen can form p-p bond. 1X5
(b) Due to low bond dissociation enthalpy and high hydration enthalpy.
(c) Bond dissociation enthalpy of HI is smaller than HCl due to large size of iodine.
(d) Due to weak Vanderwaalforce of attraction in noble gases.
(e)Refer to NCERT page No. 205

Or

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(a)

(i) Ca3N2 + 6H2O 3Ca(OH)2 + 2NH3 3+2


(ii) Cl2 +NaOH (hot & conc.) NaCl + NaClO3 + H2O
(iii) 3Pt + 16H++ 4NO3- + 18Cl- 3PtCl6-+ 4 NO + 8 H2O
Hexachloridoplatinate(IV)ion

(b)Reactions refer to NCERT Page No. 175

Ans 26 (a) (i) The Alkyl group in Ketones decreases the positive charge on the Carboxyl carbon due
to + I effect, makes > C= O less polar than Aldehyde and decreasing the attacking tendency of the
nucleophile.

(ii) Phenyl group in Benzoic acid has weak +R effect and thus destablises the Carboxylate anion,
makes it a stronger base. +I effect of Methyl group in Acetic acid is still greater than +R effect of
Phenyl group. This further destabalises the Acetate ion comparatively, makes it a stronger base than
Benzoic acid. So, acetic acid is weaker than Benzoic acid.

(iii) Cresol is a weaker acid than Phenol because +I effect of R group at the ortho and para position
increases electron density on the Benzene nucleus, decreasing stability of ArO- ion making it a
stronger base as O-H bond becomes less polar. Hence, substituted Phenol is less acidic than Phenol.

Or

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(b) (i) Clemmensen reduction The carbonyl gp. Of aldehyde and ketones is reduced to CH2 gp on
treatment with Zinc amalgam and conc. HCl.

Reactions refer to NCERT page No. 361

(ii) Cannizzarosreaction :- -hydrogen atom, undergoes self-oxidation and


reduction(disproportionation) reaction on treating with conc. Alkali.In this reaction, one molecule of
the aldehyde is reduced to alcohol while another is oxidised to Carboxylic acid salt.

Reactions refer to NCERT page No. 364

***********************

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 10
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT
S.No Types of Questions Marks for each No. of Total
Question Questions Marks

1 Long Answers (LA) 5 3 15


2 Value based question 4 1 4
3 Short Answers-II(SA II) 3 12 36
4 Short Answers-I(SA I) 2 5 10
5 Very Short Answer 1 5 5
(VSA)
Total 26 70

Unit No. Title Marks


Type of questions Very Short Short Value Long
Short Answers- Answers- based Answers
Answer I(SA I) II(SA II) question (LA)
(VSA)
Marks 1 2 3 4 5
M(Q) M(Q) M(Q) M(Q) M(Q) M(Q)
Unit I Solid State 1(1) 3(1) 4(2) 23
Unit II Solutions 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)
Unit III Electrochemistry 5(1) 5(1)
Unit IV Chemical Kinetics 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)
Unit V Surface Chemistry 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)
Unit VI General Principles and 3(1) 3(1) 19
Processes of Isolation
of Elements
Unit VII p -Block Elements 2(1) 5(1) 7(2)
Unit VIII d -and f -Block 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)
Elements
Unit IX Coordination 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)
Compounds
Unit X Haloalkanes and 3(1) 3(1) 28
Haloarenes
Unit XI Alcohols, Phenols and 2(1) 3(1) 5(2)
Ethers
Unit XII Aldehydes, Ketones 1(1) 5(1) 6(2)
and Carboxylic Acids
Unit XIII Organic Compounds 1(1) 3(1) 4(2)
containing Nitrogen
Unit XIV Biomolecules 3(1) 3(1)
Unit XV Polymers 3(1) 3(1)
Unit XVI Chemistry in Everyday 4(1) 4(1)
Life
Total 5(5) 10(5) 36 (12) 4(1) 15(3) 70(26) 70

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CLASS:XII- CHEMISTRY (Theory)

Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions :
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Questions number 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Questions number 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Questions number 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v) Question number 23 is a value based question and carry 4 marks.
(vi) Questions number 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.
1. Name the compound which shows both frenkel and schottky defect.
2. What are emulsions? Give an example.
3. What is the IUPAC name of the complex [Ni(NH3)6]Cl2 ?
4. Write the IUPAC name of the following :
CH3 CH (OH) CHO

5. Complete the following reaction equation :


C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O - -----------

6. Define the following terms:


(i) Mole fraction (x)
(ii) Molality of a solution (m)

6. Write units of rate constants for zero order and for the second order
reactions if the concentration is expressed in mol L1 and time in
second .
8. Write the structures of the following:
(i) H2S2O7 (ii) XeO3

9. Describe the preparation of potassium permanganate. How does the acidified


permanganate solution react with oxalic acid ? Write the ionic equations for
the reactions.
OR
Describe the oxidising action of potassium dichromate and write the ionic
equations for its reaction with (i) an iodide (ii) H2S.

10. Explain the mechanism of dehydration of ethanol:-

11. Define the following terms:


(i) F-centre
(ii) p-type semiconductor
(iii) Ferrimagnetism

12. When 1.5 g of a non-volatile solute was dissolved in 90 g of benzene the


boiling point of benzene raised from 353.23 K to 353.93 K.
Calculate the molar mass of the solute.
Kb for benzene = 2.52 K kg mol1)

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13. A first order reaction takes 10 minutes for 25% decomposition.
Calculate t1/2 for the reaction.
(Given: log 2 = 03010, log 3 = 04771, log 4 = 06021)
14. Give reasons for the following observations:
(i) A delta is formed at the meeting point of sea water and river water.
(ii) NH3 gas adsorbs more readily than N2 gas on the surface of charcoal.
(iii) Powdered substances are more effective adsorbents.

15. Outline the principles of refining of metals by the following methods:


(i) Distillation
(ii) Zone refining
(iii) Electrolysis
OR
Write down the reactions taking place in different zones in the blast furnace during the
extraction of iron. How is pig iron different from cast iron?

16. What is lanthanoid contraction? What are the consequences of lanthanoid contraction ?

17. (a)What is a ligand ? Give an example of bidentate ligand.


(b) Explain as to how the two complexes of nickel [Ni(CO)4] and [Ni(CN)4]2- have different
structures but do not differ in their magnetic behavior.
18. write the structure of the major organic product formed in each of the following reactions:

(i)CH3CH2CH=CH2 +HBr

(ii)CH3CH2CH2OH +SOCl2

Ii)C6H5ONa +C2H5Cl

19. How are the following conversions carried out ?

(i) Propene to propane-2-ol


(ii) Benzyl chloride to Benzyl alcohol
(iii) Anisole to p-Bromoanisole

20. An aromatic compound A on treatment with aqueous ammonia and heating forms compound
B which on heating with Br2 and KOH forms a compound C of molecular formula C6H7N. Write
the structures and IUPAC names of compounds A, B and C.

21. Define the following as related to proteins :


(i) Peptide linkage (ii) Primary structure (iii) Denaturation

22. Explain the term copolymerization and give two examples of copolymerization.

23. Neeraj went to the departmental store to purchase groceries. On one of the shelves he noticed
sugar free tablets. He decided to buy them for his grandfather who was a diabetic. There were
three types of sugar free tablets. He decided to buy sucrolose which was good for his
grandfathers health.
(i) Name another sugar free tablet which Neeraj did not purchase.

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(ii) Was it right to purchase such medicines without doctors prescription ?
(iii) What quality of Neeraj is reflected above ?

24. Calculate rG and e.m.f. (E) that can be obtained from the following cell under the standard
conditions at 25 C :
Zn(s) | Zn2+(aq) || Sn2+(aq) | Sn(s)
Given : E Zn2+/Zn= 0.76 V; ESn2+/Sn = 0.14 V and F = 96500 C mol1.
OR
(a) Define conductivity and molar conductivity for the solution of an electrolyte. Discuss their
variation with concentration.
(b) Calculate the standard cell potential of the galvanic cell in which the following reaction takes
place :
Fe2+(aq) + Ag+(aq) Fe3+(aq) + Ag(s)
Calculate the rG and equilibrium constant of the reaction also.
(EAg+/Ag = 0.80 V; EFe3+/Fe2+ = 0.77 V)

25. (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations :


(i) Cu + HNO3(dilute)
(ii) P4 + NaOH+ H2O
(b) (i) Why does R3P = O exist but R3N = O does not ? (R = alkyl group)
(ii) Why is dioxygen a gas but sulphur a solid ?
(iii) Why are halogens coloured ?

OR
(a) Write balanced equations for the following reactions :
(i) Chlorine reacts with dry slaked lime.
(ii) Carbon reacts with concentrated H2SO4.
(b) Describe the contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid with special
reference to the reaction conditions, catalysts used and the yield in the process.

26. (a) Describe the following giving chemical equations :


(i) De-carboxylation reaction
(ii) Friedel-Crafts reaction
(b) How will you bring about the following conversions ?
(i) Benzoic acid to Benzaldehyde
(ii) Benzene to m-Nitroacetophenone
(iii) Ethanol to 3-Hydroxybutanal
OR
(a) Describe the following actions :
(i) Acetylation (ii) Aldol condensation
(b) Write the main product in the following equations :

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MARKING SCHEME

Q. Value points Marks


1 AgBr 1
2
Emulsions are liquid liquid colloidal systems. +
For example milk, cream (or any other one correct example)

3 Hexaamninenickel (II) chloride 1

4 2-Hydroxy Propanal 1

5 1
6 1,1

7 Zero order : mol L-1s-1 1,1

Second order : L mol-1s-1

8 1,1

9 Potassium permanganate is prepared by fusion of MnO2 with an alkali metal hydroxide 1,1
and an oxidising agent like KNO3. This produces the dark green K2MnO4 which
disproportionates in a neutral or acidic solution to give permanganate.

Oxalate ion or oxalic acid is oxidised at 333 K

OR
9 1,1

10 0.5
.

0.5

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1
11 i) Anion vacancies occupied by free electrons in alkali metal halides, (when they have 1
. metal excess defects) are called F-centre.
(ii) When Si or Ge is doped with a trivalent impurity then electron vacancies are created
called positive holes which impart electrical conduction. They are called p-type
semiconductors. 1
(iii) Ferrimagnetism is observed when the magnetic moments are aligned in parallel and
antiparallel way in unequal numbers in a
substance leading to small net permanent magnetic moment. 1
12

1
1

13 .5, .5

1,1

14 i) Due to coagulation of colloidal clay particles. 1


.
ii) Because NH3 is easily liquefiable than N2 due to its larger molecular size. 1
iii) Because of more surface area. 1

15
i) The impure metal is evaporated to obtain the pure metal as distillate. 1
ii) This method is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the melt
than in the solid state of the metal.
iii) The impure metal is made to act as anode. A strip of the same metal in pure form is 1
used as cathode. They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of the
same metal. The more basic metal remains in the solution and the less basic ones go to .5*4=
the anode mud. 2
OR 1

( any four correct equations)


Cast iron has lower carbon content (about 3%) than pig iron / cast iron is hard & brittle
whereas pig iron is soft.

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16 The steady decrease in atomic radii from La to Lu due to imperfect shielding of 4f 1
orbital.
Consequences 1,1
i) Members of third transition series have almost identical radii as coresponding
members of second transition series.
ii) Difficulty in separation

17 (a) Ligand: The ions or molecules bound to the central atom/ion in the 1
coordination entity are called ligands.
ex. of bidentate ligand- ethane-1,2-diamine or oxalate ion
(or any other)
(b) In [Ni(CN)4]2- nickel is Ni2+, (3d8),with strong Ligand like CN-, all the electrons are
paired up in four d-orbitals resulting into dsp2 hybridization giving square planar
structure and diamagnetic character.
In Ni(CO)4, nickel is in zero valence state , (3d84s2),with strong Ligand like
CO,4s2,electrons are pushed to the d-orbitals resulting into sp3 hybridization giving
tetrahedral shape and diamagnetic nature. 1,1
(or this can be explained by drawing orbital configurations too.)
18 1
. (I) CH3CH2CH=CH2 + HBr ) CH3CH2CH2CH2Br
1
(ii) CH3CH2CH2OH +SOCl2CH3CH2CH2Cl 1
1
IiI) C6H5ONa +C2H5Cl C6H5OC2H5
1

19 1
.

20 1

21 1
i) Peptide linkage in proteins, -amino acids are connected to each other by peptide
bond or peptide linkage (-CONH- bond).
ii) Primary structure - each polypeptide in a protein molecule having amino acids which 1
are linked with each other in a specific sequence.

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iii) Denaturation - When a protein is subjected to physical change like change in
temperature or chemical change like change in pH, protein loses its biological activity.
1
22 Copolymerisation is a polymerisation reaction in which more than one monomeric 1
species is allowed to polymerise and form a copolymer.

1,1

OR any other correct example.


23 i) Aspartame, Saccharin (any one) 1
. ii) No 1
iii) Social concern, empathy, concern, social awareness (any 2 ) 2
24 1

1
OR

a) The conductivity of a solution at any given concentration is the conductance of one 1/2
unit volume of solution kept between two platinum electrodes with unit area of cross
section and at a distance of unit length.
Molar conductivity of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of the 1/2
volume V of solution containing one mole of electrolyte kept between two electrodes
with area of cross section A and distance of unit length.
Molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration. 1

1/2
1/2


1/2

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25 1,1

1,1,1

25 OR
1,1

1/2,1/
2

26 1,1

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1,1,1

26 1,1

1,1,1

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - 12
CLASS: XII TIME: 3 Hours

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY (THEORY) MAX. MARKS: 70

BLUE PRINT

UnitNo. Title VSA(1) SA(2) SA(3) VB(4) LA(5) Marks


UnitI SolidState 1 3
UnitII Solutions 5
UnitIII Electrochemistry 2 3 23
UnitIV Chemical Kinetics 2 3
UnitV SurfaceChemistry 4
UnitVI GeneralPrinciplesandProcessesofIsolation 3
ofElements
19
UnitVII p-BlockElements 2 3(2)
UnitVIII d-andf BlockElements 5
UnitIX CoordinationCompounds 3
UnitX HaloalkanesandHaloarenes 1 3
UnitXI Alcohols,Phenolsand Ethers 2(2)
UnitXII Aldehydes,KetonesandCarboxylic Acids 1 5
UnitXIII OrganicCompoundscontainingNitrogen 1 3 28

UnitXIV Biomolecules 3
UnitXV Polymers 3
UnitXVI ChemistryinEverydayLife 1 3
Total 5 10 36 4 15 70

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CHEMISTRY (THEORY)
CLASS XII
Time allowed: 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 70
General instructions:
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Marks for each question are indicated against it.
(iii) Question numbers 1 to 5are very short answer question and carries 1 mark each.
(iv) Question numbers 6 to 10 are short answer question and carries 2 mark each.
(v) Question numbers 11 to 22 are also short answer question and carries 3mark each.
(vi) Question number 23 is value based carrying 4 marks.
(vii) Question numbers 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carries 5marks each.
(viii) Use log tables, ifnecessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.

1. On heating crystals of NaCl in sodium vapours, the crystals start exhibiting a yellow colour, why?

2. Give the IUPAC name of following compound


CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH(Cl)-CH(Br)-CH3
3. Arrange the following in increasing order of the acidic character:
HCOOH, CH2ClCOOH, CF3COOH, CCl3COOH
4.What is zwitter ion?Give example.
5.Alitame is not used as a sweetening agent in the food& why
6.Explain Kohlrauschs law of independent migration of ions. Mention one application of
kohlrauschs law.
OR
A solution of Ni(NO3)2 is electrolysed between platinum electrodes using a current of 5.0 ampere
for 20 minutes. What mass of nickel will be deposited at the cathode? (At. Mass of Ni= 58.7)

7. A first order reaction is found to have rate constant,


k=5.5 x 10-14 s-1
Find the half life of the reaction?

8.Write the structures of following species:


(i) H3PO3
(ii) H2S2O7
9.How would you get

(a) Phenyl benzoate acid from phenol

(b) Salicylic acid from phenol.

10. Explain giving reasons:

(i) Propanol has higher b.p. than that of butane.

(ii) Alcohols are comparatively more soluble in water than hydrocarbon of comparable molecular masses.

11. A face centered cubic lattice has edge length 2. The density of metal is 2.4 g cm3. How many units cell are
present in 200g of this metal ?

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12. Write the Nernst Equation & Determine the emf of cell in which the following reaction takes
place.
Ni(s) + 2Ag+(0.002M) (aq) --- Ni2+ (0.16M)(aq) + 2Ag(s), E0=1.05V
(1F = 96500 coulomb, E0 value of Ni = - 0.23V and of Ag is 0.80V)
13.For a certain chemical reaction
A + 2B 2C + D
The experimentally obtained information is tabulated below:
Experiment [A] [B] Initial rate of reaction

1 0.30 0.30 0.096


2 0.60 0.30 0.384
3 0.30 0.60 0.192
4 0.60 0.60 0.768

For the reaction


(i) Derive the order of reaction w.r.t. both the reactants A and B.
(ii) Write the rate law.
(iii) Calculate the value of rate constant k.

14. Describe the role of following:


(i) NaCN in extraction of Silver from silver ore.
(ii) Iodine in refining of Titanium
(iii) Cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium
OR
Describe the principle involved in each of the following processes of metallurgy
(i) Froth floatation method
(ii) Electrolytic refining of metals
(iii) Zone refining of metals
15. Give reasons
(i) N does not form NCl5 while P can form PCl5
(ii) White phosphorus is highly reactive at room temperature
(iii)H2O is a liquid while H2S is gas
16. Complete the following reactions
i. Zn + HNO3(con.)
ii. NH3 (excess) + Cl2
iii. (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2
17. Write the IUPAC name and geometry of following complexes:
[CoCl4]2- , [NiCN4]2- , [ Cr (H2O)2(C2O4)2]
( At. No. : Co= 27, Ni=28, Cr=24)
18. (a)In the following pairs of halogen compounds, which compound undergoes faster SN1 reaction?

(b) Out of C6H5CH2l & C6H5CH2Cl which one is more reactive in SN2 substitutions
reaction
19. Write a reactions involved in:
(i) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis.
(ii) Hofmann bromamide reaction.

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(iii)Ammonolysis
20. Define the following:
(i) Invert sugar
(ii) Denaturation of protein
(iii)Anomers
21. (a)Write the names and structures of monomers of the following polymers:
(i) Bakelite (ii) Nylon-6,6
(b) Name a polymer used for non-stick kitchen wares. Write the chemical equation involved in its
synthesis.
22. (a)Explain following with one example each
(i) Analgesics (ii) Antipyretics
(b) What composition of phenol acts as antiseptic and disinfectant
23. Swapnesh, living in Ooty, was washing clothes in cold water. He found thatthe clothes were not
getting clean. Geeta , his niece, suggested that he washthe clothes in warm water. Washing of
clothes with soaps or detergents iseasier in Luke warm water than cold water.
a. Why?
b. What value do you derive from this?
24. (a) State Henrys laws mention some of its applications
(a) Why is freezing point of depression of 0.1M NaCl solution nearly twice than of 0.1M
glucose solution?
OR
(a) (i) Two solution A & B on mixing become hot ,what kind of deviation the resulting
solution will show from ideal behavior
(ii) What is a brine solution?
(b) A solution of glycerol (MM=92 g/mol) in water was prepared by dissolving some glycerol
in 500g of water. This solution has a boiling point of 100.420C. What mass of glycerol was
dissolved to make this solution? Kb for water=0.5121kkg/mol.

25. (a)Complete the following reactions:


(i)MnO4- + I-
(ii)Cr2O72- + S2-
(b)How you can prepare KMnO4 from chromite ore . Write down the reactions involved
OR
(a) Assign reasons for the following:
(i)Transition metals have high enthalpy of atomisation.
(ii)Transition metal compounds are coloured.
(iii)Transition element form complexes
(b) Differentiate between lanthanoids and actinoids.
26. (a) Illustrate the following name reactions:
(i) Cannizzaro reaction
(ii) Clemmensen reaction
(b) How would you obtain the followingconversions:
(i) Butanoic acid from Butan -1-ol
(ii) But-2-enal from ethanol
(iii) Toluene to Benzoic Acid
OR
(a) An unknown aldehyde (A) on reacting with alkali gives a -Hydroxy-aldehyde, which losses
water to form an unsaturated aldehyde , 2-butenal.Another aldehyde (B) undergoes
disproportionation reaction in the presence of conc. Alkali to form products C and D.C is an
arylalcohol with the formula C7H8O.
(i) Identify A and B
(ii) Write the sequence of reactions involved.
(b) Give a chemical test to distinguish betweenmethanal and ethanal.

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Marking Scheme
Q.No. Answers
Value Points
1. Due to F- center. (1)
2. 2-Bromo-3-chloro octane.. (1)
3. HCOOH < CH2ClCOOH < CCl3COOH < CF3COOH (1)

4. Zwitter ion formed by neutralization of acidic and basic centers present(1)


within a molecule.e.g:amino acid
5. It is difficult to control its sweetness and high calorific value (1)
6. Kohlrauschs law (1)

Any one application (1)


7. t =0.693/K (1)
=0.693/5.5x10 -14(1/2)
=1.26 x10 13 Sec (1/2)
8. Correct Structure (1+1)

9. (a) C6H5OH + C6H5 6H5 + HCl(1)


H+
(b)C6H5OH+ NaOH+ CHCl3.Salicyl aldehyde+ NaCl+ H2O (1)

10. (i) Intermolecular H- bonding in butanol,but not in butane (1)


(ii) Because of presence of intermolecular H- bonding in alcohols (1)

-8
11. Ans : Edge length ,a = 2A = 2 10 cm
Volume of the cell = a3 = (2 x 10-8cm)3 = 8 x 10-24cm31
Mass of unit cell = Volume x Density = 8 10-24cm3 2.4gcm-31
No. of unit cell in 200g of metal = (mass of metal)/(mass of unit cell )
= (200 gm)/(8 10-24 2.4)
= 1 1025 unit cells1

12. Formula used


n=2
substituting the values & calculation 2
Ecell=0.9142 V

13. (i) Order of reaction w.r.t . A=2 Order of reaction w.r.t .B=1 1
(ii) rate = k[A]2[B]1 1
(iii)K= Rate/ [A]2[B]1 =0.096/ (0.3)2(0.3)=3.55s-11

14.(i) Silver ore gets dissolved in NaCN to form complex from which Ag is obtained by replacement
reaction 1
(ii) Iodine forms a volatile compound with Titanium (TiI4) 1
(iii) Decreases melting point of Al2O3&increases electrical conductivity 1

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Or

Principle involved 1x 3=3

15. )(i) Due to non-availability of vacant d-orbital. On N, it cannot extend its valency and
does not form pentahalides. 1
(ii) Due to angular strain in white phosphorus 1
(iii) due to strong H-bonding present in H2O than in H2S (no H-bonding) 1
16. (i) Zn + HNO3(con) Zn(NO)3 + NO2 + H2O 1
(ii)NH3 + Cl2NCl3 + HCl 1
(iii)Ca(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 CaSO4 + 2(NH4) OH 1

17. (i) [CoCl4]2-sp3 , tetrahedral, paramagnetic 1

(ii) [NiCN4]2-dsp2, square planar, diamagnetic 1


(iii) [CrF6]3- sp3d2, octahedral, paramagnetic 1

18. (a)With correct reason

(c) C6H5CH2I , as Iodine is the better leaving group. (2+1)


19. Correct explanation with reaction (1x3=3)
20. Definition (1x 3=3)

21. (a)(I) Phenol(C6H5OH) and Formaldehyde (HCHO) 1

(ii) Hexamethylenediammine (H2N-(CH2)6-NH2) &Adipicacid( HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH) 1

(b)Teflon

Reaction

22. (a) Correct definition with examples 1x2=2

(b)0.1% phenol as antiseptic & 1% used as disinfectant. 1

23. (a) Soap or detergent forms emulsion with water at kraft temperature.

(b) Knowledge is useful when it is put In practice or any other.

24. (a) At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given
type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas is
equilibrium with that liquid. 1
Applications: 1. In Scuba diving 2. In soft drinks

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(b)formula used 1
Calculation of molar masses
Calculation of no. of moles of CCL4=0.45 and C6H6=0.38
Mole fraction of benzene=0.457

OR

(a) (i) Negative deviation 1


(ii) 0.91 NaCl % (aq) 1
(b) Tb=0.42K 1
Formula used 1
Wb = 37.7G 1
25. (i)MnO4- + I-+ H+Mn2+ + I2 + H2O
(ii)Cr2O72- + S2- Cr3+ +S8 + H2O 1
(c) Correct answer with equations 3
OR
(a)(i)Due to unpaired electrons form strong metallic bond.
(ii) Due to d-d transition.
(iii)Due to completely filled d orbitals in their ground state and commonly
occurring O.S.
(b) Correct explanation with consequences 3+2
26.(a)(i) reaction 1

(ii) Reaction 1
(b) Reactions with suitable reagents 1x3=3
OR
(a) (i)A= CH3CHO 1
B=C6H5CHO 1
(ii) 2CH3CHO[A] + DilNaOH CH3CH(OH)CH2CHO CH3CH=CHCHO 1
2C6H5CHO[B] + Alkali C6H5CH2OH + C6H5COO- 1
(iii) Toluene 1

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