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STA1510 and STA1610/001/1/2017

Tutorial letter 001/1/2017

Basic Statistics and Introduction to


Statistics
STA1510 and STA1610

Semester 1

Department of Statistics

DISCUSSION CLASS QUESTIONS


AND SOLUTIONS
PART I

university
Define tomorrow. of south africa
DISCUSSION CLASS QUESTIONS
PART 1
QUESTION 1
Louisianas Energy Corporation lists four types of domestic electric customers. In its computer
records the company uses 1 to identify residential customers, 2 for commercial customers, 3
for industrial customers, and 4 for government customers. The type of variable could represent
the above statement is
1. nominal
2. discrete
3. ordinal
4. both discrete and nominal
5. both discrete and ordinal

QUESTION 2
Which one of the following statements is incorrect?

1. The average marks for STA1610, the values are 0:75%, 0:748% and 0:7498% is a continuous
variable.
2. The number of cylinders in the engine is a discrete variable.
3. The size of soft drink (small, medium or large) is quantitative variable.
4. The amount of school fees must fall represent a continuous variable.
5. The median is not sensitive to outlier.

QUESTION 3
The following is a stem-and-leaf display representing the amount of gasoline purchased, in gallons.
4 1 5 8
5 0 2 2 5 9
6 1 2 5 5 6 6 7
7 0 3
Which one of the following statements is correct?

1. The range is 29
2. The mode is 65
3. The fifth smallest number is 2
4. The median is 61
5. An ordered array is 4j1 4j5 4j8 5j0 5j2 5j2 5j5 5j9
6j1 6j2 6j5 6j5 6j6 6j6 6j7
7j0 7j3

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QUESTION 4

Which one of the following statements is incorrect?

1. The starting salaries of graduates of computer programmes is a continuous variable.

2. The weekly closing price of the stock shoprite.com is a discrete variable.

3. Parameter is a characteristic measure of a population.

4. Statistic is a characteristic measure of a sample.

5. Nominal scale uses the numbers only for the purpose of identifying membership in a group
or category, these numbers have not arithmetic meaning.

QUESTION 5

The measure of central tendency tells us about:

1. The mean, median and mode when they have the same value.

2. The presence of outlier.

3. Whether the distribution is symmetrical or skewed.

4. The range, mean and variance.

5. The mean, median and mode.

QUESTION 6

The following data give the monthly expenses (in thousand rands) for a sample of 9 household:

17 21 8 11 14 6 15 20 5

Calculate:

X
9
1. Xi
iD1

X
0
2. X i2
iD1

X
9
3. Xi XN
iD1

3
X
9
2
4. Xi XN
iD1

X
9
2
Xi XN
iD1
5.
n 1

QUESTION 7

Consider the following data set:

33 29 45 60 42 19 52 38 36

Which one of the following statements is incorrect?

(1) The mean XN D 39:3333:

(2) The median is 38:

(3) The distribution is positively skewed.

(4) The mode is zero.

(5) The coefficient of variation C V D 31:14%

QUESTION 8

The daily consumption in kilowatt(kwh) by a sample of 10 households is

51 50 47 33 37 43 61 55 44 41

Which one of the following statements is incorrect?

1. The position of Q 1 D 2:75

2. The median is 40

3. The value of Q 2 D 45:5

4. The value of Q 3 D 51

5. The interquartile range is 10

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QUESTION 9

1. If events A and B are independent, P .A/ D 0:40 and P .B/ D 0:30: Which of the following
statements is incorrect?

1. P AC D 0:60
2. P .A and B/ D 0:12
3. P .A or B/ D 0:58
4. P .A=B/ D 0:40
5. P .B=A/ D 0:40

2. If events A and B are: mutually exclusive, P .A/ D 0:40 and P .B/ D 0:30: Which one of the
following statements is correct?

1. P B C D 0:60
2. P .A and B/ D 0:12
3. P .A or B/ D 0:70
4. P .A=B/ D 0:4
5. P .B=A/ D 0:3

QUESTION 10

A group of 150 Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) is tested for personality type. The following table
gives the results of this survey.

Gender Type A .A/ Type B .B/


Men .M/ 78 42
Women .W / 19 11

If one CEO is selected at random from the group, which one of the following statements is correct?

(1) The event "woman .W /" and "type A personality .A/" are mutually exclusive.

(2) P . Mj B/ D 0:35

(3) P .W and B/ D 0:073

(4) P .W / D 0:353

(5) Suppose that events men (M) and type .A/ are independent than P .M and A/ D 0:8227

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QUESTION 11

Given the following contingency table

A B Total
C ? 0:44 0:67
D 0:11 ? ?
Total 0:34 ? 1:00

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

1. Event B and D are independent

2. P.A and D/ D 0:11

3. A and C are mutually exclusive

4. P.A = D / D 0:33

5. P.B or C / D 0:89

QUESTION 12

Three males with an X -linked genetic disorder have one child each. The random variable X is the
number of children among the three who inherit the X -linked genetic disorder is

X 0 1 2 3 4
P.X / 0:10 0:20 ? 0:15 0:05

Which of the following statements is correct?

1. P.0 X 3/ D 0:80

2. P.1 < X < 4/ D 0:65

3. P.X 2/ D 0:2

4. E.X / D 1:58

5. The variance 2 D 0:8660

QUESTION 13

The Department of Statistics owns 6 laptops and each laptop has a 25% probability of working
properly. (Hints: use both formula and statistics tables where it is necessary). Which one of the
following statements is incorrect?

1. P .X D 2/ D 0:2966

2. P .X > 4/ D 0:0376

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3. P .X 3/ D 0:9624

4. Mean D 1:5 and variance 2 D 1:125

5. A binomial process can be conducted.

QUESTION 14

During the working hours, arrivals at a curbside banking machine have been found to be Poisson
distributed with a mean of 1.3 persons per minute. If x = number of arrivals during a given minute,
the variance of persons per minute is

A. The variance of persons per minute is

1. 1:3

2. 1:14

3. 1:69

4. 0:03

5. 13

B. Calculate P .X 5/

1. 0:0084

2. 0:9977

3. 0:9893

4. 0:0022

5. 0:0106

QUESTION 15

A neuropsychologist designs a test for shortterm memory that has a population mean score of
100 and a standard deviation of 5: Calculate the probability that a randomly selected person will
have score of at least 110?

1. 2:00

2. 0:0228

3. 0:9772

4. 0:0179

5. 0:00228

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QUESTION 16

Which one of the following statements is correct?

1. P.Z > 1:51/ D 0:9345

2. P.Z < 1:55/ D 0:0606

3. P.Z < 1:63/ D 0:9484

4. . 1:44 < Z < 0:60/ D 0:6050

5. P.Z > 1:44/ D 0:9251

QUESTION 17

If the area to the right of a positive z 1 is 0:063, then the value of z 1 must be

1. 0:35

2. 1:71

3. 1:53

4. 1:53

5. 0:72

QUESTION 18

The distribution of weights of a large group of high school students is normally distributed with a
mean of 55 kg and a standard deviation of 5 kg. What is the probability of weights of a large group
of high school students will be more than 63 kg?

1. 0:9452

2. 0:0458

3. 0:1446

4. 0:0548

5. 0:8554

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TABLE E.2
TABLE OF CUMULATIVE STANDARDIZED NORMAL
PROBABILITIES

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TABLE E.6
TABLE OF BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES

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DISCUSSION CLASS SOLUTIONS
PART I

QUESTION 1
Louisiannas Energy Corporation (1 D residential customers, 2 D commercial customers, 3 D
industrial customers, 4 D government customers)
represents a qualitative nominal variable

Option (3)

QUESTION 2

1. Correct
The values are 0:75; 0:748; 0:7498: The data occur with a level of accuracy.
2. Correct
We can count the cylinders as the data will be integers (whole numbers).
3. Incorrect.
The size of soft drink (small, medium or large) is a qualitative ordinal variable.
4. Correct
We can measure the amount.
5. Correct
The median is the middle number, while outlier is always a value at the extreme.

Option (3)
QUESTION 3

4 1 5 8 41 45 48 50 52
5 0 2 2 5 9 52 55 59 61 62
6 1 2 5 5 6 6 7 65 65 66 66 67
7 0 3 70 73
1. Incorrect:
The range:
The largest number the smallest number
D 73 41
D 32

2. Incorrect
The mode is the most repeated observation
There are three mode: 52; 65 and 66

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3. Incorrect
The fifth smallest value is 52:

4. Correct
The median: is the middle value in an ordered array
nC1 17 C 1
The position of the median D D D9
2 9
Which gives a value equals to 61

5. Incorrect
An ordered array is
41 45 48 50 52 52 55 59 61
62 65 65 66 66 67 70 73

Option (4)

QUESTION 4

1. Correct
The starting salaries can be represented such as R2000:00 or R15000:00 an so on.

2. Incorrect
The weekly closing price is quantitative continuous variable.

3. Correct

4. Correct

5. Correct

Option (2)

QUESTION 5

The measure of central tendency tells us about the mean, median and mode. This is because
these measures allow us to assign a value to what is the most representative value of the group.

Option (5)

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QUESTION 6

Given the following numbers:


17 21 8 11 14 6 15 20 5
Calculate
1.
X
9
X i D 17 C 21 C 8 C 11 C 14 C 6 C 15 C 20 C 5 D 117
I D1

2.
X
9
X i2 D .17/2 C .21/2 C .8/2 C .11/2 C .14/2 C .6/2 C .15/2
iD1
C .20/2 C .5/2
D 1797
X
9
3. xi XN
iD1
XN is the sample mean ( D average)
Xn
Xi
iD1 17 C 21 C 8 C 11 C 14 C 6 C 15 C 20 C 5
XN D D
n 9
117
D D 13
9
X
9
Xi XN D .17 13/ C .21 13/ C .8 13/ C .11 13/
iD1
C .14 13/ C .6 13/ C .15 13/ C .20 13/
C .5 13/
D 4 C 8 C . 5/ C . 2/ C .1/ C . 7/ C 2 C 7 C . 8/
D 4C8 5 2C1 7C2C7 8
D 0
4.
X
9
2
Xi XN D .17 13/2 C .21 13/2 C .8 13/2
iD1
C .11 13/2 C .14 13/2 C .6 13/2
C .15 13/2 C .20 13/2 C .5 13/2
D 42 C 82 C . 5/2 C . 2/2 C 12 C . 7/2
C22 C 72 C . 8/2
D 16 C 64 C 25 C 4 C 1 C 49 C 4 C 49 C 64
D 276

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5. P 2
X i XN 276 276
D D D 34:5
n 1 9 1 8

QUESTION 7

Given the data set:


33 29 45 60 42 19 52 38 36

1. The median
X
n
Xi
iD1
XN D
n
33 C 29 C 45 C 60 C 42 C 19 C 52 C 38 C 36
D
9
354
D
9
D 39:3333

2. The median is the middle value in an ordered array.

The ranked 19 29 33 36 38 42 45 52 68
The median

3. The distribution is positively skewed if the mean XN is greater than the median and the value
of median is greater than the mode. Since there is no mode in the data set, we refer to the
value of mean and median.
The mean XN D 39:3333 > the median : 38: Therefore the distribution is positively skewed.

4. Incorrect
Since there is no a number that is the most repeated, we conclude that there is no mode.

5. The coefficient of variation


standard deviation
CV D 100%
mean
S
CV D 100%
XN
The mean XN D 39:3333

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The standard deviation S; we need to calculate first the variance S 2
X
n
2
Xi XN
iD1
S2 D
n
1
D .33 393333/2 C .29 39:3333/2 C .45 39:3333/2
C .60 39:3333/2 C .42 39:3333/2 C .19 39:3333/2
C .52 39:3333/2 C .38 39:3333/2 C .36 39:3333/2
D
9 1
1200
D
8
D 150
p
The standard deviation D 150 D 12:2474
The coefficient of variation
S 12:2474
CV D D D 0:3114 or 31:14%
XN 39:3333

Option (4)

QUESTION 8

Data: 51 50 47 33 37 43 61 55 44 41
The ranked data: 33 37 41 43 44 47 50 51 55 61

Ranked data: 33 37 41 43 44 47 50 51 55 61
Position of quartile: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8 th 9th 10th
" " "
2:75 5:5 8:25
Q1 Q2 Q3
N D total number D 10
N C1 10 C 1 11
1. The position of Q 1 : D D D 2:75
4 4 4
44 C 47
2. The median: D 45:5
2
Incorrect

3. The value of Q 2 D median (by definition)

N C1
The position of Q 2 D 2 D 2 .2:75/ D 5:5
4
The value of Q 2 because 5:5 falls between the 5th value D 44 and the 6th value 47
44 C 47
The value of Q 2 is the average of this D 45:5
2

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4. The value of Q 3
to calculate the value of Q 3 ; we have to calculate first the position of Q 3 :

nC1
The position of Q 3 D 3 D 3 .2:75/ D 8:25
4
The vluae of Q 3 , we round 8:25 to 8 and we consider the 8th value in the ordered array
) The value of Q 3 D 51:

5. The interquartile range D Q 3 Q 1 value

The value of Q 1 ; we refer to the position of Q 1 D 2:75:


To calculate the value of Q 1 we round 2:75 to 3 and we consider the third value in the
ordered array equals to 41:
The interquartile range: Q 3 Q 1 value D 51 41 D 10

Option (2)

QUESTION 9

(1) Events A and B are independent that means P .A and B/ D P .A/ P .B/

P .A/ D 0:40 P .B/ D 0:30

1. Correct
P AC D 1 P .A/ D 1 0:40 D 0:60
2. Correct

P .A and B/ D P .A/ P .B/


D 0:40 0:30
D 0:12

3. Correct

P .A or B/ D P .A/ C P .B/ P .A and B/


D 0:40 C 0:3 0:12
D 0:58

4. Correct
P .A and B/
P .A=B/ D
P .B/
P .A/ P .B/
D
P .B/
D P .A/
D 0:40

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5. Incorrect
P .A and B/
P .B=A/ D D P .B/ D 0:3
P .A/
Option (5)

(2) Events A and B aremutually exclusive when P .A and B/ D 0

P .A/ D 0:40 P .B/ D 0:30

1. Incorrect
P BC D 1 P .B/ D 1 0:30 D 0:90
2. Incorrect
P .A and B/ D 0
3. Correct

P .A or B/ D P .A/ C P .B/ P .A and B/


D 0:40 C 0:30 0
D 0:70

4. Incorrect
P .A and B/
P .A=B/ D
P .B/
0
D
0:30
D 0

5. Incorrect
P .A and B/ 0
P .B=A/ D D D0
P .A/ 0:40
Option (3)

QUESTION 10

Gender Type (A) Type (B) Total


Men (M) 78 42 120
Women (W) 19 11 30
Total 97 53 150

1. If events W and A are mutually exclusive than P .W and A/ D 0


But from the above table:
19
P .W and A/ D D 0:1267
150
Therefore, events W and A are not mutually exclusive.

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2.
P .M and B/
P .M=B/ D
P .B/
42
D 150
53
150
0:28
D
0:3533

D 0:7925

3.
11
P .W and B/ D D 0:0733
150
4.
30
P .W / D D 0:2
150
5. Events M and A are independent: P .M and A/ D P .M/ P .A/
120
P .M/ D D 0:8
150
97
P .A/ D D 0:6467
150
Therefore P .M and A/ D 0:8 0:6467 D 0:5174

Option (3)

QUESTION 11

A B Total
C 0:23 0:44 0:67
D 0:11 0:22 0:33
Total 0:34 0:66 1:00

1. Correct
Events B and D are independent when P .B and D/ D P .B/ P .D/

P .B and D/ D 0:22

P .B and D/ D P .B/ P .D/

0:22 D 0:66 0:33


0:22 D 0:2178

25
0:11
2. P .A and D/ D D 0:11
1:00
3. If events A and C are mutually exclusive than P .A and C/ D 0

0:23
But P .A and C/ D D 0:23
1:00

Therefore A and C are not mutually exclusive.

P .A and D/ 0:11
4. P .A=D/ D D D 0:3333
P .D/ 0:33

5. P .B or C/ D P .B/ C P .C/ P .B and C/


D 0:66 C 0:67 0:44
D 0:89

Option (3)

QUESTION 12

X 0 1 2 3 4
P .X / 0:10 0:20 ? 0:15 0:05
Condition:

The sum of P .X / D 1
X4
P .X i / D 1
iD0

P .X D 2/ D 1 .0:10 C 0:20 C 0:15 C 0:05/


D 1 0:5
D 0:5

1. Incorrect

P .0 X 3/ D P .0/ C P .1/ C P .2/ C P .3/


D 0:10 C 0:20 C 0:5 C 0:15
D 0:95

2. Correct

P .1 < X < 4/ D P .2/ C P .3/


D 0:5 C 0:15
D 0:65

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3. Incorrect

P .X 2/ D P .2/ C P .3/ C P .4/


D 0:5 C 0:15 C 0:05
D 0:70

4. Incorrect

E .X / D D 0 0:10 C 1 0:20 C 2 0:5 C 3 0:15 C 4 0:05


D 0 C 0:20 C 1 C 0:45 C 0:2
D 1:85

5. The variance
X
n
2
D .xi /2 P .X i /
iD1
D .0 1:85/2 0:10 C .1 1:85/2 0:20 C .2 1:85/2 0:5 C .3 1:85/2 0:05
D 0:3423 C 0:1445 C 0:0113 C 0:1984 C 0:2311
D 0:9275

Option (2)

QUESTION 13

This is a Binomial probability distribution with n D 6 and D 0:25

1. P .X D 2/

A. Using the formula


n! x
P .X / D .1 /n x
x! .n x/!
6!
P .2/ D .0:25/2 .1 0:25/6 2
2! .6 2/!
6 5 4 3 2 1
D 0:0625 .0:75/2
.2 1/ .4 3 2 1/
720
D 0:0625 0:3164
2 24
D 15 0:0625 0:3164
D 0:2966

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B. Using the statistical tables

n 0:01 0:02 0:25 0:5 x n


3
0 0:1780
1 0:3560
6 2 0:2966
3 0:1315
4 0:0330
5 0:0044
6 0:0002

Therefore P .X D 2/ D 0:2966

2.

P .X > 4/ D P .X D 5/ C P .X D 6/
D 0:0044 C 0:0002
D 0:0046

Incorrect
3.

P .X 3/ D P .0/ C P .1/ C P .2/ C P .3/


D 0:1780 C 0:3560 C 0:2966 C 0:1315
D 0:9621

4.
The mean D n
D 6 0:25
D 1:5
The variance 2 D n .1 /
D 6 0:25 .1 0:25/
D 1:125
5. Correct

Option (2)

QUESTION 14

A. The variance D mean D 1:3 by definition

Option (1)

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B. Calculate P .X 5/

e x
1. Using the formula P .x/ D where e D 2:7183
x!
P .X 5/ D P .0/ C P .1/ C P .2/ C P .3/ C P .4/ C P .5/
2:1783 1:3 .1:3/0 0:2725 1
P .0/ D D D 0:2725
0! 1

1:3
.2:7183/ .1:3/1
P .1/ D D 0:2725 1:3 D 0:3543
1!
1:3
.2:7183/ .1:3/2 0:2725 1:69
P .2/ D D D 0:2303
2! 2
1:3
.2:7183/ .1:3/3 0:2725 2:197
P .3/ D D D 0:0998
3! 6
1:3
.2:7183/ .1:3/4 0:2725 2:8561
P .4/ D D D 0:0324
4! 24
1:3
.2:7183/ .1:3/5 0:2725 3:7129
P .5/ D D D 0:0084
5! 120

P .X 5/ D 0:2725 C 0:3543 C 0:2303 C 0:0998 C 0:0324 C 0:0084


D 0:9977

Option (2)

2. Using the table E.7 (page 11)

P .0/ D 0:2725
P .1/ D 0:3543
P .2/ D 0:2303
P .3/ D 0:0998
P .4/ D 0:0324
P .5/ D 0:0084

P .X 5/ D P .0/ C P .1/ C P .2/ C P .3/ C P .4/ C P .5/ D 0:9977

Option (2)

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QUESTION 15

This is a normal distribution.


Given the mean D 100 and the standard deviation D 5:
P .X 110/? Let us tranfer X into Z so that we can use the E.2 table (cumulative standardized
normal probabilities).
X
Z D
110 100
D
5
D 2
Therefore P .X 110/ D P .Z 2:00/

Area to calculate
0.9772

0 2.00

P .Z 2/ D 1 0:9772
D 0:0228
Option (2)

QUESTION 16

1. P .Z > 1:51/

0.9345
0.0655

0 1.51

P .Z > 1:51/ D 1 P .Z < 1:51/


D 1 0:9345
D 0:0655

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2. P .Z < 1:55/ D 0:9394

0.9394

0.0606

0 1.55

3. P .Z < 1:63/ D 0:0516

0.9484

0.0516
_
1.63 0

4.
P . 1:44 < Z < 0:60/ D P .Z < 0:60/ P .Z < 1:44/
D 0:7257 0:7049
D 0:0208

0.7049

_ 1.44
0 0.60
0.7257

5.
P .Z > 1:44/ D 1 P .Z 1:44/
D 1 0:0749
D 0:9251

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0.9251
0.0749
_
1.44 0

Option (5)

QUESTION 17

0.9370

0.0063

0 Z,?

Search for 0:9370 inside of table E.2 and let us read the outside number z 1 D 1:53

Option (3)

QUESTION 18

This is a normal probability distribution the parameter:


The mean D 55
The standard deviation D 5

P .X > 63/

Because the normal probability distribution is given in terms of z normal standardized tables, we
have to convert X value D 63 into the Z value using the Z score formula

X
ZD

X 63 55
If X D 63 Z? ZD D D 1:6
5

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P .X > 63/ D P .Z > 1:6/ D 0:0548

0.0548

0 1.6

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