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STRUCTURE A Joint Publication of NCSEA | CASE | SEI

February 2017 Steel/Cold-Formed Steel

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CH ICAGO, I L | MARSEILLES, IL | D E C AT U R , A L | T RI NI T Y, AL
CONTENTS
Columns/Departments Features
EDITORIAL
7The Esthetics of Structures 26 Lone Tree Bridge
By Jon A. Schmidt, P.E., SECB By Scott Lomax, M.Eng, C.Eng and Kelly Dunn, AIA
In its simplest form, the Lone Tree Bridge provides
STRUCTURAL FORENSICS a crossing over Lincoln Avenue in Lone Tree,
10Lessons Learned from the Bay Colorado. As a project, it is much morefrom
Bridge Bolt Failure connecting communities to linking cycling trails to
creating a landmark respectful of the beauty of
By Thomas Langill, Ph.D.
the nearby Rocky Mountains.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN
14Fracture Case Studies Part 3 30 Restoring New
By Paul W. McMullin, S.E., Ph.D.
Havens East Rock
CONSTRUCTION ISSUES Road Bridge
16What is a 10d Common Nail? By Thomas Strnad, P.E. Rehabilitating a bridge
AGAIN Part 2 to meet LFRD design and an increased load
By Williston L. Warren, IV, S.E., SECB capacity while incorporating historical elements
and emphasizing aesthetics led engineers down
INSIGHTS a path full of challenges. The result an award-
winning bridge that stayed true to its heritage.
20Infrastructure Check-In
By Brian J. Leshko, P.E.

CODES AND STANDARDS


On the cover The award-winning Pterodactyl is
22Current Code and Repair of a uniquely engineered office building formed by
Damaged Buildings the intersection of nine rectangular boxes stacked
By Zeno Martin, P.E., S.E., Brian Tognetti, on top or adjacent to each other. Structural clarity
and Howard Hill, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. is not synonymous with structural redundancy.
Exploration finds its own logic. Eric Owen

ENGINEERS NOTEBOOK 43 Moss. See more about the project on page 43.
Photos courtesy of Tom Bonner.
32Mechanical Bridging of Axially
Loaded Cold-Formed Steel Studs
By Nabil A. Rahman, Ph.D., P.E. SPOTLIGHT IN EVERY ISSUE
43Pterodactyl, Culver City, California 8 Advertiser Index
HISTORIC STRUCTURES By Hooman Nastarin, P.E. 41 Resource Guide (Bridge)
35Williamsburg Bridge 44 NCSEA News
By Frank Griggs, Jr., D.Eng., P.E. STRUCTURAL FORUM 46 SEI Structural Columns
50ASCE 7-16 Controversy 48 CASE in Point
LEGAL PERSPECTIVES By Jim DeStefano, P.E., AIA
38Understanding the Difference Publication of any article, image, or advertisement in
between Indemnification and STRUCTURAL FORUM STRUCTURE magazine does not constitute endorsement
by NCSEA, CASE, SEI, C 3 Ink, or the Editorial
Insurance 51ASCE 7 Controversy Board. Authors, contributors, and advertisers retain sole
By Gail S. Kelley, P.E., Esq. By Ronald O. Hamburger, S.E., SECB responsibility for the content of their submissions.

STRUCTURE magazine 5 February 2017


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STR_9-14
Editorial The Esthetics of Structures
new trends, new techniques and current industry issues
By Jon A. Schmidt, P.E., SECB, NCSEA Secretary

M
odern culture tends to associate esthetics primarily
with visual appearance, but philosophy has tradition-
ally sought to unify the virtues of beauty, goodness,
and truth. How might someone evaluate whether a
particular structure achieves these ideal ends?
As mentioned in Part 2 of my recent series of Outside
the Box articles on The Logic of Ingenuity (October 2016,
www.structuremag.org/?p=10490), Charles Sanders Peirce provided
some assistance to George S. Morison with the latters mid-1890s
proposal for a span across the Hudson River. Morisons paper about it,
Suspension Bridges A Study, appeared in Transactions of the American
Society of Civil Engineers in December 1896 (Vol. 36, pp. 359-416,
https://books.google.com/books?id=EFJDAAAAYAAJ&pg=359),
accompanied by 66 pages of discussion. As stated on page 400, A
careful investigation of the theory of the stiffening truss has been made
on entirely independent lines by Mr. Charles S. Peirce.
Peirces own surviving materials related to this project are collected under not for millennium after millennium, I found the integral sum
manuscripts 1357-1360, as maintained by the Houghton Library at Harvard of good, in proportion as the plan of the bridge was simple and
University and cataloged in 1967 by Richard S. Robin. An initiative called scientifically adequate, to be sufficient to rouse the utmost depths
the Scalable Peirce Interpretation Network (SPIN) is now posting and, in of any mans earnestness. Distant ages shall rise up and extol the
some cases, transcribing digital images of such unpublished texts online contrivers and the executors of such a monument, as they would
(http://fromthepage.com/collection/show?collection_id=16). 1357 have reason to curse ever more and more deeply those who should
begins with a typescript that almost exactly duplicates pages 398-401 of deface the landscape with a hideous, broken-backed structure that
Morisons paper, including the portion quoted above; it is not clear whether should half intend one thing and half another, perpetually acting
Morison prepared it and sent it to Peirce, who then kept it in his files, or to debase the souls of the generations whose eyes it should weary
Peirce prepared it for Morison to include in the ASCE paper. and torture. Would not the total guilt of every man who should
Based on the other contents of the manuscripts, all handwritten by lend a hand to such a nuisance be worth his serious consideration?
Peirce, his primary task was to prepare a report about the effect of live The nineteenth century is destined to be looked back upon as
loads on the structure. There are various partial drafts, lots of detailed the classical age of engineering for every art has its classical age,
calculations, and other miscellaneous fragments; but unfortunately, before it shrinks to small ambitions, and every engineer ought to
nothing resembling a complete document. Even so, one surviving hope that the century may be crowned by some great enduring
draft, which may have been intended to serve as a cover letter, is type of classical simplicity. Every American must desire that such a
worthy of being excerpted at length for its answer to the question secular memorial may be placed in New York, though he shudders
that I posed above: at the danger of its being converted into an ineffaceable record of
When, after having agreed to calculate the effects of the loads upon stupidity and bad taste.
your projected Hudson River bridge, I came to study the plan of it, I Peirces eloquent words pose a worthy challenge to those of us who
became more and more impressed with the honor of being concerned, practice engineering some 120 years later. Do our own structures
even in that entirely obscure way, with such an instrument for the typically serve as instruments for the elevation of man (and woman)
elevation of man. For whoever, in allowing his eye of a morning by conforming in every detail to the principles of good sense and of
to rest a moment for refreshment on that splendid scene, should sound reason? How will the twenty-first century be looked back
catch sight of that bridge and should reflect upon how calmly and upon by distant ages with respect to the contrivers and execu-
simply it performed a great duty, conforming in every detail to the tors of its monuments? Has our profession irrevocably
principles of good sense and of sound reason, would certainly receive shrunk to small ambitions at this point in its history,
a moral lesson which would have its effect upon his conduct for all or is it not yet too late for each of us to produce some
that day. In the absence of reflection, modern psychology informs us great enduring type of classical simplicity?
that the influence of the sight might perhaps be even more efficient
on the whole; for the subconscious mind that marvellous [sic]
Jon A. Schmidt (jschmid@burnsmcd.com) is a Senior Associate
power we call instinct, so much greater than the little self would
Structural Engineer in the Aviation & Federal Group at Burns
virtually make such calculations, without the individual being
& McDonnell in Kansas City, Missouri. He serves as Secretary
otherwise aware of it than by the sense of beauty and the elevating
on the NCSEA Board of Directors, chairs the SEI Engineering
thoughts that would well up into his consciousness. Now when I
Philosophy Committee, and shares occasional thoughts at
came to reckon, as a good mathematician should, what multitudes
twitter.com/JonAlanSchmidt.
of men were to be so influenced daily for century after century, if

STRUCTURE magazine 7 February 2017


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Structural S
ome lessons are not learned until after
events occur. This was the case with the San
A New Design Takes Shape
Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) Bridge designers and constructors are always con-

ForenSicS or Bay Bridge. This bridge, which car-


ries more than 240,000 vehicles per day along
Interstate 80, connects the peninsula of San
Francisco with the city of Oakland and eastern side
cerned with preserving their bridges for as long as
possible. To combat the amplification of stresses
and to offset the potential of harmonic amplifi-
cation of the bridge deck, the designers installed
of the San Francisco Bay. Initial reports suggested shear keys in the new design of the eastern bridge
investigating structures
hot-dip galvanizing embrittled the bolts causing span. Shear keys are blocks of concrete supported
and their components a failure. After more research, it was determined by large diameter bolts that are made from ASTM
the embrittlement was not from the galvanizing A354 Grade BD material in diameters from two
but was a much more complex issue. to four inches and have been hot-dip galvanized.
The shear keys dampen the seismic energy
transmitted to the bridge deck and help pre-
History of the Bay Bridge vent damage during an earthquake. They are not
In 1989, the series of bridges that make up the Bay intended to support the bridge deck itself but
Bridge were severely damaged during the infamous merely play a role in the suppression of forces
Loma Prieta Earthquake that rocked the city and during a seismic event. Each bolt within the shear
surrounding areas. The most substantial damage key is heat-treated to meet the minimum speci-
occurred when the upper east section of the bridge fication of mechanical properties, and hot-dip
collapsed onto the lower deck during the height of galvanized to provide corrosion protection. These
the heaviest traffic commute, bolts were used throughout the Bay Bridge design,
causing heavy damage to trav- not just in the new shear key installation. These
Lessons Learned from the eling vehicles and killing and
injuring many.
anchor rods, A354BD, are specified to have an
ultimate tensile strength (Fu) of a minimum of
Bay Bridge Bolt Failure After this earthquake, the
western section of the bridge
140,000 psi for bolts with diameters above 2.5
inches and a hardness range of a minimum of 31
underwent a complete seismic HRC and a maximum of 39 HRC.
retrofit in 2004, where the bridge was modified Figures 2a and 2b show the placement of the
By Thomas Langill, Ph.D. to become more resistant to seismic activity and anchor rods used for the shear keys when the bolts
other ground motion. In 2013, the eastern section were first put into place in the Pier E2 location. The
of the bridge was completely replaced with a new anchor rods were installed into the shear keys in
self-anchored suspension bridge (SAS) and opened November 2008, and grouting of the rods began in
in September of that year (Figure 1). This allowed January 2013. However, these anchor rods were not
the bridges cables to be completely attached to tensioned until March 2013 because they could not
the ends of its deck, rather than into the ground, be installed until the superstructure of the bridge
allowing for more flexibility during seismic activity. was put in place. Because of this, the very bottoms
However, one of the issues with an SAS bridge is of the anchor rods were purposely damaged to hold
the potential for an amplification of stresses during the nuts until they could be properly tensioned.
Dr. Thomas Langill has been a seismic event where the SAS cables are hit with The top of the steel pipe sleeve assemblies holding
with the American Galvanizers an increase of pressure to hold up the bridge. the shear key rods were exposed to the environment
Association for 22 years as its
Technical Director. He is Chairman
of three ASTM Subcommittees,
including the subcommittee that
maintains the standards for the hot-
dip galvanizing process, A05.13,
G01.04 on atmospheric corrosion,
and G01.14 on corrosion of
construction materials. Dr. Langill
is also Secretary of the ASTM
Main Committee A05 on Metallic-
Coated Iron and Steel Products.

Figure 1. San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.

10 February 2017
(a)

Figure 2 (a and b). Placement of the anchor rods used for the shear
keys when the bolts were first put into place in the Pier E2 location.
(b)

during the period before the superstructure of of IBECA Technologies and Chairman of The investigation continued with a visual
the bridge was installed. This left little clearance the ASTM F16 Committee on Fasteners; inspection of two failed rods and showed
between the top of the rods and the bottom Rosme Aguilar, Branch Chief of Cal Trans the presence of Denso paste, which is part of
of the bridge. Structural Metals Testing Branch; and the Denso Tape System on the rods that pro-
Conrad Christensen, Principal and Founder vide extra corrosion protection. The threads
of Christensen Materials Engineering. The and fractured surfaces had remnants of this
Beginning Signs of Trouble design of the bridge created a very low clear- paste as well as the grout used during instal-
Once the superstructure of the bridge was ance between the rods and the superstructure lation. This visual inspection revealed that
erected in 2013, and the load transfer was of the bridge. For testing to continue, the the surface was brittle, and that cracks had
completed, the anchor rods were pre-ten- rods had to be removed in small sections by developed, grown, and spread throughout the
sioned to 70% of their minimum specified pulling them up as far as possible and sawing rods progressively. This process exceeded the
ultimate tensile strength (Fu). After the first them off. This process was very extensive, so rods structural capacity, ultimately resulting
two weeks of tension, 32 of the 96 anchor only a few rods ultimately were removed for in the final failure.
rods had fractured, all occurring at or near the study. After the visual inspection was complete, the
the threaded engagements towards the bottom The first batch of A354BD rods, those investigation moved forward by using a scan-
of the rods. Once the pre-tension level was installed in the shear keys, were not tested ning electron microscopy (SEM) examination
reduced to 40% Fu, failure of the rods ceased. through the Magnetic Particle Inspection of the surfaces across the rod diameter. The
This resulted in the decision to abandon all 96 (MPI) because they were installed before the results showed intergranular fracture mor-
of the rods. An alternative anchoring system requirement for MPI testing was added to the phology near the threaded roots. As the crack
was successfully designed and installed. contract. The MPI looks for small cracks in progressed, the morphology became more
Although these anchor rods were no longer in the rods. All of the A354BD rods were cleaned mixed, causing a sudden fast fracture when
service, their failure raised major concerns about by dry blasting to SSPC No. 10 Near-White the crack reached a critical size, meaning the
the long-term performance of the remaining Blast Cleaning before being dipped into the rod could no longer carry the applied load.
A354BD rods throughout the bridge. The frac- molten zinc bath, to avoid acid cleaning. By The mechanical property testing results
turing (Figure 3) resulted in three investigations skipping the acid solution, the rods avoided were within proper specification values for
focused on metallurgical testing and failure the generation of hydrogen. The rods were hardness, ultimate tensile strength, chemical
analysis on two of the fractured rods from the galvanized within four hours of blast cleaning analysis, and microstructural analysis of the
shear keys. It was determined the failure of to ASTM A123 standards. The bolt threads hot-dip galvanized coating. However, after
the rods was a result of hydrogen embrittle- on the rods can be rolled or cut, and heat conducting analysis with the Charpy V-notch
ment. As a result, the California Department treatments must include quenching in oil. tests, it was found that the test result values
of Transportation undertook a second testing (13-18) were below expectations (25-35),
program to further examine the cause of failure meaning the material had failed to reach
and to evaluate the remaining A354BD rods expected toughness and could be susceptible
throughout the bridge. to embrittlement. The Charpy V-notch test is
an impact test that determines the amount of
Shear Key Rod energy that can be absorbed by the material
during a fracture.
Failure Investigation The conclusion of this study stated that the
This investigation, which began shortly after cause of this failure was hydrogen embrit-
the tensioning of the shear key rods, included tlement combined with the applied load
performing metallurgical testing and failure exceeding the susceptibility of the rod mate-
analysis on the rods. It was conducted by rial. The steel rods complied with the proper
three investigators: Salim Brahimi, President Figure 3. Fracture surface of 2008 shear key rod. specification, A354BD, but the microstructure

STRUCTURE magazine 11 February 2017


The 2008 rods would not have failed if
they were protected from saltwater
Following the Townsend Test, the Raymond
test was conducted on two types of small
specimens cut from full-size rods. This test is
a slow, rising step-load laboratory bend that
allows for an examination to determine the
susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. The
results were consistent with the Townsend
Test and again proved the failure was a result
of hydrogen embrittlement based on their
exposed environment, not internal hydrogen.
The main results of the study were as follows:
the 2008 rods failed by hydrogen embrittle-
ment at the same load (0.70 Fu) that resulted
in failure on the bridge. The outcome pro-
vided independent confirmation of the result
obtained with full diameter rods.

Figure 4. Townsend test schematic. Summary


was not uniform. The microstructure inhomo- effects of hydrogen. To properly detect the In conclusion, there was no indication that
geneity resulted in low toughness and marginal threshold load for hydrogen entering the steel the galvanizing process contributed in any
ductility, causing the rods to be susceptible to from the environment due to corrosion (envi- way to the failure of the rods from 2008.
hydrogen embrittlement. ronmental hydrogen), the rods were loaded The low hydrogen embrittlement threshold
up to 1.8 million pounds while immersed in of the failed rods was likely due to fabrica-
Evaluation of the Selected saltwater containing 3.5% sodium chloride. tion methods and thermal treatment of the
The results of this test concluded: rods. The results of this study indicate the Bay
Fractured Rods The 2008 rods failed because of Bridge rods installed in 2008 failed because of
After the results of the initial analysis on the hydrogen embrittlement at the same environmentally induced hydrogen embrit-
A354BD rods had shown signs of hydrogen load (0.70 Fu) that led to failure tlement caused by tensioning above their
embrittlement, the various parties responsible on the bridge with similar fracture threshold while simultaneously immersed in
for the bridge design were concerned about characteristic. (This confirms the water. This created the perfect environment
the potential of hydrogen embrittlement in Townsend Test duplicates the actual to introduce hydrogen into the steel. There
other A354BD rods throughout the rest of the performance of the rods.) was no evidence that hydrogen was present
bridge. Therefore, another study was initiated The fracture surface on the rods in the steel before installation or tensioning,
to test rods throughout the bridge. A variety showed where the initiation of nor that internal hydrogen contributed to the
of rods of different sizes, tension levels, and the crack occurred. As the cracks A354BD rod failures. The Townsend Tests
locations were selected for detailed laboratory progressed, the fractures changed from performed on the A354BD rods confirmed
testing to determine chemical composition, intergranular to cleavage and finally that, without the presence of water, the rods
hardness, and susceptibility to hydrogen to ductile fractures that took place on would not have failed. All of the remaining
embrittlement. All mechanical property tests the opposite end of the initial cracks. rods on the bridge were tested and proved
showed that material properties were generally (These fractures were evident in all the to have hydrogen embrittlement thresholds
uniform and within specification require- 2008 bolts examined.) higher than their pre-tensioned stress levels
ments. Another Charpy impact toughness After testing the remaining rods, it and were concluded as safe. The remaining
test was conducted which showed toughness was determined that all had threshold rods were designed to have supplemental
levels of the majority of the rods within the loads greater than their design loads, corrosion protection measures that include
normal ranges for the material. Only the tests indicating they were not susceptible to dehumidification, paint systems, or grout. All
on the samples of the 2008 rods showed lower hydrogen embrittlement. of these measures will prevent corrosion and
toughness values. The next step was to determine if hydro- the possibility of hydrogen embrittlement as
After these tests resulted in normal read- gen was already present in the steel and if it long as the galvanized coating remains intact.
ings, the Townsend Test for Stress Corrosion could have contributed to the low threshold Additionally, the development of specific
Cracking (SCC) was performed on the full- of the fractured rods. The Townsend test was maintenance procedures for the corrosion
diameter rods obtained from the various repeated in air, without exposure to salt water, protection system can provide assurance
groups of previously selected rods. In this to make the determination. This test showed a to the bridge owners and will be specified
test, the tensile load was increased very slowly complete absence of hydrogen embrittlement in the Self-Anchoring Suspension (SAS)
(in steps) until a threshold load level was and resulted in the following: Maintenance Manual.
established for the onset of cracking due to Failure of the 2008 rods in the wet
hydrogen embrittlement (Figure 4). This slow Townsend Test occurred as a result of The online version of this article
increase was essential because of the required environmentally induced hydrogen contains references. Please visit
time it takes for diffusion in detecting the embrittlement. www.STRUCTUREmag.org.

STRUCTURE magazine 12 February 2017


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Structural T
he previous two STRUCTURE
magazine articles (General Principles
of Fatigue and Fracture, Part 1, August

DeSign
2016 and AISC and Damage Tolerance
Approaches, Part 2, November 2016), reviewed
the fundamental principles of cracking and how
to design for fatigue and fracture. This article
presents three case studies that illustrate how an
design issues for
engineer can use this guidance to address project
structural engineers challenges. The intent of this article is to move from
the theoretical to the practical, and demonstrate
that there is a realistic place for the more developed
methodologies of fatigue and fracture mitigation.

Figure 1. Beam to column flange weld in Pre-


Northridge Earthquake Northridge moment connection.
The 1994 Northridge earthquake had a tremen-
dous impact on the American Institute of Steel Note how the backing bar and any lack of fusion
Constructions (AISC) steel code over the past 20 at the weld root creates a crack. Using fracture
years. After the magnitude 6.7 (Mw) earthquake, mechanics, one can plot the stress intensity KI
inspectors discovered 1,300 fractured moment as a function of crack depth and far-field stress,
frame connections in 72 build- shown in Figure 2. Using a fracture toughness of
ings. Naturally, this made 50 MPa (m)1/2 a middle ground value most

Fracture Case Studies


many people uncomfortable. of the stress intensities are greater for stresses in
To address the fracture the yield range (250 MPa to 350 MPa). Even
issues, the SAC Steel Project with twice the toughness, it still seems like a poor
(www.sacsteel.org) studied choice to leave the backing bar in place.
Part 3 material behavior, connection geometry, and con- What happens when a continuous fillet weld is
struction practices to figure out what happened placed along the bar? Wont that take care of the
By Paul W. McMullin, S.E., Ph.D. and why it happened. Results of the project are problem? There now exists an eccentric crack con-
widely published and infused throughout current dition. Looking at Figure 3, notice that about half
AISC Seismic provisions. of the stress intensity values are higher than the
One of the questions that came up during the assumed toughness. There may be an argument to
studies was the effect of the welding backup bar. allow this condition. However, considering the pos-
Field erectors preferred leaving them in place sibility of lower toughness, the certainty of constraint
because they take time and money to remove. near the web intersection, and the potential for the
However, they create an inherent notch in the crack to grow due to low-cycle fatigue, it also seems
joint. This section uses fracture mechanics to imprudent to leave the backing bar in place.
study the impact that leaving the backing bar in In the end, a joint where the backing bar is removed,
Paul McMullin is a Founding place has on joint behavior, and what happens with the weld root gouged out and rewelded, can
Partner at Ingenium Design when it is fully fillet welded to the beam flange. perform orders of magnitude better than one that
in Salt Lake City. He is an In the first condition, the backing bar is tack has a crack-like lack of fusion in it from the backing
Adjunct Professor and the welded to the column flange and fused to the beam bar. This conclusion is born out not only by the
lead editor of the Architects as the weld is deposited, illustrated in Figure 1. analysis but also by a rational view of the problem.
Guidebooks to Structures
series. Paul can be reached at
Paulm@ingeniumdesign.us.

Figure 2. Tack welded stress intensity solution as a Figure 3. Fully welded stress intensity solution as a
function of crack depth. function of crack depth.

14 February 2017
Figure 4. Assumed crack geometry in the tank wall.

Ammonia Tank
The question to answer, on a sizeable ammo-
Figure 5. Critical crack size, a leak-before-break Figure 6. Critical crack size, a break-before-leak
nia tank, is what stress corrosion cracks need
condition in the tank wall. condition in the weld.
to be repaired and which ones can be left
alone. When steel is in contact with ammo-
nia with very low oxygen content, cracks do ratio, needs to be repaired by choosing an A key lesson to learn from the bridge crane
not grow. However, cracks do grow in tanks acceptable safety factor. is the importance of thorough inspection.
when the ammonia is contaminated with Finally, perhaps a third lesson: Not every The stress and fatigue analyses showed the
air. The tank in question had been out of crack is a problem and needs to be repaired. bridge crane was in good shape. However,
service for some time and had a number of reality showed a very different picture, one
stress corrosion cracks. The owner wanted to that eventually saved lives.
recommission the tank, and hence the project.
Bridge Crane In the end, the principles of damage tolerance
Utilizing API RP 579 Fitness for Service, the The bridge crane in Figure 7 was one of the can be applied to traditional civil engineering
engineers on the project created crack ratio dozens in the area that were decommissioned structures in a way that provides clarity to the
charts that let field crews know which cracks over the years. It was about 100 years old and cracks they may contain. These are rooted in
needed repair. Cracks under a certain size for had experienced somewhere between 5 to 10 fracture toughness testing, stress intensity
a given aspect ratio, though detected, could million fatigue cycles. The owner wanted to factor solutions, fatigue testing, life correla-
remain in place. know if the structure was safe before investing tions, and non-destructive testing. These case
The effort began by mining Charpy tough- in a major electrical upgrade. studies show the approach in utilizing some
ness data from material test reports. Using The study looked at the member forces, of these tools and the insight gained through
the master curve approach, the engineer cor- AISC fatigue requirements, and non-destruc- their application. Greater application of these
related Charpy values to fracture toughness tive testing of the eyebars. tools to civil engineering structures would
K1 values. The correlations are a function of The force analysis did not identify any prob- lead to increased safety of the structures for
thickness and Charpy energy values. This lems. The model results matched the Maxwell which engineers are responsible.
provided one side of the equation the other diagram in the original drawings. The fatigue
being the stress intensity factor. analysis indicated stresses in most members
Utilizing this data, the engineer developed below the threshold values in AISC of 4.5
stress intensity solutions based on the basic ksi. A few members towards the middle of
crack geometry shown in Figure 4. These the truss had stresses near 10 ksi. They had
are from solutions in API 579. Selecting a failed at one point, causing the truss to lose
crack length 2c, a crack depth a is calculated. over a foot of camber. Up to this point, noth-
Doing this for numerous crack lengths, the ing was of major concern. However, enter
curves in Figure 5 and Figure 6 are generated. non-destructive testing (NDT).
Where the crack depth is greater than the Before any NDT testing occurred, ironwork-
tank wall thickness (Figure 5), a leak-before- ers stripped the paint of some key joints and Figure 7. Bridge crane with eyebar bottom chord
break condition exists. This approach is good discovered cracks, visible to the naked eye, and diagonal members.
because the tank will leak before rupturing. shown in Figure 8. The phased array ultra-
However, for lower toughness material, like sonic and magnetic particle testing found
in the weld or heat affected zone, a break- cracks inside and at the surface of a substantial
before-leak condition existed (Figure 6 ). number of joints. The cracks ranged in size
This is of more concern, given the lack of from 1/8 to 2 inches long and 1/64 to 1/32
warning before catastrophic failure. inches wide.
This analysis tells two things. In the base After lengthy discussions and a second
metal, long, shallow cracks need to be engineering opinion, the owner elected to
repaired, as a break-before-leak condition retire the truss creating a serious opera-
exists for aspect ratios (a/2c) less than 0.5. tional challenge to the site. Given the size
In the weld base metal, all cracks of a given and extent of the cracks and difficulty in
size need to be repaired. The engineer can repairing eyebars, it was truly the only ratio-
decide what crack size, for a given aspect nal decision. Figure 8. Eyebar cracking.

STRUCTURE magazine 15 February 2017


H
ave you ever been in a discussion, shall have the authority to render interpretations

ConstruCtion adversarial or entertaining, with a


non-engineer or even an engineer,
about what code requirements
of this code and to adopt policies and procedures
in order to clarify the application of its provisions.
Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall

issues exist for construction activities? For example, a


discussion about the generation of structural
calculations for an existing building where the
be in compliance with the intent and purpose of
this code. Such policies and procedures shall not
have the effect of waiving requirements specifically
construction does not comply with the per- provided for in this code.
discussion of construction
mitted construction drawings and, in some IBC Section 107.3, Examination of Documents:
issues and techniques cases, with specific code requirements. The The building official shall examine or cause to
justification usually includes the excuse that be examined the accompanying submittal docu-
structural engineers are commonly overly con- ments and shall ascertain by such examination
servative and that the buildings described in the whether the construction indicated and described
construction documents exceed the minimum is in accordance with the requirements of this
requirements of the building code. code and other pertinent laws or ordinances.
What follows is a review of what should be con- Once the code is adopted by city, county, or state
sidered non-negotiable points. ordinances or laws, the following apply to design
The 2012 International Building Code (IBC), and construction of every building:
in Section 101.3, states The purpose of this 1) The code is the minimum standard for
code is to establish the minimum requirements to building design and construction.
provide a reasonable level of safety, public health, 2) The most restrictive section of the
and general welfare through code governs.
structural strength, means 3) Any construction omissions or defects are
What is a 10d Common of egress facilities, stability,
sanitation, adequate light
not the building officials responsibility.
4) Inspections do not lessen the builders
Nail? AGAIN and ventilation, energy con-
servation, and safety to life
responsibility for defects in construction.
5) The building official is responsible for
and property from fire and determining if the construction is in
Part 2 other hazards attributed to the built environ- accordance with the code.
ment and to provide a reasonable level of safety 6) Interpretations of the code must be
By Williston L. Warren, IV, S.E., to firefighters and emergency responders during consistent with the intent and purpose
SECB emergency operations. of the code.
IBC Section 101.2 states Scope. The provisions 7) The construction is required to comply
of this code shall apply to the construction, altera- with the permitted drawings unless noted
tion, relocation, enlargement, replacement, repair, by the building official.
equipment, use and occupancy, location, mainte- There doesnt seem to be a lot of wiggle room in
nance, removal and demolition of every building these seven requirements. In the authors opinion,
or structure or any appurtenances connected or this looks to be intentional in order to take con-
Williston L. Warren, IV is attached to such buildings or structures. tractors creativeness out of the design documents
Principal Structural Engineer, The administration chapter of the code also and construction process.
SESOL, Inc., Newport Beach, describes what constitutes violations of the code, The engineering professionals that defend poor
California. Treasurer of the that the power of the building official is that of and deficient construction regularly claim that
National Council of Structural a law enforcement officer, and that the building there is testing that shows This claim is
Engineering Associations (NCSEA), official is not liable for any injury resulting from used to justify the construction based on these
Member of the NCSEA Code an omission in the construction when acting test results, even knowing that these reports are
Advisory Committee (CAC), Chair in good faith and without malice. This liability incomplete or inconclusive. For example, after the
of the CAC Evaluation Service section states, The building official, member of 1994 Northridge Earthquake, testing of timber-
Committee, Past President of the the board of appeals or employee charged with framed buildings was performed by universities
Structural Engineers Association the enforcement of this code, while acting for the across the country to examine not only component
of California (SEAOC), Member jurisdiction in good faith and without malice in performance but system behavior during cyclic
of the Applied Technology Council the discharge of the duties required by this code loadings. These investigations included the deter-
(ATC) Board of Directors, Board or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not mination of the performance of stucco and drywall
Representative on the Project thereby be civilly or criminally rendered liable covered framed walls subjected to cyclic loads and
Review Panel for ATC 58-2, personally and is hereby relieved from personal cyclic testing, and force transfer behavior of anchor
ATC-110 and ATC-124. liability for any damage accruing to persons or bolted sill plates of shear panels. One finding for
property as a result of any act or by reason of an the sill plate testing is that the behavior and capac-
act or omission in the discharge of official duties. ity for the sill plate configurations without nuts on
IBC Section 104.1, Powers and Duties of the anchor bolts are similar to tested configurations
Building Official, also states that The building with tightly installed anchor bolt nuts.
official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce These findings are brought up regularly in
the provisions of this code. The building official discussions of code requirements for anchor

16 February 2017
bolt nuts and are used to justify a myriad learn-by-doing. The example of a nail attach- Other resources also define a 10d nail. In
of conditions that are not allowed by the ing two pieces of wood would appear to be a ASTM F-1667 Standard Specifications for
code. This justification dismisses the fact simple example because almost everyone has Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples,
that when this issue has been brought up used a nail to connect two pieces of wood. Table 15 Type I, Style 10 Common Nails,
during the code development process, it was The previous article on this subject discussed steel wire, defines a 10d common nail as a
rejected, and the code still states that nuts the point of connecting wood structural length of 3 inches and a diameter of 0.148
on anchor rods are necessary. Perhaps what panels to framing to resist lateral loads with inches. Reviewing American Institute of
our profession needs is an extensive discus- a 10d common nail. The building code and Timber Construction Timber Construction
sion on construction tolerances and the code current AWC Special Design Provisions for Manual, Second Edition 1974, page 5-65,
provided minimum requirements. Wind and Seismic (SDPWS) clearly define Table 5.19 describes a 10d common nail
If you investigate two out of 10 shear walls, the length of a 10d common nail as 3 inches as having a length of 3 inches and a wire
and you find problems at those shear wall loca- long and the minimum penetration of that diameter of 0.148 inches.
tions, is that an indication of non-compliant 3-inch long nail. continued on next page
construction? If you specify concrete rein-
forcement spacing of 5 inches on center, is
6 inches on center acceptable? Remember,
all construction is required to be code com-
pliant, so it is hard to justify that anything
else is sufficient.
As a profession, we really do not under-
stand the effects construction tolerances
have on the engineering behind the draw-
ings. Our profession is continuing to strive
to understand material performance under
loadings in an attempt to economize and
provide for the safety of occupants, and
protect the investments made by build-
ing owners. We can question whether the
constructors of these buildings understand
that the engineering design of today is not
that of twenty years ago. The loadings are

ADVERTISEMENTFor Advertiser Information, visit www.STRUCTUREmag.org


better understood and now have less of
a confusion factor in them, especially
true for those infrequent but high demand
loadings such as lateral loads resulting from
ground motion and winds.
Another issue we should be concerned

SUPERIOR
with is whether a structural component
designed 25-plus years ago is going to
perform the same or in a similar fashion
compared to one designed today. Are we ENVIRONMENT
sure they would perform similarly based
on the advances in the understanding RAPID
THE
of expected loading conditions, mate-
rial behavior, and, in the case of timber,
LEGACY
INSTALLATION
the actual material changes over the past CUSTOM-DESIGNED
30 years? These differences would also ADVANTAGE FABRIC BUILDINGS
vary across the materials and loadings.
But, do the constructors understand the Fast Construction
differences in 25-plus-year-old designs Concept to Installation
versus current designs in construction or In-house Engineering
do they see them as the same? Is a rein-
forced concrete element designed using Patented Attachment System
the allowable stress method versus one Relocatable
designed using ultimate strength going
to perform the same?
The NCSEA Basic Education Committee
has identified timber engineering design 877.259.1528
as a subject not frequently available in a LegacyBuildingSolutions.com
significant number of universities and as
a result, in too many cases, practitioners

STRUCTURE magazine 17 February 2017


OK, you are probably saying, Cant you So which is it? If you make a trip to the because, if not, they fail when walked on.
calculate this using the NDS? Sure you can building supplier and look at nails, you However, the lateral force resisting system is
but with care. First, you need to consider find that nails, independent of diameter, different and, unfortunately, can be a source
that the information in the shear wall tables is come in lengths of a quarter to eighth-of- of savings for builders.
a product of testing versus the results you get an-inch increments. Due to the number of Most evening news programs include a
from the calculations, and there is a difference. times we observe short nails just due to story about some natural loading conditions
What is the capacity of a given configura- the probability my suggestion is that any on structures such as floods, tornadoes, and
tion versus the specified configuration on the engineer designing timber buildings with occasionally earthquakes; many of us work
permitted drawings? With many materials, wood structural panel shear walls to resist actively to reduce the loss of life aspects of
this is fairly direct for assemblies consisting of lateral loads needs to check nail lengths these loadings. With this confusion, it could
various components, as with concrete where if 10d common nails are specified and, as come down to one of the following:
the variables are considered in the analysis, the current code does, clearly specify the 1) The building code is a collection of
but what about that of an assembly that uses diameter and length of all fasteners. Now recommendations and happy wishes.
table values out of the code? Frequently, this consider a reinforced concrete example of Adoption of the code by ordinance is
discussion is about a wood structural panel varying spacing of reinforcing bars. With merely a pro forma measure. What nail
shear wall specified to have 10d common nails the current understanding of reinforced size to be used in all the construction
spaced at 4 inches on center on the boundar- concrete, analysis tools are available that underway nationally is an individual
ies and edges. This example was observed to allow for such variation and determina- exercise in simple math performed
have 21/8-inch long by 0.148-inch diameter tion of constructed capacities. Assemblies multiple times a day. Nail spacing
nails with one boundary having an average such as timber sheathed shear walls do not of shear wall panels does not need
spacing of 3.2 inches on center of a 24-inch- have these tools. Also remember that the to be as described by the drawings
long distance, edge nailing condition of 4.3 capacities in the code are a result of testing whatever is provided is good enough
inches on center, and yet another boundary specific configurations, and do not include because the panels really will not ever
nailing found to be an average of 1.65 inches all combinations and permutations. see the lateral loads for which they are
on center. Also, the boundary nailing into Another thought, and you may not like it designed. Use of corrosion resistive
the pressure-treated sill plate is not corrosive a new cottage industry of engineers, or per- nails in pressure treated lumber is also
resistant, as required by the code. haps not engineers, has grown to review your unnecessary because, even though the
So what is the capacity of this assembly? submittal and submit a report to the build- code requires pressure treated lumber
This is one of the hundreds of thousands of ing owner or whoever paid you. That review on concrete slabs due to water, we
incorrectly constructed shear walls that have report could conclude that the original design all know there really will not be any
not been tested because the code requires the is overly conservative, requires the building water ever. And just so you can sleep
builder to comply with the requirement of owner to spend more money to build than it at night, remember, there is a ten-year
Section 107.4 which states: Amended con- should, and you (the Engineer) should help statute on construction litigation for
struction documents. Work shall be installed pay the difference because it was because of the project.
in accordance with the approved construction you that there is a difference. 2) OR, is the building code the minimum
documents, and any changes made during If it is acceptable to have the judicial process, requirement for construction as it
construction that are not in compliance with involving judges, juries, lawyers and other states? And, when it notes that the
the approved construction documents shall be experts, accept construction that does not heads of nails shall be installed with
resubmitted for approval as an amended set comply with 107.4, and the variation is sub- the crown of the nail flush with the
of construction documents. (Emphasis added ject to interpretation by those not educated sheathing, it means it. Any other
by author.) Is this why this section of the in the profession or by those who improperly requirement that accepts some
code exists, to eliminate the re-engineering build, then why do building departments over-driven nails and some under-
of work (performed by licensed engineers) by require that a responsible licensed engineer- driven would require an engineer be
constructors that most likely lack the perspec- ing professional remain responsible for that observing with calipers to measure
tive, knowledge, and experience to understand design? Also, why do we then have to endure each installation when they vary from
the situation? plan review processes that vary in both quality flush. As for nail lengths, that only
The discussions do involve a lot of non- and depth? Why are so many of us volun- one length should be used for each
technical individuals, but they have retained teering time in code development, reviewing nail size, so the framer does not need
structural engineering consultants. They make proposals, and attending hearings? someone to oversee the minimum
a circular discussion due to the belief that nail So is the reasonable level of safety, public penetration and sheathing thicknesses.
size choices are made in the field by adding the health, and general welfare purpose of the Moreover, that nail spacings be
sheathing thickness to the minimum penetra- code so important? Many will say that this installed as specified, not accepting just
tion. There have been tests, by various sources, is important to engineers and, yes, my dis- what ends up in the field.
performed on wood structural panel shear cussion has been about items that are only Is there a specific and uniform construction
walls subjected to cyclic lateral loads and it included just to make engineers happy, standard, or is it non-standard or non-uni-
was observed that withdrawal of the nail is a correct? Moreover, yes, many of these com- form? Which is it?
significant response component. Moreover, ponents are included in construction to allow
according to the codes, the withdrawal capac- the building to resist loading it may never see
ity is a function of its length. Shorter nails in its lifetime. Also, components designed to Part 1 of this series was published in the
would have less withdrawal capacity to draw resist gravity loads get tested often and they July 2016 issue of STRUCTURE magazine.
on than the required length. are within the understanding of the builders Visit www.STRUCTUREmag.org.

STRUCTURE magazine 18 February 2017


O
ne of the most frequently used
buzz words in the media lately is
Infrastructure, a term used to repre-
sent many different things to many

InSIghtS different people. One definition of Infrastructure


is the basic physical and organizational structures
and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power
supplies) needed for the operation of a society or
new trends, new techniques
enterprise. (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/
and current industry issues definition/infrastructure)
The list in the sidebar is by no means exhaustive
but serves as a point of discussion. This article will
Infrastructure Elements
focus on just a few of these elements. For structural engineers, infrastructure can
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) include the following:
most recent Report Card for Americas Infrastructure, Bridges
issued in 2013, gives an overall grade of D+ across Highway
16 categories. Railroad
In the 1950s, structures and roadways were Transit
designed for a lifespan of 50 years. It is no wonder Tunnels
that 20% of the nations 900,000+ miles of inter- Highway
state and major roads are in need of resurfacing Railroad
or reconstruction, and 25% of Transit
the nations 600,000+ bridges Hydraulic Structures

Infrastructure Check-In
are either structurally deficient Dams
or functionally obsolete. Spillways
Focusing solely on the countrys Boat Locks
highway bridges, one out of nine Weirs
By Brian J. Leshko, P.E. is rated as structurally deficient and the average Culverts
age of the 607,380 bridges is 42 years. The Federal Pump Stations
Highway Administration (FHWA) estimates that Wharves & Piers
$20.5 billion would need to be invested annu- Pipeline Structures
ally in eliminating the nations bridge backlog by Petroleum
2028, while only $12.8 billion is spent each year. Water
As far as roadways, 42% of Americas major urban Wastewater
highways remain congested. The FHWA estimates Storage Tanks
that $170 billion in capital investment would be Water
needed annually to improve conditions and per- Petroleum
formance, while only $91 billion is spent each year. Towers
Highway tunnels were not addressed in the ASCE Communication
Brian J. Leshko is a Vice President, Report Card or the National Bridge Inspection Transmission Power Lines
Principal Professional Associate Standards (NBIS); however, the National Tunnel Wind Turbines
and the Infrastructure Inspection Inspection Standards (NTIS), effective as of August Buildings
Program and Practice Leader 13, 2015, established regulations for the unifor- High-Rise
with HDR, Inc. in Pittsburgh, mity of tunnel inspections similar to the NBIS for Stadiums
Pennsylvania. He is an FHWA bridges. The initial inventory of highway tunnels Facades/Chimneys
National Certified Tunnel Inspector, resulted in a total of 473 tunnels identified by Convention Centers
an FHWA-Certified Bridge owners across the country. These highway tunnels Coliseums
Inspection Team Leader, an NHI will have initial inspections performed in accor- Theaters
Certified Instructor (teaching the dance with the new NTIS regulations to determine Monuments
Tunnel Safety Inspection Course) their baseline condition for future asset manage-
and a former SPRAT-Certified ment. In addition to the structural elements and For structural engineers, maintaining the nations
Level I Rope Access Technician. civil elements, many tunnels feature mechanical infrastructure presents a challenge in the face of
Brian recently completed 11 years systems (i.e. ventilation), electrical systems (i.e. limited fiscal resources as well as vacillating priorities
on the STRUCTURE magazine lighting), life safety systems (i.e. fire detection and at the local, state, and federal levels of government.
Editorial Board. protection), and additional components (signage, As such, asset maintenance programs are helping to
SCADA, etc.), which are now being inventoried inform asset management initiatives nationwide as
and inspected every 24 months. Stay tuned for owners and maintainers of infrastructure optimize
the FHWA report of findings that will follow the their limited resources. Repair and rehabilitation
uploading of data into the newly created National strategies appear to remain the major focus of fund-
Tunnel Inventory resulting from the completion of ing programs, with the occasional new design of
the initial tunnel inspections by August 13, 2017. replacement structures the exception to the rule.

20 February 2017
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Codes and W
hen done rationally, main-
taining and repairing existing
buildings represents an efficient

standards
use of resources that should be
promoted. Also, reusing and repairing existing
construction becomes increasingly important as
sustainability becomes a higher priority (SEI 2013).
Model building codes change over time, with
updates and discussions
hundreds of changes every few years. Given such
related to codes and standards revisions, existing buildings would either require
frequent modifications or need to be treated dif-
ferently. Fortunately, lawful existing building
conditions are typically grandfathered, which
means they can be used without modification.
Various incidents such as fires, accidents, and
storms cause damage to buildings that often
requires repair to maintain conformance with
applicable requirements. When damage occurs, Upgrade Only What
the minimum required scope of work must be
determined in many cases. Can the building be
Was Affected
maintained as it was? What upgrades, if any, must After removal of the general percent-rule triggers,
be added to the repairs? and starting with the 1979 UBC, 1981 BOCA,
Answers to these and simi- and 1982 SBC, the extent to which new construc-
Current Code and Repair lar questions can be found
within the code provisions
tion provisions were triggered by repair work was
no longer dependent on cost. Instead, the intent
of Damaged Buildings that govern repair of exist-
ing buildings. The intent of
was to leave undamaged, unaffected elements
alone, and apply new construction rules only to
code repair provisions can be elements of the construction that were affected by
Are Upgrades Required? better appreciated by studying their evolution. the damaging event. This upgrade only what was
affected philosophy was promulgated by each of
By Zeno Martin, P.E., S.E., The 50% Rule & Upgrade the model codes until they were consolidated into
Brian Tognetti, R.A., and the International Building Code (IBC) in 2000.
Howard Hill, Ph.D., P.E., S.E.
the Entire Building
The very first model codes in the U.S., the Current Code Repair with
Uniform Building Code (UBC 1927), Southern
Standard Building Code (SBC 1946), and Basic
No Upgrades?
Building Code of the Building Officials Conference Starting with the 2015 versions of IBC, matters
of America (BOCA 1950), contained specific pro- governing the repair of existing buildings are
visions applicable to existing buildings. These addressed almost exclusively by the International
Zeno Martin is an Associate stated what was required to be done depending Existing Building Code (IEBC). The IEBC has
Principal at Wiss, Janney, Elstner on the type of work performed (i.e., repair, altera- three optional approaches to repair, per Section
Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA. He tion, and change in use) and its cost. For repairs, 101.3: to provide flexibility to permit the use
can be reached at if the anticipated cost exceeded 50 percent of of alternative approaches to achieve compliance
zmartin@wje.com. the buildings value before the damage, then all with minimum requirements The applicant is
aspects of the entire building, not just portions required to select one of three compliance meth-
Brian Tognetti is an Associate
affected by damage, needed to be upgraded to ods, which are termed: Prescriptive, Work Area,
Principal at Wiss, Janney, Elstner
meet new construction requirements. Some of and Performance.
Associates, Inc., Bingham Farms,
these earlier codes included an additional 25 per- However, not all alternatives may be available in
MI. He can be contacted at
cent repair cost threshold. When the anticipated all circumstances. The Performance Compliance
btognetti@wje.com.
cost of repair was between 25 and 50 percent Method is detailed in IEBC Chapter 14. It is
Howard Hill is a Senior Principal of the buildings pre-damage value, then unaf- the most lenient compliance alternative in that
at Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, fected portions of the building did not have to it merely requires repairs to be consistent with
Inc., Northbrook, IL. He can be be upgraded to meet new construction rules. If pre-damaged construction. It contains no require-
reached at hhill@wje.com. the cost of the proposed work was less than 25 ments associated with particular building code
percent, then in-kind repair was typically allowed. provisions, regardless of the extent of the damage.
The three model codes maintained these cost- According to the associated commentary, it was
of-repair based upgrade triggers until the late written in this fashion to accommodate treatment
1970s. At that time, these percent-rule upgrade of buildings that cannot be associated with any
triggers were deemed an obstacle to the re-use of particular code, and yet were considered suit-
existing buildings (Mattera, 2006) and so were able for occupancy and use before the subject
largely eliminated. damage. This situation occurs when a building

22 February 2017
pre-dates the jurisdictions adoption of codes be altered or repaired in such a manner that Building Elements and Materials, Structural,
and there is no documentation as to what results in the building being less safe or sani- Electrical and Plumbing sections also indi-
standards were used in its construction. The tary than such building is currently. [2015 cate when pre-damage conditions can be
Applicability section of Chapter 14 (1401.2) IEBC, Section 1401.2.4] recreated or when like materials can be uti-
provides a prior to date that defines what The only stated requirement for a repair is lized, but also describe situations in which
structures can be evaluated using its provi- that the repaired condition be no less safe repair to something other than the pre-
sions. This section recommends that the date or sanitary than it was before the damage damage state is required.
in question coincide with the effective date of being addressed occurred. This is based on Each of the IEBC compliance methods
building codes within the jurisdiction. There the entirely rational premise that, as long as has provisions that dangerous (2015 IEBC
is a recommendation that the Performance the building was considered safe to use before Sections 401.3 and 606.1) or unsafe (2015
Compliance Method only apply to buildings the damage, restoration to the pre-damage IEBC Section 1401.3.1) conditions be abated.
constructed before there were any identifiable state should be sufficient for continued use. So if the damage was related to a hazardous
code provisions being enforced. This makes The Prescriptive and Work Area compli- or unsafe condition, as defined in 2015 IEBC
sense since buildings constructed after codes ance methods also allow like-kind repair of Section 202, then in-kind repair that would
were put into effect have defined provisions damage, with certain exceptions. For exam- restore such a condition would clearly not
as benchmarks, while buildings that pre-date ple, the Work Area Compliance Method, in be allowed.
code enforcement typically do not. Section 601.2 states, The work shall not
Substantial Structural Damage
In spite of the recommendation to limit make the building less conforming than it
application of the Performance Compliance was before the repair was undertaken. The Starting with the first IEBC (in 2003), the
Method to buildings that pre-date code method then has separate sections outlin- concept of Substantial Structural Damage
enforcement, some jurisdictions make it effec- ing requirements for Building Elements (SSD) was introduced as a means for
tive to a much broader category of buildings, and Materials, Fire Protection, Means of defining when structural repair to some-
even all existing buildings. In such cases, it is Egress, Accessibility, Structural, Electrical, thing other than the pre-damage condition
certainly appropriate to use the Performance Mechanical, and Plumbing. With the excep- might be required. In the 2015 IEBC, SSD
Compliance Method, which usually com- tion of Building Elements and Materials, is defined in Section 202 and is used in the
prises the minimum requirements for repairs. Structural, Electrical and Plumbing, each repair provisions by both the Prescriptive
Consider the following excerpt from Chapter of these specific sections repeats the gen- (Section 404) and Work Area (Section 606)
14: An existing building or portion thereof eral requirement that the repair shall not compliance methods. The SSD threshold
that does not comply with the requirements make the building less conforming than it is used, in part, as follows: For damage
of this code for new construction shall not was before the repair was undertaken. The less than substantial structural damage, the
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STRUCTURE magazine 23 February 2017
damaged elements shall be permitted to be it to the pre-damage state exceeds 50 per- that have sustained substantial damage, such
restored to their pre-damage condition. cent of the market value of the pre-damaged as SSD. A description is offered by NCSEA
(2015 IEBC, Section 606.2.1; and similar building, then all aspects pertaining to flood (2014) that is: essentially, if the work only
in Section 404.4) design for the building shall be brought fixes what was previously there, then it is
If damage greater than SSD has occurred, into compliance with requirements for new classified [in building codes] as repair work.
then an evaluation is triggered. The outcome construction. Similar to the limitations of
of the assessment determines the required the SSD upgrades, eclipsing the 50 percent
scope of the structural-related repairs. If threshold of the flood provisions does not
Meeting Current Code
the evaluation establishes compliance of require other non-flood design aspects of the Meeting current code in the context of repair-
the pre-damage building with the associated building to be brought into compliance with ing an existing building means to meet the code
criteria, then repairs are allowed to restore new construction provisions. provisions that control such work. Upgrades
the building to its pre-damage state. If the to improve aspects of buildings beyond the
evaluation does not establish compliance of Too Much Damage to explicit requirements of the applicable code
the pre-damage building with the associ- provisions that apply to the repair of existing
ated criteria, structural-related repairs to
Qualify as Repair? buildings (e.g., the 2015 IEBC discussed above)
something other than the pre-damage state Sometimes people reach the wrong conclu- may be recommended, prudent, or a good
are usually, but not always, required. An sion that replacing damaged materials is idea but are not required in order to repair
important aspect of the SSD provision is to not a repair but rather new construction and maintain buildings. For excellent reasons,
recognize that if such upgrades are necessary or an alteration, or that too much damage the concept of grandfathering has been applied
as a result of the evaluation, the extent of has occurred to use the repair provisions. to the repair of damaged buildings since the
the upgrades are limited to the structural- This interpretation is incorrect because it is inception of building code provisions dealing
related work and do not alter the previously contrary to the code provisions themselves. with repair, and continues today. This prac-
discussed scope of the provisions within The 2015 IBC and 2015 IEBC definition tice is based on the reasonable and rational
the IEBC that address the other aspects of of repair in their respective Section 202 is, notion that the victim of an unfortunate
the building (i.e., fire protection, means The reconstruction or renewal of any part event should not have to bear substantial costs
of egress, etc.) of an existing building for the purpose of its to provide a better structure than what would
maintenance or to correct damage. Repair have existed had the event not occurred.
Flood Hazard Areas and
work then, by definition, reconstructs, renews The code provisions for repair of buildings
the Redacted Percent Rule
(i.e., restores), or otherwise maintains what have evolved since their beginning almost
Although the historic general and wide-reach- was previously there. 90 years ago. There are now fewer upgrades
ing percent-rule cost thresholds are not in the Within the 2015 IEBC, Section 502 states required. For example, for approximately 50
IEBC, a limited version is still present within that repairs include thereplacement of years (from 1927 to the late 1970s) when
all three IEBC compliance methods when damaged materials, elements, equipment or repairs in excess of fifty (50) percent of the
addressing damage to buildings located in fixtures... There is no limitation that cor- pre-damage value of a building were made
identified flood hazard areas. When a build- recting damage (repair) pertains only to a to any building within any period of twelve
ing, damaged by any means, is located in what certain amount of damage. In fact, both months, the entire building was then required
Section 202 of the 2015 IEBC defines as a the Prescriptive and Work area compliance to be made to conform to all requirements
flood hazard area, and the cost of restoring methods contain provisions to repair buildings for new buildings. In the 2015 IEBC, repair
that does not make the building less con-
forming than it was before the damage
occurred, is, with few exceptions, allowed
for nearly all aspects. The significant
repair-related upgrade requirements are
now limited in the 2015 IEBC as follows:
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A 50 percent repair cost threshold,


which only pertains to flood hazard
areas and only triggers upgrade for
flood design features.
If SSD occurs, at most, upgrades
are limited to specific structural
aspects.

This article summarizes an ASCE


published Technical Paper written by
the same authors (Martin et al., 2015).
Reprinted with permission from ASCE.

The online version of this article


contains detailed references. Please visit
www.STRUCTUREmag.org.

STRUCTURE magazine 24 February 2017


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Lone Tree Bridge
By Scott Lomax, M.Eng, C.Eng, MICE
and Kelly Dunn, AIA, LEED AP BD+C

Bridge rendering by Fentress Architects.

P
edestrian bridges capture the imagination and have the potential
to transcend conventional design. There is a long history of
landmark bridges created by some of the industrys greatest
engineers and architects. However, the overarching aesthetic
demands an integrated approach. This article discusses the historical
context of signature pedestrian bridges and showcases the tools and
processes that facilitate an integrated design approach, using the
example of the Lone Tree Bridge in metro Denver, Colorado, designed
by Fentress Architects and Thornton Tomasetti.

Background/Historical Context
Throughout history, bridges have been seen as pivotal links in
infrastructure, the means for the consolidation or expansion of a
community, a testament to progress in terms of design and materials, Puente de la Mujer.
and above all, landmarks. The raw nature of these objects appeals to
a wide audience, and enormous civic pride is captured in the expres-
sion of a crossing. While there are many historic precedents such
as Pont des Arts in Paris or Venices Ponte dellAccademia, in more
recent times, there has been a significant increase in the design of
signature or landmark pedestrian bridges. Projects such as Gateshead
Millennium Bridge in the U.K., Langkawi Sky Bridge in Malaysia,
or the Puente de la Mujer in Argentina have raised the profile of
pedestrian bridges, and owners are aware of the impact such designs
may have on the urban fabric.
Aesthetic through expression of the structural behavior is not a
revolutionary concept. The work of artists such as Nervi, Candela,
Dieste, and Calatrava, among others, resonate through a deeply rooted
integration of architecture and structural engineering. Indeed, as
Candela once stated, Structural design possesses more art than it does
science. The attraction of the purity of bridge design has fascinated
many famous designers, and the most successful projects are a result
of an integrated approach combining architecture, engineering, and Context plan by Fentress Architects.
an appreciation of constructability.
basic requirement was to provide a 170-foot crossing over Lincoln
Avenue in Lone Tree, Colorado.
Approach A closer look showed the need to connect communities and provide an
The success of a project depends on clearly identified goals and essential link in a network of cycling trails. A more aspirational outlook
objectives, which is more difficult that it sounds. Each project has was to create a landmark that would represent the ambition of the city and
its unique circumstances and challenges that must be analyzed on be respectful of the amazing natural beauty and vistas of the nearby Rocky
a project-specific basis. It starts with basic requirements such as Mountains, yet be functional, practical, and within budget. Several con-
length of span, followed by clearance envelopes, a discussion of cepts were developed, and designs pushed, pulled, and tested. Sometimes
cost and schedule, and then on to intangibles such as an improved this led to minor tweaks, while other times to seismic shifts in the form.
quality of life and a catalyst for development. From the outset, the Some of the tools available, such as advanced computational modeling
challenge is a combination of practicalities, such as constructabil- (ACM) and 3D printing, were useful during the early stages. However,
ity or the contextual design of a signature component. The process the principal mode of communication was through hand sketching,
demands varying skill sets and experience, as well as integration preliminary hand calculations, and a mutual respect for the experience
between architect and engineer. For the Lone Tree Bridge, the most and insight that each team member brought to the table.

STRUCTURE magazine 26 February 2017


be conventional, which helps the overall economy. The cables help
to yield a lightweight structure, but both redundancy and dynamic
behavior became key criteria in the design and were studied in detail.
The dynamic behavior, in particular, required time-history analysis
of user-induced vibrations to simulate occupancy and determine
acceleration levels.

Tools
To work fluidly and communicate effectively, the team used a number
of different software packages as the project advanced. From early
Sketch-up files through to Revit and then Tekla for the fabrication
process, the geometry was developed and shared among the team.
The team also developed parametric models to create multiple analy-
sis models and test global configurations to optimize the form. The
design team used software to import geometry files into analysis
models and then export from analysis models back to the geometry
Overall massing model by Fentress Architects. files. This enabled direct communication between the architectural
and engineering team, and facilitated a smoother process. Tools and
As the core form of the bridge an asymmetric cable stay began ACM were an integral part of the process; however, it is important to
to take shape, the analysis and sculpting advanced further. With an note that they did not drive the design intent. The design was con-
efficiency of form founded in the basic layout, the design team focused ceived, developed, and finalized through sketches, physical models,
on the sensitivities of the cable and pylon geometry to create a balance and drawings. It was an artistic process rather than a mechanical one.
between structural efficiency and art form. Paying homage to the sym-
bolism of the client (the City of Lone Tree), the team refined the pylon
to an elementary leaf while retaining the structural integrity. The pylon
Process + Design Assist
is essentially a three-dimensional lattice truss, constructed of industry The client made a decision to follow a design assist approach and
standard elements with a twist in the geometry to create a sculptural form. engage a contractor early in the project. Once the design concept
As the form and vision were consolidated, a number of studies were was consolidated by Fentress Architects and Thornton Tomasetti, and
undertaken to investigate member and material options. The benefits vetted by the public via consultations, the next hurdle was to ensure
of a lightweight, slender yet stiff structure led to the selection of a steel the vision was realized within the schedule and budget constraints. The
pylon and deck with a precast concrete walkway. The main legs of the overall project cost was set at $6.8 million, with a design period of eight
pylon are 24-inch-diameter and 18-inch-diameter for the front and months and a construction schedule of 12 months. By integrating the
rear legs, respectively. The use of pipe section helped reduce the amount contractor into the design process and using Guaranteed Maximum
of welding on the project, proved convenient for the intersection of Price (GMP) milestones, the client reduced cost and schedule risk.
the nodes, and provided a softness to the pylon in keeping with the For a long-span signature project, the design assist process was also
aesthetic intent. A wall thickness of one-inch was selected to avoid invaluable to develop and finalize the design with input from the
changing thickness, which would incur a splice, and to avoid local industry. Conventional project milestones of SD, DD and CD were
stiffening or high stresses at the anchorage connections. This balance replaced with IGMP, GMP, and Mill Order. The design team worked
of artistry, engineering efficiency, and practical construction was a live and directly with the contractor/fabricator to develop options and
recurring theme throughout the design and design-assist process. Twin select details, and received immediate feedback on how they would
backstays anchor the pylon and the forestay cables splay to support impact schedule and budget. The process helped control the quality
the deck at 24-foot spacing. The 12-foot wide deck is connected to of the final product and reduced risk across the project. Design assist
the cables via outriggers that cantilever from the deck sufficiently to is a loosely defined process and can be of enormous benefit if correctly
ensure the cables do not conflict with the enclosed walkway. The deck applied. Some key requirements include:
is defined by an in-plan truss created by longitudinal edge beams, Engagement of the contractor at the correct stage of project
crossbeams, and diagonal bracing all using conventional rolled steel development. Balancing sufficient design development
members. The main span has an enclosure to protect users in severe to show feasibility, intent, and consolidation of principal
weather yet enables one to enjoy the open air and direct sunlight on
nice days via a stainless steel mesh on the sides and an ETFE roof. A
simple portal frame, supported on the main span deck, provides the
infrastructure for the enclosure.
As with many pedestrian bridges, the final sizing was a balancing
act between strength to carry the imposed loads, stiffness to yield
acceptable movements under use, economy through efficiency of
sections, type of member and detailing, and attention to the aesthetic
vision. The pylon is a signature component, and the member selection
and connections were honed with architectural input. The deck was
required to be slender for both aesthetics and to maintain the clearance
envelope without added depth, which would have a knock-on effect
of increasing the approach spans. However, the member types could Architectural rendering by Fentress Architects.

STRUCTURE magazine 27 February 2017


Local FEM of the pylon base pin. Stress contour map.

requirements, yet allowing enough latitude for the knowledge, and expertise were fundamental to advancing the project.
construction team to have influence. A series of charrettes and workshops created a common understanding
Selection of the most appropriate construction partner. In of the issues, and open lines of communication facilitated the platform
addition to cost and experience, the understanding and to work through solutions. An example of this was the pylon base a
willingness of the contractor to engage in design assist in joint that was not only of huge engineering and architectural signifi-
a collaborative manner is paramount. The contractor must cance but would also be influenced by the fabrication process and the
understand the design goals, and the entire team must be erection requirements. The use of a sculpted pin connection provided
committed to achieving the balance of cost, schedule, and quality. a strong yet artistic architectural expression, and was in keeping with
Respect for the experience and skill set of the various parties. the contractors preferred erection scheme whereby the pylon would
Essentially, for design assist to be successful, the design and be assembled flat and rotated into position. The engineering team
construction teams must work toward common goals and worked closely with the fabricator and developed local finite element
value input across the board. Clarity of the objectives and models of connections to optimize the configuration and sizing.
challenges is key, followed by effective communication. Design assist is not necessarily the correct approach for every project;
For Lone Tree Bridge, general contractor Hamon Construction however, in the case of Lone Tree Bridge, where an outstanding team
and steel fabricator King Fabrication joined Fentress Architects was assembled at the critical project milestones with experienced,
and Thornton Tomasetti during Schematic Design. Their input, committed, and passionate individuals, it has been a success to date.

Summary
2016 Commercial
The most successful pedestrian bridge
Real Estate Award designs are often pure in their concept.
Portland Business Journal There is an elegance to their simplicity
and form that transcends conventional
Citation Award architecture and engineering. To deliver
AIA Portland 2016 Architecture Awards such a project requires an integrated
ADVERTISEMENTFor Advertiser Information, visit www.STRUCTUREmag.org

process starting at conception and con-


tinuing through the design development
and construction. It is essential that the
design is influenced by architectural,
engineering, and construction principles.
Lone Tree Bridge is a wonderful example
Seattle Long Beach
Tacoma Pasadena
of an educated client; a balanced, expe-
Lacey Irvine rienced and focused design team; the
Portland San Diego exchange of ideas and tools to commu-
Eugene Boise
nicate effectively between
Sacramento St. Louis
San Francisco Chicago parties; and integration of
Los Angeles New York constructability with the
design process.

KPFF is an
Equal Opportunity Scott Lomax, M.Eng, C.Eng, MICE, is
Employer.
a Principal with Thornton Tomasetti in
www.kpff.com New York, NY.
Kelly Dunn, AIA, LEED AP BD+C,
The Cosmopolitan Condominiums
Portland, OR
is an Associate Principal with Fentress
Architects in Denver, CO.

STRUCTURE magazine 28 February 2017


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Restoring New Havens
East Rock Road Bridge
By Thomas Strnad, P.E.

A
popular community destination in New Haven, The consulting team also included William Kenny Associates, LLC,
Connecticut, East Rock Park is listed on the National for Wetlands delineation, Martinez Couch & Associates, LLC, for
Register of Historic Places. The 427-acre park, which the site survey, and Archeological & Historical Services for archeo-
attracts visitors year-round for hiking, picnicking, bicy- logical consulting.
cling, boating, and cross-country skiing, features a number of City officials challenged Dewberrys engineers to develop a design that
historic buildings, gardens, and structures that date to the late 19th complied with Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), ConnDOT,
and early 20th centuries. Among these is the circa-1900 East Rock and AASHTO guidelines and specifications, and in particular the
Road Bridge, a steel arch bridge that crosses the Mill River on the AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design Manual with the HL-93 design
west side of the park. vehicle. This led to the final design capacity of 36 tons, as compared
The 84-foot-long, single-span bridge carries a two-lane roadway to the previous weight limit restrictions of 17 tons and 24 tons for
with a 20-foot curb-to-curb width. The bridge is also used by many trucks and tractor-trailers, respectively. In conjunction with these
hikers, runners, and bicyclists, and has two five-foot-wide sidewalks. design standards, the design was required to emphasize aesthetics
The superstructure consists of a steel grid deck with infill concrete sup- and incorporate historical elements into the process. The process
ported on steel floor beams, columns, and deck arches. The arches are began with a review of the original, circa-1900 engineering plans
part of the original construction; the remainder of the superstructure and an effort to supplement information missing from those plans.
was replaced during a rehabilitation project in 1984. Dewberry also inspected the bridge to document section losses and
The original abutments and wingwalls are gravity-type walls with current conditions. This required the use of a specialized tracked
brown, cut-stone masonry facing. These elements were modified during vehicle to inspect the bridge from the riverbed, as the bridges weight
the 1984 rehabilitation by adding a concrete cap to support the new restrictions prohibited the use of an under-bridge inspection vehicle
sidewalk and railing on the wingwalls. The east and west abutments are located on the bridge deck.
supported on spread footings and timber pile foundations, respectively. Geotechnical investigations included excavating test pits in front of
In 2007, the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) the abutments, verifying existing foundation details, and performing
performed a routine biennial inspection of the East Rock Road Bridge non-destructive testing on the original timber piles to assess their
that led to ratings of serious for the bridge deck condition and poor condition and verify their adequacy for design scour events. The
for the superstructure. Based on the states inspection, the City of New excavations extended down to the bottom of footings to observe the
Haven determined that the bridge required a major refurbishment. tops of the timber piles, which were still in excellent condition. The
testing enabled Dewberry to verify the capacity of the original founda-
tion and its ability to carry increased loads. The firm also performed
Historical Research, Modern Analysis hydrologic, hydraulic, and scour analyses.
The city selected the firm of Dewberry as the prime consultant to The design team obtained the required permits from city and state
perform an in-depth inspection and design of the bridge rehabilitation. regulatory agencies. Throughout the duration of the project, the

STRUCTURE magazine 30 February 2017


The rehabilitation replicated the ornamental pedestrian rail system and added Construction views showing erection of rehabilitated steel arches.
decorative lighting.

city and the consulting team maintained a robust public outreach many careful measurements to determine the thickness of
program, including a project-specific website and three public shim plates required to install the floor beams at the proper
information meetings. An initial proposal to widen the roadway roadway elevations on top of the bridge.
by four feet to comply with current AASHTO standards met with Some fragile elements, such as the original arch cast iron
some concern from community members and the Connecticut bearing assemblies, could not be re-used as they were
Commission on Culture and Tourism, which sought to maintain damaged during removal operations. These elements were
the historic character of the bridge and limit speeding. Dewberry replaced in kind with new steel bearing assemblies. Also, after
successfully obtained an exception from FHWA to keep the exist- blast cleaning, the team determined that the deterioration
ing roadway width. in some steel members was significant. These discoveries
required quick action to develop repairs or new details to
accommodate these elements.
Complex Issues The design combined the ornamental pedestrian rail system,
The $2.1 million rehabilitation of the East Rock Road Bridge containing lattice bars and rosettes, with a crash-tested bridge
required that the superstructure be completely removed. ROTHA rail system. This resulted in a safe and aesthetically pleasing
Contracting Company, Inc., led the construction effort, aided by solution. The contractor also took many measurements and
several specialty contractors. The historic arches and the circa- installed shim plates to ensure that the railing posts were
1984 columns were transported to Boston Bridge and Steel, installed vertically, and the railing was aligned properly.
Inc., Massachusetts, where they were dismantled, blast cleaned,
repaired, strengthened, and painted. Southington Metal Fabricating
Company provided the rail fabrication and ADF Industries, Inc.,
Award-Winning Design
served as the rail erector. The rehabilitation of New Havens East Rock Road Bridge over the
The strengthened bridge elements were then transported from Boston Mill River, as the structure is formally known, reopened in 2015
back to the site, where they were erected in their original location. The and was well received by city officials and community members.
bridge construction was completed with the installation of new floor The bridge continues to contribute to the historic ambiance of East
beams and a steel grid deck partially filled with concrete, which was Rock Park. In addition to the engineering solution that preserved the
selected to reduce loads on the arch while at the same time providing ornamental rail system, the project incorporated decorative lighting
a paved riding surface. designed by city staff as well as new wayfinding signs, landscaping,
The project addressed several complex issues, including: and brownstone masonry facing on the concrete surfaces of the new
The existing arches were riveted I-section members consisting lighting pedestals and bridge rail end walls.
of a web plate, flange angles and cover plates, with lower The project was awarded a 2016 Engineering Excellence Award
steel material properties resulting in insufficient capacity from the American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) of
to meet current standards for legal loads. When the bridge Connecticut, in recognition of the engineering challenges addressed
was disassembled, the arch pieces were sent to Boston during the rehabilitation as well as the care taken to maintain the
Bridge and Steel, where the contractor removed the rivets structures historic integrity. Identical plaques on either side of the
and cover plates and installed thicker cover plates on the bridge credit the design and construction team, noting that the proj-
top and bottom flanges to increase their capacity. The ect was undertaken to meet modern traffic loads and
contractor blast cleaned all of the pieces, removed lead paint, return the bridge closer to its original splendor Care
repaired deteriorated steel, and painted each piece. The shop was taken to respect the historical setting of East Rock
fabricated the new floor beams to support the bridge deck Park in the shadow of East Rock itself.
and shipped the pieces back to New Haven for reinstallation.
All of the original arch pins were replaced as part of the
Thomas Strnad, P.E., is a Senior Bridge Engineer in the New
reconstruction. Because the arch strengthening resulted
Haven, Connecticut, office of Dewberry.
in a deeper section, ROTHA Contracting Company took

STRUCTURE magazine 31 February 2017


EnginEErs T
his article provides a better under- for Cold-Formed Steel Framing Wall Stud Design,
standing of the design requirements AISI S211-12.
and methods to laterally brace AISI S100 Section D.3.3, Bracing of Axially

notEbook
(bridge) axially loaded cold-formed Loaded Compression Members, gives both
steel stud walls. Cold-formed Steel (CFS) studs a strength and stiffness design approach. The
provide a cost effective and extremely efficient required strength of the brace to restrain lateral
structural solution for the typical mid-rise build- translation at a brace point for an individual com-
ing. In recent decades, CFS design has evolved pression member is given as:
aids for the structural
tremendously as the behavior and design con- Prb = 0.01Pra (Eq. D3.3-1)
engineers toolbox straints of the material continue to be better The required brace stiffness for the ASD design
defined through comprehensive research and method is given as:
testing. As our understanding of the behavior
2[4 (2/n)]
of CFS studs continues to evolve, the height of rb = (Pra), = 2.0
Lb
a typical mid-rise CFS structure continues to (Eq. D3.3-2a)
increase. Thus, it is more critical to the integrity
of the structure that these heavily loaded studs While the required brace stiffness for LRFD and
be adequately braced. LSD design methods is given as:
Global buckling of an axially loaded stud can
2[4 (2/n)] Pra
occur in one of three modes: flexural buckling, rb = ( ), = 0.75 (LRFD) or
Lb
torsional buckling, or flexural-torsional buckling. 0.70 (LSD)
Bridging is used within the plane of the wall to (Eq. D3.3-2b)
prevent global buckling and where,
specific performance require- Prb = Required brace strength (brace force) to
Mechanical Bridging ments of the bridging must
be maintained.
brace a single compression member with
an axial load Pra
of Axially Loaded The bridging methods
described herein represent
Pra = Required compressive axial strength
[compressive axial force] of individual
Cold-Formed Steel Studs a mechanical bracing design concentrically loaded compression
consistent with an all-steel member to be braced
design approach. The all- rb = Minimum required brace stiffness to
By Nabil A. Rahman, Ph.D., P.E. steel design approach indicates that the CFS studs brace a single compression member
rely on bridging for stability and that bracing by n = Number of equally spaced intermediate
structural sheathing or gypsum wallboard is not brace locations
typically considered for axial load stability in Lb = Distance between braces on individual
the design. One primary reason that CFS walls concentrically loaded compression
in mid-rise buildings require an all-steel design member to be braced,
bridging approach is that the lower floors may AISI S211 Section B3.1, Intermediate Brace
go unsheathed for weeks at a time during con- Design, states that: For axially loaded members,
struction. Also, for axially loaded walls, it is an each intermediate brace shall be designed for 2%
Nabil A. Rahman is the Director industry practice to disregard gypsum sheathing of the design compression force in the member.
of Engineering and R&D for as a structural brace because of durability issues When using AISI S211 approach, there is no
The Steel Network, Inc. and associated with possible water damage. It should explicit brace stiffness requirement compared
a Principal at FDR Engineers be noted that bridging requirements for studs to the approach in AISI S100. As a result, AISI
in Durham, NC. He is the loaded laterally, perpendicular to the plane of the S211 uses a more conservative strength require-
current chairman of ASCE-SEI wall, are not discussed herein. Brace forces for ment, 2%, compared to 1% in equation D3.3-1
Committee on Cold-Formed Steel studs with combined axial and lateral loading are in AISI S100.
Members. He serves as a member additive, and the designer is encouraged to refer
of the Committee on Specification to The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
and Committee on Framing of the design guide, Cold-Formed Steel Framing Design
Bridging Methods
American Iron and Steel Institute Guide (AISI D110-16) where a design example Several bracing concepts are available to effec-
(AISI), and a member of ASCE showing the interaction check for combined load- tively brace axially loaded CFS against both
Committee on Disproportionate ing condition can be found. flexural and torsional buckling modes. The
Collapse. He can be reached at methods of bracing may be categorized into three
nabil@steelnetwork.com. groups: tension systems, tension-compression
Design Requirements systems, and compression systems. Regardless
The design requirements for the bridging com- of the type of bracing used, the bridging must
ponents of axially loaded cold-formed steel studs be effectively continuous between anchorage
are described in the North American Specification points. Where bridging is spliced, engineered
for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural splice details are required to maintain the per-
Members, AISI S100-12, Section D3.3, and formance requirements of the bridging along
Section B3.1 of the North American Standard the length of the entire wall.

32 February 2017
Figure 1. Flat strap tension bridging system. Figure 2. Cold-rolled channel tension-compression Figure 3. Continuous blocking compression
bridging system. bridging system.

the stud punch-outs must align horizontally S100 and AISI S211 bracing design alterna-
Tension System for the channel to be inserted continuously tives that are available to designers.
In a tension system (Figure 1), the bridging throughout the wall length.
member is designed to resist the stud buckling
by means of pure tension. An example of a
In Summation
pure tension system consists of flat straps
Compression-Only System To ensure the integrity of the structure,
attached to both flanges of the stud with A compression-only system is capable of the design engineer must fully understand
blocking at intervals along the wall to pro- resisting stud flexural and torsional buck- the behavior and bracing requirements of
vide resistance to the rotation tendency of ling using compression only (Figure 3). The a CFS load bearing stud. An integral part
the studs within the wall. This type of bridg- compression system may offer higher brace of the bracing requirements is the bridging
ing is advantageous in scenarios requiring a stiffness compared to the tension and the required in the wall to prevent the ten-
significant number of mechanical and electri- tension-compression bridging systems. dency of a cold-formed steel stud to buckle
cal utilities within the wall plane. However, Load and stiffness capacities of the three about its weak axis under increasing load.
installation requires access to both sides of the bracing concepts can be achieved through For the bridging to be effective, it must
wall, and the flat straps must be installed tight engineering calculations. Proprietary bridging be anchored periodically as the accumula-
enough to provide the required stiffness. The members offer the advantage that they have tion of the bridging force approaches the
flat straps are typically attached to each stud also been tested. allowable capacity of the bridging method
flange with screws. The blocking is set at the Refer to Cold-Formed Steel Engineers used. The contents of this article have
required intervals (typically first and last stud Institute TN W400-16, www.cfsei.org, for offered an overview of the current code
spaces and at 8 to 12 feet on center) to resist a numerical example problem illustrating requirements for the design of the common
the rotation and is attached to the flat straps the design of a bridging member. The design framing methods of achieving the bracing
on each side of the wall as shown in Figure 1. example provides the detailed calculations for requirements. The reader is encouraged to
bracing (bridging) and bridging anchorage of refer to the standards referenced above for
axially loaded studs, and compares the AISI additional information.
Tension-Compression Systems
A bridging system having the capabil-
ity to resist the buckling of the stud in Connect Steel to Steel without
either tension or compression is illus-
trated in Figure 2. An example of this Welding or Drilling
type of system is a cold-rolled channel Full line of high-strength, corrosion-resistant fasteners

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inserted through the punch-outs of the Ideal for secondary steel connections and in-plant equipment
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torsional buckling of the stud into the
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CFSEI Tech Note W400-16. The typical connections. ICC-ES for faster, easier steel
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STRUCTURE magazine 33 February 2017


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significant structures of the past Historic structures
Williamsburg Bridge
By Frank Griggs, Jr., Dist. M.ASCE, D.Eng., P.E., P.L.S.

T
he Williamsburg Bridge across joy forever. I have not consulted Manhattan
the East River in New York City Mayor Strong yet in regard to the matter, but
is now over 100 years old. After a I think he will acquiesce in anything that is for
complete rehabilitation, it is still the benefit of the two cities. Mayor William
considered by some the Ugly Duckling of L. Strong went along and together they pre-
suspension bridges. In May 1883, the Brooklyn sented their proposal to the Legislature, who
Williamsburg Bridge.
Bridge opened over the East River between approved it on May 27, 1895.
New York City and Brooklyn. Even before the Commissioners were appointed and met $8,000,000 for the bridge proper and
Brooklyn Bridge opened, however, residents with the Mayors of both cities for the first $4,000,000 for the approaches.
of Williamsburg created an organization to time on June 26, 1895. Their first problem Buck and the commissioners went back to
pressure politicians for a new bridge. No real was selecting a Chief Engineer. From the mul- the War Department to obtain approval for
action resulted from this pressure. It was into titude of engineers available, eleven applied the 135-foot clearance granted the Brooklyn
this period of inaction that Frederick Uhlman including Leffert L. Buck, Virgil Bogue, Bridge, which was finally given on February
and his associates from the Brooklyn Elevated George Morison, William Burr, A. P. Boller 28. Buck concluded that a 1,600-foot con-
Railway moved in early 1892. They put and others. The choice evidently came down tinuous stiffened suspended structure was the
together a strong base of support in the legisla- quickly to Leffert L. Buck, George Morison, best and added, There is no more durable
ture. On March 9, 1892, the East River Bridge and Virgil Bogue. Buck (STRUCTURE mag- bridge than a well-built suspension bridge,
Company, a private corporation, received a azine, December 2010) was selected to design and said there is no more enduring reputation
charter from the State of New York to build what was to be the longest and most heavily than that of the man who will sometime in
two bridges to form a loop transit line con- loaded suspension bridge in the world. His the future build one of large size as it should
necting Brooklyn and Manhattan. decision was to concentrate on one bridge, be built. He described his bridge as follows:
After the passage of the bill, the company not the two bridges originally chartered. The towers are of steel columns thoroughly
retained George B. Cornell in April 1892 as On August 7, the commissioners and Buck braced, eight columns to the tower on each
its chief engineer. He planned a suspension met with Uhlman and Cornell to discuss the side of the river. The distribution of the
bridge, similar to the Brooklyn Bridge, with a bridge. Uhlman indicated he did not see how roadways and tracks were to be passed
span of 1,620 feet and a width of 106 feet to the engineers of the Commission could plan a through the tower, the tracks in the middle
accommodate four tracks for passenger trains, bridge that would not interfere with his com- portions or openings and the roadways to
two driveways, and a promenade. The towers panys rights. For the rights of his company, pass through between the columns on that
would be 280 feet high with a clearance over he wanted $200,000 which he eventually side of the tower. This fixed the width of the
high water of 135 feet, the same as required got. On January 23, 1896, Buck submitted tower at the roadway. The cradling of cables
for the Brooklyn Bridge. Cornell proposed his report recommending a six-track layout, before mentioned and position of the trusses
that the towers be made of masonry to a based on the original plans for four tracks, fixed the position of the columns at the top
height of 180 feet above the water level and two roadways, and a promenade. He decided of the towers, as it was desirable to have
that the remaining 100 feet be made of steel. the best arrangement seems to be to place each pair of columns rest directly under the
The company submitted plans for both the elevated tracks in the middle, and to have saddles in which the cables were to rest. This
bridges to the Board of Alderman of Brooklyn two trolley tracks on each side of them. The arrangement gave considerable batter to the
in early October, and they approved the plans commissioners, after much discussion, unani- tower above the roadway in a transverse
on November 22, 1892. The company also mously resolved to construct a bridge, not direction. In the longitudinal direction,
went before a Board of Engineers represent- exceeding 118 feet in width, with six tracks the tower at the roadway had a width of
ing the Secretary of War for approval. To the thereon, two for elevated railroad service and 40 feet longitudinally, and at the top of
surprise of many, the Board recommended a four for the surface railroad service, with all the tower about a width of 20 feet was
clearance of 145 feet to the Secretary of War. the necessary approaches and switches, and required; and the saddles are 19 feet long
The company appealed this recommendation terminals all tracks to be on the same level and between centers of the columns at the
and requested a hearing with the Secretary at the centre of said bridge, and to build a top longitudinally there is a distance of 15
of War. In mid-January, 1893, the Secretary promenade for pedestrians over said tracks. feet, making a batter in that direction
approved a clearance of 140 feet, but little O. F. Nichols, Bucks Rensselaer classmate, On July 22, 1896, the plans were approved.
work was done for over a year. was appointed Bucks first assistant engineer. The caissons were to be sunk by the pneumatic
Based on the slow progress made by Uhlman, On February 6, 1896, an engraving of Bucks method. On top of the caisson, the masonry
Brooklyn Mayor Charles Schieren pushed bridge was printed in the New York Times. The would be placed. Unlike the Brooklyn Bridge,
for a bridge owned by the two Cities. He article said that the main span would be 1,700 the masonry only extended a short distance
told the New York Times, We propose to feet and it would be the Stiffest Suspension above the river level. The anchorages were to
build a bridge similar to the Brooklyn Bridge, Span in the World and the Longest. The be approximately 150 feet by 180 feet in plan
and one that will be a thing of beauty and a estimated cost of the bridge is $12,000,000 and 75 feet high.
continued on next page
STRUCTURE magazine 35 February 2017
In May 1897, the commissioners approved won the contract for the suspended steel workers shanty on top of the Manhattan tower
a slightly revised plan. At that time, Buck structure and both approaches at a price caught fire. Lindenthal appointed a commis-
estimated that he could build the bridge for of $1,123,400. The project was primarily a sion consisting of L. L. Buck, George Morison,
$7,510,000 and, if all the contracts for the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute project with and C. C. Schneider to report as to the extent
bridge are completed in accordance with his Buck and Nichols as engineers, and John A. and manner in which repairs shall be made to
schedule, would open on January 1, 1900. Roebling & Sons with Washington Roebling the steel wire cables and the other steelwork...
Contracts for the foundation, caissons, and still active in the company along with his son After testing the wires, they determined the
stonework of the two towers and the two who was also a Rensselaer graduate. John strength of the outside cable had been reduced
anchorages were let in 1897 for a sum of over V. W. Reynders from the Pennsylvania Steel by only 2.5%. Since the wire as furnished was
$2.4 million dollars. Work on the tower foun- Company was also a Rensselaer man. 12% stronger than specified, they determined
dations began in the late summer and early fall The deck structure was much heavier than that that the cables were still stronger than needed.
of 1897. They were completed in September at the Brooklyn Bridge. The four cables were
1898. Work on the anchorages also started placed at the ends of long, deep plate girders.
in late 1897, with the Manhattan anchorage The cables started 34 feet apart at the end of the
Bridge Opening
completed in June 1898 and the Brooklyn anchorage, converging to 22 feet apart on top The opening of the bridge on December 19,
anchorage completed in December 1899. of the towers. From there they converged to 4 1903, was a great success featuring a large
In 1898, in a general election, the Greater feet apart at mid span. Wire spinning would parade in the afternoon. The New York Times
New York Act was passed that merged the not begin until November 27, 1901. Once wrote, NEW BRIDGE IN A GLORY OF
cities of New York, Brooklyn, Queens, the commenced, however, the cable spinning was FIRE; Wind-Up of Opening Ceremonies a
East Bronx, and Staten Island. The commis- carried to completion in only seven months, Brilliant Scene. BIG FLEET IN PARADE
sioners and Buck were of the opinion that this the last wire laid on June 27, 1902. Daylight Dedication Ceremonies and Night
change in governmental structure would have Once again things were going well for Buck Spectacle Witnessed by Immense Crowds
no impact on the construction of the bridge. and the bridge when, on January 1, 1902, Enthusiasm on Both Sides of the River.
They were wrong. The new Mayor, Robert A. Seth Low became Mayor of New York. He, in Buck would not ride with Lindenthal near
VanWyck, relieved the commissioners and turn, appointed Gustav Lindenthal as Bridge the head of the parade and instead rode in his
replaced them with an entirely new set of Commissioner with full authority for the bridges own carriage with his wife. When he got to the
commissioners on January 20, 1898. The planned and under construction in the city. spot where the ceremonies were to be held, he
New York Times reported, Engineer Buck, One of Lindenthals first actions was to reor- and O. F. Nichols took a seat well away from
who was an engineer for the old commission, ganize his office by appointing Mr. L. L. Buck the speakers stand. It was now time for Mayor
will probably be retained. President Nixon as chief engineer of the entire department, with Low to accept the bridge, but to whom would
said that the new commission had every con- Mr. R. S. Buck as a principal assistant engineer he give credit for the design, Buck, Lindenthal,
fidence in Mr. Buck and that there was no and chief engineer of the East River Bridges Nichols or would he simply not mention the
reason for a change. The cities did not always No. 3 and 4 (Blackwells Island and Manhattan designers at all? To the surprise of many, Low
make sufficient funding available but, in spite Bridges)Mr. O. F. Nichols remains in charge was very complementary to Buck, mention-
of this and other delays, the tower piers and of the New East River Bridge with the rank of ing his Civil War Experience and more. This
anchorages went on without much delay. principal assistant engineer... It became imme- tribute to Buck surpassed that given to most
The contract to spin the 18-inch diam- diately clear that Lindenthal and the Buck bridge engineers at or since that time.
eter cables and attach all the suspenders was group did not see eye to eye on the design of The foot walks opened later, on April 24,
awarded to John A. Roebling Sons Company large bridges, particularly the East River Bridge. 1904. It was estimated that over 25,000 people
on January 1, 1900, for the sum of $1,398,000. R. S. Buck resigned on May 1, 1902. Leffert crossed between 10:00 am and 3:00 pm on that
Buck made many changes to what Washington Buck, with the support of many New York date. The first cars of the Metropolitan system
Roebling used at the Brooklyn Bridge on his Engineers, vocally and in the press, challenged crossed the bridge on the last day of 1904.
cables and suspenders. Instead of galvanizing Lindenthal, who threatened to fire him. On Riding on that first car were many engineers
the wires, he took other steps to minimize May 3, 1902, Mayor Low, to clarify respon- and dignitaries, including Chief Engineer and
corrosion. His first step was to have the wire sibilities and resolve the fighting, issued the Mrs. Lefferts Buck. The Bridge was named a
soaked in hot linseed oil at the mill. After the following notice: The Bridge Commissioner National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark
wire was spun into a strand consisting of 281 has appointed Mr. Leffert L. Buck consulting in 2009 and remained the longest span suspen-
wires and banded, he had all the voids filled engineer of the Williamsburg Bridge, at a salary sion bridge in the world for 21 years, until the
with what he called a special anti-oxidation of $7,500. This is in accordance with an under- Bear Mountain Bridge across the Hudson River
filling. When the strands were all banded into standing mutually agreed upon in consultation opened in 1924 with a span of 1,631 feet.
a single cable, he had the voids filled with the with the Mayor and Mr. Buck. The intention is
same material. The next step was to attach the to assure to Mr. Buck the same relation to this
Dr. Frank Griggs specializes in the
suspender castings tightly to the cables every bridge, as its engineer, which he has occupied
restoration of historic bridges, having
20 feet. Instead of wrapping the cables with from the beginning. Other than a reduction
restored many 19 th Century cast and
wire as Roebling had done, Buck decided to in salary of $2,500, Buck was still in charge of
wrought iron bridges. He was formerly
encase the wire in a 1/16-inch thick steel jacket the bridge with Nichols as his assistant. O. F.
Director of Historic Bridge Programs for
overlapped to prevent the penetration of water. Nichols was fired by Lindenthal on July 1 for
Clough, Harbour & Associates LLP in
Contracts were let for the steel towers to his statements against Lindenthals change in
Albany, NY, and is now an Independent
the New Jersey Steel and Iron Company the design of the Manhattan Bridge.
Consulting Engineer. Dr. Griggs can be
on February 21, 1899, in the amount of One of the few problems of this period
reached at fgriggsjr@verizon.net.
$1,220,230. The Pennsylvania Steel Company occurred on November 10, 1902, when a

STRUCTURE magazine 36 February 2017


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LegaL PersPectives discussion of legal issues of interest to structural engineers

Understanding the Difference between


Indemnification and Insurance
By Gail S. Kelley, P.E., Esq.

I
ndemnification clauses in design the injury or property damage was caused,
agreements are often considered to be at least in part, by the Named Insured, the
boilerplate something to be read Additional Insured will be covered under the
quickly (if at all) after the parties have policy, subject to the terms and limits of the
agreed on the scope of work and compen- policy and any restrictions in the endorse-
sation. However, if a claim arises from the ment. The Additional Insured is covered even
engineers services, an overly broad indemni- if the Additional Insureds negligence was
fication clause can create an uninsurable and primarily responsible for the claim.
potentially costly liability for the engineer. However, most claims against an engi-
The article Understanding Indemnification neer will fall under its PLI, particularly if
Clauses published in the January 2017 issue the engineer is not providing construction agrees to indemnify the Client for claims that
of STRUCTURE provided an overview of administration or doing work such as survey- are not covered by insurance, the engineer
indemnification clauses. This article takes a ing or condition assessments which require will be responsible for the claims itself. As an
closer look at indemnification clauses and the engineer to be on site. PLI policies do example, PLI only covers claims to the extent
compares indemnification with insurance. In not allow additional insureds to be added they are caused by the engineers negligence.
many design agreements, the insurance and to the policy; if the Client is performing If the engineer agrees to indemnify the Client
indemnification obligations are in the same design work or other professional services for all claims arising from its services, it
section, which can create confusion. The that could contribute to a negligence claim, could be liable for the entire claim, even if
agreement may further confuse the issue by it needs to be covered under its own PLI the claim was partly caused by the Client or a
requiring that the Indemnitees (the parties policy. Since the Client cannot file a claim third-party. The portion of the claim that was
being indemnified) be listed as additional directly under the engineers PLI, most not caused by the engineers negligence would
insureds on some of the engineers insurance design agreements require the engineer to not be covered by PLI. Likewise, PLI does
policies. While both insurance and indemni- indemnify its Client against claims caused not cover defense of claims against indemni-
fication provide financial protection to the by the engineers negligence. fied parties; an indemnification clause that
covered individuals, it is important to under- Indemnification clauses are typically written requires the engineer to defend claims arising
stand the difference between the obligations. such that they apply to claims arising under from its professional services can expose the
the engineers CGL insurance as well as its engineer to uninsurable risk.
PLI policy. This provides additional protec- An example of a well-written indemnifica-
Additional Insureds tion to a Client who has been named as an tion clause is the one in AIA C401, Standard
The insurance obligations in a design agree- additional insured on the engineers CGL Form of Agreement Between Architect and
ment generally consist of the policies that the policy. For example, if the engineers employee Consultant, which is often used when the
engineer is required to carry and the limits was injured while working on-site and filed structural engineer is providing its services
of each policy. The policies typically required a claim alleging that the Client was partially as a subconsultant to the Architect.
are Commercial General Liability (CGL); responsible, the Client could either file a claim 8.3 The Consultant shall indem-
Commercial Automobile Liability; Workers under the engineers CGL insurance or seek nify and hold the Architect and the
Compensation / Employers Liability, and indemnification from the engineer. However, Architects officers and employees harm-
Professional Liability Insurance (PLI). The the indemnification obligation is completely less from and against damages, losses
agreement may also state that various enti- independent of the engineers insurance. In and judgments arising from claims
ties must be named as additional insureds particular, naming the Client as an additional by third parties, including reasonable
on certain policies. When an entity is an insured does not provide insurance against attorneys fees and expenses recoverable
additional insured on another partys insur- the indemnification clause. The extent of the under applicable law, but only to the
ance policy, it is covered by the policy under protection provided to an additional insured extent they are caused by the negligent
essentially the same terms as the Named is determined by the wording of the additional acts or omissions of the Consultant, its
Insured (the party that the policy was issued insured endorsement and the other terms of employees and its consultants in the
to), subject to any restrictions in the addi- the insurance policy, not the wording of the performance of professional services
tional insured endorsement. indemnity clause. under this Agreement.
Often, an engineer will be required to name The indemnification clause in DBIA 540,
its Client and the Clients lender (when the The Indemnification Standard Form of Agreement Between Design-
Client is the Owner) as additional insureds Builder and Consultant, can also be used as
on its CGL policy. If a claim is filed against
Obligation a model; however, two changes are recom-
the Additional Insured for injury or prop- The indemnification obligation is between mended, as shown below. An agent can
erty damage suffered by a third party, and the engineer and its Client; if the engineer be almost anyone with a connection to the

STRUCTURE magazine 38 February 2017


Owner; many risk management consultants unless they are recoverable under state law, the indemnification clause in every design
recommend not providing indemnification to but many clients will not accept the limitation agreement should be examined closely to
such an ill-defined universe of entities. Also, that attorneys fees are only indemnified to determine whether the indemnification obli-
attorneys fees should be explicitly limited to the extent recoverable under state law and will gations will be covered by insurance. If the
those that are reasonable in terms of the claim. require language similar to that of the DBIA Client insists on wording that will result
10.2.1 Design Consultant, to the fullest 540. Depending on state law and the terms in uninsurable risks, the engineer should
extent permitted by law, shall indem- of the engineers PLI, this language can result consider requiring that there be a limitation
nify and hold harmless Owner, DB and in an uninsurable risk. on its liability.
their officers, directors, and employees
from and against losses, and damages A Caution for Contracts Gail S. Kelley is a LEED AP as well
including reasonable attorneys fees and
expenses, for bodily injury, sickness or
Governed by California Law as a professional engineer and licensed
attorney in Maryland and the District
death, and property damage or destruc- Under California law, an agreement to
of Columbia. Her practice focuses
tion (other than to the Work itself ) to indemnify a claim arising from a design
on reviewing and negotiating design
the extent resulting from the negligent or construction project includes a duty to
agreements for architects and engineers.
acts or omissions of Design Consultant, defend, unless there is an explicit disclaimer.
She is the author of Construction
anyone employed directly or indirectly If the project is in California or the parties
Law: An Introduction for Engineers,
by any of them or anyone for whose acts have agreed that the design agreement will be
Architects, and Contractors, published
any of them may be liable. governed by California law, the indemnifica-
by Wiley & Sons. Ms. Kelley can be
It should be noted that, unlike the indem- tion clauses cited above should be qualified
reached at Gail. Kelley.Esq@gmail.com.
nification clause in the AIA C401, under by the addition of a sentence such as: The
the DBIA 540 the Indemnitee is entitled to obligation to indemnify shall not extend to the
attorneys fees to the extent the claim resulted defense of professional liability claims.
from the engineers negligence, even if the fees Disclaimer: The information in this article is
are not recoverable under state law. Under for educational purposes only and is not legal
the law in some states, a successful plaintiff
Conclusion advice. Readers should not act or refrain from
in a negligence action is entitled to recover its Unfortunately, indemnification clauses acting based on this article without seeking
attorneys fees, but this is not true in all states. are often extremely long and difficult to appropriate legal or other professional advice
PLI generally will not cover attorneys fees understand. Nevertheless, the wording of as to their particular circumstances.

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STRUCTURE magazine 41 February 2017


Structural Engineering Institute of ASCE

STRUCTURES
CONGRESS 2017
Denver, Colorado | April 68, 2017
www.structurescongress.org
CASE
Spring Risk SAVE MONEY
REGISTER BY
Management
Convocation FEBRUARY 15

ADVANCE YOUR CAREER BY ATTENDING


STRUCTURES CONGRESS 2017
REASONS TO ATTEND:
Learn from the experts
Business Practice
CASE Risk Management
ASCE 7-16 and much, much more...
Network with Colleges
Earn up to 17.5 PDHs

REMEMBER to purchase your


ticket for the Special Evening
Reception Celebrating the
Future of SE, hosted by CSI on
Friday, April 7th, 6:3011:00
pm at the Denver Art Museum.
17.5

For exhibit and sponsorship information,


please contact Sean Scully at sscully@asce.org.
award winners and outstanding projects Spotlight
Pterodactyl, Culver City, California
By Hooman Nastarin, P.E.

NAST Enterprises Corp. was an Outstanding Award Winner for its Pterodactyl
project in the 2016 NCSEA Annual Excellence in Structural Engineering
Awards Program in the Category New Buildings under $10M.

T
he Pterodactyl is a uniquely box was strategically reinforced
Courtesy of Tom Bonner
engineered office building, con- internally or was intercon-
ceived for an advertising agency, nected to others to redirect
constructed above a previously the loads to stronger columns. On the other secondary structural members was utilized
designed four-story parking garage structure hand, the differential rigidities of each box, to further normalize the loads away from the
in Culver City, Los Angeles. The Pterodactyl is in conjunction with their inter-connecting weaker columns and to help control the vibra-
formed by the intersection of nine rectangular mezzanine space, had to be fully optimized tion and deflection of the boxes. Within the
boxes stacked on top or adjacent to each other, to allow for utility and mechanical spaces. overhangs, continuous cantilevered members
connected by interior second-floor bridges, The boxes were initially designed individu- placed at corners and in the floor slabs pro-
and supported on the steel column grids ally, using conservative stiffness assumptions. vided support for the steel Rings at the far
extended from the parking structure. The Then the boxes were brought together and end of the overhangs, which also functioned as
Pterodactyl and the parking structure are both reevaluated as a whole for compatibility. The stabilizers. The functionality of the secondary
made of structural steel members, strategically office building is laterally flexible in contrast members was tested in various load patterns
positioned to satisfy demanding architectural with the very rigid parking building and the against gravity as well as lateral, rotational,
design as well as mechanical, plumbing, and concrete block elevator shaft. Various slip and racking movement.
structural requirements. During the design connections and separation joints are installed
development, Mr. Nastarin and his colleagues to control inter-level movements, especially
determined that only Structural Steel offered at the three access stairs unevenly stretching
Constructability
the flexibility and strength to both support down to the top of the parking structure. Aggressive value engineering and coordination
and accommodate the slick profiles of the vis- Another unique feature of the office building studies were performed on numerous elements
ible shell. The entirely open, main floor, with is the open balconies and the executive offices, to reduce the weight of material, evaluate the
full height glass enclosures, provides uninter- extending beyond the west face of the garage, visual aspect of the connections, and reconcile
rupted views of the surrounding cities. The over and beyond the access ramps. The design the sculptural demand and financial feasibil-
picturesque windows at the upper floor care- of the structural system at each projection, ity of the entire project. The intricacy of the
fully highlight expansive scenic views to the against numerous degrees of freedom, was projects design demanded close coordination
east, north, and west. The south facing walls, particularly challenging. This was due to the and interaction of the design teams from initial
however, are constructed with metal studs asymmetrical shape, location, and stiffness concept through detailing, to shop drawing
covered with fire-retardant, treaded plywood of the supports, conforming to ramp clear- production and implementation. NAST
to receive Rheinzink panels. The partial mez- ances, styling of the building envelope, and Enterprises worked very closely with the teams
zanine level and interconnecting bridges are the location of the windows. at Eric Owen Moss Architects, as well as with
made of composite steel beams with concrete Samitaur Constructs (the developer), to make
filled metal deck, complementing the orienta- this building possible. The primary structural
tion of the boxes and rigorously following the
The System engineering, and architectural and fabrication,
award-winning architectural design of Eric The initial task of supporting the blended software used for the Pterodactyl were RISA-3D,
Owen Moss. Through countless work study yet individual boxes, which comprise the Auto Cad, and Digital Project. The engineers
sessions, the feasibility and constructability of Pterodactyl, on eighteen (18) existing col- at Nast Enterprises developed apps to maintain
each element were carefully examined, while umns was achieved by utilizing more than efficient bidirectional communication between
realizing numerous architectural features in thirty (30) distinctive Ring like steel frames the structural and architectural models. The firm
each box. to carry the Primary and Secondary mem- has presented Lectures at SCI-Arc, UCLA and
bers, elegantly showcased within the interior Woodbury University schools of architecture on
design. The shape and interaction of the steel methodologies used for design and implementa-
Challenges frames allowed for much of the needed flex- tion of the Pterodactyl.
Placing a profoundly irregular Pterodactyl ibility to resolve the most challenging aspect
over a pre-existing building presented several of this building. The columns sizes and ori- Hooman Nastarin is the President of
structural challenges. The structural design entation were based on the demands of the NAST Enterprises Corp. Consulting
team at Nast Enterprises was limited by the parking building. The Pterodactyls distinctive Structural Engineering Services in Los
size and orientation of the parking garages modular design did not particularly align with Angeles, California. He can be reached at
existing wide flange columns. Through close the support points. An intricate stiffness shar- Hooman@nastenterprises.com.
collaboration with the architectural team, each ing system of rings connected via main and

STRUCTURE magazine 43 February 2017


GINEERS
EN

ASS
SEA Update
RAL

OCIATI
STRUCTU

O NS

Florida Takes Their Conference on the Road


NATIONAL COUNCI L

Sara Guthrie, FSEA Executive Director


News form the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations

In an effort to reach more of our members, the Florida Structural Engineers Association began hosting a traveling statewide
seminar. In just a few short years, this annual meeting has become the main fundraiser for the organization. This seminar travels
to three different locations within the state: South Florida, Central Florida, and Northeast Florida. Hosting daily seminars in
three locations ensures that our members do not have to travel a long distance to connect with other members of the organization.
The process of securing adequate education for the three-day event starts early. FSEAs Continuing Education Chairman, Carlos
Sanz, with the assistance of Roberto Hernandez, past Southern Florida Chapter President, begins the search for the right seminar
at the beginning of the year. Seminars with topics like significant changes to ASCE 7-16, AISC, masonry, steel, or changes to
the Florida Building Code are all presentations that our association is interested in attending and have been well received in the
past. It is important that our attendees value these seminars so every seminar provides them with PDH credit.
FSEA works hard to accommodate each attendee, speaker, and sponsor.
Because the seminars are given on three consecutive days, our chapter
officers are busy organizing (or even providing) travel for speakers
or sponsors to the next location, assisting with setup/tear down, and
confirming food orders, guaranteeing everything runs smoothly.
Marketing for the annual seminar starts several months before the
event. We typically start by sending out Save the Date flyers to all of
our members. Later, after all the logistics have been worked out, we send
out another mailing with the specifics for each location, general cost of
attendance, time to allot for the seminar, etc. We have found success with
our mailings, as the annual seminar is still widely received.
Each year we recruit several sponsors to take part in the event. Our
attendees benefit by widening their horizons in terms of products or
services, but our sponsors also gain a great deal by participating. For their efforts, the sponsors are given the opportunity to
present to our attendees at any given seminar; sponsors can choose to support one, two, or three days of our seminar.
Along with the NCSEA mission, it is important that we strengthen the member organization by growing our membership. In
trying to do this, we provide non-members the opportunity to join FSEA, at a discounted rate, by signing up for the seminar.
This effort has shown great success, as we receive approximately 20 new members a year with this promotion.
Since we started this traveling seminar, our gross revenues have increased by 283%. Our members look forward to this seminar
every year. Our speakers do not mind the traveling. We have a good turnout with sponsors. We will continue to do our yearly
statewide seminar, as it has proved to be a win-win situation for all.

SE Exam Review Course


Prepare for the Structural Engineering Exam
NCSEA News

Designed by NCSEA and leading structural


engineers, this targeted course will help you
advance on exam day. NCSEA SE Review Course Dates
Single Course Both Courses Vertical: March 4 5, 2017
NCSEA Member: $500 $800 Lateral: March 18 19, 2017
Nonmember: $600 $1000 Registration for these live online courses include:
Over 30 hours of seminars led by notable experts
Group pricing available by calling Updates to important codes and references
312-469-4600 Recommended publication guide
Recordings available 24/7 after the course
Register online at www.ncsea.com

STRUCTURE magazine 44 February 2017


NCSEA News
Call for Abstracts
Join Fellow Experts
The 2017 NCSEA Structural Engineering Summit Committee
is seeking 75 minute presentations that deliver pertinent
and useful information that the attendees can apply in their
structural engineering practices. Submissions on best-design SAVE THE DATE
practices, new codes and standards, recent projects, advanced
analysis techniques and other topics that would be of interest to
practicing structural engineers are desired. The 2017 Summit
October 11th 14th, 2017
will feature education specific to the practicing structural Washington, D.C.
engineer, in both technical and non-technical tracks. All
sessions will include time for a Q & A. The cant-miss event for
To submit an abstract, please fill out the form located on
www.ncsea.com.
the practicing structural
Call for Volunteers
engineer.
Join an NCSEA Committee 3 jam-packed days of educational
NCSEA Member Organization members may apply for NCSEA
committee positions throughout the year using the Volunteer & networking opportunities:
Application on ncsea.com. Once submitted, the application
Learn from experts

News from the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations


will be reviewed to ensure NCSEA Member Organization
membership and then forwarded to the committee chair(s) Connect with fellow practicing
for review. engineers from across the U.S.
Currently, the following committees have openings for new
members: Visit with providers of the
Basic Education Committee: Corresponding Members newest in technology and
Communications Committee services at our bustling
Continuing Education Committee: All volunteers, with tradeshow
emphasis on Young Member Group representatives.
Structural Engineer Emergency Response (SEER)
Committee: Qualified Members from the North
Midwest, Northwest and Southwest U.S.
Young Members Support Group Committee
Even if the committee you want to join doesnt show an opening,
we suggest you still apply as committee needs regularly change.
Most committees admit new members on a rolling basis while
others add members only once per year.
The application can be found on www.ncsea.com/committees
March 16, 2017
NCSEA Webinars Draining Low-Sloped Roof Structures Rain Issues for the
February 21, 2017 Structural Engineer
Designing for Hot-Dip Galvanizing Provisions in the current ASCE 7 as well as other applicable design
With new, and innovative designs now specifying batch hot-dip codes can cause the design professional to bear unnecessary risks
galvanizing, it is important for architects, engineers, fabricators, to denied roofing warranty claims and roof collapses. This webinar
detailers, and other designers to understand the best design practices. will illustrate several case studies of rain-induced collapses, and the
This webinar will assist you in the design and integration of batch hot- perceived responsibility of the Structural Engineer.
dip galvanizing for corrosion protection in your next project. John Lawson, S.E.
Alana Hochstein April 4, 2017
March 9, 2017 Special Inspections for Masonry
Updated Concrete Repair Code and Companion Guide This presentation will provide an insight on the new requirements for
In 2013, ACI published the Code Requirements for Evaluation, field and lab testing technicians, and the expected improvement in
Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings and Commentary masonry quality control as a result of the new requirements.
as a standard for the repair of existing concrete structures. This John Chrysler, P.E.
presentation will provide an overview of the code including More detailed information on the webinars and a registration link can be
a discussion of the significant changes in ACI 562-16. There found at www.ncsea.com.Subscriptions that include both live and recorded GINEERS
EN
webinars are available for NCSEA members! A library of over 150 Recorded
will be an emphasis on the updated version of the guide which Webinars is now available online 24/7/365. Webinars provide 1.5 hours of
ASS

includes enhanced project examples based on ACI 562-16.


RAL

continuing education, approved for CE credit in all 50 states.


OCIATI
STRUCTU

Jay Paul, S.E., FACI


O NS

NATIONAL COUNCI L

STRUCTURE magazine 45 February 2017


The Newsletter of the Structural Engineering Institute of ASCE

Registration Now Open


The Premiere Event for Structural Engineering
Come for the innovative solutions and cutting-edge knowledge, Four Sessions Featuring ASCE 7-16
leave with connections and resources to advance your career.
The Structures Congress offers 120 technical sessions on all
Register before February 15, 2017, to receive the best rates.
aspects of the profession. This year we are offering a series of
Be inspired by the extraordinary keynote speakers, network
four integrated ASCE 7-16 sessions on Friday, April 7. Attendees
with your colleagues, and earn PDHs.
will receive a comprehensive overview of the new standard
Celebrate the Future of Structural Engineering at the including seismic, wind, and tsunami.
Special Friday Night Reception ASCE 7-16 Overview Whats New in the 2016 Edition
ASCE 7-16 Seismic: Learn from the Experts
Join us for a celebration of the future of structural engineer-
ASCE 7-16 Wind: Learn from the Experts
ing at the Denver Art Museum. Ashraf Habibullah, president
ASCE 7-16 Tsunami: The New Resiliency Approach and
and CEO of Computers & Structures, Inc., will host a special
Design Provisions
dinner reception on Friday, April 7, in conjunction with the
Structures Congress 2017. Join Ashraf for an evening of fun, We expect the convention hotel to sell out well in advance of
inspiration and fabulous prizes. the official cutoff day, so book your room now.
You will need to purchase a ticket to attend, with 100% of Convention Hotel
ticket sales benefiting the SEI Futures Fund. Ticket includes Hyatt Regency Denver
endlessly flowing champagne, live entertainment, full dinner, 650 15th Street
hosted bar, and amazing raffle prizes. Regular tickets are $30, Denver, CO 80202
Student tickets are $10, and will be available through March Visit the congress website at www.structurescongress.org for more
31, 2017. information, download the Preliminary Program, and to register.

Preliminary Vote on ICC


Structural Columns

Adoption of ASCE 7-16


is Positive
Governmental members of the International Code Council
voted to adopt ASCE 7-16, Minimum Design Loads and
ASCE Week Orlando Florida Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures as an
International Code Council reference standard. It is impor-
Earn up to 42 PDHs in one week tant to note that the voting results are preliminary. The ballot
must be certified by ICCs governing rules before it becomes
Dont miss ASCE Week, March 26 31, 2017, at the Wyndham
official. Thank you to all ASCE and SEI members who contacted
Grand Orlando Resort Bonnet Creek. ASCE Week offers
their ICC voting members in support of ASCE 7-16 adoption.
ASCEs most popular face-to-face seminars in one location.
Read the full story at ASCE News at http://news.asce.org/
Structural seminars include Designing Nonbuilding Structures
icc-vote-points-to-asce-7-16-adoption-as-reference-standard.
Using ASCE/SEI 7-16; Earthquake-Induced Ground Motions;
Application of Soil-Structure Interaction to Buildings and Bridges;
Financial Management for the Professional Engineer; Investigation,
Analysis, and Remediation of Building Failures; Public-Private
Partnerships for Transportation Infrastructure; Seismic Loads for Errata
Buildings and Other Structures (newly updated for ASCE 7-16). SEI posts up-to-date errata information for our publications at
In addition, there will be a special behind-the-scenes tour of www.asce.org/SEI. Click on Publications on our menu, and
Disney. Register by March 3 for special discounts. Learn more select Errata. If you have any errata that you would like to
at www.asce.org/asceweek. submit, please email it to Jon Esslinger at jesslinger@asce.org.

STRUCTURE magazine 46 February 2017


Structural Columns
Diversity in Engineering Article Webinar on SEI Benefits,
in Redshift Opportunities, and Vision Initiatives
David Odeh, SEI past president, and Laura Champion, Listen to the November 29 webinar by SEI President Andy
SEI Director, were recently interviewed by Redshift for an Herrmann and SEI Young Professional Committee Chair Linda
article on diversity in engineering. They and others discuss Kaplan for a review of SEI member benefits and opportunities,
some of the challenges in the profession and opportuni- including special offerings for students and professionals to
ties that encouraging diversity presents. Read the article at make the most of membership in SEI/ASCE and an update on
https://redshift.autodesk.com/diversity-in-engineering. SEI Vision for the Future of SE initiatives. View the webinar at
https://cc.readytalk.com/cc/playback/Playback.do?id=7vckhs.

SEI Local Activities

The Newsletter of the Structural Engineering Institute of ASCE


St Louis Chapter
The SEI St. Louis Chapter and Geo-Institute St. Louis Chapter
joined forces to host the first local interdisciplinary conference
Metropolitan (NYC) Chapter
on geotechnical and structural topics at the Geo-Structures Welcome to the new SEI Metropolitan Chapter. The chapter
Confluence 2016. This event combined the chapters annual is planning to host four technical lectures from October 2016
Geo-Confluence and SEI Day events for this year. The November through March 2017, and the Spring Seminar Series in May.
4, 2016, event attracted 200 attendees, featured a joint morning The 2017 Spring Seminar Series, to be held at the New York
session and two afternoon breakout tracks with topics ranging Public Library at Lincoln Center, will consist of four evenings
from case studies on the Wrigley Field project to code related of technical lectures and keynote presentations with dinner
topics of extreme loads. Geotechnical and structural engineers provided. Participants will be able to earn up to 8 PDHs.
had the chance to mingle and squabble at a stunning Exhibitors
Hall and the star-studded panel discussion; Soil is Not a Spring;
Buildings are Not a Load. Panelists included SEIs past-presi-
Get Involved in Local SEI Activities
dent, David Odeh, G-Is past-president Kord Wissmann, Terry Join your local SEI Chapter, Graduate Student Chapter
Holman (Turner Construction), Tom Cooling (AECOM), (GSC), or Structural Technical Groups (STG) to con-
and Ted Pruess (Independent Consultant). Visit the chapter nect with colleagues, take advantage of local opportunities
website at http://sections.asce.org/stlouis/SEI/Home.htm for lifelong learning, and advance structural engineering in
for more information. your area. If there is not a SEI Chapter, GSC, or STG in
your area, review the simple steps to form a SEI Chapter at
www.asce.org/structural-engineering/sei-local-groups.
Mohawk Hudson Chapter Local Chapters serve member technical and professional needs.
SEI GSCs prepare students for a successful career transition.
The SEI Mohawk-Hudson Chapter hosted their 6th annual SEI supports Chapters with opportunities to learn about new
Structures Day. This conference featured technical seminars, an initiatives and best practices, and network with other lead-
award presentation, and swearing in new officers. Learn more on ers including annual funded SEI Local Leader Conference,
the SEI News web page at www.asce.org/structural-engineering/ technical tour and training. SEI Chapters receive Chapter logo/
structural-engineering-news. branding, complimentary webinar, and more.

STRUCTURE magazine 47 February 2017


CASE Risk Management Tools Available
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Donate to the CASE


Scholarship Fund!
The ACEC Council of American Structural Engineers (CASE)
CASE in Point

is currently seeking contributions to help make the structural


engineering scholarship program a success. The CASE scholar-

Share Innovative Ideas!


ship, administered by the ACEC College of Fellows, is awarded
to a student seeking a Bachelors degree, at a minimum, in an
ABET-accredited engineering program. Since 2009, the CASE
Does your firm have an innovative idea or method of practice? Scholarship program has given $20,000 to help engineering stu-
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We are inviting you to share the wealth and submit a proposal We have all witnessed the stiff competition from other disciplines
for a web seminar topic, publication, or education session you and professions eager to obtain the best and brightest young talent
would like to see CASE present at an upcoming conference. from a dwindling pool of engineering graduates. One way to
Our forms are easy to use, and you may submit your informa- enhance the ability of students in pursuing their dreams to become
tion via email. Go to www.acec.org/coalitions and click on professional engineers is to offer incentives in educational support.
the icon for Idea Sharing to get started. Your monetary support is vital in helping CASE and ACEC
Questions? Contact us at 202-682-4332 or email Katie increase scholarships to those students who are the future of our
Goodman at kgoodman@acec.org. industry. All donations toward the program may be eligible for
We look forward to helping you put your best ideas in front tax deduction, and you do not have to be an ACEC member to
of eager new faces! donate! Contact Heather Talbert at htalbert@acec.org to donate.

STRUCTURE magazine 48 February 2017


CASE in Point
CASE Risk Management
Convocation in Denver, CO
April 7, 2017
The CASE Risk Management Convocation will be held in
conjunction with the Structures Congress at the Hyatt
Regency Denver and Colorado Convention Center in Denver,
CO April 6 8, 2017. For more information and updates go
to www.structurescongress.org.
The following CASE Convocation sessions are scheduled to
take place on Friday, April 7:
8:00 am 9:30 am Contractual Risk Transfers for
Professionals: Mastering Indemnity,
Insurance and the Standard of Care
Moderator/Speaker: Ryan J. Kohler,
Collins, Collins, Muir + Stewart, LLP
10:00 am 11:30 am Construction Administration as a Risk
Management Tool
Moderator / Speaker: Daniel T.

CASE is a part of the American Council of Engineering Companies


Buelow, Willis Towers Watson
2:00 pm 3:30 pm Projects with the Largest Losses and
Claim Frequency
Moderator: Mr. Timothy J. Corbett,
SmartRisk
Speaker: Brian Stewart, Esq., Collins,
Collins, Muir + Stewart, LLP
4:00 pm 5:30 pm Tackling Todays Business Practice
Challenges A Structural
Engineering Roundtable
Moderator: David W. Mykins, P.E.,
Stroud Pence & Associates

Public-Private Partnerships and Design-Build:


Opportunities and Risks for Consulting Engineers
P3 and DB approaches on public infrastructure projects continue Readers will also find updated
to increase, leaving consulting engineers with more questions information on risk allocation and
than ever. That is why, to make conscientious and prudent professional liability issues specific
decisions about P3 and DB project opportunities and risks, to P3 and DB projects.
you need access to reliable expertise and the latest knowledge. Edited by David Hatem and
The second edition of Public-Private Partnerships and Design- Patricia Gary of Donovan Hatem
Build: Opportunities and Risks for Consulting Engineers presents new LLP along with the contribu-
industry information and experience on P3 and DB approaches tions of 14 subject matter experts
and offers timely recommendations about the rewards, challenges, Public-Private Partnerships and
and risk exposures for engineering firms looking to succeed in Design-Build: Opportunities and
todays still evolving P3 and DB project work environment. Risks for Consulting Engineers,
New to the Second Edition: Second Edition provides an objective, realistic and practical
DB opportunities, roles, risks, and contracting practices resource for you to make informed and balanced judgments
Dispute resolution processes in P3s and DB about pursuing P3 and DB projects.
Contractual availability and sound implementation of NCSEA members can contact Heather Talbert about obtaining
fair and appropriate dispute resolution processes in the this book at the ACEC Member Price of $99. Heather can be
assessment and management of P3 and DB projects emailed at htalbert@acec.org.

STRUCTURE magazine 49 February 2017


Structural Forum opinions on topics of current importance to structural engineers

ASCE 7-16 Controversy released, everybody complains and gripes.


Then they suck it up and buckle down to
try and learn the new provisions. Like good
A Long Overdue Wake-up Call sheep, we all go along.
By Jim DeStefano, P.E., AIA, F.SEI Recently, other construction industry

I
groups like the National Association of
have been watching, with some interest buildings that do fail during extreme events, Home Builders (NAHB) and the National
as the recent drama unfolded, the effort such as hurricanes, blizzards, and earthquakes, Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA)
to block the adoption of the American are mostly non-engineered and pre-engineered have taken a close look at some of the provi-
Society of Civil Engineers ASCE 7-16 structures with flawed designs. sions in ASCE 7-16 and found the standard
into the 2018 International Building Code Several years ago, the Structural Engineering to be unreasonable and out of touch. Could
(IBC). I was particularly amused to see the Institute/ Business and Professional Activities it be that they are right? The structural engi-
way that the structural engineering commu- Division (SEI-BPAD) committee embarked neering community reacted defensively. We
nity has rallied in defense of a standard that on a trial design program. A group of experi- may feel that it is our profession that is
they openly despise. If you get more than two enced structural engineers was asked to solve a being attacked how dare these guys sug-
structural engineers in a room, it is only a handful of routine design problems requiring gest that a standard produced by ASCE not
matter of time before they start complaining the application of ASCE 7. The results were be adopted into the IBC.
about the latest edition of ASCE 7 and the distressing. The answers were so scattered that Where do we go from here? Maybe it is time
misery that it has brought to their practice. they did not fit into a bell curve and the com- to take back our profession make struc-
Has ASCE 7 improved the practice of struc- mittee members could not even agree on what tural engineering great again. Despite all the
tural engineering or the lives of structural the correct answers were. The conclusion was grumbling, the ASCE 7 committee has not
engineers? The answer is easy and not par- obvious. Overly complex loading provisions gotten the message. We need a reasonable
ticularly controversial. There have been many have increased the risk that an engineer will and practical standard for calculating loading
editorials written about the misery that ASCE 7 misinterpret the loading provisions and under criteria that does not keep changing.
has brought to the practice of structural engi- design a structure. I do not mean to belittle or demean the hard
neering, yet I do not recall ever seeing an Do we need a cookbook for structural engi- work that has gone into writing the ASCE 7
editorial extolling the virtues of the standard. neering? There seems to be a belief, held by standard. I have served on SEI standards
When I first started practicing forty years ago, many engineers that serve on standards com- committees, and I know the effort that goes
the building code section on structural load- mittees, that building code adopted standards into them. However, the standards committee
ing was somewhat brief and only filled a few should be written as cookbooks that prescribe needs to be sensitive to all of the unnecessary
pages. Although the loading provisions were each step that an engineer takes in designing hard work and lost profits they have generated
easy to understand and interpret, they were not a structure. This kind of thinking has had a for all of us that are trying to make a living
sufficient. The American National Standards deleterious effect on the profession and tends to designing structures.
Institute (ANSI) Standard 58.1, first released stifle innovation and the application of sound We cannot turn back the clock to 1982 and
in 1972, was a huge improvement. It contained engineering principles. We should not need a go back to the ANSI 58.1 standard, but it
all of the important stuff that had been missing cookbook to tell us how to design a structure. would not be so bad if we did.
from previous building codes, such as snow What we really need is stability in our Maybe those guys at NAHB and NRCA
drift loads and a rational approach to wind building codes! It is reasonable to expect have the right idea and are not really anar-
pressures, yet it was still easy to understand and codes and standards to be improved, refined, chists. If we want to take back our profession,
use. When ASCE 7-88 replaced ANSI 58.1-82, and to be made more understandable with a grassroots movement is needed. Not just
the loading provisions became more complex each new edition. Revisions must be made at the ICC hearings, but at every state level.
and less intuitive. It has been downhill ever to make confusing provisions easier to under- If we, as structural engineers, start lobbying
since. Today, structural engineers must spend stand and apply. to delete ASCE 7 from our local state build-
a disproportionate amount of their time deter- However, when each new edition of ASCE 7 ing codes in favor of simple, understandable
mining the loading criteria for their projects unveils an entirely different way of calculating loading provisions, maybe then our message
rather than designing the structures. wind loads, or maybe six different ways to will be heard.
Has ASCE 7 improved the safety of struc- calculate wind loads, it only results in chaos
tures? The justification for more complex and instability. Can everything that we have Jim DeStefano is the President of
loading provisions has always been that better, been doing up until now really be that wrong? DeStefano & Chamberlain, Inc. located
more accurate loading data results in safer Do we really need to relearn how to calculate in Fairfield, CT. He is the past-past-
structures, but is that really true? There is not loads every six years? chairman of the STRUCTURE magazine
much evidence to support that argument. Should the structural engineering commu- editorial board. Jim can be reached at
Building structures that were designed before nity be a rubber stamp for new standards? jimd@dcstructural.com.
1988 do not seem to be collapsing. Those Every time a new edition of ASCE 7 is

Structural Forum is intended to stimulate thoughtful dialogue and debate among structural engineers and other participants in the design and
construction process. Any opinions expressed in Structural Forum are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NCSEA,
CASE, SEI, C 3 Ink, or the STRUCTURE magazine Editorial Board.

STRUCTURE magazine 50 February 2017


opinions on topics of current importance to structural engineers Structural Forum
ASCE 7 Controversy
A Rebuttal
By Ronald O. Hamburger, S.E., SECB, FSEI

J
im DeStefano raises many good points as used in the Western U.S. The seismic isola- the more elegant procedures would reside.
to the complexity of the building codes tion and energy dissipation procedures have Ultimately this concept was discouraged by
in general and the ASCE 7 standard been harmonized with those in ASCE 41, ASCE staff as being confusing, since some
in particular. I have made these same which also has been updated to adopt the loads, such as wind and seismic, would have
arguments many times over the years, in this new response history procedures. The rain chapters in multiple volumes. Perhaps we
same magazine and other venues. However, load procedures have been made substantially will find a way to do this in future editions
the challenges to adoption of ASCE 7-16 clearer and easy to apply. As noted, there is little doubt the codes are
had nothing to do with code complexity or Another change engineers will likely find complex. In addition to the tendency to over-
changes in design procedures. Rather, these useful is the availability of an electronic, prescribe calculation procedures, previously
challenges were about two things: 1) sig- web-based version of the standard and a discussed, there are other reasons for this
nificantly increased values of wind pressure companion tool that will enable determi- complexity. Most engineers state they want
coefficients at areas of discontinuities on roofs, nation of mapped values of snow, seismic, the codes to be simple, reliable, and result in
the principal concern of the roofing indus- and wind loading parameters from a single economical construction. My opinion is that
try; and 2) changes to site class coefficients source. This tool will also enable construc- you can satisfy only two of these at a time.
for long period structures on soft soil sites, tion of transects to facilitate computation The codes of 40 years ago were simple, less
causing an increase in seismic design values of topography coefficients for wind pres- economical than todays requirements, and far
for some structures. sures. Engineers will be able to annotate less reliable. Using todays standards, you can
Countering these increases in design con- their personal copies and index them to find still design simply and the design will be reli-
servatism, the wind speed maps have been frequently used criteria. able. However, the resulting design likely will
revised based on the availability of long-term This aside, I agree that the Standard is far not be economical. Our standards have been
wind data from hundreds of stations, allow- larger, more complex and challenging to use developed assuming most engineers would
ing substantial reductions in design wind than the design criteria specified by build- prefer to use more complex procedures that
speeds and design wind loads across most ing codes 40 years ago when Jim and I first are both economical and reliable.
of the U.S. In fact, except in exposure D, entered practice. The complexity has slowly In the end, complex evolving codes and stan-
limited to a 600-foot wide strip along the grown for several reasons, including, as Jim dards do place a burden on engineers. We
Atlantic and Gulf coasts, these speed reduc- suggests, a desire to over-prescribe the design cannot complacently leave school thinking
tions mostly counter the change in cladding procedures rather than allowing engineers to that we know everything that we will ever
coefficients and allow substantial reductions use basic knowledge and judgment to deter- have to know. Instead, we have to keep current
in the required strength of the main wind mine loads and other facets of design. At the with developments in our field, learn new pro-
force resisting system. Further reductions in start of this cycle, I made a significant effort to cedures, and yes, do more work. Of course, 40
wind load can be obtained by accounting for reverse this, simplify the procedures, and elim- years ago, the electronic slide-rule calculator
reduced air density at high elevation sites, inate prescription. At one point I pushed for was just becoming a mainstay. Today we have
allowing substantial reductions in wind pres- a two-volume standard; one containing basic untold power at our fingertips in the form of
sures in places like Denver and Reno. procedures that would apply to the design of personal computers, with far more power than
What else has changed? Well, the snow load- most ordinary buildings, and the other con- the IBM and Sperry mainframes of 40 years
ing Chapter has indeed become longer and taining more complex procedures used only ago, to help us deal with the complexity. Do
more complex. How? Instead of the so-called a fraction of the time. The basic procedures we really want to go back to the world of the
case study zones on the maps in mountain- would have included criteria for dead and 1970s? I do not think so.
ous regions, the Standard now provide tables live loads, snow loads for buildings of simple
with specific ground snow load values for geometry, the simplified wind procedure, and Ronald O. Hamburger is a Senior
most major communities in the affected areas. the equivalent lateral force procedure for seis- Principal at Simpson Gumpertz & Heger
Thicker document? Yes. Easier to use? Yes. mic. All other procedures, used only a fraction in San Francisco. He has been active in
Other important changes include addition of the time, if ever, would have appeared in the development of seismic requirements
of a chapter on tsunami-resistant design, an the second volume. We felt most engineers of building codes and standards since the
Appendix on performance-based fire-effects would use only the first volume, which they 1980s. He presently chairs the ASCE 7
design, and a substantial update of the seismic would find short and user-friendly. Those Committee. Ron can be reached at
nonlinear response history procedures bring- engineers who design more complex struc- rohamburger@sgh.com.
ing them in line with procedures commonly tures would go to the second volume, where

Structural Forum is intended to stimulate thoughtful dialogue and debate among structural engineers and other participants in the design and
construction process. Any opinions expressed in Structural Forum are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NCSEA,
CASE, SEI, C 3 Ink, or the STRUCTURE magazine Editorial Board.

STRUCTURE magazine 51 February 2017