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# SEU 2012 El t i

SEU 2012: Electronic
3 – Analysis of Diode Circuits
3  Analysis of Diode Circuits
Dept. of Microelectronics and Computer Engineering
The Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
The Shockley/Diode Equation
The Shockley/Diode Equation
VD

I D = I S (e nVT
− 1)
Where Is is reverse saturation current
VD isi th
the fforward
d bi
biasedd voltage
lt
n is the ideality factor (usually equals to 1)
VT is the thermal voltage (usually 26mV)

## -- When VD is negative (reversed biased), ID ≈ -IS

VD
nVT
-- When VD is positive (forward biased), ID ≈ I S (e )

## Example: Given Is = 10pA,

10pA draw the I-V
I V characteristics of the diode

Simplified Diode Characteristics
Simplified Diode Characteristics

## VD must be less than or equal to the knee voltage!

Diode Equivalent Circuit for
Simplified Model
Forward Biased, Vs ≥ Vk

D1 0 Ohms
Vs Vs Vs

+ Vk - + Vk -

Reversed Biased,
Biased Vs < Vk
D1 Inf inite Ohms
Vs Vs Vs
+ Vs -
+ Vs -

Where Vk (ideal) = 0 V,
Vk (Ge)
(G ) = 0.3
03V V,
Vk (Si) = 0.7 V
Steps for diode circuit analysis
Steps for diode circuit analysis
1. Replace forward biased diodes with relevant
voltage source
l
2. Replace reversed biased diodes with open‐
circuit
3. Perform KVL to find node voltages
g
4. Perform Ohm’s Law to find current

Example 1
Example 1
Find VD, VR and IR in the circuit below.
Si 0 7V
0.7V
VR
2k +
3V 2k 3V VR
IR IR
-

V
Using KVL, Using Ohm’s Law,
I R =
3 V = 0.7 V + VR R
VR = 2.3 V 2.3V
=
VD = 0.7
07V 2kΩ
= 1.15mA
Example 2
Example 2
Find VD, VR and IR in the circuit below.
Si
+ 3V -
VR
2k +
3V 2k 3V VR
IR IR
-

## Since it is an open circuit

circuit, IR = 0
Using Ohm’s Law, VR = IRR
=0
Using KVL, VD = 3V

Example 3
Example 3
Find VR and IR in the circuit below.
Si Ge
+12V VR

5 6k
5.6k
IR

0.7V 0.3V
+12V
5 6k
5.6k +
VR
IR
-

Example 3 (cont.)
Example 3 (cont.)
Using KVL
KVL,
12 V = 0.7 V + 0.3 V + VR
VR = 11 V

## Using Ohm’s Law,

V
IR =
R
11V
=
5.6kΩ
= 1.96mA

Example 4
Example 4
Find V1, V2 and Vo in the circuit below.
+ V1 - Si
Vo
+10V
4.7k +
V2
2.2k
-

-5V
V
+ V1 - 0.7V
Vo
+10V
4 7k
4.7k +
V2
2.2k
-

-5V
Example 4 (cont.)
Example 4 (cont.)
Using KVL
KVL, Th f
Therefore,
10 V = V1 + 0.7 V + V2 – 5
V1 + V2 = 10 – 0.7 + 5 V1 = IR1
= 14.3 V = 2.07 mA x 4.7 kΩ
= 9.73 V
Using Ohm’s Law to get current
V +V V2 = IR2
I= 1 2 = 2.07
2 07 mA x 2
2.2
2 kΩ
R1 + R2
= 4.55 V
14.3V
=
4.7 k + 2.2k V2 = Vo + 5 = 4.55 V
Vo = 4.55 – 5
14.3V
= = -0.45 V
6.9kΩ
= 2.07 mA
A
Example 5
Example 5
The hardest one! Please try at home.
-- Find Vo1 and Vo2 in the figure below
Ge Si
Vo1 Vo2
-10V
10V
1.2k

3 3k
3.3k

Solution:
Vo1 = -9 V
Vo2 = - 6.6 V