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1
Sequences and Series
Introduction

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The word sequence in mathematics has same meaning as in ordinary

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English. A collection of objects listed in a sequence means it has identified first
member, second member, third member and so on. The most common examples
are depreciate values of certain commodity like car, machinery and amount
deposits in the bank for a number of years.
ing
Sequence
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A succession of numbers arranged in a definite order or arrangement


according to some well-defined law is called a sequence.
OR
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A sequence is a function of natural numbers (N) with co-domain is the set of


real numbers (R) [Complex numbers (C )]. If range is subset of real numbers
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(Complex numbers) then it is called a real sequence (Complex sequence).


OR
A mapping f : N C, then f ( n ) = tn , n N is called a sequence to be denoted
it by { f (1), f ( 2), f ( 3), .... } = { t1 , t2 , t3 , .... } = { tn }.
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The nth term of a sequence is denoted by Tn , tn , an , a( n ), u n etc.


Remark. The sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , .... is generally written as { an }.
pic

Illustrations (i) 1, 3, 5, 7, ..... is a sequence, because each term (except


first) is obtained by adding 2 to the previous term and Tn = 2n 1, n N .
w.

OR
If T1 = 1, Tn + 1 = Tn + 2, n 1
(ii) 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...... is a sequence, because each term (except first two)
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is obtained by taking the sum of preceding two terms.


OR
If T1 = 1, T2 = 2, Tn + 2 = Tn + Tn + 1, n 1
(iii) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, ..... is a sequence.
Here, we cannot express Tn , n N by an algebraic formula.

Recursive Formula
A formula to determine the other terms of the sequence in terms of its
preceding terms is known as recursive formula.
For example If T1 = 1 and Tn + 1 = 6 Tn , n N .

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2 | Algebra Part I

Then, T2 = 6 T1 = 6 1 = 6
T3 = 6 T2 = 6 6 = 36
T4 = 6T3 = 6 36 = 216....
Then, sequence is 1, 6, 36, 216, ....

Types of Sequences
There are two types of sequences.

1. Finite Sequence

m
A sequence is said to be finite sequence, if it has finite number of terms. A
finite sequence is described by a1 , a2 , a3 , ..... , an or T1 , T2 , T3 , ..... , Tn , where n N.

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Illustrations (i) 3, 5, 7, 9, ...... , 37
(ii) 2, 6, 18, 54, ......, 4374
ing
2. Infinite Sequence
A sequence is said to be an infinite sequence, if it has infinite number of
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terms. An infinite sequence is described by a1 , a2 , a3 , .... or T1 , T2 , T3 , K


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1 1 1
Illustrations (i) 1, , , , ....
3 9 27
1 1 1 1
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(ii) 1, , , , , ....
2 4 8 16
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Series
In a sequence, the sum of the directed terms is called a series. For example, if
1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, ..... is a sequence, then its sum ie, 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + 13 + 16 + K is
pic

a series.
In general, if T1 , T2 , T3 , ...... , Tn ,.... denote a sequence, then the symbolic
expression T1 + T2 + T3 + .... + Tn + .... is called a series associated with the given
w.

sequence.
Each member of the series is called its term.
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In a series T1 + T2 + T3 + .... + Tr + ...., the sum of first n terms is denoted by S n .


Thus,
S n = T1 + T2 + T3 + .... + Tn
n
= Tr = Tn
r =1

If S n denotes the sum of n terms of a sequence.


Then, S n S n 1 = (T1 + T2 + T3 + .... + Tn ) (T1 + T2 + .... + Tn 1 )
= Tn
Thus, Tn = S n S n 1

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series |3

Types of Series
There are two types of series.

1. Finite Series
A series having finite number of terms is called a finite series.

Illustrations
(i) 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + ..... + 21
(ii) 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 + .... + 4374

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2. Infinite Series

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A series having an infinite number of terms is called an infinite series.

Illustrations
ing
1 1 1
(i) 1 + + + + .....
3 9 27
1 1 1
(ii) 1 + + + + ....
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2 4 8
oa

Progression
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If the terms of a sequence can be described by an explicit formula, then the


sequence is called a progression.
OR
A sequence is said to be progression, if its terms increases (respectively
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decreases) numerically.
For example The following sequences are progression :
pic

1 1 1 1
(i) 1, 3, 5, 7, .... (ii) , , , , ....
2 6 18 54
1 1 1
(iii) 1, , , ,K (iv) 1, 8, 27, 256, ....
w.

3 9 27
1
(v) 8, 4, 2, 1, , K
ww

2
The sequences (iii) and (v) are progressions, because
1 1 1
|1|>| |>| |>| |> ....
3 9 27
1 1 1
ie, 1> > > >K
3 9 27
1
and | 8|>| 4|>| 2|>| 1|>| |> ....
2
1
ie, 8 > 4 > 2 > 1 > > ....
2

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4 | Algebra Part I

Point to Consider
All the definitions and formulae are valid for complex numbers in the theory of
progressions but it should be assumed (if not otherwise stated) that the terms of the
progressions are real numbers.

n
Illustration 1. If f : N R, where f (n ) = a n = , then write the
(2n + 1)2
sequence in ordered pair form.
n
Solution. Here, a n =
(2n + 1)2
Putting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, .... successively, we get

m
1 1
a1 = =
(2 1 + 1)2 9

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2 2
a2 = =
(2 2 + 1)2 25
3 3
a3 = =
(2 3 + 1) 2
49
ing
4 4
a4 = =
(2 4 + 1) 2
81
ch

...............................
Hence, we obtain the sequence
1 2 3 4
oa

, , , , ...
9 25 49 81
Now, the sequence in ordered pair form is
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1 2 3 4
1, , 2, , 3, , 4, , ...
9 25 49 81
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Illustration 2. The Fibonacci sequence is defined by a1 = 1 = a 2,


an + 1
a n = a n 1 + a n 2, n > 2. Find for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
an
pic

Solution. Q a1 = 1 = a 2
a3 = a 2 + a1 = 1 + 1 = 2
a 4 = a3 + a 2 = 2 + 1 = 3
w.

a5 = a 4 + a3 = 3 + 2 = 5
and a 6 = a5 + a 4 = 5 + 3 = 8
ww

a2 a 2 a 3 a 5 a 8
= 1, 3 = = 2, 4 = , 5 = and 6 =
a1 a2 1 a3 2 a 4 3 a5 5

Illustration 3. The sum of n terms of a series is 2n 2 + 5n for all values of


n, then find its 7th term.
Solution. Given, S n = 2n 2 + 5n
S n 1 = 2 (n 1)2 + 5 (n 1) = 2n 2 + n 3
Tn = S n S n 1
= (2n 2 + 5n ) (2n 2 + n 3) = 4n + 3
T7 = 4 7 + 3 = 31

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series |5


n
Illustration 4. (i) Write (r 2 + 2) in expanded form.
r =1
1 2 3 4 n
(ii) Write the series + + + +K+ in sigma form.
3 4 5 6 n+2
Solution. (i) Putting r = 1, 2, 3, 4, K , n in (r 2 + 2), we get
3, 6, 11, 18, ...., (n 2 + 2)
n
Hence, (r 2 + 2) = 3 + 6 + 11 + 18 + .... + (n 2 + 2)
r =1
r
(ii) The rth term of series = . Hence, the given series can be written as
r+2
1 2 3 4 n n
r
+ + + + .... + =

m
3 4 5 6 n + 2 r = 1 r + 2

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Introductory Exercise 1.1
Only One Correct Option
ing
1. First term of a sequence is 1 and the (n + 1)th term is obtained by adding (n + 1)
to the nth term for all natural numbers n, then the sixth term of the sequence is
(a) 7 (b) 13 (c) 21 (d) 27
ch

2. The first three terms of a sequence are 3, 3, 6 and each term after the second is
the sum of two terms preceding it, then the 8th term of the sequence is
(a) 15 (b) 24 (c) 39 (d) 63
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6
n
3. If a n = sin , then the value of a n2 is
6
n =1
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(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 7


4. If for a sequence {a n }, S n = 2n 2 + 9n, where S n is the sum of n terms, then the
value of a 20 is
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(a) 65 (b) 75 (c) 87 (d) 97


5
5. If a1 = 2, a 2 = 3 + a1 and a n = 2 a n 1 + 5 for n > 1, then the value of a r is
r=2
pic

(a) 130 (b) 160 (c) 190 (d) 220

Types of Progressions
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Progressions are various types but in this chapter we shall studying only
three special types of progressions which are following :
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1. Arithmetic Progression (abbreviated as AP)


2. Geometric Progression (abbreviated as GP)
3. Harmonic Progression (abbreviated as HP)

1. Arithmetic Progression (Abbreviated as AP)


An Arithmetic Progression (AP) is a sequence in which the difference between
any term and its just preceding term ( ie , term before it) is constant throughout.
This constant is called the common difference (abbreviated as CD) and is
generally denoted by d.
OR
An Arithmetic Progression (AP) is a sequence whose terms increase or decrease
by a fixed number. This fixed number is called the common difference of the AP.

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6 | Algebra Part I

A finite or infinite sequence { t1 , t2 , t3 , K , tn } or { t1 , t2 , t3 , ..... } is said to be an


arithmetic progression (AP), if
tk tk 1 = d, a constant independent of k, for k = 2, 3, 4, .... , n or k = 2, 3, 4, K
as the case may be : The constant d is called the common difference of the AP.
ie, d = t2 t1 = t3 t2 = .... = tn tn 1

Points to Consider
1. If a be the first term and d be the common difference, then AP can be written as
a , a + d , a + 2d , ..... , a + (n 1) d , K n N .
2. If we add the common difference to any term of AP, we get the next following
term and if we subtract it from any term, we get the preceding term.

m
3. The common difference of an AP may be positive, zero, negative or imaginary.

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4. Constant AP common difference of an AP is equal to zero.
5. Increasing AP common difference of an AP is greater than zero.
6. Decreasing AP common difference of an AP is less than zero.
ing
7. Imaginary AP common difference of an AP is imaginary.

Algorithm to determine whether a sequence is an AP or not :


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Step I. Obtain tn (the nth term of the sequence).


Step II. Replace n by n 1 in tn to get tn 1.
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Step III. Calculate tn tn 1.


If tn tn 1 is independent of n, then the given sequence is an AP otherwise it
is not an AP
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Illustration 5. (i) 1, 3, 5, 7, ......


(ii) , + e , + 2e , K
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(iii) a , a b, a 2b, a 3b, K


Solution. (i) Here, 2nd term 1st term = 3rd term 2nd term = ....
pic

3 1 = 5 3 = .... = 2 which is a common difference.


(ii) Here, 2nd term 1st term = 3rd term 2nd term = .....
( + e ) = ( + 2e ) ( + e ) = ....
w.

= e , which is a common difference


(iii) Here, 2nd term 1st term = 3rd term 2nd term = ....
ww

(a b) a = (a 2b) (a b) = ....
= b, which is a common difference.

Illustration 6. Show that the sequence < tn > defined by tn = 5n + 4 is an


AP also, find its common difference.
Solution. We have, tn = 5n + 4
Replacing n by (n 1), we get
tn 1 = 5 (n 1) + 4 tn 1 = 5n 1
tn t n 1 = (5n + 4) (5n 1) = 5
Clearly, tn t n 1 is independent of n and is equal to 5. So, the given
sequence is an AP with common difference 5.

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series |7


Illustration 7. Show that the sequence < tn > defined by tn = 3n 2 + 2 is
not an AP.
Solution. We have, tn = 3n 2 + 2
Replacing n by (n 1), we get
tn 1 = 3 (n 1)2 + 2
tn 1 = 3n 2 6n + 5
tn t n 1 = (3n 2 + 2) (3n 2 6n + 5) = 6n 3
Clearly, tn t n 1 is not independent of n and is therefore not constant. So,
the given sequence is not an AP.

Point to Consider

m
If the nth term of a sequence be an expression of first degree in n, eg,
tn = An + B, where A , B are constants, then that sequence will be in AP for

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t n t n 1 = ( An + B) [ A (n 1) + B] = A [n (n 1)] = A = constant
= common difference or coefficient of n in tn
ing
Remark. Students are advised to consider the above point as a behaviour of
standard result.

General Term of an AP
ch

Let a be the first term, d be the common difference and l be the last term of
an AP having n terms, where n N .
oa

Then, AP can be written as a , a + d , a + 2d , .... , l 2d , l d , l


yC

(i) nth Term of an AP from Beginning


1st term from beginning = t1 = a = a + (1 1) d
2nd term from beginning = t 2 = a + d = a + (2 1) d
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3rd term from beginning = t3 = a + 2d = a + (3 1) d


......................................................................................
......................................................................................
pic

nth term from beginning = tn = a + (n 1) d , n N


Hence, nth term of an AP from beginning.
= tn = a + (n 1) d = l (last term)
w.

(ii) nth Term of an AP from End


ww

1st term from end = t1 = l = l (1 1) d


2nd term from end = t2 = l d = l (2 1) d
3rd term from end = t3 = l 2d = l (3 1) d
......................................................................................
......................................................................................
nth term from end = tn = l (n 1) d n N
Hence, nth term of an AP from end = tn = l (n 1) d = a (first term)
Now, it is clear that tn + tn = a + (n 1) d + l (n 1) d = a + l
or tn + tn = a + l
ie, In a finite AP the sum of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end is
always same and is equal to the sum of first and last term.

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8 | Algebra Part I

Points of Consider
1. nth term is also called the general term.
2. If last term of AP be tn and common difference be d, then terms of AP from end
are tn , t n d , t n 2d, ..........
3. If in a sequence, the terms an alternatively positive and negative, then it cannot
be an AP.
la
4. Common difference of AP =
n+1
where a = first term of AP, l = last term of AP and n = number of terms of AP.
5. If t n , t n + 1 , t n + 2 are three consecutive terms of an AP, then 2 tn + 1 = t n + tn + 2. In

m
particular, if a , b, c are in AP, then 2b = a + c.

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Illustration 8. Find first negative term of the sequence
1 1 3
20, 19 , 18 , 17 , ...
4 2 4
ing
Solution. The given sequence is an AP in which first term a = 20 and
3
common difference d = . Let the nth term of the given AP be the first
4
ch

negative term. Then


tn < 0 a + (n 1) d < 0
3
20 + (n 1) < 0 80 3n + 3 < 0
oa

4
83 2
n> or n > 27 n = 28
yC

3 3
Thus, 28th term of the given sequence is the first negative term.
kM

1 1
Illustration 9. If the mth term of an AP is and the nth term is , then
n m
find mnth term of AP.
Solution. If A , B are constants then rth term of AP is
pic

tr = Ar + B
1 1
Given, tm = Am + B = (i)
w.

n n
1 1
and tn = An + B = (ii)
m m
ww

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get


1
A= and B = 0
mn
1
mnth term = tmn = Amn + B = mn + 0 = 1
mn
Hence, mnth term of the given AP is 1.

Illustration 10. If| x 1|, 3,| x 3| are first three terms of an increasing
AP then find the sixth term of AP.
Solution. Case I. For x < 1
| x 1| = (x 1) and | x 3| = (x 3)

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series |9


1 x, 3, 3 x are in AP.
6 = 1 x + 3 x or x = 1
Then, first three terms are 2, 3, 4,
which is an increasing AP.
Sixth term is 7. (Q d = 1)
Case II. For 1 < x < 3
| x 1| = x 1 and| x 3| = (x 3) = 3 x
x 1, 3, 3 x are in AP.
6 = x 1 + 3 x 6 = 2 (impossible)
Case III. For x > 3
Q | x 1| = x 1 and | x 3| = x 3
x 1, 3, x 3 are in AP.

m
6 = x1 + x3 x=5
Then, first three terms are 4, 3, 2 which is a decreasing AP.

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Illustration 11. In the sequence 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, ...... where n
consecutive terms have the value n, then find the 150th term of the
ing
sequence.
Solution. Let the 150th term = n
Then, 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + (n 1) < 150 < 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n
ch

(n 1) n n (n + 1)
< 150 <
2 2
oa

n (n 1) < 300 < n (n + 1)


Taking first two members
n (n 1) < 300 n 2 n 300 < 0
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2
1 1 1 1201
n < 300 + 0<n< +
2 4 2 2
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0 < n < 17.8 (i)


and taking last two members
2
1 1
n ( n + 1) > 300 n + > 300 +
pic

2 4
1 1201
n> + n > 16.8 (ii)
2 2
w.

From Eqs. (i) and (ii),


16.8 < n < 17.8 n = 17
ww

Illustration 12. If a1 , a 2, a3 , a 4 , a5 are in AP with common difference 0,


5
then find the value of ai when a3 = 2.
i =1

Solution. Q a1 , a 2, a3 , a 4 , a5 are in AP, we have


a1 + a5 = a 2 + a 4 = a3 + a3 (Q tn + tn = a + l )
or a1 + a5 = a 2 + a 4 = 4 (Q a3 = 2)
or a1 + a 2 + a3 + a 4 + a5 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10
5
ai = 10
i =1

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10 | Algebra Part I

Introductory Exercise 1.2


Only One Correct Option
1. If nth term of the series 25 + 29 + 33 + 37 + .... and 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + K are
equal, then n equals
(a) 11 (b) 12 (c) 13 (d) 14
1 7 1 20
2. The rth term of the series 2 + 1 +1 + + .... is
2 13 9 23
20 20 20
(a) (b) (c) 20 (5r + 3) (d) 2
5r + 3 5r 3 5r + 3
3. In a certain AP, 5 times the fifth term is equal to 8 times the eighth term, then

m
its thirteenth term is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 12 (d) 13

.co
4. If the 9th term of an AP be zero, then the ratio of its 29th and 19th terms is
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 1 : 3ing (d) 3 : 1
5. If the pth, qth and rth terms of an AP are a , b and c respectively, then the value
of a (q r ) + b (r p) + c ( p q) is equal to
1
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d)
2
ch

6. The sixth term of an AP is equal to 2, the value of the common difference of the
AP which makes the product a1a 4a5 least is given by
oa

8 5 2 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
5 4 3 3
yC

Sum of a Stated Number of Terms of an Arithmetic


kM

Series
More than 200 years ago, a class of German School Children was asked to
pic

find the sum of all integers from 1 to 100 inclusive. One boy in the class, an eight
year old named Carl Fredrick Gauss (1777-1855) who later established his
reputation as one of the greatest mathematicians announced the answer almost
w.

at once. The teacher overawed at this asked Gauss to explain how he got this
answer. Gauss explained that he had added these numbers in pairs as follows
(1 + 100), ( 2 + 99), ( 3 + 98) , K
ww

100
There are = 50 pairs. The answer can be obtained by multiplying 101 by
2
50 to get 5050.

Sum of n Terms of an AP
Let a be the first term, d be the common difference, l be the last term of an
AP having n terms and S n the sum of n terms, then
S n = a + ( a + d ) + ( a + 2d ) + K + ( l 2d ) + ( l d ) + l (i)
Reversing the right hand terms
S n = l + ( l d ) + ( l 2d ) + .... + ( a + 2d ) + ( a + d ) + a (ii)

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 11


Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
2S n = ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + .... + ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + ( a + l )
= ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + .... to n terms = n( a + l )
n
Sn = ( a + l ) (iii)
2
Now, if we substitute the value of l viz., l = a + ( n 1) d, in this formula
we get
n n
Sn = [a + a + ( n 1) d ] = [2a + ( n 1)d ]
2 2
n
S n = [2a + (n 1) d ]

m
2
If we substitute the value of a

.co
viz., l = a + ( n 1) d
or a = l ( n 1) d in Eq. (iii), then
ing
n
S n = [2l (n 1) d ]
2
If we substitute the value of a + l
ch

viz., tn + tn = a + l in Eq. (iii), then


n
Sn = (t n + t n )
oa

2
Corollary 1. Sum of first n natural numbers
yC

ie, 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + n
Here, a = 1, d = 1
kM

n n ( n + 1)
S= [2 1 + ( n 1) 1] =
2 2
Corollary 2. Sum of first n odd natural numbers
pic

ie, 1 + 3 + 5 + ....
Here, a = 1, d = 2
w.

n
S= [2 1 + ( n 1) 2] = n 2
2
ww

Corollary 3. If sum of first n terms is S n , then sum of next m terms is


Sm + n Sn

Important Results with Proof


1. If S n , tn and d are sum of n terms, nth term and common difference of an
AP respectively, then
d = tn tn 1 ( n 2)
tn = S n S n 1 ( n 2)
d = S n 2 S n 1 + S n 2 ( n 3)

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12 | Algebra Part I

Proof. Q S n = t1 + t2 + t3 + K + tn 1 + tn
S n = S n 1 + tn
tn = S n S n 1
but d = tn tn 1 = (S n S n 1 ) (S n 1 S n 2 )
d = Sn 2 Sn 1 + Sn 2
2. A sequence is an AP if and only if the sum of its n terms is of the form
An 2 + Bn, where A, B are constants independent of n. In this case, the
nth term and common difference of the AP are A ( 2n 1) + B and 2A
respectively.
Proof. As S n = An 2 + Bn

m
S n 1 = A ( n 1)2 + B ( n 1)
tn = S n S n 1 = ( An 2 + Bn ) [ A ( n 1)2 + B ( n 1)]

.co
= A [n 2 ( n 1)2 ] + B
tn = A ( 2n 1) + B
ing
tn 1 = A [2 ( n 1) 1] + B = A ( 2n 3) + B
Now, tn tn 1 = [ A ( 2n 1) + B] [ A ( 2n 3) + B] = 2A (a constant)
Hence, the sequence is an AP.
ch

Conversely, consider an AP with first term a and common difference d.


n dn 2 d
Sum of first n terms = [2a + ( n 1) d ] =
oa

+ a n
2 2 2
d d
= An 2 + Bn, where A = ,B= a
yC

2 2
Hence, S n = An 2 + Bn, where A, B are constants independent of n.
kM

Hence, the converse is true.


Corollary 1. Q S n = An 2 + Bn
tn = A ( 2n 1) + B
pic

tn = A (Replacing n 2 by 2n 1) + coefficient of n
and d = 2A
w.

ie, d = 2 (coefficient of n 2 )

Sn tn d
ww

1. 5n 2 + 3 n 5 (2n 1) + 3 = 10n 2 10
2. 7n 2 + 2n 7 (2n 1) + 2 = 14n + 9 14
3. 9n 2 4n 9 (2n 1) 4 = 18n + 5 18
4. 4n n
2
4 (2n 1) 1 = 8n 5 8
3. If S n = an + bn + c where S n denotes the sum of n terms of a series, then
2

whole series is not an AP. It is AP from the second term onwards.


Proof. As S n = an 2 + bn + c for n 1, we get
S n 1 = a ( n 1)2 + b ( n 1) + c for n 2

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 13


Now, tn = S n S n 1
tn = a ( 2n 1) + b, n 2
tn 1 = a [2 ( n 1) 1] + b, n 3
tn 1 = a ( 2n 3) + b, n 3
tn tn 1 = 2a = constant, n 3
t3 t2 = t4 t3 = t5 t4 = ....
But t2 t1 = (S 2 S1 ) S1 = S 2 2 S1
= ( 4a + 2b + c) 2 ( a + b + c) = ( 2a c) (QS1 = t1 )
t2 t1 t3 t2
The whole series is not an AP. It is AP from the second term onwards.

m
Ratio of Sums is Given

.co
1. If ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an AP is given
S m Am2 + Bm
Let =
ing
Sn An2 + Bn
Where A, B are constants and A 0
ch

S m = ( Am 2 + Bm ) k,
S n = ( An 2 + Bn ) k
oa

tm = S m S m 1 = [ A ( 2m 1) + B] k
tn = S n S n 1 = [ A ( 2n 1) + B] k
yC

tm A ( 2m 1) + B
=
tn A ( 2n 1) + B
kM

Illustration 13. The ratio of sums of m and n terms of an AP is m2 : n 2.


Then, the ratio of the mth and nth terms is
pic

(a) (2m + 1) : (2n 1) (b) m : n


(c) (2m 1) : (2n 1) (d) None of these
Sm m2
= (Q A = 1, B = 0)
w.

Solution. Here,
Sn n 2
tm (2m 1)
=
ww

tn (2n 1)
tm : t n = (2m 1) : (2n 1)
Hence, (c) is the correct answer.
2. If ratio of the sums of n terms of two APs is given
S n An + B
Let =
S n Cn + D
where A, B, C , D are constants and A, C 0
S n = n ( An + B) k, S n = n (Cn + D ) k
tn = [ A ( 2n 1) + B] k, tn = [C ( 2n 1) + D ] k

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14 | Algebra Part I

d = tn tn 1 = 2 A,
d = tn tn 1 = 2C
tn A ( 2n 1) + B d A
= and =
tn C ( 2n 1) + D d C
Note. If A = 0, C = 0
Sn B t B d 0
Then,
= n = and = = not defined
Sn D tn D d 0

Point to Consider
tn an + b

m
If =
tn cn + d

.co
where a , b, c, d are constants and a , c 0, then
n + 1
a +b
Sn 2
=
S n n + 1
ing
c +d
2
ch

Illustration 14. The sums of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are


in the ratio (7n + 1) : (4n + 17). Find the ratio of their nth terms and also of
oa

common differences.
Solution. Given, S n : S n = (7n + 1) : (4n + 17)
Here, A = 7, B = 1, C = 4, D = 17
yC

tn 7 (2n 1) + 1 14n 6
= =
tn 4 (2n 1) + 17 8n + 13
d A 7
kM

and = =
d C 4
Hence, tn : tn = (14n 6) : (8n + 13) and d : d = 7 : 4
pic

Illustration 15. The sum of n terms of two APs are in the ratio
(3n 13) : (5n + 21). Find the ratio of their 24th terms.
w.

Solution. Given, S n : S n = (3n 13) : (5n + 21)


Here, A = 3, B = 13, C = 5, D = 21
t24 3 (2 24 1) 13 128 1
ww


= = =
t24 5 (2 24 1) + 21 256 2

t24 : t24 = 1 :2

1 2
Illustration 16. How many terms of the series 20 + 19 + 18 + .... must
3 3
be taken to make 300? Explain the double answer.
Solution. Here, given series is an AP with first term a = 20 and the
2
common difference d = .
3
Let the sum of n terms of the series be 300.

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 15


n
Then, Sn = {2a + (n 1) d }
2
n 2
300 = 2 20 + (n 1)
2 3
n
300 = {60 n + 1}
3
n 2 61n + 900 = 0
(n 25) (n 36) = 0 n = 25 or n = 36
So, sum of 25 terms = sum of 36 terms = 300
Explanation of double answer
Here, the common difference is negative; therefore, terms go on diminishing
2

m
and t31 = 20 + (31 1) = 0 ie, 31st term becomes zero. All terms after
3

.co
31st term are negative. These negative terms (t32, t33 , t34 , t35 , t36 ) when
added to positive terms (t26 , t27 , t28 , t29 , t30 ), they cancel out each other ie,
sum of terms from 26th to 36th terms is zero. Hence, the sum of 25 terms as
well as that of 36 terms is 300.
ing
Illustration 17. Find the arithmetic progression consisting of 10 terms if
the sum of the terms occupying the even places is equal to 15 and the sum of
ch

1
those occupying the odd places is equal to 12 .
2
Solution. Let the successive terms of the AP be t1 , t2, t3 , .... , t9 , t10.
oa

By hypothesis
t2 + t 4 + t6 + t8 + t10 = 15
yC

5
(t2 + t10 ) = 15
2
t2 + t10 = 6
kM

(a + d ) + (a + 9d ) = 6 or 2a + 10d = 6 (i)
1
and t1 + t3 + t5 + t7 + t9 = 12
2
pic

5 25
(t1 + t9 ) = t1 + t9 = 5
2 2
a + a + 8d = 5 or 2a + 8d = 5 (ii)
w.

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get


1 1
d= and a =
ww

2 2
1 1 1
Hence, the AP is , 1, 1 , 2, 2 , K
2 2 2

Illustration 18. If N , the set of natural numbers is partitioned into


groups S1 = {1}, S 2 = {2, 3}, S3 = {4, 5, 6}, .... , then find the sum of the numbers
in S50.
Solution. The number of terms in the groups are 1, 2, 3, ....
The number of terms in the 50th group = 50
Q The last term of 1st group = 1
The last term of 2nd group = 3 = 1 + 2

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16 | Algebra Part I

The last term of 3rd group = 6 = 1 + 2 + 3


...................................................................................
The last term of 49th group = 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + 49
First term of 50th group = 1 + (1 + 2 + 3 + .... + 49)
49
=1 + (1 + 49) = 1226
2
50
S50 = {2 1226 + (50 1) 1} = 25 2501 = 62525
2

Illustration 19. Find the sum of first 24 terms of the AP t1 , t2, t3 , ..... ., if
it is known that
t1 + t5 + t10 + t15 + t20 + t24 = 225

m
Solution. We know that in an AP the sums of the terms equidistant from

.co
the beginning and end is always same and is equal to the sum of first and
last term.
Then, t1 + t24 = t5 + t20 = t10 + t15
but given
ing
t1 + t5 + t10 + t15 + t20 + t24 = 225
(t1 + t24 ) + (t5 + t20 ) + (t10 + t15 ) = 225
3 (t1 + t24 ) = 225
ch

t1 + t24 = 75
24
S 24 = (t1 + t24 ) = 12 75 = 900
oa

Illustration 20. If (1 + 3 + 5 + .... + p) + (1 + 3 + 5 + .... + q)


yC

= (1 + 3 + 5 + .... + r ) where each set of parentheses contains the sum of


consecutive odd integers as shown then, find the smallest possible value of
p + q + r (where p > 6).
kM

Solution. We know that


1 + 3 + 5 + .... + (2n 1) = n 2
Thus, the given equation can be written as
pic

2 2 2
p + 1 q + 1 r + 1
+ =
2 2 2
( p + 1)2 + (q + 1)2 = (r + 1)2
w.

Therefore, ( p + 1, q + 1, r + 1) form a Pythagorean triplet as p > 6 p + 1 > 7


The first Pythagorean triplet containing a number > 7 is (6, 8, 10).
ww

p + 1 = 8, q + 1 = 6, r + 1 = 10 p + q + r = 21

Properties of Arithmetic Progression


1. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in AP with common difference d, then
a1 k, a2 k, a3 k, ..... are also in AP with common difference d.
2. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in AP with common difference d, then
a a a
a1k, a2k, a3 k, .... and 1 , 2 , 3 , .... are also in AP ( k 0) with common
k k k
d
differences are kd and respectively.
k

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 17


3. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... and b1 , b2 , b3 , .... are two APs with common differences d1
and d2 respectively. Then a1 b1, a2 b2, a3 b3 , ...... are also in AP with
common difference ( d1 d2 ).
4. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... and b1 , b2 , b3 , .... are two APs with common differences d1
a a a
and d2 respectively, then a1b1 , a2b2 , a3 b3 , .... and 1 , 2 , 3 , K are not in
b1 b2 b3
AP.
5. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... , an are in AP, then
ar k + ar + k
ar = k, 0 k n r
2
6. If three numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken as , ,

m
+ and if five numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken as

.co
2 , , , + , + 2 etc.
In general. If ( 2 r + 1) numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken
as (r N ).
ing
r , (r 1) , .... , , , + , .... , + (r 1) , + r

Points to Consider
ch

1. Sum of three numbers = 3


oa

Sum of five numbers = 5


...............................................
Sum of (2r + 1) numbers = (2r + 1)
yC

2. From given conditions, find two equations in and , and then solve them. Now,
the numbers in AP can be obtained.
kM

7. If four numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken as 3 , ,


+ , + 3 and if six numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken
as 5 , 3, , + , + 3, + 5; etc.
pic

In general If 2r numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken as


(r N ).
w.

( 2 r 1) , ( 2 r 3) , .... , 3 , , + , + 3, ....
+ ( 2 r 3) , + ( 2 r 1)
ww

Points to Consider
1. Sum of four numbers = 4
Sum of six numbers = 6
.............................................
Sum of 2r numbers = 2r
2. From given conditions, find two conditions in and and then solve them. Now,
the numbers in AP can be obtained.

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18 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 21. If S1 , S 2, S3 , .... , S p are the sums of n terms of p APs


whose first terms are 1, 2, 3, ...., p and common differences are 1, 3, 5, ...... ,
(2 p 1) respectively, show that
1
S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p = np (np + 1)
2
Solution. Q 1, 2, 3, .... , p are in AP.
Then 2 1, 2 2, 2 3, K , 2 p are also in AP. (i)
[Multiplying 2 to each term]
and 1, 3, 5, ... , (2 p 1) are in AP.
Then (n 1) 1, (n 1) 3, (n 1) 5, .... , (n 1) (2 p 1) are also in AP. (ii)
[Multiplying (n 1) to each term]
From Eqs. (i) and (ii),

m
2 1 + (n 1) 1, 2 2 + (n 1) 3, 2 3 + (n 1) 5, K , 2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)

.co
are also in AP. (iii)
[Adding corresponding terms of Eqs. (i) and (ii)]
From Eq. (iii),
n n n
{2 1 + (n 1) 1},
ing
{2 2 + (n 1) 3}, {2 3 + (n 1) 5}, .....
2 2 2
n
{2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)} are also in AP
2
ch

n
[Multiplying to each term]
2
oa

ie,S1 , S 2, S3 , .... , S p are in AP.


p
S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p = {S1 + S p }
2
yC

p n n
= [2 1 + (n 1) 1] + [2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)]
2 2 2
np
kM

= {2 + (n 1) + 2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)}
4
np 1
= (2np + 2) = np (np + 1)
4 2
pic

Aliter
n (n + 1)
Here, S1 = 1 + 2 + 3 + .... up to n terms =
2
w.

n
S 2 = 2 + 5 + 8 + .... up to n terms = [2 2 + (n 1)3]
2
n (3n + 1)
ww

=
2
n (5n + 1)
Similarly, S3 = 3 + 8 + 13 + .... upto n terms = etc.
2
Now, S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p
n (n + 1) n (3n + 1) n (5n + 1)
= + + + ..... up to p terms
2 2 2
n
= [(n + 3n + 5n + .... up to p terms) + (1 + 1 + 1 + .... up to p terms)]
2
n p np 1
= [2n + ( p 1) 2n ] + p = [n + n ( p 1) + 1] = np (np + 1)
2 2 2 2

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 19


Illustration 22. Let and be roots of the equation x2 2x + A = 0 and let
and be the roots of the equation x2 18x + B = 0. If < < < are in
arithmetic progression, then find the values of A and B.
Solution. Q , , , are in AP.
Let = + d, = + 2d, = + 3d, d > 0
(Here, sum of , , , is not given)
Given, + = 2, = A
2 + d = 2, = A (i)
and + = 18, = B
2 + 5d = 18, = B (ii)
From Eqs. (i) and (ii)
d = 4, = 1

m
= 3, = 7, = 11
A = = ( 1) (3) = 3 and B = = (7)(11) = 77

.co
Illustration 23. The digits of a positive integer having three digits are in
ing
AP and their sum is 15. The number obtained by reversing the digits is 594
less than the original number. Find the number.
Solution. Let the digit in the units place be a d, digit in the tens place
be a and the digit in the hundreds place be a + d.
ch

Sum of digits = a d + a + a + d = 15 (given)


3a = 15
oa

a =5 (i)
Original number = (a d ) + 10a + 100 (a + d )
yC

= 111a + 99d = 555 + 99d


and number formed by reversing the digits
= (a + d ) + 10a + 100 (a d ) = 111a 99d = 555 99d
kM

Given, (555 + 99d ) (555 99d ) = 594


198d = 594
d =3
pic

Hence, original number = 555 + 99 3 = 852


w.

Illustration 24. If three positive real numbers are in AP such that


abc = 4, then find the minimum value of b.
Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP.
ww

Let a = A D, b = A, c = A + D
Then, a = b D, c = b + D
Now, abc = 4
(b D ) b (b + D ) = 4
b (b2 D 2) = 4
b2 D 2 < b2
b (b2 D 2) < b3
4 < b3
b > (4)1/3 or b > (2)2/3
Hence, the minimum value of b is (2)2/3 .

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20 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 25. If a , b, c, d are distinct integers form an increasing AP


such that d = a 2 + b2 + c2, then find the value of a + b + c + d.
Solution. Here, sum of numbers ie, a + b + c + d is not given.
Let b = a + D, c = a + 2D, d = a + 3D, D N
According to hypothesis
a + 3D = a 2 + (a + D )2 + (a + 2D )2
5D 2 + 3 (2a 1) D + 3a 2 a = 0 (i)
3 (2a 1) 9 (2a 1) 20 (3a a )
2 2
D=
10
3 (2a 1) ( 24a 2 16a + 9)
=
10

m
Now, 24a 2 16a + 9 0
24a 2 + 16a 9 0

.co
1 70 1 70
a +
3 3 3 12
a = 1, 0 (Q a I )
3
ing
When a = 0 from Eq. (i), D = 0, (not possible Q D N ) and for a = 1
5
4
From Eq. (i), D = 1,
ch

5
D =1 (Q D N )
a = 1, b = 0, c = 1, d = 2
oa

Then, a + b + c+ d = 1 + 0 + 1 + 2 =2
yC

Introductory Exercise 1.3


Only One Correct Option
kM

1. The sum of first 2n terms of an AP is and the sum of next n terms is , its
common difference is
2 2 2 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
pic

2 2
3n 3n 3n 3n
2. The sum of three numbers in AP is 3 and their product is 8, then sum of
squares of the numbers is
w.

(a) 9 (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 21


S
3. Let S n denote the sum of n terms of an AP, if S 2n = 3S n, then the ratio 3 n is
ww

Sn
equal to
(a) 9 (b) 6 (c) 16 (d) 12
4. The sum of the products of the ten numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 taking two at a
time is
(a) 65 (b) 165 (c) 55 (d) 95
5. If a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a n are in AP where ai > 0 for all i, then the value of
1 1 1
+ + .... + is
a1 + a2 a2 + a3 an 1 + an
1 1 n (n 1)
(a) (b) (c) (d)
a1 + a n a1 a n a1 a n a1 + a n

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 21

Geometric Sequence or Geometric Progression (GP)


A geometric progression (GP) is a sequence, if the ratio of any term and its just
preceding term is constant throughout. This constant quantity is called the
common ratio and is generally denoted by r.
OR
A geometric progression (GP) is a sequence of numbers, whose first term is
non-zero and each of the term is obtained by multiplying its just preceding term by
a constant quantity. This constant quantity is called the common ratio of the GP.
Let t1 , t2 , t3 , .... , tn ; t1 , t2 , t3 , .... be respectively a finite or an infinite sequence.
Assume that none of the tn s is 0 and that
tk
= r, a constant ( ie, independent of k)

m
tk 1
For k = 2, 3, 4, .... , n or k = 2, 3, 4, .... as the case may be. We then call { tk } kn = 1

.co
or { tk } k = 1 as the case may be a geometric progression (abbreviated as GP). The
constant ratio r is called the common ratio (abbreviated as CR) of the GP.
t t t
r = 2 = 3 = ...... = n
ie,
ing
t1 t2 tn 1
If t1 = a is the first term of a GP, then
t2 = ar, t3 = t2 r = ar 2, t4 = t3 r = ar3 , K
ch

tn = tn 1 r = ar n 1
oa

It follows that, given that first term a and the CR r, the GP can be rewritten as
a , ar , ar 2 , .... , ar n 1 (Standard GP)
or a , ar , ar 2 , .... , ar n 1, .... (Standard GP)
yC

according as it is finite or infinite.


Remark 1. In a GP, neither a = 0 nor r = 0.
Remark 2. In a GP, no term can be equal to 0.
kM

Remark 3. If in a GP, the terms are alternatively positive and negative, then
its common ratio is always negative.
pic

Points to Consider
1. If we multiply the common ratio with any term of GP, we get the next following
w.

term and if we divide any term by the common ratio, we get the preceding term.
2. The common ratio of GP may be positive, negative or imaginary.
ww

3. If common ratio of GP is equal to unity, then GP is known as Constant GP.


4. If common ratio of GP is imaginary or real, then GP is known as Imaginary
GP
5. Increasing and Decreasing GP
For a GP to be increasing or decreasing r > 0. If r < 0, terms of GP are
alternatively positive and negative and so neither increasing nor decreasing.

a a >0 a >0 a <0 a <0


r 0 < r <1 r >1 r >1 0 < r <1
Result Decreasing Increasing Decreasing Increasing

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22 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 26. (i) 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, ......


1 1
(ii) 9, 3, 1, , , .... (iii) 2, 6, 18, K .
3 9
1
(iv) 8, 4, 2, 1, , .... (v) 5, 10, 20, K
2
(vi) 5, 5, 5, 5,.....
(vii) 1, 1 + i , 2i, 2 + 2i , .... ; i = 1
Solution. (i) Here, a = 1
2 4 8 16
and r= = = = = .... = 2 ie, a = 1 and r = 2
1 2 4 8
Increasing GP (a > 0, r > 1)

m
(ii) Here, a = 9

.co
1 1
3 1 3 9 1 1
and r = = = = = ..... = ie, a = 9, r =
9 3 1 1 3 3ing
3
Decreasing GP (a > 0, 0 < r < 1)
(iii) Here, a = 2
ch

6 18
and r= = = .... = 3 ie, a = 2, r = 3
2 6
oa

Decreasing GP (a < 0, r > 1)


(iv) Here, a = 8
yC

1

4 2 1 1 1
and r= = = = 2 = .... = ie, a = 8, r =
8 4 2 1 2 2
kM

Increasing GP (a < 0, 0 < r < 1)


(v) Here, a = 5
10 20
and r= = = .... = 2 ie, a = 5, r = 2
pic

5 10
Neither increasing nor decreasing (r < 0)
(vi) Here, a = 5
w.

5 5 5
and r= = = = .... = 1 ie, a = 5, r = 1
5 5 5
ww

Constant GP (r = 1)
(vii) Here, a = 1
1+ i 2i 2 + 2i
and r= = = = ....
1 1+ i 2i
2i (1 i ) ( 1 + i ) i
= (1 + i ) = = = ....
(1 + i ) (1 i ) i2
= (1 + i ) = (i + 1) = (1 + i ) = K
ie, a = 1, r = 1 + i
Imaginary GP (r = imaginary)

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 23


22n 1
Illustration 27. Show that the sequence < tn > defined by tn = for
3
all values of n N is a GP. Also, find its common ratio.
22n 1
Solution. We have, tn =
3
Replacing n by n 1, we get
22n 3
tn 1 =
3
22n 1
tn
= 3 = 22 = 4
tn 1 22n 3
3

m
tn
Clearly, is independent of n and is equal to 4. So, the given sequence is
tn 1

.co
a GP with common ratio 4.

Illustration 28. Show that the sequence < tn > defined by tn = 2 3n + 1 is


ing
not a GP.
Solution. We have
tn = 2 3n + 1
ch

Replacing n by (n 1) in t n
tn 1 = 2 3n 1 + 1
(2 3n + 3)
oa

tn 1 =
3
tn (2 3n + 1) 3 (2 3n + 1)
= =
yC

tn 1 (2 3n + 3) (2 3n + 3)
3
tn
Clearly, is not independent of n and is therefore not constant. So, the
kM

tn 1
given sequence is not a GP.
pic

General Term of a GP
Let a be the first term, r be the common ratio and l be the last term of a GP
having n terms. Then GP can be written as
w.

l l
a , ar , ar 2 , ..... , 2 , , l
r r
ww

(i) nth Term of a GP from Beginning


1st term from beginning = t1 = a = ar1 1
2nd term from beginning = t2 = ar = ar 2 1
3rd term from beginning = t3 = ar 2 = ar3 1
.......................................................................
.......................................................................
nth term from beginning = tn = ar n 1 , n N
Hence, nth term of a GP from beginning
= t n = ar n 1 = l (last term)

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24 | Algebra Part I

(ii) nth Term of a GP from End


l
1st term from end = t1 = l =
r1 1
l l
2nd term from end = t2 = = 2 1
r r
l l
3rd term from end = t3 = 2 = 3 1
r r
.......................................................................
.......................................................................
l
nth term from end = tn = n 1 , n N
r

m
Hence, nth term of a GP from end
l
= t n = n 1 = a (first term)

.co
r
Now, it is clear that ing
l
tk tk = ar k 1 k1
= a l or t k t k = a l 1 k n
r
ie, In a finite GP of n terms, the product of the k th term from the beginning
ch

and the k th term form the end is independent of k and equals the product of the
first and last terms.
oa

Points to Consider
yC

1. nth term is also called the general term.


2. If last term of GP be tn and CR is r, then terms of GP from end are
kM

t t
tn , n , n2 , K
r r
3. If in a GP, the terms are alternatively positive and negative, then its common
pic

ratio is always negative.


4. If a and l represent first and last term of a GP respectively, then common ratio
1
l n 1
w.

of GP = r =
a
5. If tn, tn + 1 , t n + 2 are three consecutive terms of a GP; then
ww

tn + 1 tn + 2
= tn2 + 1 = t n t n + 2.
tn tn + 1
In particular, if a , b, c are in GP, then
b c
= b2 = ac
a b
b2 c2
On squaring, =
a 2 b2
Hence, a 2, b2, c2 are also in GP.

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 25


Illustration 29. If first term of a GP is a, third term is b and (n + 1)th
term is c. The (2n + 1)th term of a GP is
b bc c2
(a) c (b) (c) abc (d)
a a a
Solution. Let common ratio = r
b
b = ar 2 r =
a
c
Also, c = ar n r n =
a
2
c c2
t 2n + 1 = ar 2n = a (r n )2 = a =
a a

m
Hence, (d) is the correct answer.

.co
Illustration 30. The (m + n )th and (m n )th terms of a GP are p and q
respectively. Then the mth term of the GP is
m
q 2n
ing
p
(a) p (b) pq (c) (d) None of these
p q
Solution. Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio, then
ch

tm + n = p arm + n 1 = p (i)
m n 1
tm n = q ar =q (ii)
oa

From Eqs. (i) and (ii),


arm + n 1 arm n 1 = p q a 2r 2m 2 = pq
yC

arm 1 = pq tm = pq
Hence, (b) is the correct answer.
kM

Illustration 31. If sin , 2 (sin + 1), 6 sin + 6 are in GP, then the fifth
term is
(a) 81 (b) 81 2 (c) 162 (d) 162 2
pic

Solution. [ 2 (sin + 1)] = sin (6 sin + 6)


2

(sin + 1) [2 (sin + 1) 6 sin ] = 0


w.

1
We get sin = 1, (sin = 1 is not possible)
2
ww

1
sin =
2
1
then first term = a = sin =
2
1
2 + 1
2
and common ratio = r = =3 2
1

2
1
t5 = ar = (3 2 )4 = 162
4
2
Hence, (c) is the correct answer.

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26 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 32. The 1025th term in the sequence 1, 22, 4444, 88888888,
.....,. is
(a) 29 (b) 210 (c) 211 (d) 212
Solution. The number of digits in each term of the sequence are 1, 2, 4, 8,
.... which are in GP. Let 1025th term is 2n.
Then, 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + .... + 2n 1 < 1025 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + .... + 2n
(2 1) (1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + K + 2n 1 )
< 1025
(2 1)
(2 1) (1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + .... + 2n )

(2 1)
2n 1 < 1025 2n + 1 1

m
2n < 1026 2n + 1 (i)
or 2n + 1 1026 > 1024

.co
2n + 1 > 210 n + 1 > 10
n >9
n = 10 [which is always satisfy Eq. (i)]
ing
Hence, (b) is the correct answer.

Illustration 33. If a , b, c are real numbers such that


ch

3 (a 2 + b2 + c2 + 1) = 2 (a + b + c + ab + bc + ca ); then a , b, c are in
(a) AP only (b) GP only (c) GP and AP (d) None of these
oa

Solution. Given, 3 (a 2 + b2 + c2 + 1) = 2 (a + b + c + ab + bc + ca )
2 (a 2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca ) + (a 2 + b2 + c2 2a 2b 2c + 3)
yC

{(a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a )2} + {(a 1)2 + (b 1)2 + (c 1)2} = 0


a b = b c = c a = 0 and a 1 = b 1 = c 1 = 0
a = b = c=1
kM

a , b, c are in GP and AP.


Hence, (c) is the correct answer.
pic

Introductory Exercise 1.4


w.

Only One Correct Option


1. The fourth, seventh and the last term of a GP are 10, 80 and 2560 respectively.
ww

Then, the first term and number of terms in GP are


4 4 5 5
(a) , 12 (b) , 10 (c) , 12 (d) , 10
5 5 4 4
2. If the first and the nth terms of a GP are a and b respectively and if P is the
product of the first n terms, then P 2 is equal to
(a) ab (b) (ab)n / 2 (c) (ab)n (d) None of these
3. If a1 , a 2, a3 , (a1 > 0) are three successive terms of a GP with common ratio r, the
value of r for which a3 > 4a 2 3a1 holds is given by
(a) 1 < r < 3 (b) 3 < r < 1 (c) r < 1 or r > 3 (d) None of these
4. If x, 2x + 2, 3x + 3 are in GP, then the fourth term is
(a) 27 (b) 27 (c) 13.5 (d) 13.5

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 27


5. In a sequence of 21 terms the first 11 terms are in AP with common difference 2
and the last 11 terms are in GP with common ratio 2, if the middle term of the AP
is equal to the middle term of GP, then the middle term of the entire sequence is
10 10 32 32
(a) (b) (c) (d)
31 31 31 31
6. Three distinct numbers x, y, z form a GP in that order and the numbers
7x + 5 y, 7 y + 5z, 7z + 5x form an AP in that order. The common ratio of GP is
(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 10 (d) 18

Sum of a Stated Number of Terms of a Geometric Series


The game of chess was invented by Grand Vizier Sissa Ben Dhair for the

m
Indian king Shirham. Pleased with the game, the king asked the Vizier what he
would like as reward. The Vizier asked for one grain of wheat to be placed on the

.co
first square of the chess, two grains on the second, four grains on the third and so
on (each time doubling the number of grains). The king was surprised of the
request and told the vizier that he was fool to ask for so little.
ing
The inventor of chess was no fool. He told the king What I have asked for is
more wheat that you have in the entire kingdom, in fact it is more than there is
in the whole word He was right. There are 64 squares on a chess board and on
the nth square he was asking for 2n 1 grains, if you add the numbers
ch

ie, S = 1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + .... + 262 + 263 (i)


oa

Multiplying both sides by 2, then


2S = 2 + 22 + 23 + 24 + .... + 263 + 264 (ii)
yC

Subtracting Eq. (i) from Eq. (ii), we get


S = 264 1 = 18, 446, 744, 073, 709, 551, 615 grains that is represent more
wheat that has been produced on the earth.
kM

Sum of n Terms of a GP
pic

Let a be the first term, r be the common ratio, l be the last term of a GP
having n terms and S n the sum of n terms, then
l l
S n = a + ar + ar 2 + .... + 2 + + l (i)
w.

r r
Multiplying both sides by r (the common ratio)
ww

l
r S n = ar + ar 2 + ar3 + K + + l + lr (ii)
r
Subtracting Eq. (ii) from Eq. (i), we have
S n r S n = a lr or S n (1 r ) = a lr
a lr
Sn = when r < 1
1 r
lr a
Sn = when r > 1
r1
Now, l = tn = ar n 1

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28 | Algebra Part I

Then, above formula can be written as


a (1 r n ) a (r n 1)
Sn = when r < 1, S n = when r > 1
(1 r ) (r 1)
If r = 1, the above formulae cannot be used. But then the GP reduces to
a , a , a , ....
S n = a + a + a + K n times = na

Sum to Infinity of a GP, when the Numerical Value of the Common


Ratio is Less than Unity ie, It is a Proper Fraction
If a be the first term, r the common ratio of a GP, then

m
a (1 r n ) a ar n
Sn = =
(1 r ) (1 r ) (1 r )

.co
Let 1 < r < 1 ie,|r|< 1, then lim r n 0
n

Let S denote the sum to infinity of the GP, then


ing
a
S = ,
(1 r )
ch

where 1 < r < 1

Recurring Decimal
oa

Recurring decimal is a very good example of an infinite geometric series and


its value can be obtained by means of infinite geometric series as follows
yC


0.3 2 7 = 0.327272727...... to infinity
kM

= 0.3 + 0.027 + 0.00027 + 0.0000027 + K to infinity


3 27 27 27
= + + + + .... to infinity
10 103 105 107
pic

3 27 1 1
= + 3 1 + 2 + 4 + K to infinity
10 10 10 10

w.

3 27 1 3 27 297 + 27 324
= + 3 = + = = (rational number)
10 10 1 1 10 990 990 990
ww

102
Aliter (Best method)
Let P denote the figure which do not recur and suppose them p in number, Q
denote the recurring period consisting of q figures. Let R denote the value of the
recurring decimal.
Then, R = 0 PQQQ .....
10 p R = P QQQ .... and 10 p + q R = PQ QQQ ....
Therefore, by subtraction
PQ P
R=
(10 p + q 10 p )

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 29


Corollary 1. If R = 0 QQQ ....
Q
Then, R = q (when Q denote the recurring period consisting of q figures)
10 1
3 1
eg, If R = 0. 3, then R = =
10 1 1
3
Corollary 2. The value of recurring decimal is always rational number.


Illustration 34. Find the value of 0.32 5 8.

Solution. Let R = 0.32 5 8
R = 0.3258585858 .... (i)

m
Here, number of figures which are not recurring is 2 and number of figures
which are recurring is also 2.

.co
Then, 100R = 32.58585858 .... (ii)
and 10000R = 3258.58585858
ing (iii)
Subtracting Eq. (ii) from Eq. (iii), we get
9900R = 3226
3226
R=
ch

9900
1613
Hence, R=
4950
oa

Shortcut Methods for Recurring Decimals


yC

(i) The numerator of the vulgar fraction is obtained by subtracting the


non-recurring figure from the given figure.
(ii) The denominator consists of as many 9s as there are recurring figure
kM

and as many zero as there are non-recurring figure.


For Example :
3654 36 3618
(i) 0.36 5 4 = =
pic

9900 9900
327 3 1314
(ii) 1.3 2 7 = 1 + 0.3 2 7 = 1 + =
990 990
w.

3 0 1
(iii) 0. 3 = =
9 3
ww

Illustration 35. Find the sum up to n terms of the series


a + aa + aaa + aaaa + K a N and 1 a 9
Solution. Let
S = a + aa + aaa + aaaa + .... to n terms
= a (1 + 11 + 111 + 1111 + .... to n terms)
a
= (9 + 99 + 999 + 9999 + K to n terms)
9
a
= {(101 1) + (102 1) + (103 1) + (104 1) + .....to n terms}
9

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30 | Algebra Part I

a
= {(10 + 102 + 103 + K to n terms) (1 + 1 + 1 + ... n times)}
9
a 10 (10n 1) a 10
= n = (10n 1) n (Remember)
9 10 1 9 9
In Particular.
(i) For a = 1
1 10
1 + 11 + 111 + .... = (10 1) n
n
9 9
(ii) For a = 2
2 10
2 + 22 + 222 + .... = (10 1)
n
n

m
99

.co
(iii) For a = 3
3 10
3 + 33 + 333 + .... = (10 1)
n
n
99
ing
(iv) For a = 4
4 10
4 + 44 + 444 + .... = (10 1) n
n
ch

99
(v) For a = 5
oa

5 10
5 + 55 + 555 + .... = (10 1)
n
n
99
yC

(vi) For a = 6
6 10
6 + 66 + 666 + .... = (10 1) n
n
kM

9 9
(vii) For a = 7
7 10
pic

7 + 77 + 777 + .... = (10 1) n


n
99
(viii) For a = 8
w.

8 10
8 + 88 + 888 + .... = (10 1) n
n
99
ww

(ix) For a = 9
9 10
9 + 99 + 999 + .... = (10 1)
n
n
99

Illustration 36. Find the sum up to n terms of the series


0. b + 0. bb + 0. bbb + 0. bbbb + .... b N and 1 b 9.
Solution. Let S = 0. b + 0. bb + 0. bbb + 0. bbbb + .... to n terms
= b (0.1 + 0.11 + 0.111 + 0.1111 + K to n terms)

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 31


b
= (0.9 + 0.99 + 0.999 + 0.9999 + .... to n terms)
9
b
= {(1 0.1) + (1 0.01) + (1 0.001) + (1 0.0001) + .... to n terms}
9
b
= {(1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + .... n times) (0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + 0.0001 + .... to n terms)}
9
b 1 1 1 1
= n + + + + .... to n terms
9 10 102 103 104

1 1
n
1
b 10 10 b 1 1
n
= n = n 1 (Remember)

m
1 10
9 1 9 9
10

.co
In Particular.
(i) For b = 1
ing
1 1 1
n
. + 011
01 . + 0111
. + .... = n 1
9 9 10

ch

(ii) For b = 2
oa

2 1 1
n
0.2 + 0.22 + 0.222 + .... = n 1
9 9 10

yC

(iii) For b = 3
3 1 1
n
0.3 + 0.33 + 0.333 + .... =
kM

n 1
9 9 10

(iv) For b = 4
pic

4 1 1
n
0.4 + 0.44 + 0.444 + .... = n 1
9 9 10

w.

(v) For b = 5
5 1 1
n
ww

0.5 + 0.55 + 0.555 + .... = n 1


9 9 10

(vi) For b = 6
6 1 1
n
0.6 + 0.66 + 0.666 + .... = n 1
9 9 10

(vii) For b = 7
7 1 1
n
0.7 + 0.77 + 0.777 + .... = n 1
9 9 10

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32 | Algebra Part I

(viii) For b = 8
8 1 1
n
0.8 + 0.88 + 0.888 + .... = n 1
9 9 10

(ix) For b = 9
9 1 1
n
0.9 + 0.99 + 0.999 + .... = n 1
9 9 10

Illustration 37. If N , the set of natural numbers is partitioned into


groups S1 = {1}, S 2 = {2, 3}, S3 = {4, 5, 6, 7}, S 4 = {8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15}, .... ,
then find the sum of the numbers in S50.

m
Solution. The number of terms in the groups are 1, 2, 22, 23 , ....
The number of terms in the 50th group = 250 1 = 249

.co
Q The first term of 1st group = 1 = 20 = 21 1
The first term of 2nd group = 2 = 21 = 22 1
The first term of 3rd group = 4 = 22 = 23 1
ing
.......................................................................
.......................................................................
The first term of 50th group = 250 1 = 249
ch

249
S50 = {2 249 + (249 1) 1}
2
oa

= 248 (250 + 249 1) = 248 [249 (2 + 1) 1] = 248 (3 249 1)

1 1 1
yC

Illustration 38. If S n = 1 + + + .... + n 1 ; calculate the least value of


2 22 2
1
n such that 2 S n < .
100
kM

Solution. Given,
1
n
1 1
2
S n = 1 + + 2 + .... + n 1 =
1 1 1
pic

2 2 2 1
1
2
1 1 1 1
w.

S n = 2 n 1 2 S n = n 1 < Q 2 S n <
2 2 100 100
2n 1 > 100 > 26 2n 1 > 26
ww

n 1 >6 n > 7
Hence, least value of n is 8.

Illustration 39. If x = 1 + a + a 2 + a3 + .... and


y = 1 + b + b2 + b3 + .... show that
xy
1 + ab + a 2b2 + a3 b3 + .... = , where 0 < a < 1 and 0 < b < 1.
x+ y1
1
Solution. Given, x = 1 + a + a 2 + a3 + .... =
1a
x ax = 1

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 33


x 1
a= (i)
x
and y = 1 + b + b2 + b3 + ....
y 1
Similarly, b= (ii)
y
Since, 0 < a < 1, 0 < b < 1
0 < ab < 1
1
Now, 1 + ab + a 2b2 + a3 b3 + .... =
1 ab
1
= [from Eqs. (i) and (ii)]
x 1 y 1
1
x y

m
xy
=
xy xy + x + y 1

.co
xy
Hence, 1 + ab + a 2b2 + a3 b3 + .... =
x+ y1 ing
Properties of Geometric Progression
1. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in GP with common ratio r, then
ch

a a a
a1k, a2k, a3 k, .... and 1 , 2 , 3 , ..... are also in GP ( k 0) with common
k k k
oa

ratio r.
2. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in GP with common ratio r , then
yC

a1 k, a2 k, a3 k, .... are not in GP ( k 0)


3. If a1 , a2 , a3 , ..... are in GP with common ratio r, then
1 1 1 1
kM

(i) , , , .... are also in GP with common ratio .


a1 a2 a3 r
(ii) a1n , a2n , a3n , .... are also in GP with common ratio r n and n Q.
pic

(iii) log a1 , log a2 , log a3 , .... are in AP (ai > 0 i )


In this case the converse also holds good.
w.

4. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... and b1 , b2 , b3 , .... are two GPs with common ratios r1 and r2
respectively. Then
a a a
ww

(i) a1b1 , a2b2 , a3 b3 , .... and 1 , 2 , 3 , K are also in GP with common


b1 b2 b3
r1
ratios r1r2 and respectively.
r2
(ii) a1 b1 , a 2 b2 , a3 b3 , ..... are not in GP.
5. If a1 , a2 , a3 , ..... , an 2 , an 1 , an are in GP. Then,
(i) a1an = a2an 1 = a3 an 2 = K
(ii) ar = ar k ar + k k, 0 k n r
a a a an
(iii) 2 = 3 = 4 = .... =
a1 a2 a3 an 1

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34 | Algebra Part I

a22 = a3 a1 , a32 = a2a4 , ....


Also, a2 = a1r , a3 = a1r 2 ,
a4 = a1r3 , .... , an = a1r n 1
where r is the common ratio of GP.
a
6. If three numbers in GP whose product is given are to be taken as , a, ar
r
and if five numbers in GP whose product is given are to be taken as
a a
, , a , ar , ar 2 etc.
r2 r
In general. If ( 2m + 1) numbers in GP whose product is given are to be

m
taken as ( m N )

.co
a a a
m
, m 1 , ..... , , a , ar , .... , ar m 1 , ar m
r r r
ing
Points to Consider
1. Product of three numbers = a3
ch

Product of five numbers = a5


....................................................
Product of (2m + 1) numbers = a 2m + 1
oa

2. From given conditions, find two equations in a and r and then solve them. Now,
the numbers in GP can be obtained.
yC

7. If four numbers in GP whose product is given are to be taken as


a a
, , ar , ar3 and if six numbers in GP whose product is given are to be
kM

r3 r
a a a
taken as 5 , 3 , , ar , ar3 , ar5 etc.
r r r
pic

In general. If ( 2m ) numbers in GP whose product is given are to be


taken as ( m N )
a a a a
, 2m 3 ,.... , 3 , , ar , ar 3 , ..... , ar 2m 3 , ar 2m 1
w.

2m 1
r r r r
ww

Points to Consider
1. Product of four numbers = a 4
Product of six numbers = a 6
.....................................................
Product of (2m) numbers = a 2m
2. From given conditions, find two equations in a and r, and then solve them. Now,
the numbers in GP can be obtained.

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 35


Illustration 40. If S1 , S 2, S3 , .... , S p are the sum of infinite geometric
series whose first terms are 1, 2, 3, ...., p and whose common ratios are
1 1 1 1
, , , .... , respectively, prove that
2 3 4 p+1
p ( p + 3)
S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p =
2
p
Solution. Q S p = = ( p + 1)
1
1
p+1
S1 = 2, S 2 = 3, S3 = 4, ....
LHS = S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p
p p ( p + 3)

m
= 2 + 3 + 4 + ..... + ( p + 1) = (2 + p + 1) = = RHS
2 2

.co
Illustration 41. Let x1 and x2 be the roots of the equation x2 3x + A = 0
and let x3 and x4 be the roots of the equation x2 12x + B = 0. It is known
ing
that the numbers x1 , x2, x3 , x4 (in that order) form an increasing GP. Find A
and B.
Solution. Q x1 , x2, x3 , x4 are in GP.
ch

Let x2 = x1r , x3 = x1 r 2, x4 = x1 r3
(Here, product of x1 , x2, x3 , x4 are not given)
Given, x1 + x2 = 3, x1x2 = A
oa

x1 (1 + r ) = 3, x12r = A (i)
and x3 + x4 = 12, x3 x4 = B
yC

x1r 2 (1 + r ) = 12, x12r5 = B (ii)


From Eqs. (i) and (ii)
r2 = 4 r = 2 (for increasing GP)
kM

From Eq. (i), x1 = 1


Now, A = x12r = 12 2 = 2 [from Eq. (i)]
and B = x12r5 = 12 25 = 32 [from Eq. (ii)]
pic

Illustration 42. Suppose a , b, c are in AP and a 2, b2, c2 are in GP, if


3
w.

a > b > c and a + b + c = , then find the values of a and c.


2
Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP and sum of a , b, c is given.
ww

Let a = b D, c = b + D (D < 0) (Q a > b > c)


3
and given a + b+ c=
2
3
bD+ b+ b+ D=
2
1
b=
2
1 1
Then, a = D and c = + D
2 2
Also, given a 2, b2, c2 are in GP, then
(b2)2 = a 2c2

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36 | Algebra Part I

b2 = ac
1 1 1 1 1
= D2 D2 = = (Q D 0)
4 4 4 4 2
1
D=
2
1
D= (Q D < 0)
2
1 1 1 1
a= + and c =
2 2 2 2

Illustration 43. If the continued product of three numbers in GP is 216


and the sum of their products in pairs is 156, then find the sum of three

m
numbers.
Solution. Here, product of numbers in GP is given.

.co
a
Let the three numbers be , a , ar.
r
a
a ar = 216 a3 = 216
Then,
ing
r
a =6
Sum of the products in pairs = 156
ch

a a
a + a ar + ar = 156
r r
oa

1
a 2 + r + 1 = 156
r
1 + r2 + r
yC

36 = 156
r
1 + r + r 2
3 = 13
kM

r
3r 2 10r + 3 = 0
1
pic

(3r 1) (r 3) = 0 r = or r = 3
3
Putting the values of a and r, the required numbers are 18, 6, 2 or 2, 6, 18.
w.

Hence, the sum of numbers is 26.


ww

Illustration 44. Find a three digit number whose consecutive digits form
a GP. If we subtract 792 from this number, we get a number consisting of
the same digits written in the reverse order. Now, if we increase the second
digit of the required number by 2, the resulting digits will form an AP.
Solution. Let the three digits be a , ar , ar 2, then according to hypothesis
100a + 10ar + ar 2 792 = 100ar 2 + 10ar + a
99a (1 r 2) = 792
a (1 + r ) (1 r ) = 8 (i)
and a , ar + 2, ar 2 are in AP.
Then, 2 (ar + 2) = a + ar 2
a (r 2r + 1) = 4 a (r 1)2 = 4
2
(ii)

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 37


Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get
r+1 1
= 2 r =
r 1 3
From Eq. (ii), a = 9
Thus, digits are 9, 3, 1 and so the required number is 931.

Examples on Application of Progression in Geometrical Figures


Illustration 45. A square is drawn by joining the mid-points of the sides
of a given square. A third square is drawn inside the second square in the
same way and this process continues indefinitely. If a side of the first
square is 16 cm, determine the sum of the areas of all the squares.

m
Solution. Let a be the side length of square, then
D G
C

.co
K O J
T S
ing
H P N F

Q R
ch

L M I

A E B
oa

AB = BC = CD = DA = a
QE , F , G , H are the mid-points of AB, BC , CD and DA respectively.
yC

a
EF = FG = GH = HE =
2
and I , J , K , L are the mid-points of EF , FG , GH , HE respectively.
kM

a
IJ = JK = KL = LI =
2
a
Similarly, MN = NO = OP = PM =
2 2
pic

a
and QR = RS = ST = TQ = , ....
4
S = sum of areas
w.

= ABCD + EFGH + IJKL + MNOP + QRST + ....


2 2 2
a a a
= a2 + + + + ....
ww

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1
= a 1 + + + + .... = a
2 2

2 4 8 1 1
2
= 2a 2 = 2 (16)2 (Q a = 16 cm)
= 512 sq cm

Illustration 46. One side of an equilateral triangle is 24 cm. The


mid-points of its sides are joined to form another triangle whose mid-points,
in turn, are joined to form still another triangle. This process continues,
indefinitely. Find the sum of the perimeters of all the triangles.

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38 | Algebra Part I

Solution. Let a be the side length of equilateral A


triangle, then
AB = BC = CA = a
Q D , E , F are the mid-points of BC , CA and AB
F H E
respectively.
a M L
EF = FD = DE =
2 I J
K
and H , I , J are the mid-points of EF , FD and DE
respectively. B C
a D
IJ = JH = HI =
4
a
Similarly, KL = ML = KM = , ....
8

m

a a a a
P = sum of perimeters = 3 a + + + + K = 3 = 6a

.co
2 4 8 1 1
2
= 6 24 (Q a = 24 cm)
= 144 cm
ing
Illustration 47. Let S1 , S 2, .... be squares such that for each n 1, the
ch

length of a side of S n equals the length of a diagonal of S n + 1. If the length of


a side of S1 is 10 cm and the area of S n less than 1 sq cm. Then find the
value of n.
oa

Solution. We have, length of a side of S n = length of diagonal of S n + 1


Length of a side of S n = 2 (length of a side of S n + 1)
yC

length of a side of S n + 1 1
= for all n 1
length of a side of S n 2
1
Sides of S1 , S 2, S3 , .... form a GP with common ratio and first term 10.
kM

2
n 1
1 10
Side of S n = 10 =
2 ( n 1)
pic

2 2
100
Area of S n = (side)2 =
2n 1
w.

Now, given area of S n < 1


100
< 1 2n 1 > 100 > 26 2n 1 > 26 n 1 > 6
2n 1
ww

n > 7 or n 8
y
Illustration 48. The line x + y = 1 meets
B
x-axis at A and y-axis at B, P is the mid-point
of AB, P1 is the foot of perpendicular from P to
OA, M1 is that of P1 from OP; P2 is that of M1
P
from OA, M 2 is that of P2 from OP; P3 is that of
M1
M 2 from OA and so on. If Pn denotes the nth
M2
foot of the perpendicular on OA, then find OPn.
x
O P3 P2 P1 A

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 39


Solution. We have,
(OM n 1 )2 = (OPn )2 + (PnM n 1 )2
= (OPn )2 + (OPn )2 = 2 (OPn )2
= 2 2n (say)
Also, (OPn 1 ) = (OM n 1 )2 + (Pn 1M n 1 )2
2

1
2n 1 = 2 2n + n2 1
2
1 2 1
n = n 1 n = n 1
2
4 2
1 1 1
OPn = n = n 1 = 2 n 2 = .... = n
2 2 2
n
1

m
OPn =
2

.co
Use of GP in Solving Practical Problems
In this part, we shall see how the formulae relating to GP can be made use of
in solving practical problems.
ing
Illustration 49. Dipesh writes letters to four of his friends. He asks each
of them to copy the letter and mail to four different persons with the request
ch

that they continue the chain similarly. Assuming that the chain is not
broken and that it costs 25 paise to mail one letter, find the total money
oa

spent on postage till the 8th set of letters is mailed.


Solution. No. of letters in the 1st set = 4 (These are letters sent by Dipesh)
No. of letters in the 2nd set = 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 16
yC

No. of letters in the 3rd set = 4 + 4 + 4 + .... 16 terms = 64


..................................................................................................
kM

The number of letters sent in the 1st set, 2nd set, 3rd set, ..... are
16 64
respectively 4, 16, 64, ....... which is a GP with a = 4, r = = =4
4 16
4 (48 1)
pic

Total number of letters in all the first 8 sets = = 87380


4 1
25
Total money spent on letters = 87380 = ` 21845
w.

100
ww

Illustration 50. An insect starts from a point and travels in a straight


path 1 mm in the first second and half of the distance covered in the
previous second in the succeeding second. In how much time would it reach
a point 3 mm away from its starting point.
Solution. Distance covered by the insect in the 1st second = 1 mm
1 1
Distance covered by it in the 2nd second = 1 = mm
2 2
1 1 1
Distance covered by it in the 3rd second = = mm
2 2 4
..................................................................................................

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40 | Algebra Part I

The distance covered by the insect in 1st second, 2nd second, 3rd second, ....
1 1 1
are respectively 1, , , .... , which are in GP with a = 1, r = . Let time
2 4 2
taken by the insect in covering 3 mm be n seconds.
1 1
1 + + + .... n terms = 3
2 4
1
n
1 1
2
=3
1
1
2
n
1 3
1 =
2

m
2
n
1 1

.co
= or 2 = 2
n
2 2
which is impossible because 2n > 0 ing
Our supposition is wrong.
There is no n N , for which the insect could never 3 mm in n seconds.
It will never to able to cover 3 mm.
ch

Remark. The maximum distance that the insect could cover is 2 mm.
1 1 1
ie, 1 + + + .... = =2
oa

2 4 1
1
2
yC

Illustration 51. The pollution in a normal atmosphere is less than 0.01%.


Due to leakage of a gas from a factory the pollution is increased to 20%.
If every day 80% of the pollution is neutralised, in how many days the
kM

atmosphere will be normal?


Solution. Let the pollution on 1st day = 20
The pollution on 2nd day = 20 20% = 20 (0.20)
pic

The pollution on 3rd day = 20 (0.20)2


...........................................................................
Let in n days the atmosphere will be normal
w.

20 (0.20)n 1 < 0.01


n 1
2
ww

1
<
10 2000
Taking logarithm on base 10 we get
(n 1) (log 2 log 10) < log 1 log 2000
(n 1) (0.3010 1) < 0 (0.3010 + 3)
3.3010
n 1 > n > 5.722
0.6990
Hence, the atmosphere will be normal in 6 days.

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 41

Introductory Exercise 1.5


Only One Correct Option
1. The sum to n terms of the series 11 + 103 + 1005 + ..... is
1 1
(a) (10n 1) + n 2 (b) (10n 1) + 2n
9 9
10 10
(c) (10 1) + n
n 2
(d) (10n 1) + 2n
9 9
2. In an increasing GP, the sum of the first and last term is 66, the product of the
second and the last but one is 128 and the sum of the sum of the terms is 126,
Then the number of terms in the series is
(a) 6 (b) 8 (c) 10 (d) 12

m
3. If S1 , S 2, S3 be respectively the sum of n , 2n and 3n terms of a GP, then
S1 (S3 S 2)

.co
is equal to
(S 2 S1 )2
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
ing
4. If |a |< 1 and | b| < 1, then the sum of the series
1 + (1 + a )b + (1 + a + a 2) b2 + (1 + a + a 2 + a3 ) b3 + .... is
1 1
(a) (b)
ch

(1 a ) (1 b) (1 a ) (1 ab)
1 1
(c) (d)
(1 b) (1 ab) (1 a ) (1 b) (1 ab)
oa

5. If the sides of a triangle are in GP and its larger angle is twice the smallest,
then the common ratio r satisfies the inequality
yC

(a) 0 < r < 2 (b) 1 < r < 2 (c) 1 < r < 2 (d) r > 2
6. If ax3 + bx2 + cx + d is divisible by ax2 + c, then a , b, c, d are in
kM

(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these


7. If (r )n denotes the number r r r .... (n digits), where r = 1, 2, 3, ... , 9 and a = (6)n ,
b = (8)n, c = (4)2n, then
pic

(a) a 2 + b + c = 0 (b) a 2 + b c = 0 (c) a 2 + b 2c = 0 (d) a 2 + b 9c = 0



8. 0.4 2 7 represents the rational number
47 47 47 49
w.

(a) (b) (c) (d)


99 110 999 99
9. If the product of three numbers in GP be 216 and their sum is 19, then the
ww

numbers are
(a) 4, 6, 9 (b) 4, 7, 8 (c) 3, 7, 9 (d) None of these
10. A particle begins at the origin and moves 1 unit to the right and reaches P1 ,
1 1 1
unit to the up and reaches P2, unit to the right and reaches P3 , unit to the
2 4 8
1
down and reaches P4 , unit to the right and reaches P5 and so on. If
16
Pn = (xn , yn ), then lim Pn is
n

4 2 2
(a) (2, 3) (b) , (c) , 1 (d) None of these
3 5 5

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42 | Algebra Part I

Harmonic Sequence or Harmonic Progression (HP)


A Harmonic Progression (HP) is a sequence if the reciprocals of its terms are
in Arithmetic Progression (AP)
1 1 1
t1 , t2 , t3 , .... is a HP if and only if , , , .... is an AP.
t1 t2 t3
Fro example, the sequence
1 1 1
(i) , , , ....
2 5 8
5 10
(ii) 2, , ,K
2 3

m
1 1 1
(iii) , , , .... are HPs.

.co
a a + d a + 2d

Points to Consider
ing
1. No term of HP can be zero.
2. The most general or standard HP is
ch

1 1 1 1
, , , , ....
a a + d a + 2d a + 3d
oa

ab a
Illustration 52. If a , b, c are in HP, show that = .
bc c
yC

Solution. Since, a , b, c are in HP, therefore


1 1 1 1 1 1 1
, , are in AP, ie, =
kM

a b c b a c b
ab bc ab a
or = or =
ab bc bc c
pic

Point to Consider
w.

A HP may also be defined as a series in which every three consecutive terms


I II I
(say I, II, III) satisfy = this relation.
II III III
ww

5
Illustration 53. Find the first term of a HP whose second term is and
4
1
the third term is .
2
5 1
Solution. Let a be the first term. Then a, , are in HP.
4 2
5
a
Then, 4 =a (from above note)
5 1 1

4 2 2

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 43


4a 5
= 2a
5 2
4a 5 = 6a or 2a = 5
5
a=
2

(i) nth Term of HP from Beginning


Let a be the first term, d be the common difference of an AP.
Then, nth term of an AP from beginning = a + ( n 1) d
1
Hence, the nth term of HP from beginning = n N
a + ( n 1) d

m
(ii) nth Term of HP from End

.co
Let l be the last term, d be the common difference of an AP. Then
nth term of an AP from end = l ( n 1) d
1
Hence, the nth term of HP from end = n N
l ( n 1) d
ing
Points to Consider
ch

1 1
1. +
nth term of HP from beginning nth term of HP from end
oa

1 1
=a + l= +
first term of HP last term of HP
yC

2. There is no general formula for the sum of any number of quantities in HP are
generally solved by inverting the terms and making use of the corresponding
AP.
kM

1 1 1 1
Illustration 54. If + + + = 0, prove that a , b, c are in HP,
a c a b cb
pic

unless b = a + c.
Solution. We have
1 1 1 1
+ + + =0
w.

a c a b cb
1 1 1 1
+ + + =0
ww

a c b c a b
(c b + a ) (a b + c)
+ =0
a (c b) c (a b)
1 1
(a + c b) + =0
a (c b) c (a b)
(a + c b) [2ac b (a + c)] = 0
2ac
If a + c b 0, then 2ac b (a + c) = 0 or b =
a+c
Therefore, a , b, c are in HP and if 2ac b (a + c) 0, then a + c b = 0, ie,
b = a + c.

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44 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 55. If a1 , a 2, a3 , ..... , a n are in HP, prove that


a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 + .... + a n 1a n = (n 1) a1a n
Solution. Given, a1 , a 2, a3 , ..... , a n are in HP.
1 1 1 1
, , , ...... , are in AP.
a1 a 2 a3 an
Let D be the common difference of the AP, then
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= = = .... = =D
a 2 a1 a3 a 2 a 4 a3 an an 1
a1 a 2 a 2 a3 a3 a 4 an 1 an
= = = .... = =D
a1a 2 a 2a3 a3 a 4 an 1 an
a a2 a a3 a a4
a1a 2 = 1 , a 2a3 = 2 , a3 a 4 = 3 ,

m
D D D
an 1 an
.... , a n 1a n =

.co
D
Adding all such expressions, we get
a1 a n a1a n 1 1
a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 + ..... + a n 1a n = =
a n a1
ing
D D
1
a1a n 1
= a + (n 1) D a = (n 1) a1a n
D 1 1
ch

Hence, a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 + .... + a n 1a n = (n 1) a1a n


oa

Points to Consider
In particular case
yC

1. When n = 4
a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 = 3a1a 4
2. When n = 6
kM

a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 + a 4 a5 + a5 a 6 = 5 a1 a 6

Illustration 56. The sum of three numbers in HP is 37 and the sum of


pic

1
their reciprocals is . Find the numbers.
4
Solution. Three numbers in HP can be taken as
1 1 1
w.

, ,
ad a a+d
1 1 1
ww

then + + = 37 (i)
ad a a+d
1
and ad+a+a+d=
4
1
a=
12
12 12
From Eq. (i), + 12 + = 37
1 12d 1 + 12d
12 12
+ = 25
1 12d 1 + 12d
24
= 25
1 144d 2

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 45


24 1
1 144d 2 = or d 2 =
25 25 144
1
d=
60
1 1 1 1 1 1
a d , a , a + d are , , or , ,
15 12 10 10 12 15
Hence, three numbers in HP are
15, 12, 10 or 10, 12, 15

Illustration 57. If pth, qth and rth terms of a HP be respectively a , b and


c, then prove that
(q r ) bc + (r p) ca + ( p q) ab = 0

m
Solution. Let A and D be the first term and common difference of the
corresponding AP. Now a , b, c are respectively the pth, qth and rth terms of

.co
HP.
1 1 1
, , will be respectively the pth, qth and rth terms of the
a b c
corresponding AP.
ing
1
= A + ( p 1) D (i)
a
ch

1
= A + (q 1) D (ii)
b
1
= A + (r 1) D
oa

(iii)
c
Subtracting Eq. (iii) from Eq. (ii), we get
(c b) (b c)
yC

1 1
= (q r ) D bc (q r ) = =
b c D D
So, LHS = (q r ) bc + (r p) ca + ( p q) ab
kM

1
= { b c + c a + a b} = 0 = RHS
D

Theorem Relating to the Three Series


pic

If a , b, c are three consecutive terms of a series, then


ab a
if = , then a , b, c are in AP.
b c a
w.

ab a
if = , then a , b, c are in GP.
b c b
ww

ab a
and if = , then a , b, c are in HP.
b c c

Mixed Examples on AP, GP and HP


Illustration 58. If a , b, c be in AP and a 2, b2, c2 be in HP. Prove that
a
, b, c are in GP or else a = b = c.
2
Solution. Given, a , b, c are in AP.
a+c
b= (i)
2

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46 | Algebra Part I

and a 2, b2, c2 are in HP.


2a 2c2
b2 = (ii)
a 2 + c2
From Eq. (ii), b2 {(a + c)2 2ac} = 2a 2c2
b2 {(2b)2 2ac} = 2a 2c2 [from Eq. (i)]
2b4 acb2 a 2c2 = 0
(2b2 + ac) (b2 ac) = 0
2b2 + ac = 0 or b2 ac = 0
1 a
If 2b2 + ac = 0, then b2 = ac or , b, c are in GP
2 2
and if b2 ac = 0 a , b, c are in GP.
But given, a , b, c are in AP.

m
Which is possible only when a = b = c

.co
Illustration 59. If a , b, c are in HP, b, c, d are in GP, and c, d , e are in AP,
show that ing
ab2
e=
(2a b)2
Solution. Given a , b, c are in HP.
ch

2ac ab
b= or c = (i)
a+c 2a b
oa

Given, b, c, d are in GP.


c2 = bd (ii)
yC

and given, c, d , e are in AP.


c+ e
d=
2
kM

e = 2d c
2c2
e= c [from Eq. (ii)] (iii)
b
pic

From Eqs. (i) and (iii),


2
2 ab ab
e=
w.

b 2a b 2a b
ab ab2
= {2a (2a b)} =
ww

(2a b) 2
(2a b)2

Illustration 60. If a , b, c, d , e be five real numbers such that a , b, c are in


AP; b, c, d are in GP; c, d , e are in HP. If a = 2 and e = 18, find all possible
values of b, c and d.
Solution. Given,
a , b, c are in AP.
a+c
b= (i)
2
b, c, d are in GP.
c2 = bd (ii)

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 47


and c, d , e are in HP.
2ce
d= (iii)
c+ e
Now, substituting the values of b and d in Eq. (ii), then
a + c 2ce
c2 =
2 c + e
c (c + e) = e (a + c)
c2 = ae (iv)
Given, a = 2, e = 18
From Eq. (iv), c2 = (2) (18) = 36
c=6

m
26
From Eq. (i), b= = 4, 2
2

.co
c2 36 36 36
and from Eq. (ii), d= = = or
b b 4 2
d = 9 or 18
ing
Hence, c = 6, b = 4, d = 9 or c = 6, b = 2, d = 18
ch

Illustration 61. If three positive numbers a , b, c are in AP, GP and HP as


well, then find their values.
Solution. Since a , b, c are in AP, GP and HP as well
oa

a+c
b= (i)
2
yC

b2 = ac (ii)
2ac
and b= (iii)
a+c
kM

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we have


2
a + c
= ac
pic

2
or (a + c)2 = 4ac
(a + c)2 4ac = 0
w.

or
or (a c)2 = 0
ww

a=c (iv)
a+a
Putting c = a in Eq. (i), we get b = =a (v)
2
From Eqs. (iv) and (v), a = b = c, thus the three numbers will be equal.

Point to Consider
If three positive numbers are in any two of AP, GP and HP, then it will be also
in third.
Thus, if three positive numbers are in any two of AP, GP and HP, then they will
be in the third progression and the numbers will be equal.

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48 | Algebra Part I

Introductory Exercise 1.6


Only One Correct Option
1. If a , b, c are in AP and b, c, d be in HP, then
(a) ab = cd (b) ad = bc (c) ac = bd (d) abcd = 1
a 1 2
2. If a , b, c are in AP, then , , are in
bc c b
(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these
3. If a , b, c are in AP and a , b, d are in GP, then a , a b, d c will be in
(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these
4. If x, 1, z are in AP and x, 2, z are in GP, then x, 4, z will be in

m
(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these
5. If a , b, c are in GP, a b, c a , b c are in HP, then a + 4b + c is equal to

.co
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) None of these
6. If (m + 1)th , (n + 1)th and (r + 1)th terms of an AP are in GP and m, n , r are in
HP, then the value of the ratio of the common difference to the first term of the
ing
AP is
2 2 n n
(a) (b) (c) (d)
n n 2 2
ch

7. If a , b, c are in AP and a 2, b2, c2 are in HP, then


ac
(a) a = b = c (b) 2b = 3a + c (c) b2 = (d) None of these
8
oa

a b c
8. If a , b, c are in HP, then , , are in
b+ c c+ a a + b
yC

(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these


x+ y y+ z
9. If , y, are in HP, then x, y, z are in
kM

2 2
(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these
a+b b+ c 1
10. If , b, are in AP, then a , , c are in
pic

1 ab 1 bc b
(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these
w.

Means
ww

1. Arithmetic Mean
If three terms are in AP, then the middle term is called the Arithmetic
Mean (or shortly written as AM) between the other two, so, if a , b, c are in AP,
then b is the AM of a and c.

(i) Single AM of n Positive Numbers


Let n positive numbers be a1 , a2 , a3 , .... , an and A be the AM of these
numbers, then
a + a2 + a3 + .... + an
A= 1
n

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 49


In particular. Let a and b be two given numbers and A be the AM between
them, then a , A, b are in AP.
a+b
A=
2

Points to Consider
2a + 3b + 5c
1. AM of 2a , 3b, 5c is .
3
a1 + a 2 + a3 + .... + a n 1 + 2a n
2. AM of a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a n 1 , 2a n is .
n

m
(ii) Insert n-Arithmetic Means Between Two Numbers
Let a and b be two given numbers and A1 , A2 , A3 , .... , An are AMs between

.co
them.
Then, a , A1 , A2 , A3 , .... , An , b will be in AP. ing
Now, b = ( n + 2)th term = a + ( n + 2 1) d
b a
d= (Remember) (where d = common difference) (i)
n + 1
ch

A1 = a + d, A2 = a + 2d, ...., An = a + nd
b a b a b a
oa

A1 = a + , A2 = a + 2 , .... , An = a + n
n + 1 n + 1 n + 1
yC

Corollary 1. The sum of n AMs between two given quantities is equal to n


times the AM between them.
Let two numbers be a and b and A1 , A2 , A3 , K , An are n AMs between them.
kM

Then, a , A1 , A2 , A3 , .... , An , b will be in AP.


Sum of n AMs between a and b
pic

= A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An
n
= ( A1 + An ) (Q A1 , A2 , A3 , .... , An are in AP)
2
w.

n n
= ( a + d + a + nd ) = [2a + ( n + 1) d ]
2 2
ww

n
= ( 2a + b a ) [from Eq. (i)]
2
a + b
=n = n (AM between a and b) (Remember)
2
I. Aliter
A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An = ( a + A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An + b) ( a + b)
( n + 2)
= ( a + b) ( a + b)
2
a + b
=n = n (AM of a and b)
2

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50 | Algebra Part I

II. Aliter (This method is applicable only when n is even)


A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An 2 + An 1 + An
n
= ( A1 + An ) + ( A2 + An 1 ) + ( A3 + An 2 ) + .... terms
2
n
= ( a + b) + ( a + b) + ( a + b) + .... terms (QTn + Tn = a + l )
2
n a + b
= ( a + b) = n = n (AM of a and b)
2 2
Corollary 2. The sum of m AMs between any two numbers is to the sum of n
AMs between them as m : n.
Let two numbers be a and b.

m
Sum of m AMs between a and b = m (AM of a and b) (i)

.co
Similarly, sum of n AMs between a and b = n (AM of a and b) (ii)
Sum of m AM s m ( AM of a and b) m
= =
Sum of n AM s n ( AM of a and b) n
ing
Illustration 62. If a , b, c are in AP and p is the AM between a and b and q
is the AM between b and c, show that b is the AM between p and q.
ch

Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP
2b = a + c (i)
oa

Q p is the AM between a and b


a+b
p= (ii)
2
yC

Q q is the AM between b and c


b+ c
q= (iii)
2
kM

Adding Eqs. (ii) and (iii), then


a + b b + c a + c + 2b
p+ q= + =
2 2 2
pic

2b + 2b
= [using Eq. (i)]
2
p+ q
= 2b or b =
w.

2
Hence, b is the AM between p and q.
ww

a n + 1 + bn + 1
Illustration 63. Find n so that (a b) be the AM between a
a n + bn
and b.
a n + 1 + bn + 1 a + b
Solution. Q =
a n + bn 2
a n + 1
bn + 1 + 1
b
= b a + 1

a
n 2 b

bn + 1
b

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 51


a n + 1 a n a
2 + 1 = + 1 + 1
b b b

a
Let =
b
2 n + 1 + 2 = ( n + 1) ( + 1)
2 n + 1 + 2 = n + 1 + n + + 1
n+1
n + 1 = 0
( 1) ( 1) = 0
n

1 0 (Q a b)
n 1 = 0
n = 1 = 0

m
n =0

.co
Illustration 64. There are n AMs between 3 and 54 such that 8th mean
is to (n 2) th mean as 3 to 5. Find n. ing
Solution. Let A1 , A2, A3 , .... , An be n AMs between 3 and 54.
If d be the common difference, then
54 3 51
d= = (i)
ch

n+1 n+1
According to example,
A8 3
oa

=
An 2 5
5 (3 + 8d ) = 3 [3 + (n 2)d ]
yC

6 = d (3n 46)
51
6 = (3n 46) [from Eq. (i)]
(n + 1)
kM

6n + 6 = 153n 2346 147n = 2352


n = 16
pic

Illustration 65. If 11 AMs are inserted between 28 and 10, find the three
middle terms in the series.
w.

Solution. Let A1 , A2, A3 , ..... , A11 be 11 AMs between 28 and 10.


If d be the common difference, then
10 28
ww

3
d= =
12 2
Total means = 11 (odd)
11 + 1
Middle mean = th = 6th = A6
2
Three middle terms = A5 , A6 , A7
15 41
A5 = 28 + 5d = 28 =
2 2
A6 = 28 + 6d = 28 9 = 19
21 35
and A7 = 28 + 7d = 28 =
2 2

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52 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 66. If a , b, c are in AP, show that


2
a 2 (b + c) + b2 (c + a ) + c2 (a + b) = (a + b + c)3
9
Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP.
a+c
b= ie, 2b = a + c (i)
2
LHS = a 2(b + c) + b2 (c + a ) + c2 (a + b)
= (a 2b + a 2c) + b2 (2b) + (c2a + c2b)
= b (a 2 + c2) + ac (a + c) + 2b3
= b [(a + c)2 2ac] + ac (2b) + 2b3
= b (a + c)2 + 2b3 = b (2b)2 + 2b3 = 6b3

m
2 2 2
RHS = (a + b + c)3 = (2b + b)3 = 27b3 = 6b3
9 9 9

.co
Hence, LHS = RHS

2. Geometric Mean ing


If three terms are in GP, then the middle term is called the Geometric
Mean (or shortly written as GM) between the other two, so if a , b, c are in GP,
then b is the GM of a and c.
ch

(i) Single GM of n Positive Numbers


oa

Let n positive numbers be a1 , a2 , a3 , .... , an and G be the GM of these


numbers, then
G = ( a1a2a3 .... an )1/ n
yC

In particular. Let a and b be two numbers and G be the GM between them,


then a , G, b are in GP.
Hence, G = ab ; a > 0, b > 0
kM

Points to Consider
pic

1. If a < 0, b < 0, then G = ab


2. If a < 0, b > 0 or a > 0, b < 0, then GM between a and b does not exist.
w.

Illustration. (i) The GM between 4 and 9 is given by


ww

G = 4 9 =6
(ii) The GM between 4 and 9 is given by
G = 4 9 = 6
(iii) The GM between 4 and 9 or 4 and 9 does not exist.
ie, 4 9 = 1 36 = 6i and 4 9 = 1 36 = 6i

(ii) Insert n-Geometric Means Between Two Numbers


Let a and b be two given numbers and G1 , G2 , G3 , K , Gn are n GMs between
them.
Then, a , G1 , G2 , G3 , .... , Gn , b will be in GP.

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 53


Now, b = ( n + 2)th term = ar n + 2 1
1
b n + 1
r= (Remember) (i)
a
(where r = common ratio)
G1 = ar , G2 = ar 2 , .... , Gn = ar n
1 2 n
b n + 1 b n + 1 b n + 1
G1 = a , G2 = a , .... , Gn = a
a a a
Corollary. The product of n geometric means between a and b is equal to the
nth power of the geometric mean between a and b.

m
Let two numbers be a and b and G1 , G2 , G3 , .... , Gn are n GMs between them.

.co
Then, a , G1 , G2 , G3 , .... , Gn , b will be in GP.
Product of n GMs between a and b
= G1G2G3 K Gn
ing
= ( ar ) ( ar 2 ) ( ar3 ) ....( ar n )
= a1 + 1 + 1 + .... + 1 r 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n
ch

n ( n + 1)
n ( n + 1) 1 2
n b n + 1
= an r 2 =a [from Eq. (i)]
oa

a

n
yC

b 2
=a
n
= a n / 2bn / 2 = ( ab )n
a
= (GM of a and b) n (Remember)
kM

Aliter (This method is applicable only when n is even)


n
G1G2G3 K Gn 2 Gn 1 Gn = (G1 Gn ) (G2Gn 1 ) (G3Gn 2 ) .... factors
pic

2
n
= ( ab) ( ab) ( ab) .... factors (QTn Tn = a l )
2
w.

= ( ab)n / 2 = ( ab )n = (GM of a and b) n


ww

Illustration 67. If a be one AM and G1 and G2 be two geometric means


between b and c, prove that G13 + G32 = 2abc.
Solution. Given, a = AM between b and c
b+ c
a=
2
2a = b + c (i)
Again b, G1 , G2, c are in GP.
G1 G2 c G2 G2
= = b= 1 ,c= 2
b G1 G2 G2 G1
and G1G2 = bc (ii)

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54 | Algebra Part I

From Eqs. (i) and (ii)


G12 G22 G13 + G32
2a = + =
G2 G1 G1G2
G13 + G32
= (Q G1G2 = bc)
bc
G13 + G32 = 2abc

Illustration 68. If one geometric mean G and two arithmetic means p and
q be inserted between two quantities, show that
G 2 = (2 p q) (2q p)
Solution. Let the two quantities be a and b, then

m
G 2 = ab (i)
Again, a , p, q, b are in AP.

.co
pa =q p=bq
a = 2 p q,
b = 2q p (ii)
ing
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
G 2 = (2 p q) (2q p)
ch

a n + 1 + bn + 1
Illustration 69. Find n so that (a b) be the GM between a
a n + bn
oa

and b.
a n + 1 + bn + 1
Solution. Q = ab
yC

a n + bn
a n + 1
bn + 1 + 1
b
kM

=b a
a n b
bn + 1
b

pic

n+1
a
+1 1
b a 2
=
n b
w.

a
+1
b
a
ww

Let =
b
1
n + 1 + 1
= 2
n + 1
1 1
n+
n + 1 + 1 = 2 + 2
1 1 1
n+
2 ( 2 1) ( 2 1) = 0
1 1
n+
( 2 1) ( 2 1) = 0
1
2 1 0 (Q a b)

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 55


1
n+
2 1 =0
1
n+
2 = 1 = 0
1 1
n + = 0 or n =
2 2

1
Illustration 70. Insert five geometric means between and 9 and verify
3
1
that their product is the fifth power of the geometric mean between and 9.
3
1
Solution. Let G1 , G2, G3 , G4 , G5 be 5 GMs between and 9.
3

m
1
Then, , G1 , G2, G3 , G4 , G5 , 9 are in GP.
3

.co
1/ 6

9 1
Here, r = common ratio = = 3 2 = 3
1
3
ing
1 1
G1 = ar = 3 =
3 3
1
G2 = ar = 3 = 1
ch
2
3
1
G3 = ar3 = 3 3 = 3
oa

3
1
G4 = ar 4 = 9 = 3
3
yC

1
G5 = ar = 9 3 = 3 3
5
3
Now, Product = G1 G2 G3 G4 G5
5 5
kM

1 1
= 1 3 3 3 3 = 9 3 = (3) 2 = 9
3 3
1
= (GM of and 9) 5
pic

An Important Theorem
w.

Let a and b be two real, positive and unequal numbers and A, G are
arithmetic and geometric means between them, then
ww

(i) a and b are the roots of the equation


x2 2Ax + G 2 = 0 (Remember)
(ii) a and b are given by
A (A + G ) (A G ) (Remember)
(iii) A>G (Remember)
Proof. Q A is the AM between a and b, then
a+b
A= a + b = 2A (i)
2
and G is the GM between a and b, then
G = ab ab = G 2 (ii)

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56 | Algebra Part I

a , b are the roots of the equation


x 2 (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0
x 2 ( a + b) x + ab = 0
ie, x2 2Ax + G 2 = 0
is the required equation.
2 A ( 2 A)2 4 1 G 2
x= = A ( A2 G 2 )
21
x = A (A + G ) (A G )
Now, for real, positive and unequal numbers of a and b,
( A + G) ( A G) > 0 ( A G) > 0

m
A>G

.co
Points to Consider
1. If a and b are real and positive numbers, then
ing
A G
2. If a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a n are n positive numbers, then AM GM, ie,
a1 + a 2 + a3 + .... + a n
(a1a 2 a3 .... a n )1/ n
ch

n
a b
3. (i) If a > 0, b > 0 or a < 0, b < 0 and 1 > 0, 2 > 0, then 1 + 2 2 1 2
oa

b a
a
if = x > 0 and 1 = 2 = 1
b
yC

1
then, x+ 2
x
a b
(ii) If a > 0, b < 0 or a < 0, b > 0 and 1 > 0, 2 > 0, then 1 + 2 2 1 2
kM

b a
a
if = x < 0 and 1 > 0, 2 > 0
b
pic

1
then, x+ 2
x
w.

Illustration 71. AM between two numbers whose sum is 100 is to the GM


as 5 : 4, find the numbers.
ww

Solution. Let the numbers be a and b.


Then, a + b = 100
or 2 A = 100 A = 50 (i)
A 5
and given, =
G 4
50 5
= [from Eq. (i)]
G 4
G = 40 (ii)
From important theorem
a , b = A ( A + G ) ( A G ) = 50 (50 + 40) (50 40)
= 50 30 = 80, 20
a = 80, b = 20 or a = 20, b = 80

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 57


Illustration 72. If a1 , a 2, K , a n are positive real numbers whose product
is a fixed number c, then find the minimum value of
a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n.
Solution. Q AM GM
a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n
(a1a 2 .... a n 13a n )1/ n = (3c)1/ n
n
a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n n (3c)1/ n
Hence, the minimum value of a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n is n (3c)1/ n.

Harmonic Mean
If three terms are in HP, then the middle term is called the Harmonic

m
Mean (or shortly written as HM) between the other two, so if a , b, c are in HP
then b is the HM of a and c.

.co
(i) Single HM of n Positive Numbers
Let n positive numbers be a1 , a2 , a3 , .... , an and H be the HM of these
numbers, then
ing
n
H =
1 1 1 1
+ + + .... +
a1 a2 a3 an
ch

In particular. Let a and b be two given numbers and H be the HM between


them a , H , b are in HP.
oa

2
Hence, H =
1 1
+
a b
yC

2ab
ie, H =
( a + b)
kM

Point to Consider
pic

3 3abc
HM of a , b, c is or .
1 1 1
+ + ab + bc + ca
a b c
w.

a+b
Caution The AM between two numbers a and b is . It does not follow
2
ww

1 1
+
2
that HM between the same numbers is . The HM is the reciprocals of a b
a+b 2
2ab
ie, .
( a + b)

(ii) Insert n-Harmonic Means Between Two Numbers


Let a and b be two given numbers and H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , K, H n are n HMs between
them.
Then, a , H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , .... , H n , b will be in HP, if D be the common difference of
the corresponding AP.

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58 | Algebra Part I

b = ( n + 2)th term of HP.


1
=
( n + 2)th term of corresponding AP
1
=
1
+ ( n + 2 1) D
a
1 1

D= b a (Remember)
( n + 1)
1 1 1 1 1 1
= + D, = + 2D, ..... , = + nD
H1 a H2 a Hn a

m
1 1 ( a b) 1 1 2 ( a b) 1 1 n ( a b)
= + , = + , .... , = +

.co
H 1 a ab ( n + 1) H 2 a ab ( n + 1) H n a ab ( n + 1)
Corollary. The sum of reciprocals of n harmonic means between two given
numbers is n times the reciprocal of single HM between them.
ing
Let two numbers be a and b and H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , .... , H n are n HMs between
them. Then a , H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , .... , H n , b will be in HP.
1 1 1 1 n 1 1
ch

n
+ + + .... + = + QS n = ( a + l )
H1 H 2 H3 Hn 2 H1 H n 2
n 1 n 1 1
oa

1
= + D + D = +
2 a b 2 a b
n n
yC

= =
(HM of a and b)
2

kM

1 + 1
a b
Aliter (This method is applicable only when n is even)
pic

1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + .... + + +
H1 H 2 H3 Hn 2 Hn 1 Hn
w.

1 1 1 1 1 1 n
= + + + + + + ... terms
H1 H n H 2 H n 1 H3 H n 2 2
ww

1 1 1 1 1 1 n
= + D + D + + 2D + 2D ) + + 3D + 3D ) + ... terms
a b a b a b 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 n
= + + + + + + .... terms
a b a b a b 2
n 1 1 n n
= + = =
2 a b (HM of a and b)
2

1 + 1
a b

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 59


Illustration 73. If H be the harmonic mean between x and y, then show
that
H +x H + y
+ =2
H x H y
Solution. We have,
2xy H 2y H 2x
H = = and =
x+ y x x+ y y x+ y
By componendo and dividendo, we have
H + x 2y + x + y x + 3y
= =
H x 2y x y yx
H + y 2x + x + y 3x + y
and = =
H y 2x x y x y

m
H + x H + y x + 3 y 3x + y
+ = +

.co
H x H y yx x y
x + 3 y 3x y 2 ( y x)
= = =2
yx ( y x)
ing
Aliter
H +x H + y
+ =2
H x H y
ch

H + x H + y
1 = 1
H x H y
oa

2x 2 y
=
H x H y
yC

ie, Hx xy = Hy + xy
H (x + y) = 2xy
2xy
kM

ie, H =
(x + y)
which is true as, x, H , y are in HP. Hence, the required result.
pic

Illustration 74. If a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a10 be in AP and h1 , h2, h3 , ..... , h10 be in


HP. If a1 = h1 = 2 and a10 = h10 = 3, then find the value of a 4h7.
w.

Solution. Q a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a10 are in AP.


If d be the common difference, then
a a1 3 2 1
ww

d = 10 = =
9 9 9
3 1 7
a 4 = a1 + 3d = 2 + = 2 + = (i)
9 3 3
and given h1 , h2, h3 , .... , h10 are in HP.
If D be common difference of corresponding AP.
1 1 1 1

h10 h1 3 2 1
Then, D= = =
9 9 54
1 1
= + 6D
h7 h1

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60 | Algebra Part I

1 6 1 1 7
= = =
2 54 2 9 18
18
h7 =
7
7 18
Hence, a 4 h7 = =6
3 7

a n + 1 + bn + 1
Illustration 75. Find n so that (a b) be the HM between a
a n + bn
and b.
a n + 1 + bn + 1 2ab
Solution. Q =
a n + bn a+b

m
a n + 1
bn + 1 + 1 b2 2 a

.co
b
b =
a
n a
bn + 1 b + 1
b
b
ing
n+1
a a
+1
2
b b
=
ch

a
n
a
+1 +1
b b
oa

a
Let =
b
n +1 + 1 2
yC

Then =
n + 1 +1
( + 1) (n + 1 + 1) = 2 (n + 1)
kM

n + 2 + + n + 1 + 1 = 2 n + 1 + 2
n + 2 n + 1 + 1 = 0
n+1
( 1) 1 ( 1) = 0
pic

( 1) (n + 1 1) = 0
1 0 (Q a b)
n+1
w.

1 =0
n + 1 = 1 = 0
n + 1 =0
ww

or n = 1

6
Illustration 76. Insert 6 harmonic means between 3 and .
23
6
Solution. Let H 1 , H 2, H 3 , H 4 , H 5 , H 6 be 6 HMs between 3 and . Then
23
6
are in HP.
3, H 1 , H 2, H 3 , H 4 , H 5 , H 6 ,
23
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 23
, , , , , , , are in AP.
3 H1 H 2 H3 H 4 H5 H 6 6

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 61


Let common difference of this AP be D.
23 1

(23 2) 21 1
D= 6 3 = = =
7 7 6 7 6 2
1 1 1 1 5
= +D= + =
H1 3 3 2 6
6 1
H1 = = 1
5 5
1 1 1 4
= + 2D = + 1 =
H2 3 3 3
3
H2 =
4

m
1 1 1 3 11
= + 3D = + =
H3 3 3 2 6

.co
6
H3 =
11
1 1 1 7 3
= + 4D = + 2 = H 4 =
ing
H4 3 3 3 7
1 1 1 5 17 6
= + 5D = + = H5 =
H5 3 3 2 6 17
ch

1 1 1 10 3
and = + 6D = + 3 = H6 =
H6 3 3 3 10
oa

1 3 6 3 6 3
HMs are 1 , , , , ,
5 4 11 7 17 10
yC

Important Theorem 1.
Let a and b be two real, positive and unequal numbers and A, G and H are
kM

arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means respectively between them, then


(i) A, G , H form a GP, ie,G 2 = AH (Remember)
(ii) A > G > H (Remember)
pic

a+b 2ab
Proof. (i) Q A= , G = ab and H =
2 a+b
w.

a + b 2ab
Now, AH = = ab = G
2
2 a + b
ww

Therefore, G 2 = AH
ie, A, G , H are in GP.

Point to Consider
The result AH = G 2 will be true for n numbers, if they are in GP.

(ii) Q A> G (From Important theorem of GM) (i)


A
or >1
G

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62 | Algebra Part I

G A G
>1 Q = G 2 = AH
H G H
G>H (ii)
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
A> G > H

Point to Consider
If a1 , a 2, a3 , K , a n are n positive numbers, then AM GM HM ie,
a1 + a 2 + .... + a n
(a1a 2 ..... a n )1/ n
n

m
n

1 1 1
+ + .... +

.co
a1 a 2 an
Sign of equality (AH = GM = HM) holds when numbers are equal ie,
a1 = a 2 = .... = a n.
ing
Important Theorem 2.
ch

If A, G , H are arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means of three given


numbers a , b and c, then the equation having a , b, c as its roots is
3G 3
oa

x3 3Ax2 + x G3 = 0 (Remember)
H
a+ b+ c
yC

Proof. Q A = AM of a , b, c =
3
ie, a + b + c = 3A (i)
kM

G = GM of a , b, c = ( abc) 1/ 3

ie, abc = G3 (ii)


pic

and H = HM of a , b, c
3 3abc
= =
1 1 1 ab + bc + ca
w.

+ +
a b c
ww

3G3
= [from Eq. (ii)]
ab + bc + ca
3G3
ie, ab + bc + ca = (iii)
H
a , b, c are the roots of the equation
x3 ( a + b + c) x 2 + ( ab + bc + ca ) x abc = 0
3G3
ie, x3 3 Ax 2 + x G3 = 0 [from Eqs. (i), (ii) and (iii)]
H

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 63

Geometrical Proof of A > G > H


Let OA = a unit and OB = b unit and AB be a diameter of semi circle. Draw
tangent OT to the circle and TM perpendicular to AB.

T
y

x
O A M C B
Let C be the centre of the semi circle.

m
OA + OB (OC AC ) + (OC + CB)
Q =
2 2

.co
2OC
= = OC (Q AC = CB = radius of circle)
2
a+b
OC =
ing
( ie , OC = arithmetic mean)
2
a+b
A=
ch

2
Now, from geometry
oa

(OT )2 = OA OB = ab = G 2
OT = G, the geometric mean
yC

Now, from similar triangles OCT and OMT , we have


OM OT (OT )2 ab 2ab
= or OM = = =
OT OC OC a+b a+b
kM

2
OM = H , the harmonic mean
pic

Also, it is clear from the figure, that


OC > OT > OM
A> G > H
w.

ie,

Illustration 77. If A x = G y = H z , where A , G , H are AM, GM and HM


ww

between two given quantities, prove that x, y, z are in HP.


Solution. Let Ax = Gy = H z = k
Then, A = k1/ x , G = k1/ y , H = k1/ z
Q G 2 = AH
(k ) = k1/ x k1/ z
1/ y 2

2 1 1
k2/ y = k1/ x + 1/ z = +
y x z
1 1 1
, , are in AP.
x y z
Hence, x, y, z are in HP.

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64 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 78. The harmonic mean of two numbers is 4, their arithmetic


mean A and geometric mean G satisfy the relation 2 A + G 2 = 27. Find the
numbers.
Solution. Let the numbers be a and b.
Given, H =4
Q G 2 = AH = 4 A (i)
and given 2 A + G 2 = 27
2 A + 4 A = 27 [from Eq. (i)]
9
A=
2
9
From Eq. (i), G = 4 = 18
2
2

m
Now, from important theorem of GM
9 81
a , b = A ( A 2 G 2) = 18

.co
2 4
9 3
= = 6, 3 or 3, 6
2 2
ing
1
Illustration 79. If the geometric mean is
times the harmonic mean
n
ch

between two numbers, show that the ratio of the two numbers is
1 + (1 n 2) : 1 (1 n 2).
oa

Solution. Let the two numbers be a and b.


1
Given, G= H (i)
n
yC

Now, G 2 = AH
H2
= AH [from Eq. (i)]
n2
kM

H
A= 2 (ii)
n
Now, from important theorem of GM
pic

H H 2 H 2
a, b = A ( A 2 G 2) = 4 2
n2 n n
w.

H
= [1 (1 n 2)]
n2
H
ww

[1 + (1 n 2)]
a n2
=
b H [1 (1 n 2)]
n2
a : b = 1 + (1 n 2) : 1 (1 n 2)

Illustration 80. If three positive unequal quantities a , b, c be in HP, then


prove that
a n + cn > 2bn , n N
Solution. Q G>H
ac > b

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Chapter 1 : Sequences and Series | 65


n
(ac) 2 > bn
n n
or a 2 c 2 > bn (i)
n n
Also, (a 2 c 2 )2 >0
n n
an + cn 2a 2 c2 >0
n n
a n + cn > 2 a 2 c 2 > 2bn [from Eq. (i)]
a + c > 2b
n n n

Illustration 81. (i) If a , b, c, d be four distinct positive quantities in AP,


then

m
(a) bc > ad

.co
(b) c1d 1 + a 1 b1 > 2 (b1 d 1 + a 1 c1 a 1 d 1 )
(ii) If a , b, c, d be four distinct positive quantities in GP, then
(a) a + d > b + c
ing
(b) c1d 1 + a 1 b1 > 2 (b1 d 1 + a 1 c1 a 1 d 1 )
(iii) If a , b, c, d be four distinct positive quantities in HP, then
(a) a + d > b + c
ch

(b) ad > bc
Solution. (i) Q a , b, c, d are in AP.
oa

(a) Applying AM > GM


For first three members
yC

b > ac
b2 > ac (i)
kM

and for last three members


c > bd
c2 > bd (ii)
pic

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get


b2c2 > (ac) (bd )
Hence, bc > ad
w.

(b) Applying AM > HM


For first three members
2ac
ww

b> ab + bc > 2ac (iii)


a+c
For last three members
2bd
c>
b+ d
bc + cd > 2bd (iv)
From Eqs. (iii) and (iv), we get
ab + bc + bc + cd > 2ac + 2bd
or ab + cd > 2 (ac + bd bc)
Dividing in each term by abcd, we get
c1d 1 + a 1 b1 > 2 (b1 d 1 + a 1 c1 a 1 d 1 )

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65