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1

Sequences and Series

Introduction

m

The word sequence in mathematics has same meaning as in ordinary

.co

English. A collection of objects listed in a sequence means it has identified first

member, second member, third member and so on. The most common examples

are depreciate values of certain commodity like car, machinery and amount

deposits in the bank for a number of years.

ing

Sequence

ch

according to some well-defined law is called a sequence.

OR

oa

real numbers (R) [Complex numbers (C )]. If range is subset of real numbers

yC

OR

A mapping f : N C, then f ( n ) = tn , n N is called a sequence to be denoted

it by { f (1), f ( 2), f ( 3), .... } = { t1 , t2 , t3 , .... } = { tn }.

kM

Remark. The sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , .... is generally written as { an }.

pic

first) is obtained by adding 2 to the previous term and Tn = 2n 1, n N .

w.

OR

If T1 = 1, Tn + 1 = Tn + 2, n 1

(ii) 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...... is a sequence, because each term (except first two)

ww

OR

If T1 = 1, T2 = 2, Tn + 2 = Tn + Tn + 1, n 1

(iii) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, ..... is a sequence.

Here, we cannot express Tn , n N by an algebraic formula.

Recursive Formula

A formula to determine the other terms of the sequence in terms of its

preceding terms is known as recursive formula.

For example If T1 = 1 and Tn + 1 = 6 Tn , n N .

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2 | Algebra Part I

Then, T2 = 6 T1 = 6 1 = 6

T3 = 6 T2 = 6 6 = 36

T4 = 6T3 = 6 36 = 216....

Then, sequence is 1, 6, 36, 216, ....

Types of Sequences

There are two types of sequences.

1. Finite Sequence

m

A sequence is said to be finite sequence, if it has finite number of terms. A

finite sequence is described by a1 , a2 , a3 , ..... , an or T1 , T2 , T3 , ..... , Tn , where n N.

.co

Illustrations (i) 3, 5, 7, 9, ...... , 37

(ii) 2, 6, 18, 54, ......, 4374

ing

2. Infinite Sequence

A sequence is said to be an infinite sequence, if it has infinite number of

ch

oa

1 1 1

Illustrations (i) 1, , , , ....

3 9 27

1 1 1 1

yC

(ii) 1, , , , , ....

2 4 8 16

kM

Series

In a sequence, the sum of the directed terms is called a series. For example, if

1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, ..... is a sequence, then its sum ie, 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + 13 + 16 + K is

pic

a series.

In general, if T1 , T2 , T3 , ...... , Tn ,.... denote a sequence, then the symbolic

expression T1 + T2 + T3 + .... + Tn + .... is called a series associated with the given

w.

sequence.

Each member of the series is called its term.

ww

Thus,

S n = T1 + T2 + T3 + .... + Tn

n

= Tr = Tn

r =1

Then, S n S n 1 = (T1 + T2 + T3 + .... + Tn ) (T1 + T2 + .... + Tn 1 )

= Tn

Thus, Tn = S n S n 1

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Types of Series

There are two types of series.

1. Finite Series

A series having finite number of terms is called a finite series.

Illustrations

(i) 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + ..... + 21

(ii) 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 + .... + 4374

m

2. Infinite Series

.co

A series having an infinite number of terms is called an infinite series.

Illustrations

ing

1 1 1

(i) 1 + + + + .....

3 9 27

1 1 1

(ii) 1 + + + + ....

ch

2 4 8

oa

Progression

yC

sequence is called a progression.

OR

A sequence is said to be progression, if its terms increases (respectively

kM

decreases) numerically.

For example The following sequences are progression :

pic

1 1 1 1

(i) 1, 3, 5, 7, .... (ii) , , , , ....

2 6 18 54

1 1 1

(iii) 1, , , ,K (iv) 1, 8, 27, 256, ....

w.

3 9 27

1

(v) 8, 4, 2, 1, , K

ww

2

The sequences (iii) and (v) are progressions, because

1 1 1

|1|>| |>| |>| |> ....

3 9 27

1 1 1

ie, 1> > > >K

3 9 27

1

and | 8|>| 4|>| 2|>| 1|>| |> ....

2

1

ie, 8 > 4 > 2 > 1 > > ....

2

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4 | Algebra Part I

Point to Consider

All the definitions and formulae are valid for complex numbers in the theory of

progressions but it should be assumed (if not otherwise stated) that the terms of the

progressions are real numbers.

n

Illustration 1. If f : N R, where f (n ) = a n = , then write the

(2n + 1)2

sequence in ordered pair form.

n

Solution. Here, a n =

(2n + 1)2

Putting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, .... successively, we get

m

1 1

a1 = =

(2 1 + 1)2 9

.co

2 2

a2 = =

(2 2 + 1)2 25

3 3

a3 = =

(2 3 + 1) 2

49

ing

4 4

a4 = =

(2 4 + 1) 2

81

ch

...............................

Hence, we obtain the sequence

1 2 3 4

oa

, , , , ...

9 25 49 81

Now, the sequence in ordered pair form is

yC

1 2 3 4

1, , 2, , 3, , 4, , ...

9 25 49 81

kM

an + 1

a n = a n 1 + a n 2, n > 2. Find for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

an

pic

Solution. Q a1 = 1 = a 2

a3 = a 2 + a1 = 1 + 1 = 2

a 4 = a3 + a 2 = 2 + 1 = 3

w.

a5 = a 4 + a3 = 3 + 2 = 5

and a 6 = a5 + a 4 = 5 + 3 = 8

ww

a2 a 2 a 3 a 5 a 8

= 1, 3 = = 2, 4 = , 5 = and 6 =

a1 a2 1 a3 2 a 4 3 a5 5

n, then find its 7th term.

Solution. Given, S n = 2n 2 + 5n

S n 1 = 2 (n 1)2 + 5 (n 1) = 2n 2 + n 3

Tn = S n S n 1

= (2n 2 + 5n ) (2n 2 + n 3) = 4n + 3

T7 = 4 7 + 3 = 31

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n

Illustration 4. (i) Write (r 2 + 2) in expanded form.

r =1

1 2 3 4 n

(ii) Write the series + + + +K+ in sigma form.

3 4 5 6 n+2

Solution. (i) Putting r = 1, 2, 3, 4, K , n in (r 2 + 2), we get

3, 6, 11, 18, ...., (n 2 + 2)

n

Hence, (r 2 + 2) = 3 + 6 + 11 + 18 + .... + (n 2 + 2)

r =1

r

(ii) The rth term of series = . Hence, the given series can be written as

r+2

1 2 3 4 n n

r

+ + + + .... + =

m

3 4 5 6 n + 2 r = 1 r + 2

.co

Introductory Exercise 1.1

Only One Correct Option

ing

1. First term of a sequence is 1 and the (n + 1)th term is obtained by adding (n + 1)

to the nth term for all natural numbers n, then the sixth term of the sequence is

(a) 7 (b) 13 (c) 21 (d) 27

ch

2. The first three terms of a sequence are 3, 3, 6 and each term after the second is

the sum of two terms preceding it, then the 8th term of the sequence is

(a) 15 (b) 24 (c) 39 (d) 63

oa

6

n

3. If a n = sin , then the value of a n2 is

6

n =1

yC

4. If for a sequence {a n }, S n = 2n 2 + 9n, where S n is the sum of n terms, then the

value of a 20 is

kM

5

5. If a1 = 2, a 2 = 3 + a1 and a n = 2 a n 1 + 5 for n > 1, then the value of a r is

r=2

pic

Types of Progressions

w.

Progressions are various types but in this chapter we shall studying only

three special types of progressions which are following :

ww

2. Geometric Progression (abbreviated as GP)

3. Harmonic Progression (abbreviated as HP)

An Arithmetic Progression (AP) is a sequence in which the difference between

any term and its just preceding term ( ie , term before it) is constant throughout.

This constant is called the common difference (abbreviated as CD) and is

generally denoted by d.

OR

An Arithmetic Progression (AP) is a sequence whose terms increase or decrease

by a fixed number. This fixed number is called the common difference of the AP.

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6 | Algebra Part I

arithmetic progression (AP), if

tk tk 1 = d, a constant independent of k, for k = 2, 3, 4, .... , n or k = 2, 3, 4, K

as the case may be : The constant d is called the common difference of the AP.

ie, d = t2 t1 = t3 t2 = .... = tn tn 1

Points to Consider

1. If a be the first term and d be the common difference, then AP can be written as

a , a + d , a + 2d , ..... , a + (n 1) d , K n N .

2. If we add the common difference to any term of AP, we get the next following

term and if we subtract it from any term, we get the preceding term.

m

3. The common difference of an AP may be positive, zero, negative or imaginary.

.co

4. Constant AP common difference of an AP is equal to zero.

5. Increasing AP common difference of an AP is greater than zero.

6. Decreasing AP common difference of an AP is less than zero.

ing

7. Imaginary AP common difference of an AP is imaginary.

ch

Step II. Replace n by n 1 in tn to get tn 1.

oa

If tn tn 1 is independent of n, then the given sequence is an AP otherwise it

is not an AP

yC

(ii) , + e , + 2e , K

kM

Solution. (i) Here, 2nd term 1st term = 3rd term 2nd term = ....

pic

(ii) Here, 2nd term 1st term = 3rd term 2nd term = .....

( + e ) = ( + 2e ) ( + e ) = ....

w.

(iii) Here, 2nd term 1st term = 3rd term 2nd term = ....

ww

(a b) a = (a 2b) (a b) = ....

= b, which is a common difference.

AP also, find its common difference.

Solution. We have, tn = 5n + 4

Replacing n by (n 1), we get

tn 1 = 5 (n 1) + 4 tn 1 = 5n 1

tn t n 1 = (5n + 4) (5n 1) = 5

Clearly, tn t n 1 is independent of n and is equal to 5. So, the given

sequence is an AP with common difference 5.

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Illustration 7. Show that the sequence < tn > defined by tn = 3n 2 + 2 is

not an AP.

Solution. We have, tn = 3n 2 + 2

Replacing n by (n 1), we get

tn 1 = 3 (n 1)2 + 2

tn 1 = 3n 2 6n + 5

tn t n 1 = (3n 2 + 2) (3n 2 6n + 5) = 6n 3

Clearly, tn t n 1 is not independent of n and is therefore not constant. So,

the given sequence is not an AP.

Point to Consider

m

If the nth term of a sequence be an expression of first degree in n, eg,

tn = An + B, where A , B are constants, then that sequence will be in AP for

.co

t n t n 1 = ( An + B) [ A (n 1) + B] = A [n (n 1)] = A = constant

= common difference or coefficient of n in tn

ing

Remark. Students are advised to consider the above point as a behaviour of

standard result.

General Term of an AP

ch

Let a be the first term, d be the common difference and l be the last term of

an AP having n terms, where n N .

oa

yC

1st term from beginning = t1 = a = a + (1 1) d

2nd term from beginning = t 2 = a + d = a + (2 1) d

kM

......................................................................................

......................................................................................

pic

Hence, nth term of an AP from beginning.

= tn = a + (n 1) d = l (last term)

w.

ww

2nd term from end = t2 = l d = l (2 1) d

3rd term from end = t3 = l 2d = l (3 1) d

......................................................................................

......................................................................................

nth term from end = tn = l (n 1) d n N

Hence, nth term of an AP from end = tn = l (n 1) d = a (first term)

Now, it is clear that tn + tn = a + (n 1) d + l (n 1) d = a + l

or tn + tn = a + l

ie, In a finite AP the sum of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end is

always same and is equal to the sum of first and last term.

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8 | Algebra Part I

Points of Consider

1. nth term is also called the general term.

2. If last term of AP be tn and common difference be d, then terms of AP from end

are tn , t n d , t n 2d, ..........

3. If in a sequence, the terms an alternatively positive and negative, then it cannot

be an AP.

la

4. Common difference of AP =

n+1

where a = first term of AP, l = last term of AP and n = number of terms of AP.

5. If t n , t n + 1 , t n + 2 are three consecutive terms of an AP, then 2 tn + 1 = t n + tn + 2. In

m

particular, if a , b, c are in AP, then 2b = a + c.

.co

Illustration 8. Find first negative term of the sequence

1 1 3

20, 19 , 18 , 17 , ...

4 2 4

ing

Solution. The given sequence is an AP in which first term a = 20 and

3

common difference d = . Let the nth term of the given AP be the first

4

ch

tn < 0 a + (n 1) d < 0

3

20 + (n 1) < 0 80 3n + 3 < 0

oa

4

83 2

n> or n > 27 n = 28

yC

3 3

Thus, 28th term of the given sequence is the first negative term.

kM

1 1

Illustration 9. If the mth term of an AP is and the nth term is , then

n m

find mnth term of AP.

Solution. If A , B are constants then rth term of AP is

pic

tr = Ar + B

1 1

Given, tm = Am + B = (i)

w.

n n

1 1

and tn = An + B = (ii)

m m

ww

1

A= and B = 0

mn

1

mnth term = tmn = Amn + B = mn + 0 = 1

mn

Hence, mnth term of the given AP is 1.

Illustration 10. If| x 1|, 3,| x 3| are first three terms of an increasing

AP then find the sixth term of AP.

Solution. Case I. For x < 1

| x 1| = (x 1) and | x 3| = (x 3)

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1 x, 3, 3 x are in AP.

6 = 1 x + 3 x or x = 1

Then, first three terms are 2, 3, 4,

which is an increasing AP.

Sixth term is 7. (Q d = 1)

Case II. For 1 < x < 3

| x 1| = x 1 and| x 3| = (x 3) = 3 x

x 1, 3, 3 x are in AP.

6 = x 1 + 3 x 6 = 2 (impossible)

Case III. For x > 3

Q | x 1| = x 1 and | x 3| = x 3

x 1, 3, x 3 are in AP.

m

6 = x1 + x3 x=5

Then, first three terms are 4, 3, 2 which is a decreasing AP.

.co

Illustration 11. In the sequence 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, ...... where n

consecutive terms have the value n, then find the 150th term of the

ing

sequence.

Solution. Let the 150th term = n

Then, 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + (n 1) < 150 < 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n

ch

(n 1) n n (n + 1)

< 150 <

2 2

oa

Taking first two members

n (n 1) < 300 n 2 n 300 < 0

yC

2

1 1 1 1201

n < 300 + 0<n< +

2 4 2 2

kM

and taking last two members

2

1 1

n ( n + 1) > 300 n + > 300 +

pic

2 4

1 1201

n> + n > 16.8 (ii)

2 2

w.

16.8 < n < 17.8 n = 17

ww

5

then find the value of ai when a3 = 2.

i =1

a1 + a5 = a 2 + a 4 = a3 + a3 (Q tn + tn = a + l )

or a1 + a5 = a 2 + a 4 = 4 (Q a3 = 2)

or a1 + a 2 + a3 + a 4 + a5 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10

5

ai = 10

i =1

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10 | Algebra Part I

Only One Correct Option

1. If nth term of the series 25 + 29 + 33 + 37 + .... and 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + K are

equal, then n equals

(a) 11 (b) 12 (c) 13 (d) 14

1 7 1 20

2. The rth term of the series 2 + 1 +1 + + .... is

2 13 9 23

20 20 20

(a) (b) (c) 20 (5r + 3) (d) 2

5r + 3 5r 3 5r + 3

3. In a certain AP, 5 times the fifth term is equal to 8 times the eighth term, then

m

its thirteenth term is

(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 12 (d) 13

.co

4. If the 9th term of an AP be zero, then the ratio of its 29th and 19th terms is

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 1 : 3ing (d) 3 : 1

5. If the pth, qth and rth terms of an AP are a , b and c respectively, then the value

of a (q r ) + b (r p) + c ( p q) is equal to

1

(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d)

2

ch

6. The sixth term of an AP is equal to 2, the value of the common difference of the

AP which makes the product a1a 4a5 least is given by

oa

8 5 2 1

(a) (b) (c) (d)

5 4 3 3

yC

kM

Series

More than 200 years ago, a class of German School Children was asked to

pic

find the sum of all integers from 1 to 100 inclusive. One boy in the class, an eight

year old named Carl Fredrick Gauss (1777-1855) who later established his

reputation as one of the greatest mathematicians announced the answer almost

w.

at once. The teacher overawed at this asked Gauss to explain how he got this

answer. Gauss explained that he had added these numbers in pairs as follows

(1 + 100), ( 2 + 99), ( 3 + 98) , K

ww

100

There are = 50 pairs. The answer can be obtained by multiplying 101 by

2

50 to get 5050.

Sum of n Terms of an AP

Let a be the first term, d be the common difference, l be the last term of an

AP having n terms and S n the sum of n terms, then

S n = a + ( a + d ) + ( a + 2d ) + K + ( l 2d ) + ( l d ) + l (i)

Reversing the right hand terms

S n = l + ( l d ) + ( l 2d ) + .... + ( a + 2d ) + ( a + d ) + a (ii)

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Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

2S n = ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + .... + ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + ( a + l )

= ( a + l ) + ( a + l ) + .... to n terms = n( a + l )

n

Sn = ( a + l ) (iii)

2

Now, if we substitute the value of l viz., l = a + ( n 1) d, in this formula

we get

n n

Sn = [a + a + ( n 1) d ] = [2a + ( n 1)d ]

2 2

n

S n = [2a + (n 1) d ]

m

2

If we substitute the value of a

.co

viz., l = a + ( n 1) d

or a = l ( n 1) d in Eq. (iii), then

ing

n

S n = [2l (n 1) d ]

2

If we substitute the value of a + l

ch

n

Sn = (t n + t n )

oa

2

Corollary 1. Sum of first n natural numbers

yC

ie, 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + n

Here, a = 1, d = 1

kM

n n ( n + 1)

S= [2 1 + ( n 1) 1] =

2 2

Corollary 2. Sum of first n odd natural numbers

pic

ie, 1 + 3 + 5 + ....

Here, a = 1, d = 2

w.

n

S= [2 1 + ( n 1) 2] = n 2

2

ww

Sm + n Sn

1. If S n , tn and d are sum of n terms, nth term and common difference of an

AP respectively, then

d = tn tn 1 ( n 2)

tn = S n S n 1 ( n 2)

d = S n 2 S n 1 + S n 2 ( n 3)

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12 | Algebra Part I

Proof. Q S n = t1 + t2 + t3 + K + tn 1 + tn

S n = S n 1 + tn

tn = S n S n 1

but d = tn tn 1 = (S n S n 1 ) (S n 1 S n 2 )

d = Sn 2 Sn 1 + Sn 2

2. A sequence is an AP if and only if the sum of its n terms is of the form

An 2 + Bn, where A, B are constants independent of n. In this case, the

nth term and common difference of the AP are A ( 2n 1) + B and 2A

respectively.

Proof. As S n = An 2 + Bn

m

S n 1 = A ( n 1)2 + B ( n 1)

tn = S n S n 1 = ( An 2 + Bn ) [ A ( n 1)2 + B ( n 1)]

.co

= A [n 2 ( n 1)2 ] + B

tn = A ( 2n 1) + B

ing

tn 1 = A [2 ( n 1) 1] + B = A ( 2n 3) + B

Now, tn tn 1 = [ A ( 2n 1) + B] [ A ( 2n 3) + B] = 2A (a constant)

Hence, the sequence is an AP.

ch

n dn 2 d

Sum of first n terms = [2a + ( n 1) d ] =

oa

+ a n

2 2 2

d d

= An 2 + Bn, where A = ,B= a

yC

2 2

Hence, S n = An 2 + Bn, where A, B are constants independent of n.

kM

Corollary 1. Q S n = An 2 + Bn

tn = A ( 2n 1) + B

pic

tn = A (Replacing n 2 by 2n 1) + coefficient of n

and d = 2A

w.

ie, d = 2 (coefficient of n 2 )

Sn tn d

ww

1. 5n 2 + 3 n 5 (2n 1) + 3 = 10n 2 10

2. 7n 2 + 2n 7 (2n 1) + 2 = 14n + 9 14

3. 9n 2 4n 9 (2n 1) 4 = 18n + 5 18

4. 4n n

2

4 (2n 1) 1 = 8n 5 8

3. If S n = an + bn + c where S n denotes the sum of n terms of a series, then

2

Proof. As S n = an 2 + bn + c for n 1, we get

S n 1 = a ( n 1)2 + b ( n 1) + c for n 2

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Now, tn = S n S n 1

tn = a ( 2n 1) + b, n 2

tn 1 = a [2 ( n 1) 1] + b, n 3

tn 1 = a ( 2n 3) + b, n 3

tn tn 1 = 2a = constant, n 3

t3 t2 = t4 t3 = t5 t4 = ....

But t2 t1 = (S 2 S1 ) S1 = S 2 2 S1

= ( 4a + 2b + c) 2 ( a + b + c) = ( 2a c) (QS1 = t1 )

t2 t1 t3 t2

The whole series is not an AP. It is AP from the second term onwards.

m

Ratio of Sums is Given

.co

1. If ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an AP is given

S m Am2 + Bm

Let =

ing

Sn An2 + Bn

Where A, B are constants and A 0

ch

S m = ( Am 2 + Bm ) k,

S n = ( An 2 + Bn ) k

oa

tm = S m S m 1 = [ A ( 2m 1) + B] k

tn = S n S n 1 = [ A ( 2n 1) + B] k

yC

tm A ( 2m 1) + B

=

tn A ( 2n 1) + B

kM

Then, the ratio of the mth and nth terms is

pic

(c) (2m 1) : (2n 1) (d) None of these

Sm m2

= (Q A = 1, B = 0)

w.

Solution. Here,

Sn n 2

tm (2m 1)

=

ww

tn (2n 1)

tm : t n = (2m 1) : (2n 1)

Hence, (c) is the correct answer.

2. If ratio of the sums of n terms of two APs is given

S n An + B

Let =

S n Cn + D

where A, B, C , D are constants and A, C 0

S n = n ( An + B) k, S n = n (Cn + D ) k

tn = [ A ( 2n 1) + B] k, tn = [C ( 2n 1) + D ] k

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14 | Algebra Part I

d = tn tn 1 = 2 A,

d = tn tn 1 = 2C

tn A ( 2n 1) + B d A

= and =

tn C ( 2n 1) + D d C

Note. If A = 0, C = 0

Sn B t B d 0

Then,

= n = and = = not defined

Sn D tn D d 0

Point to Consider

tn an + b

m

If =

tn cn + d

.co

where a , b, c, d are constants and a , c 0, then

n + 1

a +b

Sn 2

=

S n n + 1

ing

c +d

2

ch

in the ratio (7n + 1) : (4n + 17). Find the ratio of their nth terms and also of

oa

common differences.

Solution. Given, S n : S n = (7n + 1) : (4n + 17)

Here, A = 7, B = 1, C = 4, D = 17

yC

tn 7 (2n 1) + 1 14n 6

= =

tn 4 (2n 1) + 17 8n + 13

d A 7

kM

and = =

d C 4

Hence, tn : tn = (14n 6) : (8n + 13) and d : d = 7 : 4

pic

Illustration 15. The sum of n terms of two APs are in the ratio

(3n 13) : (5n + 21). Find the ratio of their 24th terms.

w.

Here, A = 3, B = 13, C = 5, D = 21

t24 3 (2 24 1) 13 128 1

ww

= = =

t24 5 (2 24 1) + 21 256 2

t24 : t24 = 1 :2

1 2

Illustration 16. How many terms of the series 20 + 19 + 18 + .... must

3 3

be taken to make 300? Explain the double answer.

Solution. Here, given series is an AP with first term a = 20 and the

2

common difference d = .

3

Let the sum of n terms of the series be 300.

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n

Then, Sn = {2a + (n 1) d }

2

n 2

300 = 2 20 + (n 1)

2 3

n

300 = {60 n + 1}

3

n 2 61n + 900 = 0

(n 25) (n 36) = 0 n = 25 or n = 36

So, sum of 25 terms = sum of 36 terms = 300

Explanation of double answer

Here, the common difference is negative; therefore, terms go on diminishing

2

m

and t31 = 20 + (31 1) = 0 ie, 31st term becomes zero. All terms after

3

.co

31st term are negative. These negative terms (t32, t33 , t34 , t35 , t36 ) when

added to positive terms (t26 , t27 , t28 , t29 , t30 ), they cancel out each other ie,

sum of terms from 26th to 36th terms is zero. Hence, the sum of 25 terms as

well as that of 36 terms is 300.

ing

Illustration 17. Find the arithmetic progression consisting of 10 terms if

the sum of the terms occupying the even places is equal to 15 and the sum of

ch

1

those occupying the odd places is equal to 12 .

2

Solution. Let the successive terms of the AP be t1 , t2, t3 , .... , t9 , t10.

oa

By hypothesis

t2 + t 4 + t6 + t8 + t10 = 15

yC

5

(t2 + t10 ) = 15

2

t2 + t10 = 6

kM

(a + d ) + (a + 9d ) = 6 or 2a + 10d = 6 (i)

1

and t1 + t3 + t5 + t7 + t9 = 12

2

pic

5 25

(t1 + t9 ) = t1 + t9 = 5

2 2

a + a + 8d = 5 or 2a + 8d = 5 (ii)

w.

1 1

d= and a =

ww

2 2

1 1 1

Hence, the AP is , 1, 1 , 2, 2 , K

2 2 2

groups S1 = {1}, S 2 = {2, 3}, S3 = {4, 5, 6}, .... , then find the sum of the numbers

in S50.

Solution. The number of terms in the groups are 1, 2, 3, ....

The number of terms in the 50th group = 50

Q The last term of 1st group = 1

The last term of 2nd group = 3 = 1 + 2

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16 | Algebra Part I

...................................................................................

The last term of 49th group = 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + 49

First term of 50th group = 1 + (1 + 2 + 3 + .... + 49)

49

=1 + (1 + 49) = 1226

2

50

S50 = {2 1226 + (50 1) 1} = 25 2501 = 62525

2

Illustration 19. Find the sum of first 24 terms of the AP t1 , t2, t3 , ..... ., if

it is known that

t1 + t5 + t10 + t15 + t20 + t24 = 225

m

Solution. We know that in an AP the sums of the terms equidistant from

.co

the beginning and end is always same and is equal to the sum of first and

last term.

Then, t1 + t24 = t5 + t20 = t10 + t15

but given

ing

t1 + t5 + t10 + t15 + t20 + t24 = 225

(t1 + t24 ) + (t5 + t20 ) + (t10 + t15 ) = 225

3 (t1 + t24 ) = 225

ch

t1 + t24 = 75

24

S 24 = (t1 + t24 ) = 12 75 = 900

oa

yC

consecutive odd integers as shown then, find the smallest possible value of

p + q + r (where p > 6).

kM

1 + 3 + 5 + .... + (2n 1) = n 2

Thus, the given equation can be written as

pic

2 2 2

p + 1 q + 1 r + 1

+ =

2 2 2

( p + 1)2 + (q + 1)2 = (r + 1)2

w.

The first Pythagorean triplet containing a number > 7 is (6, 8, 10).

ww

p + 1 = 8, q + 1 = 6, r + 1 = 10 p + q + r = 21

1. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in AP with common difference d, then

a1 k, a2 k, a3 k, ..... are also in AP with common difference d.

2. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in AP with common difference d, then

a a a

a1k, a2k, a3 k, .... and 1 , 2 , 3 , .... are also in AP ( k 0) with common

k k k

d

differences are kd and respectively.

k

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3. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... and b1 , b2 , b3 , .... are two APs with common differences d1

and d2 respectively. Then a1 b1, a2 b2, a3 b3 , ...... are also in AP with

common difference ( d1 d2 ).

4. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... and b1 , b2 , b3 , .... are two APs with common differences d1

a a a

and d2 respectively, then a1b1 , a2b2 , a3 b3 , .... and 1 , 2 , 3 , K are not in

b1 b2 b3

AP.

5. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... , an are in AP, then

ar k + ar + k

ar = k, 0 k n r

2

6. If three numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken as , ,

m

+ and if five numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken as

.co

2 , , , + , + 2 etc.

In general. If ( 2 r + 1) numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken

as (r N ).

ing

r , (r 1) , .... , , , + , .... , + (r 1) , + r

Points to Consider

ch

oa

...............................................

Sum of (2r + 1) numbers = (2r + 1)

yC

2. From given conditions, find two equations in and , and then solve them. Now,

the numbers in AP can be obtained.

kM

+ , + 3 and if six numbers in AP whose sum is given are to be taken

as 5 , 3, , + , + 3, + 5; etc.

pic

(r N ).

w.

( 2 r 1) , ( 2 r 3) , .... , 3 , , + , + 3, ....

+ ( 2 r 3) , + ( 2 r 1)

ww

Points to Consider

1. Sum of four numbers = 4

Sum of six numbers = 6

.............................................

Sum of 2r numbers = 2r

2. From given conditions, find two conditions in and and then solve them. Now,

the numbers in AP can be obtained.

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18 | Algebra Part I

whose first terms are 1, 2, 3, ...., p and common differences are 1, 3, 5, ...... ,

(2 p 1) respectively, show that

1

S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p = np (np + 1)

2

Solution. Q 1, 2, 3, .... , p are in AP.

Then 2 1, 2 2, 2 3, K , 2 p are also in AP. (i)

[Multiplying 2 to each term]

and 1, 3, 5, ... , (2 p 1) are in AP.

Then (n 1) 1, (n 1) 3, (n 1) 5, .... , (n 1) (2 p 1) are also in AP. (ii)

[Multiplying (n 1) to each term]

From Eqs. (i) and (ii),

m

2 1 + (n 1) 1, 2 2 + (n 1) 3, 2 3 + (n 1) 5, K , 2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)

.co

are also in AP. (iii)

[Adding corresponding terms of Eqs. (i) and (ii)]

From Eq. (iii),

n n n

{2 1 + (n 1) 1},

ing

{2 2 + (n 1) 3}, {2 3 + (n 1) 5}, .....

2 2 2

n

{2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)} are also in AP

2

ch

n

[Multiplying to each term]

2

oa

p

S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p = {S1 + S p }

2

yC

p n n

= [2 1 + (n 1) 1] + [2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)]

2 2 2

np

kM

= {2 + (n 1) + 2 p + (n 1) (2 p 1)}

4

np 1

= (2np + 2) = np (np + 1)

4 2

pic

Aliter

n (n + 1)

Here, S1 = 1 + 2 + 3 + .... up to n terms =

2

w.

n

S 2 = 2 + 5 + 8 + .... up to n terms = [2 2 + (n 1)3]

2

n (3n + 1)

ww

=

2

n (5n + 1)

Similarly, S3 = 3 + 8 + 13 + .... upto n terms = etc.

2

Now, S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p

n (n + 1) n (3n + 1) n (5n + 1)

= + + + ..... up to p terms

2 2 2

n

= [(n + 3n + 5n + .... up to p terms) + (1 + 1 + 1 + .... up to p terms)]

2

n p np 1

= [2n + ( p 1) 2n ] + p = [n + n ( p 1) + 1] = np (np + 1)

2 2 2 2

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Illustration 22. Let and be roots of the equation x2 2x + A = 0 and let

and be the roots of the equation x2 18x + B = 0. If < < < are in

arithmetic progression, then find the values of A and B.

Solution. Q , , , are in AP.

Let = + d, = + 2d, = + 3d, d > 0

(Here, sum of , , , is not given)

Given, + = 2, = A

2 + d = 2, = A (i)

and + = 18, = B

2 + 5d = 18, = B (ii)

From Eqs. (i) and (ii)

d = 4, = 1

m

= 3, = 7, = 11

A = = ( 1) (3) = 3 and B = = (7)(11) = 77

.co

Illustration 23. The digits of a positive integer having three digits are in

ing

AP and their sum is 15. The number obtained by reversing the digits is 594

less than the original number. Find the number.

Solution. Let the digit in the units place be a d, digit in the tens place

be a and the digit in the hundreds place be a + d.

ch

3a = 15

oa

a =5 (i)

Original number = (a d ) + 10a + 100 (a + d )

yC

and number formed by reversing the digits

= (a + d ) + 10a + 100 (a d ) = 111a 99d = 555 99d

kM

198d = 594

d =3

pic

w.

abc = 4, then find the minimum value of b.

Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP.

ww

Let a = A D, b = A, c = A + D

Then, a = b D, c = b + D

Now, abc = 4

(b D ) b (b + D ) = 4

b (b2 D 2) = 4

b2 D 2 < b2

b (b2 D 2) < b3

4 < b3

b > (4)1/3 or b > (2)2/3

Hence, the minimum value of b is (2)2/3 .

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20 | Algebra Part I

such that d = a 2 + b2 + c2, then find the value of a + b + c + d.

Solution. Here, sum of numbers ie, a + b + c + d is not given.

Let b = a + D, c = a + 2D, d = a + 3D, D N

According to hypothesis

a + 3D = a 2 + (a + D )2 + (a + 2D )2

5D 2 + 3 (2a 1) D + 3a 2 a = 0 (i)

3 (2a 1) 9 (2a 1) 20 (3a a )

2 2

D=

10

3 (2a 1) ( 24a 2 16a + 9)

=

10

m

Now, 24a 2 16a + 9 0

24a 2 + 16a 9 0

.co

1 70 1 70

a +

3 3 3 12

a = 1, 0 (Q a I )

3

ing

When a = 0 from Eq. (i), D = 0, (not possible Q D N ) and for a = 1

5

4

From Eq. (i), D = 1,

ch

5

D =1 (Q D N )

a = 1, b = 0, c = 1, d = 2

oa

Then, a + b + c+ d = 1 + 0 + 1 + 2 =2

yC

Only One Correct Option

kM

1. The sum of first 2n terms of an AP is and the sum of next n terms is , its

common difference is

2 2 2 2

(a) (b) (c) (d)

pic

2 2

3n 3n 3n 3n

2. The sum of three numbers in AP is 3 and their product is 8, then sum of

squares of the numbers is

w.

S

3. Let S n denote the sum of n terms of an AP, if S 2n = 3S n, then the ratio 3 n is

ww

Sn

equal to

(a) 9 (b) 6 (c) 16 (d) 12

4. The sum of the products of the ten numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 taking two at a

time is

(a) 65 (b) 165 (c) 55 (d) 95

5. If a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a n are in AP where ai > 0 for all i, then the value of

1 1 1

+ + .... + is

a1 + a2 a2 + a3 an 1 + an

1 1 n (n 1)

(a) (b) (c) (d)

a1 + a n a1 a n a1 a n a1 + a n

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A geometric progression (GP) is a sequence, if the ratio of any term and its just

preceding term is constant throughout. This constant quantity is called the

common ratio and is generally denoted by r.

OR

A geometric progression (GP) is a sequence of numbers, whose first term is

non-zero and each of the term is obtained by multiplying its just preceding term by

a constant quantity. This constant quantity is called the common ratio of the GP.

Let t1 , t2 , t3 , .... , tn ; t1 , t2 , t3 , .... be respectively a finite or an infinite sequence.

Assume that none of the tn s is 0 and that

tk

= r, a constant ( ie, independent of k)

m

tk 1

For k = 2, 3, 4, .... , n or k = 2, 3, 4, .... as the case may be. We then call { tk } kn = 1

.co

or { tk } k = 1 as the case may be a geometric progression (abbreviated as GP). The

constant ratio r is called the common ratio (abbreviated as CR) of the GP.

t t t

r = 2 = 3 = ...... = n

ie,

ing

t1 t2 tn 1

If t1 = a is the first term of a GP, then

t2 = ar, t3 = t2 r = ar 2, t4 = t3 r = ar3 , K

ch

tn = tn 1 r = ar n 1

oa

It follows that, given that first term a and the CR r, the GP can be rewritten as

a , ar , ar 2 , .... , ar n 1 (Standard GP)

or a , ar , ar 2 , .... , ar n 1, .... (Standard GP)

yC

Remark 1. In a GP, neither a = 0 nor r = 0.

Remark 2. In a GP, no term can be equal to 0.

kM

Remark 3. If in a GP, the terms are alternatively positive and negative, then

its common ratio is always negative.

pic

Points to Consider

1. If we multiply the common ratio with any term of GP, we get the next following

w.

term and if we divide any term by the common ratio, we get the preceding term.

2. The common ratio of GP may be positive, negative or imaginary.

ww

4. If common ratio of GP is imaginary or real, then GP is known as Imaginary

GP

5. Increasing and Decreasing GP

For a GP to be increasing or decreasing r > 0. If r < 0, terms of GP are

alternatively positive and negative and so neither increasing nor decreasing.

r 0 < r <1 r >1 r >1 0 < r <1

Result Decreasing Increasing Decreasing Increasing

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22 | Algebra Part I

1 1

(ii) 9, 3, 1, , , .... (iii) 2, 6, 18, K .

3 9

1

(iv) 8, 4, 2, 1, , .... (v) 5, 10, 20, K

2

(vi) 5, 5, 5, 5,.....

(vii) 1, 1 + i , 2i, 2 + 2i , .... ; i = 1

Solution. (i) Here, a = 1

2 4 8 16

and r= = = = = .... = 2 ie, a = 1 and r = 2

1 2 4 8

Increasing GP (a > 0, r > 1)

m

(ii) Here, a = 9

.co

1 1

3 1 3 9 1 1

and r = = = = = ..... = ie, a = 9, r =

9 3 1 1 3 3ing

3

Decreasing GP (a > 0, 0 < r < 1)

(iii) Here, a = 2

ch

6 18

and r= = = .... = 3 ie, a = 2, r = 3

2 6

oa

(iv) Here, a = 8

yC

1

4 2 1 1 1

and r= = = = 2 = .... = ie, a = 8, r =

8 4 2 1 2 2

kM

(v) Here, a = 5

10 20

and r= = = .... = 2 ie, a = 5, r = 2

pic

5 10

Neither increasing nor decreasing (r < 0)

(vi) Here, a = 5

w.

5 5 5

and r= = = = .... = 1 ie, a = 5, r = 1

5 5 5

ww

Constant GP (r = 1)

(vii) Here, a = 1

1+ i 2i 2 + 2i

and r= = = = ....

1 1+ i 2i

2i (1 i ) ( 1 + i ) i

= (1 + i ) = = = ....

(1 + i ) (1 i ) i2

= (1 + i ) = (i + 1) = (1 + i ) = K

ie, a = 1, r = 1 + i

Imaginary GP (r = imaginary)

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22n 1

Illustration 27. Show that the sequence < tn > defined by tn = for

3

all values of n N is a GP. Also, find its common ratio.

22n 1

Solution. We have, tn =

3

Replacing n by n 1, we get

22n 3

tn 1 =

3

22n 1

tn

= 3 = 22 = 4

tn 1 22n 3

3

m

tn

Clearly, is independent of n and is equal to 4. So, the given sequence is

tn 1

.co

a GP with common ratio 4.

ing

not a GP.

Solution. We have

tn = 2 3n + 1

ch

Replacing n by (n 1) in t n

tn 1 = 2 3n 1 + 1

(2 3n + 3)

oa

tn 1 =

3

tn (2 3n + 1) 3 (2 3n + 1)

= =

yC

tn 1 (2 3n + 3) (2 3n + 3)

3

tn

Clearly, is not independent of n and is therefore not constant. So, the

kM

tn 1

given sequence is not a GP.

pic

General Term of a GP

Let a be the first term, r be the common ratio and l be the last term of a GP

having n terms. Then GP can be written as

w.

l l

a , ar , ar 2 , ..... , 2 , , l

r r

ww

1st term from beginning = t1 = a = ar1 1

2nd term from beginning = t2 = ar = ar 2 1

3rd term from beginning = t3 = ar 2 = ar3 1

.......................................................................

.......................................................................

nth term from beginning = tn = ar n 1 , n N

Hence, nth term of a GP from beginning

= t n = ar n 1 = l (last term)

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24 | Algebra Part I

l

1st term from end = t1 = l =

r1 1

l l

2nd term from end = t2 = = 2 1

r r

l l

3rd term from end = t3 = 2 = 3 1

r r

.......................................................................

.......................................................................

l

nth term from end = tn = n 1 , n N

r

m

Hence, nth term of a GP from end

l

= t n = n 1 = a (first term)

.co

r

Now, it is clear that ing

l

tk tk = ar k 1 k1

= a l or t k t k = a l 1 k n

r

ie, In a finite GP of n terms, the product of the k th term from the beginning

ch

and the k th term form the end is independent of k and equals the product of the

first and last terms.

oa

Points to Consider

yC

2. If last term of GP be tn and CR is r, then terms of GP from end are

kM

t t

tn , n , n2 , K

r r

3. If in a GP, the terms are alternatively positive and negative, then its common

pic

4. If a and l represent first and last term of a GP respectively, then common ratio

1

l n 1

w.

of GP = r =

a

5. If tn, tn + 1 , t n + 2 are three consecutive terms of a GP; then

ww

tn + 1 tn + 2

= tn2 + 1 = t n t n + 2.

tn tn + 1

In particular, if a , b, c are in GP, then

b c

= b2 = ac

a b

b2 c2

On squaring, =

a 2 b2

Hence, a 2, b2, c2 are also in GP.

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Illustration 29. If first term of a GP is a, third term is b and (n + 1)th

term is c. The (2n + 1)th term of a GP is

b bc c2

(a) c (b) (c) abc (d)

a a a

Solution. Let common ratio = r

b

b = ar 2 r =

a

c

Also, c = ar n r n =

a

2

c c2

t 2n + 1 = ar 2n = a (r n )2 = a =

a a

m

Hence, (d) is the correct answer.

.co

Illustration 30. The (m + n )th and (m n )th terms of a GP are p and q

respectively. Then the mth term of the GP is

m

q 2n

ing

p

(a) p (b) pq (c) (d) None of these

p q

Solution. Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio, then

ch

tm + n = p arm + n 1 = p (i)

m n 1

tm n = q ar =q (ii)

oa

arm + n 1 arm n 1 = p q a 2r 2m 2 = pq

yC

arm 1 = pq tm = pq

Hence, (b) is the correct answer.

kM

Illustration 31. If sin , 2 (sin + 1), 6 sin + 6 are in GP, then the fifth

term is

(a) 81 (b) 81 2 (c) 162 (d) 162 2

pic

2

w.

1

We get sin = 1, (sin = 1 is not possible)

2

ww

1

sin =

2

1

then first term = a = sin =

2

1

2 + 1

2

and common ratio = r = =3 2

1

2

1

t5 = ar = (3 2 )4 = 162

4

2

Hence, (c) is the correct answer.

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25

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26 | Algebra Part I

Illustration 32. The 1025th term in the sequence 1, 22, 4444, 88888888,

.....,. is

(a) 29 (b) 210 (c) 211 (d) 212

Solution. The number of digits in each term of the sequence are 1, 2, 4, 8,

.... which are in GP. Let 1025th term is 2n.

Then, 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + .... + 2n 1 < 1025 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + .... + 2n

(2 1) (1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + K + 2n 1 )

< 1025

(2 1)

(2 1) (1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + .... + 2n )

(2 1)

2n 1 < 1025 2n + 1 1

m

2n < 1026 2n + 1 (i)

or 2n + 1 1026 > 1024

.co

2n + 1 > 210 n + 1 > 10

n >9

n = 10 [which is always satisfy Eq. (i)]

ing

Hence, (b) is the correct answer.

ch

3 (a 2 + b2 + c2 + 1) = 2 (a + b + c + ab + bc + ca ); then a , b, c are in

(a) AP only (b) GP only (c) GP and AP (d) None of these

oa

Solution. Given, 3 (a 2 + b2 + c2 + 1) = 2 (a + b + c + ab + bc + ca )

2 (a 2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca ) + (a 2 + b2 + c2 2a 2b 2c + 3)

yC

a b = b c = c a = 0 and a 1 = b 1 = c 1 = 0

a = b = c=1

kM

Hence, (c) is the correct answer.

pic

w.

1. The fourth, seventh and the last term of a GP are 10, 80 and 2560 respectively.

ww

4 4 5 5

(a) , 12 (b) , 10 (c) , 12 (d) , 10

5 5 4 4

2. If the first and the nth terms of a GP are a and b respectively and if P is the

product of the first n terms, then P 2 is equal to

(a) ab (b) (ab)n / 2 (c) (ab)n (d) None of these

3. If a1 , a 2, a3 , (a1 > 0) are three successive terms of a GP with common ratio r, the

value of r for which a3 > 4a 2 3a1 holds is given by

(a) 1 < r < 3 (b) 3 < r < 1 (c) r < 1 or r > 3 (d) None of these

4. If x, 2x + 2, 3x + 3 are in GP, then the fourth term is

(a) 27 (b) 27 (c) 13.5 (d) 13.5

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5. In a sequence of 21 terms the first 11 terms are in AP with common difference 2

and the last 11 terms are in GP with common ratio 2, if the middle term of the AP

is equal to the middle term of GP, then the middle term of the entire sequence is

10 10 32 32

(a) (b) (c) (d)

31 31 31 31

6. Three distinct numbers x, y, z form a GP in that order and the numbers

7x + 5 y, 7 y + 5z, 7z + 5x form an AP in that order. The common ratio of GP is

(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 10 (d) 18

The game of chess was invented by Grand Vizier Sissa Ben Dhair for the

m

Indian king Shirham. Pleased with the game, the king asked the Vizier what he

would like as reward. The Vizier asked for one grain of wheat to be placed on the

.co

first square of the chess, two grains on the second, four grains on the third and so

on (each time doubling the number of grains). The king was surprised of the

request and told the vizier that he was fool to ask for so little.

ing

The inventor of chess was no fool. He told the king What I have asked for is

more wheat that you have in the entire kingdom, in fact it is more than there is

in the whole word He was right. There are 64 squares on a chess board and on

the nth square he was asking for 2n 1 grains, if you add the numbers

ch

oa

2S = 2 + 22 + 23 + 24 + .... + 263 + 264 (ii)

yC

S = 264 1 = 18, 446, 744, 073, 709, 551, 615 grains that is represent more

wheat that has been produced on the earth.

kM

Sum of n Terms of a GP

pic

Let a be the first term, r be the common ratio, l be the last term of a GP

having n terms and S n the sum of n terms, then

l l

S n = a + ar + ar 2 + .... + 2 + + l (i)

w.

r r

Multiplying both sides by r (the common ratio)

ww

l

r S n = ar + ar 2 + ar3 + K + + l + lr (ii)

r

Subtracting Eq. (ii) from Eq. (i), we have

S n r S n = a lr or S n (1 r ) = a lr

a lr

Sn = when r < 1

1 r

lr a

Sn = when r > 1

r1

Now, l = tn = ar n 1

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28 | Algebra Part I

a (1 r n ) a (r n 1)

Sn = when r < 1, S n = when r > 1

(1 r ) (r 1)

If r = 1, the above formulae cannot be used. But then the GP reduces to

a , a , a , ....

S n = a + a + a + K n times = na

Ratio is Less than Unity ie, It is a Proper Fraction

If a be the first term, r the common ratio of a GP, then

m

a (1 r n ) a ar n

Sn = =

(1 r ) (1 r ) (1 r )

.co

Let 1 < r < 1 ie,|r|< 1, then lim r n 0

n

ing

a

S = ,

(1 r )

ch

Recurring Decimal

oa

its value can be obtained by means of infinite geometric series as follows

yC

0.3 2 7 = 0.327272727...... to infinity

kM

3 27 27 27

= + + + + .... to infinity

10 103 105 107

pic

3 27 1 1

= + 3 1 + 2 + 4 + K to infinity

10 10 10 10

w.

3 27 1 3 27 297 + 27 324

= + 3 = + = = (rational number)

10 10 1 1 10 990 990 990

ww

102

Aliter (Best method)

Let P denote the figure which do not recur and suppose them p in number, Q

denote the recurring period consisting of q figures. Let R denote the value of the

recurring decimal.

Then, R = 0 PQQQ .....

10 p R = P QQQ .... and 10 p + q R = PQ QQQ ....

Therefore, by subtraction

PQ P

R=

(10 p + q 10 p )

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Corollary 1. If R = 0 QQQ ....

Q

Then, R = q (when Q denote the recurring period consisting of q figures)

10 1

3 1

eg, If R = 0. 3, then R = =

10 1 1

3

Corollary 2. The value of recurring decimal is always rational number.

Illustration 34. Find the value of 0.32 5 8.

Solution. Let R = 0.32 5 8

R = 0.3258585858 .... (i)

m

Here, number of figures which are not recurring is 2 and number of figures

which are recurring is also 2.

.co

Then, 100R = 32.58585858 .... (ii)

and 10000R = 3258.58585858

ing (iii)

Subtracting Eq. (ii) from Eq. (iii), we get

9900R = 3226

3226

R=

ch

9900

1613

Hence, R=

4950

oa

yC

non-recurring figure from the given figure.

(ii) The denominator consists of as many 9s as there are recurring figure

kM

For Example :

3654 36 3618

(i) 0.36 5 4 = =

pic

9900 9900

327 3 1314

(ii) 1.3 2 7 = 1 + 0.3 2 7 = 1 + =

990 990

w.

3 0 1

(iii) 0. 3 = =

9 3

ww

a + aa + aaa + aaaa + K a N and 1 a 9

Solution. Let

S = a + aa + aaa + aaaa + .... to n terms

= a (1 + 11 + 111 + 1111 + .... to n terms)

a

= (9 + 99 + 999 + 9999 + K to n terms)

9

a

= {(101 1) + (102 1) + (103 1) + (104 1) + .....to n terms}

9

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30 | Algebra Part I

a

= {(10 + 102 + 103 + K to n terms) (1 + 1 + 1 + ... n times)}

9

a 10 (10n 1) a 10

= n = (10n 1) n (Remember)

9 10 1 9 9

In Particular.

(i) For a = 1

1 10

1 + 11 + 111 + .... = (10 1) n

n

9 9

(ii) For a = 2

2 10

2 + 22 + 222 + .... = (10 1)

n

n

m

99

.co

(iii) For a = 3

3 10

3 + 33 + 333 + .... = (10 1)

n

n

99

ing

(iv) For a = 4

4 10

4 + 44 + 444 + .... = (10 1) n

n

ch

99

(v) For a = 5

oa

5 10

5 + 55 + 555 + .... = (10 1)

n

n

99

yC

(vi) For a = 6

6 10

6 + 66 + 666 + .... = (10 1) n

n

kM

9 9

(vii) For a = 7

7 10

pic

n

99

(viii) For a = 8

w.

8 10

8 + 88 + 888 + .... = (10 1) n

n

99

ww

(ix) For a = 9

9 10

9 + 99 + 999 + .... = (10 1)

n

n

99

0. b + 0. bb + 0. bbb + 0. bbbb + .... b N and 1 b 9.

Solution. Let S = 0. b + 0. bb + 0. bbb + 0. bbbb + .... to n terms

= b (0.1 + 0.11 + 0.111 + 0.1111 + K to n terms)

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b

= (0.9 + 0.99 + 0.999 + 0.9999 + .... to n terms)

9

b

= {(1 0.1) + (1 0.01) + (1 0.001) + (1 0.0001) + .... to n terms}

9

b

= {(1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + .... n times) (0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + 0.0001 + .... to n terms)}

9

b 1 1 1 1

= n + + + + .... to n terms

9 10 102 103 104

1 1

n

1

b 10 10 b 1 1

n

= n = n 1 (Remember)

m

1 10

9 1 9 9

10

.co

In Particular.

(i) For b = 1

ing

1 1 1

n

. + 011

01 . + 0111

. + .... = n 1

9 9 10

ch

(ii) For b = 2

oa

2 1 1

n

0.2 + 0.22 + 0.222 + .... = n 1

9 9 10

yC

(iii) For b = 3

3 1 1

n

0.3 + 0.33 + 0.333 + .... =

kM

n 1

9 9 10

(iv) For b = 4

pic

4 1 1

n

0.4 + 0.44 + 0.444 + .... = n 1

9 9 10

w.

(v) For b = 5

5 1 1

n

ww

9 9 10

(vi) For b = 6

6 1 1

n

0.6 + 0.66 + 0.666 + .... = n 1

9 9 10

(vii) For b = 7

7 1 1

n

0.7 + 0.77 + 0.777 + .... = n 1

9 9 10

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32 | Algebra Part I

(viii) For b = 8

8 1 1

n

0.8 + 0.88 + 0.888 + .... = n 1

9 9 10

(ix) For b = 9

9 1 1

n

0.9 + 0.99 + 0.999 + .... = n 1

9 9 10

groups S1 = {1}, S 2 = {2, 3}, S3 = {4, 5, 6, 7}, S 4 = {8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15}, .... ,

then find the sum of the numbers in S50.

m

Solution. The number of terms in the groups are 1, 2, 22, 23 , ....

The number of terms in the 50th group = 250 1 = 249

.co

Q The first term of 1st group = 1 = 20 = 21 1

The first term of 2nd group = 2 = 21 = 22 1

The first term of 3rd group = 4 = 22 = 23 1

ing

.......................................................................

.......................................................................

The first term of 50th group = 250 1 = 249

ch

249

S50 = {2 249 + (249 1) 1}

2

oa

1 1 1

yC

2 22 2

1

n such that 2 S n < .

100

kM

Solution. Given,

1

n

1 1

2

S n = 1 + + 2 + .... + n 1 =

1 1 1

pic

2 2 2 1

1

2

1 1 1 1

w.

S n = 2 n 1 2 S n = n 1 < Q 2 S n <

2 2 100 100

2n 1 > 100 > 26 2n 1 > 26

ww

n 1 >6 n > 7

Hence, least value of n is 8.

y = 1 + b + b2 + b3 + .... show that

xy

1 + ab + a 2b2 + a3 b3 + .... = , where 0 < a < 1 and 0 < b < 1.

x+ y1

1

Solution. Given, x = 1 + a + a 2 + a3 + .... =

1a

x ax = 1

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x 1

a= (i)

x

and y = 1 + b + b2 + b3 + ....

y 1

Similarly, b= (ii)

y

Since, 0 < a < 1, 0 < b < 1

0 < ab < 1

1

Now, 1 + ab + a 2b2 + a3 b3 + .... =

1 ab

1

= [from Eqs. (i) and (ii)]

x 1 y 1

1

x y

m

xy

=

xy xy + x + y 1

.co

xy

Hence, 1 + ab + a 2b2 + a3 b3 + .... =

x+ y1 ing

Properties of Geometric Progression

1. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in GP with common ratio r, then

ch

a a a

a1k, a2k, a3 k, .... and 1 , 2 , 3 , ..... are also in GP ( k 0) with common

k k k

oa

ratio r.

2. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... are in GP with common ratio r , then

yC

3. If a1 , a2 , a3 , ..... are in GP with common ratio r, then

1 1 1 1

kM

a1 a2 a3 r

(ii) a1n , a2n , a3n , .... are also in GP with common ratio r n and n Q.

pic

In this case the converse also holds good.

w.

4. If a1 , a2 , a3 , .... and b1 , b2 , b3 , .... are two GPs with common ratios r1 and r2

respectively. Then

a a a

ww

b1 b2 b3

r1

ratios r1r2 and respectively.

r2

(ii) a1 b1 , a 2 b2 , a3 b3 , ..... are not in GP.

5. If a1 , a2 , a3 , ..... , an 2 , an 1 , an are in GP. Then,

(i) a1an = a2an 1 = a3 an 2 = K

(ii) ar = ar k ar + k k, 0 k n r

a a a an

(iii) 2 = 3 = 4 = .... =

a1 a2 a3 an 1

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34 | Algebra Part I

Also, a2 = a1r , a3 = a1r 2 ,

a4 = a1r3 , .... , an = a1r n 1

where r is the common ratio of GP.

a

6. If three numbers in GP whose product is given are to be taken as , a, ar

r

and if five numbers in GP whose product is given are to be taken as

a a

, , a , ar , ar 2 etc.

r2 r

In general. If ( 2m + 1) numbers in GP whose product is given are to be

m

taken as ( m N )

.co

a a a

m

, m 1 , ..... , , a , ar , .... , ar m 1 , ar m

r r r

ing

Points to Consider

1. Product of three numbers = a3

ch

....................................................

Product of (2m + 1) numbers = a 2m + 1

oa

2. From given conditions, find two equations in a and r and then solve them. Now,

the numbers in GP can be obtained.

yC

a a

, , ar , ar3 and if six numbers in GP whose product is given are to be

kM

r3 r

a a a

taken as 5 , 3 , , ar , ar3 , ar5 etc.

r r r

pic

taken as ( m N )

a a a a

, 2m 3 ,.... , 3 , , ar , ar 3 , ..... , ar 2m 3 , ar 2m 1

w.

2m 1

r r r r

ww

Points to Consider

1. Product of four numbers = a 4

Product of six numbers = a 6

.....................................................

Product of (2m) numbers = a 2m

2. From given conditions, find two equations in a and r, and then solve them. Now,

the numbers in GP can be obtained.

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Illustration 40. If S1 , S 2, S3 , .... , S p are the sum of infinite geometric

series whose first terms are 1, 2, 3, ...., p and whose common ratios are

1 1 1 1

, , , .... , respectively, prove that

2 3 4 p+1

p ( p + 3)

S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p =

2

p

Solution. Q S p = = ( p + 1)

1

1

p+1

S1 = 2, S 2 = 3, S3 = 4, ....

LHS = S1 + S 2 + S3 + .... + S p

p p ( p + 3)

m

= 2 + 3 + 4 + ..... + ( p + 1) = (2 + p + 1) = = RHS

2 2

.co

Illustration 41. Let x1 and x2 be the roots of the equation x2 3x + A = 0

and let x3 and x4 be the roots of the equation x2 12x + B = 0. It is known

ing

that the numbers x1 , x2, x3 , x4 (in that order) form an increasing GP. Find A

and B.

Solution. Q x1 , x2, x3 , x4 are in GP.

ch

Let x2 = x1r , x3 = x1 r 2, x4 = x1 r3

(Here, product of x1 , x2, x3 , x4 are not given)

Given, x1 + x2 = 3, x1x2 = A

oa

x1 (1 + r ) = 3, x12r = A (i)

and x3 + x4 = 12, x3 x4 = B

yC

From Eqs. (i) and (ii)

r2 = 4 r = 2 (for increasing GP)

kM

Now, A = x12r = 12 2 = 2 [from Eq. (i)]

and B = x12r5 = 12 25 = 32 [from Eq. (ii)]

pic

3

w.

2

Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP and sum of a , b, c is given.

ww

3

and given a + b+ c=

2

3

bD+ b+ b+ D=

2

1

b=

2

1 1

Then, a = D and c = + D

2 2

Also, given a 2, b2, c2 are in GP, then

(b2)2 = a 2c2

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36 | Algebra Part I

b2 = ac

1 1 1 1 1

= D2 D2 = = (Q D 0)

4 4 4 4 2

1

D=

2

1

D= (Q D < 0)

2

1 1 1 1

a= + and c =

2 2 2 2

and the sum of their products in pairs is 156, then find the sum of three

m

numbers.

Solution. Here, product of numbers in GP is given.

.co

a

Let the three numbers be , a , ar.

r

a

a ar = 216 a3 = 216

Then,

ing

r

a =6

Sum of the products in pairs = 156

ch

a a

a + a ar + ar = 156

r r

oa

1

a 2 + r + 1 = 156

r

1 + r2 + r

yC

36 = 156

r

1 + r + r 2

3 = 13

kM

r

3r 2 10r + 3 = 0

1

pic

(3r 1) (r 3) = 0 r = or r = 3

3

Putting the values of a and r, the required numbers are 18, 6, 2 or 2, 6, 18.

w.

ww

Illustration 44. Find a three digit number whose consecutive digits form

a GP. If we subtract 792 from this number, we get a number consisting of

the same digits written in the reverse order. Now, if we increase the second

digit of the required number by 2, the resulting digits will form an AP.

Solution. Let the three digits be a , ar , ar 2, then according to hypothesis

100a + 10ar + ar 2 792 = 100ar 2 + 10ar + a

99a (1 r 2) = 792

a (1 + r ) (1 r ) = 8 (i)

and a , ar + 2, ar 2 are in AP.

Then, 2 (ar + 2) = a + ar 2

a (r 2r + 1) = 4 a (r 1)2 = 4

2

(ii)

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Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get

r+1 1

= 2 r =

r 1 3

From Eq. (ii), a = 9

Thus, digits are 9, 3, 1 and so the required number is 931.

Illustration 45. A square is drawn by joining the mid-points of the sides

of a given square. A third square is drawn inside the second square in the

same way and this process continues indefinitely. If a side of the first

square is 16 cm, determine the sum of the areas of all the squares.

m

Solution. Let a be the side length of square, then

D G

C

.co

K O J

T S

ing

H P N F

Q R

ch

L M I

A E B

oa

AB = BC = CD = DA = a

QE , F , G , H are the mid-points of AB, BC , CD and DA respectively.

yC

a

EF = FG = GH = HE =

2

and I , J , K , L are the mid-points of EF , FG , GH , HE respectively.

kM

a

IJ = JK = KL = LI =

2

a

Similarly, MN = NO = OP = PM =

2 2

pic

a

and QR = RS = ST = TQ = , ....

4

S = sum of areas

w.

2 2 2

a a a

= a2 + + + + ....

ww

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

= a 1 + + + + .... = a

2 2

2 4 8 1 1

2

= 2a 2 = 2 (16)2 (Q a = 16 cm)

= 512 sq cm

mid-points of its sides are joined to form another triangle whose mid-points,

in turn, are joined to form still another triangle. This process continues,

indefinitely. Find the sum of the perimeters of all the triangles.

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38 | Algebra Part I

triangle, then

AB = BC = CA = a

Q D , E , F are the mid-points of BC , CA and AB

F H E

respectively.

a M L

EF = FD = DE =

2 I J

K

and H , I , J are the mid-points of EF , FD and DE

respectively. B C

a D

IJ = JH = HI =

4

a

Similarly, KL = ML = KM = , ....

8

m

a a a a

P = sum of perimeters = 3 a + + + + K = 3 = 6a

.co

2 4 8 1 1

2

= 6 24 (Q a = 24 cm)

= 144 cm

ing

Illustration 47. Let S1 , S 2, .... be squares such that for each n 1, the

ch

a side of S1 is 10 cm and the area of S n less than 1 sq cm. Then find the

value of n.

oa

Length of a side of S n = 2 (length of a side of S n + 1)

yC

length of a side of S n + 1 1

= for all n 1

length of a side of S n 2

1

Sides of S1 , S 2, S3 , .... form a GP with common ratio and first term 10.

kM

2

n 1

1 10

Side of S n = 10 =

2 ( n 1)

pic

2 2

100

Area of S n = (side)2 =

2n 1

w.

100

< 1 2n 1 > 100 > 26 2n 1 > 26 n 1 > 6

2n 1

ww

n > 7 or n 8

y

Illustration 48. The line x + y = 1 meets

B

x-axis at A and y-axis at B, P is the mid-point

of AB, P1 is the foot of perpendicular from P to

OA, M1 is that of P1 from OP; P2 is that of M1

P

from OA, M 2 is that of P2 from OP; P3 is that of

M1

M 2 from OA and so on. If Pn denotes the nth

M2

foot of the perpendicular on OA, then find OPn.

x

O P3 P2 P1 A

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Solution. We have,

(OM n 1 )2 = (OPn )2 + (PnM n 1 )2

= (OPn )2 + (OPn )2 = 2 (OPn )2

= 2 2n (say)

Also, (OPn 1 ) = (OM n 1 )2 + (Pn 1M n 1 )2

2

1

2n 1 = 2 2n + n2 1

2

1 2 1

n = n 1 n = n 1

2

4 2

1 1 1

OPn = n = n 1 = 2 n 2 = .... = n

2 2 2

n

1

m

OPn =

2

.co

Use of GP in Solving Practical Problems

In this part, we shall see how the formulae relating to GP can be made use of

in solving practical problems.

ing

Illustration 49. Dipesh writes letters to four of his friends. He asks each

of them to copy the letter and mail to four different persons with the request

ch

that they continue the chain similarly. Assuming that the chain is not

broken and that it costs 25 paise to mail one letter, find the total money

oa

Solution. No. of letters in the 1st set = 4 (These are letters sent by Dipesh)

No. of letters in the 2nd set = 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 16

yC

..................................................................................................

kM

The number of letters sent in the 1st set, 2nd set, 3rd set, ..... are

16 64

respectively 4, 16, 64, ....... which is a GP with a = 4, r = = =4

4 16

4 (48 1)

pic

4 1

25

Total money spent on letters = 87380 = ` 21845

w.

100

ww

path 1 mm in the first second and half of the distance covered in the

previous second in the succeeding second. In how much time would it reach

a point 3 mm away from its starting point.

Solution. Distance covered by the insect in the 1st second = 1 mm

1 1

Distance covered by it in the 2nd second = 1 = mm

2 2

1 1 1

Distance covered by it in the 3rd second = = mm

2 2 4

..................................................................................................

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40 | Algebra Part I

The distance covered by the insect in 1st second, 2nd second, 3rd second, ....

1 1 1

are respectively 1, , , .... , which are in GP with a = 1, r = . Let time

2 4 2

taken by the insect in covering 3 mm be n seconds.

1 1

1 + + + .... n terms = 3

2 4

1

n

1 1

2

=3

1

1

2

n

1 3

1 =

2

m

2

n

1 1

.co

= or 2 = 2

n

2 2

which is impossible because 2n > 0 ing

Our supposition is wrong.

There is no n N , for which the insect could never 3 mm in n seconds.

It will never to able to cover 3 mm.

ch

Remark. The maximum distance that the insect could cover is 2 mm.

1 1 1

ie, 1 + + + .... = =2

oa

2 4 1

1

2

yC

Due to leakage of a gas from a factory the pollution is increased to 20%.

If every day 80% of the pollution is neutralised, in how many days the

kM

Solution. Let the pollution on 1st day = 20

The pollution on 2nd day = 20 20% = 20 (0.20)

pic

...........................................................................

Let in n days the atmosphere will be normal

w.

n 1

2

ww

1

<

10 2000

Taking logarithm on base 10 we get

(n 1) (log 2 log 10) < log 1 log 2000

(n 1) (0.3010 1) < 0 (0.3010 + 3)

3.3010

n 1 > n > 5.722

0.6990

Hence, the atmosphere will be normal in 6 days.

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Only One Correct Option

1. The sum to n terms of the series 11 + 103 + 1005 + ..... is

1 1

(a) (10n 1) + n 2 (b) (10n 1) + 2n

9 9

10 10

(c) (10 1) + n

n 2

(d) (10n 1) + 2n

9 9

2. In an increasing GP, the sum of the first and last term is 66, the product of the

second and the last but one is 128 and the sum of the sum of the terms is 126,

Then the number of terms in the series is

(a) 6 (b) 8 (c) 10 (d) 12

m

3. If S1 , S 2, S3 be respectively the sum of n , 2n and 3n terms of a GP, then

S1 (S3 S 2)

.co

is equal to

(S 2 S1 )2

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4

ing

4. If |a |< 1 and | b| < 1, then the sum of the series

1 + (1 + a )b + (1 + a + a 2) b2 + (1 + a + a 2 + a3 ) b3 + .... is

1 1

(a) (b)

ch

(1 a ) (1 b) (1 a ) (1 ab)

1 1

(c) (d)

(1 b) (1 ab) (1 a ) (1 b) (1 ab)

oa

5. If the sides of a triangle are in GP and its larger angle is twice the smallest,

then the common ratio r satisfies the inequality

yC

(a) 0 < r < 2 (b) 1 < r < 2 (c) 1 < r < 2 (d) r > 2

6. If ax3 + bx2 + cx + d is divisible by ax2 + c, then a , b, c, d are in

kM

7. If (r )n denotes the number r r r .... (n digits), where r = 1, 2, 3, ... , 9 and a = (6)n ,

b = (8)n, c = (4)2n, then

pic

8. 0.4 2 7 represents the rational number

47 47 47 49

w.

99 110 999 99

9. If the product of three numbers in GP be 216 and their sum is 19, then the

ww

numbers are

(a) 4, 6, 9 (b) 4, 7, 8 (c) 3, 7, 9 (d) None of these

10. A particle begins at the origin and moves 1 unit to the right and reaches P1 ,

1 1 1

unit to the up and reaches P2, unit to the right and reaches P3 , unit to the

2 4 8

1

down and reaches P4 , unit to the right and reaches P5 and so on. If

16

Pn = (xn , yn ), then lim Pn is

n

4 2 2

(a) (2, 3) (b) , (c) , 1 (d) None of these

3 5 5

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42 | Algebra Part I

A Harmonic Progression (HP) is a sequence if the reciprocals of its terms are

in Arithmetic Progression (AP)

1 1 1

t1 , t2 , t3 , .... is a HP if and only if , , , .... is an AP.

t1 t2 t3

Fro example, the sequence

1 1 1

(i) , , , ....

2 5 8

5 10

(ii) 2, , ,K

2 3

m

1 1 1

(iii) , , , .... are HPs.

.co

a a + d a + 2d

Points to Consider

ing

1. No term of HP can be zero.

2. The most general or standard HP is

ch

1 1 1 1

, , , , ....

a a + d a + 2d a + 3d

oa

ab a

Illustration 52. If a , b, c are in HP, show that = .

bc c

yC

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

, , are in AP, ie, =

kM

a b c b a c b

ab bc ab a

or = or =

ab bc bc c

pic

Point to Consider

w.

I II I

(say I, II, III) satisfy = this relation.

II III III

ww

5

Illustration 53. Find the first term of a HP whose second term is and

4

1

the third term is .

2

5 1

Solution. Let a be the first term. Then a, , are in HP.

4 2

5

a

Then, 4 =a (from above note)

5 1 1

4 2 2

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4a 5

= 2a

5 2

4a 5 = 6a or 2a = 5

5

a=

2

Let a be the first term, d be the common difference of an AP.

Then, nth term of an AP from beginning = a + ( n 1) d

1

Hence, the nth term of HP from beginning = n N

a + ( n 1) d

m

(ii) nth Term of HP from End

.co

Let l be the last term, d be the common difference of an AP. Then

nth term of an AP from end = l ( n 1) d

1

Hence, the nth term of HP from end = n N

l ( n 1) d

ing

Points to Consider

ch

1 1

1. +

nth term of HP from beginning nth term of HP from end

oa

1 1

=a + l= +

first term of HP last term of HP

yC

2. There is no general formula for the sum of any number of quantities in HP are

generally solved by inverting the terms and making use of the corresponding

AP.

kM

1 1 1 1

Illustration 54. If + + + = 0, prove that a , b, c are in HP,

a c a b cb

pic

unless b = a + c.

Solution. We have

1 1 1 1

+ + + =0

w.

a c a b cb

1 1 1 1

+ + + =0

ww

a c b c a b

(c b + a ) (a b + c)

+ =0

a (c b) c (a b)

1 1

(a + c b) + =0

a (c b) c (a b)

(a + c b) [2ac b (a + c)] = 0

2ac

If a + c b 0, then 2ac b (a + c) = 0 or b =

a+c

Therefore, a , b, c are in HP and if 2ac b (a + c) 0, then a + c b = 0, ie,

b = a + c.

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44 | Algebra Part I

a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 + .... + a n 1a n = (n 1) a1a n

Solution. Given, a1 , a 2, a3 , ..... , a n are in HP.

1 1 1 1

, , , ...... , are in AP.

a1 a 2 a3 an

Let D be the common difference of the AP, then

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= = = .... = =D

a 2 a1 a3 a 2 a 4 a3 an an 1

a1 a 2 a 2 a3 a3 a 4 an 1 an

= = = .... = =D

a1a 2 a 2a3 a3 a 4 an 1 an

a a2 a a3 a a4

a1a 2 = 1 , a 2a3 = 2 , a3 a 4 = 3 ,

m

D D D

an 1 an

.... , a n 1a n =

.co

D

Adding all such expressions, we get

a1 a n a1a n 1 1

a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 + ..... + a n 1a n = =

a n a1

ing

D D

1

a1a n 1

= a + (n 1) D a = (n 1) a1a n

D 1 1

ch

oa

Points to Consider

In particular case

yC

1. When n = 4

a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 = 3a1a 4

2. When n = 6

kM

a1a 2 + a 2a3 + a3 a 4 + a 4 a5 + a5 a 6 = 5 a1 a 6

pic

1

their reciprocals is . Find the numbers.

4

Solution. Three numbers in HP can be taken as

1 1 1

w.

, ,

ad a a+d

1 1 1

ww

then + + = 37 (i)

ad a a+d

1

and ad+a+a+d=

4

1

a=

12

12 12

From Eq. (i), + 12 + = 37

1 12d 1 + 12d

12 12

+ = 25

1 12d 1 + 12d

24

= 25

1 144d 2

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24 1

1 144d 2 = or d 2 =

25 25 144

1

d=

60

1 1 1 1 1 1

a d , a , a + d are , , or , ,

15 12 10 10 12 15

Hence, three numbers in HP are

15, 12, 10 or 10, 12, 15

c, then prove that

(q r ) bc + (r p) ca + ( p q) ab = 0

m

Solution. Let A and D be the first term and common difference of the

corresponding AP. Now a , b, c are respectively the pth, qth and rth terms of

.co

HP.

1 1 1

, , will be respectively the pth, qth and rth terms of the

a b c

corresponding AP.

ing

1

= A + ( p 1) D (i)

a

ch

1

= A + (q 1) D (ii)

b

1

= A + (r 1) D

oa

(iii)

c

Subtracting Eq. (iii) from Eq. (ii), we get

(c b) (b c)

yC

1 1

= (q r ) D bc (q r ) = =

b c D D

So, LHS = (q r ) bc + (r p) ca + ( p q) ab

kM

1

= { b c + c a + a b} = 0 = RHS

D

pic

ab a

if = , then a , b, c are in AP.

b c a

w.

ab a

if = , then a , b, c are in GP.

b c b

ww

ab a

and if = , then a , b, c are in HP.

b c c

Illustration 58. If a , b, c be in AP and a 2, b2, c2 be in HP. Prove that

a

, b, c are in GP or else a = b = c.

2

Solution. Given, a , b, c are in AP.

a+c

b= (i)

2

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46 | Algebra Part I

2a 2c2

b2 = (ii)

a 2 + c2

From Eq. (ii), b2 {(a + c)2 2ac} = 2a 2c2

b2 {(2b)2 2ac} = 2a 2c2 [from Eq. (i)]

2b4 acb2 a 2c2 = 0

(2b2 + ac) (b2 ac) = 0

2b2 + ac = 0 or b2 ac = 0

1 a

If 2b2 + ac = 0, then b2 = ac or , b, c are in GP

2 2

and if b2 ac = 0 a , b, c are in GP.

But given, a , b, c are in AP.

m

Which is possible only when a = b = c

.co

Illustration 59. If a , b, c are in HP, b, c, d are in GP, and c, d , e are in AP,

show that ing

ab2

e=

(2a b)2

Solution. Given a , b, c are in HP.

ch

2ac ab

b= or c = (i)

a+c 2a b

oa

c2 = bd (ii)

yC

c+ e

d=

2

kM

e = 2d c

2c2

e= c [from Eq. (ii)] (iii)

b

pic

2

2 ab ab

e=

w.

b 2a b 2a b

ab ab2

= {2a (2a b)} =

ww

(2a b) 2

(2a b)2

AP; b, c, d are in GP; c, d , e are in HP. If a = 2 and e = 18, find all possible

values of b, c and d.

Solution. Given,

a , b, c are in AP.

a+c

b= (i)

2

b, c, d are in GP.

c2 = bd (ii)

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and c, d , e are in HP.

2ce

d= (iii)

c+ e

Now, substituting the values of b and d in Eq. (ii), then

a + c 2ce

c2 =

2 c + e

c (c + e) = e (a + c)

c2 = ae (iv)

Given, a = 2, e = 18

From Eq. (iv), c2 = (2) (18) = 36

c=6

m

26

From Eq. (i), b= = 4, 2

2

.co

c2 36 36 36

and from Eq. (ii), d= = = or

b b 4 2

d = 9 or 18

ing

Hence, c = 6, b = 4, d = 9 or c = 6, b = 2, d = 18

ch

well, then find their values.

Solution. Since a , b, c are in AP, GP and HP as well

oa

a+c

b= (i)

2

yC

b2 = ac (ii)

2ac

and b= (iii)

a+c

kM

2

a + c

= ac

pic

2

or (a + c)2 = 4ac

(a + c)2 4ac = 0

w.

or

or (a c)2 = 0

ww

a=c (iv)

a+a

Putting c = a in Eq. (i), we get b = =a (v)

2

From Eqs. (iv) and (v), a = b = c, thus the three numbers will be equal.

Point to Consider

If three positive numbers are in any two of AP, GP and HP, then it will be also

in third.

Thus, if three positive numbers are in any two of AP, GP and HP, then they will

be in the third progression and the numbers will be equal.

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48 | Algebra Part I

Only One Correct Option

1. If a , b, c are in AP and b, c, d be in HP, then

(a) ab = cd (b) ad = bc (c) ac = bd (d) abcd = 1

a 1 2

2. If a , b, c are in AP, then , , are in

bc c b

(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these

3. If a , b, c are in AP and a , b, d are in GP, then a , a b, d c will be in

(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these

4. If x, 1, z are in AP and x, 2, z are in GP, then x, 4, z will be in

m

(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these

5. If a , b, c are in GP, a b, c a , b c are in HP, then a + 4b + c is equal to

.co

(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) None of these

6. If (m + 1)th , (n + 1)th and (r + 1)th terms of an AP are in GP and m, n , r are in

HP, then the value of the ratio of the common difference to the first term of the

ing

AP is

2 2 n n

(a) (b) (c) (d)

n n 2 2

ch

ac

(a) a = b = c (b) 2b = 3a + c (c) b2 = (d) None of these

8

oa

a b c

8. If a , b, c are in HP, then , , are in

b+ c c+ a a + b

yC

x+ y y+ z

9. If , y, are in HP, then x, y, z are in

kM

2 2

(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these

a+b b+ c 1

10. If , b, are in AP, then a , , c are in

pic

1 ab 1 bc b

(a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) None of these

w.

Means

ww

1. Arithmetic Mean

If three terms are in AP, then the middle term is called the Arithmetic

Mean (or shortly written as AM) between the other two, so, if a , b, c are in AP,

then b is the AM of a and c.

Let n positive numbers be a1 , a2 , a3 , .... , an and A be the AM of these

numbers, then

a + a2 + a3 + .... + an

A= 1

n

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In particular. Let a and b be two given numbers and A be the AM between

them, then a , A, b are in AP.

a+b

A=

2

Points to Consider

2a + 3b + 5c

1. AM of 2a , 3b, 5c is .

3

a1 + a 2 + a3 + .... + a n 1 + 2a n

2. AM of a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a n 1 , 2a n is .

n

m

(ii) Insert n-Arithmetic Means Between Two Numbers

Let a and b be two given numbers and A1 , A2 , A3 , .... , An are AMs between

.co

them.

Then, a , A1 , A2 , A3 , .... , An , b will be in AP. ing

Now, b = ( n + 2)th term = a + ( n + 2 1) d

b a

d= (Remember) (where d = common difference) (i)

n + 1

ch

A1 = a + d, A2 = a + 2d, ...., An = a + nd

b a b a b a

oa

A1 = a + , A2 = a + 2 , .... , An = a + n

n + 1 n + 1 n + 1

yC

times the AM between them.

Let two numbers be a and b and A1 , A2 , A3 , K , An are n AMs between them.

kM

Sum of n AMs between a and b

pic

= A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An

n

= ( A1 + An ) (Q A1 , A2 , A3 , .... , An are in AP)

2

w.

n n

= ( a + d + a + nd ) = [2a + ( n + 1) d ]

2 2

ww

n

= ( 2a + b a ) [from Eq. (i)]

2

a + b

=n = n (AM between a and b) (Remember)

2

I. Aliter

A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An = ( a + A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An + b) ( a + b)

( n + 2)

= ( a + b) ( a + b)

2

a + b

=n = n (AM of a and b)

2

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50 | Algebra Part I

A1 + A2 + A3 + .... + An 2 + An 1 + An

n

= ( A1 + An ) + ( A2 + An 1 ) + ( A3 + An 2 ) + .... terms

2

n

= ( a + b) + ( a + b) + ( a + b) + .... terms (QTn + Tn = a + l )

2

n a + b

= ( a + b) = n = n (AM of a and b)

2 2

Corollary 2. The sum of m AMs between any two numbers is to the sum of n

AMs between them as m : n.

Let two numbers be a and b.

m

Sum of m AMs between a and b = m (AM of a and b) (i)

.co

Similarly, sum of n AMs between a and b = n (AM of a and b) (ii)

Sum of m AM s m ( AM of a and b) m

= =

Sum of n AM s n ( AM of a and b) n

ing

Illustration 62. If a , b, c are in AP and p is the AM between a and b and q

is the AM between b and c, show that b is the AM between p and q.

ch

Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP

2b = a + c (i)

oa

a+b

p= (ii)

2

yC

b+ c

q= (iii)

2

kM

a + b b + c a + c + 2b

p+ q= + =

2 2 2

pic

2b + 2b

= [using Eq. (i)]

2

p+ q

= 2b or b =

w.

2

Hence, b is the AM between p and q.

ww

a n + 1 + bn + 1

Illustration 63. Find n so that (a b) be the AM between a

a n + bn

and b.

a n + 1 + bn + 1 a + b

Solution. Q =

a n + bn 2

a n + 1

bn + 1 + 1

b

= b a + 1

a

n 2 b

bn + 1

b

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a n + 1 a n a

2 + 1 = + 1 + 1

b b b

a

Let =

b

2 n + 1 + 2 = ( n + 1) ( + 1)

2 n + 1 + 2 = n + 1 + n + + 1

n+1

n + 1 = 0

( 1) ( 1) = 0

n

1 0 (Q a b)

n 1 = 0

n = 1 = 0

m

n =0

.co

Illustration 64. There are n AMs between 3 and 54 such that 8th mean

is to (n 2) th mean as 3 to 5. Find n. ing

Solution. Let A1 , A2, A3 , .... , An be n AMs between 3 and 54.

If d be the common difference, then

54 3 51

d= = (i)

ch

n+1 n+1

According to example,

A8 3

oa

=

An 2 5

5 (3 + 8d ) = 3 [3 + (n 2)d ]

yC

6 = d (3n 46)

51

6 = (3n 46) [from Eq. (i)]

(n + 1)

kM

n = 16

pic

Illustration 65. If 11 AMs are inserted between 28 and 10, find the three

middle terms in the series.

w.

If d be the common difference, then

10 28

ww

3

d= =

12 2

Total means = 11 (odd)

11 + 1

Middle mean = th = 6th = A6

2

Three middle terms = A5 , A6 , A7

15 41

A5 = 28 + 5d = 28 =

2 2

A6 = 28 + 6d = 28 9 = 19

21 35

and A7 = 28 + 7d = 28 =

2 2

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52 | Algebra Part I

2

a 2 (b + c) + b2 (c + a ) + c2 (a + b) = (a + b + c)3

9

Solution. Q a , b, c are in AP.

a+c

b= ie, 2b = a + c (i)

2

LHS = a 2(b + c) + b2 (c + a ) + c2 (a + b)

= (a 2b + a 2c) + b2 (2b) + (c2a + c2b)

= b (a 2 + c2) + ac (a + c) + 2b3

= b [(a + c)2 2ac] + ac (2b) + 2b3

= b (a + c)2 + 2b3 = b (2b)2 + 2b3 = 6b3

m

2 2 2

RHS = (a + b + c)3 = (2b + b)3 = 27b3 = 6b3

9 9 9

.co

Hence, LHS = RHS

If three terms are in GP, then the middle term is called the Geometric

Mean (or shortly written as GM) between the other two, so if a , b, c are in GP,

then b is the GM of a and c.

ch

oa

numbers, then

G = ( a1a2a3 .... an )1/ n

yC

then a , G, b are in GP.

Hence, G = ab ; a > 0, b > 0

kM

Points to Consider

pic

2. If a < 0, b > 0 or a > 0, b < 0, then GM between a and b does not exist.

w.

ww

G = 4 9 =6

(ii) The GM between 4 and 9 is given by

G = 4 9 = 6

(iii) The GM between 4 and 9 or 4 and 9 does not exist.

ie, 4 9 = 1 36 = 6i and 4 9 = 1 36 = 6i

Let a and b be two given numbers and G1 , G2 , G3 , K , Gn are n GMs between

them.

Then, a , G1 , G2 , G3 , .... , Gn , b will be in GP.

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Now, b = ( n + 2)th term = ar n + 2 1

1

b n + 1

r= (Remember) (i)

a

(where r = common ratio)

G1 = ar , G2 = ar 2 , .... , Gn = ar n

1 2 n

b n + 1 b n + 1 b n + 1

G1 = a , G2 = a , .... , Gn = a

a a a

Corollary. The product of n geometric means between a and b is equal to the

nth power of the geometric mean between a and b.

m

Let two numbers be a and b and G1 , G2 , G3 , .... , Gn are n GMs between them.

.co

Then, a , G1 , G2 , G3 , .... , Gn , b will be in GP.

Product of n GMs between a and b

= G1G2G3 K Gn

ing

= ( ar ) ( ar 2 ) ( ar3 ) ....( ar n )

= a1 + 1 + 1 + .... + 1 r 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n

ch

n ( n + 1)

n ( n + 1) 1 2

n b n + 1

= an r 2 =a [from Eq. (i)]

oa

a

n

yC

b 2

=a

n

= a n / 2bn / 2 = ( ab )n

a

= (GM of a and b) n (Remember)

kM

n

G1G2G3 K Gn 2 Gn 1 Gn = (G1 Gn ) (G2Gn 1 ) (G3Gn 2 ) .... factors

pic

2

n

= ( ab) ( ab) ( ab) .... factors (QTn Tn = a l )

2

w.

ww

between b and c, prove that G13 + G32 = 2abc.

Solution. Given, a = AM between b and c

b+ c

a=

2

2a = b + c (i)

Again b, G1 , G2, c are in GP.

G1 G2 c G2 G2

= = b= 1 ,c= 2

b G1 G2 G2 G1

and G1G2 = bc (ii)

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54 | Algebra Part I

G12 G22 G13 + G32

2a = + =

G2 G1 G1G2

G13 + G32

= (Q G1G2 = bc)

bc

G13 + G32 = 2abc

Illustration 68. If one geometric mean G and two arithmetic means p and

q be inserted between two quantities, show that

G 2 = (2 p q) (2q p)

Solution. Let the two quantities be a and b, then

m

G 2 = ab (i)

Again, a , p, q, b are in AP.

.co

pa =q p=bq

a = 2 p q,

b = 2q p (ii)

ing

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

G 2 = (2 p q) (2q p)

ch

a n + 1 + bn + 1

Illustration 69. Find n so that (a b) be the GM between a

a n + bn

oa

and b.

a n + 1 + bn + 1

Solution. Q = ab

yC

a n + bn

a n + 1

bn + 1 + 1

b

kM

=b a

a n b

bn + 1

b

pic

n+1

a

+1 1

b a 2

=

n b

w.

a

+1

b

a

ww

Let =

b

1

n + 1 + 1

= 2

n + 1

1 1

n+

n + 1 + 1 = 2 + 2

1 1 1

n+

2 ( 2 1) ( 2 1) = 0

1 1

n+

( 2 1) ( 2 1) = 0

1

2 1 0 (Q a b)

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1

n+

2 1 =0

1

n+

2 = 1 = 0

1 1

n + = 0 or n =

2 2

1

Illustration 70. Insert five geometric means between and 9 and verify

3

1

that their product is the fifth power of the geometric mean between and 9.

3

1

Solution. Let G1 , G2, G3 , G4 , G5 be 5 GMs between and 9.

3

m

1

Then, , G1 , G2, G3 , G4 , G5 , 9 are in GP.

3

.co

1/ 6

9 1

Here, r = common ratio = = 3 2 = 3

1

3

ing

1 1

G1 = ar = 3 =

3 3

1

G2 = ar = 3 = 1

ch

2

3

1

G3 = ar3 = 3 3 = 3

oa

3

1

G4 = ar 4 = 9 = 3

3

yC

1

G5 = ar = 9 3 = 3 3

5

3

Now, Product = G1 G2 G3 G4 G5

5 5

kM

1 1

= 1 3 3 3 3 = 9 3 = (3) 2 = 9

3 3

1

= (GM of and 9) 5

pic

An Important Theorem

w.

Let a and b be two real, positive and unequal numbers and A, G are

arithmetic and geometric means between them, then

ww

x2 2Ax + G 2 = 0 (Remember)

(ii) a and b are given by

A (A + G ) (A G ) (Remember)

(iii) A>G (Remember)

Proof. Q A is the AM between a and b, then

a+b

A= a + b = 2A (i)

2

and G is the GM between a and b, then

G = ab ab = G 2 (ii)

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56 | Algebra Part I

x 2 (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0

x 2 ( a + b) x + ab = 0

ie, x2 2Ax + G 2 = 0

is the required equation.

2 A ( 2 A)2 4 1 G 2

x= = A ( A2 G 2 )

21

x = A (A + G ) (A G )

Now, for real, positive and unequal numbers of a and b,

( A + G) ( A G) > 0 ( A G) > 0

m

A>G

.co

Points to Consider

1. If a and b are real and positive numbers, then

ing

A G

2. If a1 , a 2, a3 , .... , a n are n positive numbers, then AM GM, ie,

a1 + a 2 + a3 + .... + a n

(a1a 2 a3 .... a n )1/ n

ch

n

a b

3. (i) If a > 0, b > 0 or a < 0, b < 0 and 1 > 0, 2 > 0, then 1 + 2 2 1 2

oa

b a

a

if = x > 0 and 1 = 2 = 1

b

yC

1

then, x+ 2

x

a b

(ii) If a > 0, b < 0 or a < 0, b > 0 and 1 > 0, 2 > 0, then 1 + 2 2 1 2

kM

b a

a

if = x < 0 and 1 > 0, 2 > 0

b

pic

1

then, x+ 2

x

w.

as 5 : 4, find the numbers.

ww

Then, a + b = 100

or 2 A = 100 A = 50 (i)

A 5

and given, =

G 4

50 5

= [from Eq. (i)]

G 4

G = 40 (ii)

From important theorem

a , b = A ( A + G ) ( A G ) = 50 (50 + 40) (50 40)

= 50 30 = 80, 20

a = 80, b = 20 or a = 20, b = 80

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Illustration 72. If a1 , a 2, K , a n are positive real numbers whose product

is a fixed number c, then find the minimum value of

a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n.

Solution. Q AM GM

a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n

(a1a 2 .... a n 13a n )1/ n = (3c)1/ n

n

a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n n (3c)1/ n

Hence, the minimum value of a1 + a 2 + .... + a n 1 + 3a n is n (3c)1/ n.

Harmonic Mean

If three terms are in HP, then the middle term is called the Harmonic

m

Mean (or shortly written as HM) between the other two, so if a , b, c are in HP

then b is the HM of a and c.

.co

(i) Single HM of n Positive Numbers

Let n positive numbers be a1 , a2 , a3 , .... , an and H be the HM of these

numbers, then

ing

n

H =

1 1 1 1

+ + + .... +

a1 a2 a3 an

ch

them a , H , b are in HP.

oa

2

Hence, H =

1 1

+

a b

yC

2ab

ie, H =

( a + b)

kM

Point to Consider

pic

3 3abc

HM of a , b, c is or .

1 1 1

+ + ab + bc + ca

a b c

w.

a+b

Caution The AM between two numbers a and b is . It does not follow

2

ww

1 1

+

2

that HM between the same numbers is . The HM is the reciprocals of a b

a+b 2

2ab

ie, .

( a + b)

Let a and b be two given numbers and H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , K, H n are n HMs between

them.

Then, a , H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , .... , H n , b will be in HP, if D be the common difference of

the corresponding AP.

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58 | Algebra Part I

1

=

( n + 2)th term of corresponding AP

1

=

1

+ ( n + 2 1) D

a

1 1

D= b a (Remember)

( n + 1)

1 1 1 1 1 1

= + D, = + 2D, ..... , = + nD

H1 a H2 a Hn a

m

1 1 ( a b) 1 1 2 ( a b) 1 1 n ( a b)

= + , = + , .... , = +

.co

H 1 a ab ( n + 1) H 2 a ab ( n + 1) H n a ab ( n + 1)

Corollary. The sum of reciprocals of n harmonic means between two given

numbers is n times the reciprocal of single HM between them.

ing

Let two numbers be a and b and H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , .... , H n are n HMs between

them. Then a , H 1 , H 2 , H 3 , .... , H n , b will be in HP.

1 1 1 1 n 1 1

ch

n

+ + + .... + = + QS n = ( a + l )

H1 H 2 H3 Hn 2 H1 H n 2

n 1 n 1 1

oa

1

= + D + D = +

2 a b 2 a b

n n

yC

= =

(HM of a and b)

2

kM

1 + 1

a b

Aliter (This method is applicable only when n is even)

pic

1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + + .... + + +

H1 H 2 H3 Hn 2 Hn 1 Hn

w.

1 1 1 1 1 1 n

= + + + + + + ... terms

H1 H n H 2 H n 1 H3 H n 2 2

ww

1 1 1 1 1 1 n

= + D + D + + 2D + 2D ) + + 3D + 3D ) + ... terms

a b a b a b 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 n

= + + + + + + .... terms

a b a b a b 2

n 1 1 n n

= + = =

2 a b (HM of a and b)

2

1 + 1

a b

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Illustration 73. If H be the harmonic mean between x and y, then show

that

H +x H + y

+ =2

H x H y

Solution. We have,

2xy H 2y H 2x

H = = and =

x+ y x x+ y y x+ y

By componendo and dividendo, we have

H + x 2y + x + y x + 3y

= =

H x 2y x y yx

H + y 2x + x + y 3x + y

and = =

H y 2x x y x y

m

H + x H + y x + 3 y 3x + y

+ = +

.co

H x H y yx x y

x + 3 y 3x y 2 ( y x)

= = =2

yx ( y x)

ing

Aliter

H +x H + y

+ =2

H x H y

ch

H + x H + y

1 = 1

H x H y

oa

2x 2 y

=

H x H y

yC

ie, Hx xy = Hy + xy

H (x + y) = 2xy

2xy

kM

ie, H =

(x + y)

which is true as, x, H , y are in HP. Hence, the required result.

pic

HP. If a1 = h1 = 2 and a10 = h10 = 3, then find the value of a 4h7.

w.

If d be the common difference, then

a a1 3 2 1

ww

d = 10 = =

9 9 9

3 1 7

a 4 = a1 + 3d = 2 + = 2 + = (i)

9 3 3

and given h1 , h2, h3 , .... , h10 are in HP.

If D be common difference of corresponding AP.

1 1 1 1

h10 h1 3 2 1

Then, D= = =

9 9 54

1 1

= + 6D

h7 h1

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60 | Algebra Part I

1 6 1 1 7

= = =

2 54 2 9 18

18

h7 =

7

7 18

Hence, a 4 h7 = =6

3 7

a n + 1 + bn + 1

Illustration 75. Find n so that (a b) be the HM between a

a n + bn

and b.

a n + 1 + bn + 1 2ab

Solution. Q =

a n + bn a+b

m

a n + 1

bn + 1 + 1 b2 2 a

.co

b

b =

a

n a

bn + 1 b + 1

b

b

ing

n+1

a a

+1

2

b b

=

ch

a

n

a

+1 +1

b b

oa

a

Let =

b

n +1 + 1 2

yC

Then =

n + 1 +1

( + 1) (n + 1 + 1) = 2 (n + 1)

kM

n + 2 + + n + 1 + 1 = 2 n + 1 + 2

n + 2 n + 1 + 1 = 0

n+1

( 1) 1 ( 1) = 0

pic

( 1) (n + 1 1) = 0

1 0 (Q a b)

n+1

w.

1 =0

n + 1 = 1 = 0

n + 1 =0

ww

or n = 1

6

Illustration 76. Insert 6 harmonic means between 3 and .

23

6

Solution. Let H 1 , H 2, H 3 , H 4 , H 5 , H 6 be 6 HMs between 3 and . Then

23

6

are in HP.

3, H 1 , H 2, H 3 , H 4 , H 5 , H 6 ,

23

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 23

, , , , , , , are in AP.

3 H1 H 2 H3 H 4 H5 H 6 6

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Let common difference of this AP be D.

23 1

(23 2) 21 1

D= 6 3 = = =

7 7 6 7 6 2

1 1 1 1 5

= +D= + =

H1 3 3 2 6

6 1

H1 = = 1

5 5

1 1 1 4

= + 2D = + 1 =

H2 3 3 3

3

H2 =

4

m

1 1 1 3 11

= + 3D = + =

H3 3 3 2 6

.co

6

H3 =

11

1 1 1 7 3

= + 4D = + 2 = H 4 =

ing

H4 3 3 3 7

1 1 1 5 17 6

= + 5D = + = H5 =

H5 3 3 2 6 17

ch

1 1 1 10 3

and = + 6D = + 3 = H6 =

H6 3 3 3 10

oa

1 3 6 3 6 3

HMs are 1 , , , , ,

5 4 11 7 17 10

yC

Important Theorem 1.

Let a and b be two real, positive and unequal numbers and A, G and H are

kM

(i) A, G , H form a GP, ie,G 2 = AH (Remember)

(ii) A > G > H (Remember)

pic

a+b 2ab

Proof. (i) Q A= , G = ab and H =

2 a+b

w.

a + b 2ab

Now, AH = = ab = G

2

2 a + b

ww

Therefore, G 2 = AH

ie, A, G , H are in GP.

Point to Consider

The result AH = G 2 will be true for n numbers, if they are in GP.

A

or >1

G

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62 | Algebra Part I

G A G

>1 Q = G 2 = AH

H G H

G>H (ii)

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

A> G > H

Point to Consider

If a1 , a 2, a3 , K , a n are n positive numbers, then AM GM HM ie,

a1 + a 2 + .... + a n

(a1a 2 ..... a n )1/ n

n

m

n

1 1 1

+ + .... +

.co

a1 a 2 an

Sign of equality (AH = GM = HM) holds when numbers are equal ie,

a1 = a 2 = .... = a n.

ing

Important Theorem 2.

ch

numbers a , b and c, then the equation having a , b, c as its roots is

3G 3

oa

x3 3Ax2 + x G3 = 0 (Remember)

H

a+ b+ c

yC

Proof. Q A = AM of a , b, c =

3

ie, a + b + c = 3A (i)

kM

G = GM of a , b, c = ( abc) 1/ 3

pic

and H = HM of a , b, c

3 3abc

= =

1 1 1 ab + bc + ca

w.

+ +

a b c

ww

3G3

= [from Eq. (ii)]

ab + bc + ca

3G3

ie, ab + bc + ca = (iii)

H

a , b, c are the roots of the equation

x3 ( a + b + c) x 2 + ( ab + bc + ca ) x abc = 0

3G3

ie, x3 3 Ax 2 + x G3 = 0 [from Eqs. (i), (ii) and (iii)]

H

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Let OA = a unit and OB = b unit and AB be a diameter of semi circle. Draw

tangent OT to the circle and TM perpendicular to AB.

T

y

x

O A M C B

Let C be the centre of the semi circle.

m

OA + OB (OC AC ) + (OC + CB)

Q =

2 2

.co

2OC

= = OC (Q AC = CB = radius of circle)

2

a+b

OC =

ing

( ie , OC = arithmetic mean)

2

a+b

A=

ch

2

Now, from geometry

oa

(OT )2 = OA OB = ab = G 2

OT = G, the geometric mean

yC

OM OT (OT )2 ab 2ab

= or OM = = =

OT OC OC a+b a+b

kM

2

OM = H , the harmonic mean

pic

OC > OT > OM

A> G > H

w.

ie,

ww

Solution. Let Ax = Gy = H z = k

Then, A = k1/ x , G = k1/ y , H = k1/ z

Q G 2 = AH

(k ) = k1/ x k1/ z

1/ y 2

2 1 1

k2/ y = k1/ x + 1/ z = +

y x z

1 1 1

, , are in AP.

x y z

Hence, x, y, z are in HP.

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64 | Algebra Part I

mean A and geometric mean G satisfy the relation 2 A + G 2 = 27. Find the

numbers.

Solution. Let the numbers be a and b.

Given, H =4

Q G 2 = AH = 4 A (i)

and given 2 A + G 2 = 27

2 A + 4 A = 27 [from Eq. (i)]

9

A=

2

9

From Eq. (i), G = 4 = 18

2

2

m

Now, from important theorem of GM

9 81

a , b = A ( A 2 G 2) = 18

.co

2 4

9 3

= = 6, 3 or 3, 6

2 2

ing

1

Illustration 79. If the geometric mean is

times the harmonic mean

n

ch

between two numbers, show that the ratio of the two numbers is

1 + (1 n 2) : 1 (1 n 2).

oa

1

Given, G= H (i)

n

yC

Now, G 2 = AH

H2

= AH [from Eq. (i)]

n2

kM

H

A= 2 (ii)

n

Now, from important theorem of GM

pic

H H 2 H 2

a, b = A ( A 2 G 2) = 4 2

n2 n n

w.

H

= [1 (1 n 2)]

n2

H

ww

[1 + (1 n 2)]

a n2

=

b H [1 (1 n 2)]

n2

a : b = 1 + (1 n 2) : 1 (1 n 2)

prove that

a n + cn > 2bn , n N

Solution. Q G>H

ac > b

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n

(ac) 2 > bn

n n

or a 2 c 2 > bn (i)

n n

Also, (a 2 c 2 )2 >0

n n

an + cn 2a 2 c2 >0

n n

a n + cn > 2 a 2 c 2 > 2bn [from Eq. (i)]

a + c > 2b

n n n

then

m

(a) bc > ad

.co

(b) c1d 1 + a 1 b1 > 2 (b1 d 1 + a 1 c1 a 1 d 1 )

(ii) If a , b, c, d be four distinct positive quantities in GP, then

(a) a + d > b + c

ing

(b) c1d 1 + a 1 b1 > 2 (b1 d 1 + a 1 c1 a 1 d 1 )

(iii) If a , b, c, d be four distinct positive quantities in HP, then

(a) a + d > b + c

ch

(b) ad > bc

Solution. (i) Q a , b, c, d are in AP.

oa

For first three members

yC

b > ac

b2 > ac (i)

kM

c > bd

c2 > bd (ii)

pic

b2c2 > (ac) (bd )

Hence, bc > ad

w.

For first three members

2ac

ww

a+c

For last three members

2bd

c>

b+ d

bc + cd > 2bd (iv)

From Eqs. (iii) and (iv), we get

ab + bc + bc + cd > 2ac + 2bd

or ab + cd > 2 (ac + bd bc)

Dividing in each term by abcd, we get

c1d 1 + a 1 b1 > 2 (b1 d 1 + a 1 c1 a 1 d 1 )

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