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Petroleum Development Oman L.L.C.

UNRESTRICTED Document ID: SP-1126


May 2004 Filing Key:

Drain Systems Specification

Keywords: Closed Drain, Drain Vessel, Open Hazardous Drains, Open Non-Hazardous
Drain, Process Drain & Sample Drain

This document is the property of Petroleum Development Oman, LLC. Neither the whole nor any part of
this document may be disclosed to others or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographic recording or otherwise) without prior written
consent of the owner.
Drain Systems Specification Version
2.0

Authorised for Issue:

Signed:

A. C. Sluijterman
CFDH Process Engineering

Date:May 2004.

The following is a brief summary of the recent revisions to this document.

Version No. Date Author Scope/Remarks


1.0 May 1999 A.C. Sluijterman PDO-ERD-08-10 rewritten to new format
UEP/1 with minor comments incorporated.
2.0 May 2004 A.C. Sluijterman References updated and intermediate flash
UEP vessel requirements relaxed.

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Contents

1.0 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................3
1.1 SCOPE.................................................................................................................................................3
1.2 COMPLIANCE WITH THIS SPECIFICATION............................................................................................3
1.3 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................3
2.0 DRAIN SYSTEMS..............................................................................................................................4
2.1 OBJECTIVE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS..................................................................................................4
2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS..........................................................................................4
2.2.1 Open Non-Hazardous Drain.....................................................................................................4
2.2.2 Open Hazardous Drain.............................................................................................................4
2.2.3 Closed Drain.............................................................................................................................5
2.2.4 Process Drains..........................................................................................................................5
2.3 SOURCES AND DESTINATION OF VARIOUS DRAINS............................................................................5
2.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS..................................................................................................................7
2.4.1 Open Drain Systems..................................................................................................................7
2.4.2 Closed Drain System.................................................................................................................7
2.4.3 Instrument Drains.....................................................................................................................8
2.4.4 Sample Drains...........................................................................................................................8
2.4.5 Tank Drains...............................................................................................................................9
2.4.6 Closed Drain Vessel..................................................................................................................9
2.4.7 Vent System................................................................................................................................9
2.4.8 Drain Pumps.............................................................................................................................9
2.4.9 Process Drains.......................................................................................................................10
2.4.10 Laboratory Drains.................................................................................................................10
2.4.11 Other Process Chemicals Drains...........................................................................................11
3.0 RELATED BUSINESS CONTROL DOCUMENTS......................................................................12

APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS.............................................................................14

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1.0 Introduction

1.1 Scope
The objective of this document is to specify the design/engineering requirements and selection of
drainage systems for on-shore oil and gas facilities. The drainage systems are needed for
maintenance of equipment, piping, and instruments and to reduce risk of fire and environmental
pollution.

Drainage streams are produced from many sources and these guidelines are for the safe collections
and disposal of these streams.

This specification does not cover domestic wash water or sewage drain systems for
accommodation areas, buildings and control rooms which shall be separate from plant drain
systems.

1.2 Compliance with this Specification


The user shall obtain written approval from the CFDH Process Engineering for any deviation from
this specification.

1.3 Definitions

Open This system provides drainage for areas, which are classified as non-
Non-Hazardous Drain hazardous according with DEP 80.00.10.10-Gen. The drain system from
these areas, referred to as the Open Non-Hazardous Drain (ONHD),
handles fluids collected from open drip pans, tundishes and floors in
non-hazardous areas.

Open hazardous Drain This system provides drainage for areas, which are classified as
hazardous according with DEP 80.00.10.10-Gen. The drain system from
these areas, referred to as the Open Hazardous Drain (OHD), handles
fluids collected from open drip pans, tundishes and floors in hazardous
areas.

Closed Drains These drains form a closed drain system and dispose of liquids from
closed equipment, vessels and pipework. These drains can either drain
into a blanketed vessel with the drain system operating at slightly above
atmospheric pressure, or alternatively drain into an atmospheric vessel
by which the drain system operates at atmospheric pressure.

Process Drains These drains are continuous discharges from process systems due to
normal operation of the plant.

Sour Service Refer PDO SP-1190 for sour service definition with respect to
personnel safety.

Sour Liquid The liquid, which can contribute to designate a facility as sour service,
as mentioned above shall be considered as sour liquid in this
specification.

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2.0 Drain Systems

2.1 Objective of Drainage Systems


Drain systems are required for safe collection and disposal of:
(1) Contents of process vessels, piping and equipment, prior to inspection and/or maintenance.
(2) Liquids from knockout vessels for compressors, flares, etc.
(3) Liquids from instruments, level glasses, etc.
(4) Liquids from scraper traps.
(5) Surface liquids (rainwater, wash down water and waste oil).
(6) Fire-fighting water.
(7) Liquids from Laboratory.

For safety reasons, drains from process areas shall be totally separate from control room or
accommodation drains.

2.2 Classification of Drainage Systems


The drainage system of PDO on-shore oil and gas facilities can be classified as follows:

2.2.1 Open Non-Hazardous Drain

This system provides drainage for areas, which are designated non-hazardous. This system shall be
entirely segregated from all other open or closed drain systems.

Non-hazardous areas generally include storage vessel areas for utility materials such as lubricating
oil, diesel fuel, etc. The drain systems from these areas, referred to as the Open Non-Hazardous
Drain (ONHD), handle fluids collected from open drip pans, tundishes and floors in Non-
Hazardous areas.

2.2.2 Open Hazardous Drain

This system provides drainage for areas, which are designated as hazardous. These generally
include all process areas and locations where hydrocarbons are present in significant quantities.
The drain system from these areas, referred to as the Open Hazardous Drain (OHD), handles fluids
collected from open drip pans, tundishes and floors in hazardous areas. Open drainage systems
must only be used for draining hydrocarbon fluids from process vessels (via tundishes) when such
vessels have undergone a maintenance preparation procedure.

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2.2.3 Closed Drain

Many process vessels contain fluids, which, even after depressurising to the blow down system,
would release significant quantities of hazardous vapours, if they were discharged via open
drainage systems. A permanent pipe work connection and collection header shall be routed to a
drain vessel for the safe removal of generated vapour. This systems, referred to as the Closed
Drain (CD) system, handles hazardous fluids from process vessels, keeping them out of contact
with the atmosphere. This system should be used where toxic materials are likely to be present.
Sour liquid drains (other than process drain) from any source shall be routed to closed drain
system.

Hydrocarbon fluids shall be routed to a closed drain system from process vessels and pipe works
only after depressurisation to atmospheric pressure.

2.2.4 Process Drains

Some continuous process discharges, that are not further needed in the process systems, e.g. gas
compressor knock-out drums liquid are often discarded as drains. These drains are generally
discharged on level control from the source vessels. As the liquid contains water and hydrocarbons
it is often intended to recover the oil from these drains.

2.3 Sources and Destination of Various Drains

Table 1 lists the major sources of drain fluids, their contents and destination.

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TABLE 1

FLUID SOURCE AND DRAIN SYSTEM

EXPECTED
DESTINATION
SOURCE
OPEN DRAIN CLOSED
COMPONENTS DRAIN
NON- HAZARDOUS
HAZARDOUS
1 Process equipment and lines Oil, Condensate, X+Y X (1), (2)
containing hydrocarbons for Water, Sand,
maintenance purpose Gas
2 Turbine and compressor lube oil Lube Oil X
tank
3 Compressor Seal oil tank, pump Oil + Gas X (3)
seal drain
4 Bunded areas containing fuel & Spilt fuel/ X
chemical storage chemicals, wash
water, drain
water.
5 Atmospheric oil storage tanks Oil, water X+Y X
6 Floor drains in hazardous Spilt oil, wash X
module water
7 Floor drains in Non-Hazardous Spilt oil, wash X
water
8 Fire/Deluge water when used Contaminated X
oil-water
9 Scraper barrel Oil X+Y X (1), (2)
10 Sample drains Oil, Water X X (1), (2)
11 Instrument drains Oil X X (1), (2)
12 Floating roof tank roof drains Oil, Water X
13 Flare knock-out drum Oil, Water X
14 Atmospheric flash vessel of Oil, Water X
process drains
15 Discharge from thermal relief Oil, Water X X (1)
valve in oil system
16 Laboratory drains Oil, water X (4)
17 Other process chemicals Chemicals See Note (5)
systems

Key:
X = Drain System to be used.
Y = Washing operation & discharge

Notes:
(1) Sour liquid to be routed to closed drain.
(2) Volatile hydrocarbons to be routed to closed drain.
(3) A local drain collection facility (tank/pot) should be provided if the contents of the fluid are likely to
partially vaporise. The drain from this local facility is to be connected to Open Hazardous Drain by
piping with a normally closed isolation valve in between. Vent from the local facility can either
terminate locally at 1 metre above the building roof or can be connected to the atmospheric pressure
flare system. Dispersion calculations shall be carried out for sour service in the case of local vent.

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(4) Laboratory drains shall have local facilities to drain various chemicals. Only oily-water drain can be
connected to OHD via a water-sealed pipe discharging into the OHD gully outside the laboratory wall.
(5) Drains for different types of chemicals shall be independent. Disposal of the contents of such drains
shall depend on type of chemicals handled.

2.4 Design Considerations

2.4.1 Open Drain Systems

For the design of Open non-hazardous and Open Hazardous drain systems DEP 34.14.20.31-
General, Drainage and Primary Treatment systems shall be followed.

2.4.2 Closed Drain System

Discharge to the closed drain system shall be by hard-piped connections which shall be positively
isolated from the process during normal operation. The main drainage header shall be fabricated
from ANSI 150# rated piping class. The branch connections from the vessels to the main header or
up to the first pipe diameter increase shall be rated for the same pressure as the vessel itself. This is
because, should the vessel be inadvertently drained under pressure, it is in the smaller branch pipes
that hydrates are likely to form. The need for hydro-testing the CD system means that a flange
must be installed at the spec break, so that the two pipe classes can be isolated from one another.
This specification break shall be recognised as demarcation of process and drain system (see Figure
1).

Closed drains shall be routed to a drain vessel from which the gases shall be flared.

For sizing the branch connection to the main header the following DEPs shall be referred to:
- DEP 31.38.01.11-Gen, Piping General Requirements, Section 4.5 for Pressure Vessel drain
vessels.
- DEP 31.40.10.13-Gen, Design of Pipe line Pig Trap System, Section 2.2 for Pig-Trap drain
lines.

For other equipment or piping system the line size shall be designed based on a realistic time of
draining the residual system hold up.

The underground drain header shall be at least one size larger than the maximum drain connection
size used for the process side of equipment / piping.

Drain piping shall be adequately and continuously sloped at 1:200 minimum to eliminate the
possibility of creating liquid pockets. Elbows, bends and flanges should be avoided as much as
possible. Possibility of blockage by sludge/sand shall be assessed and appropriate measures such as
45 bends, larger diameter pipe, etc. should be taken.

The drain connection shall be positioned at the bottom of the process vessel. A back flushing
connection on the drain line underneath the vessel should be installed if there is a possibility of
blockage from deposits of sludge, sand, wax, etc. in the vessel (see Figure 2).

Sufficient rodding-points must be installed if sand/solids are expected. Water hose connections
may be fitted at the rodding points (see Figure 2).

There shall be no drain valve or any other means of isolation downstream of a specification break,
which could cause the drain system to be over-pressurised. The single exception is the isolation

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valve installed at the drain header for drain vessel maintenance, which shall be kept locked open
during normal operation.

Guidelines provided in DEP 31.38.01.11-Gen. Piping General Requirements, section 3.4 shall be
followed for general requirements for buried drain headers.

Closed drain systems and open drain systems shall not be interconnected.

Materials requirement of drain piping and vessel for sour service shall be governed by the
guidelines provided in PDO-ERD-08-02.

The CD system shall be used only to empty equipment containing hydrocarbon liquids prior to
equipment maintenance. Liquid levels in equipment are lowered to the minimum practical level
using the normal process connections and it is essential that the equipment is fully depressurised
before draining via the CD system.

Depressurising may lead to cooling of the vessel contents which should be allowed to regain
ambient temperature before being admitted to the drain system. Only after this procedure has been
completed will the equipment be emptied to drain. To reinforce this procedure, all closed drain
lines must be isolated from equipment by double block valves and intervening spade or spectacle
blind A removable spool may be used where draining is infrequent.

To avoid the possibility of heating up of contained hydrocarbon and cause flashing inside the drain
header, hot oil/fluid drains shall be routed separately to the Drain Vessel.

Spent hot oil (dead oil) may be drained into OHD after it is allowed to cool down to the ambient
temperature or 45 Celsius, whichever is higher.

Remote facilities with small inventories i.e., remote manifolds do not need hard pipe to closed
drain system. A simple system to a pit in the final inventories with a vent and a facility for vacuum
truck would be sufficient.

2.4.3 Instrument Drains

Some instruments like level gauges and level switches need draining either for taking readings or
for maintenance. If the drained liquid is sour and/or volatile the drain shall be hard piped to the
closed drain system (see Figure 3). Drains for sweet non-volatile service shall be drained to the
open hazardous drain system via tundishes. The drained liquid should be visible when the drain
valve is opened (see Figure 4).

2.4.4 Sample Drains

Sample systems require draining for flushing purposes and to avoid splashing of the sample fluid.
Sample flushing lines shall be directly connected to closed drain system (see Figure 5) for sour
service and volatile hydrocarbons or when the flushing quantity is high. A sample draw-off point
in sweet, non volatile service, may be connected to the Open Hazardous Drain System, via a
tundish (see Figure 6 & 7).

Samples from systems 600# and above shall be collected via a sample point with a block and
needle valve arrangement for filling the sample bottles.

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2.4.5 Tank Drains

Tank drain may be routed to a closed drain if more desirable or convenient.

Any water drained from the roof of a crude oil or product storage tank inside the bunded area shall
be treated as contaminated and shall be taken to OHD. Floating Roof Tank drains shall be piped
into the open hazardous drain system and a sight glass shall be installed in the drain line to allow
checks to be made for any hydrocarbon contamination due to leakage.

2.4.6 Closed Drain Vessel

Each drain vessel shall be sized to accommodate the largest expected volume of liquid which
remains in any vessel (excluding tanks) after it has been emptied to its lowest liquid level prior to
draining for maintenance.

The hold up volume of liquid in a drained vessel shall be calculated as between high and low liquid
level alarm settings The Hi-Hi-Liquid level shall be considered at 80% of vessel diameter. Figure 8
represents the general arrangement / requirement of a Drain Vessel.

Closed drain vessel shall have a design pressure of 350 kPa(g) or above to withstand possible flame
flashback from the vent.

A drains collection vessel shall have a weir to separate sludge and solids. The weir height may be
kept at about 40 per cent of the vessel diameter. Length of sludge catch area may be kept about 40
per cent of the vessel tan to tan length.

A pump-out connection at pump side with an isolation valve shall be provided to facilitate removal
of the liquid. A dump connection with a valve can be provided at oil inlet side of weir for dumping
oil from external source and also to pump-out weir side oil before maintenance.

A closed drain let header shall be provided with a locked open isolation valve and a spectacle blind
on the downstream side to isolate the drain vessel for maintenance. A pit shall be provided for
access to the valve and blind. Operating procedures should take care of the possibility of over-
pressurisation of the drain header due to inadvertent opening of a drain valve in the plant system
while the spectacle blind is closed.

Cathodic protection shall be provided for the buried drain vessel and piping as per PDO SP-1128.

2.4.7 Vent System

Gas from drain vessels should pass to lowest pressure flare system.

Due to the possibility of air ingress into the closed drain system a closed drain vessel shall be
purged continuously by inert or blanketing gas. The flow of purge gas shall be through a restriction
orifice which should be preceded by a locked open isolation valve.

Provision of lightning protection shall be assessed as per DEP 33.64.10.10-Gen, Electrical


Engineer Guidelines, section 6.5.4.

2.4.8 Drain Pumps

The facility to evacuate a drains vessel contents shall be provided by transfer pumps and/or a pump
out connection. Even when transfer pumps are installed, a pump out connection is required to

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enable a drain vessel to be emptied to its lowest level, prior to internal inspection and/or
maintenance.

Liquids collected in a drain vessel should be pumped back into the production system.

Due consideration shall be given to the point at which drained liquids are pumped back into the
process, i.e. to avoid any possibility of over-pressuring drain piping in ESD and PSD situations, or
possible back flow to the drain vessel.

Pump capacity shall be higher than the maximum drainage rate.

A minimum of two pumps (one operating and one standby) shall be provided on the drain vessel.

Operation of transfer pumps shall be by means of a level controller which gives ON/OFF action.

On high level the stand by pump shall start automatically and it should stop when the level comes
back to normal.

Activation of station ESD shall stop drain vessel pumps. A manual override should be provided to
start the pump in ESD situation, if considered necessary.

2.4.9 Process Drains

Normally process drains should not be connected to a closed drain system.

If the process drain contains hydrocarbon and condensate but does not contain undesirable toxic
chemicals or materials, e.g. drains from compressor knock-out vessels, then it can be routed to the
closed drain system provided the following steps are taken:

Process drain shall first be flashed to an intermediate flash vessel where depressurising to
atmospheric pressure should take place, unless the upstream pressure and flowrate is low (e.g. first
stage compressor suction scrubber).

Process drain is checked for flash temperature and the draining liquid temperature to closed drain
system is acceptable for the closed drain system material.

Process drain is checked for hydrate formation and adequately sized and protected.

Drain pipe to intermediate flash vessel is checked for breakthrough for process level control valve
failure in an open position and the vessel vent line is adequately sized to restrict overpressure in
flash vessel.

Gas outlet from intermediate flash vessel to be connected to flare or vent at such a point that over-
pressuring due to any reason cannot occur.

Drain from the intermediate flash vessel to the closed drain system is adequately protected for gas
breakthrough.

2.4.10 Laboratory Drains

Laboratory drains are used for the disposal of samples, chemical solutions, solvents and chemicals.

Laboratory drains are independent drain systems. Only oil-water drain from the laboratory may be
connected via a water-sealed pipe into OHD gully outside the laboratory well.

For various chemicals separate drain systems may need to be considered depending on
compatibility of the chemicals mixed.

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Drum collection of drains for different chemicals may be convenient.

The disposal of drains shall depend on type and properties of the chemicals and the reagents used
in the laboratory.

2.4.11 Other Process Chemicals Drains

Separate drains and disposal systems shall be considered for chemicals used in process systems.
The type of drain system shall depend on the properties of the chemicals, compatibility with other
chemicals, need for reclamation, etc.

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3.0 Related Business Control Documents

PDO Standards

PDO-ERD-08-02 Materials Selection for Sour Service


PDO SP-1125 Isolation of Process Equipment Specification
PDO SP-1128 Cathodic Protection Design
PDO SP-1190 Design for Sour Services Specification

Shell Standards

DEP-31.22.05.11-PDO Gas Liquid Separator Type Selection and Design Rules


DEP-31.38.01.10-Gen Piping Classes Part I, Basis of Design
DEP-31.38.01.11-Gen Piping General Requirements
DEP-31.38.01.15-Gen EP piping Classes
DEP-31.40.10.13-Gen Design of Pipeline Pig Trap Systems
DEP-33.64.10.10-Gen Electrical Engineering Guidelines
DEP-34.14.20.31-Gen Drainage and Primary Treatment Systems
DEP-80.00.10.10-Gen Area Classification (Amendments/Supplements to IP-15)

International Standards

IP Code Part 3 Refining Safety Code


API RP 521 Guide for Pressure Relieving and Depressurising Systems
API 2000 Venting Atmospheric and Low-pressure Storage tanks

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Appendix A Glossary of Abbreviations

CD Closed Drain
CFDH Corporate Functional Discipline Head
DEP Design and Engineering Practice
ERD Engineering Reference Document
ESD Emergency Shutdown
FIG Figure
IP Institute of Petroleum (UK)
kPa Kilo-Pascals
L Low Level (of liquid)
LC Locked-Closed or Level Controller
LG Level Gauge
LI Level Indicator
LIC Level Indicator and controller
LL Low-Low Level (of liquid)
LO Locked-Open
LZA Level Emergency Alarm
NC Normally Closed
ONHD Open Non-Hazardous Drain
OHD Open Hazardous Drain
PDO Petroleum Development Oman LLC
PSD Process Shutdown
PA Pressure Alarm
PG Pressure Gauge
RO Restriction orifice

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FIGURE 1.0 PIPING SPECIFICATION BREAK FOR DRAINS

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FIGURE 2.0 BACK FLUSH AND END HEADER CONNECTION FOR DRAINS

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FIGURE 3.0 DRAIN HOOKUPS FOR LEVEL INSTRUMENTS IN SOUR SERVICE AND FOR VOLATILE HYDROCARBONS

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FIGURE 4.0 DRAIN HOOKUPS FOR LEVEL INSTRUMENTS FOR LOW-VOLATILE HYDROCARBONS IN SWEET SERVICE

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FIGURE 5.0 SOUR SERVICE AND VOLATILE HYDROCARBONS SAMPLE DRAIN CONNECTION

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FIGURE 6.0 SAMPLE DRAINS IN LOW PRESSURE TANKS, SWEET, NON-VOLATILE SERVICE SYSTEMS

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FIGURE 7.0 SAMPLE DRAINS IN LOW PRESSURE PIPELINE, SWEET, NON-VOLATILE SERVICE SYSTEMS

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FIGURE 8.0 CLOSED DRAIN VESSEL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

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