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More than 2,0^^

to help you
your home


Usin}i Color Color SdwDiin^i
Setting Styles Rcjlccting Lifestyles

Preparing to Paint Improving Techniques
Creating Paint Effects FinisLnng

Preparing to Wallpaper- Improving Teclmicpies
Wallpapering Awkward Areas
Choosing Other Wallcoverings Finishing

Preparing to Tile Planning a Tiling Strategy

Improving Teclmiques > Tiling Creatively Finishing

Preparing to Paint Painting Specific Areas
En/jancing Wood Creating Paint Effects
Painting Furniture Finishing

Selecting Floor Types Preparing Floors Wooden Floors
Carpeting Floors tftility Flooring Hard-tile Flooring
Painting I'loors I-inishing

Selecting Materials Cfjoosing Curtains and Blinds
Adding Trimmings Decorating Glass

Lighting Shelving Wall Decorations
Soft Furnishings Final Details

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010


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Hints (S-Tips
Julian Cassell & Peter Parham


Project Editor JikIi' (iaiiii k

Introduction 6
Project Art Editor Sarah I lall

US Editors Will I.ach, Ray Roj^ers

Designer i Ick-n Bcntield

Using This liooK

Production Controller Alison Jones Decorating in a Modern World

DTP Designer Jason Little

Managing Editor Sit-phanie Jackson

Managing Art Editor Nigel Duffield

First American Edition. 1998

8 10 9

Published in the United States by

DK Publishing, Inc., 95 Madison Avenue,
New York, New York 10016

Copyright 1998 Color & Style lo

Dorling Kindersley Limited. London

All rights reserved under International and Using Color

Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part
of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transmitted in an\-
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwi.se,
without the prior written permission of the
copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by
Dorling Kindersley Limited.

Library of Congress
Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Ca.s.sen. Julian

Decorating hints & tips Julian Ca.s,sell and IVter Parham

p. cm.
Includes index,
I.SBN 0-7894-2393-6
1 Hou.se painting. 2. Wall coverings.
3. Interior decoration.
I. Parham. Peter. II. Title.
TT323.C.372 1998 97-34411
747'.3-dc21 CIP

Reprcxiuced by C;hroma Graphics. Singapore

Printed and lx)und in Italy by Lego
Covering Walls 40 Covering Floors 88

Choosing Wallpaper
rewarding tasks pcrfonnccl
F.coRATiNG ccDi hc oiic ofthc DiosI
d;,'; the home. Hard work, creativity, and a little ingenuity can
produce spectacular transformations. Tloere are no instant means
to achieving the look you desire, hut there are easier methods,
ways of saving time, and innovative ideas to help you. This hook
provides expen advice and instruction in all aspects of decoration.

Using This Book

Preparing to Decorate
Most of us realize when it is time to
redecorate, but the next logical step -

deciding how to do it - can be more

difficult. Color & Styte will help you with the
decision-making process by explaining the effects
of combining colors and how a decorative plan

can meet your needs. All the chapters recommend Copying a motif
Use a collection of favorite
essential equipment and materials and suggest the items as a basis for a stencil
correct preparation for the finish you desire. design, as shown on page 18.

Decorating Walls and Woodwork

The walls and woodwork in a room can be thought of as
a basic framework on which the rest of a room's decoration
hangs. The chapter on Painting Watts covers all methods
and techniques, ranging from the simple coverage of a
wall to more spectacular paint effects. Covering Walls
looks at every aspect of wallpapering as well as other
options, such as wood paneling. Tiling Walls examines
the third major option for decorating walls, prox iding
practical instruction as well as creative ideas for
applying tiles to walls. Decorating Woodwork
completes the fundamental decorati\"e framework,
Effecting verdigris providing adxice on the best ways of paiming
For the secret of how to
woodv^-ork and incorporating paint criccts that will
make an ordinar)' wooden
surface resemble weathered completely transform the appearance of wooden
copper, see page 8 1 . surfaces - including favorite pieces of furniture.
Adding Fabrics and Finishes r
The basic decorative framework of a room
needs to be complemented by the rest of the
room's decoration. Covering Floors deals with
another major surface area. Whether you choose
soft or hard flooring, this chapter provides many
innovative ideas. Wiiidoiv Treatments suggests
some shortcuts and new angles on traditic^ial
window treatments, and includes advice on
decorating glass. Finishing Touches covers all

those other areas that can highlight a room's

decorative style, such as fabrics, lighting, and wall
decorations, which contribute to the overall effect.
Looking at the whole
Plan a complete decorative
Finally, the glossary provides explanations for a look including wallpaper,
variety of terms that are relevant to decorating. borders, paints, and furnishings.
Decorating in a Modern World
Choosing the Right Equipment
Home-decorating outlets and retail chains are
tiill of eciuii">nK'nt designed to aid yoLi in almost

every decorating project. However, a few essential

tools, together with one or two rec|Liired for certain

specific jobs, will arm yon for most tasks. Be wary

of tools making timesaving claims nnless they are
supported by the firsthand experience of someone
you know. Quality is unquestionably the key to Making a dragging tool
(Convert a car window scraper
success when buying equipment. Remember that into a dragging tool by cutting
you can add to a tool collection as the need arises. "teeth" out ol the blade.

Working with "Green" Materials

We are frequently reminded of the need to lead
our lives in an environmentally friendly way to
conserve natural resources. Decorators can
contribute to this ethos with relatively little

effort. Materials are increasingly water based

rather than solvent based. As well as being
"greener," water-based products tend to be
easier to use, they dry more quickly, and are
much easier to clean up after use. This book
Graining wood recommends environmentally friendly materials
Use a rocker - a special-effects
tool - to create the impression of and methods of cleaning up, and suggests
a grained wooden surface. many imaginative ways of using leftovers.

Working within a Budget

Your budget will frequently be of
primary concern when planning a
decorating project. Keep costs down
by simple financial management.
Always choose the best materials
you can afford. Good-quality paint
is expensive but covers in fewer
coats; padding extends the life of a
carpet; good-c}uality wall tiles are Using up cork tiles
less likely than cheap ones to break Attach a few cork tiles that are left over from
a flooring project to a piece of jilywood, place
when cut. Save money by long-term
it inside a picture frame, and liang up tor use
planning as well as short-term saving. as a home-office or kitchen noticeboard.
Experimenting with Decor
Redecorating gi\'es you the chance to experiment Health and
with different effects and finishes. A bold change Safety Guidelines
from an existing decorative plan can tr^italh"
ViTien decorating, consider
transform a rc:)om. although a less radical the following important
health and safety aspects.
transformation may be all that is needed to
Following Instructions
re\"italize its "tired" appearance. Consider several
Al^^ays read manufacturers"
options and experiment with ideas before you make operating in.structions before
using any equipment.
any final decisions. Make use of samples and color
Make sure that you use any
swatches from suppliers of decorating materials and materials or chemicals .safely,

complying with ,statutor%'

fabrics, and practice
legislation regulating the use
paint effects on test areas of hazardous substances.

of wall. Decorating can Follow- advice on labels

carefully before making
prox ide an outlet for solutions or mixtures.

your creati\'ir\' and an Using Equipment

opportunity to channel Make sure that ladders and
stepladders are in good
\'our ideas into a working order, and platforms
li^ practical plan, the ha\e been constructed safely.
to pre\"ent injur}' from falling.
results of which
you can enjoy for Disconnect any electrical
manv vears to come. equipment when it is not in
use. even for a short time.
Switch off the power supply
Tr\'ing out colors
when decorating around
Take home some wallpaper switches or wall outlets
samples from suppliers, and and when cleaning them.
evaluate snatches in situ. Consider using a ground
fault interrupter to protect
against electrocution.

Enjoying the Finished Product Protecting People

which many people's lifestyles have
In a societ}' in Increase the \ entilation in
a room to reduce the effects
become increasingly frantic and stressful, leisure of dust and fumes.
time and relaxation ha\e become of paramount Wear a mask to minimize
the amount of dust and fine
importance to counterbalance the strains of modern
particles that you inhale.
living. A well-decorated home can become a Wear safet)" glasses to
protect eyes from flying debris.
sanctuar\' from the rigors of ever\-day life as well
Wear gknes to protect skin
as a place for relaxation and recreational acti\ities from injur\' and irritation.

with family and friends. A decorating project itself

Keep all chemicals and
tools a^ay from children and
can provide you with an enjoyable pastime - out of the way of "corridors"
within vour working area.
offering the necessar\^ distraction and relief from
work and - and you will find successful
results immensely satisfying. You will subsequently

be able to relax in and enjoy pleasant surroundings

Dust ma.sk
that are all the result of your own ideas, planning.
creati\'ity, and - last but not least - hard \\ ork.
OLOR &. Style
m; uj- iiiiii())s ofc/ccoraliiig is Ihat it
Quick Reference provides an opportunity to experiment
Using Color, p. 12 with color (iHcI clccoralire styles irhi/e i>ii'i>i(^

Color Scheming, p. 16 you a means of expressing your personal taste

Setting Styles, p. 18 and preferences. Creating your own color
Reflecting combinations and choosing styles does,
Lifestyles, p. 20 hoivever need thought ciiul consideration <f
other factors before you nutke final decisions.

Understanding Color
is not necessary to understand the physics to determine a color scheme wiien decorating,
behind the derivation of color in order to Rather, you need a working knowledge of how-
appreciate why you like particular colors or different colors arc related and affect each other.

Applying Colors
Learning the Language of Color
Defining aims Decide
whether or not you want to All colors in the .spectrum are
achieve a certain result w ith derived from the three primary
your color choice in a room, colors - red, yellow, and blue.

and the sort of mood you Secondary colors are created by ^^ Adjacent hlut-s ^^r
want to create. Select a main mixing two primaries: yellow
color with these needs in mind
and blue to make green, for
example. All other colors are
- restful colors in a bedroom,
known as tertiary colors and
for example, or warm, in\iting
are formed from a variety of
hues in a living area. combinations of primaries and
Evoking emotions Colors secondaries. Shades and tones
produce different emotional are produced by lightening or
responses in people. If you darkening colors with the
want to make a statement or addition of black or white.
attract attention, use a strong,
Atli^Rcnt red
i\-cl,s ^^
hot color. Choose warm
colors to be welcoming and
comforting. Select strong, cold Relating colors
colors for a calming rather Primary colors lie

than a stimulating effect. Cool at equal inter\'als

colors are invigorating but around a "color

soothing at the same time.

wheel." On either
side of each
Combining colors Base your
primary color is
scheme around one main
a range of toning,
color. Then consider whether
adjacent hues.
other colors should form a
range of consecutive hues, colors fall directh
be clashing or contra.sting opposite each
complementary colors, or be other on the
combined to create a more color \\ heel.

complex scheme altogether.


Combining Colors
Some people have an in.stincti\e feel for hnw whether colors contrast with or complement
colors can be combined successfully w ithin each other. Either alternati\e can provide the
an extensi\e scheme. But vou can soon learn basis of a hiyhh' successful color scheme.

Contrasting Shades Combining Opposites

Juxtaposing light and dark Using complementarv' colors

Using particularly light colors alongside much Red and green work well together because the\
darker shades can provide good definition are complementan,- colors - that is. they sit

between the various surfaces in a room. Here, the directly opposite each other on the color wheel.
light lemon of the alcove and the pale woodwork The color scheme that is featured here also
create a neat finish against dark blue ^^-alls. includes the use of yellow, a contrasting color

Using Adjacent Colors Choosing Colors

S Following instincts Choose
basic colors within a scheme
according to your preferences.
Once \ou ha\e chosen these
basics, you can make slight
\ariations in shade to suit
particular requirements.
Harmonizing a finish Choose
same intensity
colors of the
viithin a schenie to create
a restful feel within a room.
The greater the difference in
intensin'. the more colors will
tend to standi out. ^'ou ma\'
wish to highlight a feature in
a room using this effect.
Mixing complementaries
Combine a large area of one
color with its ccMiiplementarv'
color, which w ill ha\e the
Striking a balance with related color.s effect of softening the original
Contrasting colors emphasize features, but if the\ are adjacent hues shade.You can also use this
they also unite a room. The red walls and window link this scheme, method to take the edge off
despite a great difference in wall colors. The vibrant yeU(n\ on the vibrant hues so that they lie

baseboard contra.sts with the pale yellow wall while relating to it more comfortabh' together.


Using Color

COLORS HAVE CERTAIN PROPERTIES thilt can c'\()kc particular feelings in a room.
You may choose a color scheme simply to c lian_ne the character of your
room or to create a certain atmosphere In means ot that color's characteristics.

Transforming Rooms with Color

When starting the decoration of
a room from scratch, examine
the function of the room and
wlio is going to be using it.

(Catering for occupants If

a room is for communal use,

cater for general taste rather
than individual needs. Even
a personal room such as a
iiedroom will require ver>'
different decor, in both practical Playing with greens Relaxing in warm pinks
and aesthetic terms, depending In a bedroom intended for use ^ou can transform a rof)m almost
on whom it is designed for. by a child, bear in mind that its completely just by changing its

Considering function Select functions will include both rest color. L'se a uniform color
your colors according to and recreation. You will have the scheme in an adult's bedroom,
whether a room will be used scope to use different colors to for example, to ensure that
for rest and relaxation, for fun enliven the atmosphere and add features do not leap out and to
and recreation, or for work. interest for the room s occupant. maintain a restful atmosphere.

Subtle or Bold
Subtlety and boldness are generally equated
with con.servatism and daring, respectively.
This is because it is considered far more risky

Staying Pale

Warm or Cool
olors have definite warming ov cooling warm or cool colors, or using both warm and
C properties that can be used to great effect
ill areas of the home. CcMiibining several
cool together, can produce a range of different
atmcxspheres and moods to suit your needs.

Warming Up & Cooling Down Adjusting Effects

# Emanating warmth Oranges,
reds, pinks, and warm yellows
create a cozy atmosphere.
Choose warm colors such as
these for a room that receives
little or no direct .sunlight.

# Freshening up Select a cool,
refreshing color scheme with
blues and greens for areas such
asnarrow corridors that need
opening up, or for sunny
ro<^ms that may overheat.
Bringing in warmth Creating space # Varying intensity The
The warming effect of these Typical cool colors tend to have extent to which a color has a
colors is enhanced by the fact a receding effect on walls, which warming cjr cooling influence
that they appear to bring the gives a greater feeling of space depends on its intensity and
walls nearer and reduce space in a room. Use this to create an its shade. Use dark colors
in the room. Choose colors like open, airy atmosphere, as well carefully, since these tend to
these for coziness and intimacy. as creating a cool effect. have the most marked effect.

Creating a Warm Glow Keeping Cool

Nurturing warmth and comfort

Clrcate a feeling of coziness and reassurance by
basing an entire color scheme on warm hues. In
this room, the rich, red wall color is accentuated
by similar tones in the furnishings. Even the orange
undertones in the natural wooden floor contribute
to the rooms warm and welcoming atmosphere.

Light or Dark
The use
of a light or dark color does, ot
create a correspondingly light or
dark atmosphere in a room. Howexer. ditUrt'iii

Making Light Work


Blending and Toning

Blending and toning can often be tiie most ro(^ni should be accentuated and which should

concept to grasp when choosing

difficult be blended in with the general decor in order
colors. YoLi need to decide which features of a to produce a sympathetic color scheme.

Maintaining a Blend Color Coordinating

Setting the tone Choose Blending together
colors to suit a room's Choose a main wall
function and the impact you color so that it blends
wish to make. Use subtle in with the color of
tones in areas of rest, more another significant
intense hues in activity rooms. feature in the room.

Creating mood Select a In the example shown

shade that is appropriate for a here, the natural wood
room's mood. Slightly tinting finish of the fireplace

a color one way or another and the furniture tones

can make all the difference. effectively with the pale

Reducing impact Use ochre walls and smaller

colors to make unsightly items such as paintings
features less noticeable. Paint and ornaments to create
a radiator the same color as a harmonious and

the walls, for example. relaxed feel in the room.

Extending Color
Extending the same colors and designs from This link can be made between all surfaces in
one surface to another is a hirther way a room including the flooring and furnishings,
of using color to balance a decorative scheme. as well as the smaller decorative details.

Locating Color in Less Obvious Places Following Guidelines

Including ornaments As
well as using similar colors
on all the major surfaces in

a room, extend your color

scheme to your ornaments
and collections on display to
match the components of your
decorati\e plan further.
Incorporating textures The
textured aspect of a decorative
plan can also be linked in with
a color scheme. For example,
reflect the differentshades
and tones produced by a
natural flooring, such as sea-
grass, in wicker baskets and
other accessories in the room.
9 Scheming simply The best
Maintaining a theme between features effects are often created by
Link features orrooms together by sharing a theme, for example by means of a few simple color
extending a pattern from one decorative feature to another. Here, the statements. A\()id including
bands of tricolored squares running above the kitchen work surface too many colors, since this
and above the baseboard have also been applied to the painted tends to produce a very
frame. Use constituent colors separately on other selected surfaces cluttered feel that wall be
to echo and maintain the theme between features or rooms. too busy for most rooms.


Color Scheming
CiioosiNc^, A COLOR SCHFMH is excitinu, hut can also he a link- daunting. You it

may find it easy to select a main color hut more difficult to iinalize the
smaller details, although these can often make or break the finished effect.

Finding Inspiration
Inspiralion tonics nalurallv anti casil\- lo dcfininy our own personal pivfcivncL-s. -Iry to
sonic pcopk'. but most of us ncccl a littk^ identity a few key areas lo lu-lp yoLi before
help in developing our artistic flair, or c\en in you start to make decisions about decoratin.^.

Looking around You Seeking Help

Observing friends' homes
When selecting colors, you Although in.spiration is an
may find tliat inspiration is close individual experience, you
athand, so look around vou
can learn a lot by looking at
before searching farther afield.
the color schemes in friends'
Existing decorations Examine homes. Try combining ideas
why your existing decorati\e from several sources.
scheme does not suit you.
Consulting professionals If
and to what extent the color
\()u \isit adecorating outlet,
scheme needs to be changed
ask their experts for advice on
Magazines Flick quickb- Looking at photographs
thrcuigh magazines to see wliich
color scheming. This service is
Browse through a photograph
pages and images attract you album. identif\ing favorite often free, and you mav find
and which colors they feature. vacation pictures. Make a note
it extremely useful.
Paintings U,se paintings
and of those colors that appeal to Visiting showrooms Most
prints thatyou have bought in )ou in landscape photographs large outlets build showrooms
the past as reminders of what to give you an indication of to displa\- entire rooms. Here
appeals to you visuallv. your color preferences. you may cjbserve the work
of interior designers.

Starting Out Using Swatches

Trying technology There
Traditional Tip are man\- computer programs
available to help with home
design and decoration. You
can tr\- out a range of different
color schemes on screen
before making any decisions
or doing any work.
Considering lighting "I'ou
need to be aware of the
Using color charts lighting in a room, since this
Many manufacturers now will affect colors. Study both
provide more than simple natural light conditions and
color swatches to aid \ our artificial lighting before
choice of colors. They will selecting a color scheme. Painting lining paper
aLso advi.se on period color Choosing accessories Pick Make a rca.sonably sized color
styles and how to combine out the decorative accessories swatch b\- painting a piece of
colors to create an authentic for a room before completing lining paper. Stick this on a wal
look. Many of their materials the color .scheme if there is temporarib so that \()u can
have traditional finishes. an object you partictilarly observe a color as the light
like or find in,spiring. changes throughout the dav.


Building Up a Complete Decorating Plan

Choosing the decoration of a room from scratch of your chosen color or several colors, follow

can provide an exciting challenge and thus be very through to every last detail of decorative materials,
rewarding on completion. From the starting point furnishings, and ornamentation in the room

Chouse fabrics far uphulsteiy and

window treatments that highlight
one- or combine sereral - of the
colors in your decoratire plan

u Select howls and other

ceramic ornaments
so that they reflect the
colors you hare chosen

I'icL' out
of colors- i)!

this case blue

and pale
terracotta -
from vacation
that you
particularly like

Look through
hooks on
painting or
photography for
ideas on using
and combining
color anil tone

I se caipet samples to
select appropriate shades
to coordinate with
the colors of other
decoratire materials
and to complete your
chosen color scheme

Make a much-loved
ceramic pot the anchor
point for color
scheming, or buy a
neiv item specifically
for that piiipose
Tr)> out paint on a wall using samples- which
are available in small quantities- before
making a final decision about colois


Setting Styles

Wiii:n making a decoR/\ti\i: pi.ax, you nccci lo tkxicic whether to follow an

established st\'le or eivate \'oiir own look. combination of bolli is

possible, ^ilh man\' periiuilations allowing; you lo be as ereali\e as you wish.

--------------- Forming Ideas ------------^^

with color sclK'niiiiL;. look lor acklilional nimilx-i' ol elilkTe-nl itlcas tari'lulK lo aciiic\u a
A.sinspiration trom \arioirs (.-xicrnal somxes rcvsult ihal \i)Li will Ix- happ\ willi and wlii^li

wlK'n choo.sin^L; a t.lccorati\c .style. Balance a w ill also Ik- aiiprcciatLxl In other iicoplc.

Deciding on Style Keeping within Budget

DoiNd Ri: si; ARC 1

VeritS'ing age If yon wish to Decorating lavishly C^onsider

give your home a period look, the costs of reproducing a Source material for planning
cio some thorough research particular sVs'le. E.xtraxagant your style can be found in a
into the recjuisite colors (.Irapes ma\' be neeeleel lor ,i number of different locations.

beginning work.
st\les before period look, tor example, ^ou All of these ma\ inspire \<)u

Watching movies \\ atch will then need to cut back on and help )'ou to form your
ideas before making decisions.
movies and tele\ision other expenditure, sucii as
programs as a source of that for decorative accessories. Exhiliitions.

inspiration and reference. In Making structural changes Libraries.

their need for authenticity, Costs ri.se if major .strtictural S .Magazines.

producers - especially of ^ork is carried out. Decide lilu.straied books,

period dramas - need to pay vvhether or not the benefits Craft fairs.
Lifestyle and home-
attention to precise details. of the work will justilx the
decorating pn jgranis.
Keeping existing sr\'le if you Lidditional expense incurred.
are happy with an existing Choosing paint Paint is k'ss '9 Trade shous.
.style, you may need simph' to expensi\ e than w.illpaper or Art galleries.
update or renew it. Do not other materials. A^lapt a st\le MLiseums.
feel obliged to change a kx)k to incluLle paintetl surfaces Places of historical interest.

each time you redecorate. tor a less costh option.

i^L Using Collections

Bright Idea L se a personal collection as a
basis for a theme, extending its

appeal and making it a significant

part of a room's decoration.

# Using furniture Some people

collect furniture that reflects a
particular liistorical period or
mllLK'nce, I'sc this theme as a
h.isis tor other decorations by
matching colors and designs
to complement the pieces. Stenciling a design
i> t'sing pictures Decorate C]opy an image from an item th.ii
Viewing period homes
a room so that \our iiictLires is displa\ed in the room - (i.irl
Seek in.spiration for original
w be enhanced
ill b\ their of a collection, for example - b\
styles from period homes. sLirroiindin<;s. L.irLje- p.iiniings tracing o\er it. I'se this to cre.ile
Visit a few, particularly locally, (.'.m usLialK cnpc wiiii l.nisii a stencil ilesign w hich. as well
to get a feel for the character w.ill o)\erinL;s. wlieiv.is sm.illei' as adding tlecoratixe appe.il to
of the region, and note l")iinl,s ni.\\\ A subik'i- backdioii the wall, will also complinuin
inspiring elements. that will not com|X'le with them. the item or collection.


Considering Other Factors

setting a srs'le. there are a number of an authentic effect. These factors may not be
InsLipplementaiA' considerations that you ob\ious but can help in making the practical
need to take into account in (Mxler to achie\'e decisions that w ill shape the hnal plan.

Being Lavish Creating Formality Minimizing Changes

- Using the right fabric La\ rsh. Being ordered Formal styles Following a design .Ma.ssi\ e
sumptuous st\1es rely hea\"ily can range from opulence to o\'erhauls are not necessar\'
on soft furnishings. Tct create minimalism. Howexer. designs to inject the idea of a sr\1e
this sort of feel, emphasize for wallpaper or fabric should into a decorati\e plan. Select
elaborate \\indow treatments. be precise and obxious to gi^'e fabrics carefully for immediate
e-\tra\agant furnishings, and an impression of regimented effect. Gingham designs, for
the impression of swaths of order. For example, choose example. gi\"e acountn-
material and cushions as well striped designs for a neat, cottage feel. e\en if used
as .soft, luxurious carpeting. tidw and ordered appearance. relati\'ely sparingly in a room.

Thinking Ahead
Considering Bt ilding Stylls
Considering your stay If you
\\ ill n(~)t be in a home for long, a particular decorative plan

plan for short-term needs and will work better in some

a\oid extraxagant decor that surroundings than in others.

\-ou will need to lea\'e behind. Reflecting realir\- Consider

Increasing value xMake sure authenticity-. For example, a
that ycuir hc^me is decorated countr\--kitchen look is most
well. It will be far easier to
con\1ncing in a rural setting.

- and fetch a higher .Maintaining a theme When

sell price
decorating pan of your home, Reflecting architecture
- \\ hen the time comes.
think about the impact on other Certain types of building are
* Dealing with trends areasand whether you v.ill best suited to particular sr\ les
Decorati\"e sr\ies change as
extend the style to them later. If of decor. A look that works well
tjuickly as other fashions. a finish reflects a particular era. in a Mediterranean villa may be
To plav choose a fairly
safe, changing it may mean replacing out of place in a townhouse
neutral plan and reflect other decorati\'e features, too. or a rustic, wooden home.
fashion onh^ in accessories.

Transforming a Space into a Living Area

Starting from scratch

For a major room facelift, or
the creation of a living area in
previoush unused space, clear
the room as much as possible.
Here, a cold, uninviting room
(above) has become welcoming
and comfortable (right), and
good use has been made of
inherent features such as its

unusual shape and natural light.


Reflecting Lifestyles

Wiii-N MAKING DECISIONS ABOIT DECORATING. Consider voLir lifestyle as well as

feelings about how li\-ing enxironments shoLild appear. You may be

constrained by architectural lealures. but there are iuan\ ways to adapt them.

Selecting a Style
decorators aiv, presenietl with halante between look yoii like and the
All in effect, a a

a blank cam-a.s on which to work. When tnnction.s a room will ,ser\e. First resolve basic
planning your creation, you will need to strike requirements, then make adjustments to .style.

Living in an Urban Environment Maximizing space

Space may well be at a premium
if you live in a city dwelling.
(Consider an open-plan layout to
help create a feeling of greater
space or simply to make the
most of the space that you have
available. Light colors are more
likely than dark shades to make
a room feel spacious, especialh'

if it has high ceilings. Think very

carefulh about the layout of and
furnishings fcjr an open-plan
home. It can be challenging
enough to coordinate the
decoration of a small area, let

alone take a creative oxersiew

of a large room that must ser%'e

multiple purposes. So take your

time when making choices.

Designing a Country Kitchen Reflecting a Regional Style

Recalling the simple life Adding an ethnic flavor

Choose a countr> look for a kitchen to reflect You can develop a theme w ith just a few details
a theme of uncomplicated living and promote or create a complete replica of a regional st>Ie -
comfort and relaxation in one of the busiest areas be it local or from far afield. This Hispanic tlieme
of the home. Reinforce this atmosphere by using is simply produced with a little basic know ledge
a lot of wood, both painted and unpainted. about the appropriate colors and designs.

reflecting lifestyles
Selecting a Modern or a Traditional Approach

Being thoroughly modern Upholding tradition

Modern decorative plans are often characterized Many people feel comfortable with traditional
as much by their selection of furniture, such as decorative themes, like the classic look of this
these striking chairs, as by their color scheme and room. Tried and tested over the years, such styles

choice of fabrics. A modern st\'le is innovative, so are to a certain extent guaranteed to give a satisfying
you can give yourself scope to experiment and result. You can choose from a wide range of options
produce a st^le that reflects your own ideas. and are likelv to find a selection to suit vour taste.

Creating a Home in One Room Making Your Mark

* Adding There is
to a look
no need complete your
decorative plan as soon as
the main decorating job is
completed. Collect and add
accessories and ornaments
over time nntil you feel you
have achieved a total look.
Creating a focus The most
successful decorative plans
result from well-chosen focal
points that draw attention to
detail. Fireplaces, furniture,

and pictures all fall into this

category. However, do not
clutter up a room and reduce
the impact of such features.
Minimalist decorative plans
draw attention to focal points.
Adapting a Take an
established style and adapt it
to suit you. This can be great
Planning a room layout carefully fun and will add a touch of
When one room is to be used for a number of purposes, design individuality. For example,
the decor largely according to practical concerns. Here, split-level include an extravagant
accommodation creates space by suspending the sleeping area above material in a Shaker-style
ground level. The choice of a few ornate accessories, such as the kitchen to contrast with the
mirror and the pillar support of the raised area, adds interest. simple, utilitarian designs.

Axn (I'Jiixcs arc usuallly Ihc /arrest
Quick Reference W1//S' ihal you
^ui'facc areas Ihal you will
face wii jxiiiU iu
Preparing to Paint, p. 24
a home. As a resull. wall color aiul lexlure
Tnipro\ing Tcchni(]ucs.
p. 2(1
form Ihc hach(lrol) for other (leco)-alioii in
Creating Paint Effects,
a room. II is lheref>re imporlaut lo prepare
p. 30 surfaces thoi'oui^hly and lo use the correct
Finishing, p. 3H techui(/uef)r the finish recjuired to ensure
both the (jiiality and lon;^ life of the decoration.

Selecting Materials -^------ ^

There is a \ast and e\"er-increLising \ariety categories. Water-basctl paints tcnel to ciominatu
of painting materials in the marketplace; the \\all-finisii market because they are quick-
thev broatlh- fit into a number of general cliTinq and eas\" to use over large surface areas.

Paint Types and Their Characteristics


Ba>ic Painting Equipment

Having the most suitable
took for painting projects is
imponant. There are several
basic tools that should form pan
of even home decorators
painting kit. which ma> then
be added to for tasks with more
specific requirements. Buying
good-qualit) equipment will
reap benefits in the form of
bener. longer-lasting results.

Creating paint effects If you

intend to use paint effects, you
will require some additional
equipment as well as certain
different materials (see p. 31^-
Testing equipment Before
buying any painting equipment
- but especially large, costly
pieces test them for sturdiness.
and make sure that they have
an adequate guarantee.

D:r-rv: Sandpaper


Preparing to Paint

Till- FIRST STAGE OF iHF DFCORA'i'iNG PROCFSS is important to ihc i')roclLKlion of a

top-qualitv finish, hut it is often perceived as the most tedious. Takini^ time
to prepare a wall thoroui;hl\' before paintin^^ will ensuiv a i^ood result.

Getting Surfaces Ready

Prolecling .surfaces that arc not to be painicel room to proiccl it from damage, to increa.se your
i.s a.s important a.s preparing those thai are. working area, and to make it easier to identify'
It is ad\i,sable to remove all furniture trom a tlio.se areas of wall needing mo.st attention.

Clearing & Covering Filling Walls Repairing Corners

Protecting furniture If it is Mixing filler .Mi.x filler to
not possible to move all the a firm, pastelike consistency.
furniture out of a room, stack If too wet, it will shrink too
large items in the center of the much in ,i hole when it dries;

room and fit smaller pieces if too dry, it will be difficult

around them. Drape a pla.stic to work and dn' tcx) c|uickly.

sheet over the furniture to 9 Storing prepared filler If

keep dust off. Secure around you prei")are too much filler,

the bottom with masking tape. .store the surplus, co\ered with
Covering floors Coxer floors plastic \\iap, for later use.
with dropcloths or old house- Filling large gaps I se
hold sheets. Use a dcHible newspaper to pack corner
thickness of the latter since cracks and prcnide a ba.se for Using a support
they are less impermeable. filler. Deep holes Vkill neeci To repair an external corner nail
Stopping movement Secure a second fill before sanding. a wood strip fiush with one edge,
dropcloths in position b\- Overfilling Fill any holes then till against it. Once the tiller

baseboards with masking tape slightly abo\e the wall surface dries, remove the strip. Repeat
to pre\ent them from creeping. to allow tor shrinkage. on the other edge, and lightly sand.

Covering Large Areas Making Alterations

Putting up eo\ing Strip old
Bright Idea \\all|^aper before attaching new
co\'ing to walls. Put co\ing in
position before deling any
further painting preparation.
Replacing woodwork If \ xiu

want to replace moldings or

basebcxirds, do .so liefore nou
paint the walls in order to
a\()id the po.ssibilin- of them
being damaged after the\-
have been painted.
Protecting fixtures # Organizing professionals Hire
To protect a wall fixture such qualihed traLlespeople to cany
a.s a light from paint .splatters, Using a caulking blade out any major electrical or
cover with a plastic bag If a wall has numerous scrapes plumbing alteraticms that are
secured with string. Remove and holes, use a caulking blade necessary before \'ou start
the light bulb, which, if to spread filler across the whole painting. Arrange for them to
switched on, would heat up or a large part of the damaged return once you ha\e finished
and present a fire risk. area. The broad blade surface the decorating in order to
will cover the area efficiently. attach any fixtures for you.


Preparing Walls
Asmootli wall surface is essential, since paint to a flat finish that is smooth to the touch.
higlilights rather than hides imperfections. Prime with an appropriate sealer to stabilize
Sand excess filler and other rough areas back the surface and make it ready to accept paint.

Sanding & Sealing Making Sanding Easier

Sanding large areas Use an # Saving time Before sanding.
sander for preparing
electric remo\e lumps of plaster or
largeexpanses of wall. Renting filler with a scraper. Only
one for a day is not expensi\e. a light sanding v\"ill then be
Maximizing use Once coarse needed for total smoothness.
sandpaper has become v^orn. Fdid sandpaper
you can use it for fine sanding arfiinicl iiooci

before thro^\ing it away.

Sealing new plaster Dilute
ten parts of flat latex with
one part water for use as an Clean a ceiling thoroughly
excellent primer on new before you start painting it.

plaster. Choose white latex

Reaching a ceiling Rather
since it is the least expensive. than climbing a ladder with
Sealing dust}' walls Mix one Using a sanding block a bucket of ^ater. use a
part P\A glue with five parts Wrap a piece of sandpaper squeegee mop to reach up.
water to make an excellent tighth" around a wood scrap to Using detergent Use a mild
sealer. It will ha\e strong provide a tlrm base as you sand detergent for cleaning, then

bonding properties and be a wall. Rotate the sandpaper rinse with clean, warm water
ideal for use on povvder}' walls. around the block as it wears.

Preparing Paint
Paint will produce the finish that you require shadows, and a poor finish are usually not the
only ifis prepared correctly before you
it fault of the paint manufacturer: more often they
use it. Problems such as poor color matching. are the result of poor preparation by the user.

Mixing Paint Removing Limps Stirring & Decanting

Stir with Pour paiut Protecting paint Before
slat opening a can of paint, al-^ays
use a brush to remove
dust and dirt from the rim
of the lid. Impurities may
otherwise fall into the paint
as you ease off the lid.
# Hand stirring Stir paint in
several different directions
rather than in a one-directional
movement. Use a slight lifting
motion as you stir to ensure
an even color throughout and
the dispersal of paint up from
Maintaining color Sieving paint the base of the can.
You may require several cans of However \\ ell it is stored, paint Lining paint buckets Use foil

paint when decorating a large may form a skin in the can or to line a paint bucket before
room. Pour all of them into one acquire lumps and foreign bodies. decanting paint into it. Once
large bucket and mix to conceal Use a household sieve when the job is finished, the foil can
color differences. U.se a bucket decanting paint into a paint bucket be thrown away and there is
with an airtight lid for storage. to separate out the.se impurities. no need to clean the bucket.


Improving T e c: h n oi t j es

YOiR TECHXigri-s AKi-; cooi). you will achic-w the elcsiivtl finish
and acx'iirately. You can cover lar^e areas (|iiickly with modern
equipment. Ne\er rush, and reuK'niher thai speed will come with practice.

-^---- Improvinc, nil: Basics --------------------

have pivtcivncc tor a parluular that a lia iini(|uc that yon had piv\ iously
E\cn il \()u a fiiul

technique, it is worth expefimenting with considered to be ditticLiil is. in tact, easier than
alternati\e metliods. \nu nvA\ be suiprised to yoLi thouglit and well within yoLir capaiiililies.

Following Bask Rules Loading Paint

Smoothing walls I^ub dow n and buckets till
Filling trays
N\alls lightly lietween coats a tray up bottom edge of
to the Traditional Tip
w ith hne-grade sandpaper its ribbed slope, and a paint

Lighting efficiently I'aint w ith bucket up to one-third full.

an indirect rather than a main
light source illuminating your
work, ^'ou w ill then be able to
see more cleaiiy where you

ha\e painted, especially on
the second or third coat.
Keeping edges wet Keep the
edge wet as you paint along Dampening brushes
a wall, since ditfering diying Dampen paintbrushes lielbre
times on the same surface use to make them easier to
may cause shading variations. Distributing evenly work with. Wash xour
Complete one wall at a time. Run a roller head over the ribbed brushes regularly during
Covering well AppK two area of a paint tni)- to remove painting to prevent the
coats if you are making a -flight excess paint. This will also bristles Irom t logging up
color change, but three it \ou ensure that the paint is evenly Dampen rollers and pads, too.
are replacing dark w ith light. distributed over the roller head.

Selecting Brushes Rolling Walls Using Paint Pads

Using brushes efficiently Covering evenly Painting with ease

Choose a 4-in ( l()()-mm) bru.sh Apply paint on a roller in vertical, I sing a paint pad rec|uires a
for painting wails. Using a smaller slightly o\erlapping strips. One minimal amount of technical
one will take too long, while a load should cover I st| ytl ( 1 nv ). abilit)', Pre\enl a builtlup ol paint

larger one will cause ) our wrist VXithout reloading, lighth run Uy spreading it in all directions,
to tire. Apply random suokes tile roller o\er the area lo l.i\ olt Init m.ike Miri' liiat all areas
in all directions, and do not the paint, removing excess and within the range of the jiad
ONcrhrush. La\ off as with a roller. producing an e\en coverage. are suincienllv et)\ered


Painting Around Edges ^

Paintinii aroLind the edges of a wall is know n will add professionalismto your decorating,
as cutting in. and it recjuires great precision. brush is used, although corner rollers
I'sLially a

Good defining lines between different surfaces and miniature pads are axailable.

Dealing with Edges Painting a Well-deeined Edge

* Overlapping Cut in a Choosing brushes Use a Hiding unevenness W here
little w^ay onto molding and 2-in (S()-nim) brush to paint the edge of the ceiling is

baseboards if they are to be in a corner. Tliis w ill be small undulating, cut in slighrh'

painted. Then \"ou \\'ill need to enough to maneuxer. but will below the wall-ceiling JLinction
paint onl\- one straight line - co\er a reascMiabl)' sized area to produce a new line that is

when you paint the woodwork. with a single loading of paint. clearlv defined and straight.
Masking If you are painting
walls but not \^oodwork. apply Cutting in at a Wall ceiling Junction
a strip of masking tape alcMig
adjacent wooden edges. Dc^
\()u intend to

tliis also it

apph' a natural wood finish.

Painting around switches

Use a small brush to cut in
around switches. Clean off
thy with the edge of a
when they are
knife or a \\indow scraper.
' Painting inaccessible areas It
1 Apply a strip of paint
along the top of a wall
2 With
the brirsh now mosth'
of paint, spread
is hard to paint betv^een pipes bePi\een 1 and 2 in (2.5 and the paint trail upward right

and behind ra^liators. Use a 5 cm) below the ceiling. Do into the wall-ceiling junction.
long-handled radiator roller, not brush this trail out. and Using the outermost bristles,
or make a tool by taping a apph' a thicker coxering of bead the paint accurately into
sawed-off paintliRish at a right paint than xou would if you the corner, making a clean,
angle to the end of a do^^el. were painting the open wall. straight line at the junction.

Adapting Techniques for Painting Ceilings

Slight modifications in painting (~>verlapping walls If walls are
technitiiics are required when lo he painted, cn-erlap ceiling
painting ceilings because of the paint 2 in (^ cm) onto the wall.
difficulty in reaching them.
Wm will fine! it is easier to cut
You will need a sturd) stepladdcr. in the wall color at the wall-
When decorating a whole room, ceiling junction than \'ice \'ersa.
make sure that you paint the Protecting from overspray If

ceiling first, thus preventing you are not Lising a drip guard,

overspray onto walls that have protect yourself from .spray by

alread\' been decorated. w earing a long-slee\'ed shin and
a cap. or use nondrip paint.
w Increasing If you
\()ur height ' Making a drip guard Cut a

find stepladderscumbersome, dishwashing-liquid bottle in half

and you have low ceilings, you Staying on the ground vertically. Attach one half to
may be able to paint a ceiling Reduce the amount of work xou a rollercage by screwing the
merely by standing on an have to do up a ladder w hen cage's retaining screws through
upturned wooden crate. painting a ceiling by using an holes at ends of the bottle. When
Dealing with light fixtures extension pole with a roller or you any paint spray w ill be

Unscrew ceiling roses rather paint pad. If you do not want to caught by the guard, ^'ou may
than attempting to paint anniiul buy an extension pole, impro\ ise n^<^d to modify the design and
them. Make sure that the b\ taping a roller or paint pad method (if attachment for
electricitx' is tiu'ned oft first. to one entl of a iiroom ii.iiulk- ditieieni brands of roller.


UsiNc, Equipment
Tfchnoloi^ical dex'elopiiients coniiiuially biin^L^ iiK-llioeK. I'aini sprayers. i'(n example, arc more
new paimini; ee|uiiiment and tools into the suiiahle lor use in the home than the\ usl'iI to
marketplace and imiiroNe existing deeoratin,^ he and are leadiK available lor (lurehase or rent.

Embracing Technology Choo.sing to Paint with a Spra-si.r

Reducing eftbrt I'se battery- Spraying with ease I land- Follow ing guidelines Apjily
powered rollers and brirslu's held, airless spray guns are sexeral e\en, thin coats for
to eliminate tlu' need lor light and relati\ely easy to a flat. e\en finish: thick coats
reloadint^. Paint is pump<.'d iLsc. Practice on a piece of make paint moie likel\ to rtin.
through a tuix' onto the newspaper. Clean the nozzle Spraying can be messy, so
roller or brush head, thirs regularlv for an e\en coating. mask off bordering surfaces.
speeding up the painting
process ancl making it easier.
Improving coverage Use
commercial one-coat paints to
reduce significantly the time
it takes to decorate a room.

These paints are ideal for

partial redecoration and for
freshening up a room quicklw
Buying multipurpose tools
These days manufacturers
produce ladders, for example, Maintaining a steady hand Covering a wall
with far more than their With one hand in control of the Spray in a continuous motion,
traditional purpose in mind. trigger, use the other to steady backward and forward across
Combination ladders ha\e the sprayer. Keep the nozzle a wall and from top t(^ bottom.
se\'eral uses - as trestles and about 12 in C^O cm) from the wall. Spray a little beyond each wall
working platforms as ^ell as Wear lighuveight gloves to protect edge. Keep spraying until the
con\"entional stepladders. \(Hir h.mds from o\ ersprav wall is completely covered.

Safety Choosing Painting Tools

As \\ ith any equipment, read
T(nM,s (jiaracteristks and St itability
manufacturers instructions
carefully when using a paint
Brush Blushes are niultii")urpose and come in many
sprayer. There are particular!}
important safet)' points to
shapes and sizes. They are ideal for cutting in and

remember in this case.

painting intricate details, and can be irsed on open
wall surfaces, hut will be slower than other tools.
Wearing protective clothing
Wear mask and goggles

Roller Rollers are ideal tor wide, open surfaces, hieing hv

when using a paint spra\er.
lar the quickest tools for co\ering walls efficiently.
\e\'er inhale the fine mist of
The size of them varies, but rollers are too big for
paint or get it into your e)"es.
cLittint; in. The texture of rollers also \'aries.
Protecting hands Ne\er
put your hands in front of a
sprayer's nozzle. The paint Spra>er Sprayers :\vc ideal w here little masking is required
wis expelled at high pressure and broad wall surfaces and inaccessible
for painting
and could cause injur^^ areas, such as behind pipes. Using a sprayer can
Disconnecting power be a mess\- business, so protect adjacent surfaces.
Always disconnect a paint
sprayer from the power
supply before you remove
Pad Pads are suitable for large surfaces, .incl small p.uls
are available for cutting in. They cause less mess
the nozzle - in order to clear
blockages, for example.
than rollers. Use them where extensi\e masking
would ()then.\ise be necessan. sueh as in kitchens.


Emphasizing Texture
Greater depth and texture ean lie produced are almost as easy to apply as more con\entional
hv applying specialty coatings and paints to paints. Their thick formulation means that they
wall surfaces. These finishes look effecti\"e and literally add another dimension to your painting.

Making Patterns Dealing with Corners Leaving Walls

Looking Natural
Many wall surfaces provide
a textured or natural look in
their own right. This requires
minimal additional finishing.

# Natural stone Seal natural

stone with diluted PVA glue
(one part P\'\ to fi\'e paits
water). This will ]irovide a
finish, while the bonding
jiroperries of the P\A-based
sealer reduce dirst.

Brick Use commercial

Using tools Cutting in watersealants to give bricks
Use a small grout spreader to Use a small stippling brush to a low-sheen finish that is

create a design. Work in areas of apply paint in corners, since attracti\"e and tiinctional.

about 1 sq yd (1 m- ), or the paint a textured roller will not reach Bare plaster A well-plastered

will dry before you ha\e made right in. Dab lighth with a well- )m can itself be pleasing.
r( )(

Seal with two or three coats

the pattern. A semicircular shape loaded brush to achieve the
of water-based matte \arnish.
is easy to reproduce if you want to rough finish produced by a

keep the design relatively simple. textured roller on ;m open wall.

Applying Specialty Coatings to Ceilings

designed with ceilings in mind
Specialts- coatings textured paint, you can create a wide variety- of
can provide effective finishes. They are ideal for patterns with tools designed specifically for the
areas that are prone to cracking, or for uneven task, or, b)' impro\'ising with different implements,
ceilings that need to look more uniform. As with vou can create \ our ow n indi\idiial look.

* Getting help Tiy to fin^l

someone to help you with
the application of a textured
coating to a ceiling, since it is a

difficult job to do on your own.

One of you can apply the
coating, while the other follows
behind creating the pattern.
Cleaning as you go Keep
a bucket of clean water at hand
as you texture a ceiling. Rinse
your tools regularly in the water
to pre\-ent them from becoming
clogged up with the coating. Removing drip tips Creating effects
s Finishing edges Frame a Once a textured coating is dr\. Use a crumpled pia.stic bag to

fini.shed ceiling by dragging gently brush the ceiling with a create a textured effect. Turn the
a 1-in (25-mm) brush through household broom to remove an\ bag regularly .so that you use a

the textured coating all the way excess coating. Otherwise, when clean area to make the imprint.
around the perimeter This will you paint the ceiling, rollers will Wear surgical gloves to pre\ent
create a preci,se, well-defined catch on the drip tips, hampering \-our hands from becoming caked,
edcre to enhance the finish. an even paint tlistribution. and keep some bags at hand.


Creating Paint Effects

Y(Mtor cw (

Ki \Ti' \ wiDi
R\\(,i' oi' EFFECTS h\ iisjn^ p;iinis aiul i^hi/cs.
deceiving ihe eye wilh eolor unci perspectix'e.
Use paint

I'se (glazes lor iIkmi" seniili'ansparenl c|Lialily lo prockiee eleplli and iranslueence.

Considering Opiions
Simple' paiiil cttccts can \\a\<j just as much simple cllco that uses toloivd emulsions, "^ou
impact as those in\()l\int^ more complex can mix coloivcl glazes, and attempt more
technic|ues. It xou are a heginnei". choose a e.\tia\ aidant tinishes. as noli i^ain experience.

Choosing Effects
Types of Paint Effect
methods There are
two main methods of creating Wliichever paint effect \()u Tf) to maintain consistent hand
paint effects. Father a tool is chcxisc. make sure that \()ii iia\e nKncmcnts from one wall to

dipped into paint or glaze all tools and materials :it hand. iinotlier lor ;m e\cn nvcnill finish.

and then applied to a wall.

sponging on
or a glaze is applied to a wall
Sponging (see p. ^2) is iirobabh the
with a hrirsh and a tool is
easiest paint effect to create. Latex paints
pressed into the glaze. The or glazes can be used. Natural sea sponges
former is an "on" technique: are the ideal tools to work with, although
the latter isE\en if vou
"off." synthetic sponges can be substituted.
use the same glaze and the
Sponging off
same tool, a different finish
A mixed glaze should be used for this
will be achiexed depending
A sea sponge must be
effect (.see p. ^2).
on which method you employ. used since substitiUes tend to smudge the
Apphing a base coat Alw a\ finish. This is a natural progression from
apply a base coat. Light shades spt)nging on in terms of difficult}'.

are best, since you can then

m^ Ragging
build up color: semiglc:)ss or
Ragging (see p. 3.^) inxohes a similar
latex are ideal.
technique to that of sponging, except a
crumpled, lint-free cloth is used instead
Prfparing to Paint of a sponge. A mixed glaze shoukl be
Roughing it Fxamine walls used for the best results.

carefully. Rough, textured walls

are ideal for sponging, w hich
Bagging (see p. .33) involves the same
disguises defects, while smooth.
techniciiie as ragging, except a plastic bag
completely flat walls will is used instead of a rag. This creates a
show stippling off to its best. more sharph defined texture compared
Assessing suitabilit)' Choose to the fabric alternatixes used in nigging.

ragging and bagging rather

Rag rolling
than rag rolling on a wall that
Rag rolling (see p. 33) inxohes rolling
has pipework or .sw itches. Rag
a tw isted rag down a wall to create a
needs a constant motion
repeating pattern. It is best to rag roll
without frequent interruptions. off since uniformity and consistency are
Joins are difficult to disguise. difficult to achieve when apph ing on.
Getting ready Make sure that
all materials and tools are reach"
.\ sti]ipled effect (see p. 32) is created
for use. since once nou start by pressing the bristle tips of a stippling
a wall \ou should finish it
brush into a wet glaze. The lechnic|ue is
without interruption. If \"ou do onh suitable w ith glazes, .ind conlinuit\
not, some areas will dn- before is impt)rtant to pre\ent joins or oxerlaps.
others and the joins will show


Additional Painting Equipment Colorwashing

Colorwashing is probably the
Building up a paint-effect tool
oldest paint technique. I'se a
kit can be expensive, so do it
large paint brush to apply
gradually. Buy equipment as you
a highly diluted glaze to wall
need it. rather than purchasing
surfaces. This will
everything that you think you
a translucent finish
may need in the future, onh' to
which the base coat shows,
find that >(iu use items.
creating depth and texture.
* Improvising You can u.se
Stabilizing a wash A w ash
tools other than special-effect
should ha\'e the consistency
equipment for paint technic|ue
of highly diluted paint. To
Experiment with different
prexent it from running oil
objects - orciinaiy household
the walls, add a small atnotint
items as well as decorating
tools - to create unique effects
of P\A glue to the mix to
help it adhere to the wall.
* Adding depth AppK' se\eral
coats, and \"aiy color slightly
1 to create a wonderful feeling
of depth. Warm colors will
gi\'e a glo^' to any room.
.Masking .Stenciling ? Choosing walls -'^pply a
taps.- brush ^ash to a rough surface to
create texture. The color
will clear from the peaks
but build up in the tniughs.

Craft knife Plastic \x\i creating a great textured finish.

Making Glazes
AL;la/e is the nieditini for creating paint time that allows \'ou to create effects. Glazes
ellecrs. It by it.s ability to
is di.stinguished ha\e traditionally been oil ba.sed. but modern
hold patterned impressions and by its long drying acfN'lics are popular and are often preniixed.

Coloring Glazes Calculating Quantities

# Diluting color For a good
acr\lic-!~)ased glaze, five to ten Traditional Tip
percent ( )f the mixture .should
be color and the rest glaze.

Add the color to the glaze and

mix thoroughly. A clean jelly
lar is ideal for mixing .small

quantities of color iii this way,

since you can scrc^' the lid on
tightlv before shaking the
colors to mix them well.
Estimating amounts Glazes
go much farther than standard
Mixing acrylic colors paints. Dilute aciylic glazes Mixing a traditional glaze
I .se an artist's brush to mix with a small amount of water Mix six parts of turpentine

acrylic colors. Mix the color first to increase the coverage of with three parts of boiled
on a surface such as a paint-can the glaze. Estimate hcnv much linseed oil and one part
lid. and make sure it is the right you will need by hah ing the of white, oil-based undercoat
shade. Decant the basic glaze amount of standard paint t)r semiglo.ss. Tint the glaze

into an old jelh jar. and atld you would reciLiire to cover using artist s oil paints.

the acrylic color to it. the same-sized area of wall.


Whether sponging whole walls or selected A single layer of sponging produces a subtle,
areas, such as beneath a chair rail, this airy while nuilliple la\ers produce a
effect transforms the look of a tlat wall surface. busier, bolder effect that has greater depth.

Sponging Successfully Using Color EFrncrnHLY

Removing excess When
sponging on, decant the glaze
onto an oM jilate or rininied
paint-can liel. Dip the face of
a damp sponge into the glaze,
and remo\e excess by drawing
the sponge across the rini;
- I
othenvise. the first impression
willbe thick and blotchx'. if

you do apply too much,

reapply some base cok^-.
Rotating the hand Rotate the
hand into a slightly different Sponging dark onto light Sponging light onto dark
position after each impression Use a light base coat and Use a dark base coat and apply
to keep the pattern random. gradual!)' apply darker shades progressively lighter shades on
Sponging corners Tape on top to produce a highly top for a translucent effect. You
a small piece of sponge onto distinctive pattern. The color will see a larger color range
the end of a pencil to enable of the final coat applied will since the light colors will not
\"(~)u to reach into corners. alwa\s be the most dominant obliterate preceding coats.

Stippling is a .subtle paint effect using a bmsh depending on the size and
to a coarser finish,
to create the impression of a texixired surface compactness of the bristles. This is a time-
that may range from a light, \-el\-ery appearance consuming technique, but it is \er>- satisfying.

Choosing Brushes Stippling Effectively

Using specialty brushes If Working in sections Apply
you can afford one. buy a glaze in areas of about 1 stj \d Time-saving Tip
stippling brush, which is ideal ( 1 m- ). using a large paint
for stippling since it consists brush. Co\"er as e\"enl\' as \-ou
of a thick wad of bristles. can, then dab the stippling
baish lightly on the wet glaze.
Creating uniformity Work
from left to right and top to
bottom. Do not overlap .stipples,

because they will appear as

more heavily shaded areas,
f^ Preventing clogging
each area has been
stippled, wipe the head Glazing with a roller
of the baish with a lint-free I'se a fine mohair roller to
Finding an alternative cloth to remove excess glaze. apply glaze to .1 w.ill I'liis is

For a less cost!) alternative to a K buildup of glaze will create much quicker tiian using
stippling brush, trim the bristles a patchy effect over the wall. a brush and therefore allows
of a wallpaper-hanging brush Adding depth Use a slightly more time for crcatiiii; an
with sharp ,scissors. Make a flat darker glaze in the corners of effect. Do not o\crloa(.l the
pad of bristles so that all the ends a wall than toward the center roller, or the glaze might run.
will be in contact with the wall. to create a feeling of depth.


Ragging is similar to sponging, except that a more effective than ragging "on." With the
CRinipled lint-free clotli is used rather than latter, cloths become clogged up with glaze,
a sponge. Ragging "off" (see p. 30) is easier and producing a rather gummy. patch\' finish.

Creating thf. Efffc t Shielding Surfaces Bagging

Use the same technique as for
ragging, but substitute a plastic
iiag for the lint-free clotli.

(Choosing bags You will

ncL'd a ready supply of bags
at hand so that you can
tlirow one away and piclv up
.1 iHw one as you need to.
Experimenting Different
types of plastic create
different effects: do not
he afraid to experiment.
Building up pattern Avoiding smudges Softening edges Bagging
Using a damp, scrunched-up rag, Hold a strip of cardboard against (, i\mIl-s an angular effect. For
apply light pressure on the glaze. the adjacent wall to prevent the a more understated look,
C^hangc \ our grip frequcnth' to edge of the rag from smudging gently lirush the bagged
produce a random pattern. Return color onto it. Move the cardboard surface. Use a softening

to mis.scd areas before the glaze down as you paint. Wipe it

or wallpaper-hanging tirii.sh.

dries. Rinse the cloth regularly. regularly to avoid a glaze buildup.

Rag Rolling
rolling requires a more ordered technicjue material. It is ideal tor areas such as those
than simple ragging, because the effect beneath chair rails and in wall panels, since it

created is one-directional: it mimics falling is difficult to execute uniformlv over large areas.

Rolling Successfully Preparing Rags Improving Techmqi f

Choosing rags Make sure " Having supplies at hand Roll
that your rags are all cut to the up a number of rags before
same size and made from the you begin to create this paint
same material. The pieces effect, and keep them close at
should not include seams. hand once you have .started.
Applying glaze Apply the
glaze in strips from top to
Keep run rolls
bottom of the area to be loiiclhcr III

ragged. Make each strip [Hiiiil Iray

slightly wider than the rolls.

Dealing with corners Ycui
need both hands to roll a rag
down the wall, making it
impossible to shield adjacent
walls. Make sure that you
mask the nearest (t in (IS cm) Making lengths consistent Maintaining uniformity
o'f the adjacent wall with fie off the ends of the rags so Start rag rolling in one of the
newspaper and masking tape. that the central portions are of top corners of the area to be
Combining techniques a consistent size. Keep them in a ccnered to establish a straight

Stipple the glaze before rag paint tray to prevent them from edge all the wa\ down. O'.erlap
lolling to create a .softer, picking up dust, which would each length of rolling slighlh,
more material-like effect. then be transferred to the walls. to make a continuous pattern.


Cruatin(. Stripes
Stripes are commonly associale'd wiih loniialily elesiL;ii lii.nhK oriuinni parterns aiul use color
and a sense of order wilhin a loom (awning elteeli\el\. Choosy inianinatix el\ when il lonies
your own stripes gi\es you lots ot seope to to e(|uipinenl aiul UK'thocIs oi apiilicalion.

Marking out Stripes Striping Freehand

Using a ('haik I.im;
(Chalking lines Bu\ jiowtk red Rolling stripes .Masking
linsuriiiu tli.it lines are eiuilk (i onlnislmg w uh the gtiidelines can 1k' .i long job:
straiglit is \er> iniportant in wall color) to lill a thalk-line .sa\e time by .settling for a less
tletoratint'. I'sc tliis tnidilional reser\()ir. or rub ,i sti(.k ot exact finish. I'.se a masked
teehniqiic to mark out lines in chalk along a piece ol string. roller - preler:ibl\' a toain one.
readiness for paintins' stripes.

Snapping a line Meastue
and mark off the widths ot
the stripes along the lop
of the wall. At each mark.
tap in a 1-in (2.5-cm) nail
up to about half its length,
lia\ing checked that there are
no pipes or wires beneath
the surface. Hook a chalk
line over the nail, and pull
taut to the floor, making sure Masking off areas Using a masked roller
that it is \ertical. Gently pull Run masking tape dow n the chalk Wrap two pieces of 1-in (2.5-cm)
the chalk line away, and snap guidelines before paintitig. masking tape tighth around
it again.st the wall to create Secure firmly the edge adjacent a"in I~.S-cm) roller Load with

a chalk impression. Remove to the area to be painted: leave paint and roll the wall, creating
the and repeat the
the other edge loose for easy the striped effect. Use the right-
process at the next mark
remosal. Use a soft brush to dust hand stripe as a guideline to
away the chalk before painting. align the roller for the next run.

Rolling Patterns
Var}'ing stripes Extend the
Making a Checkered Pattern
technique of creatitig stripes Combine horizontal and vertical horizontal stripes should be
using a roller to include all stripes to produce a pattern of lighter than that used for the
kinds of patterns w ithin the checks similar to that of gingham \erticals. This will create a third
stripes. Create different designs The color that you use for the color at the cros.sover points.
by m(xlif\"it\g the roller itself.
(All'dUt IIIVIIS (/()

I II it pick lit

Using a patterned roller ong ]e\el to
se a lo keep the
Use a craft knife to cut diamond
11 )\\ the \ertical stri|ies
striiies v In thoroughly. U.se the
shapes, for example, out of a level down the wall each time le\ el horizontally to paint the
foam roller sleeve before use. you reload the roller Work loi") Work from
layer of .stripes.
Apply paint from a tni)- in the from right to left .so tJuit you the topdownward. The stripes
usual way: the diamond-shajietl do not smudge the strijies that may have uneven edges, hui
holes will not pick up paint, li.iw already lieen p.iinied. lliis .idds lo i1k' m.ileri.il eftei-l.

creating a pattern on the wall.


This technique allows you to fcproducc a made up of a sin,qlc sheet or a number of
design or pattern accurately over a surface superimposed layers. The latter option creates
as many times as you like. Stencils can lie depth and allows you to use different colors.

Using Stencils Choosing an Image Selecting Tools

# Loading brushes Co\ er the (letting ideas I'se books (anting stencils Use a craft

ends of the bristles exenly, biit and magazines as inspiration. knife, ideally with a narrow
with only a minimal amount Make sure that the image you handle for easy maneuvering.
of paint. Remove excess on choose has a distinct outline Cut stencil edges at a slight
paper before applying to the and clear detail within it. angle to limit paint seepage.
wall. Too thick a coverage of
paint will make it seep under Tracing & Cutting a Stencil
the edges of the stencil. "T" (Jiltiiiii null

# Holding in place Keep a

stencil in position on a wall
with masking tape. Low-tack
tape will not pull the base coat
offwhen the stencil is moved.
Mixing color Stencils offer
an excellent opportunity to
mix and vary colors. Create
subtle differences in shade
from one area to another to
produce a mellow, aged effect.
1 If you make an acetate
stencil, you will not need
2 CutIt the stencil
that it
ster carefully
has sr lines. You

i Keeping stencils clean Wash to trace an image first. Secure w ill u.se one .stencil to create
acetate stencils regularly in acetate over an image with many images, so make a good
warm water keep their
to masking tape, and trace outline job of it. Use a cutting mat if

edges clean and free of paint. and detail with a wax crayon. voLi are cutting a lot of stencils.

Creating Depth Placing Designs

Finding Alternatives
Using shading To lend a Stenciling a border Use a
to a Brush
three-dimensional effect in a le\el and a soft pencil to draw
stenciled image, xan' the degree a continuoLis line all around Experiment with other
of color shadiny across it. the w^alls about 12 in (3*' cm) implements for stenciling
from the ceiling. ha\ing instead of a stenciling brush

measured the correct drop at to pn)diice a range of effects.

.se\eral points around the room. Sponging Use a natural

Sit the bottom edge of the sea sponge to create a highly
stencil on this line, and follow textured stenciled effect.
the line around with the Crayoning Tr\' special

stencil, thus creating an stenciling crayons or

attractive border. Do not traditional crayons. Ensure

that the end of the crayon
forget to rub out the pencil
is \ ery rounded, and use
line carefully with an eraser
it in a circular motion.
once you have finished. Sprayingyou are using
Grouping images Follow aen^sol paints, which are
through a theme by grouping ideal for stenciling, mask
Shading around edges images together. Animals are all around the stencil with

.Make tlie color intensity greater a popular subject for this newscjapei' lc> prevent
around the edges of a design. To treatment. Three leaping overspra\' IhacmkI the image.

add more depth, shade one of dol|-)hins in a bathroom, tor

Improvising Cut tiown llie

lirisiles of an okl iiaintbrush

the edges slightly more, creating e.\am]")le, or a colk'ction ot
lo make a sienciling hi'Lish.
an impression of shadow and farmyartl animals in a kitchen
hence directional sunlight. can look very effective.


Printing an alternative to stenciling in
offers a \ariety of tools. Stamping and blocking are the
image on to a wall. It
transferring a painted techni(|ues: an image stands above a stamp:
need not be an e.xact .science, and \<)ii can use with a blot k takes up llie whole surface area.

Choosing Equipment Using Stamps Choosing Blocks

Stamping Buy stamps or
make yc^ur cnvn by cutting a
design into a small piece of
linoleum. Glue a wooden
block to the back of the
linoleum to act as a handle.
Load paint onto the face of the
stamp with a rigid mini-roller.
Blocking Use household
objects such as sponges ( )r

potato halves to make a block.

These sorts of "tools" are
readily a\ailable to you and Rolling onto a wall Making a block
achie\e a \er\- good texture. Place the bottom edge of a stamp Transfer a shape onto a houschokl

Increasing depth Var\^ texture on the wall, and roll it onto the sponge, and cut it out with sharp
by stamping or blocking onto wall until the top edge makes .scissors. Place the sponge fulK
a piece of paper before contact. Hold for a second, then onto the wall and agitate it

applying the tool to the wall, lift off carefully. This motion will slightly without changing its

to reduce the density ot paint. ensure a crisp, clean impression. position. Reload frequently.

Creating Murals
Producing a mural is not as daunting as you Some artistic abilit\' is helpful but not essential,
may think: it is simply anc^ther method of since - in its simplest form - this technique is

transfernng a drawn or copied image onto a wall. no different from painting by numbers.

Using an Image of Your Own Choice Saving Time

Selecting an image Chocxse Projecting a design Use a
a subject that suits the nature slide or overhead projector to
of the room in which it is to transfer a design directly onto
appear, and that is not too a wall. Adjust the size by
detailed and difficult tc:) copv. mo\ ing the projector closer to
or farther away from the wall.
t Painting quickly Ha\e a
selection ot difierent-sized
brushes :it hand, so that you
w ill ha\ e the right size for
the area you are piunting.
Painting with a steady hand
flokl one end of a l.S-in
Draw ^rid (-t5-cm) length of dowel with
lilies carefully
your nonpainting hand, and
some tracing paper
1 Secure
over an image. Measure out
place the other end again.st the
wall (p:id the dowel to
and draw an accurate grid so pencil, bsing the first grid as a |~>re\ent from scnitching the

that it covers the picture. A guide, fill in the corresponding paintwork). Rest the forearm
grid made up of 1 in by 1 in .squares on the wall. F.ra.se of your painting arm on the
(2.5 cm by 2.5 cm) .squares is the chalk tlust or pencil lines centnil section of the dowc'l
a standard workable size. when you ha\ e finished. to maintain a .stead\ hand.


Deceiving the Eye --------------------

Paint can he used to create all sorts of ofthem require a lot of time and care to execute,
different on a Hat surface. These
illusions Simple applications, however, can often prove
illusions vaiy greatly in complexity, and many just as effective as more extra\agant ideas.

Creating the Impression of Stone Blocks

I'aint the whole wall with 2S|ionge oon two coats that 3Remo\e the masking tape
1 rker than the mortar
are darke to rexeal the mortar. For
block shapes with .strips of color. Apply the second before a weathered effect, mix burnt
i-'m (1-cm) ma.sking tape. The the first has dried, so that the umber with a little yellov^-
masked areas will be the mortar colors merge. Apply lots of ochre, and paint some cracks
lines in the finished effect. paint for texture. Allow to diy. with a fine-tipped artist's brush.

Painting Interior Surfaces to Look Like External Walls

Increasing texture Use coarse- r Varying color and texture Being authentic Increase
grained, exterior masonry paint Choose paint colors according realism by enhancing the
for the base coat to add texture to the type of surface you outlines of shapes with a soft
and create effective mortar. wish to mimic. Apply using a pencil. Darkening the edges
You can add sand to interior fibrous sea sponge to achie\e will add depth. Do this before
latex for a similar ehect. a more finelv textured finish. remcning the masking tape.

iNCLiiDiNG Trompi; L'oi-ii I.magery in Yol r Dhcorating

Technically, painting stonework
istrompe I'oeil, but the term is
more commonly a.ssociated with
the reproduction of specific
objects on a wall. Such images
appear three-dimensional and
therefore seem lifelike.

: Keeping itsimple If you are

a beginner, do not be too bold.
Recreating a life-sized kitchen
cabinet, for example, would test

the mo.st experienced decorator.

.Small items such as picture Painting flat surfaces Using an alcove
frames are a good start. Producing an illusion of depth on Alcoves provide an opportunit)'
Mixing with false This
real a flat surface is not easy. Pa) ing to paint faux shelves. The depth
will often produce the most attention to small details, however of the recess adds yet another
realistic trompe I'oeil. For will add considerably to the dimension to the effect. Hang
example, paint in a decorative realism of the effect. Paint an real items alongside imaginary
cord between a \eitical row illusory cabinet in the same style ones, which will iielp to bring

of hangin.y plates or pictures. as the real luniiture in the room. the whole picture to life.



Tiii:ri- arf a numbhr m

iiwi ixjucuks thai can cnhancf the hnish of an\-
painting project and smooth the way foi' lutiirc woik. Once you ha\e
finishetl, make ,sui\' that xoii ck'an ecjuipment thoioughK and stoix- it it well.

Preventinc, and Correc riNG Mistakes

is almost iiu'\ liable' thai noli will haw sonu- k'l liiii(|ui_'. .\Ian\' can he convcleel with onU' a
probk'iiis witli \()ui' |iaintccl sLirtaccs - most little amount ot extra work, which is well worth
resulting from inai.le(|uate preparation or poor doing to avoid spoiling the overall finish.

Drying Properly
Rectifying Paint Faults
Avoiding patciies Not
allowing paint to dr\ out lull\- Tlicre are varicius common paint ease, and few necessitate a frcsli
before recoating nia\ produce faults tiiat can haunt decorators. start. Use a fine-grade .sandpaper
a shadowed or patchy finish. .Vlost can be sohcti with rclali\e when re|iairin,ii a lop coat.

In such a case. Iea\e for 24

Poor coverage
hours, antl appl\ another coat.
simplest of mistakes, resuilini;
Tills is tile
Speeding up drying In a cokl
from not enough paint or too few coats
or damp room, reduce dr\ ing being applied. Rccoat the area, being sure
time by heating the room or to load equipment correctly and spreatl tlie
opening windows. Otherw'i.se, paint using the appropriate technique.
paint ma\' wrinkle or discolor.
Brush marks
lirusii marks ma\ remain visible on the
Removing Overspill painted surface once they are dry. Small
Cleaning fixtures If paint areas may be acceptable on the grounds that
gets ontc5 electrical fixtures, they create a traditional feel, but larger areas
remove it carefully when dn should be sanded and recoated.
using a scraper or filling knife.
Roller trails
Dealing with woodwork
Roller trails are causetl by not ia\ing off the
Wall paint on woodwork paint during application and allowing too
need not be a pn)blem if the much paint to gather at the roller edges,
wc^odwork is to be painted. sand back the affected area, and
Sand back pronounced drips touch up carefulh with a brush.
or areas of roller spray.
Flaking paint
Paint Is likely to flake if it has been applied
Dealing with Cracks It) an unsealed, dusty wall. Sand the affected
Settlement cracking The back
irea until the flakes have been
appearance of cracks in wall renKned. stabilize the surface with a
surfaces soon after painting commercial sealer, then recoai w Itii paint
usually indicates movement of
Assorted stains
the building. This is common
There are a number of miseeilaneous stains,
in new houses as settlement
resulting from rust spots for example, that
occurs. Redecorate atfected
ma\ show through a top coat. Cover the area
areas when mcnement ceases. w Ith an oil-based undercoat or primer, allow
Prolonged cracking Persistent to dr\. and repaint w Ith top coat.
movement because of climate,
Drip marks
the age of the building, or the
l)rl|i marks on a painted surface occur
in.stallation of heating can be
w hen paint has been applied too thickh and
more of a problem. Consider therefore begins to sag or run down before it

using flexible commercial dries.Sand back the affected area, then

paints and fillers, or lining the touch up with top coat using a small brush
walls to cover hairline cracks.


Cleaning and Storing Equipment

Kcci')ing equipment clean ensnies that w ill it more quickly than it shcuild. Efficient and
be in good working order the next time ordered storage makes it easy to find items and
\()Li want to use it. and that it will not deteriorate work out vour recjuirements tor future projects.

Caring after Use Cleaning Thoroughly Disposing of Paint

Conserving water Most w all S Using a scourer If \c)u do Protecting the environment
paints are water-based, so you not clean a paintbaish well Nexer dispo.se of decorating
can wash brushes and other after \'ou ha\e finished using materials down sinks or
jxiinting equipment under a it. |iaint will accumulate at the drains. Four all paint leftovers
running tap. Remoxe excess base of the bristles and on the into one can. secure the lid
l^ainton newspaper first, thus ferrule, and the baish's life tightly, and dispense of it with
reducing the amount of water w ill be reduced considerablw the rest of the household wa.ste.
recjuired for cleaning, and
limiting the amount of paint &i
entering the water supply.
Washing brushes Massage Bright Idea
a small amount of hou.sehold
eletergent into the bristles of
brushes to speed up cleaning.
This w ill also make the brfstles
softerand more flexible w hen
you need to use them again.
Preventing rust After
cleaning metal items such as Fcrrii It-

roller cages and paint trays,

make sure that you dn- them Scouring a ferrule Labeling paint cans
thoroughly with a soft cloth; CHean off dried-on or stubborn Always label cans after

otherwi.se, they may rust. paint from ferrules and brush decorating, noting which
# Recycling paint cans \\ ash handles using a kitchen scourer room of the house they were
out paint cans thoroughly You can also use a scourer on used in, and on what date.
w hen \(iu ha\e finished with the bristles but only lengthwise; Use self-adhesive labels or

tile paint, and use for storing otherwise, the bristles will splay strips of masking tape.
a \ ariets' of household items. out and lose their shape.

Storing Brushes Storing Materials Removing Paint

-^Keeping paint Store paints
inside the house if possible. Howe\ er carefully you place
The\- can be adversely affected dropcloths over a floor and
b\ temperature fluctuations. fastenthem down with
Hold lids on firmly and shake masking tape before you start

cans to produce an airlock to decorating, some paint

splashes ma> tlnd their way
prevent a skin from forming.
on to the carpet. Deal with
Storing glazes Write the
them promptly and effectively.
recipe for a glaze on the side
of the \av in case you want to Using a craft knife Allow
the paint to dr>- completely,
mix more at a later date.
then scrape across the
Hanging brushes Caring for stencils Store
surface with a craft knife.
Hang brushes from hooks around .stencils between pieces of
Hokl the blade at right angles
the inside of a can or bucket. cardboard and somewhere flat,
lo ihe floor to ;i\'c)id cutting
(Dr)' an)' damp bristles first with such as in a book. Stencils can into llie c.upel. 'The p.iint
a hairdrier; otherwise, they will be reu.sed only if they sit flat. \\ ill gratiually criimlile. and
stick together.) Stored in this Storing dropcloths Launder \ou can tiien remoxe it

w a\. bristles will be protected dropcloths before .storing .so witli .1 \;nuuni cleaner
from the risk of being crushed. that they do not .spread du.st.

(l^ovERiNG Walls
Quick Reference 'II-: MOST (:<).\i.\i<).\ .\i:n:R.\Aii\ i: lo /xiiii/ini^

Choosing Wallpaper, p. 42
l'u'cills is iT(ill[)(ilK>ri}ii}. More iiniorcitire
clcconitors Duiy (illcnuilircly like lo use fcihric
Preparing to Paper, p. 44
in a similar way towa //paper. For a so/ id.
Improving Techniques, p. 46
trac/itioiia/ fuiis/i. various types of wooden
Papering Awkward
Areas, p. 50 pa}ie/i)ji^. w/.iic/.i )nay he painted or /eft
Adding Borders, p. 52
luitura/. can he used. Tl.ie nuiny wal/-corerin<^
Other Wall Coverings, p. 54
options make it easy to se/ect a finish to suit

Finishing, p. 56
your practica/ and economic needs, as we//
as satisfying your persona/ prefereiices.

Selecting Wallpapering Materials

Wallpapers are manufactured in a nLimber easy to hang, however aesthetically pleasing
of finishes. Prices van,' greatly, and the they are. There is a wide choice of ine.xpensi\e
most expensi\e \\allpapers are not necessarily wallpapers, and they are usually easy to hang.

Wallpaper Types and Their Characteristics


Basic Wallpapering Equipment

You will need more equipment

for papering w alls than for
painting. .Man> tools, however,
arc required for both so. once
those items are in your toolkit,
they can be used for either job.

Prioritizing quality Buy the

best-qualit^ tools that you can
afford. This is particularly
important for the items that are
used most and those that come
into direct contact with the
wallpaper, such as wallpaper-
hanging and pasting brushes,
seam and a craft
roller, scissors,

knife. The latter two items are Pa.stino

vital for making accurate cuts table

and, therefore, achieving the

best possible finish.
Choosing brushes Select a
pasting brush that will co\"er
a surface evenly and efficiently,
and a wallpaper-hanging bnish
with long, flexible bristles.

Considering safely Follow

the same safet)' precautions Seam Filling
roller knife
with regard to wallpapering Phillip.s-hcad scre^drixer

materials and equipment as

for painting (see p. 23

Craft knife .Measurinj' cup


Choosing Wallpaper
siiMM ROOM, the style of xoiir home, and any eflect that
wii rs\(,i' oi- A
\()u wish lo .uhiew are taelors lo bear in mind when ehoosint^ wallpaj:)er,
hul whether xou like a walii^aix'i' will ha\e most intliienee on voiii' choice.

Considering Effects
\(Hi wani lo acliicxL- a spccilic cllccl in a thoicc ot color. A elc-sia- lo crfalr iIr' illusion
room. iIk' von make about
decisions thai of s|-)acx', lor example, may intluencc yoii as
pattern and design can he as im|-)()rtant as your iiiuth as a wallpaper's other decorative qualities.

Considering Options Coordinating Decor Creating Height

Hiding defects Choose a Creating a total look Buy a
textured or hea\il\" patterned complete range of decoratixe
wallpaper to eletract trom materials so that tabries.
une\en walls. A hus\' pattern wallpaper, and paint mateii
will disguise a problem best.
Creating order I'se bold.
geometric designs if you want
to create a sense ot order aiul
formality within a room.
Using two wallpapers If a
room has a natural dividing
line, such as a chair rail, use
two different wallpapers,
therhy creating a feeling of
height, for example.
Considering other colors Matching accessories Using stripes
Bear in mind the colors of U.se matching w allpiipcr and Vertical stripes make a room look
walls and woodwork w hen fabric to create a coordinated taller and are ideal if ceilings are
choosing wallpaper. It should look. Tic in other accessories by low. Here, a room divider covered
be complemented by nearby picking out different tones of the in striped wallpaper contributes
colors to maximize its effect. colors used in the wallpaper to the illusion of height.

Choosing Large Patterns Choosing Small Patterns

Reducing the size of large room Creating a feeling of space

A large pattern can dominate the decoration in A small pattern has the effect of making a room
a room, since it will seem to bring the walls appear larger as long as the background color
toward a viewer, reducing the feeling of space In o( ttie wallpaper is pale. The less dense the pattern,
a small room a large pattern can be overpowering, the greater the effect. A tiense pattern. e\en il it is

but in a big room it can help to create a cozy feel small-scale, creates a bus\ feel w ilhin a room.


Planning the Wallpapering

is highly important to figure out how nuich wallpapered. Measure walls accurately so that
It there will be no waste, and think \ery carel\illy
wallpaper is required for a room and to
determine the order in which the room will he about where in the room to start wallpapering.

Measuring the Dimensions of a Room Calculating Accurately

Measuring total surface area w Including repeats To account Including lining If you \\ ant
Measure each wall as a separate for trimming and waste of to line the walls of a room
entity. Add together wall areas, large-patterned wallpaper, add before wallpapering them,
plus the ceiling area (obtained the size of the pattern repeat remember to include lining

by measuring the floor), to to the room height. This will paper in your calculations of
give the total surface area. guarantee enough wallpaper. material requirements. Lining

Miilli/ily hci]iihl hy nullh dJ wall

paper has no pattern repeat,
so the surface area alone is all

yoLi need for the calculation.

Doing a quick count In a
room that is already papered,
count how man\' hangs were
used before. This is a Cjuick
way tomeasure the number
of rolls of wallpaper that you
will need. In rooms of average
height, small-patterned paper
gives four hangs per roll, while
large-patterned paper gives
three. Most wallpapers coiiform
to a staiularel roll length.

Calculating quantities & Wallpapering ceilings

Measure Wallpaper a ceiling in the
Multiph the licight of a wall by the width (1x2)
flixir area
to calculate the surface area. Measure the height in direction of its longest length.
iiislead (if
several places, since it may vary. To obtain a ceiling ceiliiiii This will keep the number of
measurement, measure the floor (3 x 4). Divide the lengths recjuired to a minimum
total surface area by the area of a roll of wallpaper as well as reducing trimming
to give the number of rolls recjuired for the room. and the waste of vvallpaper.

Starting & Finishing in the Correct Place

(jiilliillie !

Preparing to Wallpaper

ACFR'iAiN AMoi NT <)i' neccssaiy prior to wallpapering, depending

I'Ri'i'ARA'noN is

on the finish noli want and whether or not the walls have been papered
before. \\all|^apei' faults aix- not always easy to put right, so prepai'e surfaces well.

Stripfinc, Walls
all oki w allp.ipLT before liangin,^ a new wallpapers and use the baeking la\er as a
wallcovering. Some manufacturers suggest lining. This is only po.ssible, however, if that
that you remove only the top layer of \inyl backing layer is .stuck firmly enough.

Stripping Easily Sr()RiN(,

Stripping dry Remove any
loo.se wallpaper before soaking
toreduce the amount of mess
caused by water and wet paper.
Where seams have lifted, you
can get a good hold. \'inyl top
layers usually pull away easily.
Soaking walls Use hot water
tosoak wallpaper. Apply the
water with a large pasting
brush. .Allow it to penetrate for
a tew minutes before removing
the wallpaper with a scraper.
Protecting floors Stripping
is messy, so you need to
protect the floor. As well as
dropcloths, put rolls of
newspaper at the bases of
walls to .soak up water runoff.

When using a .stripper, wear
goggles to protect your eyes,
and keep out of the way of
the hot steam. You may wish to
protect >()ur hands with gloves.

Following instructions Reati

manufacturers' guidelines
carefully laefore using a steam
stripper, since they may differ
from one macliine to another.
Leaving unattended Turn a
stripper off when not in use.
Stripping ceilings Beware of
hot water droplets that can
on the edge of the
pad and drip onto you.
Keeping cords dr)' Ensure
that no water comes into
contact with electrical cords.

Preparing Walls
Whether walls have just been stripped or sanding are essential. Some wallpapers may
are being wallpapered for the first time, disguise wall imperfections, but a good surface
good preparation is xitally important. Filling and is necessaiy for paper and paste adhesion.

Doing the Basics Hiding Imperfections

Providing a key Sand glossy Masking stains Tt:) prevent
walls or those with a silky- stains from bleeding through Time-saving Tip
smooth finish to provide a key and discoloring wallpaper,
for wallpaper adhesion. This spray the affected area with
will also speed up drying: a commercial stain-blocking
pa.ste will dr\' into the wall and agent, or apply an oil-based
out through the paper. primer before wallpapering.
Sealing dust Seal dustv* ? Removing protrusions Take
surfaces with a coat of size or old nails and screws out of
a PVA glue solution (five parts the wall with a claw hammer,
water, one part PVA). This will or drive and fill. Make
them in

help wallpaper to .stick but sure they are well beneath the Filling and sizing
allow you to mo\e it easily. surface to prevent staining. Fill am small holes. Before
Covering texture If you 5"Covering dark backgrounds the filler dries, cover the area
cannot remove a highly When applying light-colored with a PVA glue solution (five

textured coating with, a steam wallpaper to a previously dark parts water, one part PVA).
stripper, apply a stabilizing coat or patchy wall, apply a ccxit of Carefully smooth it with
of diluted PVA (five parts w-ater. light latex paint to prevent the a brush to eliminate the
one part P\A ), then coat the dark color from showing need for sanding.

surface think' with pla.ster. through and c\cn out patches.

Preparing and Papering Ceilings

As with most decorating jobs, Pdsition wallpcipei Suppdvt iivii>hl of
it is best to start at the top and (It Diic cud (if I ' rest (if ircillpiipcr

work down. Ceilings should be

tackled first after all standard
preparation has been carried out.

S Filling edges Fnsiirc that

the wall-ceiling junction is

precisely filled and sanded,

since this edge will provide tlie

guideline for wallpapering on

both the ceiling and the walls.
# Testing ceilings Old latex-
painted ceilings may l^e

unstable. The weight of

wallpaper may pull the paint
off, causing the wallpaper to
sag. Apply a small test patch of
wallpaper to the ceiling, and
leave it overnight. If it is still
firmly stuck in the morning, Working safely and easily
continue wallpapering. Build a sturdy work platform
suspending a board b)-
sturdy hy
Playing safe If you are unsure between two stepladders. Support the board with a supfart I if
about the .stabilir^' of a cc-iling, wooden box. Adjust the height of the platform ,so that the box III

.strip off the old paint w ith a ceiling is in (15 cm) abo\e )()ur head - ck)se
about 6 middle
scraper before iirocccdini; any enough you to move the wallpaper easily without
to allow
further Then prc[:>arL- the being cramped. To reduce the risk of tearing, ask a friend
surface and seal as usual. to help \<)u to iiold .1 lenglJ! ot wallpaper while \()u appl\ it.


Improving Techniques

Tiii:ri- is onia' onh 'rix;iiNiQiiH for applying wallpaper to a wall - with a paper-
hanginj^ brush and various trimming tools. The seeret of success lies in the
preparation of the surfaee and in youi- ability to wallpaper around obstaeles.

Measurinc; and CirniNc;

Acc'uratL' measuring will (.nsuiv llial iIiltc is cLittiii,u wallpapiT. check llial all the rolls lia\c
minimal wasia.ue what is inexilably
in the same batch luimher, thereby avoiding ihe
a wastet'iil teehni(|ue. ik'tore unwrapping and possibility ot color xaiiations between rolls.

Starting Out Working with Paper Mea.suring Easily

Making equipment ready # Trimming by hand S( )me
Make sure that scissors are expensive wallpapers may
sliarp and that the surface of not have perfectly straight
the pasting table is clean edges. Trim them with shaip
before you start work. .scis.sors befc:)re application
Measuring walls Measure # Dealing with length Most
the exact distance between the of the lengths \-ou cut will be
ceiling and the toji of the longei' than the |~)asting boare
baseboard. Add the size of itself, .so alkjw the wallpaper
tlie pattern repeat, plus t in to concertina back on itself, Marking a pasting table
(10 cm) to allow for trimming. taking care not to crease it. Turn the ectge of a pasting talile
Stacking hangs .Most hangs Cutting When you ha\e into a ruler by marking off
will be ot a standard length marked off measurements on increments accurately and at

within a room. Cut a number the wallpaper, irse a ruler to appropriate inter\als along the
of these lengths to start with, draw a guideline. Cah across tatije's length. Measure lengtlis

so that you have them on this line, ^'cui may .soon be able of wallpaper against tiiis instead
hand when vou need them. to cut a straight line by eye. of using a ruler every time.

Lining Walls
To improve wallpaper tlnisli, it /;;/( luirm/i- indlh^ i-crlndlly
is wortli lining tlie walls first:

many manufacturers recommend

it. Tlie same technic]ues for
w allpajier apply to lining paper,
witli a few minor adjii.slments.

Leveling fining pajier does

not need to he exaclK' \erlii.'.il.

since it is not seen. 'lYeal each

wall as a self-ccmtained unit.
@ Sizing Size lined surfaces
once tliey are diy' using a diluted
paste solution mixed according
to the manufacturer's guidelines.
Sizing will allow you to mo\e
paper easily when positioning it. Lining horizontally and vertically
Sealing edges Seal trimmed When ilecitling the direclion in w hicli to hani; linii

edges with flexible filler to paper, be guided by the fewest numlier of hangs
Iniri Zdlllclllv
prevent them from lifting and needed. The fewer the hangs, the less cutting and
good edge .igainst
to give a trimming. Horizontal lining around a fireplace area
which you can trim wallpa|">ei'. makes trimming antl rounding the corners easier


Wallpaper requires adhesi\-e to attach it to wallpaper. Some wallpapers are prepasted -
a wall. Vou can cither mix wallpaper paste water actixates a coatin,^ on the hack - while
yourself or buy it premixecl and apply to the it others rec|uire that you api^K' paste to the wall.

Mixing Paste Pasting Paper Keeping Paper Clean

C Stirring well Stir paste tor Keeping paper flat To Protecting from paste Paste
longer than suggested by the pre\ ent wallpaper from cuding. each length in the same
manufacturer to ensure that weight each end before you position - flush with the edge
no lumps. A wooden
there are start. Co\er evenly with paste. of the ]^a.sting table - to avoid
dowel makes an ideal stirrer. Fold it into a loose, crease-free getting pa.ste on the right side.
Also stir the paste from time concertina as youmove along Wipe the table with clean,
to time during wallpapering. from one end to the other. warm water between lenyths.

Dealing with Prepasted Wallpaper

Money-saving Tip

% ^^jH

1 Using a kitchen table

Rolling up wallpaper Folding soaked paper Spread a plastic sheet over
Prepasted wallpaper needs Let soaked wallpaper unroll on a kitchen table, and use it as

soaking to activate the paste. a pasting tahle. Fold each end a pasting table instead of
Looseh roll up a cut length with back on itself into the middle of buying one. Make sure that
the pattern on the inside so that the length so that the pattern is the sheet is held taut by
the water will come into contact on the outside. This will prevent taping it securely at each
with all the pasted surface easily, the pasted side from drying out corner to the table legs.

thus acti\ating the paste. before \-ou apph it to the w all.

Handling Damp Paper Storing Wallpaper While it Soaks

Protecting wallpaper As ycui
Pole siispe)ic/c(f
transfer wallpaper from the hcliivcii lira chciii
container in which it is being
soaked to a pasting table, the
patterned side of the wallpaper
ma\ rub on the side of the
table and he damaged. Soften
the edges of the table by
covering them w ith two or
three layers of masking tape.
Anchoring edges Ha\ e Length folded
a small jar of premi.xed paste hioselv orer f)(>le

handx' as xou prepare to hang

a length of wallpaper. The Suspending wallpaper from a pole
edges of prepa.sted wallpaper While wallpaper is soaking, hang it from a
s(^metimes diy out too pole between two chairs - a broom handle
quickly, and you may need is ideal. Alwa\s remo\e a length from the same

to appl\ a little more paste end then move the others along, so that you
before \x)u hang them. take the one that has soaked longest.


Hanging Wallpaper
However much preparation yoii do. a good lo master tlie basic method of application so
hanging technicjiie is vital to give a qualitx thaiw hen you come across obstacles, you \\ill
finish to \()ur wallpapered walls. It is important ha\e a sound techni(|iie on which to build.

ST.\RTING ACCIRATELY Addressing a Wall Hanging Successfully

_ Allowing for expansion When
measuring out where lengths
will hang, bear in mind that
wallpaper expands from its
dr\' measurement once it is

pasted. Make an allowance

(ifup to Vi in CO. 5 cm).
-Smoothing wallpaper Brush
from the center of a length out
toward and o\"er the edges, and
from top to bottom. This
remo\es air bubbles

Using embossed \\ allpaper

Finding the vertical Preventing tears Do not apply too much
L'se a level as a straightedge Wallpaper that has been folded pressure: otherwise, the raised
todraw a pencil giiielcline at while soaking is more likeh to pattern will be flattened.
your chosen starting point on tear, so support its weight with W Applying vinyl Take care not
the wall. Extend this line by one hand \ou unroll it. Make
as to .stretch \ inyl w allpaper while
carctiilh m()\ing tlie le\cl tlown the first contact about 6 in smoothing it. This can distort
the w all to make sure of an ( 1 5 cm) below the ceiling, and its edges and make it difficult

accurate and continuous guide. follow guidelines down the wall to jcjin to the next hang.

Trimming Wallpaper
Making a precise di\iding line between well-defined finished product. Sharp scissors
wallpaper and the adjacent surfaces is and craft kni\es and a steady, accurate cutting
important for the production of a neat and technique are required to achieve this aim.

Hiding Uneven Lines Fixing Overtrimming

Money- SAVING Tip

Labeling craft knife blades

Mark a dot on one end ot
a new craft-knife blade. Smoothing lines
Always use the marked end W liere tile wall-ceiling junction
first, so that \\ lien nou need is not .1 straight edge, overlap
to change the blade around the w allpaper slightly onto the
you will be sure that the ceiling, make a crease line with
other end has not been used. a pair of scissors, then trim.
This will create a straighter line.

Joining Wallpaper
Vs-allpaper accurateh' is as important or gaj^s between hangs. Most wallpaper slioLikl
as trimming well. "I'on need to make neat. meet exaetly - in what is eallecl a hntt join - to

niLitehing joins between lengths with no o\erlaps prodnee a smooth, perleetly matehing finish.

Making Perfect Seams Centralizing a Wallpaper Pattern

4.Underbrushing Brush >nl\ <
enough to remo\e air bubbles
and seeure wallpaper firmly to
c> o a. o o
the wall. 0\erbrLLshing tends
to polish seams, which will o oYo Oa<5
shine once wallpaper is dry.
Using a seam roller Run a =iO
.seam roller lightly up and down
a join to secure the wallpaper
and make a joiii that is almost
invisible. Do not use a seam
roller on embos.sed wallpapers, o o
since it will tlatten the relief.
B Repasting seams Wallpaper CcntiMli/Lxl Ix.iiuli nil

edges are the first areas to lift, Using a feature within the room
so stick them down well. After Wallpaper \\ ith a medium- to iargc-si/ed pattern should always be
a few lengths ha\been e centered on a focal point in a room (above left). This creates a well-
hung, return to the first hangs balanced feel that sets off the rest of the decoration. Leaving where
and repaste any lifting edges the pattern falls to chance might result in an off-center look (above
using a small brush. Smooth right), which would draw attention to the focal point for the wrong
with a elamp sponge. reason. Start wallpapering from the focal point (see p. 43)

Keeping Wallpaper Clean

Wallpaper is a delicate, and often expensixe, become spoiled. Always kee|^ a supply ot clean
decorating material, and xou should look water on hand for any cleaning recjuirements
after it caretYilh- so that the surface does not throughout the entire decorating project.

Segregating Tools Removing Excess Paste Keeping Yot'R Work

(leaning adjacent surfaces
Station Clean
.After wallpaper lengths ha\e
been trimmed, remm'e excess It is advisable to keep
pa.ste from the paper surtace. surfaces and wallpapering
Also, clean the ceiling and equipment as clean as

baseboards before any^ paste possible at all times to

ensure the best results.
dries and dulls the surface.
Cutting new lengths * Removing excess paste
liowe\er often xou wash elow n Scrape partly dried paste off
it may become
a pasting table, .1 pasting tal")le using the
black' of .1 ^craper. es|-)ecially
tacky.To prexent wallpaper
around the edge of the table.
from becoming .sticky while
. Replacing water Fill the
being cut. co\er the table first
cleaning bucket with a fresli
Color coordinating with a sheet of lining paper. supply of water after about
Keep different-colored buckets Disposing of rubbish As len lengths ha\e been pasted.
and sponges for different tasks. .soon as each length is hung, Drying equipment Keep
Tliis will prevent items used for immediateh- place scraps in a scissor.s and craft-knife

cleaning the pasting table, which trash b.ig. This w ill reduce the bl.iiles tlry .u all times by

soon become dirty, from being risk ol paste being spieael w ipiiyi; with lint-free cloth.
confused with those tor wallpaper throuuhoiil the workiny area.


Wallpapering Awkward Areas

Wiriiix AM ROOM you inn\- well ha\c to modif\' your basic wallpapering
lechni(|ue in order to deal with nonstraightfoiANard areas. Once learned.
how"e\er. these adaptations will Ix'eonK' part ol your w allpa|^<.-iing repertoire.

Around Windows and Doors

eloors mv commonplact.'
Wiik1()\\> and loi' ncnoliatin,!^ tlK-ni. Slick to a systematic
most rooms of the house,
olxstacles in approach can be adapted depending on
and vou need to learn the correct procedure the design and size of each door and window


Keeping moisture out
Window recesses ma\ be
affected by condensation in
damp climates. To prexent
wallpaper from lifting, mn a Oivrh(iil}>

iiead of clear silicone around is left inilil

iicxl leii}>lh
the frame-paper junction to
is ill place
secure the wallpaper firmly.
Overlapping Small oxerlaps
may be una\ oiclable arc:)und
a window Tiy to position

o\erlapping seams so that

curtains w ill conceal them.
Preventing accidents Lock a
door when w allpapering abo\"e Following a logical sequence
it to pre\ent it from opening Wallpaper a wall that includes w indow s and doors in

while you are on a ladder. If a certain order (1-12) to maintain the vertical as you
the door does not lock, pin a wallpaper around them. Hang 12 before \()u trim 1 1 to
warning note to the other side, ensure that 12 is xou trimmed 1 first, and
vertical. If 1

or put an obstacle there. followed that line, 12 might not be completely \erticai.

\\ ALLPAPrKl.\(

Around Corners ^^^^^^^^.^. . ^ ,..^

Occasionally, wallpaper will hciul arouiiLl wallpapering tcchnic|ue when continuing the
corners easilw When corners are not square paper onto the adjacent wall. Check again that
or e\'en, howe\er, you will neei.1 to atljirst \'our the hang is \ertical as you start a new wall.

Wallpapering Successfully around Uneven External Corners


iili fHi. iir

Extend a length
1 around an external corner. c^f wallpaper
2 Carefully peelhack the
edges of the oxerlap, and 3form
Smooth the seam with a
w allpaper-hanging brush
Hang the next length so that it remove the two strips of to a perfect butt join.
overlaps the previous one by excess wallpaper. Support the Before the paste dries, remove
21 in (S-IO cm). Cut through wallpaper with one hand to any excess from around the
the center of the o\erlap. avoid any possibility of tearing. join with a damp sponge.

Wallpapering Successfully around Uneven Internal Corners

Joining in corners Wallpaper # Cornering easily To fit paper . lifting To ensure
around an inteinal corner, and arounel an internal corner, cut thatwallpaper will not litt. run
trim 1 in il.^ cm) beyond. two small slits at both the top border adhesixe along the
Place the ne.xt length on the and bottom of the length at overiap with a small brush. This
second wliII o\ er the strip. the ceiling and baseboard. is essential with \in\i papers.

Wallpapering Stairwells
Wallpapering a stairwell involves
handling long lengths, angled (i/>CIICil In
trimming, and rounding corners. full cMciil

Sharing the job It is easier for

two people than one to liandle
long lengths of wallpaper. One
can position the top of a length
while the other supports it.

Measuring hangs Measuring is

difficult because the bottom edge

of each hang is angled. Start at

ihe hollom of the stairs, and
work up. ']'\V\s will make angled
culling cMsR-i- to i^L-rform. Ensuring safe access
Pasting and soaking Pa.ste Build a platform using sturdy
only one length at a time. Keep scatlbid boartis and thick rope to
soaking times consistent so thai them lo ladders and stepladders.

all lengths e.xpand equally and Double up boards possible, and give

|")altein^ w ill inalch up exactly. lenglln spans extra midpoint sui")porl.


Around Electrical Fixtures

Electrical fixtures avc \\kc Any dllu'i" ohsUKJcs ymi follow the- conrci prnc'cciurcs. Take c^are to

\'ou nii,L;lil (.onic across w Ik'ii w allpa]HTin,L;; oIisltxc iIk- iuwssjia s,iki\ pix'c aulioiis when
\hc\' nccel nol iTivsent a prohlcni as lon.n as \\ allpa|~n-Tin,L; ai'ouiuK-li.\ liic al lixtiircs.

Electricity Prep Wallpapering around an Electrical Switch

Doing electrical work If voli
ha\e a room rew irecl. ask the
electrician nol to insiall socket
plates and wall lixiui'es unlil

the wallpapering is finished.

I'se portable lights from
another room temporarily.
Coping with wall lights Pkm
wallpapering so that seams will
occur behind the center ol

a light fixture, ^'ou will then

need onh to loosen the fixture,
and slip the wallpaper behind.

Before wallpapering .irounti
IPape?r looseh o\er
ce a pencil
.Makt mark
a switch
]ust m
2 Loosen
f'asL- the
w Itch serews.
the sw
iilate iwa\ trom

electrical fixtures, turn off the

trom each corner imj^ression the wall and in front of the
in the wnllpaper. C-ut from wallpaper. I'sing a wallpaper-
power Wallpaper paste is a

good conductor, so do not get the center out to each niLirk. hanging brush, smooth the
it near exposed wires. Trim the resulting triangular paper behind the plate. Replace
tlaps to lea\e a sc|uare hole. screws and w ipe the plate clean.

Around Pipes and Radiators

Pipes and ladiators are awkward obstacles nece.ssar\' to wallpaper the wall behind them,
around which to wallpaper. The\' ha\e no These obstacles can be o\ercome with a few-
straight edges to trim against, and it ma\ be adjustments to general wallpapering technic]ue.

Coping with Radiators Avoiding Problems

Starting w ith pipes Start

\()ur wallpapering behind a Bright Idea

pipe so that the joining seam
will be hidden b\ it. B\' doing
this. \()u will also eliminate the
need for complicated trimming
around the pipe brackets.
Keeping pipes clean Remoxe
wallpaper |~>aste tn)m bare
metal pipes immediatelw since
it can cause corrosion, which

in turn results in the unsighth"

staining of the pipes. Wallpapering behind pipes
Papering behind a radiator Removing obstacles Hire L'nserew and remo\c pipe
If a radiator is bracketed to the a professional plumber to braekets. and \'l-cl\ wallpaper
wall, allow wallpaper to fall over remove radiators and cap off behind ihe pipes. Rejilaee the
it. Cut slits in line with the the pipes before \'ou start to hnickeis while \ou can locate
brackets. Using a radiator roller. w all]Xiper. I'his is a c|uick, llu- sc riw holes cmmK
feed the wallpaper behind, inexpensive job that will make through the wet wallpaper.
guiding it around the brackets. wallpapering much easier.


Adding Borders
highlight features of the wallpaper. Many borders are designed for use with
a particular wallpaper, hut they can also be used against a plain-colored wall.

" ^^ Attaching Borders ^ ^ ^. ^ ^ n . u ... ..u^...^^...M ^^

a border once tlie rest of the wall the application method is the same. Attach a
decoration has been completed, \\1iether border very carefully in order to enhance the
the border is narrow or broael, textured or plain. appearance fif the alreaeiy eiecorated wall.

PosiTioNi.NG Borders Dividing Walls Choosing Appropriately

Planning position ^ou can
han,i; borders at ceilint^. chair-

rail, pictnre-rail. or baseboard

le\'el. Consider iinexen \\'all-

ceiling junctions, split-level

and the location of
and other obstacles
when making your decision.
Keeping level If placing a
border on wallpaper, follow a
horizontal line in the pattern.
If this is impossible, draw a
guideline using a level.
Pasting up Use a small Using a border Coordinating details
brush to apply adhesive to a Use a wallpaper border instead of (;hot)se a border with an image
border. Place it on the wall a wooden or plaster chair rail to that suits the room as well as

right away. The adhesi\e dries di\ide up an expanse of wall. matching the decor. In a child's

quickly, so do not soak it This will be decorative without bedroom, for example, pick
unless the instructions say so. installation rec|uirements and cost. a simple, brighth' colored motif

Framing with Borders Applying Borders

" Cornering Apply one length
of border so that it overlaps Money -SAVING Tip
onto the adjacent wall by
s in (O.S cm). Overlap the

next length onto it so that the

pattern matches at the join.
Crease down the corner
junction with a pair of scissors,
anel pull back the paper. Cut
accurately down the crea.se
guideline. Smooth the border
back into place, producing
a matching join in the corner Making your own border
Mitering a corner with an in\'isible o\erlap. Trini .in old, leftover roll of
Allow one Icngtii of border to Hanging quickly I se wallpaper to create your own
overlap the other with the pattern ,1damp sponge rather than a border Wallpaper with a

corresponding. Cut diagonally wallp.ipei-hanging brush lo striped pattern is ideal, since

through both with a craft knife. [losition a boi'der anel remove it provides a ready-made
Remove excess flaps, and smooth any excess boixler ,idhesi\e guitlclinc along \\ iiich to cut.

the remaining pieces into place. c|uickly before it dries.


Choosing Other Wall Coverings

TiiFRi: AKi MA\^ oi'Tioxs otluT than wallpai^or for wall ek'toration. 'Ihcv
incliKk" liiL^hK tcxlui"cel j^apci's. clitkaxMil iVjX's of lahiii, . and iIk- llsc ot
wootl. wooti panelini^. and plaskT it \()ii j")!'*.'!!.'!" a hcaxx dctoraliNc tinish.

Wall Hancings
its most iraililional torm. a wall liai\L;ing lowcxcr. \\ all-hangiiiL; oinions do not stop

ol decorati\e fabric that is huns^ on a tiicre, since there are other ways of allachini^
wall in a similar way to pictures and paintings. decorative materials to a tlat wall surface.

Hanging Uni si al Items

Choosing Textured

Wood Paneling
Walls can be covered coniplctcU' or in pan natural, depending on your preference. You
with wood panelini; to create a substantial will neeel one or two woodworkin,^ tools and a
decoralixe impact. Faint them or lea\e them few basic carpentr\ .skills to panel successfully.

Paneling Cleverly Bi iLDiNG A Framework Attaching Paneling

Allowing access Cut access L'sing battens Attach panels .\(/;7 uiscrlccl dl

pieces into wood paneling in to a franiework of 2-in by

order to reach pipework and 1-in (S-cm bv 2.S-cm) battens Panel
to house electrical sockets. placed horizontally on the
Covering edges Xeaten wall, about 12 in (3(' em) apart.

cuts and joins in paneling at

Slirci-nf innn! iktllcii
ceiling le\el by attaching
lengths of decoratix e
molding, using panel
t Faking wood

panels To
create the effect of wood
panels on a wall, cut tour
et|ual-si/.ed lengths of molding
or architra\"e. mitering the
ends to make the corners of
the panels. Position each piece
on the wall, using all-purpo.se
adhesixe. A number of such
panels beneath a chair rail, tor
example, creates a realistic
effect - especially if the panels
are grained (see p. 79).


IS IMPORTANT TO TAKF TiMi: to Complete your wallpapering properly so that the

ITfinish looks as good as it possibly can and will last a long time. Make future
decorating projects easier by looking alter your ec|Lii|^nK'nt \"eiy carefullw

CoRRHCTiNCi Mistakes
Sonie pn^lilems may tlcx clop after yoii ha\'f they will need attention. Pro|-)lenis arisinL; from
finished \\allpapering. Mcst of the.se will .seriou.s deficiencies in technique may need
be faiih' minor and easily corrected, although more extensi\e work in order to correct them.

Removing St.\ins
Rectifying Wallpapering Fallts
Dealing with damp patclics
Damp patches that persist Ttierc are several fairh' common not corrected. However good
after wallpaper has dried tuit wallpapering fault.s that may well \our technique, faults can occur,
may indicate a structural affect only small areas \et can but most can be solved using a

problem. Strip the paper off

spoil your decorating if thc\ are tew relatively simple methods.

and line the whole area with

commercial moisture-resistant
Gaping seams
Use a felt-tip pen that matches the
foil before wallpapering again.
background color of the wallpaper to
Using detergent Remoxe
color in seams that have not been joined
miscellaneous stains and properly, or which have opened slightly as
marks with a mild household the w allpaper dried. Remove excess color
detergent solution, clabbeci on by dabbing with a clean, damp sponge.
and wiped off with a sponge.
Rub extremeh' Shiny seams
\\ iping down shiny or stained seams with
a mild detergent solution should make them
Improving Matching less conspicuous. To prevent sliine when
Distracting the e)e wallpapering in the future, remove any
a picture or wall hanging excess wallpaper paste from seams before
to detract from a mismatch. it dries, and do not oversmooth seams.
Always rectif\' or conceal an\'
Lifting edges
that occur at eye le\ el.
Stick back lifting edges with o\erlap
Repapering Apply another
adhesive or neat PVA. L^se a brush to
layer of paper to co\'er a bai.i
apply the adhesive along the entire length
pattern mismatch but only m i)f the area that is lifting. Wipe aw^ay excess
small-scale, localized areas. ,idhesi\e that spills out from beneath the
edge w ith a clean, damp sponge.
Evening Off Edges
Sticking down hi bathrooms Paper tears
Apph' a small amount of P\.\ to the Mirface.
and kitchens, paper can lift at
then ease the torn piece of wallpaper
tiled edges because of excess
back into position using a clean, damp
moisture and poor adhesion. sponge. As long as you manemer the
Run a thin band of grout or w allpaper carefulh back into place, the
sealant over the paper at the repair w ill be almost in\ isible.
tile-paper junction. Use masking
tape to ensure a straight
Most bubbles slioulel i.lis.i|ipi.ar ol tlu'ir
Painting If paper is poorly
ow n accord as the wallpaper dries out.
trimmed and overlaps onto
If they do not. pierce them with a sharp
wood, will look bad and
craft knifeand stick the area back ilow n
may lift. If necessan-. paint with neat PNA. Apply it ver>- caretiilh
over any overlapping paper iisin'4 a small artist s brush.
using the woodwork paint.


Cleaning and Maintaining Equipment

After all types of decoratin,^ work - and will be in yood workin,^ order in the kitnre.
wallpapering is no exeeption - make sure Many tools are costly to replace, and it is all too
that you clean your ecjuipment well, so that it easy to ruin them through needless neglect.

Cleaning surfaces Caring for Brushes Storing Levels

Using soap Wash d(n\n Softening bristles Clean Hanging up Most le\ els
a pasting table with mild w allpapering brushes with a ha\e a hook on one end lor
detergent after use; otherwise, mild shampoo, then rinse them hanging up after use. They are
any paste residue might be thoroughly. This will ensure delicate and should be kept
reactivated by water the next that they remain soft until the out of harm's way. Clean any
time the table is used. next time thev are used. l^aste off them first.

Protecting Scissors
Maintaining Wallpapered Walls
There are several different wa)'s
Lwbt switch
to maintain and thus prolong
the life of wall coverings.
Clear cicctntc
Following recommendations
Check the label to see if you
can wipe or scrub wallpaper.
Protecting paper Apply a Making cleaning easy
pn)tecti\'e coat of aciylic matte Fit a rectangular-shaped piece of
\arnish. Do a test patch in case acetate (with a central area the
Oiling a hinge
the varnish reacts with the paper. size of the switch cut out of it)
Use a lint-free cloth to apph oil
f Caring for fabrics Use a soft around an electrical switch. The
to the hinging mechanism once
\acuum-clcaner attachment to wallpaper will still be visible,
scissors have been washed and remo\e tkist from fabric-based, but you will be able to keep this
dried. Do not use too much oil. or icMLiretl wall coxerinirs. frequently soiled area clean.
it may stain the paper next time.

Using Leftovers
Applying a wall covering tends to lie a can be used for a \ariety oi different purposes,
rather wasteful business, so tr\- to ttse up Always keep some in case you have to make
some of the leftoxer pieces. Wallpaper pieces patch repairs to a wallpapered surface in future.

Using Up Wallpaper Maximizing Use

Wrapping gifts Cut up Recycling blades Craft-knife
scraps of patterned wallpaper blades are still relatively sharp Money- SAVING Tip
wrapping presents.
fc:)r e\en after they have been
= Enhancing decoration Co\er used for trimming wallpaper.
the panels of cupboard doors Since only the tip of the blade
with wallpaper to add an w ill ha\ e been used, you can
extra decoratixe dimension to continue to use the blade lor
your papering. This will help other purpo.ses such as cutting
to coordinate the decorative carpet prior to laying it.

plan as well as enhancing a Keeping paste If there is a

plain piece of Itnaiiture. chance that you may do more Lining a drawer
Using pattern Patterns that wallpapering shortly after your Trim wallpaper scrap.s lo use
include distinctive motifs can current project, do not throw as drawer liners. Iron and
be cut up and the motifs put away leftover wallpaper paste. spray-starch each length so

to use for a variety of other It can be kept for sexeral that it will sit flat inside a

decorative piu'poses, such weeks, oi' e\en a lew months, drawer. Secure in place with
asdecoupage (,see p. 85) or as long as \oii ean translc'r it pins or tacks if necessary.
making a stencil (see p. 35). to an airtight container.


Quick Reference
Preparing to Tile, p. 60
As arc
.IS ni:i\(, hi]^h/y (/ccoralirc.
prcicticdl DUitciicil for use in honic

clcconilioii . 'I'Ik'v pi'ariclc ci chii-ahlc siiifdce

Planning a Tiling
Strategy, p. 62 ll.nil Is /(iii^i^ /c/.sV///^' (iiul cds]' to clean. Mciiiy

Inipro\ing Techniques.
hoDic clecordlois arc rchicUiiit to fiicc tllliii^

p. 63 cha/lcjiges aiul (k'/'cr to c.y/)L'rts. ihit ciitliin^

Tiling Creatively, p. 65 C(iiil/)i)icJit. tile (iclhc'slrcs. (iinl i2,roiit arc more

Finishing, p. 69 iiscr-frlciidly than they used to he. so tllln<^ Is
not as cilfflcult as yon nn'i^ht thinh.

Setting a Style
With an emphasis on the decoratixe aspect Choosing a st\ie and e\en creating vour own
of tiles comes the oppcMtunit)' to intluence tile designs are easy as long as you take a
the st\le. design, and la\'out of a tiled area. few basics into account before vou stan out.

Budgeting Wisely Appr.\isi.\g Yol r Skills S.wPLi.NG Tiles

Planning Tiles \an' \\ idely Being realistic Tile w ithin Borrowing tiles If \ou find it

in price, so ahAays bear \'our capabilities. It \<)u are a difficult to \isualize how tiles

your budget in mind. Less first-time tiler, chocxsc a simple will look in your home, borrow"
expensixe tiles need not prt:)ject to start "^ ith. Proficienc\' samples from a supplier to
mean a less attractixe finish. will come '^ith experience. take home and tn- out "dv\\"

Arranging W.\ll Tiles

Wlien you arc choosing a design
for the hu'out of an area H) be
tiled, you may find yourself
limited b) the size of the area.
Bear in mind its practical
purpose, and take the following
stylistic points into account.

Choosing a basic st}ie The

first aspect to consider when
an-anging wall tiles is whether
to follow a traditional .st)lc of
tiling, or choose from the range
ofmodern st^'les. or adopt a
more indi\idualistic approach.
< Thinking about color When
deciding \\ hich kind of design
to create, consider the color of
the tiles. Think in terms of the
decoration of the whole room
as well as color combinations
within the tiled area itself

Choosing Tiles
Size and shape are as iniponant as color w here it is going to be used. It is not advi.sable.

w hen you are choosing tiles. Howexer much for example, to choose a complicated design
vou like a particular tile, you must consider or laroe tiles if the area to be tiled is small

Types oy Tile
Most wall tiles are machine-made
and have a tough ceramic finish. "J

Some are made from natural

materials such as marble. Then
there are handmade and hand- Border
painted tiles. The huge choice
of tiles should enable you to find Paper-co\ered Finished-glass

some to match \ our decor Slip ola.ss mosaic mosaic

Relict irr-et Plain inset


1 nglazed ilazee! HanJ-p.i

Coordinating Tiles w ith Degor

Tiles ha\e little impact unless they are well of the decoration to be complementar\". w hile
coordinated with the rest of the decor in a a less complex design allows other decoratix e
room. Extra\'agant tile designs require the rest feaaires to make a s?reater .statement.

Considering Options Introducing Themes

Choosing colors Stick to Adding interest Incorporate
plain, neutral colors for your a few themed tiles into a plain
tiles if you are concerned tiled design to transform the
about changing' styles and appearance of a tiled surface.
fashions. Remember that you
will find much easier to

redecorate around neutral-

colored tiles than around

bold colors and designs that

make a strong statement.
Using picture tiles The most
commc^n wa\' of adding more
interest to a plain tiled surface
is to include some picaire
tiles. How ever, be cautious in
your choice: too many picaire
can make a design look

o\erdone. detracting from the

rest of the tiled surface and
from the room as a whole.

Preparing to Tile


and more of a permanent fixture than other wall coxerinL^s. Voii are likely
lo li\e with them for a while, so prepare well and do a thoroui^h job.

Basic Tiling Equipment

A toolkit for tiling \\ill include

a few more specialized tools
than are required for most other
decorating jobs. However, some
general tools are. in effect, muiti
purpose and lend themselves to
a number of different tasks.

Choosing a tile cutter By far

the most important piece of

equipment you will buy for
tiling purposes is a tile cutter.
Buy a good-qualir\" one. as a
substandard cutter -^111 not
produce clean edges and v> ill

increase the number of tiles

that you break while cutting.

This is -^'asteful of materials and
time, and '^ill result in greater
expense in the long run.
Buying wisely Do not be
deterred by the initial expense
of a fe^' key tiling items: they
may pro\"e themseU'es to be
worth it in the long run. especially
as your technique improves.
Renting instead of buying
Consider renting expensive
pieces of equipment such as
tile-cutting machines, which
you will use onlv occasionally.

Filling knife

o 'D Grout spreader

Notched spreader Goi-gk

rile gauge


Making Surfaces Ready

is essential that tiles make good contact be perfectly smooth as long as the surface is
with a wall by means of a consistent and sealed, is as flat as possible, and has no unstable
e\'en spread of adhesi\'e. Walls do not need to areas that may cause tiles to bulge or fall awav.

Preparing a Wall Dealing with Obstacles

Tiling over Tiles
major holes with
Filling Fill
all-purpose filler. Before it Old tiles make an excellent
dries, trim rough areas with a base for new as long as they

filling knife so that no pieces are securely stuck to the wall.

protrude. These patches will Replacing damaged tiles

not be smooth, but are quite Remove cracked tiles, then fill

adequate i'oi tiles. You do not tlie areas with one-coat plaster.

need to sand the ^alls. This will be more economical

Removing old coverings Do than filler, especially if you
need to remove several tiles.
not tile o\'er paper, how'ever
Avoiding joints Make sure
firmly attached it may appear
that new tiles join in different
to be. The adhesi\'e and Boxing in
l^laces from those beneath.
weight of the new tiles \\ill Create a neat, flat surface around
Providing a key Wash down
almost certainly pull it away. obstacles such as pipes by boxing ( )ki tiles with TSP, allow to
Sealing Stabilize dusty walls them in. Construct a simple dn', then sand with fine-

or new plaster with a P\'A wooden or pl\"svood framework grade sandpaper to provide a

solution (five parts water to that is sturdy enough not to bow kev for the new laver of tiles.

one PVA) before tiling. when it is pasted and tiled.

Acctu'acy when measuring is important so are avoided, ^'ou must first decide how^ much
that o\ercalculations, which can prove of a room to tile. Small \ariations at a later stage
expensi\e. and incom'enient undercalculations will make a large difference in requirements.

Making Allowances Making a Tile Gauge Using a batten

Allowing for pictures Picture Mark off tile-width
tiles are usuallv more expensixe measurements along
than plain tiles, so \-ou should a batten, either using
calculate exacth" how many sample tiles or based on
\()u need, rather than working tile sizes. Allow '
s in (2.5

out the size of the area. mm) for grout between

% Tiling borders Measure the each tile. U.se the gauge
total leiigth of border tiles to calculate quantities of
Mini' n/'f/},,sili(iii
required rather than their area. tiles and work out where
Remember, however, to cuts and joins will be.
deduct the border area when
you are calculating the area
of the main ix)d\- of tiles.
# Using tiles of different sizes Never estimate even the Allowing tor cuts and breaks
If you wish to inctjiporate a smallest part of a tiling area. ,'\dd ten percent to the figure

complicated design in your Measure each section separately you ha\e calculated to allow lor

and accurately, then add the wastage from cutting and the
tiled area, including tiles of
figures up to give the total area. occasional breakage. Increase
different sizes for example,
this percentage for awkward-
ask a tile retailer to work out shaped rooms that ha\e man\'
Measuring appropriately Most
your preci.se requirements. corners and cuts, and reduce it
retailers sell tiles in square
Supply a drawing of the tile \-arcls (square meters), so work slightly tor rooms that ha\e
design and the measureiuents oul lover.r'L' with this in miiul. hro.KJ expanses of wall surface.
of the area to be tiled.


Planning a Tiling Strategy

THIS ARi- KK^.iD am:) iMi rxiHi 1'. SO it is not possible to disguise mistakes like you
e:in willi wallpaper. Vou nuisi, iherelore, ealeiilak' exaeth' where rows of tiles

will \^c. plan awkward areas care'lulK , and cklermine w here euls w ill lall.

Orderinc. Work
Tilint; (.lilli.TL'ni se-clioiis in tin.' tonwl oreicr \(Ui .i:\' .noinn lo Lickk' a p.irlii iiLir awa .iikI lo
s|-)i.'i.\l,s up ihc joh .iiul proJinws i1k' 1k\si e'nsuix' lluit .ill i.'(|uipiiK'nl .iiul luak'ii.ils .la-

linisli. '\'Akc A link' extra time to Je'eiilc how iIosl' at liaiul, i lean, and iwkK lor use.

Starting Out Tiling a Wall Slction by Section

Mixing tiles \\ hen tiling a Ihil/lilc Full /lie' III

hifge ai"ea. mix elilferent boxes 11(1 nf null

ol tik's in ease there are color

\ariations between Ixitehes.
You will not notiee them
when the tiles are on the wall.
Starting at tiic bottom lile
from the base of an area up.
llsing natural levels If

ixithtubs. sinks, or baseboards

pro\ ide a naturLiI base line
w ithin \'our tilini^ plan, use
them as a slartiuL; [loint.

Accounting for corners .Make

sure that corners look as it

wlK)le tiles are wrapped

around them. Two small strips
or two lar^t.' scrajis meeting; at
a corner join look unattractive.
Ifyou cannot plan so that
whole tiles meet in a corner,
two halt-tiles look best.

Improving Techniques

0\( 1 >"nr HA\T A TILING STRATEGY, thc teclmicjuc itself comes do\Mi tc) the
process of apphins^ aelhoixc aiul sticking tiles to a wall.
Technical refinements shoiikl a^Uress methods of cutting anei appKing a<.lhesi\-e.

Cutting and Attaching Tiles

Youyou if
will produce'a flat and e\en tiled finish
apph' adhesi\e correctK' and if \'Ou
both horizontalh
bend or stretch, so
when you
them make
take the right precautions to keep tiles lexel. the incisions as precise as you possibly can.

Applying Adhesive Le\eling Tiled \^alls

Traditional Tip

Spacing tiles

.Matchsticks are ideal for

Using a notched spreader Reducing adliesive maintaining the spaces

Isc a prot'cssional spreader to On unc\cn walN. \ary the depth hetw een tiles w hile you
apply adlu-si\e to a wall Work of adhcsn c t< ir an e\en finish. grout 1 lic\ can be used again
in areas oiup to st] \cl m 1 ( 1 ). Before thc adhesive dries, lever and .igain - unlike plastic tile

and make sure that the adiiesixe out protruding tiles w ide-
using a spacers. \\ hich cannot be

has a uniform, ridged appearance hladed scraper Remove some of remo\"ed once grout is dr\-.

before apph ing am tiles. the adhesi\ e and replace the tile.

Preempting Problems Getting Quickly

Tiling aroi no
Ising thin tiles Spacers are CIrip lever
Plastic Bathtcbs fin
too deep to be left in place
Plastic tlxiiires arc prone to between thin tiles and may
movement because they are show through the grout. U.se rUeciitu

t'lexibie. so take extra care to them at right angles to the joins,

ensure a good tiled finish. and remo\e before grouting.
r'Supporting Pro\ ide extra S Making allowances VChen
support beneath a pla.stic aib ineasuring tiles for cutting,
to stop downward mo\ement allow '
s in {2.S mm) for grout.
cracking the grout around the Tiling with marble .Marble
bottom row of tiles.
tiles should gi\ e the appearance
Filling Fill a plastic aib w itii
of a solid sheet, though grout is
water before you start tiling
rec|uireLi for waterproofing. U.se Mounting a tile cutter
around it .so that it willbe in
strips of cardboard as spacers. I sing a tile cutter is the easiest
the correct position and shape.
Sealing Run silicone l^eading
Reducing cleanup Keep a w.i\ otniaking nc.il. accurate

aroimd the top of a plastic damp sponge and a dr\- cloth cuts. .Mount thc cutter on a

tub liefore tiling to make a handv so that you can keep w orkbench or clamp it to

barrier against water seepage. liles .md hands clean at all a tabletop to hold it firm and
times w hile \c)u work. at thc correct working height.


Tiling Awkward Areas

some if you want them to look as neat as
As with
areas are

decorating techniques,
difficult to tile than others.
possible,and you ma\' well need to cut intricate
Corners, as \"oii might expect, can present a shapes to tile successfully around obstacles.

Overcoming Obstacles Tiling around Curved Obstacles

Using nippers To cut aw a\ S Measuring cunes Mold a Choosing a blade Select
awkward pieces of tile, use pipe cleaner or piece of wire a timgsten carbide blade to
nippers. These resemble a pair to the cur\e"s shape, then draw- make a precise cut and thus
of pliers and enable you to along it on the tile to be cut. create the mo.st accurate cur\'e.
chip off small sections of tile

between the sharp-edged jaws. Cutting Ci rves Using a Template

Dealing with pipes Remo\e
any pipe brackets so that tiles Template
can be slipped directly behind.
Reposition brackets after tiling

by drilling new- holes in the

tiles (see p. 70). Take care
not to overtighten the screws,
w hich might crack the tiles.
Tiling recesses To pro\"ide
support once dow nw ard-facing
tiles ha\e been attached along

the top surface of a recessed

w indow.
cut three pieces of
- one the width of the
of a
a cardboard template
cune - allowing for
2 Use to cut
a specialized tile saw-
around the shape of
recess and rw o tlie height of grout - and hw on top of
it the cune accurately. Place the
it. Rest the r^o uprights on the tile. Trace around the edge tile workbench, hold it
on a
the windowsill. supporting the with a nonpermanent felt-tip \-er\- and cut - using a
horizontal flush to the top tiles pen. so that the ink guideline normal saw ing action - along
until the adhesi\e has dried. can be w iped off the tile later. the "uideline vou have marked.

Tiling External & Internal Corners Dealing \x ith

Sockets and Sw itches
Tiling around sockets and
switches offers no particular
problems as long as )()ii

follow basic guidelines.

4. Turning off power Alw a\

turn off the electricin.' supply
hetbre you begin work.
Loosening screw s Loosen
electrical .socket or switch
screws so that tile edges can
be inserted behind the .socket
plate. Do not retighten the
screws until after grouting.
Hiding edges Making a neat edge Adjusting screw length If
Attach a plastic corner strip to an W ]icn tiling an interna! corner, using thick tiles, it may be
external comer to conceal and place tiles alternately on each necessar\- to replace existing
protect tile edges. Mount the striji w all to ensure an even corner socket screws with longer
onto the comer with tile adhesixx join and to keep the tiles le\el ones so that the socket plate
Using whole tiles, tile away from ani.1 ni position. l,ea\e gaps tor can be screwed firmly back
the strip on each wall, aligning
on to the electrical liousin".
grout in hetw cen the corner tiles,

the tiles vcrticalh w ith it. using spacers in the usual w a).


Tiling Creatively

TILING IS A FLEXIBLE OPTION when it comes to making decorative decisions. You

can create a variety of designs and tile arrangements using different shapes
and sizes of tile to lend an individualistic and personal look to any room.

Choosing Tiles of Different Sizes

are similar to stanclarel tiling teehniqiies. Minor
The most obxious altcrnati\e
tiling methods is
to traditional
to use different-sized tiles refinements, however, can speed up the tiling

to achiexe \arious effects. Application methods process as well as improve the finish.

Using Large Tiles Applying Mosaics Using Small Tiles

C^hoosing surfaces Large Positioning tiles Mosaic tiles

tiles look most impressive within a sheet may drift out

on large wall .surfaces rather of position if the backing is

than in small, detailed places. defective. While the adhesive

Too many half-tiles and joins is still wet, reposition the tiles

detractfrom the overall look. using the edge of a scraper,

Using marble tiles Lise then support them with spacers.
marble tiles only on flat wall (Aitting tiles out If the sheet
surfaces, since undulations backing will not allow you to
will highlight grouted joins reposition easily, cut the tile

and spoil the "sheet" finish. Bedding in out of the sheet with a craft

Cutting marble tiles Cut Use a short-pile roller to bed knife.Apply adhesive to the
marble tiles with a tile-cutting sheets of mosaic tiles into tile back and put it back in place,
machine for greater accuracy. adhesive. This will ensure that using spacers to keep it level.

Ask your tile retailer to miter you apply even pressure all over Finishing edges Cut up
external corner joiiis, or rent the area, so that the tiles stick some of the mosaic sheets and
a tableto]^-mounted tile .saw. firmh' and lie flush to the wall. use to edye other tiled areas.

Designing Layouts
Making Your Own Mosaic
.\s well as standard square
mosaic tiles, you can use smaller
and irregularly shaped tiles to I
create mosaics that are less
uniform. Incorporate small
pieces of broken tile to build
lip either simple patterns or
more complicated images.

Making mosaic tiles lise tile

nippers to break up old and

Ictiover tiles into small irregular
pieces approximately -Vi-l' 2

sq in (2-4 cm-') in area.

Producing a design \ design
Mixing tile sizes tan i:)e drawn on a wall using Creating a bold design
Lay out your tile design "dry" on ,1 method similar lo thai usetl You can combine irregular-
a tablctop, tlicn take the tiles lor painting murals (see p. .-56). siiaped fragments of tile with

directly (roni the table to the Carefully Fill in the shapes thai custom-made, square mosaic
make up tlu' image' with small liles to stunning effect. Framing
wall. Hy doing this, you will be
pieies 1)1 lile instead ol painl tile area with uniform but vivid
able to see what the pattern looks
to create voiir own mosaic. bands of color adds drama.
likeand make any adjustments
before the tiles are stuck down.


Inserting Tiles and Borders

Picture tiles, inset tiles, and border tiles can or - in the case of borders - frame the whole
proxide the finishing touches on a tiled tiled area or a panel. The choice of tiles is huge,
surface. They add interest to a plain tile design. so finding some suitable ones should be easy.

Usi.NG Border Tiles Inserting Chair Rails Varying Borders

Ordering work .\l\\a)s Using wood \ an the le.xture Offsetting joins .\Ian\ border
finish the main body of tiling of a by in.serting
tiled .surface tiles are a different width from
before appKing border tiles. a wooden molding in the the main tiles. Offset the joins
Applying tiles Because most form of a chair rail. Paint it when possible, so that the\'
border tiles are by nature \ en,' to match or complement the occur near the mid-point of
narrow, spread the adhesi\e surrounding tiled area. the main tile width.
on the back of the tile and then
position it on the ^all. rather
than applying adhesive to the
^all before mounting the tile.

Dealing with corners

Mitering corners is difficult

^'ith a standard tile cutter, so

flush-join the tiles or calculate
where miter cuts will be. Ask
your supplier to cut them.
Tiling up to wallpaper If you
are papering a wall al')o\"e a
tiled area, insert theextreme
edge of the paper beneath the Using tiles Deepening a border
tile edges. Complete the tiling Create the effect of a chair rail Create a deep border by using
as far as the border, then within a tiled wiM using flat tiles two rows of border tiles, one
apply the paper to just below that pro\ ide a contrasting band beneath the other. Place relief
where the upper edge of the of color or pattern. .\Iternativel\ border tiles along the top. for
border tiles will be. Once the insen precisely cut half-tiles example, with decorated border
papering is complete, attach in another color or pattern tiles below^ to create a more
the border tiles in position. to produce the same effect. interesting decorative effect.

Planning Tiled Images Inserting Picture Tiles

Changing existing tiles

Rejuxenate an old tiled surface Money-saving Tip

b\' remoxing some tiles and
inserting picture tiles. Remoxe
by means of the technique

used for replacing broken or

cracked tiles tsee p. 71).
Creating panels Use picture
tiles to make up .separate tiled
panels on suitable flat areas
of wall, making a decorati\e
feature that is not necessarily
Drawing a plan part of a larger tiled area. .\dding new tiles to old
Using squared paper draw an Making a border Create a .\ttach a new tiled border
accurate plan to scale of the deep border using picture tiles above old bathroom tiles to
whole area to be tiled, including instead of border tiles. Use the spruce the room up without
any picture tiles. Follow the plan opportunirs' to introduce a completely retiling. Clean up
carefully as you tile. This will theme. A
border of fruits and the old tiles thorouglih; then
help to ensure that picture tiles \egetables. for example, will rejyout if necessai^.
are positioned accurately. lie suitable for a kitchen.


Tiling Work Surfaces

Most wall tiles, as their name suggests, are tiling, and some can benefit greatly. The most
applied to flat, vertical surfaces. Howe\er. common application is to cover work surfaces
horizontal surfaces are often just as suitable for with tiles, such as in kitchens and utililv rooms.

Tiling Horizontally Adjusting Grout Edging Work Surfaces

Supporting w eiglit Tiles are Finishing flush Apply grout
relativeh' heax"^'. sci if awork so that it is absolutely flush
surface is lightweight, you with the tiles. This will make
may need to gi\e it .some it easier to clean the tiled
additional support. The be.st surface and reduce the risk of
way of doing this is to build dirt lodging in grout cre\'ices.

up the top of work surface

the Cleaning grout Use a
w ith a sheet of plywood to commercial grout cleaner from
spread the extra weight. time to time to help keep the
Making surfaces ready Man\ grouted areas of a tiled work
work surfaces are not suitable surface as clean as possible.
To prepare
for direct tiling. Grouting hygienicalh' The
such surfaces, cut out and fit most hygienic wa\' of grouting
a thin piece of pl>^ ood or tiles is with an epoxy-based Attaching battens
MDF as a base on which you grout. This forms a longer- Attach hardw (j(jd battens along
can then mount the tiles. lasting surface that is far more work-surface edges to produce
Neatening edges Always use resistant to bacterial growth a neat finish. Faint or varnish as

whole tiles along the front than traditional grout. Epox)- required. .Make sure that the
edge of a work surface, and based grout is difficult to batten tops are flush with the
work backward to a cut join apply, howe\er, so you may tiles, othervs ise cleaning the

if necessar)' at the wall. need to hire a professional. work surface will be difficult.

Using Specially Made Tiles

Besides their most ob\ious function of Man\- upes ha\e been specially modified in
providing a tough washable surface, tiles design for a particular purpose, but ordtnar\"
ha\e other practical uses around the home. tiles can also be put to a \ariet\- of u.ses.

Supporting Heavy Tiles Modifying Worktops Improving Efficiency

aterproofmg showers Tiles

in a shower area
will be hea\"ily
bombarded by water and so
require extra waterproofing.
Use a specialized, commercial
waterproofing grout, and seal
all corners w ithin the shower
area with clear silicone after
\ ou have grouted to provide
an e.xtra waterproof barrier.
Tiling siUs Batlirooms are
especially prone to high
Attaching soap dishes .Making a chopping board le\'els of condensation. Water
Because of its weight, a soap- Cut a hole and insert a tile in a runoff onto a sill can quickly

dish tile needs support to stay worktop to create a permanent degrade the surface if the sill Ls

in place whiJe the adhesive chopping board. A large marble merely painted. It is a good
dries. Strap masking tape over tile is ideal, since it is tough and idea, therefore, to tile all the
it and the adjacent tiles for ea.sily cleaned. Seal around the sills in a bathroom to give
support. Remove the tape edges of the tile with a bead of them e.xtra protection and
once the adhesive has dried. clear silicone after insening it. increase their lifespan.


Decorating Plain Tiles

Completely retiling a room can be costly, so otliL-r tlccoratiw nicthocis. Similarh', \ou can
always worth considering whether or
it is Iniy inexpensiw. p\:\\n tiles, antl then enhance
not the existing tiles can he renoxateci rising them using one or more painting te(.hnic|ues.

Painting Tiles
Repairing grout ivake out
an\' okl, loo.se grout trom joints ILsing ceramic paints, you can on the extent of your artistic
using a scraper, anel lill the paint your own designs onto capabilities, yon can transfer an

gaps with all-purpose tiller. tiles as long as they have been image to a tile and color it in (as
Preparing surfaces Fieiiare correctly prep, net! Deiieiuling iieiow) or paint it Ireeliand

an old tiled surface b\'

cleaning down thoroughly

with TSP and rinsing with
clean w ater. Allov^- to cln'

thoroughly, then apply

a commercial tile primer.
Applying paint After you
have carried out the correct
]^reparation, you can use
either commercial tile paints
or normal aciylic or oil-based
paints. Protect the tiles with
a coat of ceramic varnish once 1L sc masking tape to .stick an
you have finished painting. image over a tile, placing
Painting selectively There is carbon paper berw'een the
no need to paint all the tiles image and the tile. Draw around
on a wall. Simply painting in the picture outline, pressing

a border or stenciling images hard enough for the carbon to

on a few tiles can revive the transfer the imaue to the tik-

look of a "tired" tiled surface.



TILES REQUIRE CARE AFTER APPLICATION to cnsure that they look good and wear
well for as long as possible. As well as tidying them decoratively, you must
finish tiles so that they ser\'e their practical purpose efficiently.

----^------------ Waterproofing Tiles mmmmmmmmmm.mmmmmmmm^

Tiles are of little practical use unless they to water. Joins and tile edges are the areas
are completely waterproofed, providing an most prone to water penetration and seepage,
easily cleaned surface that is totally impermeable and therefore require the most attention.

Grouting Successfully
Selecting grout Choose
powdered grout that you mix
with water, since this is more
durable than dual-purp<^se
adhesi\e or other grouts.
Making neat lines Run a
grout shaper or the edge of
your finger down the joints
once excess grout has been
removed but before it dries.
Grouting marble tUes Ensure
that grout is flush with the tile
surface to give the illusion of
a expanse of marble.

Producing a sheen Wipe the

tiles first with a damp sponge

to remove excess grout. When

diy. polish with a lint-free
cloth. Polish several times.

Sealing with Silicone


Atta(:hin(; Fixtures
Tiling is not (.'onii^k'li.- until ,in\ lixluix's have similar manner lo painlrcl or wallpapered
been attatheel to the tilecl sniiacx'. Tileel siirfaces. so make sine that hxlures aiv placed
surfaces cannot he touched up easiK' in a in the conx'ct position at the hrsi attempt.

Drilling Wisely Drilling Holes PosnioNiNG Fixtures

Keeping to the middle I ry

to position attachments so that

\()U drill holes in tik's away
Irom the edges. Drilling near
edges may cairse cracking.
Making watertight When
putting a screw into a hole in

a tile, apply a small bead ol

silicone to the point of the

scre\\'. This will ]Tre\ent any
water from seeping into the
hole and behind the tile.
Protecting eyes Use goggles
when drilling to protect yc:)ur
eyes from flying tile splinters.
Finding alternatives If an
attachment \\ill bear little

weight, irse ,selt-adhesi\e pads

to mount it in place.

Maixtaixixg Tiles
Tiles ha\e a long decoratixe life that tends deterioration of the themseKes. Sometimes,

to end because color preferences and however, a little and a few

regular maintenance
design trends change rather than because of the repairs are needed to keep tiles looking pristine.

Replacing an Isolated Damaged Tile

Quick Reference TFdecorative

fccitiires of a room, then the

Preparing to Paint, p. 74
ivooclirork is the frame upon which the whole
Painting Specific Ai'eas, p. 76
look of the room haiii^s. It is iij) to you how
Enhancing Wood, 78
prominent you make that frameirork. which
Creating Paint Effects, p. 79
offers you great scope for CAperinwulation.
Painting Furniture, p. 83 Decorating woodwork is not confined to
Finishing, p. 86 permanent fixtuj^es: painting fu r n i u re I

adds a further decorative dimension.

- Selecting Materials
There is great di\ersity in tiie types of finish le\el of opacity and translucency. Choosing the
available for wood. They vaiy considerably right finish depends on the type of wood and
in terms ot color and sheen as \\e!i as their how it fits in with other decorated surfaces.

Paint Types and Wood Finishes


Basic Painting Equipment

Equipment for painting wood Quantities
is little different from that for
painting walls, necessitating .Measuring solid surfaces such
jList a few additional items. as doors and baseboards is
realtively simple. With other
Choosing brushes Painting items, a method of measuring
wocxluork inx'ohes more ma\' not be obvious. Use the
detailed and smaller-scale work table opposite to calculate
than painting walls, so you will how much paint you need for
need a larger range of small surfaces of average porositv*.
brushes. Pure bristle brushes
give the highest-qualit>' finish Windows To calculate the

more expensive than surface area of the fninie < >f a

but are
picture \\ inflow, nicisiue the
their .synthetic counterparts.
They are, however easier to use h'anie's \\ idth .md pcnnK-tei'.

Selecting sandpaper Buy C^.Lsemeni windows ha\ e

.several grades of sandpapers. many lail^. so niea.Mire the

A good-quality, fine-grade are.i ot the whole window.

in^kKlii\L; tile L;l.l^s.
paper is essential for the
smoothest possible finish Coverage F.iints antl

natur.il-wooLl tini^hes van in

their co\er.ige. Consider this

carefullv w hen (.alculating

the number ot coats required.

Preparatorv coats 1 )( ) nc )t

forget that bare wood needs

priming, and most paints need
an imdercciat before painting.
.)lMp, 1,^11 ^ni.ili roller .inJ tra\

Wood Types Com.monly Found around the Ho.me

Many tv'pes of wood are found
around the average home. Thev"
are categt)rized according to
suitability of fmish.

Natural woods You w ill find

that planed wood is used
generally for intricate areas such Softwood Hardwood Ph'wood
as moldings and baseboards. Natural woijd. usuailv Natunil wood, liiglier Sheets made of layers
Rough-sawn wood is used for pale in color. Used qualitv' than softrw-ood. of veneer. Takes all

con.stRiction and is unlikely for all internal joinerv'. Used for internal paints, but natural

to require decorating. The Takes most paints and joinery. Best suited to wood finishes may
exception to this may be houses natural wood finishes. natural wood finishes. give patch)' coverage.
in which beams are exposed.
Manufactured woods You may
prefer to use "manufactured"
woods, whose appearance
differs greatly from natural grain.
Produced in large sheets, the
V ersatility of these materials
means that they can be used Medium-density Hardboard Chipboard
for structural purpo.ses, such fiberboard(MDF) Smooth, high-densitv Sheets of compressed
as floors, as well as for making Sheets of compressed board made of wood particles. Often
doors, panels, and other items. wood fibers. Often compressed vvootl u.sed as a flooring

-Some are impregnated with used for cupboards fibers. Thinner than material. Takes certain

fire-retardant sub.stances that and door panels. .\I1)T; usetl for floors. paints - follow
may affect paint application. Takes all iiainls. Takes most paints. suppliers' guidelines.


Preparing to Paint

Diiicis i\ wooDwoi^K lend lo be cnliaiuccl rnilK'i' ilum tlisniiise'cl h\- paini. so

il is important to prepare the wood as well as |:)ossihle before you paint it.

Then make sure tliat you appK' the paint using tlie appropriate techniques.

Stripping and Sanding

will need

how much preparation
more importantly,
layers are be.st .stripped, but a pre\ iousiy .sound
painted surface can \ery often be redecorated
whether or not to remo\ e old paint. Multiple after a thorou_uh sanding and washinj^ down.

Order of Work


Most woodwork cannot be simply sanded There are a variety of fillers available for this:
then painted. Usually scratches and small some are all-purpose, vthile others, such as
holes will need some filling prior to jiainting. fine surface filler, serve a specific purpose.

Following Guidelines Dealing with Big Gaps Using Flexible Filler

Removing dust Once an Raking out Remove flaky
area has been filled and l^aint and other pieces of
sanded, remove any filler dust debris from cracked joints by
by wiping with a damp cloth. running the edge of a scraper
Saving time Keep a jar of firmly down the joint. Dust
ready-mixed filler handy for well before applying the filler.
filling small holes that you may Smoothing Tubed flexible
have missed the first time. cannot be sanded, so

Smoothing surfaces Use smooth it before it dries. Once

a fine surface filler on ornate the filler is in position, use
moldings. When
sanded, this a clean, damp sponge to
will provide the smoothest smooth it o\er. To give the
possible surface for paint. best finish, run down the
Molding filler Smooth filler Filling and trimming joint with a wet finger.
into position when repairing Use an aerosol foam filler to Preventing cracking Hairline
small holes and cracks by filla large hole, such as a wide cracks may appear in water-
shaping w ith a damp artist's
it crack behind a baseboard. based paint applied over
brush. Smoothing the filler Traditional fillers will not hold flexible filler. Axoid these by
carefulK' will reduce the need in place as well. Trim any excess priming the tiller with oil-based
for sanding once it has dried. filler with a craft knife. undercoat before painting.

Priming and Painting

order to produce the best finish, consider depending on whether you have chosen water-
Incarefully any preparatoiy coats and the top or oil-based materials. Also think about the
coats that will be required. These will differ techniques suitable for painting wooden surfaces.

Applying First Coats Applying Top Coats to Flat Surfaces

Sealing knots AppK w ater-
based knotter when using
water-based paint. It will be
more compatible with aciylic
paints and will seal knots
without showing through
subsequent coats of paint.
Coating natural wood When
applying a natural wood
coating, do not knot or prime.
Most natural wood coatings
will automatically be sealed
when you apply the first coat.
Breaking in brushes Always
use new brushes for priming
rather than painting, since

1 vertical
paint a number
about 12 in
2 Without
reloading, lightly
the area vertically to
they will probably molt (30 cm) in length. Reload the lay off the paint and produce
bristles the first time the\' are brush with paint for each .strip. an e\en coverage. U.se this

used. 'I his means they will Without reloading, spread the technique for painting both
be in a better condition for paint across the panel surface Lindercoats and top coats on
appKing subse(|uent coats. using horizontal strokes. most Hat surface areas.


Painting Specific Areas

Yoi K i'\i\Ti\G TECHMoi will alwax's need to he aclaplecl lo suit differeni


areas and surfaces. Most adaptations will he concerned with the order in

which an area is painted and with ohtainini^ the best finish quickly and efficiently.

Paintinc; Doors --------------------.

Ddors make up llic lai;ycst i^jroponion ol n,uht \\a\. Door designs vary, but most common
wooden surfaces in most homes, and it is ones tall into two categories - paneled or tlat -
theref(M-e important that the\ are painted in the in terms of technical painting re(|uirements.

Painting Doors to Reflect Room Colors Defining Edges

Make sure door Paint

architrare after
is irule open
uhile painting frame head
to gain access
to whole
frame head

Keep paint off

neat finish

Painting the edges of a door frame

If two different-colored rooms adjoin at a doorway,

you need to delineate clearly \\here the color of one

room ends and the color of the other room begins.
Lay offpaint
carefully to
avoid excess
forming drip
marks along
frame edge
Following convention, paint certain edges within
adoor frame one color or the other in order to
indicate which room they belong to decorativeh'.

Painting Windows
You may be concerned
panes of both glass is
that painting
and time-

if you paint windows in a systematic

and extend your repertoire of painting

consuming. This does not ha\e to be the case. techniques slighth" to aid the process further.

Planning the Painting OF Windows Shielding Glass

Starting early Paint \\ indow s Cleaning glass Remo\e
early in the day so that the\' splashes of undercoat vvith
can sta\- open to dn' for as -long a window scraper and polish
as possible. Wedge them open the glass with a commercial
with cardboard to prevent household cleaner before
them from slamming shut. top-coating the woodwork.

Working logically
Work from the top
of a wineiow frame
down\s'ard, and from
areas nearest the glass
outward (1-6). Follow Using a window guard
this system to ensure Cut the base out of a plastic food
that you do not miss container, leaving part of one
any part of the frame. side as a handle. Hold the guard
It is easy to miss areas to the glass-frame junction, then
if the new paint color paint without overspill on to the
is similar to the old. glass. Clean the guard regularly.

Painting Other Areas

Not all the surfaces around a home fit into might recjuire specific preparation before you
simple categories: some \\ill rec|uire more decorate them, and certain parts of the house,
diverse techniques. Metal siufaces. for example. such as high-wear areas, need special attention.

Dealing with Metal Negotiating Pipes

Removing rust Patches of - Painting large pipes Use a
Painting Stairways
rust on metal should be sanded radiator roller to cover large
VClien painting
back - to the bare metal if pipes quickly and e\enly. on a stair\%ay, consider the
necessary-. Prime and paint the Protect nearby areas from specific requirements of this
bare surface immediately to o\ers]Tra\\ Cut in with a Inrush. part of the building. A good
prevent moist air from getting finish is especially important

at it and triggering the rusting it tlic stairs arc in constant use.

process once again. Protecting handrails Gi\ e

Choosing primers You might handrails an extra top coat,
find a vast array of different since these are the areas
metals and alloys around your that receive the most wear.
home. Make sure that you Painting edges Before

use a primer that suits each laying a new carpet, cut in

metals indi\idual properties. carefulK- on each step so that

the painted area extends well
Painting radiators Always
Ix-yond the carpet edge.
paint radiators v\hen they Shielding a wall
I'illing cracks Staircases are
are cold. Applying paint to To make it easier to paint pipes prone lo slight movement, so
a warm or hot surface will that are against a wall, hold a use flexible filler ingaps and
cause it tc:) dry too quickly. piece of cardboard behind liicni loints to prevent paint^^ork
The paint will therefore to protect tile wall from a in )m cracking. This will
be difficult to brush out. iiuiklup of paint splashes. Move lirotliKc a longer-lasting finish.

resulting in a patchy finish. it up or (.[own as you progress.


Enhancing Wood
MA^" ni;c;ini; iiivi' Ki:i:i'i\(i

to paintii\u or decorating them. range of hnishes

woodiix siki-a(:i:s i.ookinc;

There is a large
NAirRAi, is a i^ivlcnihlc

your disposal, and man) ollliem are easy to use as well as being durable.

Selecting Wood Finishes

Natural wood finishes can

transform a lifeless wooden
object into a vibnint decorative
feature. Choose a finish
according to the type of wood
and the color and durability Wax
required. Water-ba.sed finishes Suitable for dark hardwoods, since Most natural finish: enhances
are easy to apply; oil-based it is a subtle, highlighting finish. grainand texture. Buff for sheen.
products are more durable. Buff to create a sheen. Needs frequent recoaling.

Varnish Wood dye Stain

.Most durable: u.se alone or as Colors wood to w hate\ er shade Largest color range and great
tough top coat on other finishes. required. Colors can be mixed. depth of finish, which varies
Sheen varies from matte to s;loss. Finish with clear varnish. according to the number of coats.

Using Wood Finishes -

Natural wood Hni.shcs will enable yoii to different t\pe,s of wood match each other, ^'on
match solid wooden fixtiue.s in a room can e\en make pine .surfaces resemble oak or
with piece.s of furniture or to make .se\erai tran.sform fir so that it looks like mahogany.

Taking Care Improving Finish

Protecting yourself Man\- - Using a sponge Apph wood
wood finishes are runny, and dye with a household sponge, Green Tip
spattering is unavoidable. Wear thus eliminating the possibility
goggles, especially \\ hen of unsightly brush marks.
coating at eye level. ^j Buffing easily Attach a clean
Decanting Always decant duster to the pad of an electric
natural w'ood finishes into a SLinder. then use it to buff a
metal paint kettle. The surfaces wa.xed or oiled surface.
of plastic containers might be Smoothing varnisheci coats
damaged by these products. t^se wire wool to rub down
\arnisli after each coat. Remo\e
residue w ith a lint-free cloth
dampened with tLnpcntine. Using natural dyes
Dispose of oily rags in a metal Staining evenly Ne\ er stop Lic|uef\' fruits or vegetables
container with a lid. Oil is halfway through staining a with a little hot water, then
highly combustible, and there surface; otherwise, an cnerlap strain to extract their natural
is a danger that rags might
mark w ill gradually become dyes. Apply several coats, and
combust spontaneously.
\ isible as subsec|uent coats seal with a coat of varnish.
( )f st;iin ;ire applied.


Creating Paint Effects

Asdo and they W'HLL AS
allow you
experiment with different paint finishes. Adapt
the xarioLis effects so that you can stamp your individuality upon your hcMiie.

Additional Painting Equipment

Much of the equipment used for
creating paint effects on walls
can also be used for woodwork.
Many tools are multipurpose.
Including brushes Include a
variety of sizes of brush in your
toolkit to cater for different
surface areas and finishes.
Meeting specific requirements
.\ such as a rocker will
enable you to produce a highly
X'ainish inu.sli
indi\idLial wood effect.

WfJfV n '

i f fy r Tffr^^

A Comb Rocker
l.int-fivf cloth

iiv lirush

w . .< .1

Mimicking Natural Wood

is \irtLially unlimited, so you
The inxention of a graining
has revolutionized the creation
tool, or rockt-r.
of realistic
choice of colors
can select natural, authentic wood tones or
wood effects using a glaze (see p. 31). The base your effects on holder, brighter colors.

Graining Wood Graining Kitchen Cupboard Doors

Choosing base colors Create
a solid feel by using a light
base color beneath a dark top
coat. For greater depth and
translucency, use a light top
coat over a darker base.
Cleaning a rocker
excess glaze from the tooling
Remove m^ i^
part of a rocker at regular
intervals to prevent smudging.
Creating knots Improve the
texture of a wood finish by ITake a cupboard door oh, 2\\ hile the glaze is wet.
creating a few knots here and and lay it flat. Apply a base pull a rocker across the
there. Do this by rolling the coat such as semigloss and surface in \ertical strokes to
rocker tool backward and allow it Apply a glaze
to diy. create a "grain." Do not .stop
forward gently as you draw e\enl\' o\er the door using a midway, since glaze dries
it across the glazed surface. 2-in (S()-mm) brLish. quickly and joins will show.

DECORA T I N (i W () () I) W () R K

- C()ix)RiN(; Wood
simplest \\;i\ coloring wooel is to and depth. As well as coloring the wood, both
TIk' (it

colorwash il. usins; a tc'(.iinic|uc similar lo . of these methods highlight the natural grain.
olTcrs an alkTnaliw anel piox iclcs i^ivaUT k'xlun.'

Raising Wood Grain Appiyinc. Liming Wax (]()l,()KWASIilN(,

(xnering totalh' To ensun'
that liming \\a.\ gets into all Apjily ciiliilecl paint or gla/e
the nooks and grooves in .1 to liare wooii lor a eoloreil.

wooden siirlace. u.se a circul.ir grain-enliancing finisii.

brushing motion when you .Making a wash I'or a simpU'

a|-)|il\- the wax. I se a fairly wash, dilute ordinary fhit

stilf-liristleel brush, which will latex with water uniii it has

force the wax into these gaps. a niilklike consistency.

Removing excess Once you Rubbing liack Hefore a

ha\e applied liming wa.x. rub wash dries, rula the surface
w ith a rag to remove excess
a clear wax o\er a wooden
paint and expose the grain,
SLirface using a lint-tree cloth.
which will be highlighted.
This will clean away any Rough-sawn washing .\pply
Using a wire brush excess liming wax as well as
Lindiluted latex to rough-
Stroke a wooden surface witii pio\ ide a protective coating. textured wf)od. allow to dr\'.

a wire brush to open up the fiber Huffing Once wax coating

a then sand carefLilly with an
that make up the grain. This will has dried, give the wooden electric sander. This w ill

allow the surface to absorb more surface a final bLiffing using remcne paint from the |ieaks

liming wax. Brush the wood a ,soft-bri,stled brush. A clean hm not the troughs, creating
a coloiwaslied effect.
gently; otherwise, \ou might shoe-polishing brush is the
make indentations in the surface. ideal tool for this purpose.

Dragging ^
Dragging is considered to be one of the 'lift' the finish, creating a realistic impression
more traditional paint effects, gi\ ing a ol elepth. 'the techniqLie is relatively simple, yet
wooden surface a textured look that tends to it can transform a flat wooden surface.

Creating the Effect Dragging a Glaze Improvising Tools

Varying texture Vary texture
by adjusting the angle at
which you drag a brush across
a glazed surface. Having the
bri.stles at a ,steep angle to the
wood produces a fine texture,
whereas a shallow angle
makes strokes cc-)arser.

Using other tools It is not

essential to use a dragging
brush, so experiment with
other tools to vary the effect.
Dividing areas Treat different Using a brusii Adapting a window scraper
sections of a door or different Appl)' an even coat of glaze, then Produce a dragged effect using
lengths of molding, for example, draw a brush slowly across the a largecar-window scraper. Cut
as .separate entities. It is glazed surface at a constant speed out sections of the tough rubber
important tcj drag continuously and with tlie bristles |iarailel lo blade, making a jagged edge. Use
in the direction of the grain the grain. Do not stop until you the scraper in the same \\ a\ as

and to cwlI strokes at junctions, have draggetl the whole extent a brush. Because of its size, it

joints, or natural di\ ides. Mask adjacent areas if neeessar\. w ill be suitable for large areas.


Creating a Metallic Finish -

Traditional painting materials can be used to that actually contain the metal that they are
create the impression of a metallic surface. emulating. These materials produce a highly
There are products novv- axailable. ho\\"e\"er. realistic metallic finish on a v^'ooden surface.

Creating Verdigris Establishing Color Faking Metals

fe Selecting a surface If you I^ainting a base color To Leading Apply a base coat
SN'ant to create the impression increase the realism of a ol iron-oxide paint, then
of \'erdigris, choose a wooden \erdigris effect, choose highlight the surface edges
surface that includes patterned a bronze- or copper-colored with black and dark gray spray-
moldings or other intricately paint for the base color. paints. Spray a fine mist rather
shaped details. This \\ill enable than co\ering the edges totally.
Dust powder by
the surface to hold the colors lightly tapping
# Clioosing a hammered finisli

more easily, so that a good surface with ha_u Use a commercial paint
range of color shading can be intended to give a textured,
obtained across the area. hammered effect on exterior
Choosing a subject Consider metalwork to create a similar
creating a \erdigris effect on finish on interior woodv^ork.
an area or item that could well %i Enameling Enamel paints

be made of metal, so that the mimic real metal effectixely.

deception is belie\able. Apply them to moldings or
Building up color Use at doors to add detail.
least three shades of green as "Weathering" verdigris L'sing car paints Many cars
you build up a \erdigris effect, Secure white, powdered filler ha\"e a metallic finish. Use
the first \erging on pale blue. within a muslin square. Before a touch-up spray-paint in an
i Sponging on Apply layers of the last top coat dries, dust it appropriate color to create
color with a natural sponge, with filler The surface will then metal effects on inside surfaces.
allowing one coat almost to resemble weathered copper Wear a mask when spraying.
dry before you apply another.
Soften the sponged effect w ith
Using Metallic Paim
a crumpled rag. This ^ill
expose the base coat in some Some commercial metallic paints preparation, and - with a certain
places, adding authenticity. produce a highly authentic finish. amount of specialized fmishing -
They do not require any special achieve very impressive results.

Highlighting in Gold

"Gilding" molding
Tape together a gold outliner pen
.Metal paint can be applied
1 directly to bare wood.
2 Once
the paint is dr>-,

the entire surface


and two blocks of wood, one of A primer is advisable but not with a burnishing tool. Burnish
which slots around the molding. essential. Apply two coats of in all directions over the surface,
The blocks will steady the pen niL'tal |iainl to create a totalK' then buff with steel wool. Thi.s

and help you draw a straight, opatjiie tinisli. Allow to dry takes time, but the quality of

"gilded" line equidistant from oNcrnight hctoic proceeding. the v\'{vl:1 warrants the eftbrt.

the edge all the \\a\ around.


TIktc :\vv in.iin' \\a\s of producing; ;i lakr (.kpriulin.t; on llic 1\|X'. ^our main aim shoukl
marbk' tinish. lai.LjcK hL^ausi.- ol ihi' \.m \x- loa'pioeknc iIk' (,k>uil\ iiiU-.^ialion ot
llial iIk' suiiaie' ol natural maihk' xarirs L;i\'ail\, (,lillc-n.-nl tok )is ihal is n>mmon lo all marhk-s.

Marbling Panels Using a Rag Increasing, Realism

Vcining .\ppl\ slightly
tliluled i>urnt umbei' \\ ith a

line-lippL'd artist's biush to

suggest the wins i haracleristic
of marbk'. I se a p\\( >lograph
marble as a guide.
Ol' i^ieei.' ot

Drag the brush lightK in the

same direction each time.
Softening Soften a surface
before the glaze dries. If you
do not ha\e a softening brush,
genth use a .sc:)ft dusting brush
IHavins^ Il-i a

randomly ctncr each panel

base coat tin
2 Holding a damp), lint-free
rag by one corner, flick it
to blur the hard edges of
"\eins" or the base colors.
w ith two colors of glaze. onto the glazed surface, thus Protecting Apply several
Appl\ the second color hefort mixing the colors. Work protecti\e coats ot \arnish to
the first is dry; it does not diagonalh' o\er each panel. the hnished product. A satin

matter if the colors run, since Remove excess glaze from or semiglo.ss varnish will
this will add to the effect. panel edges with a dry cloth. create the most realistic finish.

Combing is similar to dragging or graining, same direction as the wood grain. You w ill find
except that it offers greater diversity. You that the creation of extravagant patterns is a

do not need to apph' a combed pattern in the \ery satisfying part of the combing technic|ue.

Combing Effectively Creating Patterns on a Paneled Door

w Preparing surfaces Combed
designs look most effective
when glaze lines are smooth.
Prepare surfaces well so that
they are perfecth' level and
tree trom de|~)ressions and
kimps that would intertere
with the comb's movement.
Choosing tools Although
you can buy specifically
designed combing tools to
create this effect, experiment
with a notched grout spreader
or traditional hair combs to
introdtice variety to the hnish.
Choose from
combed designs
a number of
1 Decorate a paneled door
scLtions. C.laze and
2 Now apply glaze to the
p.mels. i\eep the combetl
designs creatediiy combing. comb the horizontal rails tirst. p.ittern s\nimetrical by
Basketweave designs, circles, then the vertical rails. The m.iintaining a constant hand
or combinations of patterns, combing tool will make the motion, each combing

and images such as sciolls and rails look grained, in contrast movement, removf excess
letteriny all look verv ettective. vv ith the door p.mels. ulaze trom the combs teeth.


Painting Furniture
OF THE PAINT EFFECTS Lisecl OH wooclw'ork Hiav also be applied to
furniture. Some, howe\'er, are espeeially suitable for furniture, mainh'
because they require great attention to detail and are labor intensixe.

Preparing Surfaces
Man\ pieces of furniluiv arc smaller scale
wooden and their
"lou may. therefore, need to spend more time
than other surfaces, preparing the sLirfaces thoroughly. However.
surfaces ma\' include tine details and ciir\es. the surface area will not be as extensive.

Making Fi rmti re
Filling Holes Preparing Wood
Cictting professional help
RrADV TO Paint
Hand-stripping okl painted
Choose and prepare furniture lurnitLire can be difficult and
carefulh before painting it.
time consuming, so take items
to professional stripping firms
Choosing nonwooden items
where they can be dipped. The
Prepare and prime wicker or
expense will be worth it.
metal surfaces before painting.
Masking \ailnerable items Sanding Use onh' fine-grade
With semiupholstered items l^aj^er to sand furniture. Hea\y

of furniture, mask the edges Ensuring smoothness sanding can easily distort
between wood and fabric. I se a commercial fine-surface furniture profiles and moldings.
Testing laminates Do a test filler for repairs, and apply w ith the Preparing detailed surfaces
patch on laminated items. end of one finger. Once sanded, .Apply several base coats to
.Many will not accept paint. this will produce a smoother cuned and detailed furniture
finish th.ui all-purpose filler. surfaces belore creating ehects.

Gilding -

As well as being \en- e.xjiensixe. authentic

gilding or water-gilding is a highlv skilled
dramatically and.
can reduce
you appK' an
gilding ctxsts

t)il-basecl size,

craft that rec|uires se\eral years of practice. do not recjuire special ai^]Tlication skills.

Applying Gilding to a Frame

Size liulctl

Money- SAVING Tip

Ba.se-coat a frann.- .iiiU let 2Ciently )n the sheets

positioi Using enamel paint
it diA'. .\pply gold size evenh of down.
gilt, side
metal-si Produce a gilded effect

all o\"er. Tint the size with a Fit them around the molding inexpensively using gold
little burnt umber so that \'ou with soli brush. Remo\ e
.1 enamel paint. Apph it very
can see which areas ha\e the b.u king. lea\ ing the metal sparingh' with a brush to the
been co\ered. .Allow the \\hen the m/c is di"\ eltist . edges ot cli.iir molilings.

surface to dr\ until it is tackv. awa\ excess Hakes ot metal.


There are many different ways of making a in\ol\e the use of xarioiis decorati\'e materials
piece of furniture looi\ old. These techniciues aimed at creating a look that occurs naturally
are known co!lecli\el\ as distressing, and the\' onh after \ears of continuous wear and tear.

Aging Effectively Distressing Wooden Door Panels

Using latex Ise water- Masking areas to be aged Sanding Use sandpaper to
based paints, especially flat Mask areas that are likely to complete a distressed finish.
latexes, which are much ha\e been worn with scraps Use flat sandpaper rather than
easier to distress than their ot masking tape. Remove the a block so that you can judge
oil-based equivalents. Their tape once you ha\e painted. how much pressure to apply.
duller finish will gi\'e a more
realistic impression of age.
Knocking around Any piece
of furniture with a histoiy will
ha\e recei\'ed the odd knock
here and there. Randomly tap
a screwdri\er or chisel end
o\er a wooden surface to
create a well-worn effect.
Paying attention to edges
Make sure that you distress
the edges of the c^bject well,
since this is -^'here the most
^ear would have occurred.
Making details consistent
Exchange new handles on "se petroleum jelly to mask t\cnii )\ c the paint-co\'ered
cupboards and cabinets for the areas that you wish to petroleum jelly using
old ones. Dent metal door distress on a base-coated sandpaper. Sand the surface
knobs with a hammer, and surface that has dried. Use again to take the wood back
sand around the edges to just enough to resist the paint to its natural finish, which will
imitate vears of handling. before painting the top coat. add authenticity" to the effect.

Antiquing Wood Highlighting Cracks

Using wax Brush licjuid wax
Time-saving Tip onto a painted or distressed
surface, then buff Vkith steel
wool. The wax will produce
w'h-M appears to be a dirt-
ingrained finish. Use an old
toothbrush to reach into
intricate areas such as corners.
Applying wood d)'e Use a
soft cloth to apply wood dye
(medium or dark oak). It has
a similar effect to wax but is
Using a hairdryer more suitable on semigloss,
A up the
hairdryer will speed Vvhich is oil-based, than water- Using artist's paint
drying time of paint, allowing ba.sed paints. Use sparingly. To accentuate a crackle-varnish
you to apply the next coat Crackling successfully To finish, rub in a darker artist's

sooner. It is particularly useful maximize the effectixeness of color (such as burnt umber) to
when using crackle varnish, crackle varnish, ensure that make the cracks more obvious.
since the heat will also the period of timebetween This is essential if you want to
increase the si/e of the cracks. applying base-coat \arnish and produce a good, delicately
top-coat varnish is constant cracked (era quel lire) finish.

across the entire surface area.


Applying Decoupage .SSffSSS^sK^KiSJSSaEK^^BSS^M^SSiSSSSSI

Create the impression of a detailed, hand- inxolves cutting out appropriate images from a
painted surface without using any paint by \ariety of sources - such as magazines - and
applying the simple method of decoupage. This attaching them to an object or piece of furniture.

Decoupaging Small Clipboards

Traditional Tip

Sealing with egg tempera

Cut out the images of your
1 choice, then stick them
2 Once the adhesive has
dried, apply aciylic varnish
Separate and break the
an egg. Add a tcaspooiiful of
) oik of

down using PVA glue. Brush to seal and protect the images. distilled water and the same
more PVA over the images The more varnish you apply, amount of linseed oil, then
to hold them. Tlie thinuner the the greater the hand-painted mix. Apply with a brush. Once
paper used, the greater the feel. Crackle varnish will dry, buff with a cotton ball.

impression of painted images. emphasize this e\'en more.

Creating Advanced Effects

However, you pay more attention
Toyouproduce advanced
can employ same the
effects on furniture,
basic techniques to detail and
will need
to mimic natural
as you would to create other paint effects. substances such as marble or tortoiseshell.

Faking Other Surfaces Perfecting the Art of Pretense

Hand-painting designs Stencil # Paying attention to detail # Extending trompe I'oeil Do
images onto furniture. Create Trvmpe I'oeil effects do not not limit ycuir use of trompe
a hand-painted finish by going ha\e to be complicated and I'vei I ef'f<^i:ls to walls. With
over the designs with an difficult to execute. You can a little imagination, you can
artist's brush, varying the create just as much impact with apply deceptive images to
detail and color just enough small details as large images. pieces of furniture, too.
to give it a freehand feel.

Graining accurately Have an Being practical

example of the wood you are Paint a clever trompe
imitating in front of you. This I'oeil on
will make it easier to color- a garden table, and

match and copy the subtle you will never again

graiii variations of the wood. need to cover it
Using decoupage Create the before you Ia\ the
effect of tortoiseshell or marble table. This simple
by finding examples in books yet striking image
or magazines (that are out ser\ es a very useful

of copyright) and using a |-)urpose, but at the

photocopier to enlarge them same time it does not
to the size ycui want. Apply ret|uire a high level
using decoupage technicjues. ol artistic skill.



WiiiA ii\isiii\(, \\( )i )i)\\( )KK Di'.ci )K \Ti( )\, nuikc MUX' tliiil all iK-ccssarx'
rclouchinL; is caiTiccl out. W'iK'n ihc work is compk'k', (.k'an cciiiipnicnl,
then store it carclLilly. lanallw maintain painted surlaecs to pr()k)ni^ llicii' life.

Expect lo elo A certain amount of mistake- to iL-toLuli ( (i e\eii fepnint some aivas. Take
rectit\ iul; lietore \ I )U store \ oui' et|uipmenl, time to m.ike iiiipK n emeiils .iikI tlius (.'nsuie

Ex'en experienceel (.lecofatofs sometimes neeel that the liiiish is as ^ljoocI as possilile.

Removing Flaws Dealing with Bllfi)i\( S.MooTHiNG Surfaces

Drips Shaxe off eirips with drit and dust Dirtcan get
a window scfapei", then saiul into hrushes anei Irom them
so that the whole aiea is flat. onto painted surfaces. 11 this
and top-coat.
L'nclercoat occurs, sand lightly and recoat.
Brush marks A few hiLish ( )range-peel effect Wrinkles

marks are inexitahle. 'I'hose are caused by oil-based paint

that ajipear i;roo\e(.l being applied o\er paint that
be corrected. Sand the whole has not dried or that dries too
area, hrst with rouLjh paper, c|uickh\ tor example in direct
then sm(K)tli. Wipe and recoat. Removing resin sunlight. Strip and repaint.
^ Patchy finishes Patches or Improperly prepared knots may Insect invasions Insects are
shaded areas indicate either suffer from resinous bleeding, attracted to |~)aint and stick to
poor coverage or inaeletiaate spoiling a top coat of paint. Use a tack\' surface. .Allow paint to
mixing of paint. In either case. a hot-air gun to iiuhblc out all di\ , then wipe awa\' insects
remix top-coat paint properly, the resin. Remo\e tlie resin w ith with a dr\" cloth. Sand lighth'.

and apply another coat. a scraper Prime and recoat. and recoat if nece.ssarw

Cleaning Up
Clean up thoroughly after completing a job, ec|uipment are kept in good working order,
hrst to ensure that the work looks its best. Oil-based paints are commonly used on wood.
and .second to make sure that tools and and these especialh need to be cleaned up well.

Removing Dry Paint Cleaning Properly

Cleaning hands se a I

commercial hand cleaner nither Green Ti

than soh ent-based products,
(,ciilly JnlXC
which ma\' irritate the skin.
ccillh lhrnu;j,h
(dcaning according to t\ pe
ciKiiislCil hnsllo
Use tuipentine tor cleaning up
oil-based paints and plain
water lor acrxlic paints. Read
the insiiuclions on specialist
commercial prodticis caielulK .

since they may re(|uire Reusing turpentine

Combing a paintbrusli thinners or other products. Remove paint ^cciiiiuiu In mi
Use a grooming comli or a metal Dealing with stubborn paint turpentine li\ sic\ iiig the
household comb to break up SusjX'nd a brush in soh ent sohent into .iiiotiier jar This
c;iked-on paint. 'Hie lirisiles can oxernight to loosen paint. Do will pre\ent scclimeiit getting
then be cleaned more easily and not let the- bottom of the bristles into brushes as vou clean thciii.
will remain flexible in die tuture. touch the' base ol the container.


- Storing Materials
equipment must be eleaned thoroughly before
the all materials that
job will be totally
you luiy
up, so
being stored so that they are kept in good
\()i.i will need to store lefto\'ers. All pieees of working order until noli need them again.

Dealing with Paint Protecting Bristles Storing Small Brushes

Decanting water-based paints
Transfer leftoxer water-based
paints into small jars, to sa\'e
si~)aee dtiring storage. Use them
to tint glazes for paint effects,
or as samples when you are
trying to decide upon a new
color scheme in the future.

Combining oil-based paints

Pour leftover oil-based paints
into one can, then mix them ""^SSr
together for storage. Use the
mixture on surfaces where
color is not important, such
as the inside of exterior metal Maintaining shape Taping brushes together
guttering to prevent corrosion. Wrap the bristle end of a clean Small brushes can easily be lost.

% Keeping tubes together brush in brown paper Secure Bind them together with masking
Store tubes of artist's color with a rubber band around the tape, thus making several small
together in a clean paint can ferrule to protect and maintain objects into one large one, which
so that von do not lose them. bristle sliapc during storage. will be more difficult to lose.

' Maintaining Woodwork

Like other decorated surfaces, woodwork few simple guidelines will make a finish long-

needs a certain amount of care to maintain lasting. A little effort from time to time w ill

it in the best possible condition. Fc^llowing a prevent a lot more effort in the long term.

Reviving Surfaces Redecorating Window Frames

Maintaining coats Apply the Riihhcts am he tfi/icci irilh ildiii/i clulh iiistetui (iflx'iu;j, ivjhimlcil

occasional coat of varnish to

appropriate wooden surfaces
to revive and protect the finish. Rail

# Retouching marks Paint can

Edge Ix'tiiveii
become affected by natural
new pciiiil iiiul
light only a few months after old is well
decorating, with the result defined with
)io <)rers/)ill
that its color changes slightly
from the original shade. When I'lniil hnidd
retouching a mark on a wall, mils then
Jcice directly
make sure that you paint a
into riHiiii
wider area. If you need to
retouch a door panel, cover
the whole panel so that no
color differences become Sill

\isible across the surface. Repainting selectively

Cleaning surfaces Clean Repaint only the rails and sills of a window frame rather than
most wood finishes simply the entire frame. Rails are the most visible areas, and sills need
with a damp sponge and regular maintenance. Avoid fiddly rabbets, thus speeding up
mild household deteruent. the job. Use the same color paint as the original finish

QiMCK Reference

Selecting Floor Types

DECOR.\Ti\E FEATURES are highly influential when it comes to choosing flooring,

but practicality' also must be consiciereci. as does the ease with which a floc:)r
can be laid. Take your time \\hen weighing options before making chcMces.

Common Floor Types

Floor t) many and
pes are
various, but most of them fall

into four main categories.

Wooden flooring These range

horn basic planking to veneers.
Block floors are another option. \'in\l floor tile
Vinyl sheet flooring
Cc'ianiic f\oor tile
# Carpets These include good-
quality burlap-backed as well
as less expensive foam-backed
varieties. Naturally occurring
fibers such as seagrass and jute Parquet Oooring .strip Floorboard
also fall into this category.
* Utility flooring Sheet flooring, Parquet flooring panel
such as \-inyl and linoleum, is

hardwearing and washable.

Carpet and vinyl tiles are more
decorative yet still practical.
Ceramic tiles These make the

most hardwearing floors and

Carpet Carpet tile
offer a huge decorati\"e choice.

Considering Options
All purely decorath'e consicleration.s a.sicle. the hovv long \ou expect a floor to last. Flooring is

economics of bu\'ing and laying flooring not permanent, but neither is it easily remox'ed.
de.ser\'e serious consideration. A major factor is and it represents a significarit financial imestment.

Budgeting Reflecting on Style Measuring

Considering your stay Many Planning an entire room
floor coverings are difficult Remember to include flooring Working out floor surface
toremove once laid so v^ill w hen color-scheming and area is relatively simple: just

need to be left behind vvhen styling a room. Obtain floor multiply together the relevant
dimensions. Bear in mind
you move. Bear this in mind .swatches as well as paint and
afew other considerations,
when deciding how much paper .samples. Budgeting will
depending on the tlooring.
to spend on flooring. be far easier if you consider
Including the preparation flooring when you plan the Wooden floors Allow ten
jiercent extra for
Consider the preparation that rest of your decorating.
arisingfrom cutting.
might be required prior to Determining period When
Carpets These are sold in
laying a floor. It may pro\"e choosing flooring, consider its
rolls. Work out the direction
costly U) lay flooring if the pattern and style in terms of
in which it will be unrolled
subfloor requires a great deal the historical period of your to minimize wastage.
of work. Old floorboards, for house, if appropriate, as well Tiles Allow extra tiles
example, would need a lot as the decoration in other for any cutting that will be

of preparation to make them rooms. Being accurate ma\ ret|uireci at joins and edges.

reach' for la\in" ceramic tiles. require some research.




is clelerniined
ot a tloorii^y tor a
by the function of iliai
parlitular |ia'lcivncc.
suiieel to some
lloor coxerint^ is

areas than others, dependin.u

clearly better

room, how much flooring is retiiiiretl. and \<)ui- on ils comfort, appeaiance. and durability.

Selecting Siitabli: Flooring for Each Individi al Room

need not l)e as durable

Cciipel is niosi suitable for a on a landin}> as in a hallway, \ inyl tiles are e.xcelleni
bedroom. proi'iclii>i> comfort since there is less traffic and for loleratinf> tiater
and CI soft siirjiicc to iiiilk on some of it may he barefoot spla.'ihes in a haihroom

.\atnral-fiher corenni>s such as Ru;j,scuii, . \iiv uotiden Jloonnii

seagrass or jute are durable and color and is suitable for a
practical fir a liiinn room comfim hallway, since it will V I 'inyl flooring
he durable, easily or linoleum is

cleaned, and able totally sealed

Choosing flooring to suit function to tolerate large and easily
When choosing flooring for a particular room in a home, amounts of traffic wiped clean of
is essential to bear in mind how mucii the area will be
it kitchen spills

used and whether, for example, people using the room and grease spots
will be wearing outdoor shoes or going barefoot. There are
man\ (options to choose from for each room in the home.

Considering Occupants Choosing Materials Disguising Proble.ms

Children Lu.xun' caqoeting Establishing fiber content Protecting corridors The
can easily be spoiled by the Make sure that no one is flooring in areas leading into
activities of children. Consider allergic to the constituent adjoining rooms usually wears
laying inexpensive carpet materials of a floor covering. most quickly. Lay durable
or other types of flooring You cannot afford to discover flooring, or protect these areas
while children are young. this after you have laid it. by also laying rugs or carpets.
Pets Hard flooring may be Going for qualit)' Choose as '
Adju.sting to lifestyle In
advisable in rooms to which good a ciLiality of flooring as Inisy households, choo.se a
animals have access. Young you can afford. The better the patterned or flecked carpet to
cats and dogs can spoil carpet qualirv'. the longer the flooring disguise wear. Stains and dirt
and natural-fiber tlooriny. will last without looking worn. will also be camoutlaued.


Preparing Floors

BEFORE NEW FLOORING CAN HE LAID, an existing floor may rccjLiirc renovation so
that it is in a good enough condition to accept a new covering. As with all

decorating, sound preparation is most likely to produce the best finished product.

Repairing Floorboards
Floorboaixls deteriorate o\cr time and nia\' rcc|iiirc total lioaixl rcplacciiicnt. Init most ol

need repairing in order to hrini; llieiii Lip the problems resulting from normal wear and
to a satisfactor\' standard. Sometimes this will tear can he so|\ed with tar less drastie aetion.

Patching Problem Areas Lifting Floorboards

Replacing sections Remoxe
an area of defective boards
using a miter saw. Cut through
the boaixis at the nearest joist

to either si(.le. Saw board

edges at a t^-degree angle to
make the replacement section
slightly less obxious.
# Patching tongue and grooxc
To remcne a damaged section
of tongue and groo\e. saw-
down each length of board, as
well as at each end, in order
to cut through the interlocking
device. I'se a hacksaw to cut
through anv hidden nails.
t Concealing marks To hide a
badl\- pitted or grooved boarel,
lift it out an(.l turn it oxer so
that the uneierside faces up.

Filling Gaps

Using a sliver of wood

Where a gap lias opened up
hetween floorhoards, genti)
drive in a thin, wedge-shaped
sli\'er of wood with a hammer
Plane the wood down until it
is flush with the floorboards.

Preparing Subfloors
Li lloor - whe'lln.'!' it e'onsiM.s ol a concivlc ck-pcnclint^ on tlu- l\pc' of lloor (.oxering to be
If -
base or is flooiboaixicci is to lie cowrcd. applied. As a _ucnci'al rLilc, boards will rcciLiire
the siirt'aee will neei.1 the appropiiate pre|iaration covering and concrete will need le\eling.

Making a Start Reducing Dust Strengthening Boards

Removing lumps Lumps Scaling concrete Concrete Inserting a nog Ia\ ing i

of concrete can sometimes floors are always dusty, so removed a damaged board,
be difficult to see. To locate before laying carpets seal the insert a nog, or small block of
them, slide a batten across floor with a solution of fi\e wood, between the floor joists
the floor flush to the surface. jiarts water to one |iart \'\'.\. as a support before fitting a
Protrusions will impede the Apply easily with a large new board. Make sure that the
batten's progress. Remo\e pasting brush or a soft broom. nog is flush with the joist tops.
them with a hammer and chisel.
Filling gaps Fill small holes
Removing Old Floor Coverings
with exterior filler or a general
cement mix. To correct an It is best to remove all traces of
undulating floor, use a mix an existing floor covering before
of self-le\eling compound. you prepare for a new one.
Soaking hardboard Brush
Carpet Discard old carpets
viater o\er hardboard lengths, but keep the tacking strips, since
then lea\e them in the room they can be reused. Padding
in which they are to be used may also be used again.
for 48 hours. This allows them Vinyl flooring Depending on
to acclimatize to the room, how much adhesi\'e was used
preventing edge expansion or to lay it, vinyl will usually lift

contraction once they are laid.

fairly easily. A
gun willhot-air

Arranging hardboard
soften vinyl and speed up its Removing floor tiles
remo\-al. Take care when using Floor tiles or linoleum or can
lengths of hardboard in a
a hot-air gun (see p. 74). become brittle with age, and the
brick-bond pattern so that Ceramic As long as they
tiles strong adhesive used to attach
seams are continuous in one are level, ceramic tiles make a them makes their removal
direction only. Make sure, too, good base for a new floor and difficult. Slide a shovel beneath
that the seams do not coincide should be left undistLiriied. tlicm, then break sections awa\'.

with floorboard joints below.

Cutting to Fit and Attaching a Hardboard Subfloor

Ilf pan
of a hardboard sheet
required, cut it to fit in
2 lorn the two marks using

ightedge, then cut along

3 smooth hardboard
hay the
side up. Staple
in place

position. Place it rough-side the line with a craft knife, using down using a .staple gun, which
up, butting up to a ba.seboard. a steel ailer to keep the cut is inexpensive to rent and quick
Mark w ith a pencil the points straight. Score deeply into the to Lise. This laying method
on each edge w here it reaches board, then tiend along the it ensures that onh i^enmeter
the sheets that ha\e been laid. line. It should break cleanlw edges are not factoiA -finished.


Laying Wooden Floors

excellent subfloor on which
XTRSATiLiT^' when usecl foF flooring.
to lay other floor co\'erings. and
It makes an
it can be
laid in a number of different vsavs to produce an attracti\e finish in its own right.

^^^ ^ Re\o\atixg Old Floors ^-^

Laving a new wooden floor can sometimes financial ad\ antages to this approach: the raw
be a\ oided by renovating an existing one and material is already there, and a relatively simple
gi\"ing it a decorative finish. There are ob\"ious process is all that is required to finish it.

Making Decisions Using Stripper

fe Considering amount of use Considering floor size Use
If needs a lot of repair
a floor chemical stripper on a small
or board replacement (see floor orwhen only a small
p. 90), decide whether or not proportion of a floor requires
the reno\'ation is worthwhile. stripping. Chemical stripper
depend on how
This will is not economical when it is

much you use the room. used for large areas.

Covering a floor If you are Masking Use at least 2-in
covering a floor with rugs so (5-cm) masking tape along the
that only a small part is visible, lower edge of baseboard to
the wooden surface will not be pre\ent stripping solution from
a prominent feature and need reaching its painted surface.
not be highly finished. Putting on and taking off
.\ssessing the job When Dab on stripper with an old
planning floor reno\ation. paintbrush in 3-sq-ft (0.25-m-)
assess the work required to areas. Once it reacts, scrape
finish it. A rustic, distressed awa\' paint or \arnish with a
look will take far less work broad-bladed scraper Use a
than a highly polished finish. wire bmsh on unexen floors.

Using an Industrial Floor Sander


Laying New Floors

Tlieie arc ,sc\x'ial ways of laying a new be aclaplcxl to go nwr most existing subfloors.
wootlcn Hoor. This is bccaLisc thciv arc I'ollow the manLitactLircr's specific instructions
sc\cral clilTcrcnt consiruclion systems that can when dealing with commercial jirockicts.

Preparing to Lay

Checking levels F.nsuie that

all joists are le\el by laying ^bii ha\e sevenil options wlicn
a long strip of wood across it comes to designing tiie I.ixmiu

tliem. Check that the underside ot .1 phiiikcel or tongue-antl-

of the strip touching the

gnxne lloor Miicli will depend
on your woodworking skills.
top of the joists all along its
lengtli. Anv gaps should be
Farallcl This i.^ ilie niosi
filled with sli\ers of wood. straightforward design and
Parallel lavoia

Ensuring dryness Make sure requires a minimal amount

that a new concrete base is of technical know-how.
completely dry before \'ou la\' Diagonal This design requires
a wooden floor-, otherwise, good planning and accurate
moisture from the subtloor woodwork, especially if you are
laying directly on top of joists.
will cau.se the wood to buckle.
3 Concentric A concentric,
Check newly laid ba.ses with
square or rectangular design
a moisture detectcM'.
requires an appropriately shaped
Acclimatizing wood .Store room and a solid wooden or
wooden flooring in the room tlfxiting subtloor. If planks are
in w hich it is to he laid for at to run in two directions, as in
least48 hours before it is used. this design, a joi.sted subtloor
This will allow it to expand or will not have enough surface
contract slightly as it adjusts area in which to secure nails.

to the room temperature.

TONGL E- A.N D -GROOVING Dealing with Edges Considering Options

Avoiding adjacent joins Hiding gaps Co\ er gaps Lsing padding You can lay
Stagger ends of boards so that between baseboards and floor some floors onto foam padding
cut ends of adjacent planks do with strips of molding of rather than w ooden joists or
not coincide. Xail ends down. either a c|uadrant (convex) or frames. Called "floating"
or u.se .secret nailing (.see p. 5^). a scotia (conca\e) \ariet\ floors, these ha\e no real
attachments and rely on
jointing mechanisms to ensure
stability. .Mount baseboards
after laying the flocjr. to cover
the gap left around the floor's
edge to allow for expansion.
lsing clips Hide floor
tixuires by using metal clips.
which will hold floorboards
tcjgether without being visible.
In.sert the clips beneath and

along the flooilioard joins.

Butting up Attaching molding V Hii\ ing prefinished flooring
.Make .sure that lengths of tongue .\ttach molding to a ba.scboard \'ou may choose a floor that
and groove are butted up tighth. rather than to the floor to allow rec]uires no finishing once it is

To protect a board that is being tor lloor moxenicnt. which laid. It w ill be more expensive
fitted from damage, use a small might pull the molding aw a\ and require care when laying,
scrap of board as a driving tool Use oval-headed nails, whicii need but \ou will save a lot of time
against wliich to hammer. minimal filling once driven in. ,ukI mone\' in the long term.


Laying Parquet Floors

TraelitionnlK", wood-block floors were made ot patterns, l^arcjuet floors are now made in

up of rectangular wooden blocks laid strips or panels of rectangles, which are less
tighth' butted np against each other in a \ariety costly to produce but create the same effect.

Preparing Floors Allowing for Movement Fitting Panels

Choosing a subfloor Partjiiet Apphing adhesive Flooring
requires a \ei"\' flat surface. adhesixe tends to be \en'
Concrete bases are ideal, \iscoLrs. Appl\- it with a groLit
while hardboard and chipboard spreader and work in areas
are suitable as long as you no larger than 1 sc] \d nr). ( 1

make sure that there is no Tapping into place Parquet

flexibility in movement as w ill rec|uire "bedding in."
you walk across them. fap each panel down b\-
Starting in the middle Find gently hammering a block of
the center of a room using wood placed on top of it. This
a chalkline (see p. 99). thus will axoid damaging the panel
di\iding the floor into four. surface and w ill apph" a more
Complete one section before e\ en pressure across it.
moving to the next. Coping with expansion Dealing with obstacles
Cleaning surfaces Micuiim Leave a "^s-in ( 1-cm) gap around Parcjuet consists of equalK" sized
the floor and wash it with a the perimeter of a wood-block wooden Before vou

mop before starting to la\ or panel floor to allow for couple into
lay a floor, split a
blocks or panels. This will expansion caused by changing sections ranging from groups
remove dust and grit particles huinidit\. l"ill in w ith cork strips to of three lo single fingers. You
thatmight pre\ ent the floor pre\ ent edges from buckling or w ill thus ha\e a choice for
from beiny laid le\ el. lifting, and to improve the finish. trimming around obstacles.

Sealing Floors '

Most wooden floc^rs need to ha\e some products \aries from traditional waxes, requiring
sort of flnish before they are used to regular maintenance, to harclwearing \arnishes.
protect them from wear and tear. The choice of which pro\ ide the toughest finish of all.

Varnishing Evenly Covering Efficiently

Sealing with varnish Thin
die flrst coat of \arnish Money- SAVING Tip
slightlw It w ill then act as a
primer, soaking in well and
sealing the wooden surtace.
Using ciuick-drying varnishes
I'se acrylic or water-based
\ arnishes, since more than

one coat can be applied in a

elaw This means that \ou will
be able to get the floor back
in Lrse as ejuickly as possible.

Protecting high-wear areas Polishing waxed floors

Keeping to edges .\ppl\' extra coats of \arnish To hiilT a waxed .surface.

Apply a colored finisli to to door entrances anel natural attach a soft cloth to the end
a planked floor one floorboard "corridoi's" within a room. of a broom. (After the first

at a time: otherwise, overlapping I'se a clear \Lirnish; otherwi.se% application of wax to a newly
brush strokes will produce there w ill bi' too great a laid floor, you might like to

different le\ els of color buildup of color in those areas rent a polisher for buffing.)
intensity and a patchy tlnish. that are recei\ in" extra coats.


Carpeting Floors

LAMXc; c;arim:i is a joi^ that is often left to prolcssional taipci la\crs, luit there
is no reason why you cannot tlo it as long as you follow the mantifacturer's
instructions. Carpet materials \ary and, consecjuently, so do laying techniques.

Laying Burlap-backed Carpet

Burlap-backed carpet is amon,^ the best in of pile,fiber, and \\ea\'e can \'ar\' from one

terms of c|uality. The stronii burlap backinLi kind of burlap-backed carpet to another, but
always proxicles excellent durability. The type laying technicjLies remain more or le.ss con.stant.

Securing Curved Edges Learning the Basics

Using padding .\1\\ ays use
padding below

burlap-backed carpet. Felt or

rubber \-arieties are suitable
and provide extra comfort as
well as increasing the life of
the carpet. Do not lay padding
over the tacking strips.

# Cutting roughly Roll cuit

a carpet, and cut it roughly

to size. Allow an additional
6 in (IS cm) around the
perimeter for final trimming.
Using tacking strips Joining carpet Not rooms

Tacking strips are straiglit and are regularly shaped, and \'ou
rigid, so saw them into 2-in (5-cm) may need to join carpet rolls
sections to round a cursed area before laying them. Obtain
sucli as a ba)" window. Attacli profe,ssional help with this.
them to the floor close to the Most suppliers will join lengths
baseboard in the usual wav. so that seams are in\isible.

Trimming Carpet
Laying Foa.m-backed
Foam-backed carpet is usualh
lessexpensive and easier to
la)' than burlap-backed carpet.

Preparing Padding is not

usually required, but cover the
floor with newspaper before
laying the carpet to reduce
dust and abrasion between
carpet backing and floor.
Laying Foam-backed carpet
is relatively lightweight, so
attach it to the floor with
double-sided carpet tape.
Joining Use single-sided
tape to join lengths of carpet
from below, ensuring that the
pile goes in the .same direction.

Laying Natural-fiber Flooring

Natural-fiber flooring such as sisal is both \anations in the pattern, texture, and comfort
decorati\'e and hardwearing. The t\pes of that they offer. Laying techniques differ only
fiber used \an', but this causes onh' subtle slightly from the methods irsed to la\" carpet.

Caring for Flooring L\si.\c, DtC()R.\Ti\ E Rr(,s

Acclimatizing Allow a natural
floor covering to acclimatize Rugs, in a wide variet)' of
in the room in which it is -to designs, arc traditional floor-
be laid for at least 24 hours dcct)rating accessories. They can
before laying. It will need to be used to complement other
tloor co\erings or to enhance
adjust to the room's humidity.
a plain floor by adding a spla.sh
Prolonging life Check first in
of color. Small decorative rugs
the manufacturer's guidelines,
are particularly useful for both
but a natural floor covering
adding color and providing extra
such as rush can usually benefit comfort when they are laid upon
from occasional light watering. natural-fiber floor coverings.
A household plant sprayer is
Choosing rugs Tire clioice
ideal for this purpose.
includes lx)ld ethnic rugs sucii Creating a splash of color
Using padding Attach as kilims and durries - usually Rugs that incorporate many
padding beneath natural-fiber cotton or wool; modern, different colors in their design
flooring using commercial syntlietic. mass-produced rugs; are often easy to fit into a color
adhesive. This will ha\e the and sophisticated traditional scheme. Splashes of color that
effect of smoothing an une\ en \\ ea\'es. often from Central Asia blend or contrast with a rooms
subfloor as v>'ell as pro\'iding or Cliina. You can decide to buy color scheme both enhance the
e.xtra comfc:)rt underfoot. Use an inexpensi\e rug. or look decorative appeal of the rug

padding onh' with natural upon a high-quality rug as an itself and provide a decorati\ e
inxestment and pay much more. focal point within the room.
flcxM" coverings that do not
alread\" ha\e a latex backing.

Laying Flooring on Stairs

Laying flooring on stairs presents " Laying foam-backed carpet
the problem of working vertically Staple along the back of each
as well as horizontally. More tread in order to attach foam-
trimming is necessary as a result, backed carpet to stairs. This
so there is more You will
waste. will prexent itfrom slipping.
also need to allow more time '-

Starting at the top When

for la\ ing flooring on stairs. laying stair carpet, place the first

length ftrmh' on tiie landing

Using natural-fiber floormg If before continuing downstairs.
you want to cover stairs with Placing stair rods Fit a stair

materials such as seagrass or rod at the tread riser junction

jute, follow manufacturers' to reduce the possibility of the
guidelines carefully. The rigidity- carpet slipping. The rods can be
and therefore the abilirv' of these painted to match the color of
materials to fit stair profiles varies, the carpet before you fit them
making the use of different to make them less conspicucuis.
laying methods necessan,'. 9 Reversing carpet Before a
Laying burlap-backed carpet stair carpet begins to wear in
.\ttacli an appropriate length places - and if the dimensions
of tacking strip to the bottom of of the treads and risers are the
each riser and at the back of same - take up the carpet and
each tread to make sure that reverse it to[i to bottom to
the carpet is secured as firmly extend its lite. The treads will
as possilile on each stair. become risers and \ice \ersa.

Laying Utility Flooring

SOME AREAS OF THE uoMi- ek'iiiaiKl lloorin,!^ iluil is both easy to clean antl \ciy
durable. Once thought ol' purely in practical terms, most utility flooring is now
cushioned for comfort, and a large range of designs gi\e it scope clecoratively.

Sheet Flooring
There arc three eati^ories ot sheet tloorint^: and other properties. Kubber ani.1 linoleum are
\in\i. linolenni. antl rubber. \'inyl is \ery less eoninion alternatiws bin are in demand
\ersatile. being axailable in a range ot thieknes.ses tor specific properties and characteristic finishes.

Laying Sheet Flooring Making an Accurate Template for Cutting

Preparing a subfloor Clean a ^
SLibfloor thoroughh' - whether
it is concrete or plywood - to
make sure that there are no
traces of dirt or grit, or lumjis
of any kind. Imperfections
such as these can push into
the back of the flooring.
causing a weak spot that
will eventually wear througli.
Choosing adhesive Flooring
adhesives vary considerabh*.
Make sure that you ha\e the
correct one for your flooring. Co\er the subtloc^r with
Applying adhesive Apph iheets of newspaper, fitting
adhesi\e around the edges of them e.xacth" around the edges
a room and along any joins. of any obstacles. Tape all the
Do nt)t waste adhesive, and pieces together, creating a
therefore money. b\" co\ering large template that is the e.xact
the whole floc^r with it. size and shape of the floor.

Soft-tile Flooring
Many of the recommendations and methods
applicable to sheet flooring also apply to
same materials.
include cork and carpet
Other types of soft-tile flooring

tiles, and the same

soft-tile flocM'ins. since tiles are made hom the rules apply to their application and laying.

Planning the Job Applying Adhesive Flattening Tiles

Protecting a floor Do not Spreading evenly Apply Rolling down Tiles \\ ill

walk on a newly tiled surface tile adhesive using a notched usually flatten and stick down
for at least 24 hours while the spreader. Cover about four tiles easily. To ensure an absolutely
adhesive dries. Tile in rw-o at once - a convenient working flat surface, gently roll over
halves, so that one part can area - so that the adhesive the tiles with a rolling pin just

be used while the other dries. does not dry too quickly. after thev have been laid.

Finding the Center Cutting Tiles to Fit around a Corner

Snapping a guideline ILay the tile to be cut exactly 2WithoLi

Without rotating the tile

To locate the center of a room, on top of the nearest whole be cut,

to mf)ve both tiles

snap a chalk line (see p. 34) tile to the corner. Lay another around the corner to the
between the midpoints of tile on top of this but with its nearestwhole tile, then repeat
opposite walls. Use the chalk edge butting right up to the the process.The lines you
lines as guides for laying the first baseboard. Draw a line along have drawn will show where
row of tiles in each quadrant. its edge on the tile to be cut. to cut the tile to fit the corner.

Tiling Cleverly
Laying Carpet Tiles
Cleaning off adhesive
Adhesive often gets onto tile Carpet tiles are a practical, all- Place shape in ciiloiil

surfaces. Keep turpentine and purpose flooring. They arc more

a cloth handy so that you can comfortable than vinyl tiles and
remove it immediately. Some
easier to clean than carpet itself.

Stained tiles can be replaced.

manufacturers may suggest
alternati\e solvents for this. Sticking carpet tiles Lay
Making templates Cut some carpet tiles in the same way as
pieces of paper exactly to tile soft tiles, except that there is

size before you begin. Use them no need to attach them, apart
to make templates of awkward from around thresholds, v\liere Creating footprints
LloLilile-sided tape can be used. Cut left and right foot shapes
areas such as those around
Butting up Cut .some plywood out of different-colored floor
the bases of door moldings.
to ilie size of a tile. Stick a strip tiles from the main color (ail
Negotiating pipes Fitting a
of wood to the center ot one the exact same shape out of a
template around a pipe is not side as a handle. Attach four or few of the main-color tiles and
easy. Mark the pipe's position ti\e cut leniilhs ot taci^inL; strip fill in with the cut-out "feet."

on a tile, then u.se a pipe to tlie otiier side. Use tiiis to Position the tiles so that the
scrap to create an accurate pick up and butt up tiles tightly. footprints lead across the room.

impression on the tile itself.


Laying Hard-tile Flooring

FLOOR TILES ARE isiJALLV LARci.R aiul iiioiv siihsianlial tluin wall lilcs because
ihev are load Ix^aring and need lo Ix- more lolxisi. There is a large variety
of hard tiles from which to choose to complement other decoration in a room.

Designs and Techniques

Laying floor tiles i,s similar to attachiuL; wall pixne e\pensi\e lo rectify, so always make
and many of the same principles and
tiles, sure that you plan the job \er\' carefully before
techniques applw Mistakes in laying tloofs can \'ou start work, and follow the instructions.

Laying Qi arry Tiles Designing Layouts

Planning a knout W hen
working out exactly where
floor tiles are to be po.sitioned,
use a tile gauge (see p. 62).
Starting out In rooms w ith
straight and true walls, use the
baseboards as guidelines. This
should reduce the amount of
cutting necessar\- on at least

two walls. If the walls are not

true, start tiling from battened
edges. Leave a gap between Planning a design
battens and walls so that infill l-or an intricately patterned floor,

tilesused to fini.sh off the floor make a plan to scale of where

will he at lea.st half-sized. each tile will be po.sitioned. This
Using mortar Always lay is especially important \\ hen you

quarry- tiles in a thick bed of are intending to use marble inset

mortar, rather than applying tiles, to ensure that each one is

ceramic tile adhesive. laid in exactly the right place.

Spacing Floor Tiles

Canlboanl Batten
Time-saving Tip spacer
Gap Tile

Making a template
Most floor coverings need a

few fuss)- cuts. .Make templates

around all obstacles, and let

your local supplier make all

your floor-tile cuts for you.


Ceramic Tiles
Much of the methodology for laying hard have a little more flexibility when it comes
floor tiles can also be applied to ceramic to laying techniques. Since they are less heavy-
floor tiles. However, with ceramic tiles you will duty, ceramic tiles are easier to work with.

Making Adjustments Making Mosaic Panels Cutting Small Pieces

Dealing with doors Remove Using an MDF base W hen @ Using a nipper As \\ ith wall
doors that open onto a tiled creating a mosaic panel as an when you need to cut

floor surface before laying the insert feature to enhance a intricate shapes - or
if you

tiles. Shave the same amount plain floor, attach the mosiac want up pieces of tile
to cut
off the bottom of the door as tiles to a piece of MDF cut for insertion in a mosaic -
the depth of a tile plus a little to measure. The MDF will use a nipper to give you
extra to allow for adhesive. provide a rigid, sturdy base. greater accuracy (see p. 64).
Finishing off the threshold
Cut a strip of hardwood Inlaying Mosaics within Tiled Floors
doorstop the same width as
the door to create an excellent
threshold strip that is both
decorative and provides a good
barrier against which to tile.
Keeping level Check that
tiles are level from time to

time by Rmning a level or

batten over the surface of
newly laid tiles. Make any
necessary adjustments while
the adhesive is still wet, since
mistakes will be
rectify once it
difficult to

has dried.
Leave a hole the size of the
1 area required by the mosaic
2 on
Draw the design
the MDF, and
you want
fill in

Using inserts To give a tiled design within the floor layout. with mosaic tiles. Make sure
area an opulent feel without Cut a piece of MDF to fit the that you use floor adhesive to
spending a lot of money, buy hole, making sure that it is of mount them in place, as this is

a few high-quality, patterned the correct thickness so that, the strongest method. Once
tiles, and design a panel to once tiled and inlaid, the complete, fit the mosaic into
insert in an appropriate place mosaic will be level with the its hole. Use floor adhesive to
to lift the floor's appearance. surrounding tiled surface. attach the base in position.

Creating a Rustic Look

A.s well as tiles that are custom- Bricks These are best laid on
or factory-made, there are other their sides, especially if you
alternatives that you can use for want to create a herringbone
decorative hard flooring. These pattern. Bricks should be
include a variety of more natural- bedded in mortar and butted
looking materials. The particular up tightly together Once laid,
characteristics of these products cover with several coats of
mean that you should consider varnish or commercial floor
practical requirements carefully. .sealer to seal the surface. Moving a heavy slab
Slate Make sure that the Move heavy stone slab using
Flagstones These are extremely subfloor is perfectly level before a simple yet effective method.
heavy-duty and can be found in using slate tiles. Lay them onto Maneuver the slab onto two
regular or irregular shapes. Their adhesive, taking great care to poles, then push the slab along
surfaces tend to be uneven, so prevent it from getting on the as if it were on wheels. Bring
it is essential that you bed them upper .surfaces of the tiles, since each pole to the front as it is left
in with plenty of moriar. it may stain tliein permanently. behind as the slab progresses.


Painting Floors
si kiiooks can ho paintcxl rather than covered with
C()Nc:Ri:n-: basks and woodI'N
flooring. Commercial floor paints should he used in hii^h-wear areas, hut other
paints are acceptable on less well-used floors, as long as yon varnish them well.

--^ -- Creating Wood Effects ------

One c'lTecl
of the acivnntai^cs of civaling
is that it is far less expcnsiw than
a wood you can
you choose
to use
\ i\ id eolors,

ia\inu a wooden floor. I'siny eoloi' ciexeriv, \<)u ean ereate an altogether surreal I inish.

Preparing to Paint
Painting a Faix Rug
Checking l^ead manulaeturers'
guidelines before painting Wooden surfaces can offer an
sheet flooring (hardboard and ideal opportunity for trompe
chipboard). Some sheets are /'ot'// clYccts, and a faux rug
impregnated with fire-retardant can be particularly c^c-catching.

chemicals that render them The edges of floorboards

provide read) -made guidelines
unsuitable for painting.
for iiainting bands of color
Filling Fill imperfections on
the surfaee of sheet flooring Planning a design Work dliI

with all-purpose filler, which a complete design tor tlie laux

can be sanded back tc > a mg before you start |iainling.
smooth finish. Fill small gaps Decide where on the floor
you want the "icig" to he, then
between sheets with flexible
measure out an area guideline. Adding the tassels
filler, .so that the cracks w ill
Painting narrow stripes Use lise an artists brush to finish
not reopen when walked on. mini roller for painting any
.1 a faux rug b\ painting tassels at
Painting Use a roller rather naiiow colored stripes. each end. In realit\', rug tassels
than a brush to paint a floor Increasing realism Add fine arc often pale in color or
c|uickl\ . Attach an extension detail freehand to increase the off-white, but \ibrant colors
pole to the roller so that xou iv.iiism. or 'tJK-.il" with stencils. show up better against wood.
can paint standing ujt.

Creating the Impression of Painted Floorboards

base-coat the
1 draw then
pencil gLiidelines to
2 .Mix up a gla/.e

Using the plank as a

(see y>. }i\).

'^ Once the glaze
^ over the pencil guidelines
is dry. go

represent the floorboard edge, ap|')ly a coat of glaze w ith a dark felt-tip pert. This
edges. Use an old plank or to each "lloorboard." Draw a \\ ill ( )utline CMC li "III K irb( >.ird."

floorboard as a template, rocker through the glaze. Create I'inalh . ci )\ er the w Ik )le lloor
which will automaticalU gi\ e knots by agitating the rockei' with two or lliree protecti\e
\()i.i 'boards' ot the riyht si/e. backward and 1( )rw arel. coats ot aci'xiic matte \arnish.


Creating Tile Effects

As in the case of
tiles ratlier
wood effects, painting
than covering a floor with the
faux expenditure. Tile effects are ideally suited to
concrete bases: extra realism is provided by the
real thiny will greatly reduce your decorating noise created by walking on the surface.

Creating "Hard Tiles" Creating the Impression of Terracotta Tiles

Ensuring dryness Make sure "Tiling" freehand Fainting a # Using a sponge Make a block
that a tloor has totally dried tile need not be an exact
effect for creating "tiles"from a
out before you paint it. A new science. To avoid the need for household sponge. Most are
concrete base should not be pencil guidelines, use a square rectangular, so cut one down
painted for several mcMiths. object to produce the tiles by to tile size. Use the trimmed
Sealing a floor Dilute means of block printing. pieces for filling in detail.

commercial floor paints slighth'

for the first coat in order to
prime and seal a floor surface.
If you use alternative types

of paint, make sure that you

coat the tloor \\ith a commercial
sealer before you start.

Choosing a base color

Choose a light color for the
first coat. This will not only
pro\ide a realistic grout color
but will also make a good
foundation for the subsequent
tile colors that you choose.

Applying effects Marbling

IUse a roller tray as a paint
Load a sponge
2 After
producing lU-20
apply more paint to
and sponging are two paint- with paint, removing excess. each one with a small piece
effect techniques that are Place the spcMige firmly on the of sponge to increase opacity.
particularly irseful. Use either floor, then apply pressure to This buildup of depth will
or both to imitate \'arious print a well-defined tile shape. help to make the tiles look
t\pes of hard floor tile. Lea\'e gaps to represent grout. textured and more realistic.

Faking Checkered Vinyl Tiles



LA^iNc; MANY TYPES OF Fi.ooRiNci is c|Liitc a cosllv hiisiiu'ss and OIK' yon elo nol
want to repeat \eiy often. Make sure that the job is done well so tliat you reap
the inaxiniuni beneht h-om the new Hoor and that it lasts as long as possible.

Protecting and Maintaininc, Floors

Anew floor co\'crin,y will lasl a loni; time it ways of prolL-ctin.L; and mainlainin,u iIrmii. all ol
it is looked after. There are many
well which are aimed at imreasini; the lite of a lloor
\arieties of lloorin.y and a number ot elitterent and keejiin.L; lookm.L; as i^ood as possible.

Caring for Carpet Distributing Weight Protecting Wood

fe Cleaning Xaeniim carpets at Varnishing Kecoat well-used
leastonce a week, and ha\e areas of a wooden floor at
them professionally cleaned least once a year to maintain
once a \ear to keep them in the floor's protective layer.
good condition and make Waxing Wax a wocjcleii
them k)nger-lasting. floor occasionally in order
Protecting \n main walking to maintain its durability
thoroughfares, lay rugs on top propeities as well as helping
of carpets to reduce heavy to buildup a good depth
wear on the carpets. Rearrange of colorand improve the
the positions of the rugs from appearance of the floor.
time to time so tliat they wear Padding rugs Use a rug
more evenly and hist longer. Using lids as coasters to protect a wooden floor,

Using mats Place mat

a Paint jam-jar lids to match the and insert a piece ol nonslip
on the f\nnv just inside each color of a carpet. Lift hea\-)- items |iadding beneath it. 'I his will
external door. Scraps ot of furniture, then place the lids ha\e the effect of slow ing
natural-fiber floor coverings under the feet. The larger the lid, down the wear of the rug by
make excellent mats, being the greater the weight distribution prexentirigit from rubbing

both functional and decorati\e. and the less w ear on tlie carpet. on the hard wooden surface.

Maintaining Tiles
Re.moving St.mns
Cleaning vinyl Always
Traditional Tip remove dirt and grit w ith a
vacuum cleaner before mopping Accidental spills and the
a vinyl floor. Otherwise, the marking of carpets will
mop ma\' push bits ot grit happen from time to time.
around the tloor and scratch .Most stains can be removed
\\ ith care, fast action, and
the SLirtace of the \ in\l.
" Washing hard tiles .Mojt
sometimes a little ingenuit\.

a harel-tile tloor with warm Speed Act (.|Liickly. siiuc

water regularlw Buff the tloor the success ot stain reiiiox at

occasionally w ith a commercial elepends upcMi tlie s\\ ill

polish designed speciticalK remoN'al of the spill.

Making a for hard-tile floors; standan,!

.\ction Dab and blot stains
rallier tlian rubbing iticni.
Seal porous tiles with a wax polishes will make it slippery.
Dampening Do nol use too
made by warming four part.s Replacing carpet tiles nuicli water, since lliis iniglil
boiled linseed oil with one Simply litl out and replace damage tlie carpet backing.
part beeswax until they are worn or badh stained carpet Prevention Treat carpets
well mixed. Allow to cool, then tiles, lliis is an .id\antage ol Willi commercial stain guard,
apply to the tiles ani.1 iiuli. not ha\ing secured them in lolldwin*; makers' instructions.

position w ith aelliesix e.


Using Leftovers
Scraps and leftovers from a flooring project retain some of the spare pieces of flooring for
can be put to a variety of practical uses in a repairing damage or as swatches to aid decision-
number of areas of the home. Howexer. al\\a\s making about future decorating projects.

Using Carpet Scraps Making Stamps for Floor Effects

Caring for pets Carpet
makes an excellent lining for 31'
pet beds and baskets. Simply
cut and fit as required.
Using in cars Car trunks
recei\'e a great amount of
wear and tear. Line the base
of a car trunk with carpet to
protect the body^'ork from
damage and to make it much
easier to clean.The piece of
carpet can either be lifted out
of the trunk to be cleaned
or \acuLimed /;/ situ.
ICut cork into pieces the 21xl^L-^.| ijl the il( )r and

Lining paths Graxel paths length of the strips of a allow li) diy. Load the stamp
are notoriously difficult to keep parquet floor panel. Apply P\'A from a paint tray using a shoit-
free of weeds. Line a path along the edge of each cork haired mohair roller. Position
with pieces of old carpet or piece, then attach to the panel. the stamp, then apply pressure
padding scraps cut tc^ size Stick a block of wood to the to transfer the paint well.
before laying gra\el. This will back of the panel as a handle. Reload after each impression.
greatlyimpede the gro-^'th
of weeds or other stray plants. Using Vinyl Using Hard Tiles
Covering compost Lay carpet Cushioning movement (Xit Absorbing heat Quarry tiles
over the top of a compost pile up sheet \inyl or tiles and lay are thick and sttirdy and make
to keep heat in and therefore beneath a washing machine. excellent pan rests. Use them
accelerate the natural Vinyl pro\ide a sturdy
\\ ill to protect a worktop from hot
processes of decomposition. ba.se but cushion the \'ibrations. pans remo\'ed trom the tire.

Protecting Doors
Using Up Cork Tiu-s
Cork is a versatile materiaL
and leftovers can be put to a
number of uses in the home.

Making coasters Place an

uplurned drinking glass on
a cork tile and draw around
liic rim. Cui out the sliape
lo make a coaster.
Caring for cats Stick a
few cork liles onto a block
of woc^d for your cat to Making a memo board
use as a scratcher instead of Attach some phwood to the
Making a kicker
scratching llie furniture. -
back of a picture frame. I'se F\A
The ba.se of a door can easily be
Making pads Cut pieces of to stick cork tiles to the front
damaged b\' children and pets.
tile Id lii the iiottoms of surface of the pl^'wood until the
Retluce this wear and tear by
iiea\ y ornaments. Stick them in frame is filled. Remove excess
position to protect the surface PVA with a damp cloth. Hang making a kicker board out of
of furniture and prevent the the frame in the usual \\ :n- and spare carpet tiles. Use spray
(irnaniL'nts trom Nlipping. use it as a memo boaril adhesive to attach the tiles along
the bottom etige of tlie door


Setting a Style
Choosing window treatments can give you a of expensi\e fabric or adopt a more minimalist
wonderful opportunity' your own
to release approach, the decorative style of a room can
artistic flair. Whether you drape la\ish swaths often be set b\- the window treatment alone.

Considering Options
Keeping Fabrics Plain Making a Statement
Color scheming simply Use Drawing If y ou
Before choosing fabrics and plain materials to make color want a window treatment to
styles of window treatments, scheming easier. Window be a focal point, choose bold
think about these purely treatments will thus play a or contrasting colors and
practical considerations. complementan.- decorati\e role. patterns to di-aw the ey'e.

Function Choose simple,

inexpensive hanging systems
whene\er \<)u c.in. especialK'
if your window treatments

are pLireK <.lee( >i"ati\e. You

may neetl to invest in more
costly hanging .sy.stems if yc >li

decide to hang curtains made

of heavyweight material for
warmth, for example.
Budget \'ery full drapes
usually result in great
expense, so make sure that
you ^ork out what your
budgetary- restrictions are
before you make choices.
Theme If you decide to try-
Enhancing enibellishnients
Dressing up plain fabric
to follow a regional or period
Although a fabric may be plain Emphasize a flouncy w indow
theme, research appropriate
materials, designs, and in color, drape it effectively dressing by offsetting it against

colors in order to create with an unusual tieback. Use understated walls. Paint walls
a complete, authentic look. window-sills as display areas for off-white or an extremely pale.
interesting collections of objects. complementary color

Treating \ AX'indow in Different Ways Setting the Scene

# Having fun Choose an
appropriate fabric and use it

tor curtains. bedco\ers, and

cushions to produce a sense
of fun in a child's room.
* Aiding relaxation Indulge
yourself in swaths of cuitain
material in restful colors for
a den is used for calm
recreation and relaxation.
Improving light Use pale-
u ilored treatments at windows
that recei\e little or no direct
sunlight. These will encourage
Disguising w indow shape Emphasizing w indow shape the greatest amount of light

(Airtains hung outside a recess Hang a blind inside a w indow reflection into the room.
will disguise the shape of a recess to emphasize the shape of Q Increasing privacy In pri\ ate
window, especially if tied back the w indow. .\ patterned blind areas of thehome, such as a
from a clo.sed position. I .sc w ill draw attention to clear lines bedroom, cover the windows
a shaped valance to di.sguise antl scjuare angles and help to completely to help to create
the sciuarcncss of a window. make tiic window a feature. a secure, restful mood.


Selecting Materials

SELECTING THE whcfi drcssing windows is as important as in an\-

RiciiT M vii-RiAi.s

other decorating jol). All tasks at this stage of your project will be easie-si it

you use the equipment and materials that are specifically designed for the job.

Basic Window-dressing Equipment

^bii may need to amalgamate
several eoUections of tools and (S^^l
other items for dressing windows.
Siiiail brass curtain rod plus rings
Toolkits Include a liasic
sevvint^ kit for making and
altering furnishings, as well as
general household tools for Hand-,sewing
attaching treatments in place. needles
Hanging equipment Choose
Wootien curtain pole plu^ rings
a simple, relatively inexpensive
hanging system - a track and
gliders, or a lightweight rod -
for light- to medium-weight Tailor's Sewing
curtains. Use a stronger, more chalk thread Track and gliders
complicated systems for
hanging heavyweight fabrics.

Fusible web
Track with integral
Tape mea.sLire
\\eii>ht ^
draw-cord and weight


Pla.stic Tieback
Set square Staple gun hooks hook

Choosinc Fabrics for Wi.ndow Treatments

Most fabrics can be used for
curtains or blinds. Make your
choices based on practical as
well as aesthetic factors.

Color, pattern, and fiber Let

colors and patterns, or the
weave of fabric such as damask.
guide your choice, but bear in
mind practical factors also.
Weight Choose heavy fabric
such as brocade for sumptuous
drapes. Sheer silk or fine fabrics
such as lace, cotton, or calico
will be more light and airy.
Function If using thin cunain
fabric, consider lining to block
light or interlining for warmth.

Choosing Curtains
YoiT DO NOT NEED TO BE an expert at sewing to make curtains. Not all curtains
need to be lined or hemmed. It is possible to adapt many curtaining
techniques to suit your level of ability^ and still achieve the look you would like.

-------------- Considering Options ------------------

Curtains offer a lot of scope when it comes make them, btiy them ready-made, or adapt
to covering windows. They come in many existing ones. Consider your preferences as well
different materials, styles, and designs, ^'oli can as practical requirements before you decide.

Planning Curtains Choosing Curtain Length

Lining You do not need to
Deciding length
line curtains, but you do so
While you are choosing
it will improve the hang and
a style and material for
provide the room with e.xtra
your curtains, consider
warmth. To a\-oid sewing
the ideal length. This
lining in. attach it to curtain
will be determined by
material using fusible web.
a number of factors, not
Avoiding obstacles Pipes,
least of which are the
radiators, and other obstacles
shape and size of the
or restrictions may prevent
window, the position
curtains from falling nicely.
of the window on the
Take these into account when
wall, and practical
determining the style and the
purposes that curtains
length of your curtains.
serve such as keeping a
Selecting hanging systems
room warm or cool or
Choose hanging system
blocking light out of it.
before \'ou measure up for
curtains, since the drop will CiirUmi fdlh Ciii-taiii hcDigs lo Curtain hangs
clearK' affect \our calculations. III Jloor apron length, just ahore sill

midway between
sill and flofir

Calculating Fabric Requirements Measuring

Miilliply this nteasnrctueiit hy
A 1' J <ir 2 for each ciirkiin width
.Measure as accurately as
Determining size possible to reduce the risk
W) calculate the of making expensive mistakes.

curtain fabric required,

Checking figures The old
measure width
first A. adage about measuring t^\'ice
Depending on how full and cutting once is wise
\ ou want the curtains advice, .always check your
to be. add half as much figures, because mistakes are

again to this figure, or easily made when taking a

luiinlier of measurements.
multiph b) two. This
Being precise Not all floors,
w ill gi\e the width of
windows, and ceilings are
fabric for each curtain.
aiisolutely "square," so take
For length, measure B
ai lea.st three width and
for sill-length curtains length measurements.
or C for full-length. Vor .
yVllowing for pattern repeats
apron-length, measure .\s with wallpa]ier. centralize
to halfway between large palierns for lialancc.

the sill and floor.

Curtaining Creatively
Wiiielow ireatmenLs, and cuitains particularly. decoraliw ilienies. "ibu can, of course, make
otTcr a good opportuniu to break witii or bu) new curtains, but there are many ways
tradition and create your own designs and of adapting and revamping e.xi.sting curtains.

Reducing Costs Impk()\ing He.vis

Reviving old curtains Gi\ e Weighting .Make lightweight
old curtains a new
on life lease curtains hang better by placing Money-saving Tip
sinipK b\ attaching .some new coins or other weights inside
braid or trim to their hems. hem corners, or gluing
Cutting down cuitains To decorative beads along the
give a room a fresh new look, outside edyes of the hems.
make some cafe curtains by ill/ ////S
cutting down an old pair of Roll ll/>

curtains from a different fri)t}>cil

trim from
room in your home.
one cud
Using old for new To sa\e
time and money', use old
curtains as a lining around
which to fit new fabric.

Enclose the old in the new .

then simply secure around Using a sheet

the edges with fusible web. Use a sheet as a simple,
Buying seconds There is single curtain. Nail the sheet
quite a market in secondhand Making a tassel to the top of a window frame
curtains. Consider buying Make a tassel by carefully rolling using large, exterior roofing
secondhand to reduce your up some excess trim or braid nails. Drape the curtain '
expenses signiticantly. You and securing it with fabric glue. one side of the window o\er
may. howe\er. need to make Insert a length of cord and use as another rootmg nail which
size adju.stments for the a tieback. or hang several tassels is used as a tieback.
curtains to lit \()ur windows. from a curtain rail to dress it up.

Using Applique Decorating Sheers


Consider how a curtain will

hang when you arc planning
to use alternative materials,
and keep headings simple.

Blankets U.se blankets as

hea\'}-\\"eight "curtains" in
very cold rooms. The
insulating properties of
i^lankets make them ideal.
Burlap Sew burlap bags
into a patchwork to create
a rustic but very natural-
looking window dressing.
Attaching shapes Tracing outlines
Rugs Ifyou have a window
Firightenup a pi.nn materi.il liy I se sheer curtain fabric like a
with a poor view, use a
decorative rug as a window cutting themed shapes out of piece of tracing paper. Draw
treatment and distracting a differenth colored fabric. directh' onto the material using a
device. Use a rug's looped Attach the shapes to the curt.iin colorfast outliner pen. Lea\ es are
fringe to hang the rug from using fabric glue. Use a ni)n- an easy subject to draw around.
a substantial curtain pole. fraying fabric such as felt for the ri\ the outliner ink by ironing
shapes to avoid finishing edges. the back of the fabric.

-- Hanging Curtains
There are two main methods of hanging You can, however, adapt either of these basic
curtains: using poles or using tracks. Most systems in order to add a touch of originality or
types are straiglitfoiAAard to mount in place. to suit a particular decorative or color scheme.

Using Poles Measuring & Mounting Alternative to

Selecting materials Choose # Adjusting width Adjust
Using Poles
a wooden pole for a fresh, the length of a curtain pole
lightweight appearance, or a depending on \\ hether the You can choose from a varietx'

curtains will be gathered of alternative materials as

sturdier-looking metal pole
substitutes for curtain poles.
for a more solid. hea\y look. back beyond the edge of the
Alternatively, use your
window, or whether they will
Carefully imagination and substitute a
hang partly in front of the obvious but
roll paper less still suitable
window and therefore require item instead of a pole.
pole a shorter length of pole.
Driftwood Use a slender
# Allowing for fmials Do
length of driftwood to make
not forget to allow for finial
a pole suitable for draping
attachments at each end when eitlier curtains or swags.
calculating a pole's length. Copper pipes These make
# Making poles level You v^ill ideal curtain poles. You can
require only two brackets - liend them around
to fit

one ateach end - to mount a corners, so usethem in bay

curtain pole in position above and dormer windows.
a narrow window. It will be
Bamboo stakes Use .stakes
as an inexpensive means of
Covering poles easy to ensure that the brackets
iianging lighn\-eight, sheer
Cover a pole with wallpaper are le\el using a level. It is
curtain fabrics.
to match the walls. Attach the more difficult to align three
Pole supports Use ornate
paper with PVA, let it dry, then brackets. Mount the central slielf brackets to support
apph" several coats of matte bracket and use this to
first, any kind of pole, as well as
varnish to protect the paper take a level to where the other providing a decorati\'e finish.

and facilitate curtain pulling. two need to be positioned.

Using Tracks
Alternatives to Using Heading Tape
# Looking and learning If you
With a little imagination you hiinging curtains. Make holes in are concerned that you might
can substitute all sorts of items fabric with a punch-and-rivet set not be able to assemble and
for standard heading tape when to facilitate the threading of ties. mount a curtain track. ha\e
a look at a similar working
system, either in your local
supplier's showroom or in
someone's home. You will then
know what the track should
look like once assembled.
Bulldog clips Bow-tic ribbons
i Painting to match Consider
Hang bulldog clips from curtain Cut ribbons to the same length
painting cuitain tracks, which
rings. Paint them if you wish. to ensure consistent loop size.
are usually supplied white, so
that they blend in with wall
colors or curtain materials.
Semiglo.ss gives the best paint
finish on pla.stic surfaces.
# Lubricating tracks In order
Raffia loops Strip of leather lo maintain a curtain track in
Tie lengths of raffia or string I bread on, keeping a constant good running order, lubricate
around a pole for a rustic feel droj") from pole lo curtain. il occasionally v\ith a few
drops of dish detergent.


Choosing Blinds
BLINDS ARi; 11 ii; MAIN Ai.Ti'KN vn\ i; TO cririAiNS aiul can he mack- tVom a NaricU of
different fabrics. Try to balance decorative and functional rec|uireinenls, and
assess to what extent a blind w ill need to block light or provide privacy.

Styles or Blind

Blinds vary in shape and size as much as any other preferences and practical Theserequirements.
kind of window treatment and may be left plain or you choo.se for \()ur
factors affect both the material
decorated extravagantly, depending on your own blind and the hanging mechanism you will nectl

Roller Gathered Roman Venetian

Roller blinds are the ( lathered blinds use Roman blinds consist Venetian or slatted
most functional and more and suit an
fabric of subtle, gently folded blinds can be plastic,
require least material opulent almospherc. hners of material. metal, or wooden.

Tcclinique.s for nica.siiring for blinels tlcpcntl aiv.i will he determined h\ whether tlie blind
upon whether you preter a Hat blind or will lKin,L; insiele or outsiele a window reces.s a.s

one that con.si.st.s ot told.s ol tabrie. I'he .sLirtaee well a,s b\' the .size ot the window itself.

Measuring for Blinds in Recessed Windows Gathered Blinds

^ Fitting attachments Decide Overestimating Err on the Calculating width Tape the
on the po.sition of a blind, anel .side of generosity when end of a long length of .string
fit the pole or track before calculating amounts of material to one corner at the top of a
yoLi take the measurements It is better to need to trim w indow frame. Take the .string
for material, ^'our calculations tli,in stai't .itresh because nou .ilong the frame to the other
will then be more accurate. do not h.i\e enough material. corner, forming a numbei' of
scallop shapes. Measure the
Measuring a recess length of string to gi\e \"ou the
I'or a roller blind outsitic a width ol the blind including
recess, measure the width ruched folds. Add an L'\ti,i

(A), including a 1 ' i-in S in (20 cm) tor side luinings.

(3-cm) overlap onto the Measuring length .Aekl \2 in
walls, and the length H) ( cm) to the basic height

to below the sill. Add 1 in measurement to allow for the

(S cm), for attaching the depth of the sc.illopei.1 edge
fabric to a dowel. For a w hen the blin^l is iw n.

blind inside a recess, allow (Counting scallojis Be.n in

for brackets in the w idlli minel that an otld number of

measurement (C). Calculate scallo|>s creates a more b.ilanced
length (1)) to ab()\c the sill look than an e\ en number.


Making and Fitting Blinds

Plain roller blinds work by means of a fairly blinds are adapteel from this system, although
simple meehanism. making them the easiest there are alternatixe t\pes of blind that can be
type of blind both to make and to fit. Most constructed to pro\ ide a more indi\ idual look.

Choosing Fabrics Squaring Corners Finishing Edges

Assessing suitabilir\' For # Making angles To ensure '
Preventing fraying L se
flouncN' blinds \\ ith gathers. the smooth running of a roller a stiffened fabric for roller
choose lightweight materials blind, cut precise. 90-degree blinds. This can be cut to an
such as nioire or soft cotton, angled corners. Use a large exact size and will not fray.
which w ill ruche well. Hea\"ier set sc|uare and tailor's chalk Stabilize lightweight fabric
fabrics will not gather well. to draw accurate guidelines. ed"es with zigzag stitch.

Reviving Blinds Attaching Material Attaching Simply

i Spraying Paint old \enetian
blinds to give them a new rf'-vvjfl, ,-ftIk,

lease of life. Wash them

thoroughly, allow to dry, then
spra\' with an aerosol paint.
Stenciling Transform a plain
blind by stenciling it with
fabric paints. Make your
own stencil, picking out a
design from fabrics or other
decorations within the room. Fiisihic _ "^~~-\
Dyeing If a blind remains uvh Dniivl

in good condition but has Avoiding stitching

become discolored by light. To make a casing for a wooden
for example, irse a cold-water dowel at the bottom of a blind
d\e to transform the look ot it without sewing, iron in some
completely. Choose a color to fusible web. Secure the material
match or tone in with other firmly to the roller at the top of
decorations within the room. the blind using a staple gun.
W I N D () \X I K ! AT M F N I S

Adding Trimmings
oi- Till: iKi\iMi\t'.s lor wIikIow nwiiniLMils ai\' piiix'ly tkxorativ e' and arc
M\\^'used as accessories to a color scIkmik' oi' si\le. )iIil'1' lriinniii\(^s, Ik )\\ l'\ ( er.

are dual-purpose and perlorin a function w illiin a window-dressing system.

Cornices form a ciec(irari\(.' finish lo

hide ihc to Ik-
usclI lor i^ranel curtain
trcatmcnis. but
runnin!^ sxstcins {)\ curtains and create a n,i^hler-\\ eiijlu. less elaborate \ersions can look
hnished-lookinL; window trealinent. ihex tenei ellecti\ e in a simpler elecorati\e plan.

Using Cornices Attaching Fabric Cornices luiich'diKl-

Papering cornices Decorate Closc Icl/H'

plain \\"ooden cornices simi^K Sl(l/)lccl It I

by paintin_y or wallpaperint^
them. Use the same i^apei" as

that ccneriui^ the walls, w hich

will make the job easier and (jirliiiii Ifcich

less costh' than irsiuL; fabrie.

Increasing impact AM a
decorative molding along the
top of a cornice, or use it as a
Press fahric
shelf for displaying ornaments iiilo place uith
to increa.se its \isual impact. loiich-aud-

Creating effects Use a close tape

cornice lo alter the apparent Mounting a cornice

shape of a window . Position Once the wooden framework of a cornice has Toiich-aiid-

been assembled and mounted in place, attach its cluse tape

it higher than the top of
fixed to fahric
the window treatment, lor fabric front. Ideally, make this piece w ith a flexible

example, to make the window frame so that it is eas\ to fit in place. It can be
look taller than it actualK is. held there using touch-and-closc tape.

Shaping Cornices
.\ \ alancc serves a similar
purpose to a cornice, but it is

constructed from fabric rather

than a solid material. Despite

Cornice being less substantial, a \ alancc

l)()(inl can contribute to the decorati\c
impact of a window treatment.

Saving money .Make a \ akmce

latlici' than a cornice if you are

woiking within a tight budget.
The tabrlc needei,! to make a
\,ilance will cost less than lor Hanging a valance alone
Using a jigsaw-
a more substantial allciiialive. A \alance is highl\ decorative and
Add to tlic decorative appeal of Using ceilings In ,i loom with can be hung by itself - without
a wooden cornice b\ scalloping low xou tan curtains - as a finish in own
.1 ceiling, ii.ing .1 its

tile lower edge. .Mark out the N.ilance tlireclK horn llic O-'ilinu right. .Mount it in position using
cur\ed design on the cornice .ibi i\ L- A w inilow w illuHiI .1 i.iil, a \alance rail so that the lahric
board, clamp the cornice onto Auac li hookei.1 st.i\'\\s elircelK hang w ith
\\ ill a good shajic

a workbench, and use a jigsaw lo iIk' xal.ince's iK'atling tajie. and be seen to ilu- best illect

carefully to cut the shapes.


Swags and Tails

Swags and tails can eitlier accompany a tlic cornice and \alance idea a stage further,
cornice or be used alone as a decorati\e Their function is pureh' decorati\"e. but they
^\indow treatment. These decorati\e items take can be used ima^inati\"el\" to great effect.

Making Simple Swags Being Inventive

Using alternative materials
Since swags are usually simply Bright Idea
draped, experiment ^ith
different kinds of material. Tr\'
long silk scarves, saris, or other
lightw eight fabrics to create
all sorts of \oluminous and
shapely draped effects.
# Draping in position For
an informal hanging system,
simply drape your material
arc aind a pole or other cuitain-

lianging mechanism. Make a Using leftovers

few stitches in appropriate Leftover pieces of material
pkices to maintain the hold. need ne\er go to waste. You
Using door knockers Attaching to cornices When can use even the smallest
Great a simple swag effect b> attaching swags and tails to sliNers of material left over
mounting an ornate door knocker a cornice, use a staple gun. from making trimmings to
above each top corner of a This will allow you to create add a coordinating or
window. Drape material around neat pleats easih" as \'Ou secure contrasting frilled edging
the w indow through the rings so the fal")ric whicli will impro\e around a plain cushion.

that it hangs in a flow ing sr\'le. the w a\' the fabric falls.

Tiebacks can. howe\er. also ha\e a decorative
The traditional function of a tieback is to
w indow treatment
hold a window treatment back to one side role as integral parts of the
of a window (or door) in order to allow light in. or e\'en as decorations in their own right.

Using Tiebacks Using xVlternative Materials in Tiebacks

Using contrasting fabric In
a formal curtain arrangement
that includes a cornice, for
example, use a different fat:)ric

for the tiebacks and cornice to

add definition to the curtains.
Tying easily Choose ribbons
or cords for the simplest of
material tiebacks. Hold them
secure by looping them oxer
hooks screwed into the wall.
Positioning tiebacks In the
case of tall window^s, tiebacks Being creative with leaves Using a door knob
are be.st positioned about one- Entwine wired artificial lea\es .\ door knob makes an ideal tie-

third of the way up the wall. together to create an unusual back as long as curtain material

Experiment with string before and attractive tieback resembling is not too hea\y and does not fall

vou finalize the position. This a wreath. Spra\ the leaves using o\cr it. If it does, attach a block
w ill also enable you to judge .utosdI p. lints to tDordin.Ue of wood lo the back of the knob
the length of the tieback. llicni w nil iIk- color scheme. to make it more substantial.


Decorating Glass
WINDOW TREATMENTS ai'c not ihc onK' way of elccoratiiiL; w inelows: noli can
decorate the glass iisclt. Ihc design ol stained-glass windows ranges from
"othic to modern, so \()u w ill ha\e a wealth ol tradition (mi which to draw.

Bash; Eorii\\iENT and MAirRiAi.s

Glass decoration requires

specialized materials in order NMon paintliru.sii

to achieve the desired finish.

Buying materials You can bu\

all the tools and materials that
Gla.s> paini.-> Etching Lint-fretr
you require for adding effects
nuid cloth
to glass from most good art
suppliers. They should also be Craft knife
able to gi\'e you advice.
Choosing paints You can use
oil-based paints for applying
simple painted designs to glass
surfaces. Howe\er. these are
translucent and will not be as
effecti\e as glass paints, which
are designed and manufactured Felt-tip Window Frosting Spra\-

specifically for the job. pen cleaner varni-sh paint

Etching Windows -

Etched windows are traditionally Liscd in Etched L^lasN can look effective in any window.
bathrooms, cloakrooms, and entrance halls bnt it is particularly useful if the window is

in order to prcnide pn\"ac\' as well as decoration. \ er\ plain or overlooks an undesirable area.

Using Frosting Varnish Etching Quickly

Cleaning windows Befcore
varnishing, clean a Vkindow Green Tip
with household cleaner so
that the glass surface is free
of grinie and other impurities.
Applying varnish Apply
frosting \arnish using the
basic stencilingmethod (see
p. 35).Mount a stencil in
position on the window with
a light covering of spray-on
adhesive, and then apply the Reusing etching fluid
varnish to the c^utlined design. Commercial etching fluids
Changing designs Most Using spray-on "snow" can be used on an\ glass
frosting \arnishes are acrylic, W ith a stencil in place on a surface. .Most can be reused.
so you can easily modify or window. u.se spra\-on festi\e since once the fluid has dried
completely change a design snow for an etched effect. Two the residue c.in be st |-.ipeil

simply by cleaning away the or three light coats are better than away and returned to the
varnish using an abrasive one liiick one Remove excess container to be iiseti ati.iin

cleaner and a window scraper. snow with fine sandpaper


Reproducing Stained-glass Effects

Modern decorating materials make it to use colored glass or lead. Yon can use
relati\elv easy to reproduce the effect of commercial paints on plain glass to achiexc a
stained glass on \-our windows without needing \en' authentic-looking stained-glass effect.

Creating Designs Imitating Stained Glass on a Window

V Seeking inspiration Ha\'ing
chosen a \\ indow to decorate,
you must then select a design.
Stained glass is traditionall)-

associated \\ ith ornate settings

and religious themes, while
single motifs or original
patternson plain glass windows
are amore modern option.
Tracing designs Mount a
design to the outside of a
window Lising a low-tack
adhesi\e. Draw the design on
cardboard that is rigid enough
to remain in place against the
1 Attach a design to the O Once the colors are dn,-.

surface of the glass, making outside of a window Apply La add the leaded effect using

tracing much easier. the appropriate color to each a tube of siher outliner. Keep
Finishing Once it is diy. area on the inside. Do not a steady mcnement to a\"oid

clean your stained glass o\'erload the brush, since paint une\enness. I^emoxe the design
using a soft cloth and mild will run easily. Work from the from the outside of the window
household window cleaner. top down to a\oid smudging. when you have finished.

Reproducing Leaded-light Effects

Leaded lights share a similar tradition to that light effect is ideal for large, plain windows
of stained glass, although the technique for that lack interesting features or for recreating
reproducing them is quite different. A leaded- a perif)d look in line with a decorati\e ,sr\-le.

Creating Leaded Lights on Yoi r Windows

Draw the leaded-light design
1 on clear sticky-backed 2 With a commercial metallic
aerosol paint, apply three
the paint is

remo\e the "panes" of


plastic, and attach it to the or four thin coats to the entire sticky-backed pla.stic betw een
insick' of thewindow. Cut area. .Metallie |iainl is ideal ihe "leadeel" strips to re\'eal
around the "panes" of gla.ss. since il a^lds le.xlure and depth the glass. Remo\ e any exce,s,s

lea\ ing them stuck to the gla.ss to the leaded areas as well as drips or runs of paint using
bill peeling awa\' the re.st. ]iro\iding a realistic color. a standard window scraper.


QriCK Rlii LRliNCE



influential tools for creating mood and atmosphere in a room, and there is
an extensive range of options to choose from to achie\e effects you like.

Lighting Types
.\lth()ugh styles of lighting vary
considerably, there are only a
few categories - based largely
on function - into which the
majority t)f lighting systems fall.

Within these groups, designers

have excelled in producing
lighting to suit all tastes, and

lighting styles and fashions

contribute greath^ to the overall
decorative look of a room. Opaque howl I'cndam \\ ith shade

\\(HK.Icn I1.ISC with p.ipcr sli.idc De-~k liLjIit w ilh cl.imp Br.iss stanLl.ird i.inip with |-i.ipcr shade

Energy-efficient Types of Lightbulb

Energy-efficient lightbulbs
produce an attractive light
and last up to five times longer
than conventional bulbs.

Fluorescent Nuh.slilute these

for slandiuxi domestic luiibs.

Tungsten-halogen These are

low -voltage with specially 2-1) minialuiv Bayonet
built fi.xtures. Choose them lliiorcscent hLiI ap tixiure
tor i^owerhil yel unoiitrusive
H,t;litiny, such as in a kitchen. I'Uioivscciu biillis


Fix HO LicnriNG
Most rooms h.i\ I.- soiiK' HxclI ligluin^. which ri'l.ih\rl\ hmilial sfiup, \\\vvv aw iiuiiktolis
is LisualK opL-rak'el In swikiu's IolliKxI \\a\s in which hxccl li.uhliiiL; c an Ik- aclaplecl in

close to a door or entrance, in spite ol this ordei' to ac hic'\ c inoie intcrcstinL; li,L;ht cllects.

Choosing Lights Making a Strif-i.k.ii r Di 1 1 s i; R

Changing pendant lights Midi h Idjic

Consider changing a pi.'ndant

light fixture to sunken or track-
mounted spotlights. I'hese can
totally change a room's mooc
Lighting alcoves Fixed
lighting is ideal tor showing
oil room features and displaxs.
Bringing in new electrical
cables might necessitate
redecoration, so consider
l:)attery-powered lighting,
especially for occasional use. IniiL h-iiiiil-dose tape

Diffusing light Paint and ICut some wallpaper to size,

suspend a metal colander and strengthen it b\' taping

from the base of a lampshade, lengths of wire across it. Fold
it will channel the light into the long edges of wallpaper
many shafts, creating shadows to form two flaps, and attach
and a varied intensity of light. torich-and-close tape to them.

Once \"ou have chosen your light tLxtures. lighting w itli other decorati\'e features. You can
consider how lampshades ^ ill affect the buy a shade as part of a lighting system or
kind of light produced and the coordination of make or adapt your own for a personal note.

Contrasting Sh.xdes Enhancing Shades Using Lampsh.ades

Directing light Line a
Cut-out shape enhances
lampshade w ith dark paper
plain lampshcule
to channel light through the
bottom and top openings and
therefore create concentrated,
directional shafts of light.
Varying color Alter the
effect of a lampshade by using
a colored lightbulb. This will
ha\"e a dramatic effect if you
are using a pale lampshade
and allow you to experiment
with color and a dark shade.
Keeping clean To ensure
that a lampshade looks at its
Using different colors Intrc^ducing shapes best, always keep it clean.

As in all aspects of decor, the .\dd interest to plain lamps and Either vacuum it using the
color of a lamp and its shade shades by adapting their designs. appropriate attachment, or
will affect the atmosphere and For example, cut simple patterns wrap siick\" tape around your
sn le of a room. Use strongly or shapes into a lampshade, hand (sticky-side out) and
contrasting colors to make a perhaps linking to other designs brush o\er the surface of the
localized decorative statement. and motits within the room. shade to pick up dust and dirt.

Decorating Shades Threading a Shade with Decorative Strands

Attaching stickers Stick Making holes A hole puncii # Choosing tlireads Once
shaped, fluorescent stickers intended for paper will not cut made die holes,
\"ou ha\"e
onto a plain lampshade. lampshade material adequately, change the ribbon or diread
Once the\ ha\"e absorbed so use a leatlier punch to make occasionally to reflect festi\e
light while the lamp is on. how e\ er man\' holes \"ou need. or otlier special occasions.
they ^ ill continue to shine
after it has been turned off.
This is a particularly good
idea in a child's bedroom.
Stenciling designs
Coordinate lampshades '^ ith
the rest of the decoration in a
room by stenciling the same
design on a shade as there is
on a border, for e.xample.
Using a wallpaper border
Cut down a v\ allpaper border
to make a mini-border, then
attach it around the edges of
color-coordinating shades.
IUse a pencil to make
series of equidistant mark,-
2 Pass some ribbon through
the holes, making a criss-

Adding trimmings Use around the upper and lower cross pattern o\"er the surface
contrasting or matching braid, edges of a lampshade. Make of the lampshade. Create any
tas.sels. or other appropriate holes at these marks using a number of your own designs
trimmings to enhance the leather punch, holding the using the same method and a
lower edge of a plain shade. shade firmlv as vou do so. variet\" of alternative materials.



SiiiiAiNG IS ESSFN'riAi.i.^' FUNCTioNAi., Lincl ils si/c iiiul sliirtlincss will cicpciul on
load-bearing reciuircniciits. Ikit it can also scr\c as a design accessory llial.

within the constraints of j'jraclicality, yon can decorate as yoLi like.

SHin.viNc; Eqiu'miin II

Shelves may be constructed M
from a variet)' of different Liirge II
materials, but their basic design II
remains relatively consistent. II
1(><; tiles
Medium .

Supporting shelves All II

shehes require some support. SlK-lt / II

Lipports Siiuill / II
The exact nature of the support
E.xpandm- I'laMic
Slidvinglrack "
will be determined by the _'a\'y\\ei,iihl
vinu .uuiior wall anciior.s
decorative requirements and brackcl
the type of mounting needed.
Use strong supports for a
heavy shelf, or one that wi
carr\- a \en' hea\'\' load.

Mounting Shelves
Asitle from certain types ol trccstanding unit, that is appropriate tor the type of wall, since
need firm wall hardware
a shelf will alway.s particular designs ol screw are intended lor
to hold it in position. I^e sure to use hardware specific types of construction materials.

Using Wall Anchors Keeping Shelves Level

Limiting drilling When
Bright Idea drilling holes, measure the
length of the wall anchor
against the drill hit. Place
sticky tape around the bit at
this point so that you cart see
when you have drilled the
correct distance into the wall.
Inserting anchors If it is

necessary, use the handle enel

ol a hammer to dri\e anchors
Searching for obstructions into a wall. I sing the striking
Before attaching any shelf face can damage them.
hardware into a wall, use a Rectih'ing overcirilling If Shimming a bracket
small metal detector to ensure a hole too large or a wall
is if a shelf slopes forward due to
that there are no wires or surlace crumbles so that the the uneveiiness of the wall,
pipes beneath the surface. hole widens, fill the hole willi shim its brackets \\ ith jiieces of
Such metal detectors are commercial tilling adhesixi- anti cardboard. Place a le\cl on top
relativel>- inexpensive to buy. then insert the anclioi'. l.cl il of the shelf to help you judge
diA iK'lore inserting the screw. how much carelboanl to use.


Decorating Shelves
Shehes can be treated like any otlier item in their .surroundings. \\"hen deciding how to
a room in that they nia\' be decorated in decorate them, consider to what extent they
order to blend, complement, or contra.st with w ill be obscured by items placed on them.

Covering Shelves Adding DECORAinE Moldings

-\llowing dr\ ing time -\fter
painting sheh es. let at least
~2 hours pass before putting
anMJiing on them. This lets
the paint dr\- completely,
preventing denting or scraping
when vou place omimients.
x\dding trimmings Decorate
edges of sheh es w ith material
trim or a row of upholster)"
pins for a textured finish.
Using plastic To produce
a durable yet decorati\"e
surface, cover the tops of
shehes widi patterned sticky-
backed plastic. This is ideal
1 Attach double-sideJ tape
along die front edge of the
2 Applymoldings
gilding creimi along
surface. For
for kitchen shehes. which shelf. Cut a piece of molding the best effect, highlight parts
require regular cleaning. to the required length and of the molding rather than
Altemati\ ely. appl\- wallpaper stick it The
to the shelf edge. covering it totalK" with cream.
to shehes and finish w idi tape eliminates the need for \'ar\- the extent to w hich the
se\"enil coats of \'amish. nails, so no filling is required. base color shows through.

Improvising Shelves
Adaptation and variation are tiie keys to tiie ue\eiop \c)Lir innovative ideas. Its simple
creation of individual decorative effects. construction, requiring limited technical skills,

Sheh ing provides ;in excellent opportunits to means \ ou can design and build from scratch.

Using Alternatives Serving Practicalities Being Inventive

, Creating freestanding shelves
Shelves need not be secured
to a wall as long as the\" are
sairdy. not too tall, and do not
earn" heavv- loads. Improvise
shelving using large terracotta
phmt pots as supports for
lengths of natuml wood.
"Solidifvlng" shelves
open sheh ing look more solid
by painting the back v\all the
same color as the shelves.
Hanging from the ceiling
Supporting with rails Storing equipment Create unusual shelving for
Improvise v enical supports .Many household objects are light loads by suspending it

between shelves with chrome awkv\ ardh shaped and ditficult from the ceiling instead of
towel rails. WTiile not designed to store, .\dapt a plain shelf b) using wall brackets. If you use
for this purpose, they provide cutting out holes along its front chains w ith hook-and-eye
adequate support and create a edge from which to hang hardvsare. secure them firmh"
\crv modern, alternative look. brooms and mops, for example. into supporting beams


Wall Decorations
PKTi Kis AM) OTIIIK w All. Di'coKAi loxs HKikc a stak'iiK'nl ahoLil yoLir laste-. while
the manner in which they aiv clisplayetl eonlrilniles lo a rooms cleeoiatixe
atmosphere. The wide choice available allows a huge \ariety of efiects.

Bask; Han(,in(. 1-()iiii'mi;n i

A limited amount of equipment

is required for picture han.uinj;,
since it is a relatively simple joii

to carry out. Il()\ve\er. usiiii; ihe

correct equipment is essential
tomake sure tliat pictures are
hung safely and secureh.
Keeping pictures on the wall
l^re\'ent pictiu-e fastcnini^s oi- lAck-l-
fixtures from failint; h\ Lising
the appropriate liook.s and
wall hook
ihix'.ul loieath piitiu'e. .\laii\
hooks are sold with guidelines
lianj^iiiL; \\ iiv
as to the weight they can bear.

Choosing Hanging Systems

wall-hanging needs be Once ha\c worked
appropriate the for

size of a pictLiiv
and its
tianie. \oli this
can decide whether the hanging system itself is
out. \'oli

weight, which is deteniiineel In its mount antl to he a decoiati\e feature or purely functional.

Hanging Inventively Attaching Wire Hanging Ornately

Using picture Pictuiv

are ideal for hanging

pictures - especialh' hea\ \'

ones - by means of chains,

picture wire, or heavyweight
cord. For aesthetic effect,
consider painting chains
,so that they match the color
of the walls, or coordinate
decorati\e cords with the sol't

furnishings in the room.

^ Deceiving the eye Paint
a (.ord between vertically
aligned pictures or items
such as plates to produce the
tronipe locil effect of them
hanging from each other.
Avoiding holes Attach very
.small, lightweight pictures to
a wall using self-adhesive pads
rather than a hanging s\'stem.
This will eliminate the need
to make holes in the wall.

Hanging Wall Decorations

Positioning wall decorations is important for decorative balance but also ensure that each
creating the desired effect in a room. If you piece is fully appreciated, fulfilling its role as a
do it well. voLi will not onh" maintain an oxerall tinishing touch and a feature in its own riyht.

Enhancing Pictures Determining Position Marking Position

Lighting hicrease the impact Choosing height Position Using a finger Rub chalk on
of the pictures within a room joictLU'es for \iew ing from the one finger. Pt)sition a picture
by illuminating theni with eye level of an average-height on the wall, then mark the
picture lights. Alternatively, per.son. Needing to look up or point at which it will hang
use directional spotlights to down distorts perspective. with the chalked finder.
serve the same purpose.
Moving pictures around Inserting Hooks
Give a room a fresh look by
.switching the positions of Traditional Tip
existing pictures or introducing
one or two different ones.
Choosing frames The frame
plays an important role in
showing off a picture. If you
feel you ha\e made a wrong
choice of frame, you can
modify it relatixely easily by
painting the molding.
Cleaning frames Frames Sanding a hammer
collect dust and dirt like any Taping over the spot The striking face of a hammer
other surface. Use an old Apph a piece of masking tape to needs cleaning occasionally
shaxing brush to remoxe dust a wall where a picture hook is to prevent it from slipping off
and debris from e\en the most to be placed. This will prevent the nailheads. Sand the face with
intricate molding, thereby hook from slipping and reduce fine-grade sandpaper until
maintaining the frame in the chance of plaster crumbling it is shinv and clean.
the best po.ssible condition. and the hook being dislodged.

Using Posters Hanging Mirrors Effectively

Although posters are an Mirrors require similar hardware
inexpensive option, they can as pictures, except those that sit

be used in such a wa)' as to flush against a wall. Use special

have great decorative impact. corner angles, mirror pads, or
mirror screws in such instances.
Ironing Use a cool iron to
Take time to consider a mirror's
.snujoth a poster flat before
position, as it can dramatically
hanging it. Nothing looks
affect the appearance of a room.
worse than a poster that is
curling at the edges. Hanging large mirrors Most
Mounting Attach a poster large mirrors have mcuinting
to a wall using wallpaper brackets as an integral part of
adhesive. For the greatest the frame. Drill rather than nail
visual impact, place several them, and ensure that the sizc Increasing s|)acc
posters together on one wall. ol screws used will he suffieieni DramaticalK iiicrea.se the
and then apply a coat of i() take the weight ot the minor. impression of space in a room
matte varnish over the w Ik )1c Tightening screws Take care by carefully positioning a mirror,
surface for a flat finish. not to overtighten mirror screws, especially a large one. Center it

Aging Age posters or prints (.racking the mirror. Insert a ihin on a w all or in an alcove to
Iw rubbing a damp tea bj'j, piece of cardboard behind each distribute its effect evenly oxer
over the surface of tiie paper. screw as a liirhtenin" gauge. as much of the room as possible.


Soft Furnishings

SOFT IT RMsmxcs ARH AN i\Ti(.R\L I'ARi ol .1 tlc\( )rat i\c plan, eonirilnitini^ to
color coordination and st\k'. ("omplicalcel upholslcring or co\crii\g is best
left to experts, i^ul in some areas limited skills can achieve effecti\e resLilts.

Ba.sic Equipment
A collection of tools necessary
for working on soft furnishing.s
is inexpensive to put together.
Even the cost of a stapler has
come down in price, and there
is a good range of high-quality-
pieces to choose from.
Ipiiolsten.' nt-edlf
.Spools of tliread

Tailors clialk

T.ipc nicisuiv

Set >qLiare Staplcr PL-ncil Pattern paper

Choosing Fabrics
Whereas assembling a t(X)lkit is ivlali\el\ how e.xtraxagant to be. although in some cases
ine.\pensi\e. fabrics can send your costs fabric selection will be dictated b\- the t\'pe of
soaring. Howe\er. it is Lip to xon to choose finish \'oli rec|uiiv anel the look xou aim for.

Considering Fabrics
Checking .safety .Make sure
Common Types of Furnishing Fabric
that material is fire retardant. Medium to hea\-}"sveight fabrics you may fmd that their bulk
If it is you may need to
not. are the most suitable for making makes them more difficult to
buy a commercial spra\- and fumishiiiiis. Tlie\ are diiraiiic. but work with than liulitcr falirics.
treat the material \oiuself.
Choosing colors It can be
difficult tochoose fabric \\ hen
\()U are not in the room in
which it will be used. Paint
some of the wall color on a
piece of paper and take it to \'el\et Heav\"uei^lit cotton

the store with you. or take

fabric swatches home to \ iew
them in the appropriate light
conditions and surroundings.
Assessing costs Buy the best
fabric that you can affortl.

since better-c|uality material Wool mix

is more hardweariny.


Using Cushions and Covers

Changing upholsten,' co\"ers. introducing ne\^ finish to a room. How hnish these additions are
cushions, and t\ing in soft fiirnisliings with depends on your preference and sewing ability.

the rest of a room's decor can add the perfect Simple ideas can often he ncia' effectixe.

Making Cushions Measiring a Chair for Loose Covers

Bu\ ing secondhand Buy
secondhand curtains and use
them to make cushion covers.
This is an ideal way of saving Fold line
money when making more -
luxurious cushion covers, since
plush secondhand material
will cost a fraction of the price
of the equivalent new fabric. Side

Scenting cushions Add one

or two sprigs oi la\ender to
the stuffing of a cushion to
keep it smelling fresh.
Cushioning floors Join two
rag Rigs together to make a
large floor cushion that will be
both decorative and practical.
Use tw o different rug designs
for a more interesting effect.
Making bean bags Always
make an inner lining for a
bean bag so that the filling is

enclosed in a separate bag.

allowing for its easy remoxal
when you w ant to wash the
co\er. .\s an inexpensive
alternatix e filling, use loose-
fill loft insulation material.

Finishing the material accessories in your is a matter of personal taste. >X'liether you choose
ciecorati\"e plan is \eiA' much a case ol to kee]T things simple or aim for an extrax'agant
knowing how much or how little to use. which linish, trimmings shoulel enhance a furnishing.

Ide.\s \or Tki\i\iin(.s


Final Detail

THE PLAONG OF OBJECTS in a newly decorated room offc -tunity

for experimentation. Arranging and displaying omaiiJcirL- .^/L:. ^liuividual
flair will complete the decoratixe look that you planned to in the beginning.

CHAN G I N ( I CONTAINER' Pi AGING Ornaments Seclring Small Items
:^' necTins surface* ATr^ch

* .\rran.
are inter

Decanting toiletries Using double-sided tape

Pour shamfKKj or bubble bath Lighr eight or small ornaments
into glass containers, and arrange Grouping coilections Spwoe are ea^- knocked over Fix them
soaps in a matching jar to turn ^ >sition by attadiii^ douMe-
them into colorful decorative . d tape to their bases. .Alwa%3
items. Select colors that fit in cn>ure that the surface on winch
with the room s color scheme. Ihe^ stand will not be maiked.

Being Practical

The 7" '>-ibilri;r- are endless few

UMng ruiuTi] iicm* pnrefy f-ir
show or for pcact: ^
Seasliells <

aipriund ?he

Dncd flowers I

iwers as lhe\' ar-.

liiem with gold sfway-pami-

Pressed flowers Preserve a Making a soap dish
rlowers b>" pressing Cover the base of a ceramic r
Adding a finger plate " 'K'itfa an assortinc:::
iTcate glass boi%i
Screw an ornamental finger p^..
of cokxed pebbles to nuke
onto a door for a decorative ecj attractive displav'. and place _ r _-
that will protect the door from Feathers Lse 1 of soap on top. .\ny water will
dirt>- hands. Finger plates are drain through the pebbles lo
available in metal, plastic, or collect ai the booom of the bowi.

decorated ceramic finishes.


Tabic accessories, whellicr llie\ lonii pan looin's dctoiatixe style. 'I'liey also gi\e \()U the
of a permanent clispla\ or an.' u.secl onK opj-x )rtunity to use your imagination and bring
occasionalK . can contribute ertecti\ely to a a tout li ol originality to xour home.

Changing Usage Decorating Ceramic; Kitchen Jugs




"' *-' '" Icipe

Using items as ornaments

Put Clips or mugs to no\cl use by
Create bands around
1 ceramic jug using masking a
2 Once
the paint has dried,
the tape. This
converting them into miniature tape. Remove excess from the technique can be used to
herb gardens. Extend the idea to sponge before applying acr\iic create a variety of designs.
other containers for displaying ceramic paint o\er the whole To make the jug dishwasher
plants. Coordinate them to fit jug. This will avoid a gLimmy safe, bake in an oven for

in with the decorative theme. finish and give depth of color. 40 minutes at 300F (150C).

Decorative Containers
Storage systems often let a decoratixe plan decorati\e ox erhaul. Boxes and other containers
down. Even general storage items can be ma\- be hidden away from \ie\\ ,
but they too
made more attracti\"e h\ means of a simple can be transformed into something attractixe.

Adapting Boxes Tidying Bathrooms Using Containers

Painting shoe boxes Paint Storing toys Hang a simple
shoe boxes to create storage fS^ hammock of a suitable size in
boxes for photographs, letters, a child's bedroom and use it

or other paperv>ork. Use as a quick and easy solution

latex paint for a wipeable. to the problem of storing toys.
hard\\ earing finish. Choose Doubling up Create a
a different color for each elouble-sided storage shelf by
category of item so that you attaching jar lids - using either

can identify the contents by a strong adhesi\e or screws -

the exterior color of the box. to the underside of a shelf.
Decorating boxes Use When you ha\e filled them
trimmings to decorate storage with small items. screx\' the
boxes. Upholstery snaps \\\\\ containers onto their lids .so

give a sturdy look, while glass that they hang below the shelf.

beads or buttons are colorful. Using hanging baskets Turn

Using packaging Remoxe Using a vegetable rack a hanging basket inti a n( )\ el >

the cardboard di\ ider from .Most bathrooms are littered tvpe of .storage unit rather
a packing box. cut it to size, with all sorts of bottles and than using it simply as a plant

paint it with latex, and insert containers. Neaten the room up holeler. I fang the basket in .i

it in a drawer to create using a metal \egetal")ic rack, kilLJien anel Lise it for storing
compartments for storing socks w hich w ill save space and make \egetables or small bo.xes or
or other small items of clothinu. it easier to find a jiarlit Lilar item jars of dried herbs and spices.


Room Details
Some finishing touches are particularly suited decorative plan, but they can also he used to
to certain rooms home. They tend to
in the draw together \arious aspects of a style or
add yet another dimension to a completed simply update anel renew an existing look.

Curtaining off Corners of Rooms

Using Faijkics
Coordiinik' Juhnc
so thill il hlciuls
with ivcill cdivriiiii
(;ievtr use of fabrics will give
\ isual cohesion as well as
Ciiilciii! JHilc maximize space and money.

Saving money Buy a new

bedspread or throw to match
a color scheme, rather than
replacing all tiiebed linen.
Making a canopy Attach
a curtain pole to the ceiling
above a headboard anei
another one te) tiie ceiling
ab()\e tliL- foot of tlie bed.
Drape material between the
poles to create a canopy.
Cut a small block of wood nl the blocks to match
S Screening Cover a screen
iagonally into two pieces. wall color. Hang a
with material to match other
Screw one to each wall just curtain from the pole, using fabrics in a room, then use
above head height, and about a fabric that blends with the it as a movable partition to
3'/ ft (1 m) from the corner.
1 wall decoration. Attach several conceal unattractive features
Secure a CLirtain-pole mount tc coat hooks to a rail inside this or create a secluded corner.
each block, then attach a pole corner "cupboard" if required.

Renovating Units Reinforcing Themes with Accessories

Renewing a bath surface
Rather than re-enameling a
bathttib or replacing it

altogether, paint it with a

commercial coating. Follow
manufacturers' guidelines on
the preparation of surfaces to
ensure the best possible finish.

Finishing kitchen cupboards

The look of a kitchen can be
transformed by changing or
painting drawer and cupboarei
handles. Go a stage further by
renewing kitchen unit fronts.
saving money by retaining
the original framework if it
is in good condition.
# equipment
Give old white relrigerators
and freezers new Hfe by
coating them with colored Grouping bathroom items u il!i oiiianuiils

paints. Check manufacturers' Position bathroom accessories simph iiut elTecti\ely to emphasize
in.structions to ensure that the a theme - in this case a maritime theme in an assortment of blues.

surlace is suitable, ^'oli can Ihe starfish shapes and fish motifs contribute to the theme, w hile
also appK' paint ettects. the ceramic fish also provide splashes of contrasting color

USEFUL D E C C) R A 1 I N Ci I ! K M S

Useful Decorating Terms

Tills ciossARv i:\i'i,\i\s nil- Mi'ANiNc, orconinion ck'coialin,^ terms that arc used
hut not ttillv c.\j:)lainccl in the Icxl ol this hook. Ihc list inckiclcs e'(|iiipnR-nt,
nialciials, decorating methods and technicjiies, and other useful terms.

^ Acrylic A term elL-scribini^ Blocking A tcchni<|ui.- of labric u.sed lor soli lui nishings.
tlccorating nialciials. such as applving a design to a wall, Chipboard A nianul.K lured
paint, that arc water basctl. 111 )()r. or other area using a building board made Irom
Addres.s 'lb place a lcni;tli cut-out. shapetl object whose compressed wooden particles,

of pasted wallpaper on a wall surface is dipped in paint and used mainly for subtloors.
read)' k)r inaneuNcring into a then applied to that aica. Coir A coconut-husk hber
preci.se position and altachin_y. ~
iioister chisel ,\ hea\\ weight, u.sed for natural-fiber llooring.
Aging In dccoratin,y. (he broad-bladed chisel mainly Colorwa.shing A tr.iditional
application of one of a number intcn(.lctl lor masonr\' work, paint techni(|ue w hereb\ paint
of techniciucs to create the but usclul tor laxing buiiap- is diluted and used to le.ile c

impression of wear and tear on backed carpet over tack .strips. a semitransparent r.ither lli.m
a wooden, painted, or plaster Brick bond A design taken an opaque finish.

surface over a period of time. Irom bricklaying and applied Combing A paint-effect
Antiquing The application of to the laving ot tiles, whereby technique whereby a decorator's
one of a nhmber of techni(|ucs rows ot tiles are arranged so comb is dragged across a gla/e

to create the impression of the that no \ertical joins align with to produce a series of lines.
changes to a wooden, painted, those ol the pre\ i< )us row . (A)rnice A wooden or fabric-
or metal surface over time. lirocade .'\ lu.xurious. covered hard edging that
Architrave The molded heaw weight, silk tabric with conceals the hanging s\stem
edging of a door, window, a raised design woxen into it. ol a w indow lix'.itiiient.

archwaw or wall [lancl that Burlap .\ coarse, plain labiK (Countersink lb insert a

tonus the boundarx' between made from jute hlier. strew into wootlen surlace

thai leature anel a wnll. C^afe curtain A curtain that so that its head tloes ik it

lagging A paint-effect covers only the lower h.ill ( >! a piotruele abo\e that suiiace.
technique whereby a crumpled window .ind hangs Irom a wire This is achieved by means of
plasticbag is dabbed on a glaze or slim curtain pole sLispended a specially designed drill bit.

or emulsion to create a pattern. acro.ss the center of the frame. Coving A decorati\e plaster
Batten A length of wood that (;asement wmdow A w indow or poly.styrene molding used at

is rectangular in section ami ol tli.it has vertically hinged a wall-ceiling junction.

narrow dimensions, used for a sections and .sometimes also Oackle glaze A particular
variety of purposes. includes horizontalh hinged t\pe of glaze used to achieve
Bay window A window that aiiel or lived sections. a cni(/in-/m\' effect.

forms a recess in a roc^m. often Chair rail .\ niokling attached (.reu/iic'/ii)v \ term
with three sections looking out along a wall. rougliK at waist ck'scribing a jiainl elfeel used
in different directions. height, to separate uppei' aiul to age a surlace w ilh ilk'

Bead To spread paint using lower areas. appi-arance' of a network of

a small paintbrush into cornei' (Ihalk line A length of string, fine crac ks. and created b\'

junctions, such as where walls coated in chalk dust, used to till.' applitation of \arnisli to
meet ceilings, to create a piodikx' acxunitcK |")ositioned. a painted surl.ice.
preci.se edge between the two. straight guielelines for m.iin (Alt in To paint the edge of a
Beading A thin, wooelen. decorating t.isks. The cli.ilk w.ill or ceiling to i.()iiipk'U- the
decoratixe molding u.sed as line nia\ alteriiati\ el\ be coverage of the surlace.
an ornamental edging. housi.'d in a special \essel that Damask .\ silk or linen fabric
Bleed The seepage of cont.iiiis ,1 ch.ilk i\'ser\ ( nr, w nil ,1 t.k'sign w o\ en iiili > il,

unwanted sub.stances. such as ('liase in lb tut .1 giooxe in Decoupage A term

re.sin from wood, through the a w all to lake a cabk' or pipe. di.'scribing .1 k'chni(|ue used to
.surface of a painted finish. Chenille .'^ thick, \el\etlike decor.ite .1 surf.u\' In .ill.u hiii''

t ul-oiil papci' iiii.i,l;i-s Io <;i\(_' I'usible web .\ mcshlikt.' l.ipc.- colored material or allernalix'c
ihc imiii'L'ssion ol paink'tl ik'iiis. that is used to join Iw ( > fabric material, such as wood or tiles,

Distressing ( )iK' ( )| .1 nuiiilK'i' suii.K(.'s together but .i\oids lor decorati\e purpo.ses.
ot lL'tlini(|i_Kvs ot (.Ii'HIh'I'.iIl-K the neetl lor siiu hing. TIr' Inset tile \ tile of a diflerent
eroding a wooden or painUxl fusing pr( )( ess is .uli\.ili.'d b\ design or color from the
surface so ihal il appeal's woin, the IkmI fr( )m an ii< )n, surrounding bod\' of liles.

Dowel A shoil leiiglli ol Ciathered blind A highi\ Interlining An acldili( >nal

wood, round in s^'elion. used decoraIi\L- window livalmcnl la\ cr ol muslin or c )iher
lor a \ arieU ( )l puiposes in wilh a siallopi'd lower edge. liglilw eighl m.ilerial placed
ck-eoniling and soil lurnisliings. The bliml Is draw n U|1 t( next to a faf'iic lo increase
Dragging A |iainl elk\l m.iinlain this sh.iped eelge and insulaloiA or lire relardani
leelinn|ue \\ herel)\ a hiusli is lo ere. lie llie elfecl of folds of |iroperlies and. in ihe case of
(.liagged across a gla/e- lo create tumbling material. ciirlains. pro\ ide extra bulk
a series of \ery liuL- lines. Gilding A tec hni(|U(.' of to improNc the hang.
Egg tempera .\ uaililional producing a gold surlace In Joi.st .A large wooden
eggyolk-based iiii\Uii\' irs^'d ihe application ot calher gold supporting beam used to make
as a prolectiw toaling lor leaf or gold painl. a Iramework on which a tloor
painlwork and painl elleils, or (iinghani .\ fabric w itii is construe led,
niixi'd with color lo iiiDclme a a checked pallern usualK jute ,\ pi. ml w hose liber is

finish in its own ri.nlil. created b\ the w ea\ ing ol u.sed lor nalural-llber llooring.
I mix A term usetl w lie-n dillerenl-c ol( Jic'd \ arns. Knee kicker .\ gripping and
creating paint elfects lo (ila/e .\n oil or water-based slretching de\ ice that can be
tie.scribe a surface that is wry medium made ( In adding a used to lay most carpels.
realislii all\ i^.iinletl h > iinil.ile linl lo transpareni gla/cO, used Latex ,\ water based painl
anothei' niateiuil. sui li as lor creating painl effects and applied m.iiiiK to large surlaces
wood, ceramic tiles, or marble. bi< )ken color linishes. sue h as walls and ceilings.

Ferrule The nielal strip) (iloss hardw earing, high

.\ Lay off T( ) brush an
around tin.' centnil area ol a sheen p)aint. maiiiK used as unloadc'd paintbrush across a
paintbrush tliat liouses the a lo|i coal on w )clw >rk. ( )( ( wel painlecl surlaco to disperse

Ixrse of tlie bristles. Ciold leaf .\ \er\ thin shc'ci ihe bruslimarks in < )rder lo
Flat .\ broad surhice ot a ol rolled ( )r hammered g< )ld create as smooth a linish as

window rail or Irame. that is u.sed tor gilding. possible, I.a\ing oil can also
Fleur-cle-lys \ teim draining A paint-effect be d( )ne w ilh a p.iini re )ller

describing a traditional motif techni(|ue for creating a Liming .\ lec hni(|ue le)i

resembling a lily or iris flower. realistic, natural wood effect. staining wood a whilish ce)le)r

Flexible filler A filling (irout \ line plaster or using liming wax.

compound that is able' l( mortar for tilling in between Linoleum .-\ lleior coxering
absorb minor mowmenis in liles lo c rc'ale a Hush surface. made lre)m a mixture including
wood or plaster surlaces and Hacksaw .\ fine-toothed saw linsec'd e)il ,ind resins, mounted
is therefore able to maintain used tor cutting through melal. e )n a bill la|i bac king.
a continuous, smooth, and Hard board .\ thin Load-bearing Describing the
unbroken paint finish. manulaclured building b( ),ird capacitx' of a structure or item
Flush ,A term describing twi) made Ire >in compressed le) carry weight.
adjacent surfaces that join wooden panicles and used Low-tack .\ term usually
without an\' un(.'\(.'nness. or mainl\ lor co\ering sublloors. describing a \ariet\' ot masking
where a suiiaie is reixiiix'd lo Hardwood .\ wood ol higher lape ihal creates jusi ene)ugh
create a tolalK le\ el linish. (|iialil\ ihan s( )flw ( x )d. iisc'cl lor adliesie)n le > slic k le> ,1 surface
Frame head Tiu- bio.uk'si inlerior j( )iner\ . ( io( >cl lor wilhe)ul dam.iging ihal surface
area running around iIr- inside nalural wood linishes. w hen il is remo\ od.
ol a wooden door frame ihal Hue .\ \ariety or degree of .Mallet .A large.' hammer wilh
acts as a ba.se tor the doorstop, a color. I )iffcacail hues of a .1 heaw head. cetmniemU used
French windows \ casemenl parlicular c ( )1< )r are ( >llc'ii usc'cl |e)r mase)nr\
window or pair of windows in the s.ime decorali\ e plan. .Matte ,\ lerm describing
thatextend to tloor le\el and liila\' I'o inserl a sec lion a dull linish. ce)mme)nl\
commonK' open outward onto w iihin a Hal suiiac c- In lilling asse)cialed wilh lalex and se)me
a gartkai or ollK'r outside ai(.-a. a hole w ilh a diffcacnlK' nalural w e )e)cl linishes.

I) S F, 1 11 L D E C () K A T N I (. I ! K M S

Make good To pivparc a i'aint effect Tlu' use of p.iint Rag rolling A paint-effect

suriacc ready for (.leccM^ating. antl otln'i' m. lien, lis h > i re.ile ,i l(,'chnic|ue that is simil.ir lo

Marbling A painlH-t'trci p.illern. Icxluie. i n illusK m, .\ ragging except that the rag
tcchnitiiK' jiioducccl in one ol gl.i/e is ollen the inosi suil.ible is made into a sausagelike

a nuinlxT ol ways lo crcatL' llic m.ileri.il. but p.iinl cm Ik' usi'd length anel rolled doxx n a
impression ol a marble surlaee. .IS .m alternalixe gla/e or p.iint Ii > |in )duce
Mask To eo\er an area - I'aint system A melliod ol .1 direclion.il p.illern.

with paper, eardboard. or p.iint application, using .i Kaggiiig .\ p.iinl v\\(\\

masking tape - to pre\ ent il specific l\|ie ol ii.iinl. re(|iiiix-d Iechni(|ue xx herein .i irumpled
from being eo\ered In painl li 1 .H liie\ e .1 |\iilicul.ii linish. i.ig IS usL'1.1 l( I t re.iU' ,1 p.illern.

or other decorating material I'ari|uel flooring A llooriiig either In .ipplying It lo .i gla/eel

Medium-density fiberboartl Ir.idilii >n.ill\ m.Kk' up < )l sm.ill or painted surface, or dipping
(Ml)F) A manufactured wooden blocks. commonK the rag into a gla/e or p.iint.

buiUling board of varying arranged in a herringboiu' then applying it lo a surlaee.

thickness composed ol or other geometrical pattern. Rail .\ hori/onl.il or xertical

compressed wooden libers .md .Motlern alternatixes consist ol sirul lh.it m.ikes up .i p.ineled
used lor a \ariet\ t-ii interior wootlen paiuTs ih.il reproduce door or XX iiuloxx Irame.

joinerx and building tasks. till.' saiiK' lTIccI. Rebate .\n .irea ol a xxiiulow

Miter To |oin two pie\es ol i'attern repeat 1 he rail bordering a |iane ol glass.

material - lor exam|")lL', liles iiK'.isuremenl Irom w Ikmc a Repeat si/e fhe .ulu.il
or baseboanl - at a corner by |Xiltern begins to wheix' it dimension of a p.iiU'in i\'pL-.il.
cutting each at n degrees so finishes on wallpaper or labric. Rocker ,\ p.iinl-L'lTei tool l

that the\ meet neatly. Picture rail A molding that Liseel to create the impression

Miter saw A fine-toothed runs along a wall a short of wood grain.

saw that is short in length and distance Irom the ceiling, o\er Roman blind .\ 11. it x\ indox\-

isused for joinery purposes. which are hookeel lIcx ices tre.itment with .i number ol

Mural A large painting or from which to hang fr.imcLl ln)rizontal struts that gather the

painted decoration on a wall. wall decorations. material into a folded concertina

Muslin .A finch wo\en Picture window .\ w iiulow IS the blinel is r.iised.

cotton labric. consisting ol a single, large Rub back To remoxe tin.' toji

Nail punch small metal .-\ p.me or sheet ol gl.iss. co.il ol .1 surl.ice to expose
roil w hich. w hen placeil Plywood :\ m.inulactured XX h.il is underne.uh.
\ L'rtKalK o\ er a nail, can be building bo.irel constructed Sash window A xx indoxx
hammered to eirixe in the nail ln)m .1 number ol fixers ol m.iele up of Ixxo m.iin p.irls

head below surtace le\el. XX oolI xeneer stuck together in that sliele p. 1st e.ich other

Natural-fiber flooring A llooi such a x\ax' that the grain of verticallx' on s.ish cords.

covering made from plant one fixer runs at right angles * Sand back 'I'o use sandp.iper
fiber, such as jute, seagras.s, to th.il ot the prex ions laxer. to lex el .md smooth a surf.ice.

coir, or sisal. Also knoxxn as ply or plyboaixl. Scale down/up To transfer

Nippers .\ hand tool, Pol\A inyl adhesive (PVA) A the outline of a pattern or
resembling pliers with sharp multipurpose .idhesixe lli.it. im.ige Irom a source on to

teeth, th.a is useel to eiit small XX hen (.oncentr.iteel. .icls .is .i .1 ll.il surlaee xx heix' it xxill be
portions oil the edges ol strong glue, but x\ hen diluted reproLluced In .itliusling its

ceramic tiles in order to cut acts as .1 sl.ibili/ing solution tor si/e accoixlingly.
them to size or sh.ipe them. appKing to poxxxlerx surlaces. Seagrass .\ (.lur.ible fiber

Nog A small block of wooel Primar)- color One of three used for natural-liber llooring.

that is attached to joists to kaul colors - red. blue, and yellow. Secondary color .\ color
extra suppon lor tloorbo.iids. fliL'X .ire mixeel in .i xariety ol m.ide In mixing (.'tiu.il .imounls
Notched spreader A tiling r.ilios lo m.ikL' other colors. ol ixxo j-irimarx (.olors,

tool with (.astellated edge

.1 Primer A p.iinl used to se.il Self-le\eling compounti \

used to spread adhesi\e o\er and stabili/e a surl.ice belore com|")ound [loured oxer ,in

a wall prior to attaching tiles. lurther coats are applieel. uiU'XX'n lloor to produi.\' .i

Overspray A line spr.i\- or Puncli-and-rivet set A hole \v\ c\ surl.ice.

splatters of i^aint that h.ixe making g.idgel. used on |\iper Semigloss .\n oil- or xx.uer-
iminlentionally been s]-)lashed or l.ibric. xx hich le.ix es .i sm.ill b.iseel, mielsheen p.iinl suil.ible

oxer the wnmu surface. li( )le XX iih .1 rix i.'l linishim'. lor XX .ills .md i.'eilings.


Shade In evenxlay usage, a Subfloor The surface beneath to control the amount of light

\ariety or degree of a color: in flooring, usually of concrete or passing through.

scientific terminology, a color floorboards, and sometimes Verdigris .\ greenish coating
mLxed v\ith black. cov ered with hardboard. on copper, bronze, or brass
Sheen The degree to which Swags and tails Fabric that forms naturally with age
a particular finish shines. curtain accessories added to as a result of corrosion. Its

Sheet flooring A term used a basicwindow treatment. appearance is copied as a

to describe a variet\^ of utilir\- Template A design made of decorative effect on metal or
flooring that is laid in large paper, cardboard, or acetate wooden surfaces.
continuous sheets, such as that acts as a guide in cutting Vinyl A soft flooring - in

linoleum, \inyl. or rubber. out a shape from fabric or sheets or tiles - that is flexible
Sisal An aga\e fiber used for other materials, or in painting and cushioned.
natural-fiber flooring. a design on a surface. Wood-block flooring A tvpe
Size To prepare a plaster Tertiary color A color made of wooden sheet flooring
surface with size (diluted bv mixing a primarv' color consisting of small blocks.
wallpaper paste or a P\A v\ ith a secondary- one. Wood paneling A wooden
solution) to stabilize the surface Tieback A material or other wall cov ering consisting of
and ease the maneuvering of device that holds a curtain to panels constaicted in a variety'

wallpaper once it is on the wall. one side of a window^ frame. of different finishes.
Soaking time The period for Tile gauge A length of wood. Woodstain .\ naairalw ood
which \\ all