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Assessing the List of Typical Oxidizers

Final Report

Prepared by:
Elizabeth C. Buc, PhD, PE, CFI

Fire and Materials Research Laboratory, LLC


Livonia, MI

December 2013 Fire Protection Research Foundation

THE FIRE PROTECTION RESEARCH FOUNDATION


ONE BATTERYMARCH PARK
QUINCY, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A. 02169-7471
E-MAIL: Foundation@NFPA.org
WEB: www.nfpa.org/Foundation
Page ii
FOREWORD

The purpose of this research project, was to subject solid oxidizers from NFPA 400 Hazardous
Materials, Annex G.3 Typical Oxidizers to the bench-scale solid oxidizer test method recently
added to the Annex of NFPA 400 to determine if the listed Class assignment is consistent with the
established burning rate criteria.

The Research Foundation expresses gratitude to the report author Elizabeth C. Buc, PhD, PE, CFI,
who is with Fire and Materials Research Laboratory, LLC located in Livonia, MI. The Research
Foundation appreciates the guidance provided by the Project Technical Panelists, the funding
provided by the project sponsors, and all others that contributed to this research effort. Thanks are
also expressed to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) for contributing to project
funding through the NFPA Annual Code Fund.

The content, opinions and conclusions contained in this report are solely those of the authors.

About the Fire Protection Research Foundation

The Fire Protection Research Foundation plans, manages, and communicates research on a broad
range of fire safety issues in collaboration with scientists and laboratories around the world. The
Foundation is an affiliate of NFPA.

About the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

NFPA is a worldwide leader in fire, electrical, building, and life safety. The mission of the
international nonprofit organization founded in 1896 is to reduce the worldwide burden of fire and
other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating consensus codes and standards,
research, training, and education. NFPA develops more than 300 codes and standards to minimize
the possibility and effects of fire and other hazards. All NFPA codes and standards can be viewed at
no cost at www.nfpa.org/freeaccess.

Keywords: solid oxidizers, sodium dichlor, sodium permanganate, sodium peroxide, potassium
dioxide, sodium chlorite

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PROJECT TECHNICAL PANEL
Doug Carson, INERIS

Robert Fash, Las Vegas Fire & Rescue

Henry Febo, FM Global

Robert James, UL

Tom Kuechler, Occidental Chemical Corporation

Guy Marlair, INERIS

Ellen Meyer, Lonza

Stan Pickens, PPG

Jerry Pierrottie, Lonza

PROJECT SPONSORS

Lonza

Isocyanurate Industry Ad Hoc Committee

Page v
Assessing the List of Typical Oxidizers

FPRF Code Fund Project

Report Date: December 30, 2013

Elizabeth C. Buc, PhD, PE, CFI


Fire and Materials Research Laboratory, LLC
33025 Industrial Road, Livonia, MI 48150
ecbuc@fmrl-llc.com
Page vi

ProjectTechnicalPanel

HenryFebo(FMGlobal),EllenMeyer(Lonza),DougCarson(INERIS),GuyMarlair(INERIS),JerryPierrottie
(Lonza), Robert Fash (Las Vegas Fire & Rescue), Robert James (UL), Stan Pickens (PPG), Tom Kuechler
(OccidentalChemicalCorporation)

Acknowledgements

WewouldliketoacknowledgeandkindlythankLonzaandtheIsocyanurateIndustryAdHocCommittee
fortheirfinancialandmaterialscontributiontothisproject.Wealsowanttothankthetechnicalpanel
andHazardousChemicalsTechnicalCommitteefortheircontinuedsupportandinterestinsolidoxidizer
relatedresearch.

Contents
ExecutiveSummary...................................................................................................................................3
1.Background...........................................................................................................................................3
2.Oxidizers................................................................................................................................................5
3.Methodology.........................................................................................................................................6
4.SummaryofResults..............................................................................................................................8
5.DetailedDescriptionofOxidizers..........................................................................................................8
Ammoniumpersulfate..........................................................................................................................8
Sodiumdichlor....................................................................................................................................10
Sodiumpermanganate........................................................................................................................12
Sodiumperoxide.................................................................................................................................13
Potassiumdioxide...............................................................................................................................15
Sodiumchlorite...................................................................................................................................15
6.Discussion............................................................................................................................................17
7.Conclusion...........................................................................................................................................19
8.Appendices..........................................................................................................................................20

ExecutiveSummary
ThepurposeofthisCodeFundprojectwastosubjectsolidoxidizersfromNFPA400(2013)Hazardous
MaterialsCodeAnnexG.3TypicalOxidizersto the benchscalesolidoxidizer testmethod describedin
AnnexG.1.4.3todetermineifthelistedClassassignmentisconsistentwiththeestablishedburningrate
criteriainAnnexTableG.1.2.

SevensolidoxidizerswereselectedfromAnnexG.3TypicalOxidizers:one(1)Class1,five(5)Class2and
one(1)Class3.Eachoxidizerwasmixed,inatleasttwoconcentrations,withdrycellulosepowderand
ignitedwithaglowingwire.Theburningdurationandmasslossratedatacollectedindicatedthatthe
classificationofone(1)oxidizerremainedunchanged,four(4)maybeassignedtoahigherClassandone
(1)maybeassignedalowerClass.Ammoniumpersulfateprincipallydecomposedwithminorflaming
combustion;theresultingmaximummasslossrateresultedinahigherClassassignmentbasedontest
data. However, because the test data show that ammonium persulfate principally decomposed, it is
recommended that the oxidizer remain Class 1. The listed Class 3 anhydrous sodium dichlor also
principallydecomposed;itsmaximummasslossratecapturedbothdecompositionandcombustionand
stillresultedinalowerassignmenttoClass2.Stopwatchburningtimeandtemperatureprofileswere
used to establish mass loss from burning and from decomposition. Four oxidizers exhibited a severe
increaseinburningratewithmasslossratesexceeding15gramspersecondthreeofthemarecurrently
listedasClass2inNFPA400.Theresultsoftheresearchprojectestablishadditionalinconsistenciesin
NFPA400AnnexG.3TypicalOxidizers.

The bench scale test is useful to identify and distinguish between strong oxidizers and oxidizers that
principallydecompose.Whileonetestandcriteriaarebetterthannodata;onetestandcriteriaarenot
meant to prevent, reduce or replace comprehensive hazard characterization, fire and thermal
decompositiontestingofoxidizersandformulatedproductscontainingoxidizers.Itisrecommendedthe
intermediatescaleburntestbeperformedwhenthereareborderlineClassresultsorquestionsregarding
combustionanddecompositionthatmaynotbecapturedatthebenchscale.

1.Background
BeforethedevelopmentoftestsandcriteriaforassigningsolidoxidizerstoanNFPAClasswasestablished
and published in NFPA 400 (2013) Annex G, oxidizers were classified based on the subjective NFPA
definitionsandinsomecasesthelistoftypicaloxidizersintheAnnexoftheCode.AccordingtoAnnex
G.3.1,thelistofoxidizersinG.3.2throughG.3.5areprovidedtoclarifyhowthecommitteehasclassified
typicaloxidizers.OvervariouseditionsofNFPA430CodefortheStorageofSolidandLiquidOxidizers,
thesubjectivedefinitionsofClass1,Class2,Class3andClass4oxidizerschangedwhilethelistoftypical
oxidizersintheAnnexremainedthesame.TestdatawasrequiredtochangetheClassofanoxidizeror
formulatedoxidizerintheAnnex.

Theindustrysupported,FireProtectionResearchFoundation(FPRF)oxidizerresearchproject,published
in2009,developedobjectivetestsandcriteriatoassignsolidoxidizerstoClass1,Class2,orClass3based
onburningratedefinedbymasslossrateandactiveburningtimeofignitedmixtures.Theprojectresulted
inabenchscaletestwhere30grammixturesoftheoxidizeranddrycellulosepowderareexposedtoa
glowing wire ignition source and, an intermediatescale test with 10.9 kg (24lbs) of solid oxidizer in
combustible test packaging exposed to a propane fuel burner under a calibrated hood equipped with
instrumentationtomeasureheatreleaseratebasedongastemperaturerisedata.Thetestsandcriteria
aresummarizedinNFPA400AnnexTableG.1.2,reproducedinTable1below,withadetaileddescription
ofthetestmethodologiesinNFPA400AnnexG.1.2thoughG.1.5.6(seeAppendix1).

Atthebenchscale,burningrateismeasuredasmasslossandasactiveburningtimecalculatedfromthe
time stamped mass loss data. This method of collecting mass data, or gravimetry, during combustion
involvingoxidizershasbeensubject toRoundRobinevaluation andisthebasisofanew UN Test O.3
Gravimetrictestforoxidizingsolids.1,2FromtheRoundRobinevaluation,statisticalanalysisofthetest
data concluded that "mass loss based parameters yield improved results regarding the discriminatory
powerandtheprobabilitiesofwrongclassificationcomparedtotimebased(only)parameters....andis
highlyrecommended".Attheintermediatescale,theClasscriteriaarebasedonthepeakconvectiveheat
release rate, based on gas temperature rise data, and active burning time from radiant heat flux
transducerdata.Theheatreleaserateisoneofthemostimportantparametersinevaluatingthepotential
firehazardofamaterialbecauseitsmaximumvalueisthenumericalrepresentationofthepeakintensity
ofafire.

TheoxidizerprojectresultedinteststoassignoxidizerswitharangeinburningbehaviortoaClassfor
storagewherebefore,therewereadhoctestdatatonotestdata.OneconclusionoftheFPRFoxidizer
projectwasthattherewereseveralinconsistenciesbetweenvariousoxidizerslistedClassandtheClass
assignedaftertesting.

1 BAM 2011 Final Report Evaluation of the 3rd Round Robin on Solid Oxidizer Test (UN O.1) with Calcium
Peroxide, Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Perborate Monohydrate
2
United Nations ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.5/Amend.2 Recommendations of the transport of dangerous goods, Manual
of tests and criteria, Fifth revised edition, Amendment 2, United Nations, 2013.

Table1.NFPAOxidizerClassTestsandCriteria(MetricUnits)

BenchScaleTest IntermediateScaleFireExposureTest
[30gmixtureswithcellulosepowder] [10.9kgintestpackaging]
ActiveBurningTime
MaximumMass ActiveBurningTime PeakConvective BasedonRadiantHeat
LossRate* ** HeatReleaseRate FluxProfile***
Class (g/s) (s) (kW) (s)
Class1 0.3 30 100 120
Class2 0.3<maxMLR<3 6<tactive <30 100200 60<tactive<120

Class3 3 6 200 60
Class4 AClass4oxidizermeetstheClass3burningratecriteriaplushasevidencetosupportexplosive
reactionduetocontaminationorexposuretothermalorphysicalshock(asdeterminedfrom
Tests1(b),3(a)or3(b)intheUnitedNationsST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.5,Recommendationsonthe
TransportofDangerousGoods,ManualofTestsandCriteria,fifthrevisededition,2009).
MLR:Masslossrate
*MaxMLR:themaximummasslossrateofatestmixturefrom20%to80%thefinalmeasuredmass
tactive:activeburningtimecalculatedfromfirstmeasurablemasslosstotimeof80%finalmeasuredmass
**Calculatedfromthemasslossprofiles.
***Calculatedfromthewidthofthecurveatthepeakradiantheatflux.

2.Oxidizers
Sevensolidoxidizerswereselectedfortestingforthisstudy.TheoxidizerswiththeirCASnumber,
source,lotorbatchnumberandthecurrentlistedClassinNFPA400,arelistedinTable2.

Table2.OxidizersSelectedforEvaluation.
ChemicalName CASNo. Source Batch/LotNo. NFPAClass
Ammoniumpersulfate 7727540 Manufacturer 70101 1
Sodiumdichlorostriazinetrione(9698%) 2893789 OxyChem 454C096417 3
Sodiumpermanganatemonohydrate 79048365 SigmaAldrich MKBK1584V
2
(>97%)
Sodiumperoxide(97%) 1313606 SigmaAldrich MKBJ2816V 2
Potassiumdioxide 12030885 SigmaAldrich 11119DCV 2
Sodiumchlorite(40%) 7758192 SigmaAldrich BCBF36304 2
Sodiumchlorite(80%) 7758192 SigmaAldrich BCBF36304 3

Anhydrous sodium dichlorostriazinetrione (9698%) (sodium dichlor) is an algaecide,


microbiocide/microbiostat,disinfectant,sanitizer,bactericide,fungicideandbleachingagent.3Anhydrous
sodiumdichlorislistedasaClass3oxidizerinAnnexG3.4;sodiumdichlordihydrateislistedinG3.2and
establishedbytestingtobeaClass1oxidizer.

Ammoniumpersulfateisusedinvariousproductsandchemicalprocesses.Examplesincludeuseasa
radicalpolymerizationinitiatorinpolymerchemistry,asanetchantandcleanerofprintedcircuitboards,
and as a booster in hair bleaching formulations.4 Before potassium bromate and calcium peroxide,
ammoniumpersulfatewasanUNTestO.1packinggroup(PG)IIIreferenceoxidizer.Theburningbehavior
ofammoniumpersulfatewasstudiedextensivelybyHasegawa.5

Sodium permanganate is used in aqueous solutions as etchants in printed circuitry and is gaining
popularityinwatertreatment.

Sodiumperoxidewasusedtobleachwoodpulpfortheproductionofpaperandtextiles.Presentlyitis
mainlyusedforspecializedlaboratoryoperations,e.g.theextractionofmineralsfromvariousores.6

Potassiumdioxideisusedasanoxidizingagentinindustrialchemistry,asacarbondioxidescrubber,water
dehumidifier and oxygen generator in rebreathers, spacecraft, submarines and spacesuit life support
systems.

Sodiumchloriteisusedinthemanufactureofpaperandasaprecursorforgenerationofchlorinedioxide
gas.

3.Methodology
Thebenchscalesolidoxidizertestmethodwasusedtoevaluatetheburningbehavioroftheoxidizers
listedinTable2.AnoverviewphotographofthetestsetupinalaboratoryhoodisshowninFigure1.
AdditionalphotographsofthebenchscaletestequipmentandsetuparecontainedinAppendix2.Time
stampedmassdatawascollectedat0.2secondintervals;temperaturedataateachthermocouplewas
collecteda1secondintervals.Thetestsweredocumentedwithphotographsandvideorecordings.The
cellulosepowdermoisturecontentafterdryinginanovenat108Cforminimumfourhourswaslessthan
0.5weightpercent.Notesandobservationsrecordedduringeachtrialincludedthecurrentandvoltage

3
Oxy Chem Material Safety Data Sheet, ACL 60 Chlorinating Composition, MSDS No. M31034 dated
10/29/2003.
4
FMC Material Safety Data Sheet, Ammonium Persulfate, MSDS Ref. No. 7727-54-0 dated 09/13/2004.
5
Hasegawa, H., et. al., Characteristics of the conical pile type burning test method for determining the potential
hazards of oxidizing material, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 135-144, July
1989.
6
Wikipedia

ofthewire;adescriptionoftheburningbehaviorsuchaseaseofignition,swellinganddiscolorationof
thepile,approximateflameheight,colorofgaseousproductsevolved;thestopwatchburningtimefrom
energizing the wire to the end of visible flaming; and the time when the wire opened, if at all. The
laboratory temperature and relative humidity during testing were 18C to 20C and 51 percent to 65
percent,respectively.

Thecombustionof30grammixturesof1:1and4:1potassiumdioxidewithcellulosepowderandthe1:1
and4:140%and80%sodiumchloritemixtureswithcellulosepowderoverwhelmedthehoodoperating
onthehighblowersettingand/orwastooenergetic.Energeticmixtureswereignitedoutdoorsinathree
sided,drywalllinedenclosure.Thetestsweredocumentedwithvideorecordings.Massdatawasnot
recordedwhenusingthedrywalllinedenclosure.

Figure1.Benchscaletestsetupinlaboratoryhood.

4.SummaryofResults
TheresultsofthebenchscaletestwithoxidizercellulosepowdermixturesaresummarizedinTable3.

Table3.ResultsfromBenchScalesTestswithSelectSolidOxidizers
1:1 4:1 9:1 Class
Listed
MLR tactive MLR tactive MLR tactive after
Class
(g/s) (s) (g/s) (s) (g/s) (s) testing
Ammoniumpersulfate 0.30.02 29.91.8 1.80.5 8.82.5 1.20.3 9.41.1 1 2
Sodiumdichloros
0.50.1 43.74.7 1.00.1 23.20.9 0.80.1 27.82.2 3 2
triazinetrione
Sodiumpermanganate
2.10.2 10.71.3 11.31.3 2.00.4 2 3
monohydrate(>97%)
Sodiumperoxide(97%) [note1] 2.9 6.2 5.21.0 3.01.8 2 3
Potassiumdioxide[note2] >15 <1 >15 <1 2 3
Sodiumchlorite(40%)[notes3,4] >15 <1 >15 <1 2 3
Sodiumchlorite(80%)[note4] >15 <1 >15 <1 3 3
Datashownasaveragestandarddeviationcalculatedoverfivetrialsunlessnotedotherwise.
[Note1]1:1datafromtwotrials;4:1dataaveragedoverfourtrials
[Note2]Thedataforpotassiumdioxideisbasedonvisualassessmentandburningtimenotmasslossdata.
[Note3]The40%NaClO2mixturewasmadebydilutingthe80%NaClO2using(NaCl)salt.
[Note4]Thedataforthesodiumchloritemixturesarebasedonvisualassessmentandburningtimeandnotmasslossdata.

5.DetailedDescriptionofOxidizers
Adetaileddescriptionofeachoxidizersbenchscaletest,burningbehaviorandresultingClassassignment
isprovidedbelow.Eachoxidizertrialstestdata,masslossandtemperatureprofiles,andphotographsare
providedintheappendices.Thedatacollectedand/orcalculatedfromeachtrialforeachmixturewith
driedcelluloseperformedinthehoodinthereferencedappendicesincludethetimethewireopenedin
seconds,thefinalmeasuredmassfromthemasslossprofiles,thecalculatedmassat20%and80%the
finalmeasuredmass,themasslossratefromdatapointsclosesttothecalculated20%to80%thefinal
measuredmass,themasslossratelinearregressionrsquaredvalue,theactiveburningtimeinseconds
andthemaximumtemperatureabovethepile.

Ammonium persulfate. Ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8, FMC Lot No. 70101) is a clear, yellow
crystallinesolid.The1:1mixtureswelled,spreadblack/browndiscolorationandlowflamingoverthepile;
the flames extinguished and the pile continued to decompose without flaming combustion. The
stopwatchburningtimesofthe1:1mixturesrangedfrom33to37seconds.Thewireopenedinfourof
thefivetrials.Thetimeatwhichthewireopenedrangedfrom2minutes16secondsto4minutes11
secondswellafterflamingatthepileceased.Therateofgasevolutionduringdecompositionvisibly
decreasedwhenthewireopened.Thepeakflameheightfromthe1:1mixtureswasapproximately6
inchesabovethetestplatform.Theaveragepeaktemperatureabovethepilewas47284C.Themass
lossrate,calculatedfromthemassat40secondsafterthefirstmeasuredmasslossandduringwhich

flamingcombustionwasobserved,was0.310.02g/s;theactiveburningtimewas29.91.8s.Whenthe
residueaftertestingwasmeasuredandcomparedwiththeinitial30grammixture,theaveragetotalmass
losswas51wt%.

The4:1mixturesspreadblackdiscolorationandlowflamingwhileswellinguntiltheflameswentout;the
stopwatchburningtimesrangedfrom15to22seconds.Thepilecontinuedtoevolvegaseousproducts
untilthewireopened,whichoccurredinfourofthefivetrials.Theshortesttimeatwhichthewireopened
was2minutes3secondswellafterflamingcombustionhadceased.Peakflameheightswerelessthan6
inchesabovethepile.Theaveragemaximumtemperatureabovethepilewas31680C.Infouroffive
trials,swellingofthepileinvolvedthewirecoincidingwithandcausinganinflectioninthemassdata.The
finalmeasuredmasswastakenasthemassatthepointofinflection.Theaveragemasslossratewas
1.80.5g/s;theaverageactiveburningtimewas8.82.5s.

The9:1mixturesswelledblackwhileburningwithlowflamesneverreachingthreeinchesabovethepile.
Thepersulfaterichmixturecontinuedtoevolvegaseousproductswhilethewirewasenergized.Thepeak
temperatureatthethermocouplesabovethepilerangedfrom62Cto140C.Infouroffivetrials,swelling
ofthepileinvolvedthewirecoincidingwithandcausinganinflectioninthemassdata.Thefinalmeasured
masswastakenasthemassatthepointofinflection.Theaveragemasslossratewas1.20.3g/s;the
averageactiveburningtimewas9.41.1s.

Representativephotographsduringpeakburningofthe1:1,4:1and9:1mixturesareshowninFigure2.
Datatables,correspondingmassandtemperatureprofiles,andadditionalphotographstakenduringthe
benchscaletestswithammoniumpersulfatearecontainedinAppendix3.

Based on the 4:1 mixture maximum mass loss rate and active burning time, ammonium persulfate is
assignedtoClass2.However,ammoniumpersulfateexhibitedClass1burningbehaviore.g.,itdidnot
causeamoderateincreaseinburningrate.Visualobservations,lowpeaktemperatures,offgassingduring
andafterflamingcombustionfromtheammoniumpersulfaterichmixturesindicatethatthemassloss
was due primarily to decomposition rather than combustion; therefore, it is recommended that the
oxidizerremainClass1.


Figure2.Representativephotographsofammoniumpersulfate:cellulosemixturesduringpeak
burning:1:1(left),4:1(middle),9:1(right).

Sodium dichlor. Sodium dichlorostriazinetrione (NaC3N3O3Cl2, Occidental Chemical Corporation


OxyChemACL60ChlorinatingComposition,96to98%sodiumdichlor,0.5to3%water,0.1to1%sodium
chloride)isawhitegranularsolidwithastrongchlorineodor.Mixtureswithcellulosewerepreparedwith
thematerialasreceived.Asthismaterialissomewhathygroscopic,itwasstoredinadesiccatoruntiluse.

The1:1sodiumdichlorcellulosepowdermixturesignitedslowlyandoftenattherearofthepilewhere
theglowingwirewasexposed.Bothlowflamesanddecompositionevolvinggaseousproductsspread
over the pile. Flame height increased and the rate of gas evolution decreased with increasing time.
However,flamespreadwasslow.Peakflameheightofthe1:1mixtureswasgreaterthan9inchesfrom
thetestplatform.Thepeaktemperaturefromthetemperatureprofilesrangedfrom785Cto1,171C.
Flaming combustion ceased at 82 seconds to 112 seconds after energizing the wire followed by
decomposition. The average active burning time from mass loss data was 43.74.7 seconds. After
burninganddecomposing,theaveragefinalmassremainingfromtheinitial30gramswas5.3gramsof
lowdensityblackresidue.Theaveragemasslossratewas0.490.06withallmasslossprofilesfrom20
to80%thefinalmeasuredmasshavingrsquaredvalues0.97andgreater.

10

Uponenergizingthewire,the4:1mixturesevolvedcopiousyellowwhitegaseousproductswithminorto
novisibleflame.Intwoofthefivetrials,therewereeitherintermittentornoflamesobserved.Thewire
used for the 4:1 mixtures typically opened in less than 36 seconds. For the mixtures that did ignite,
measuringthestopwatchburningtimewasdifficultsincetheflameswereintermittent.Themaximum
temperatureabovethepileduringthetrialsrangedfrom84Cto167C.The4:1mixtureexhibitedan
averagemasslossratedouble(1.040.09g/s)the1:1mixtureandhalftheactiveburningtime(230.9
seconds)comparedtothe1:1mixtures.Visualobservations,lowpeaktemperatures,copiousoffgassing
and intermittent flames from the 4:1 mixture indicate that the mass loss was due primarily to
decompositionratherthancombustion.

Uponenergizing thewire,the9:1mixturesevolvedcopiouswhitegaseousproductswith minortono


visibleflame.Thewirewascontinuousintwooffivetrials;thewireopenedinlessthanoneminute,after
20secondsandafter35secondsduringtheremainingthreetrials.Themaximumtemperatureabovethe
pile during the trials ranged from 115C to 135C. The average mass loss rate was intermediate at
0.780.6g/s between the 1:1 and 4:1 mixtures. The active burning time from mass data was also
intermediateat27.82.2secondsbetweenthe1:1and4:1mixtures.

Themasslossofsodiumdichlormixtureswereboththeresultofdecompositionandflamingcombustion.
Thereclearlywasmoredecompositionthancombustionwithincreasingconcentrationofsodiumdichlor
inthemixtures.Themasslossprofilesexhibitedexponentialtypedecayovertime.Whilesodiumdichlor
anhydrousislistedinAnnexG.3asaClass3oxidizer,themaximummasslossrateandactiveburningtime
ofthe4:1mixturemettheClass2testcriteria.

RepresentativephotographsareshowninFigure3.Datatables,correspondingmassandtemperature
profiles,andadditionalphotographstakenduringthebenchscaletestswithanhydroussodiumdichlor
arecontainedinAppendix4.

1:1sodiumdichlor:cellulosepowdermixture

11

4:1sodiumdichlor:cellulosepowdermixture

9:1sodiumdichlor:cellulosepowdermixture
Figure3.Representativephotographsduringtestwith1:1(top),4:1(middle)and9:1(bottom)
sodiumdichlor:cellulosemixtures.Theimagesontheleftweretakenintheearlystagesofthetest.

Sodium permanganate. Sodium permanganate monohydrate (NaMnO4 H2O, Sigma Aldrich, Lot No.
MKBK1584V) is a dark, crystalline solid. The 1:1 mixtures ignited readily, first momentarily releasing
gaseousproductsthenburningwithflamesandminorsmoke.Thepeakflameheightexceeded9inches
abovethetestplatform.Thestopwatchburningtimesaveraged35secondsfromenergizingthewireto
theendofflamingcombustion;theactiveburningtimefromthefirstmeasurablemasslossto80%final
measuredmasswas10.71.3seconds.Peaktemperaturesabovethepilerangedfrom1050Cto1,270C.
Themasslossratewas2.090.23g/s;eachprofilehadcorrespondinglinearregressionrsquaredvalue
greaterthan0.95.Afteroneofthetrials,themassremainingonthetestplatformaftercoolingwas
measured.Thefinalmasswas11.57gcomparedwiththeinitial30g,or62%consumed.

12

The4:1mixturesignitedreadilyandburnedrapidly.Themasslossrateofthe4:1mixtures(11.321.31g/s)
wasgreaterthanthe1:1mixtures(2.090.23g/s).Thestopwatchtimeofflamingcombustionwasless
than4seconds;theaverageactiveburningtimewas2.00.4seconds.Thepeaktemperaturesabovethe
pile ranged from 816C to 967C. Representative photographs are shown in Figure 4. Data tables,
correspondingmassandtemperatureprofiles,andadditionalphotographstakenduringthebenchscale
testswithsodiumpermanganatearecontainedinAppendix5.

Sodium permanganate, listed as Class 2, exhibited Class 3 burning behavior. Combustion was more
vigorous than potassium permanganate (1.6g/s and 3.5g/s for 1:1 and 4:1 potassium permanganate
mixtures, respectively).7 Both the maximum mass loss rate and active burning time of sodium
permanganatereadilymettheClass3criteria.

1:1sodiumpermanganate:cellulosepowder 4:1sodiumpermanganate:cellulosepowder
Figure4.Representativeimagesofsodiumpermanganate:cellulosemixturenearpeakburning.

Sodiumperoxide.Sodiumperoxide(Na2O2,SigmaAldrich,LotMKBJ2816V,97%granular+140mesh),a
yellowparticulatesolid,mixedwithdrycellulosepowderhaddelayedignitionfromenergizingthewireto

7
Potassium permanganate was assigned to Class 3 based on the intermediate scale burn test data.

13

firstvisibleflameontheorderof3seconds.Onceignited,themixtureburnedrapidlywithpeakflame
heightsexceeding24inchesandcopiousgenerationofgaseousproducts.Twotrialsofthe1:1mixture
wereburnedinthedrywalllinedenclosure;twotrialswereperformedinthehoodwithmasslossdata.
The1:1mixturesburnedintenselyatthetestplatformwithorangeflamesandwhitegaseousproducts.
Thestopwatchburningtimeofthe1:1mixturesrangedfrom49to109seconds.Theactiveburningtime
frommasslossdatafortwotrialswere5.8and6.6seconds.Thestopwatchburningtimeswerelongdue
tosustainedlowflamesafterpeakburning.

One4:1mixturehada2to3seconddelayedignitionyetonceignitedburnedrapidlywithbrightburning
atthetestplatformandpeakflameheightswellover24inchesfromthetestplatform.Duringtheother
fourtrials,thesodiumperoxiderichmixturesignitedreadily.The4:1mixturehadsignificantlyshorter
burningdurationsthanthe1:1mixture.Thestopwatchburningtimeofthe4:1mixturerangedfrom13.6
to 26.8 seconds. The average active burning time based on mass loss data was 3.01.8s; the
correspondingmasslossratewas5.21.0g/s.Peaktemperaturesforboththe1:1and4:1mixtureswere
greater than 500C. The sodium peroxide mixtures were observed to liquefy and flow as a result of
combustion; lingering low flames were concentrated on the perimeter of the pool. Representative
photographsofsodiumperoxideareshowninFigure5.Appendix6containsmasslossandtemperature
profilesandadditionalphotographstakenduringtestswithsodiumperoxide.

SodiumperoxideexhibitedClass3burningbehavior.Boththemaximummasslossrateandactiveburning
timedatamettheClass3criteria.

Figure5.Representativeimagesof1:1(left)and4:1(right)sodiumperoxide:cellulose
mixturesduringthetest.

14

Potassiumdioxide.Potassiumdioxide(KO2,SigmaAldrich,Lot11119DV)isafine,yellowpowder.The
firsttrialwitha30grammixtureof1:1potassiumdioxide:celluloseoverwhelmedthehoodwithgaseous
productsofcombustion(Fig.6).Abright,pinkcoloredballofflamewasobserved.Additional30gram
1:1and4:1mixtureswereignitedinthedrywalltestenclosureandvideorecorded.Theburningbehavior
wasthesameasobservedinthehood.Thestopwatchburningtimeofthe1:1and4:1mixtureswere
bothlessthan1second.The1:1mixturecombustionwasabrightflashfirefollowedbyagaseouscloud
ofcombustionproducts;theremainswereablackdispersedresidue.The4:1mixturecombustionwasa
flashaccompaniedbyanaudibleboomfollowedbyagaseousplume.Therewereminorremainsafter
combustion(e.g.,near100%consumed).The1:1mixturemasslossandtemperaturelossprofilesare
contained in Appendix 7. The 4:1 mixtures were documented with video recordings; mass loss and
temperaturedatawerenotcollected.

Potassiumdioxide,listedastypicalClass2,clearlyexhibitedClass3burningbehavior.Boththemaximum
masslossrateandactiveburningtimeoftheoxidizermettheClass3criteria.

Figure6.1:1Potassiumdioxide:cellulosephotographsduringpeakburning.

Sodiumchlorite.Theoxidizersodiumchlorite(NaClO2,80%,SigmaAldrichLotBCBF36304)isafinewhite
powder. A 40% concentration was prepared by diluting 80% sodium chlorite with ground salt (NaCl)
beforemixingwithdriedcellulosepowder.The1:1mixturesweretestedinthelaboratoryhoodwith
mass loss and temperature data; the 4:1 mixtures were tested in the drywall test enclosure and
videorecorded.The1:1sodiumchlorite(40%)mixturesignitedreadilyandburnedrapidly.Bright,orange
flamesreachedheightswellinexcessof24inchesfromthetestplatform;thereactionleftalowdensity

15

black residue dispersed in the hood. Combustion was accompanied by copious amounts of gaseous
products.Representativephotographsofignitionandnearpeakburningofa1:1and4:1sodiumchlorite
40% mixture are shown in Figures 7 and 8, respectively. The mass loss profile from 4 trials with 1:1
mixturesisshowninFigure9.Thedataandprofilesshowthat23to27gramsofthematerialwerelost
duringcombustionin0.4to0.6seconds.

The4:1mixtureignitedreadilyproducingaballofflamefollowedbyacloudofgaseousproducts(Figure
8). The duration of combustion was less than 1 second. The 40% sodium chlorite mixtures dispersed
flamingparticlesfromthetestplatform.Additionalphotographs,masslossandtemperatureprofilesof
the 1:1 40% sodium chlorite:cellulose powder mixture are contained in Appendix 8. The combustion
reactionwassofastthatelevatedtemperatureswerenotrecordedbythethermocouples.

Sodiumchlorite(40%)islistedasaClass2oxidizer.Boththemaximummasslossrateandactiveburning
timeofthe40%sodiumchloriteoxidizermettheClass3criteria.

Figure7.1:1Sodiumchlorite(40%):cellulosemixturetestedinthehood.

Figure8.4:1Sodiumchlorite(40%):cellulosemixturetestedinthedrywallenclosure.

16

1:1 Sodium chlorite (40% ):CF11

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3

-5

-10
Mass loss (g)

Series1
Series2
-15
Series3
Series4
-20

-25

-30
time (s)

Figure9.Masslossprofilesfrom1:1sodiumchlorite(40%):cellulosemixtures.

The sodium chlorite (80%): cellulose mixtures were tested in the drywall lined test enclosure. Video
recordingsweremadeduringthetests.Appendix9containsphotographsduringthetests.Bothmixtures
ignitedreadilyandburnedrapidly.The4:1mixtureswereaccompaniedbyanaudibleboom.The80%
sodiumchloriteislistedasaClass3oxidizerconsistentwithitssevereincreaseinburningbehavior.

6.Discussion
Themaximumallowablequantities(MAQ)foroxidizerspercontrolareainNFPA400HazardousMaterials
Code Chapter 5 are based on the oxidizer Class. The determination of Class is based on information
availabletothetechnicalcommitteeintheformofalistoftypicaloxidizersor,morerecently,ontest
data. The list of typical oxidizers, while provided for informational purposes only, is widely used and
reproduced.

17

NFPA 400 now includes tests and criteria for users to assign solid oxidizers and products containing
oxidizerstoClass1,Class2orClass3.ThepurposeofthisCodeFundprojectwastoevaluateselectsolid
oxidizersfromthelistoftypicalClass1,Class2,andClass3oxidizerstodetermineiftheircurrentClassis
consistentorconflictswiththeClassassignedbasedontestdata.Fromthecurrentprojectevaluating
sevensolidoxidizers,thedataindicatethatone(1)wasconsistentwithitsassignedClass(Class3sodium
chlorite(80%));four(4)resultedinhigherClass/higherhazardassignment(ammoniumpersulfate,sodium
permanganate,sodiumperoxideand40%sodiumchlorite),andone(1)oxidizerresultedinalowerClass
assignment(anhydroussodiumdichlorstriazinetrione).WhiletestdataindicatedassignmenttoClass2,
ammoniumpersulfateexhibitedsignificantdecompositionafterthemaincombustionperiod.

Theresultsofthecurrentprojectareconsistentwiththeresultsofprevioustestinginthatanumberof
oxidizersexhibitedcharacteristicsfromaClassdifferentthanassignedunderAnnexG.3typicaloxidizers.
Theresultsofprevioustestingshowedfive(5)oxidizershadClassassignmentaftertestinghigherthanthe
assignedClasspriortotesting.Class1oxidizerscalciumperoxide(75%)andsodiumpersulfate(99%)met
theClass2criteria;Class2potassiumperchlorate(99%),calciumhypochlorite(48%availablechlorine)
andpotassiumpermanganate(>97.5%)metClass3criteria.8

UsersofNFPA400nowhavetheoptionoftestingorutilizingthelistoftypicaloxidizerspublishedinthe
AnnexG.3.TheresultsofpreviousandcurrenttestinghaveshownanumberofinconsistentoxidizerClass
assignmentsbetweenthelistedClassandactualburningbehavior.Inamajorityoftheoxidizerstested,
theoxidizerwasassignedtoahigherhazardClass.Themaximumallowablequantitiespercontrolarea
betweenClass1,Class2andClass3oxidizerscanbeordersofmagnitudedifferent.Ifanoxidizerisnot
properlyclassified,theprotectioncriteriausedtoestablishthecontrolareamaynotbeadequate.In
contrast,ifanoxidizerbytestingisfoundtobealowerClassassignmentthanthelistedClassthenthe
protectioncriteriapercontrolareashouldbemorethanadequate.

OxidizersthatprincipallydecomposecanpresentchallengeswhendeterminingClass.Themaximummass
loss rate may reflect decomposition as opposed to combustion whereas the current Class criteria are
basedonburningrate.Burningrateanddecompositionareidentifiedandrecognizedasseparateoxidizer
hazards.FromNFPA400(2013Edition),anoxidizerisdefinedasanysolidorliquidmaterialthatreadily
yieldsoxygenorotheroxidizinggasorthatreadilyreactstopromoteorinitiatecombustionofcombustible
materialsandthatcan,undersomecircumstances,undergoavigorousselfsustaineddecompositiondue
tocontaminationorheatexposure.Anumberofoxidizersdecomposewhenexposedtoheatorflame.
Thespecifichazardsofdecomposingoxidizersincludetoxic,corrosiveand/orexplosivegaseousproducts
andpotentialtooverpressurizeacontainerorbuilding.Thehazardsassociatedwithdecompositionof

8
The Fire Protection Research Foundation, Oxidizer Classification Research Project: Tests and Criteria, Final Report, Elizabeth
Buc, Fire and Materials Research Laboratory, November 2, 2009.

18

specific oxidizers are often contained in safety data sheets. For example, the safety data sheet for
anhydroussodiumdichlorstates:ifheatedbyoutsidesourcetotemperaturesabove240C,thisproduct
willundergoselfsustainingdecompositionwiththeevolutionofheatanddensenoxiousgasesbutno
visibleflame.Ammoniumpersulfatessafetydatasheetssimilarlystates:decomposesinstorageunder
conditionsofmoistureand/orexcessiveheatcausingreleaseofoxidesofsulfur,nitrogenandoxygenthat
supportscombustion.

Thebenchandintermediatescale testsarebased onburningrateand the data clearly distinguishes


betweenslowburning,lowmasslossrateClass1oxidizersandvigorousburning,highermasslossrate
Class 3 oxidizers. Oxidizers that decompose have corresponding mass loss and the mass loss from
combustion and decomposition are distinguishable when mass loss data is supplemented with
temperature profiles and video recordings. The test report for bench scale testing of oxidizers should
includeadescriptionofburningbehaviorincludingdecomposition.Oxidizersthatprincipallydecompose
duringthebenchscaletestmaybesubjecttoadditionaltestingattheintermediatescaleorlistedina
separateAnnexofboth.

7.Conclusion
ThesolidoxidizertestprotocolisreferencedintheNFPA400(2013)HazardousMaterialsCodedefinitions
ofClass1,Class2andClass3oxidizersandisdetailedinAnnexG.OxidizerClassisusedtodeterminethe
MAQpercontrolareabasedonuseandoccupancy.Fromthecurrentprojectstestresultsofsevensolid
oxidizers,one(1)wasconsistentwithitsassignedClass(Class3sodiumchlorite(80%); four(4)resulted
in higher Class/higher hazard assignment (ammonium persulfate, sodium permanganate, sodium
peroxideand40%sodiumchlorite),andone(1)oxidizerresultedinalowerClassassignment(anhydrous
sodium dichlorstriazinetrione). While assigned to Class 2 based on test data, ammonium persulfate
exhibitedClass1burningbehavioranditisrecommendedammoniumpersulfateremainlistedasClass1.
AnumberofoxidizerstestedthatarecurrentlylistedasClass2exhibitedClass3burningbehavior.

Currently,NFPA400AnnexGcontainsconflictingdata:AnnexG.2listsoxidizersbasedontestdatawhile
AnnexG.3isthehistoricallistofoxidizerstypicalofClass1,Class2,Class3andClass4.TheG.3listis
flawed in part because the definition of Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 oxidizer have changed over time
withoutconcurrentevaluationofthoseoxidizerslistedastypical.Theconflictingdataleadstoordersof
magnitude differencein MAQsfortheoxidizerbasedonClass.Thedatais providedfor the technical
committeesuseforlistingorclassifyingtypicaloxidizersinAnnexG.3.

One test (e.g., the bench scale test) and criteria are not meant to limit, prevent, reduce or replace a
completehazardcharacterizationofoxidizersandformulatedproductstoincludeenhancedburningrates
andselfacceleratingdecomposition.Itisrecommendedtheintermediatescaleburntestbeperformed

19

when there are borderline or questions regarding combustion and decomposition that may not be
capturedatthebenchscale.

8.Appendices

20

Appendix 1

Appendix 2


Test Set Up

-1-
Test Set Up

-2-
Test Set Up

-3-
Test Set Up

-4-
Test Set Up

-5-
Test Set Up

-6-
Test Set Up

-7-

Appendix 3


Ammonium Persulfate

1:1 Ammonium persulfate:CF11

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280

-5

Series1
Mass loss (g)

-10
Series2
Series3

-15 Series4
Series5

-20

-25
Time (s)

1:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

0
0 12 24 36 48 60

-4
Mass loss (g)

-8

-12

-16

-20
Time (s)

1:1 Ammonium Persulfate:Cellulose Powder Test Data


Trial Time Mf at 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20- Active Max
wire 40s (g) (g) MLR 80% burning temp
opened (g) (g/s) MLR time above
R2 (s) pile
(C)
1 251 10.5 2.1 8.4 0.29 0.98 27.2 553
2 136 9.42 1.84 7.53 0.28 0.99 29.4 451
3 140 8.05 1.61 6.44 0.31 0.98 30.2 460
4 230 9.71 1.94 7.76 0.33 0.99 32.2 348
5 199 8.7 1.74 6.96 0.31 0.99 30.6 551
AvgStd - - - 0.310.02 - 29.91.8 47284

4:1 Ammonium persulfate:CF11

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
-2

-4

-6
Series1
Mass loss (g)

-8 Series2
Series3
-10 Series4
Series5
-12

-14

-16

-18
Time (s)

4:1 Ammonium persulfate:CF11

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

-4

Series1
Mass loss (g)

-8
Series2
Series3
Series4
-12
Series5

-16

-20
Time (s)

4:1 Ammonium Persulfate:Cellulose Powder Test Data
Trial Time wire Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20-80% Active Max
opened (g) (g) (g) MLR MLR burning temp
(g/s) R2 time above
(s) pile
(C)
1 150 9.35 1.87 7.48 0.82 0.97 13.2 312
2 159 15.85 3.17 12.68 2.18 0.99 7.2 470
3 Continuous 13.18 2.63 10.54 2.04 0.99 6.2 250
4 continuous 13.09 2.61 10.47 1.87 0.99 7.4 300
5 123 15.19 3.04 12.15 2.20 0.98 10.2 252
AvgStd - - - 1.80.5 - 8.82.5 31680
9:1 Ammonium persulfate:CF11

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300
-4
Mass loss (g)

Series1
-8 Series2
Series3
-12 Series4
Series5

-16

-20
Time (s)

9:1 Ammonium persulfate:CF11

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
-4
Series1
Mass loss (g)

-8 Series2
Series3
-12 Series4
Series5
-16

-20
Time (s)


9:1 Ammonium Persulfate:Cellulose Powder Test Data
Trial Time wire Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20-80% Active Max
opened (s) (g) (g) (g) MLR MLR burning temp
(g/s) R2 time above
(s) pile
(C)
1 Continuous 12.8 2.56 10.24 1.14 0.99 10.4 111
2 Continuous 8.85 1.77 7.08 1.24 0.98 7.8 68
3 214 6.98 1.39 5.58 0.57 0.97 10.4 140
4 Continuous 9.16 1.83 7.32 1.47 0.96 8.4 80
5 continuous 11.31 2.26 9.04 1.67 0.99 9.8 130
Avgstd - - - 1.210.37 - 9.41.1 10530
1:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-1-
1:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-2-
1:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-3-
4:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-1-
4:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-2-
4:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-3-
9:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-1-
9:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-2-
9:1 Ammonium Persulfate:CF11

-3-
Ammonium Persulfate

-1-
Ammonium Persulfate

-2-
Ammonium Persulfate

-3-
Ammonium Persulfate

-4-
Ammonium Persulfate

-5-
Ammonium Persulfate

-6-
Ammonium Persulfate

-7-
Ammonium Persulfate

-8-
Ammonium Persulfate

-9-
Ammonium Persulfate

- 10 -
Ammonium Persulfate

- 11 -
Ammonium Persulfate

- 12 -
Ammonium Persulfate

- 13 -

Appendix 4


Sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione, anhydrous

1:1Sodiumdichloranhydrous:CF11
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

10
Massloss(g)

wireopened
15

20

25

30
Time(s)

1:1 Sodium Dichlor: Cellulose Powder Test Data


Trial Time wire Mf 20% 80% 20-80% 20- Active Max
opened (g) (g) (g) MLR 80% burning temp.
(s) (g/s) MLR time above
R2 (s) pile
(C)
1 Continuous 23.76 4.75 19.00 0.49 0.99 45.4 -
2 66 23.20 4.64 18.56 0.59 0.99 35.8 874
3 105 27.88 5.57 22.30 0.48 0.99 44.0 815
4 94 25.00 5.00 20.00 0.47 0.97 43.2 785
5 60 22.80 4.56 18.24 0.39 0.97 50.4 1,171
AvgStd - - - 0.490.06 - 43.74.7 911177
4:1SodiumDichlorAnhydrous:CF11
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

10
Massloss(g)

15

20

25

30
Time (s)

4:1 Sodium Dichlor: Cellulose Powder Test Data


Trial Time Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20- Active Max
wire (g) (g) (g) MLR 80%MLR burning temp.
opened (g/s) R2 time above
(s) (s) pile
(C)
1 38 20.9 4.18 16.72 1.17 0.99 22.6 84
2 25 22.2 4.44 17.76 1.05 0.99 22.4 113
3 25 23.5 17.4 18.80 1.09 0.99 22.4 167
4 36 21.0 4.20 16.83 0.98 0.99 24.0 -
5 23 24.1 4.82 19.28 0.91 0.99 24.4 -
AvgStd - - - 1.040.09 - 230.9 12142
9:1SodiumDichlorAnhydrous:CF11
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
5

10
Mass(g)

15

20

25

30
Time(s)

9:1 Sodium Dichlor: Cellulose Powder Test Data


Trial Time wire Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20-80% Active Max.
opened (g) (g) (g) MLR MLR burning temp
(g/s) R2 time above
(s) pile
(C)
1 Continuous 22.1 4.42 17.68 0.75 0.99 30.8 135
2 58 22.1 4.42 17.68 0.88 0.99 26.8 125
3 20 18.2 3.64 14.56 0.76 0.98 25 129
4 35 20.0 4.00 16.00 0.81 0.99 27.2 117
5 Continuous 21.5 4.3 17.20 0.73 -- 29.4 115
Avgstd - - - 0.780.06 27.82.27 1248
1:1 Sodium Dichlor: CF11

-1-
1:1 Sodium Dichlor: CF11

-2-
4:1 Sodium Dichlor: CF11

-1-
4:1 Sodium Dichlor: CF11

-2-
4:1 Sodium Dichlor: CF11

-3-
Sodium Dichlor

-1-
Sodium Dichlor

-2-
Sodium Dichlor

-3-
Sodium Dichlor

-1-
Sodium Dichlor

-2-
Sodium Dichlor

-3-
Sodium Dichlor

-4-
Sodium Dichlor

-5-

Appendix 5


Sodium Permanganate

1:1SodiumPermanganate:CF11
0
0 5 10 15 20

10
T1
Massloss(g)

t2
15
T3
T4
20
T5

25

30
Time(s)

1:1 Sodium Permanganate: Cellulose Powder Test Data


Trial Time Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20- Active Max
wire (g) (g) (g) MLR 80% burning temp
opened (g/s) MLR time above
2
(s) R (s) pile
(C)
1 No 18.31 3.66 14.64 2.20 0.97 9.0 1,270

2 No 21.29 4.25 17.03 2.11 0.98 12.0 1,109


3 No 20.56 4.11 16.44 1.82 0.97 12.0 1,210
4 No 20.82 4.16 16.65 1.93 0.98 10.6 1,050
5 No 19.80 3.96 15.84 2.43 0.97 10.0 1,050
AvgStd - - - 2.090.23 - 10.71.3 1,13799
4:1SodiumPermanganate:CF11
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10
Massloss(g)

15

20

25

30
Time(s)

4:1 Sodium Permanganate: Cellulose Powder Test Data


Trial Time wire Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20-80% Active Max
opened (g) (g) (g) MLR MLR burning temp.
(g/s) R2 time above
(s) pile
(C)
1 continuous 18.8 3.76 15.04 10.39 0.98 2.0 917
2 continuous 18.7 3.74 14.96 11.84 0.99 2.2 967
3 continuous 17.0 3.40 13.60 13.33 0.99 1.6 816
4 continuous 17.3 3.46 13.84 10.07 0.99 2.6 927
5 continuous 16.5 3.30 13.2 10.97 0.99 1.6 893
AvgStd - - - 11.321.31 - 2.00.42 90456
1:1 Sodium Permanganate: CF11

-1-
1:1 Sodium Permanganate: CF11

-2-
1:1 Sodium Permanganate: CF11

-3-
4:1 Sodium Permanganate: CF11

-1-
4:1 Sodium Permanganate: CF11

-2-
4:1 Sodium Permanganate: CF11

-3-
Sodium Permanganate

-1-
Sodium Permanganate

-2-
Sodium Permanganate

-3-
Sodium Permanganate

-4-
Sodium Permanganate

-5-
Sodium Permanganate

-6-

Appendix 6


Sodium Peroxide

1:1 Sodium Peroxide: CF11


0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
-5

-10
Mass loss (g)

-15

-20

-25

-30
Time (s)

1:1 Sodium peroxide: cellulose powder test data


Trial Time Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20-80% Active Max
wire (g) (g) (g) MLR MLR burning temp
opened (g/s) R2 time above
(s) pile
(C)
1 No 19.2 3.84 15.36 1.33 0.95 5.8 -
2 No 12.5 2.5 10.0 4.47 0.99 6.6 -
4:1 Sodium peroxide:cellulose powder test data
Trial Wire Mf 20%Mf 80%Mf 20-80% 20-80% Active Max
opened (g) (g) (g) MLR MLR burning temp
(g/s) R2 time above
(s) pile
(C)
1 no 13.5 2.7 10.8 3.5 0.98 5.8
2 yes 10.4 2.08 8.32 6.2 0.98 2 >1200
3 yes nr - - nr - - 1,083
4 yes 13.5 2.7 10.8 5.5 0.97 2.4 930
5 yes 12.6 2.52 10.08 5.9 0.99 2.4 1,323
AvgStd - - - 5.21.0 - 3.01.8 -
1:1 Sodium Peroxide: CF11

-1-
4:1 Sodium Peroxide: CF11

-1-
4:1 Sodium Peroxide: CF11

-2-
4:1 Sodium Peroxide: CF11

-3-
Sodium Peroxide

-1-
Sodium Peroxide

-2-
Sodium Peroxide

-3-
Sodium Peroxide

-4-
Sodium Peroxide

-5-
Sodium Peroxide

-6-

Appendix 7


1:1 Potassium dioxide: CF11

10

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3
-5

-10
Mass
(g)

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35
Time (s)
1:1 Potassium Dioxide:CF11

-1-
Potassium Dioxide

-1-
Potassium Dioxide

-2-
Potassium Dioxide

-3-
Potassium Dioxide

-4-
Potassium Dioxide

-5-

Appendix 8


1:1 Sodium chlorite (40% ):CF11

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3

-5

-10
Mass loss (g)

Series1
Series2
-15
Series3
Series4
-20

-25

-30
time (s)
1:1 Sodium chlorite (40%):CF11

-1-
1:1 Sodium chlorite (40%):CF11

-2-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-1-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-2-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-3-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-4-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-5-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-6-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-7-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-8-
40% Sodium Chlorite

-9-
Appendix 9
80% Sodium Chlorite

-1-
80% Sodium Chlorite

-2-
80% Sodium Chlorite

-3-

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