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Steam Turbine Analysis

CH. 2 Prepare by Dr Assim Al Daraje

Steam Turbine Cycles

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Classical steam power plant

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Rankine Cycle
Vapor-power cycle commonly used in power plants with
water as the working fluid

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T - s diagrams

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Processes
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion of the working fluid
through the turbine from saturated vapor at state
1 to the condenser pressure (Q = 0; s = 0)
2 to 3: Heat transfer from the working fluid as it
flows at constant pressure through the condenser
with saturated liquid at state 3
3 to 4: Isentropic compression in the pump to state 4
in the compressed liquid region. (Q = 0;
s = 0)
4 to 1: Heat transfer to the working fluid as it flows
at constant pressure through the boiler to
complete the cycle 5
P - V diagrams

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Example: Rankine cycle

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8
Efficiency of Rankine Cycle

qabsorb= h2 - h1

qexhaust= h3 h4

qabsorb qexhaust

qabsorb

h2 h1 (h3 h4 )

h2 h1
h2 h1 h3 h4 )

h2 h1
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Usually, The properties: p1, t1 and p2 are
available for a power plant,then:
h1: From p , t , get h , s
1 1 1 1
h2 :
From p2 , get s2 , s3
h2 , h2

s2 s1 xs2"(1x)s2 '
So, x can be known
h2 xh2"(1x)h2 '
h4: From p1 , s1= s4 get
h3: From p2 , get h2 ,
h4
s2 .
h3= h3 s3= s3 10
The Influence of Steam Property: a- Exhaust Pressure

To decrease the
exhaust pressure can
increase the
efficiency of
Rankine cycle.
But the dryness
fraction will increase
too. This can lead
some damage to
steam turbine
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B- Inlet temperature
To decrease the
inlet temperature
can increase the
efficiency of
Rankine cycle.
But this increase
depends on boiler
material

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b- Inlet pressure

To increase the inlet


pressure can
increase the
efficiency of
Rankine cycle
greatly.
But this increase
also depends on
boiler material
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Reheat Cycle
Equipments of Reheat Cycle

Reheater

Steam turbine

boiler

Feed water pump condenser

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Efficiency

Efficiency

qin (h1 h4 ) (hn hm )

qexhaust h2 h3
w qin qexhaust
w

qin
(h1 h4 ) (hn hm ) (h2 h3 )

T-s diagram (hm h1) (h1 hn )
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The properties: p1, t1 , pm , tn (equals t1 usually), p2 are available
for a reheat power plant,then:

h1: From p1, t1 , get h1 , s1

hm: From p2 , s2 =s1, get hm

hn: From pm , tn , get hn

h2: From p2 , get s2 , s3


h2 , h2
s2 sn xs2"(1x)s2 '
So, x can be known

h2 xh2"(1x)h2 '
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h3: From p2 , get h2 , s2 .
h3= h3 s3= s3

h4: From p1 , s1= s4 get h4

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The Regenerative Rankine Cycle
Another important variation from the Rankine cycle is
the regenerative cycle which uses feedwater heaters as
shown in the Figure. In this cycle the coming water
from the condenser before entering the boiler is heated
by steam extracted or bled from the turbine at different
stages and pushed to feedwater heater/s. In doing so,
the thermal efficiency of the cycle will be improved
significantly, reduces the steam flow to the condenser
(needing smaller condenser) and reduces the
temperature difference between the condenser (reduces
the operating cost).
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Regenerative Cycle
Ideal Regenerative Cycle

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Regenerative Cycle
1

Steam turbine

a
boiler
Steam
2

6
condenser
5
3

Feed water pump drainage pump


Feed water heater
4

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T

1
The feed water is
heated by steam
6 1 bleeding out from
steam turbine. The
average temperature
5 of heat absorption
1
4
process increases then.
3 2

The flow of steam bleeding out from the turbine 100%

The flow of steam entering the turbine


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1

Steam turbine

b
a
boiler
2

7
5 condenser
6
3
Feed water pump drainage pump
Feed water heater 4

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The more stages of
bleeding steam, the
T higher efficiency the
cycle has
1

1
1
7

6
2
4 5
11 2
3 2

s
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The efficiency of regenerative Cycle
As to a two stages regenerative cycle, the properties: p1, t1 , pa ,
pb , p2 are available. If neglect the pump work, the T-s diagram
should be as following.

T 1

1 a qin h1 h6
6 1 q (h h )(1 )
b
exhaust 2 3 1 2

5 2
w qin qexhaust
4 1 1 2 q q
in exhaust

3 2

q in
s

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The enthalpy of each point

h1: From p , t , get h , s


1 1 1 1
T 1
ha: From pa , s1, get ha
1 a hb: From p , s , get hb
b 1
6 1
b
5
2 h2: From p , get s , s
2 2 3
4 11 2 h2 , h2
s2 s1 xs2 "(1x)s2 '
3 2

s So, x can be known


h2 xh2"(1x)h2 '
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T 1

h3 : From p2 , get h2 , h3= h2


1 a

6 1 h5 : From pb , get hb , h5= hb


b
5
2 From pa , get ha , h6= ha
h6 :
4 11 2
3 2

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1 and 2
As to the 1st stage heater
1 ha

h6 h5

11

According to the first law of thermodynamics

h6 h5(11) 1ha
h6 h5
1
ha h5 28
As to the 2nd stage heater

2 hb

h5 h4

11 11 -2

According to the first law of thermodynamics

h5 (11) h4 (11 2 ) 2hb

(11)(h5 h4)
2
hb h4

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Qin Example 1 - Superheat Rankine Cycle
2 3
boiler Wout
Turbine
Win pump Consider the same Rankine power
cycle as we analyzed before. But this
condenser
time we are going to superheat the
1 4
steam in the boiler before allowing it
to enter the turbine at 6 MPa. The
Qout steam exits from the turbine will be
3
T 100% saturated vapor as shown.
After condensing, saturated liquid
enters the pump at a pressure of 0.1
MPa. Determine (a) the rate of heat
2
transfer into the boiler per unit mass,
4
(b) the net power generation per unit
1
s mass. (c) the thermal efficiency,
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Solution - Superheat Rankine Cycle Example

(4) Let us analyze state 4 first, when the steam exits from the turbine
P4 0.1(MPa), From saturated steam table C-2
s4 sg 7.3602(kJ / kgK ), h4 hg 2675.5(kJ / kgK )
(1) Now look at the state 1 when the steam enters the pump, again use C-2
s1 s f 1.3029(kJ / kgK ), h1 hf 417.4(kJ / kgK )
v1 v f 0.001043(m3 / kg)
(2) From 1-2, the pump compressed the saturared liquid into compressed liquid
The process is isentropic, s=constant, therefore, from the Tds equation
2

Tds dh vdP, ds 0, dh vdP, int egrate h2 h1 vdP


1

Since the substance is compressed liquid, v=constant


2

h2 h1 vdP v1 (P2 P1 ) (0.001043)(6000 100) 6.15(kJ / kg) Wpump


1

h2 h1 Wpump 417.4 6.15 423.6(kJ / kg)


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Solution(cont.)
(3) Finally, since the turbine is going through an isentropic expansion
s s 7.36(kJ / kgK ), P 6 MPa
3 4 3

We can determine the thermodynamic properties of this superheated vapor


using superheated table C - 3 through interpolation
T 674C, h 3832.9(kJ / kg)
3 3

(a) The rate of heat transfer into the boiler


q m (h
in
h (1)(3832.9 423.6) 3409.3(kW ) per kg of steam
3

) 2

(b) The net power generation


W W W m [(h h ) (h h )] 1157.4 6.15
net turbine pump 3 4 2 1

= 1151.2(kW) net power generation per kg of steam


(c) Thermal efficiency

=W / q 1151.2 / 3409.3 33.8%


net in

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Discussion
Without going through (tedious) calculation, can you roughly
estimate the thermal efficiency of the first Rankine system
(without superheating) ? Is this estimated value close to the
calculated one (35.3%).

By increasing the condensing pressure from 0.01 MPa to 0.1


MPa, how will the thermal efficiency of the system will vary due
to this change?

Can you estimate the change (order of magnitude only) without


going through calculation?

Based on our calculation, the thermal efficiency actually


decreases from 35.3% to 33.8%. Is this value consistent with
your estimation? Why or why not?
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(cont.) Discussion
If we assume the system is operated under a Carnot cycle, then
h=1-TL/TH, where TL=45.8C, TH=275.6 C, both from table A-5.
(How?). Therefore, h=0.418. The Rankine efficiency should be
less than that.

Increase pressure to 0.1 MPa, the condensing temperature


increases to 99.6 C. Therefore, the efficiency based on Carnot
cycle should decrease to 0.321.

The percentage change is (0.418-0.321)/0.418=23.2%, a


significant drop in thermal efficiency.

However, the real change of the thermal efficiency is very small.


Explain why?
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Example 2 - Super-Reheat Rankine Cycle
3 high-P Low-P T high-P 3 5
turbine turbine turbine low-P
turbine
boiler
4
4
5 6
2
2 pump 1
1 6
condenser
s
We are going to add a low pressure turbine (5-6) to the system we just
analyzed. Before going into the L-P turbine, the exit steam from the
first turbine (3-4) is reheated in the boiler at a constant pressure.
Assume both 4 & 6 are at 100% saturated vapor state and the vapor
exiting from the H-P turbine (state 4) expands to a lower pressure of 2
MPa (P4=2 MPa) before it is being reheated at a constant pressure to
the state 5. Recalculate (a) the thermal efficiency of the system. 35
Solution
States 1, 2 are unchanged
(1) s1 s f 1.3029(kJ / kgK ), h1 hf 417.4(kJ / kgK )
v1 v f 0.001043(m 3 / kg)
2

(2) h2 h1 vdP v1(P2 P1 ) (0.001043)(6000 100) 6.15(kJ / kg) Wpump


1

h2 h1Wpump 417.4 6.15 423.6(kJ / kg)


State 6 is the same as the state 4 from the previous cycle
(6) From table C-2, when P6 0.1 MPa
s6 sg 7.3602(kJ / kgK ), h6 hg 2675.5(kJ / kgK )
(5) From 5-6, the vapor is undergoing an isentropic expansion
s5 s6 7.3602(kJ / kgK ),
P5 P4 2MPa, (const. pressure heat addition from 4 to 5)
From table C-3, T5 475.4C, h5 3413.4(kJ / kg)
(4) P4 2MPa, saturation table C-2
s4 sg 6.3417(kJ / kgK ), h4 hg 2799.5(kJ / kgK )
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Solution (cont.)
(3) From 3-4, vapor is going through an isentropic expansion in H-P turbine
s3 s4 6.3417(kJ / kgK ), P3 6MPa
From superheated table C-3, T3 351.8C, h3 3047.8(kJ / kg)
The turbine work is the sum of both turbines
Wturbine =W3-4 +W5-6 = h 3 h4 + h 5 h6 =(3047.8-2799.5)+(3413.4-2675.5)
=248.3+737.9=986.2(kJ/kg)
The heat transfer into the boiler is the sum of the primary heat and reheat
q boiler =q 2-3 +q 4-5 = h 3 h2 + h 5 h4 =(3047.8-423.6)+(3413.4-2799.5)
=2624.2+613.9=3238.1
Wpump h2 h 6.15(kJ / kg)
1

=Wnet / qin (Wturbine Wpump ) / qin (986.2 6.15) / 3238.1 0.303 30.3%

Question: Why the thermal efficiency decreases when we reheat the steam?
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Combined Cycle
Combining Rankine and Brayton cycles

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