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Simulation-Enabled 5G Antenna Design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION

Simulation-Enabled 5G Antenna Design

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Agenda

5G Motivation and Challenges
5G Motivation and Challenges
5G Motivation and Challenges
5G Motivation and Challenges

5G Motivation and Challenges

5G Motivation and Challenges
5G Motivation and Challenges
5G Motivation and Challenges
5G Motivation and Challenges
Mobile Device Antenna Array Example
Mobile Device Antenna Array Example
Mobile Device Antenna Array Example
Mobile Device Antenna Array Example

Mobile Device Antenna Array Example

Mobile Device Antenna Array Example
Mobile Device Antenna Array Example
Mobile Device Antenna Array Example
Mobile Device Antenna Array Example
Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator
Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator
Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator

Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator

Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator
Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator
Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator
Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator
Huawei MIMO Base Station Demonstrator

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

5G Motivation and Challenges

Consumer device bandwidth requirements increasing

at rapid rates

Historical

crowded

(4,3G) bands below 3 GHz increasingly

Push for 28+ GHz frequency for 5G

subject to relatively high atmospheric attenuation

smaller wavelength more susceptible to multipath loss

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

5G Antenna design

Antenna Requirements

Efficiency is critical, targeted Gain of 12 dB for mobile device and 25 dB for base stations

Gain cannot come at the expense of coverage beam

steered arrays ideal solution

Diversity Gain can also be leveraged MIMO

Simulation challenges

High frequency and array topology pose simulation challenges (memory, system complexity)

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Omni-directional Beam-steered
Omni-directional
Beam-steered

Diversity / MIMO Antennas

Simple Maximal Signal Diversity Gain
Simple Maximal Signal Diversity Gain

Multi-path signal transmission may

lead to destructive signal overlay

resulting in local deep dips (called Rayleigh-Fading)

Antenna 1

in local deep dips (called Rayleigh-Fading) Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Multiple antennas (antenna diversity) may
in local deep dips (called Rayleigh-Fading) Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Multiple antennas (antenna diversity) may

Antenna 2

Multiple antennas (antenna diversity) may overcome this problem

best of“ (diversity gain)

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Mobile Antenna Array

Device level performance System level performance
Device level
performance
System level
performance
Array Device level performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION
Array Device level performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION

Element-> Array design

performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Choose an antenna

Keyword search

Specifications

Choose an antenna Keyword search Specifications Designed antenna Full 3D EM Simulation Export to CST MWS

Designed antenna

an antenna Keyword search Specifications Designed antenna Full 3D EM Simulation Export to CST MWS Estimated

Full 3D EM Simulation

Export to CST MWS

Estimated performance

Full 3D EM Simulation Export to CST MWS Estimated performance CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY |
Full 3D EM Simulation Export to CST MWS Estimated performance CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY |

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Optimized design

Optimized design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Optimized design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Mobile Antenna Array Synthesis

Mobile Antenna – Array Synthesis Synthesize planar array for 8 dB gain from Array Factor @

Synthesize planar array for 8 dB gain from Array Factor @ 28 GHz

Synthesize planar array for 8 dB gain from Array Factor @ 28 GHz CST – COMPUTER

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Mobile Antenna Array Synthesis

Mobile Antenna – Array Synthesis CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Mobile Antenna – Array Synthesis CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Mobile Antenna – Array Synthesis CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Mobile Antenna – Array Synthesis CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Mobile Antenna – Array Synthesis CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Finite Array Performance

Broadside radiation

Finite Array Performance Broadside radiation Full S-Parameter Matrix CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Full S-Parameter Matrix

Finite Array Performance Broadside radiation Full S-Parameter Matrix CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

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Best Achievable Pattern

Theta = 0 deg Phi = 0 deg Theta = 15 deg Phi = 30
Theta = 0 deg
Phi = 0 deg
Theta = 15 deg
Phi = 30 deg

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Array coverage

Array coverage Theta=45 Theta=85 Theta=10 Theta 60->12 dBi Theta 90-> 4.5 dBi Best achievable pattern CST
Array coverage Theta=45 Theta=85 Theta=10 Theta 60->12 dBi Theta 90-> 4.5 dBi Best achievable pattern CST

Theta=45

Array coverage Theta=45 Theta=85 Theta=10 Theta 60->12 dBi Theta 90-> 4.5 dBi Best achievable pattern CST
Array coverage Theta=45 Theta=85 Theta=10 Theta 60->12 dBi Theta 90-> 4.5 dBi Best achievable pattern CST

Theta=85

Theta=10

Array coverage Theta=45 Theta=85 Theta=10 Theta 60->12 dBi Theta 90-> 4.5 dBi Best achievable pattern CST

Theta 60->12 dBi Theta 90-> 4.5 dBi

Best achievable pattern

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Mobile Antenna Array

Device level performance System level performance
Device level
performance
System level
performance
Array Device level performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION
Array Device level performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION

Element-> Array design

performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

System Assembly Modelling (SAM)

System Assembly Modelling (SAM) SAM provides convenient layout assembly to bring in phone and other antenna

SAM provides convenient layout assembly to bring in phone and other antenna models

layout assembly to bring in phone and other antenna models Several copies of array independently placed

Several copies of array independently placed and parameterizable

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Layout Modelling

After wiring system, switch to layout view and align antenna arrays
After wiring system, switch to layout view
and align antenna arrays

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Layout Modelling

Layout Modelling  Lower hemispherical array needs to be flipped to aim ‘downward’  Rotate on

Lower hemispherical array needs to

be flipped to aim ‘downward’

Rotate on axis for diversity

be flipped to aim ‘downward’  Rotate on axis for diversity CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY

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Simulation Task

Simulation Task CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Simulation Task CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Simulation Task CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Simulation Performance

Simulation Performance  3.5 Minutes simulation time per excitation on dual CPU workstation with NVIDIA Kepler
Simulation Performance  3.5 Minutes simulation time per excitation on dual CPU workstation with NVIDIA Kepler

3.5 Minutes simulation time per excitation on dual CPU workstation with

NVIDIA Kepler 20 GPU (10% GPU capacity)

3.48 GB of system Memory utilized for initial Matrix Calculation

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Installed Performance - Coupling

Installed Performance - Coupling  Both arrays operating (boresight), pattern intact  In band coupling to
Installed Performance - Coupling  Both arrays operating (boresight), pattern intact  In band coupling to
Installed Performance - Coupling  Both arrays operating (boresight), pattern intact  In band coupling to

Both arrays operating (boresight), pattern intact

In band coupling to WIFI antenna, GPS coupling at 5G operating frequency

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Installed Performance - Coupling

Installed Performance - Coupling CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Installed Performance - Coupling CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Installed Performance - Coupling CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
Installed Performance - Coupling CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Installed Performance - Envelope

Installed Performance - Envelope  Relatively, low coupling to GPS at 28 GHz, but radiation angles
Installed Performance - Envelope  Relatively, low coupling to GPS at 28 GHz, but radiation angles

Relatively, low coupling to GPS at 28 GHz, but radiation angles towards GPS antenna are affected

‘Best Achievable Pattern’ envelope clearly shows performance degraded

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Mobile Antenna Array

Device level performance System level performance
Device level
performance
System level
performance
Array Device level performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION
Array Device level performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION

Element-> Array design

performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
performance System level performance Element-> Array design CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Posable CTIA Hand Models

Posable CTIA Hand Models CST Installation Help Files include both static and posable CTIA Hand (+spacer)

CST Installation Help Files include both static and posable CTIA Hand (+spacer)

models

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

System Assembly Modelling

Add posed hand model to System model and align to spacer in Layout mode
Add
posed
hand
model to System
model and align to spacer in Layout
mode

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Simulation Performance


Simulation Performance  15 Minutes simulation time per excitation on dual CPU workstation with nVIDIA Kepler

15 Minutes simulation time per excitation

on dual CPU workstation with nVIDIA Kepler

20 GPU (~35% GPU capacity)

8.5 GB of system Memory utilized for initial

Matrix Calculation

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Effects of Hand Model

‘Top’ hemisphere array is largely unaffected

‘Bottom’ array highly dependent on finger proximity

 ‘Bottom’ array highly dependent on finger proximity CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

 ‘Bottom’ array highly dependent on finger proximity CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

MIMO Base Station Array Example

MIMO Base Station Array Example [1] Konstantinos Prionidis, “MIMO Configurable Array for Sector / Omni-Directional
MIMO Base Station Array Example [1] Konstantinos Prionidis, “MIMO Configurable Array for Sector / Omni-Directional
MIMO Base Station Array Example [1] Konstantinos Prionidis, “MIMO Configurable Array for Sector / Omni-Directional

[1] Konstantinos Prionidis, “MIMO Configurable Array for Sector / Omni-Directional Coverage”, Department of Signals

& Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden 2014

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Huawei MIMO Base Station Example

Huawei MIMO Base Station Example  Novel antenna array concept study for small cell sizes (higher
Huawei MIMO Base Station Example  Novel antenna array concept study for small cell sizes (higher

Novel antenna array concept study for small cell sizes (higher capacity and efficiency), 25% bandwidth at 2GHz

MIMO Diversity gain central to improved efficiency

2 logical ports; Polarization diversity utilized

(Eh and Ev received)

12 physical ports (spatial diversity)

Unique 360°azimuth plane beam forming capabilities

Elevation

up

and

down

tilt

beam

steering

capabillities

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Horizontal Element

Horizontal Element Horizontal (top) Vertical (bottom)  4 printed arc-dipoles, centrally fed  Printed stack up

Horizontal (top)

Vertical (bottom)

4 printed arc-dipoles, centrally fed

Printed stack up and parasitic tuning elements used to

obtain good compromise between size and bandwidth

(~27%)

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

used to obtain good compromise between size and bandwidth (~27%) CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY |
used to obtain good compromise between size and bandwidth (~27%) CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY |
used to obtain good compromise between size and bandwidth (~27%) CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY |

Vertical Element

Vertical Element  ‘Small ground’ monopole Vertical (top) Horizontal (bottom)  Planar width increases

‘Small ground’ monopole

Vertical (top)

Horizontal (bottom)

Planar width increases bandwidth

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

(top) Horizontal (bottom)  Planar width increases bandwidth CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
(top) Horizontal (bottom)  Planar width increases bandwidth CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com
(top) Horizontal (bottom)  Planar width increases bandwidth CST – COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Obtained Return Loss

Obtained Return Loss Broadband impedance matching obtained, while maintaining compact antenna configuration CST –

Broadband impedance matching obtained, while maintaining compact antenna configuration

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Array Design and Considerations

Array Design and Considerations  Spacing between horizontal elements a challenge, grating lobes for array 
Array Design and Considerations  Spacing between horizontal elements a challenge, grating lobes for array 
Array Design and Considerations  Spacing between horizontal elements a challenge, grating lobes for array 

Spacing between horizontal elements a challenge, grating lobes for array

Top and bottom ground plates introduce phased

reflections to mitigate; acts as a small ground for

vertical monopole elements

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com

Summary

5G Antenna Device design will require high efficiency devices at

frequencies approaching mm wave

Beam steering capability to have omni-directional patterns

MIMO to leverage diversity gain

Antenna Magus provides Antenna and Array synthesis for rapid design exploration

System level simulation increasingly important for antenna performance

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com