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ANSI vs API

Compared to an API pump, the typical ANSI pump has the following characteristics:

1. A thinner casing, i.e. less corrosion allowance

2. An ANSI pump has reduced permissible nozzle loads. It is even more sensitive to
pipe-induced stresses than the API pump.

3. An ANSI pump has a smaller stuffing box size. Unless a large bore option is
chosen, an ANSI pump may not be able to accomodate the optimum mechanical seal
for a given service.

4. ANSI pump impellers are designed and manufactured without wear rings. Many
ANSI pump impellers are open or semi-open whereas API pumps feature closed
impellers with replaceable wear rings.

5. ANSI pumps are generally foot-mounted, whereas the API pump will be centerline
mounted. Refer the attached sketch. In foot-mounted pumps casing heat tends to be
conducted into the mounting surfaces and thermal growth will be noticeable. It is
generlly easier to maintain alignment of API pumps since their supports are
surrounded by the typically moderate-temperature ambient environment.
The decision on API vs ANSI construction is experience-based and is not governed by
governmental or regulatory agencies. However, experienced machinery specialists
have their own likes and dislikes based on the experience gathered by them over
their long years in the machinery field.

Many highly experienced and reliability-focused machinery engineers would prefer to


use pumps designed and constructed according to API 610 for toxic, flammable, or
explosion-proof services at on-site locations in close proximity to furnaces and
boilers in some of the conditions (rules-of-thumb) that are listed below:

a. Head exceeds 106.6 m (350 ft)


b. Temperature of pumpage exceeds 149C (300F) on pumps with discharge flange
sizes larger than 4 inch or 177C (350F) on pumps with 4 inch discharge flange size
or less.
c. Driver horsepower exceeds 74 kW (100 hp)
d. Suction pressure in excess of 516 kPag (75 psig)
e. Rated flow exceeds flow at best efficiency point (BEP)
f. Pump speed in excess of 3600 rpm.

The author mentions that there have been exceptions made where deviations from
the rules-of-thumb were minor, or in situations where the pump manufacturer was
able to demonstrate considerable experience with ANSI pumps under the same, or
even more adverse conditions.

Finally the author gives his opinion on choosing either API or ANSI pumps based on
the following:

Conventional Wisdom: API-compliant pumps are always a better choice than ANSI or
ISO pumps

Fact: Unless flammable, toxic or explosion-prone liquids are involved, many carefully
selected, properly installed, operated and maintained ANSI or ISO pumps may
represent an uncompromising and satisfactory choice.

A comprehensive comparison between API and ANSI chemical


pumps
Rotech Pumps & Systems Inc. is one of the leading suppliers of pumps and related equipment and parts.
Since a decade, Rotech Pumps has been providing best quality products at competitive pricing and
minimum lead time to Industrial, commercial and municipal sectors. One of the primary products of
Rotech Pumps is ANSI Chemical process pumps. They are designed to handle corrosive fluid and used
for heavy duty applications.
Chemicals are primary component of numerous industries and to handle and transfer large quantity of
chemicals in efficient manner, a chemical process pump has become an inevitable tool for these
industries. API and ANSI pumps are two of the most commonly used horizontal end suction chemical
process pumps.

An ANSI pump is designed and manufactured as per the standards of the American National Standards
Institute. It is the preferred choice not only for chemical process applications but also for water and other
less aggressive applications. This is because ANSI centrifugal pumps provide flexibility of
interchangeability of pumps from one manufacturer to another.

API pumps are built to meet the requirements of the American Petroleum Institute Standard and almost
exclusively employed in oil refinery industry to handle higher temperatures and pressure application.
However, both these single staged pumps are designed with a radially split casing to accommodate a
back pullout arrangement for easy maintenance.
Major differences between API and ANSI Pumps:
Volute Case: ANSI pumps and smaller sized API pumps possess a single volute design of
passage. Due to this design of volute an imbalance of the thrust loads around the impeller. However,
larger API pumps employ double volute design to reduce these loads.

Back cover arrangement: The back cover and gasket in ANSI centrifugal pumps are supported
against the pump casing by the bearing frame adaptor. Due to this arrangement when the pressure
applied increases than the normal, the casing may get fractured. But on the other hand, in API pumps, the
back cover is directly bolted to the casing and the adaptor doesnt play a part in the pressure boundary.

Mounting Feet: ANSI pump casing are mounted on feet projecting from the underside of the
casing. Because of this design, when ANSI pumps are used in high-temperature applications their casing
expands upward and causes thermal stress which will in turn have detrimental effect on the reliability of
the pump. In contrast, API pumps are mounted at the horizontal centerline of the casing on feet projecting
from each side of the casing. This ensures that API pumps can function at higher temperatures and thus
gives them slight advantage over ANSI Pumps.