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GRAIN DRYER WITH TRAY VACUUM DRYING METHOD

Indonesia is an area with abundant natural resources. So that makes Indonesia known as an
agricultural country. The fact is that most of the livelihoods of Indonesians are from the
agricultural sector and make the agricultural sector one of the great pillars of the Indonesian
economy. One of the largest agricultural commodities in Indonesia is rice.
To get good rice quality one of the influencing aspects is the drying process of post-harvest
grain. Conventional drying of grain depends heavily on natural weather. Conditions of rain or
high humidity can disrupt the drying process, thus reducing the quality of grain due to the
duration of the drying process. Therefore, farmers need alternative solutions of grain drying to
sustain rice production in Indonesia. One method of drying that can be applied is by the method
of vacuum drying.
The working principle of this Vacuum Drying machine is by heating the product at low
temperature (oven / dried system) and constant accompanied by vapor vapor process resulting
from heating the product or the material without using certain media, another case with vacuum
frying using cooking oil medium (frying).
The tray dryer method is also called a drying rack or cabinet dryer, which can be used to dry
clumped solids or pastes, which are propagated on a perforated metal shelf / vorpora- tion, the
size of the shelf vorporations depending on the size of the product to be dried. Drying this type
of shelf / baking sheet is to put the product to be dried on a shelf directly related to the dryer
medium. The way heat transfer commonly used is convection.
In contrast to ordinary heating, this vacuum drying machine, works by lowering the pressure on
the heating cabinet, and the temperature inside it will also decrease. With the pressure made
vacuum, then the temperature will fall further and further so that it can be warmed up at low
temperatures. With this process then materials that should not be heated more, can finally be
heated and produce a good product and not damaged. And with such pemansan until finally the
machine can produce products with nutritional content is still intact.
The processing of products with a vacuum drying machine is carried out by heating at (-) 70 to (-
) 65 cm Hg, the temperature applied to the process of processing these materials is 85 to 90
degrees with an indicator of maturity: and the water bubbles in the closet were almost gone, the
bubbles were small and evenly distributed.

RUANG PEMANAS RUANG PENGERING

POMPA
TUNGKU PEMANAS VACUUM
Image Scheme Tray Vacuum Drying

Tray Vacuum Drying consists of several components as follows:


a. The heating furnace is used to heat the heating chamber with rice husk fuel, utilizing the waste
of the rice mill process.
b. Space heater: as a heat generator to be distributed to the dryer rack.
c. Drying chamber: airtight chamber inside which consists of several fine porous shelves to
accommodate the grain to be dried.
d. Vacuum pump serves to suck air and water vapor from the heating process in the dryer rack so
that the pressure becomes low and make the grain to dry.
.
The workflow of the vacuum drying tray is by heating the heating chamber which is then heated
from the heating chamber in the transfer to the drying chamber under conditions of normal
atmospheric pressure (1 atm) by sucking / removing air from within the enclosed drying
chamber. In this vacuum system causes some of the following conditions: dryer room
temperature and water content to fall, along with the degree of vacuum.

The benefits of using this Tray Vacuum Drying Machine are speeding up the drying process,
producing a product with a much better dryness rate, the heated material is not damaged because
of the possibility of over drying is smaller which will improve the quality of post-harvest rice
while increasing farmer productivity.
The negative impact of Tray Vacuum Drying usage is the increasing cost of post-harvest rice
production and the emergence of air pollution from rice husk combustion process. Increased
production costs resulted in increased rice prices. As rice prices increase, consumers' purchasing
power will decrease. Air pollution resulting from burning can lead to disruption of existing
health and ecosystems.

Reference:
Parikh, Dilip. 2015. Vacuum Drying: Basics and Application. New York. Mcgraw Hill
Incorporated then Chemical Week Publishing Llc.

Sutanto, Garry Nathaniel. 2007. Drying of Food Material. Thesis.Department of Chemical


Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology.