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Designation: D 653 05

Standard Terminology Relating to

Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 653; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
These definitions were prepared jointly by the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society for Testing and Materials.

1. Scope* LLength, such as inch, foot, millimeter, and meter3

1.1 These definitions apply to many terms found in the TTime, such as second, minute
Terminology section of standards of ASTM Committee D18. DDimensionless
1.2 This standard defines terms related to soil, rock, and 3.3.1 Positive exponents designate multiples in the numera-
contained fluids found in the terminology sections of standards tor. Negative exponents designate multiples in the denomina-
under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D18. tor. Degrees of angle are indicated as degrees.
1.3 These terms define many words found in the Terminol- 3.3.2 Expressing the units either in SI or the inch-pound
ogy section of standards of ASTM Committee D18. system has been purposely omitted in order to leave the choice
1.4 Definitions of terms relating to frozen soils are con- of the system and specific unit to the engineer and the
tained in Terminology D 7099. particular application, for example:
FL2may be expressed in pounds-force per square inch,
2. Referenced Documents kilopascals, tons per square foot, etc.
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 LT1may be expressed in feet per minute, meters per
D 7099 Terminology Relating to Frozen Soil and Rock second, etc.
3.3.3 Where synonymous terms are cross-referenced, the
3. Significance and Use definition is usually included with the earlier term alphabeti-
3.1 Definitions in this standard are to be regarded as the cally. Where this is not the case, the later term is the more
correct ones for terms found in other ASTM standards of significant.
Committee D18. Certain terms may be found in more than one 3.3.4 Definitions marked with (ISRM) are included for the
standard issued under the jurisdiction of this committee and convenience of the user and were taken directly from the
many of these terms have been placed in this standard. International Society for Rock Mechanics (see X1.3).
3.2 Terms that are defined in some textbooks may differ 3.3.5 See Appendixes for References (X1) and Symbols
slightly from those in this standard. Definitions in Terminology (X2).
D 653 are to be regarded as correct for ASTM usage
4. Terminology
3.3 A number of the definitions include symbols and indi-
cate the units of measurement. The symbols appear in italics AASHTO compactionsee compaction test.
immediately after the name of the term, followed by the unit in A Horizonsee horizon.
parentheses. No significance should be placed on the order in abandonmentsee decommissioning. D 5299
which the symbols are presented where two or more are given abrasiona rubbing and wearing away. (ISRM)
for an individual term. The applicable units are indicated by abrasionthe mechanical wearing, grinding, scraping or rub-
capital letters, as follows: bing away (or down) of rock surfaces by friction or impact,
FForce, such as pound-force, ton-force, newton or both.
abrasiveany rock, mineral, or other substance that, owing to
its superior hardness, toughness, consistency, or other prop-
This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D18 on Soil erties, is suitable for grinding, cutting, polishing, scouring,
and Rock and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D18.93 on Terminology
for Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids. or similar use.
Current edition approved July 1, 2005. Published August 2005. Originally abrasivenessthe property of a material to remove matter
approved in 1942. Last previous edition approved in 2004 as D 653 04
when scratching and grinding another material. (ISRM)
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on 3
the ASTM website. In accordance with IEEE/ASTM SI 10, the alternate spelling for meter, liter,
and deka, may be metre, litre, and deca.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

D 653 05
absorbed waterin soil and rock, water held mechanically in force of gravity, to (2) total volume of voids.
a soil or rock mass and having physical properties not air-void ratio, Gv (D)the ratio of: (1) the volume of air
substantially different from ordinary water at the same space, to (2) the total volume of voids in a soil or rock mass.
temperature and pressure. alkali aggregate reactionin grouting, a chemical reaction
DISCUSSIONSee adsorbed water.
between Na2O and K2O in the cement and certain silicate
minerals in the cement and certain silicate minerals in the
absorptionthe assimilation of fluids into interstices. aggregate, which causes expansion resulting in weakening
absorption lossthat part of transmitted energy (mechanical) and cracking of Portland cement grout.
lost due to dissipation or conversion into other forms (heat,
DISCUSSIONSee reactive aggregate.
acceleratorin grouting, a material that increases the rate at allowable bearing value (allowable soil pressure), qa, pa
which chemical reactions would otherwise occur. (FL2)the maximum pressure that can be permitted on
activatorin grouting, a material that causes a catalyst to foundation soil, giving consideration to all pertinent factors,
begin its function. with adequate safety against rupture of the soil mass or
active earth pressuresee earth pressure. movement of the foundation of such magnitude that the
active state of plastic equilibriumsee plastic equilibrium. structure is impaired.
additivein grouting, any material other than the basic allowable pile bearing load, Qa, Pa (F)the maximum load
components of a grout system. that can be permitted on a pile with adequate safety against
adhesionin soils, shearing resistance between soil and an- movement of such magnitude that the structure is endan-
other material under zero externally applied pressure. gered.
Symbol Unit alluviumsoil, the constituents of which have been trans-
Unit Adhesion ca FL2
ported in suspension by flowing water and subsequently
Total Adhesion Ca F or FL1
deposited by sedimentation.
adhesionshearing resistance between two unlike materials amplification factorratio of dynamic to static displacement.
under zero externally applied pressure. amorphous peatsee sapric peat.
admixturea material other than water, aggregates, or cemen- angle of external friction (angle of wall friction), d
titious material, used as a grout ingredient for cement-based (degrees)angle between the abscissa and the tangent of the
grouts. curve representing the relationship of shearing resistance to
adsorbed waterin soil and rock, water in a soil or rock mass normal stress acting between soil and surface of another
attracted to the particle surfaces by physiochemical forces, material.
having properties that may differ from those of pore water at angle of friction (angle of friction between solid bodies), f
the same temperature and pressure due to altered molecular s (degrees)angle whose tangent is the ratio between the
ar-rangement; adsorbed water does not include water that is maximum value of shear stress that resists slippage between
chemically combined within the clay minerals. two solid bodies at rest with respect to each other, and the
DISCUSSIONSee absorbed water. normal stress across the contact surfaces.
angle of internal friction (angle of shear resistance), f
adsorptionin soils, the attachment of water molecules or (degrees)angle between the axis of normal stress and the
ions to the surfaces of soil particles. tangent to the Mohr envelope at a point representing a given
advancing slope groutingin grouting, a method of grouting failure-stress condition for solid material.
by which the front of a mass of grout is caused to move angle of obliquity, a, b, f, C (degrees)the angle between
horizontally by use of a suitable grout injection sequence. the direction of the resultant stress or force acting on a given
aeolian depositswind-deposited material such as dune sands plane and the normal to that plane.
and loess deposits. angle of repose, a (degrees)angle between the horizontal
aggregateas a grouting material, relatively inert granular and the maximum slope that a soil assumes through natural
mineral material, such as sand, gravel, slag, crushed stone, processes.
etc. Fine aggregate is material that will pass a No. 4
(6.4-mm) screen, DISCUSSIONFor dry granular soils the effect of the height of slope is
negligible; for cohesive soils the effect of height of slope is so great that
Coarse aggregate is material that will not pass a No. 4 the angle of repose is meaningless.
(6.4-mm) screen. Aggregate is mixed with a cementing agent
(such as Portland cement and water) to form a grout angle of shear resistancesee angle of internal friction.
material. angle of wall frictionsee angle of external friction.
agitator tankin grouting/slurries, a tank, usually vertical angular aggregateaggregate, the particles of which possess
and with open top, with rotation paddles used to prevent well-defined edges formed at the intersection of roughly
segregation of grout after mixing. planar faces.
air entry valuethe applied suction at which water menisci of anisotropic massa mass having different properties in dif-
the porous segment of a suction sampler break down, and air ferent directions at any given point.
enters. D 4696 anisotropyhaving different properties in different directions.
air-space ratio, Ga (D)ratio of: (1) volume of water that can (ISRM)
be drained from a saturated soil or rock under the action of annual space; annulusin borings, the space between two

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concentric tubes or casings, or between the casing and the assessment monitoringan investigative monitoring pro-
borehole wall. gram that is initiated after the presence of a contaminant in
ground water has been detected. The objective of this
DISCUSSIONThis would include the space(s) between multiple
strings of tubing/casings in a borehole installed either concentrically or program is to determine the concentration of constituents
multi-cased adjacent to each other. D 5092 that have contaminated the ground water and to quantify the
rate and extent of migration of these constituents. D 5092
apparent cohesionsee cohesion. ASTM cement typesPortland cements meeting the require-
aquicludein ground water, a relatively impervious formation ments of Specifications C 150. Cement types have slightly
capable of absorbing water slowly but will not transmit it different formulations that result in various characteristics
fast enough to furnish an appreciable supply for a well or which address different construction conditions and different
spring. physical and chemical environments. They are as follows:
aquifera geologic formation, group of formations, of part of
a formation that is saturated and is capable of providing a
significant quantity of water. D 5092 Type I (Portland)a general-purpose construction cement
aquifer, confinedan aquifer bounded above and below by with no special properties. D 5092
confining beds and in which the static head is above the top Type II (Portland)a construction cement that is moder-
of the aquifer. D 4050, D 4104, D 4105, D 4106, D 5269 ately resistant to sulfates and generates a lower head of
aquifer, unconfinedan aquifer that has a water table. hydration at a slower rate than Type I D 5092
D 4043, D 4105, D 4106 Type III (Portland: high early strength)a construction
aquitarda confining bed that retards but does not prevent the cement that produces a high early strength. This cement
flow of water to or from an adjacent aquifer; a leaky reduces the curing time required when used in cold environ-
confining bed. ments, and produces a higher head of hydration than Type I.
archingthe transfer of stress from a yielding part of a soil or D 5092
rock mass to adjoining less-yielding or restrained parts of the Type IV (Portland)a construction cement that produces a
mass. low head of hydration (lower than Types I and II) and
area groutinggrouting a shallow zone in a particular area develops strength at a slower rate. D 5092
utilizing holes arranged in a pattern or grid. Type V (Portland)a construction cement that is a high
sulfate resistant formulation. Used when there is severe
DISCUSSIONThis type of grouting is sometimes referred to as
blanket or consolidation grouting. sulfate action from soils and ground water.
attapulgite claya chain-lattice clay mineral. The term also
area of influence of a well, a (L2)area surrounding a well applies to a group of clay materials that are lightweight,
within which the piezometric surface has been lowered when tough, matted, and fibrous.
pumping has produced the maximum steady rate of flow. attenuationreduction of amplitude with time or distance.
area ratio of a sampling spoon, sampler, or sampling tube, 88B horizonsee horizon.
Ar (D)the area ratio is an indication of the volume of soil average interstitial velocitysee velocity, average intersti-
displaced by the sampling spoon (tube), calculated as fol- tial.
lows: backpack groutingthe filling with grout of the annular
Ar 5 [~De2 2 Di2/Di2# 3 100 (1)
space between a permanent tunnel lining and the surround-
ing formation.
where: DISCUSSIONSame as crown grouting and backfill grouting.
De = maximum external diameter of the sampling
spoon, and back-packingany material (usually granular) that is used to
Di = minimum internal diameter of the sampling spoon fill the empty space between the lagging and the rock
at the cutting edge. surface. (ISRM)
armorthe artificial surfacing of bed, banks, shore, or em- bafflea pier, weir, sill, fence, wall, or mound built on the bed
bankment to resist erosion or scour. of a stream to parry, deflect, check, or regulate the flow or to
armor stone(generally one ton to three tons in weight) stone float on the surface to dampen the wave action.
resulting from blasting, cutting, or by other methods to bailera hollow tubular receptacle used to facilitate with-
obtain rock heavy enough to require handling two individual drawal of fluid from a well or borehole. D 5092
pieces by mechanical means. ballastmaterials used to provide stability to a buoyant object
articulating concrete block (ACB) revetment system , nin (such as casing within a borehole filled with water).
erosion control, a matrix of interconnected concrete block D 5092
units for erosion protection that are typically connected by barometric efficiencythe ratio of the change in depth to
geometric interlock, cables, ropes, geotextile, geogrids or water in a well to the inverse of water-level change in
combination thereof, and typically including a geotextile barometric pressure, expressed in length of water. D 4043
underlayment. basein grouting, main component in a grout system.
ash contentthe percentage by dry weight of material remain- base course (base)a layer of specified or selected material of
ing after an oven dry organic soil or peat is burned by a planned thickness constructed on the subgrade or subbase for
prescribed method. the purpose of serving one or more functions such as

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distributing load, providing drainage, minimizing frost ac- bleedingin grouting, the autogeneous flow of mixing water
tion, etc. within, or its emergence from, newly placed grout caused by
base exchangethe physicochemical process whereby one the settlement of the solid materials within the mass.
species of ions adsorbed on soil particles is replaced by bleeding ratein grouting, the rate at which water is released
another species. from grout by bleeding.
batchin grouting, quantity of grout mixed at one time. blockingwood blocks placed between the excavated surface
batch methodin grouting, a quantity of grout materials are of a tunnel or shaft and the main bracing system. (ISRM)
mixed or catalyzed at one time prior to injection. blow-inthe inflow of ground water and unconsolidated
batch mixerin grouting, a machine that mixes batches of material into a borehole or casing caused by differential
grout, in contrast to a continuous mixer. hydraulic heads; that is, caused by the presence of a greater
bearing capacitysee ultimate bearing capacity. hydraulic head outside of a borehole/casing than inside.
bearing capacity (of a pile), Qp, Pp (F)the load per pile D 5092
required to produce a condition of failure. blowouta sudden or violent uncontrolled escape of fluids or
beddingapplies to rocks resulting from consolidation of gas, or both, from a borehole. D 5299
sediments and exhibiting surfaces of separation (bedding body forcea force such as gravity whose effect is distributed
planes) between layers of the same or different materials, throughout a material body by direct action on each elemen-
that is, shale, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, etc. (ISRM) tary part of the body independent of the others. (ISRM)
beddingcollective term signifying the existence of layers of boga peat covered area with a high water table and a surface
beds. Planes or other surfaces dividing sedimentary rocks of dominated by a carpet of mosses, chiefly sphagnum. It is
the same or different lithology. generally nutrient poor and acidic. It may be treed or
bedrockthe more or less continuous body of rock which treeless.
underlies the overburden soils. (ISRM) bond strengthin grouting, resistance to separation of set
bedrock (ledge)rock of relatively great thickness and extent grout from other materials with which it is in contact; a
in its native location. collective expression for all forces such as adhesion, friction,
bench(1) the unexcavated rock having a nearly horizontal and longitudinal shear.
surface which remains after a top heading has been exca- boreholea hole of circular cross-section made in soil or rock.
vated, or (2) step in a slope; formed by a horizontal surface DISCUSSIONnormally, a borehole is advanced using an auger, a drill,
and a surface inclined at a steeper angle than that of the
or casing with or without drilling fluid. D 4750
entire slope. (ISRM)
bendingprocess of deformation normal to the axis of an borehole logthe record of geologic units penetrated, drilling
elongated structural member when a moment is applied progress, depth, water level, sample recovery, volumes and
normal to its long axis. (ISRM) types of materials used, and other significant facts regarding
bentonitic claya clay with a high content of the mineral the drilling of an exploratory borehole or well. D 5092
montmorillonite, usually characterized by high swelling on borehole television loga borehole or well video record
wetting. produced by lowering a television camera into the borehole
berma shelf that breaks the continuity of a slope. or well. This record is useful in visually observing downhole
biaxial compressioncompression caused by the application conditions such as collapsed casing or a blocked screen.
of normal stresses in two perpendicular directions. (ISRM) bottom chargeconcentrated explosive charge at the bottom
biaxial state of stressstate of stress in which one of the three of a blast hole. (ISRM)
principal stresses is zero. (ISRM) boulder claya geological term used to designate glacial drift
binder (soil binder)portion of soil passing No. 40 (425-m) that has not been subjected to the sorting action of water and
U.S. standard sieve, therefore contains particles from boulders to clay sizes.
binderanything that causes cohesion in loosely assembled bouldersa rock fragment, usually rounded by weathering or
substances, such as clay or cement. abrasion, with an average dimension of 12 in. (305 mm) or
bitany device that may be attached to or is an integral part more.
of a drill string and is used as a cutting tool to bore into or breakwater stonestone, generally three tons to twenty tons
penetrate rock or other materials. in weight, resulting from blasting, cutting, or other means to
blaine finenessthe fineness of powdered materials, such as obtain rock heavy enough to require handling individual
cement and pozzolans, expressed as surface area usually in pieces by mechanical means.
square centimetres per gram. bridgean obstruction within the annulus which may prevent
blanket groutinga method in which relatively closely circulation or proper emplacement of annular materials.
spaced shallow holes are drilled and grouted on a grid D 5092
pattern over an area, for the purpose of making the upper bubbling pressurethe applied air pressure at which water
portions of the bedrock stronger and less pervious. menisci of the porous segment of a suction sampler break
blastibilityindex value of the resistance of a rock formation down, and air exists. D 4696
to blasting. (ISRM) bucklinga bulge, bend, bow, kink, or wavy condition
blasting cap (detonator, initiator)a small tube containing a produced in sheets, plates, columns, or beams by compres-
flashing mixture for firing explosives. (ISRM) sive stresses.

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bulb of pressuresee pressure bulb. capillary waterwater subject to the influence of capillary
bulk density, rthe mass of a quantity of a bulk solid divided action.
by its total volume. cascading waterperched ground water that enters a well
bulk solidan assembly of solid particles handled in sufficient casing via cracks or uncovered perforations, trickling, or
quantities that its characteristics can be described by the pouring down the inside of the casing. D 5696, D 4700
properties of the mass of particles rather than the character- casingpipe, finished in sections with either threaded connec-
istics of each individual particle. May also be referred to as tions or bevelled edges to be field welded which is installed
granular material, particulate solid or powder. Examples are temporarily or permanently to counteract caving, to advance
sugar, flour, ore, and coal. the borehole, or to isolate the zone being monitored, or
bulkheada steep or vertical structure supporting natural or combination thereof. D 5092
artificial embankment. casing, protectivea section of larger diameter pipe that is
bulkingthe increase in volume of a material due to manipu- emplaced over the upper end of a smaller diameter monitor-
lation. Rock bulks upon being excavated; damp sand bulks if ing well riser or casing to provide structural protection to the
loosely deposited, as by dumping, because the apparent well and restrict unauthorized access into the well. D 5092
cohesion prevents movement of the soil particles to form a casing, surfacepipe used to stabilize a borehole near the
reduced volume. surface during the drilling of a borehole that may be left in
bunkersynonym for bin, but sometimes understood as being place or removed once drilling is completed. D 5092
a bin without any or only a samll vertical part at the top of catalysta material that causes chemical reactions to begin.
the hopper. catalyst systemthose materials that, in combination, cause
buoyant unit weight (submerged unit weight)see unit chemical reactions to begin; catalyst systems normally
weight. consist of an initiator (catalyst) and an activator.
burdenin an explosive blasting, the distance between the cationan ion that moves, or would move toward a cathode;
charge and the free face of the material to be blasted. thus nearly always synonymous with positive ion.
burdendistance between charge and free surface in direction cation exchangesee base exchange.
of throw. (ISRM) cation exchange capacity (CEC)the total capacity of a
88C Horizonsee horizon. porous system to absorb cations from a solution. D 4696
California bearing ratio, CBR (D)the ratio of: (1) the force caving; sloughingthe inflow of unconsolidated material into
per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with a a borehole which occurs when the borehole walls lose their
3-in.2(19-cm)2 circular piston (approximately 2-in. (51-mm) cohesive strength. D 5092
diameter) at the rate of 0.05 in. (1.3 mm)/min, to (2) that cavitya natural underground opening that may be small or
required for corresponding penetration of a standard mate- large.
rial. The ratio is usually determined at 0.1-in. (2.5-mm) cavityunderground opening created by a fully contained
penetration, although other penetrations are sometimes used. explosive. (ISRM)
Original California procedures required determination of the cement, API, Class Aa cement intended for use from the
ratio at 0.1-in. intervals to 0.5 in. (12.7 mm). Corps of surface to a depth of 6000 ft (1828 m). This cement is similar
Engineers procedures require determination of the ratio at to ASTM Type I cement. D 5299
0.1 in. and 0.2 in. (5.1 mm). Where the ratio at 0.2 in. is cement, API, Class Ba cement intended for use from the
consistently higher than at 0.1 in., the ratio at 0.2 in. is used. surface to a depth of 6000 ft (1828 m) when conditions
caliper loga geophysical borehole log that shows to scale the require moderate- to high-sulfate resistance. This cement is
variations with depth in the mean diameter of a cased or similar to ASTM Type II cement. D 529
uncased borehole. D 5299 cement, API, Class Cthis cement is intended for use from
camoufletthe underground cavity created by a fully con- the surface to a depth of 6000 ft (1828 m) when conditions
tained explosive. (ISRM) require high early strength. This cement is similar to ASTM
capillary action (capillarity)the rise or movement of water Type III cement. Also available as a high sulfate resistant
in the interstices of a soil or rock due to capillary forces. type. D 5299
capillary flowsee capillary action. cement, API, Class Gthis cement is intended for use from
capillary fringethe basal region of the vadose zone com- the surface to a depth of 8000 ft (2438 m). It can be used
prising sediments that are saturated, or nearly saturated, near with accelerators or retarders to cover a wide range of well
the water table, gradually decreasing in water content with depths and temperatures. No additions other than calcium
increasing elevation above the water table. D 5314 sulfate or water, or both, can be intergound or blended with
capillary fringe zonethe zone above the free water elevation the clinker during manufacture of the cement. Also available
in which water is held by capillary action. as several sulfate-resistant types. D 5299
capillary head, h (L)the potential, expressed in head of cement, API, Class Hthis cement is intended for use from
water, that causes the water to flow by capillary action. the surface to a depth of 8000 ft (2438 m). It can be used
capillary migrationsee capillary action. with accelerators or retarders to cover a wide range of well
capillary rise (height of capillary rise), hc (L)the height depths and temperatures. No additions other than calcium
above a free water elevation to which water will rise by sulfate or water, or both, can be interground or blended with
capillary action. the clinker during manufacture of the cement. Also available

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as a sulfate-resistant type. D 5299 hose and swivel, drill pipe, annular space in the hole and
cement, API, Class Jthis cement is intended for use from returning to the mud pit. D 5092
depths of 12 000 to 16 000 ft (3658 to 4877 m) under ciromg acceleratora material added to cement to decrease
conditions of extremely high temperatures and pressures. It the time for curing. Examples are sodium chloride, calcium
can be used with accelerators and retarders to cover a range sulfate (gypsum), and aluminum powder. D 5299
of well depths and temperatures. No additions of retarders clay (clay soil)fine-grained soil or the fine-grained portion of
other than calcium sulfate, or water, or both, can be soil that can be made to exhibit plasticity (putty-like prop-
interground or blended with the clinker during manufacture erties) within a range of water contents, and that exhibits
of the cement. D 5299 considerable strength when air-dry. The term has been used
cement bond (sonic) loga borehole geophysical log that can to designate the percentage finer than 0.002 mm (0.005 mm
be used to determine the effectiveness of a cement seal of the in some cases), but it is strongly recommended that this
annular space of a well. D 5299 usage be discontinued, since there is ample evidence from an
cement factorquantity of cement contained in a unit volume engineering standpoint that the properties described in the
of concrete or grout, expressed as weight, or volume (specify above definition are many times more important.
which). clay sizethat portion of the soil finer than 0.002 mm (0.005
cement grouta grout in which the primary cementing agent mm in some cases) (see also clay).
is Portland cement. clay soilsee clay.
cement; Portland cementcommonly known as Portland cleavagein crystallography, the splitting, or tendency to
cement. A mixture that consists of a calcareous argillaceous, split, along planes determined by the crystal structure. In
or other silica-, alumina,- and iron-oxide bearing materials petrology, a tendency to cleave or split along definite,
that is manufactured and formulated to produce various parallel, closely spaced planes. It is a secondary structure,
types which are defined in Specification C 150. Portland commonly confined to bedded rocks.
cement is also considered a hydraulic cement because it must cleavagethe tendency to cleave or split along definite
be mixed with water to form a cement-water paste that has parallel planes, which may be highly inclined to the bedding.
the ability to harden and develop strength even if cured It is a secondary structure and is ordinarily accompanied by
under water (see ASTM cement types). D 5092 at least some recrystallization of the rock. (ISRM)
cementitious factorquantity of cement and other cementi- cleavage planesthe parallel surfaces along which a rock or
tious materials contained in a unit volume of concrete or mineral cleaves or separates; the planes of least cohesion,
grout, expressed as weight or volume (specify which). usually parallel to a certain face of the mineral or crystal.
centralizera device that assists in the centering of a casing cleft waterwater that exists in or circulates along the
or riser within a borehole or another casing. D 5092 geological discontinuities in a rock mass.
centrifuge moisture equivalentsee moisture equivalent. closurethe opening is reduced in dimension to the extent that
chambera large room excavated underground, for example, it cannot be used for its intended purpose. (ISRM)
for a powerhouse, pump station, or for storage. (ISRM) closurein grouting, closure refers to achieving the desired
chamber blasting (coyotehole blasting)a method of quarry reduction in grout take by splitting the hole spacing. If
blasting in which large explosive charges are confined in closure is being achieved, there will be a progressive
small tunnel chambers inside the quarry face. (ISRM) decrease in grout take as primary, secondary, tertiary, and
channelingthe process of forming a vertical cavity resulting quanternary holes are grouted.
from a faulty cement job in the annular space. D 5299 cobble (cobblestone)a rock fragment, usually rounded or
chemical groutany grouting material characterized by being semirounded, with an average dimension between 3 and 12
a true solution; no particles in suspension. See also particu- in. (75 and 305 mm).
late grout. coeffcient of absolute viscositysee coefficient of viscosity.
chemical grout systemany mixture of materials used for coeffcient of active earth pressuresee coefficient of earth
grouting purposes in which all elements of the system are pressure.
true solutions (no particles in suspension). coefficient of compressibility (coefficient of compression), av
chipcrushed angular rock fragment of a size smaller than a (L2F1)the secant slope, for a given pressure increment, of
few centimetres. (ISRM) the pressure-void ratio curve. Where a stress-strain curve is
chiselthe steel cutting tool used in percussion drilling. used, the slope of this curve is equal to av/(1 + e).
(ISRM) coefficient of consolidation, cv (L2T1)a coefficient utilized
circuit groutinga grouting method by which grout is circu- in the theory of consolidation, containing the physical
lated through a pipe extending to the bottom of the hole and constants of a soil affecting its rate of volume change.
back up the hole via the annular space outside the pipe. Then cv 5 k ~1 1 e!/avgw (2)
the excess grout is diverted back over a screen to the agitator
tank by means of a packing gland at the top of the hole. The where:
method is used where holes tend to cave and sloughing k = coefficient of permeability, LT1,
material might otherwise clog openings to be grouted. e = void ratio, D,
circulationapplies to the fluid rotary drilling method; drill- av = coefficient of compressibility, L2F1, and
gw = unit weight of water, FL3.
ing fluid movement from the mud pit, through the pump,

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DISCUSSIONIn the literature published prior to 1935, the coefficient particle diameter corresponding to 10 % finer on the cumu-
of consolidation, usually designated c, was defined by the equation: lative particle-size distribution curve.
c 5 k /avgw ~1 1 e! (3) coefficient of viscosity (coefficient of absolute viscosity), h
This original definition of the coefficient of consolidation may be (FTL2)the shearing force per unit area required to main-
found in some more recent papers and care should be taken to avoid tain a unit difference in velocity between two parallel layers
confusion. of a fluid a unit distance apart.
coefficient of earth pressure, K (D)the principal stress ratio coefficient of volume compressibility (modulus of volume
at a point in a soil mass. change), mv (L2F1)the compression of a soil layer per
coeffcient of earth pressure, active, KA (D)the minimum unit of original thickness due to a given unit increase in
ratio of : (1) the minor principal stress, to (2) the major pressure. It is numerically equal to the coefficient of com-
principal stress. This is applicable where the soil has yielded pressibility divided by one plus the original void ratio, or
sufficiently to develop a lower limiting value of the minor av/(1 + e).
principal stress. cohesionshear resistance at zero normal stress (an equivalent
coeffcient of earth pressure, at rest, KO (D)the ratio of: (1) term in rock mechanics is intrinsic shear strength). (ISRM)
the minor principal stress, to (2) the major principal stress. cohesion, c (FL2)the portion of the shear strength of a soil
This is applicable where the soil mass is in its natural state indicated by the term c, in Coulombs equation, s = c + p tan
without having been permitted to yield or without having f. See intrinsic shear strength.
been compressed. apparent cohesioncohesion in granular soils due to
coeffcient of earth pressure, passive, KP (D)the maximum capillary forces.
ratio of: (1) the major principal stress, to (2) the minor cohesionless soila soil that when unconfined has little or no
principal stress. This is applicable where the soil has been strength when air-dried and that has little or no cohesion
compressed sufficiently to develop an upper limiting value of when submerged.
the major principal stress. cohesive soila soil that when unconfined has considerable
coefficient of friction (coefficient of friction between solid strength when air-dried and that has significant cohesion
bodies), f (D)the ratio between the maximum value of when submerged.
shear stress that resists slippage between two solid bodies collarin grouting, the surface opening of a borehole.
with respect to each other, and the normal stress across the colloidal groutin grouting, a grout in which the dispersed
contact surfaces. The tangent of the angle of friction is fs. solid particles remain in suspension (colloids).
coefficient of friction, fa constant proportionality factor, colloidal mixerin grouting, a mixer designed to produce
, relating normal stress and the corresponding critical colloidal grout.
shear stress at which sliding starts between two surfaces: colloidal particlesparticles that are so small that the surface
T = s. (ISRM) activity has an appreciable influence on the properties of the
coefficient of internal friction, (D)the tangent of the angle aggregate.
of internal friction (angle of shear resistance) (see internal communicationin grouting, subsurface movement of grout
friction). from an injection hole to another hole or opening.
coefficient of permeability (permeability), k (LT1)the rate compactionthe densification of a soil by means of mechani-
of discharge of water under laminar flow conditions through cal manipulation.
a unit cross-sectional area of a porous medium under a unit compaction curve (Proctor curve) (moisture-density
hydraulic gradient and standard temperature conditions (usu- curve)the curve showing the relationship between the dry
ally 20C). unit weight (density) and the water content of a soil for a
coeffcient of shear resistancesee coefficient of internal given compactive effort.
friction, (D). compaction test (moisture-density test)a laboratory com-
coefficient of subgrade reaction (modulus of subgrade pacting procedure whereby a soil at a known water content
reaction), k, ks (FL3)ratio of: (1) load per unit area of is placed in a specified manner into a mold of given
horizontal surface of a mass of soil, to (2) corresponding dimensions, subjected to a compactive effort of controlled
settlement of the surface. It is determined as the slope of the magnitude, and the resulting unit weight determined. The
secant, drawn between the point corresponding to zero procedure is repeated for various water contents sufficient to
settlement and the point of 0.05-in. (1.3-mm) settlement, of establish a relation between water content and unit weight.
a load-settlement curve obtained from a plate load test on a compressibilityproperty of a soil or rock pertaining to its
soil using a 30-in. (762-mm) or greater diameter loading susceptibility to decrease in volume when subjected to load.
plate. It is used in the design of concrete pavements by the compression curvesee pressure-void ratio curve.
Westergaard method. compression index, Cc (D)the slope of the linear portion of
coefficient of transmissibilitythe rate of flow of water in the pressure-void ratio curve on a semi-log plot.
gallons per day through a vertical strip of the aquifer 1 ft (0.3 compression wave (irrotational)wave in which element of
m) wide, under a unit hydraulic gradient. medium changes volume without rotation.
coefficient of uniformity, Cu (D)the ratio D60/D10, where compressive strength (unconfined or uniaxial compressive
D60 is the particle diameter corresponding to 60 % finer on strength), pc, qu, Co (FL2)the load per unit area at which
the cumulative particle-size distribution curve, and D10 is the an unconfined cylindrical specimen of soil or rock will fail in

D 653 05
a simple compression test. Commonly the failure load is the pally to a squeezing out of water from the void spaces of the
maximum that the specimen can withstand in the test. mass and accompanied by a transfer of the load from the soil
compressive stressnormal stress tending to shorten the body water to the soil solids.
in the direction in which it acts. (ISRM) secondary consolidation (secondary compression) (second-
concentration factor, n (D)a parameter used in modifying ary time effect)the reduction in volume of a soil mass
the Boussinesq equations to describe various distributions of caused by the application of a sustained load to the mass and
vertical stress. due principally to the adjustment of the internal structure of
conceptual modela simplified representation of the hydro- the soil mass after most of the load has been transferred from
geologic setting and the response of the flow system to the soil water to the soil solids.
stress. D 4043 consolidation curvesee consolidation time curve.
conductance (specific)a measure of the ability of the water consolidation groutingin grouting, injection of a fluid
to conduct an electric current at 77F (25C). It is related to grout, usually sand and Portland cement, into a compressible
the total concentration of ionizable solids in the water. It is soil mass in order to displace it and form a lenticular grout
inversely proportional to electrical resistance. D 5092 structure for support.
cone of impression, na rise of the potentiometric surface in DISCUSSIONIn rock, grouting is performed for the purpose of
the approximate shape of a cone that develops around an strengthening the rock mass by filling open fractures and thus elimi-
injection well. nating a source of settlement.
confining beda hydrogeologic unit of less permeable mate-
consolidation ratio, Us (D)the ratio of: (1) the amount of
rial bounding one or more aquifers. D 4043, D 4050,
consolidation at a given distance from a drainage surface and
D 4104, D 4105, D 4106, D 5269
at a given time, to (2) the total amount of consolidation
confining unita term that is synonymous with aquiclude,
obtainable at that point under a given stress increment.
aquitard, and aquifuge: defined as a body of relatively
consolidation testa test in which the specimen is laterally
low permeable material stratigraphically adjacent to one or
confined in a ring and is compressed between porous plates.
more aquifers. D 5092
consolidation-time curve (time curve) (consolidation curve)
conjugate joints (faults)two sets of joints (faults) that
(theoretical time curve)a curve that shows the relation
formed under the same stress conditions (usually shear
between: (1) the degree of consolidation, and (2) the elapsed
pairs). (ISRM)
time after the application of a given increment of load.
connate water, nwater entrapped in the voids of a sedimen- constant-head boundarythe conceptual representation of a
tary or extrusive igneous rock at the time of its deposition or natural feature such as a lake or river that effectively fully
emplacement. penetrates the aquifer and prevents water-level change in the
consistencythe relative ease with which a soil can be aquifer at that location. D 5270
deformed. constitutive equationforce deformation function for a par-
consistencyin grouting, the relative mobility or ability of ticular material. (ISRM)
freshly mixed mortar or grout to flow; the usual measure- contact groutingsee backpack grouting.
ments are slump for stiff mixtures and flow for more fluid contact pressure, p (FL2)the unit of pressure that acts at
grouts. the surface of contact between a structure and the underlying
consistency indexsee relative consistency. soil or rock mass.
consolidated-drained test (slow test)a soil test in which contaminantan undesirable substance not normally present
essentially complete consolidation under the confining pres- in water or soil. D 5092
sure is followed by additional axial (or shearing) stress continuous mixera mixer into which the ingredients of the
applied in such a manner that even a fully saturated soil of mixture are fed without stopping, and from which the mixed
low permeability can adapt itself completely (fully consoli- product is discharged in a continuous stream.
date) to the changes in stress due to the additional axial (or contractionlinear strain associated with a decrease in
shearing) stress. length. (ISRM)
consolidated-undrained test (consolidated quick test)a control rinse waterwater used for equipment washing and
soil test in which essentially complete consolidation under rinsing having a known chemistry. D 5088
the vertical load (in a direct shear test) or under the confining control wellwell by which the aquifer is stressed, for
pressure (in a triaxial test) is followed by a shear at constant example, by pumping, injection, or change of head.
water content. D 4043, D 4044, D 4104, D 4105, D 5269
consolidationthe gradual reduction in volume of a soil mass controlled blastingincludes all forms of blasting designed
resulting from an increase in compressive stress. to preserve the integrity of the remaining rocks, that is,
initial consolidation (initial compression)a comparatively smooth blasting or pre-splitting. (ISRM)
sudden reduction in volume of a soil mass under an applied controlled-strain testa test in which the load is so applied
load due principally to expulsion and compression of gas in that a controlled rate of strain results.
the soil voids preceding primary consolidation. controlled-stress testa test in which the stress to which a
primary consolidation (primary compression) (primary time specimen is subjected is applied at a controlled rate.
effect)the reduction in volume of a soil mass caused by the convergencegenerally refers to a shortening of the distance
application of a sustained load to the mass and due princi- between the floor and roof of an opening, for example, in the

D 653 05
bedded sedimentary rocks of the coal measures where the example. D 5299
roof sags and the floor heaves. Can also apply to the curtain groutinginjection of grout into a sub-surface for-
convergence of the walls toward each other. (ISRM) mation in such a way as to create a barrier of grouted
corea cylindrical sample of hardened grout, concrete, rock, material transverse to the direction of the anticipated water
or grouted deposits, usually obtained by means of a core flow.
drill. cuttingssmall-sized rock fragments produced by a rock drill.
core drilling; diamond drillinga rotary drilling technique, (ISRM)
using diamonds in the cutting bit, that cuts out cylindrical d-10the diameter of a soil particle (preferably in millimetres)
rock samples. (ISRM) at which 10 % by weight (dry) of the particles of a particular
core recoveryratio of the length of core recovered to the sample are finer. Synonymous with the effective size or
length of hole drilled, usually expressed as a percentage. effective grain size. D 5092
coverthe perpendicular distance from any point in the roof d-60the diameter of a soil particle (preferably in millimetres)
of an underground opening to the ground surface. (ISRM) at which 60 % by weight (dry) of the particles of a particular
coverin grouting, the thickness of rock and soil material sample are finer. D 5092
overlying the stage of the hole being grouted. dampingreduction in the amplitude of vibration of a body or
cracka small fracture, that is, small with respect to the scale system due to dissipation of energy internally or by radia-
of the feature in which it occurs. (ISRM) tion. (ISRM)
craterexcavation (generally of conical shape) generated by damping ratiofor a system with viscous damping, the ratio
an explosive charge. (ISRM) of actual damping coefficient to the critical damping coeffi-
creepslow movement of rock debris or soil usually imper- cient.
ceptible except to observations of long duration. Time- decay timethe interval of time required for a pulse to decay
dependent strain or deformation, for example, continuing from its maximum value to some specified fraction of that
strain with sustained stress. value. (ISRM)
critical circle (critical surface)the sliding surface assumed
decommissioning (closure)the engineered closure of a well,
in a theoretical analysis of a soil mass for which the factor of
borehole, or other subsurface monitoring device sealed with
safety is a minimum.
plugging materials. Decommissioning also includes the
critical dampingthe minimum viscous damping that will
planning and documenting of all associated activities. A
allow a displaced system to return to its initial position
synonym is abandonment. D 5299
without oscillation.
decompositionfor peats and organic soils, see humification.
critical densitythe unit weight of a saturated granular
material below which it will lose strength and above which decontaminationthe process of removing undesirable
it will gain strength when subjected to rapid deformation. physical or chemical constituents, or both, from equipment
The critical density of a given material is dependent on many to reduce the potential for cross-contamination. D 5299
factors. The process of removing or reducing to a known level
critical frequency, fcfrequency at which maximum or mini- undesirable physical or chemical constituents, or both, from
mum amplitudes of excited waves occur. a sampling apparatus to maximize the representativeness of
critical height, Hc (L)the maximum height at which a physical or chemical analysis proposed for a given sample.
vertical or sloped bank of soil or rock will stand unsupported D 5088
under a given set of conditions. decouplingthe ratio of the radius of the blasthole to the
critical hydraulic gradientsee hydraulic gradient. radius of the charge. In general, a reducing of the strain wave
critical slopethe maximum angle with the horizontal at amplitude by increasing the spacing between charge and
which a sloped bank of soil or rock of given height will stand blasthole wall. (ISRM)
unsupported. deflocculating agent (deflocculant) (dispersing agent)an
critical surfacesee critical circle. agent that prevents fine soil particles in suspension from
critical void ratiosee void ratio. coalescing to form flocs.
crownalso roof or back, that is, the highest point of the cross deformabilityin grouting, a measure of the elasticity of the
section. In tunnel linings, the term is used to designate either grout to distort in the interstitial spaces as the sediments
the arched roof above spring lines or all of the lining except move.
the floor or invert. (ISRM) deformationchange in shape or size.
cryologythe study of the properties of snow, ice, and frozen deformationa change in the shape or size of a solid body.
ground. (ISRM)
curein grouting, the change in properties of a grout with deformation resolution (deformation sensitivity), Rd (L)
time. ratio of the smallest subdivision of the indicating scale of a
cure timein grouting, the interval between combining all deformation-measuring device to the sensitivity of the de-
grout ingredients or the formation of a gel and substantial vice.
development of its potential properties. degradable, adjin erosion control, decomposes under bio-
curing retardera material added to cement to increase the logical, chemical processes, or ultraviolet stresses associated
time for curing. Sodium chloride in high concentrations is an with typical application environments.

D 653 05
degree-daysthe difference between the average temperature differential settlementsettlement that varies in rate or
each day and 32F (0C). In common usage degree-days are amount, or both, from place to place across a structure.
positive for daily average temperatures above 32F and dilatancyproperty of volume increase under loading.
negative for those below 32F (see freezing index). (ISRM)
degree of consolidation (percent consolidation), U (D)the dilatancythe expansion of cohesionless soils when subject
ratio, expressed as a percentage, of: (1) the amount of to shearing deformation.
consolidation at a given time within a soil mass, to (2) the direct shear testa shear test in which soil or rock under an
total amount of consolidation obtainable under a given stress applied normal load is stressed to failure by moving one
condition. section of the sample or sample container (shear box)
degrees-of-freedomthe minimum number of independent relative to the other section.
coordinates required in a mechanical system to define discharge , nin channel flow, the volume of water flowing
completely the positions of all parts of the system at any through a cross-section in a unit of time, including sediment
instant of time. In general, it is equal to the number of or other solids that may be dissolved in or mixed with the
independent displacements that are possible. water; usually cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or cubic meters
degree of saturationsee percent saturation. per second (m3/s).
degree of saturationthe extent or degree to which the voids discharge velocity, v, q (LT1)rate of discharge of water
in rock contain fluid (water, gas, or oil). Usually expressed in through a porous medium per unit of total area perpendicular
percent related to total void or pore space. (ISRM) to the direction of flow.
degree of sensitivity (sensitivity ratio)see remolding index. discontinuity surfaceany surface across which some prop-
delaytime interval (fraction of a second) between detonation erty of a rock mass is discontinuous. This includes fracture
of explosive charges. (ISRM) surfaces, weakness planes, and bedding planes, but the term
densitythe mass per unit volume, r (ML3) kg/m3. should not be restricted only to mechanical continuity.
density of dry soil or rock, rd (ML3) kg/m3the mass of (ISRM)
solid particles per the total volume of soil or rock. dispersing agentin grouting, an addition or admixture that
density of saturated soil or rock, rsat (ML3) kg/m3the promotes dispersion of particulate grout ingredients by
total mass per total volume of completely saturated soil or reduction of interparticle attraction.
rock. dispersing agentsee deflocculating agent.
density of soil or rock (bulk density), r (ML3) kg/m3the dispersionthe phenomenon of varying speed of transmission
total mass (solids plus water) per total volume. of waves, depending on their frequency. (ISRM)
density of solid particles, rs(ML3) kg/m3the mass per displacementa change in position of a material point.
volume of solid particles. (ISRM)
density of submerged soil or rock, rsub (ML3) kg/m3the displacement groutinginjection of grout into a formation in
difference between the density of saturated soil or rock, and such a manner as to move the formation; it may be controlled
the density of water. or uncontrolled. See also penetration grouting.
density of water, rw(ML3) kg/m3the mass per volume of distortiona change in shape of a solid body. (ISRM)
water. divergence lossthat part of transmitted energy lost due to
depth of flow, nin hydraulics, the distance from the channel spreading of wave rays in accordance with the geometry of
thalweg to the water surface, measure normal to the direction the system.
of flow, for a given discharge. double amplitudetotal or peak to peak excursion.
design discharge, nin erosion control, the volumetric quan- drag bita noncoring or full-hole boring bit, which scrapes its
tity of water flow within a channel which is typically used in way through relatively soft strata. (ISRM)
determining required channel dimensions and suitable lining draina means for intercepting, conveying, and removing
materials for ensuring adequate channel capacity and stabil- water.
ity. drainage curtainin grouting, a row of open holes drilled
DISCUSSIONThe discharge associated with a specified frequency of
parallel to and downstream from the grout curtain of a dam
recurrence, for example, an n-year flood. The n-year flood event has a for the purpose of reducing uplift pressures.
probability of 1/n being equaled or exceeded in any given year. DISCUSSIONDepth is ordinarily approximately one-third to one-half
that of the grout curtain.
detection monitoringa program of monitoring for the ex-
press purpose of determining whether or not there has been drainage galleryin grouting, an opening or passageway
a contaminant release to ground water. D 5092 from which grout holes or drainage curtain holes, or both,
detonationan extremely rapid and violent chemical reaction are drilled. See also grout gallery.
causing the production of a large volume of gas. (ISRM) drawdown (L)vertical distance the free water elevation is
deviator stress, D, s (FL2)the difference between the major lowered or the pressure head is reduced due to the removal
and minor principal stresses in a triaxial test. of free water. D 653
deviator of stress (strain)the stress (strain) tensor obtained drilla machine or piece of equipment designed to penetrate
by subtracting the mean of the normal stress (strain) com- earth or rock formations, or both.
ponents of a stress (strain) tensor from each normal stress drill cuttingsfragments or particles of soil or rock, with or
(strain) component. (ISRM) without free water, created by the drilling process.

D 653 05
drilling fluida fluid (liquid or gas) that may be used in effective stresssee stress.
drilling operations in remove cuttings from the borehole, to effective unit weightsee unit weight.
clean and cool the drill bit, and to maintain the integrity of efflux timetime required for all grout to flow from a flow
the borehole during drilling. D 5092 cone.
drillabilityindex value of the resistance of a rock to drilling. elasticityproperty of material that returns to its original form
(ISRM) or condition after the applied force is removed. (ISRM)
drill carriage; jumboa movable platform, stage, or frame elastic limitpoint on stress strain curve at which transition
that incorporates several rock drills and usually travels on from elastic to inelastic behavior takes place. (ISRM)
the tunnel track; used for heavy drilling work in large elastic state of equilibriumstate of stress within a soil mass
tunnels. (ISRM) when the internal resistance of the mass is not fully
drilling patternthe number, position, depth, and angle of the mobilized.
blastholes forming the complete round in the face of a tunnel elastic strain energypotential energy stored in a strained
or sinking pit. (ISRM) solid and equal to the work done in deforming the solid from
drill mudin grouting, a dense fluid or slurry used in rotary its unstrained state less any energy dissipated by inelastic
drilling; to prevent caving of the bore hole walls, as a deformation. (ISRM)
circulation medium to carry cuttings away from the bit and electric loga record or log of a borehole obtained by
out of the hole, and to seal fractures or permeable forma- lowering electrodes into the hole and measuring any of the
tions, or both, preventing loss of circulation fluid. various electrical properties of the rock formations or
DISCUSSIONThe most common drill mud is a water-bentonite materials traversed.
mixture, however, many other materials may be added or substituted to electrokineticsinvolves the application of an electric field to
increase density or decrease viscosity. soil for the purpose of dewatering materials of very low
permeability to enhance stability. The electric field produces
dry packa cement-sand mix with minimal water content
negative pore pressures near a grout pipe that facilitates
used to fill small openings or repair imperfections in
grout injection.
elevatorsynonym for bin, commonly used in the grain
dry unit weight (dry density)see unit weight.
ductilitycondition in which material can sustain permanent
deformation without losing its ability to resist load. (ISRM) emplacementthe establishment of contaminant residence in
dye tracerin grouting, an additive whose primary purpose is the vadose zone in a particular phase. D 5314
to change the color of the grout or water. emulsifiera substance that modifies the surface tension of
earthsee soil. colloidal droplets, keeping them from coalescing, and keep-
earth materialsoil, bedrock, or fill. D 4750 ing them suspended.
earth pressurethe pressure or force exerted by soil on any emulsiona system containing dispersed colloidal droplets.
boundary. endothermicpertaining to a reaction that occurs with the
Symbol Unit
adsorption of heat.
Pressure p FL2 envelope groutinggrouting of rock surrounding a hydraulic
Force P F or FL1 pressure tunnel for purpose of consolidation, and primarily,
active earth pressure, PA, pAthe minimum value of earth reduction of permeability.
pressure. This condition exists when a soil mass is permitted epoxya multicomponent resin grout that usually provides
to yield sufficiently to cause its internal shearing resistance very high, tensile, compressive, and bond strengths.
along a potential failure surface to be completely mobilized. equipotential linea line connecting points of equal hydrau-
earth pressure at rest, Po, pothe value of the earth pressure lic head. A set of such lines provides a contour map of a
when the soil mass is in its natural state without having been potentiometric surface. D 5270
permitted to yield or without having been compressed. equivalent diameter (equivalent size), D (L)the diameter
passive earth pressure, Pp, ppthe maximum value of earth of a hypothetical sphere composed of material having the
pressure. This condition exists when a soil mass is com- same specific gravity as that of the actual soil particle and of
pressed sufficiently to cause its internal shearing resistance such size that it will settle in a given liquid at the same
along a potential failure surface to be completely mobilized. terminal velocity as the actual soil particle.
effect diameter (effective size), D10, De (L)particle diameter equivalent fluida hypothetical fluid having a unit weight
corresponding to 10 % finer on the grain-size curve. such that it will produce a pressure against a lateral support
effective drainage porositysee effective porosity. presumed to be equivalent to that produced by the actual
effective force, F (F)the force transmitted through a soil or soil. This simplified approach is valid only when deforma-
rock mass by intergranular pressures. tion conditions are such that the pressure increases linearly
effective porosity (effective drainage porosity), ne (D)the with depth and the wall friction is neglected.
ratio of: (1) the volume of the voids of a soil or rock mass erosion control blanket (ECB), nin erosion control, a
that can be drained by gravity, to (2) the total volume of the temporary degradable Rolled Erosion Control Product
mass. (RECP) composed of processed natural or synthetic fibers,
effective pressuresee stress. or a combination thereof, mechanically, structurally or
effective sizesee effective diameter. chemically bound together to form a continuous matrix.

D 653 05
excess hydrostatic pressuresee hydrostatic pressure. fatigue limitpoint on stress-strain curve below which no
exchange capacitythe capacity to exchange ions as mea- fatigue can be obtained regardless of number of loading
sured by the quantity of exchangeable ions in a soil or rock. cycles. (ISRM)
excitation (stimulus)an external force (or other input) faulta fracture or fracture zone along which there has been
applied to a system that causes the system to respond in displacement of the two sides relative to one another parallel
some way. to the fracture (this displacement may be a few centimetres
exothermicpertaining to a reaction that occurs with the or many kilometres). (See also joint fault set and joint fault
evolution of heat. system. (ISRM)
expansive cementa cement that tends to increase in volume fault brecciathe assemblage of broken rock fragments
after it is mixed with water. frequently found along faults. The fragments may vary in
extenderan additive whose primary purpose is to increase size from inches to feet. (ISRM)
total grout volume. fault gougea clay-like material occurring between the walls
extensionlinear strain associated with an increase in length. of a fault as a result of the movement along the fault
(ISRM) surfaces. (ISRM)
external forcea force that acts across external surface fiberfor peats and organic soils, a fragment or piece of plant
elements of a material body. (ISRM) tissue that retains a recognizable cellular structure and is
extradosthe exterior curved surface of an arch, as opposed large enough to be retained after wet sieving on a 100-mesh
to intrados, which is the interior curved surface of an arch. sieve (openings 0.15 mm).
fibric peatpeat in which the original plant fibers are slightly
fabricfor rock or soil, the spatial configuration of all textural
decomposed (greater than 67 % fibers).
and structural features as manifested by every recognizable
material unit from crystal lattices to large scale features fibrous peatsee fibric peat.
requiring field studies. field moisture equivalentsee moisture equivalent.
fabricthe orientation in space of the elements composing the fillman-made deposits of natural soils or rock products and
rock substance. (ISRM) waste materials.
face (heading)the advanced end of a tunnel, drift, or fillinggenerally, the material occupying the space between
excavation at which work is progressing. (ISRM) joint surfaces, faults, and other rock discontinuities. The
facingthe outer layer of revetment. filling material may be clay, gouge, various natural cement-
failure (in rocks)exceeding the maximum strength of the ing agents, or alteration products of the adjacent rock.
rock or exceeding the stress or strain requirement of a (ISRM)
specific design. (ISRM) filter bedding stone(generally 6-in. minus material) stone
failure (of a bulk solid)plastic deformation of an overcon- placed under graded riprap stone or armor stone in a layer or
solidated bulk solid subject to shear, causing dilation and a combination of layers designed and installed in such a
decrease in strength. manner as to prevent the loss of underlying soil or finer
failure by rupturesee shear failure. bedding materials due to moving water.
failure criterionspecification of the mechanical condition filter (protective filter)a layer or combination of layers of
under which solid materials fail by fracturing or by deform- pervious materials designed and installed in such a manner
ing beyond some specified limit. This specification may be as to provide drainage, yet prevent the movement of soil
in terms of the stresses, strains, rate-of-change of stresses, particles due to flowing water.
rate-of-change of strains, or some combination of these final setin grouting, a degree of stiffening of a grout mixture
quantities, in the materials. greater than initial set, generally stated as an empirical value
failure criteriontheoretically or empirically derived stress indicating the time in hours and minutes that is required for
or strain relationship characterizing the occurrence of failure cement paste to stiffen sufficiently to resist the penetration of
in the rock. (ISRM) a weighted test needle.
fallbackshrinkage, settlement, or loss of plugging material finenessa measure of particle-size.
placed in a borehole or well. D 5299
fineness modulusan empirical factor obtained by adding the
false setin grouting, the rapid development of rigidity in a
total percentages of an aggregate sample retained on each of
freshly mixed grout without the evolution of much heat.
a specified series of sieves, and dividing the sum by 100; in
DISCUSSIONSuch rigidity can be dispelled and plasticity regained by the United States, the U.S. Standard sieve sizes are: No. 100
further mixing without the addition of water; premature stiffening, (149 m), No. 50 (297 m), No. 30 (590 m), No. 16 (1,190
hesitation set, early stiffening, and rubber set are other much used terms m), No. 8 (2,380 m), and No. 4 (4,760 m) and 38 in. (9.5
referring to the same phenomenon.
mm), 34 in. (19 mm), 112 in. (38 mm), 3 in. (76 mm), and 6
fatiguethe process of progressive localized permanent struc- in. (150 mm).
tural change occurring in a material subjected to conditions finesportion of a soil finer than a No. 200 (75-m) U.S.
that produce fluctuating stresses and strains at some point or standard sieve.
points and that may culminate in cracks or complete fracture finite elementone of the regular geometrical shapes into
after a sufficient number of fluctuations. which a figure is subdivided for the purpose of numerical
fatiguedecrease of strength by repetitive loading. (ISRM) stress analysis. (ISRM)

D 653 05
fire claya silicious clay rich in hydrous aluminum silicates. fluidifierin grouting, an admixture employed in grout to
D 5299 increase flowability without changing water content.
fishing toolin grouting, a device used to retrieve drilling flush joint or flush coupledcasing or riser with ends
equipment lost or dropped in the hole. threaded such that a consistent inside and outside diameter is
fissurea gapped fracture. (ISRM) maintained across the threaded joints or couplings. D 5092
flash setin grouting, the rapid development of rigidity in a fly ashthe finely divided residue resulting from the combus-
freshly mixed grout, usually with the evolution of consider- tion of ground or powdered coal and which is transported
able heat; this rigidity cannot be dispelled nor can the from the firebox through the boiler by flue gases.
plasticity be regained by further mixing without addition of folda bend in the strata or other planar structure within the
water; also referred to as quick set or grab set. rock mass. (ISRM)
flocloose, open-structured mass formed in a suspension by foliationthe somewhat laminated structure resulting from
the aggregation of minute particles. segregation of different minerals into layers parallel to the
flocculationthe process of forming flocs. schistosity. (ISRM)
flocculent structuresee soil structure. footingportion of the foundation of a structure that transmits
floorbottom of near horizontal surface of an excavation, loads directly to the soil.
approximately parallel and opposite to the roof. (ISRM) footwallthe mass of rock beneath a discontinuity surface.
flowing ground, nin tunneling, soil or rock of soft and (ISRM)
plastic consistency and with very low cohesion that flows forced vibration (forced oscillation)vibration that occurs if
into the excavation even through small unsupported areas. the response is imposed by the excitation. If the excitation is
See running ground. D 5878 periodic and continuing, the oscillation is steady-state.
flow channelthe portion of a flow net bounded by two forepolingdriving forepoles (pointed boards or steel rods)
adjacent flow lines. ahead of the excavation, usually over the last set erected, to
flow conein grouting, a device for measurement of grout furnish temporary overhead protection while installing the
consistency in which a predetermined volume of grout is next set. (ISRM)
permitted to escape through a precisely sized orifice, the
foundationlower part of a structure that transmits the load to
time of efflux (flow factor) being used as the indication of
the soil or rock.
foundation soilupper part of the earth mass carrying the
flow curvethe locus of points obtained from a standard
load of the structure.
liquid limit test and plotted on a graph representing water
content as ordinate on an arithmetic scale and the number of fracturethe general term for any mechanical discontinuity in
blows as abscissa on a logarithmic scale. the rock; it therefore is the collective term for joints, faults,
flow function, FFthe plot of unconfined yield strength cracks, etc. (ISRM)
versus major consolidation stress for one specified bulk fracturea break in the mechanical continuity of a body of
solid. rock caused by stress exceeding the strength of the rock.
flow failurefailure in which a soil mass moves over rela- Includes joints and faults.
tively long distances in a fluid-like manner. fracture frequencythe number of natural discontinuities in
flow index, Fw, If (D)the slope of the flow curve obtained a rock or soil mass per unit length, measured along a core or
from a liquid limit test, expressed as the difference in water as exposed in a planar section such as the wall of a tunnel.
contents at 10 blows and at 100 blows. fracture patternspatial arrangement of a group of fracture
flow linethe path that a particle of water follows in its course surfaces. (ISRM)
of seepage under laminar flow conditions. fracturingin grouting, intrusion of grout fingers, sheets, and
flow loga borehole geophysical log used to record vertical lenses along joints, planes of weakness, or between the strata
movement of ground water and movement of water into or of a formation at sufficient pressure to cause the strata to
out of a well or borehole and between formations within a move away from the grout.
well. D 5299 fragmentationthe breaking of rock in such a way that the
flow neta graphical representation of flow lines and equipo- bulk of the material is of a convenient size for handling.
tential (piezometric) lines used in the study of seepage (ISRM)
phenomena. free productliquid phase contaminants released into the
flow pathrepresents the area between two flow lines along environment. D 5314
which ground water can flow. D 5092 free vapor phasea condition of contaminant residence in
flow slidethe failure of a sloped bank of soil in which the which volatilized contaminants occur in porosity that is
movement of the soil mass does not take place along a effective to free and open gaseous flow and exchange, such
well-defined surface of sliding. porosity generally being macroporosity. D 5314
flow steady, na characteristic of a flow system where the free water (gravitational water) (ground water) (phreatic
specific discharge is constant in time at any point. water)water that is free to move through a soil or rock
flow value, Nf (degrees)a quantity equal to tan [45 mass under the influence of gravity.
deg + (f/2)]. free water elevation (water table) (ground water surface)
flow velocitysee specific discharge. (free water surface) (ground water elevation)elevations

D 653 05
at which the pressure in the water is zero with respect to the grain-size analysis (mechanical analysis) (particle-size
atmospheric pressure. analysis)the process of determining grain-size distribu-
freezing index, F (degree-days)the number of degree-days tion.
between the highest and lowest points on the cumulative granular materialsynonym for bulk solid.
degree-daystime curve for one freezing season. It is used gravelrounded or semirounded particles of rock that will
as a measure of the combined duration and magnitude of pass a 3-in. (76.2-mm) and be retained on a No. 4 (4.75-m)
below-freezing temperature occurring during any given U.S. standard sieve.
freezing season. The index determined for air temperatures gravel packcommon nomenclature for the terminology,
at 4.5 ft (1.4 m) above the ground is commonly designated primary filter of a well (see primary filter pack). D 5092
as the air freezing index, while that determined for tempera- gravitational watersee free water.
tures immediately below a surface is known as the surface gravity groutinggrouting under no applied pressure other
freezing index. than the height of fluid in the hole.
free vibrationvibration that occurs in the absence of forced groinbank or shore-protection structure in the form of a
vibration. barrier placed oblique to the primary motion of water,
frequency, f (T1)number of cycles occurring in unit time. designed to control movement of bed load.
friable, adjin tunneling as applied to rock, easily frag- ground archthe theoretical stable rock arch that develops
mented, disaggregated, crumbled, or pulverized. D 5878 some distance back from the surface of the opening and
supports the opening. (ISRM)
frost actionfreezing and thawing of moisture in materials
ground waterthat part of the subsurface water that is in the
and the resultant effects on these materials and on structures
saturated zone.
of which they are a part or with which they are in contact.
frost boil(a) softening of soil occurring during a thawing DISCUSSIONLoosely, all subsurface water as distinct from surface
period due to the liberation of water form ice lenses or water.
layers. ground-water barriersoil, rock, or artificial material which
has a relatively low permeability and which occurs below the
(b) the hole formed in flexible pavements by the extrusion land surface where it impedes the movement of ground water
of soft soil and melt waters under the action of wheel loads. and consequently causes a pronounced difference in the
potentiometric level on opposite sides of the barrier.
(c) breaking of a highway or airfield pavement under ground-water basina ground-water system that has defined
traffic and the ejection of subgrade soil in a soft and soupy boundaries and may include more than one aquifer of
condition caused by the melting of ice lenses formed by frost permeable materials, which are capable of furnishing a
action. significant water supply.
frost heavethe raising of a surface due to the accumulation
of ice in the underlying soil or rock. DISCUSSIONA basin is normally considered to include the surface
area and the permeable materials beneath it. The surface-water divide
fundamental frequencylowest frequency of periodic varia- need not coincide with ground-water divide.
gage length, L (L)distance over which the deformation ground-water dischargethe water released from the zone of
measurement is made. saturation; also the volume of water released.
gage protectorin grouting, a device used to transfer grout ground-water dividea ridge in the water table or other
pressure to a gage without the grout coming in actual contact potentiometric surface from which ground water moves
with the gage. away in both directions normal to the ridge line.
gage saversee gage protector. ground-water elevationsee free water elevation.
ground-water flowthe movement of water in the zone of
gelin grouting, the condition where a liquid grout begins to
exhibit measurable shear strength.
ground-water levelthe level or the water table surrounding
gel timein grouting, the measured time interval between the a borehole or well. The ground-water level can be repre-
mixing of a grout system and the formation of a gel. sented as an elevation or as a depth below the ground
general shear failuresee shear failure. surface. D 4750
geophysical borehole loga log obtained by lowering an ground-water, perchedsee perched ground-water.
instrument into a borehole and continuously recording a ground-water rechargethe process of water addition to the
physical property of native or backfill material and contained saturated zone; also the volume of water added by this
fluids. Examples include resistivity, induction, caliper, sonic, process.
and natural gamma logs. D 5299 ground-water surfacesee free water elevation.
glacial till (till)material deposited by glaciation, usually groutin soil and rock grouting, a material injected into a soil
composed of a wide range of particle sizes, which has not or rock formation to change the physical characteristics of
been subjected to the sorting action of water. the formation.
gradation (grain-size distribution) (texture)the propor- grout (monitoring wells)a low permeability material placed
tions by mass of a soil or fragmented rock distributed in in the annulus between the well casing or riser pipe and the
specified particle-size ranges. borehole wall (that is, in a single-cased monitoring well), or

D 653 05
between the riser and casing (that is, in a multicased the chemical component that causes the base component to
monitoring well), to maintain the alignment of the casing cure.
and riser and to prevent movement of ground water or hardnessresistance of a material to indentation or scratch-
surface water within the annular space. D 5092 ing. (ISRM)
groutabilitythe ability of a formation to accept grout. hardpana hard impervious layer, composed chiefly of clay,
groutability ratio of granular formationsthe ratio of the cemented by relatively insoluble materials, that does not
15 % size of the formation particles to be grouted to the become plastic when mixed with water and definitely limits
85 % size of grout particles (suspension-type grout). This the downward movement of water and roots.
ratio should be greater than 24 if the grout is to successfully headpressure at a point in a liquid, expressed in terms of the
penetrate the formation. vertical distance of the point below the surface of the liquid.
groutable rock boltsrock bolts with hollow cores or with (ISRM)
tubes adapted to the periphery of the bolts and extending to head (total)the sum of three components at a point: (1)
the bottom of the bolts to facilitate filling the holes surround- elevation head, h which is equal to the elevation of the point
ing the bolts with grout. above a datum; (2) pressure head, hp, which is the height of
a column of static water than can be supported by the static
grouted-aggregate concreteconcrete that is formed by in-
pressure at the point; and (3) velocity head, hv, which is the
jecting grout into previously placed coarse aggregate. See
height the kinetic energy of the liquid is capable of lifting the
also preplaced aggregate concrete.
liquid. D 5092
grout capa cap that is formed by placing concrete along
head, staticthe height above a standard datus of the surface
the top of a grout curtain. A grout cap is often used in weak
of a column of water (or other liquid) that can be supported
foundation rock to secure grout nipples, control leakage, and
by the static pressure at a given point. The static head is the
to form an impermeable barrier at the top of a grout curtain.
sum of the elevation head and the pressure head. D 5092
grout galleryan opening or passageway within a dam heat of hydrationheat evolved by chemical reactions with
utilized for grouting or drainage operations, or both. water, such as that evolved during the setting and hardening
grout headera pipe assembly attached to a ground hole, and of Portland cement.
to which the grout lines are attached for injecting grout. heaveupward movement of soil caused by expansion or
Grout injector is monitored and controlled by means of displacement resulting from phenomena such as: moisture
valves and a pressure gate mounted on the header; some- absorption, removal of overburden, driving of piles, frost
times called grout manifold. action, and loading of an adjacent area.
grout mixthe proportions or amounts of the various mate- height of capillary risesee capillary rise.
rials used in the grout, expressed by weight or volume. (The hemic peatpeat in which the original plant fibers are
words by volume or by weight should be used to specify moderately decomposed (between 33 and 67 % fibers).
the mix.) heterogeneityhaving different properties at different points.
grout nipplein grouting, a short length of pipe, installed at (ISRM)
the collar of the grout hole, through which drilling is done homogeneityhaving the same properties at all points.
and to which the grout header is attached for the purpose of (ISRM)
injecting grout. homogeneous massa mass that exhibits essentially the same
grout pipea pipe or tube that is used to transport cement, physical properties at every point throughout the mass.
bentonite, or other plugging materials from the ground honeycomb structuresee soil structure.
surface to a specified depth in a well or borehole. The hopperthe converging portion of a bin.
material may be allowed to flow freely or it may be injected horizon (soil horizon)one of the layers of the soil profile,
under pressure. The term tremie pipe is frequently used distinguished principally by its texture, color, structure, and
interchangeably. D 5299 chemical content.
grout slopethe natural slope of grout injected into A horizonthe uppermost layer of a soil profile from
preplaced-aggregate or other porous mass. which inorganic colloids and other soluble materials have
grout shoea plug fabricated of relatively inert materials that been leached. Usually contains remnants of organic life.
is positioned with the lowermost section of a permanent B horizonthe layer of a soil profile in which material
casing and fitted with a passageway, often with a flow check leached from the overlying 88A horizon is accumulated.
device, through which grout is injected under pressure to fill C horizonundisturbed parent material from which the
the annular space. After the grout has set, the grout shoe is overlying soil profile has been developed.
usually drilled out. D 5092 humic peatsee sapric peat.
grout systemformulation of different materials used to form humificationa process by which organic matter decom-
a grout. poses.
grout takethe measured quantity of grout injected into a unit DISCUSSIONThe degree of humification for peats is indicated by the
volume of formation, or a unit length of grout hole. state of the fibers. In slightly decomposed material, most of the volume
consists of fibers. In moderately decomposed material, the fibers may
hanging wallthe mass of rock above a discontinuity surface. be preserved but may break down with disturbance, such as rubbing
(ISRM) between the fingers. In highly decomposed materials, fibers will be
hardenerin grouting, in a two component epoxy or resin, virtually absent; see von Post humification scale.

D 653 05
humusa brown or black material formed by the partial straight line connecting the control and image wells; used to
decomposition of vegetable or animal matter; the organic simulate the effect of a boundary on water-level changes.
portion of soil. D 5270
hydrationformation of a compound by the combining of impedance, acousticthe product of the density and sonic
water with some other substance. velocity of a material. The extent of wave energy transmis-
hydraulic communicationthe migration of fluids from one sion and reflection at the boundary of two media is deter-
zone to another, with reference to this guide, especially mined by their acoustic impedances. (ISRM)
along a casing grout plug, or through back fill materials. impermable boundarythe conceptual representation of a
D 5299 natural feature such as a fault or depositional contact that
hydraulic conductivity (field aquifer tests)the volume of places a boundary of significantly less-permeable material
water at the existing kinematic viscosity that will move in a laterally adjacent to an aquifer. D 5270
unit time under a unit hydraulic gradient through a unit area inelastic deformationthe portion of deformation under
measured at right angles to the direction of flow. D 4043, stress that is not annulled by removal of stress. (ISRM)
D 4044, D 4050, D 4104, D 4105, D 4106, D 5269
inertnot participating in any fashion in chemical reactions.
hydraulic fracturingthe fracturing of an underground strata
by pumping water or grout under a pressure in excess of the influence value, I (D)the value of the portion of a math-
tensile strength and confining pressure; also called hydrof- ematical expression that contains combinations of the inde-
racturing. pendent variables arranged in dimensionless form.
hydraulic gradientthe change in total hydraulic head of influent stream, nsee preferred term losing stream.
water per unit distance of flow. D 4696 inhibitora material that stops or slows a chemical reaction
critical hydraulic gradient, ic (D)hydraulic gradient at from occurring.
which the intergranular pressure in a mass of cohesionless initial consolidation (initial compression)see consolidation.
soil is reduced to zero by the upward flow of water. initial seta degree of stiffening of a grout mixture generally
hydrologic unitgeologic strata that can be distinguished on stated as an empirical value indicating the time in hours and
the basis of capacity to yield and transmit fluids. Aquifers minutes that is required for a mixture to stiffen sufficiently to
and confining units are types of hydrologic units. Boundaries resist the penetration of a weighted test needle.
of a hydrologic unit may not necessarily correspond either injectabilitysee groutability.
laterally or vertically to lithostratigraphic formations. inorganic siltsee silt.
D 5092
in situapplied to a rock or soil when occurring in the
hydrophobicitythe property that defines a material as being
situation in which it is naturally formed or deposited.
water repellent. Water exhibits an obtuse contact angle with
hydrophobic materials. D 4696 intergranular pressuresee stress.
Hydrophelicitythe property that defines a material as at- intermediate principal planesee principal plane.
tracting water. Water exhibits an acute contact angle with intermediate principal stresssee stress.
hydrophilic materials. D 4696 internal friction (shear resistance), (FL2)the portion of
hydrostatic headthe fluid pressure of formation water the shearing strength of a soil or rock indicated by the terms
produced by the height of water above a given point. p tan f in Coulombs equation s = c + p tan f. It is usually
hydrostatic pressure, uo (FL2)a state of stress in which all considered to be due to the interlocking of the soil or rock
the principal stresses are equal (and there is no shear stress), grains and the resistance to sliding between the grains.
as in a liquid at rest; the product of the unit weight of the intersticesee preferred term void.
liquid and the different in elevation between the given point interstitialoccurring between the grains or in the pores in
and the free water elevation. rock or soil.
excess hydrostatic pressure (hydrostatic excess pressure), u,
intrinsic shear strength, So (FL2)the shear strength of a
u (FL2)the pressure that exists in pore water in excess of
rock indicated by Coulombs equation when p tan f (shear
the hydrostatic pressure.
resistance or internal friction) vanishes. Corresponds to
hydrostatic pressurea state of stress in which all the cohesion, c, in soil mechanics.
principal stresses are equal (and there is no shear stress).
inverton the cross section, the lowest point of the under-
ground excavation or the lowest section of the lining.
hygroscopic capacity (hygroscopic coefficient), we (D)
ratio of: (1) the weight of water absorbed by a dry soil or
rock in a saturated atmosphere at a given temperature, to (2) isochromea curve showing the distribution of the excess
the weight of the oven-dried soil or rock. hydrostatic pressure at a given time during a process of
hygroscopic water content, wH (D)the water content of an consolidation.
air-dried soil or rock. isotropic massa mass having the same property (or proper-
hysteresisincomplete recovery of strain during unloading ties) in all directions.
cycle due to energy consumption. (ISRM) isotropic materiala material whose properties do not vary
image wellan imaginary well located opposite a control well with direction.
such that a boundary is the perpendicular bisector of a isotropyhaving the same properties in all directions. (ISRM)

D 653 05
jackhammeran air driven percussion drill that imparts a hole in the rotary table of a drill rig to impart rotary motion
rotary hammering motion to the bit and has a passageway to to the drill string.
the bit for the injection of compressed air for cleaning the lagging, nin mining or tunneling, short lengths of timber,
hole of cuttings. sheet steel, or concrete slabs used to secure the roof and
sides of an opening behind the main timber or steel supports.
DISCUSSIONThese two characteristics distinguish it from the pave-
ment breaker which is similar in size and general appearance. The process of installation is also called lagging or lacing.
laminar flow (streamline flow) (viscous flow)flow in which
jack-lega portable percussion drill of the jack-hammer type, the head loss is proportional to the first power of the velocity.
used in underground work; has a single pneumatically landslidethe perceptible downward sliding or movement of
adjustable leg for support. a mass of earth or rock, or a mixture of both. (ISRM)
jet groutingtechnique utilizing a special drill bit with landslide (slide)the failure of a sloped bank of soil or rock
horizontal and vertical high speed water jets to excavate in which the movement of the mass takes place along a
alluvial soils and produce hard impervious columns by surface of sliding.
pumping grout through the horizontal nozzles that jets and leachingthe removal in solution of the more soluble mate-
mixes with foundation material as the drill bit is withdrawn. rials by percolating or moving waters. (ISRM)
jettingwhen applied as a drilling method, water is forced leachingthe removal of soluble soil material and colloids by
down through the drill rods or casings and out through the percolating water.
end aperture. The jetting water then transports the generated leakage, nthe flow of liquid from one hydrogeolic unit to
cuttings to the ground surface in the annulus of the drill rods another.
or casing and the borehole. The term jetting may also refer
DISCUSSIONthe leakage may be natural, as through semi-impervious
to a development technique (see well screen jetting).
confining layer, or man-made, as through an uncased well.
D 5092
jettyan elongated artificial obstruction projecting into a body leakance, n (T1)the ratio K8/b8, in which K8 and b8 are the
of water from a bank or shore to control shoaling and scour vertical hydraulic conductivity and the thickness, respec-
by deflection of the force of water currents and waves. tively, of the confining beds.
jointa break of geological origin in the continuity of a body leaky aquifier, naquifiers, whether artesian or unconfined,
of rock occurring either singly, or more frequently in a set or that lose or gain water through adjacent less permeable beds.
system, but not attended by a visible movement parallel to limespecifically, calcium oxide (CaO2); also loosely, a
the surface of discontinuity. (ISRM) general term for the various chemical and physical forms of
joint diagrama diagram constructed by accurately plotting quicklime, hydrated lime, and hydraulic hydrated lime.
the strike and dip of joints to illustrate the geometrical ledgesee bedrock.
relationship of the joints within a specified area of geologic linear (normal) strainthe change in length per unit of
investigation. (ISRM) length in a given direction. (ISRM)
joint patterna group of joints that form a characteristic line of creep (path of percolation)the path that water
geometrical relationship, and which can vary considerably follows along the surface of contact between the foundation
from one location to another within the same geologic soil and the base of a dam or other structure.
formation. (ISRM) line of seepage (seepage line) (phreatic line)the upper free
joint (fault) seta group of more or less parallel joints. water surface of the zone of seepage.
(ISRM) linear expansion, Le (D)the increase in one dimension of a
joint (fault) systema system consisting of two or more joint soil mass, expressed as a percentage of that dimension at the
sets or any group of joints with a characteristic pattern, that shrinkage limit, when the water content is increased from the
is, radiating, concentric, etc. (ISRM) shrinkage limit to any given water content.
jumboa specially built mobile carrier used to provide a work linear shrinkage, Ls (D)decrease in one dimension of a soil
platform for one or more tunneling operations, such as mass, expressed as a percentage of the original dimension,
drilling and loading blast holes, setting tunnel supports, when the water content is reduced from a given value to the
installing rock bolts, grouting, etc. shrinkage limit.
Kxyhydraulic conductivity in the horizontal plane, radially lineationthe parallel orientation of structural features that
from the control well. D 4106 are lines rather than planes; some examples are parallel
kaolina variety of clay containing a high percentage of orientation of the long dimensions of minerals; long axes of
kaolinite. pebbles; striae on slickensides; and cleavage-bedding plane
kaolinitea common clay mineral having the general formula intersections. (ISRM)
Al2(Si2O5) (OH4); the primary constituent of kaolin. liquefactionthe process of transforming any soil from a
karsta geologic setting where cavities are developed in solid state to a liquid state, usually as a result of increased
massive limestone beds by solution of flowing water. Caves pore pressure and reduced shearing resistance.
and even underground river channels are produced into liquefaction potentialthe capability of a soil to liquefy or
which surface runoff drains and often results in the land develop cyclic mobility.
above being dry and relatively barren. (ISRM) liquefaction (spontaneous liquefaction)the sudden large
kellya heavy-wall tube or pipe, usually square or hexagonal decrease of the shearing resistance of a cohesionless soil. It
in cross section, which works inside the matching center is caused by a collapse of the structure by shock or other type

D 653 05
of strain and is associated with a sudden but temporary long wave (quer wave), W (LT1)dispersive surface wave
increase of the prefluid pressure. It involves a temporary with one horizontal component, generally normal to the
transformation of the material into a fluid mass. direction of propagation, which decreases in propagation
liquid levelthe level of liquid in a borehole or well at a velocity with increase in frequency.
particular time. The liquid level can be reported as an losing stream, na stream or reach of a stream in which water
elevation or as a depth below the top of the land surface. If flows from the stream bed into the ground.
the liquid in ground water is known as water level. DISCUSSIONsynonymous with influent stream.
D 4750
liquid, limit, LL, Lw, wL (D)(a) the water content corre- loss of circulationthe loss of drilling fluid into strata to the
sponding to the arbitrary limit between the liquid and plastic extent that circulation does not return to the surface.
states of consistency of a soil. D 5092
lubricityin grouting, the physico-chemical characteristic of
(b) the water content at which a pat of soil, cut by a a grout material flow through a soil or rock that is the inverse
groove of standard dimensions, will flow together for a of the inherent friction of that material to the soil or rock;
distance of 12 in. (12.7 mm) under the impact of 25 blows in comparable to wetness.
a standard liquid limit apparatus. lugeona measure of permeability defined by a pump-in test
liquid phasecontaminant residing as a liquid in vadose zone or pressure test, where one Lugeon unit is a water take of 1
pore space, often referred to as free product. D 5314 L/min per metre of hole at a pressure of 10 bars.
liquidity index (water-plasticity ratio) (relative water con- lysimetera device to measure the quantity or rate of water
tent), B, Rw, IL (D)the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of: movement through a block of soil, usually undisturbed or
(1) the natural water content of a soil minus its plastic limit, in-situ; or to collect such percolated water for analyses.
to (2) its plasticity index. D 4696
liquid-volume measurementin grouting, measurement of macroporeinteraggregate cavities that service as the princi-
grout on the basis of the total volume of solid and liquid pal avenues for the infiltration and drainage of water and for
constituents. aeration. D 4696
lithologythe description of rocks, especially sedimentary macroporositylarge intergranular porosity with large pore
clastics and especially in hand specimens and in outcrops, on throats, including soil cracks, moldic porosity, animal bur-
the basis of such characteristics as color, structures, miner- rows and other significant void space. D 5314
alogy, and particle size. major principal planesee principal plane.
loama mixture of sand, silt, or clay, or a combination of any major principal stresssee stress.
of these, with organic matter (see humus). manifoldsee grout header.
marlcalcareous clay, usually containing from 35 to 65 %
DISCUSSIONIt is sometimes called topsoil in contrast to the subsoils
calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
that contain little or no organic matter.
marsha wetland characterized by grassy surface mats which
local shear failuresee shear failure. are frequently interspersed with open water or by a closed
local velocity, nin channel flow, the velocity at a specific canopy of grasses, sedges, or other herbacious plants.
point in the flow region of a channel. May be expressed as a mass unit weightsee unit weight.
direction -dependent quantity with components Vx, Vy, and mathematical modelthe representation of a physical system
V z. by mathematical expressions from which the behavior of the
loessa uniform aeolian deposit of silty material having an system can be deduced with known accuracy. (ISRM)
open structure and relatively high cohesion due to cementa- matric potentialthe energy required to extract water from a
tion of clay or calcareous material at grain contacts. soil against the capillary and adsorptive forces of the soil
DISCUSSIONA characteristic of loess deposits is that they can stand
matrix. D 4696
with nearly vertical slopes. matric suctionfor isothermal soil systems, matric suction is
the pressure difference across a membrane separating soil
logarithmic decrementthe natural logarithm of the ratio of solution, in-place, from the same bulk (see soil-water
any two successive amplitudes of like sign, in the decay of pressure). D 4696
a single-frequency oscillation. matrixin grouting, a material in which particles are embed-
longitudinal rod wavesee compression wave. ded, that is, the cement paste in which the fine aggregate
longitudinal wave, vl (LT1)wave in which direction of particles of a grout are embedded.
displacement at each point of medium is normal to wave maximum amplitude (L, LT1, LT2)deviation from mean
front, with propagation velocity, calculated as follows: or zero point.
yl 5 =~E/r!@~1 2 v!/~1 1 v!~1 2 2v! ] 5 =~l 1 2!/r (4) maximum density (maximum unit weight)see unit weight.
mean velocity in hydraulics, nthe average velocity through-
where: out a channel cross section. Defined as the discharge divided
E = Youngs modulus, by the cross-sectional area of flow usually expressed in
r = mass density, meters per second (m/s) or feet per second (ft/s).
l and = Lams constants, and mechanical analysissee grain-size analysis.
v = Poissons ratio.
mesic peatsee hemic peat.

D 653 05
metering pumpa mechanical arrangement that permits DISCUSSIONAccording to Mohrs rupture hypothesis, a rupture
pumping of the various components of a grout system in any envelope is the locus of points the coordinates of which represent the
desired proportions or in fixed proportions. (Syn. proportion- combinations of normal and shearing stresses that will cause a given
material to fail.
ing pump, variable proportion pump.)
microporeintraaggregate capillaries responsible for the re- moisture contentsee water content.
tention of water and solutes. D 4696 moisture-density curvesee compaction curve.
microporosityintragranular porosity and microscopic inter- moisture-density testsee compaction test.
granular porosity with submicroscopic pore throats. moisture equivalent:
D 5314 centrifuge moisture equivalent, We, CME (D)the water
microseismseismic pulses of short duration and low ampli- content of a soil after it has been saturated with water and
tude, often occurring previous to failure of a material or then subjected for 1 h to a force equal to 1000 times that of
structure. (ISRM) gravity.
minor principal planesee principal plane. field moisture equivalent, FMEthe minimum water con-
minor principal stresssee stress. tent expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven-
mixed-in-place pilea soil-cement pile, formed in place by dried soil, at which a drop of water placed on a smoothed
forcing a grout mixture through a hollow shaft into the surface of the soil will not immediately be absorbed by the
ground where it is mixed with the in-place soil with an soil but will spread out over the surface and give it a shiny
auger-like head attached to the hollow shaft. appearance.
mixera machine employed for blending the constituents of monitoring well (observation well)a special well drilled in
grout, mortar, or other mixtures. a selected location for observing parameters such as liquid
mixing cyclethe time taken for the loading, mixing, and level or pressure changes or for collecting liquid samples.
unloading cycle. The well may be cased or uncased, but if cased the casing
should have openings to allow flow of borehole liquid into or
mixing speedthe rotation rate of a mixer drum or of the
out of the casing. D 4750
paddles in an open-top, pan, or trough mixer, when mixing
a batch; expressed in revolutions per minute. montmorillonitea group of clay minerals characterized by a
weakly bonded sheet-like internal molecular structure; con-
modifierin grouting, an additive used to change the normal
sisting of extremely finely divided hydrous aluminum or
chemical reaction or final physical properties of a grout
magnesium silicates that swell on wetting, shrink on drying,
and are subject to ion exchange.
modular erosion control product (MECP) , nin erosion
muckstone, dirt, debris, or useless material; or an organic
control, products engineered to be assembled in patterns
soil of very soft consistency.
whereby providing erosion control through the strength and
muda mixture of soil and water in a fluid or weakly solid
integrity of the interlocking matrix.
modulus of deformationsee modulus of elasticity.
mudjackingsee slab jacking.
modulus of elasticity (modulus of deformation), E, M mud pitusually a shallow, rectangular, open, portable con-
(FL2)the ratio of stress to strain for a material under tainer with baffles into which drilling fluid and cuttings are
given loading conditions; numerically equal to the slope of discharged from a borehole and that serves as a reservoir and
the tangent or the secant of a stress-strain curve. The use of settling tank during recirculation of the drilling fluids. Under
the term modulus of elasticity is recommended for materials some circumstances, an excavated pit with a lining material
that deform in accordance with Hookes law; the term may be used. D 5092
modulus of deformation for materials that deform other-
multibench blastingthe blasting of several benches (steps)
in quarries and open pits, either simultaneously or with small
modulus of subgrade reactionsee coefficient of subgrade delays. (ISRM)
reaction. multi-cased wella well constructed by using successively
modulus of volume changesee coefficient of volume com- smaller diameter casings with depth. D 5092
pressibility. multiple-row blastingthe drilling, charging, and firing of
Mohr circlea graphical representation of the stresses acting several rows of vertical holes along a quarry or opencast
on the various planes at a given point. face. (ISRM)
Mohr circle of stress (strain)a graphical representation of multiple-screened wellstwo or more monitoring wells situ-
the components of stress (strain) acting across the various ated in the same borehole. These devices can be either
planes at a given point, drawn with reference to axes of individual casing strings and screen set at a specific depth, a
normal stress (strain) and shear stress (strain). (ISRM) well with screens in more than one zone, or can consist of
Mohr envelopethe envelope of a sequence of Mohr circles devices with screens with tubing or other collecting devices
representing stress conditions at failure for a given material. attached that can collect a discrete sample. D 5299
(ISRM) muskeglevel, practically treeless areas supporting dense
Mohr envelope (rupture envelope) (rupture line)the en- growth consisting primarily of grasses. The surface of the
velope of a series of Mohr circles representing stress soil is covered with a layer of partially decayed grass and
conditions at failure for a given material. grass roots which is usually wet and soft when not frozen.

D 653 05
mylonitea microscopic breccia with flow structure formed in organic claya clay with a high organic content.
fault zones. (ISRM) organic silta silt with a high organic content.
native materialin place geologic (or soil) materials encoun- organic soilsoil with a high organic content.
tered at a site. D 5299 DISCUSSIONIn general, organic soils are very compressible and
natural frequencythe frequency at which a body or system have poor load-sustaining properties.
vibrates when unconstrained by external forces. (ISRM)
natural frequency (displacement resonance) fnfrequency organic terrainsee peatland.
for which phase angle is 90 between the direction of the oscillationthe variation, usually with time, of the magnitude
excited force (or torque) vector and the direction of the of a quantity with respect to a specified reference when the
excited excursion vector. magnitude is alternately greater and smaller than the refer-
neat cement grouta mixture of hydraulic cement and water ence.
without any added aggregate or filler materials. outcropthe exposure of the bedrock at the surface of the
ground. (ISRM)
DISCUSSIONThis may or may not contain admixture.
overbreakthe quantity of rock that is excavated or breaks
neutral stresssee stress. out beyond the perimeter specified as the finished excavated
newtonian fluida true fluid that tends to exhibit constant tunnel outline. (ISRM)
viscosity at all rates of shear. overburdenthe loose soil, sand, silt, or clay that overlies
node, adjpoint, line, or surface of standing wave system at bedrock. In some usages it refers to all material overlying the
which the amplitude is zero. point of interest (tunnel crown), that is, the total cover of soil
nondegradable, adjin erosion control, not subject to decom- and rock overlying an underground excavation. (ISRM)
position to the point the material looses its ability to function overburden loadthe load on a horizontal surface under-
for its intended purpose for the design life of the project ground due to the column of material located vertically
under biological, chemical, and /or ultraviolet processes above it. (ISRM)
associated with typical application environments. overconsolidated soil deposita soil deposit that has been
non-sample contacting equipmentrelated equipment asso- subjected to an effective pressure greater than the present
ciated with the sampling effort, but that does not directly overburden pressure.
contact the sample (for example, augers, drilling rods, overconsolidation ratio, OCRthe ratio of preconsolidation
excavations machinery). D 5088 vertical stress to the current effective overburden stress.
normal forcea force directed normal to the surface element overdamped-well responsecharacterized by the water level
across which it acts. (ISRM) returning to the static level in an approximately exponential
normal stresssee stress. manner following a sudden change in water level (see for
normally consolidated soil deposita soil deposit that has comparison underdamped well response). D 4044,
never been subjected to an effective pressure greater than the D 4104
existing overburden pressure. overdrillingthe process of drilling out a well casing and any
no-slump groutgrout with a slump of 1 in. (25 mm) or less material placed in the annular space. D 5299
according to the standard slump test (Test Method C 143). packerin grouting, a device inserted into a hole in which
See also slump and slump test. grout or water is to be injected which acts to prevent return
observation welltypically, a small diameter well used to of the grout or water around the injection pipe; usually an
measure changes in hydraulic head, usually in response to a expandable device actuated mechanically, hydraulically, or
nearby pumping well. D 5092 pneumatically.
occluded vapor phasecondition of contaminant residence in packer (monitoring wells)a transient or dedicated device
which volatilized contaminants occur in porosity that is placed in a well that isolates or seals a portion of the well,
ineffective to free and open gaseous flow and exchange, such well annulus, or borehole at a specific level. D 5092
porosity generally being microporosity; frequently termed paddle mixera mixer consisting essentially of a trough
dead-end pore space. D 5314 within which mixing paddles revolve about the horizontal
oil air filtera filter or series of filters placed in the air flow axis, or a pan within which mixing blades revolve about the
line from an air compressor to reduce the oil content of the vertical axis.
air. D 5092 pan mixera mixer comprised of a horizontal pan or drum in
oil trapa device used to remove oil from the compressed air which mixing is accomplished by means of the rotating pan
discharged from an air compressor. D 5092 of fixed or rotating paddles, or both; rotation is about a
open cutan excavation through rock or soil made through a vertical axis.
hill or other topographic feature to facilitate the passage of a parent materialmaterial from which a soil has been de-
highway, railroad, or waterway along an alignment that rived.
varies in topographic relief. An open cut can be comprised of particle-size analysissee grain-size analysis.
single slopes or multiple slopes, or multiple slopes and particle-size distributionsee gradation, grain-size distribu-
horizontal benches, or both. (ISRM) tion.
optimum moisture content (optimum water content), OMC, particulate groutany grouting material characterized by
wo (D)the water content at which a soil can be compacted undissolved (insoluble) particles in the mix. See also chemi-
to a maximum dry unit weight by a given compactive effort. cal grout.

D 653 05
particulate solidsynonym for bulk solid. perched ground waterunconfined ground water separated
partitioningthe act of movement of contaminants from one from an underlying body of ground water by an unsaturated
soil residence phase to another. D 5314 zone.
passive earth pressuresee earth pressure. perched water tablea water table usually of limited area
passive state of plastic equilibriumsee plastic equilibrium. maintained above the normal free water elevation by the
path percolation (line of creep)the path that water follows presence of an intervening relatively impervious confining
along the surface of contact between the foundation soil or stratum.
rock and the base of a dam or other structure. perched water tablegroundwater separated from an under-
lying body of groundwater by unsaturated soil or rock.
pavement pumpingejection of soil and water mixtures from
Usually located at a higher elevation than the groundwater
joints, cracks, and edges of rigid pavements, under the action
table. (ISRM)
of traffic.
percolationthe movement of gravitational water through
peak shear strengthmaximum shear strength along a failure soil (see seepage).
surface. (ISRM)
percolationthe movement of water through the vadose zone,
peata naturally occurring highly organic substance derived in contrast to infiltration at the land surface and recharge
primarily from plant materials. across a water table. D 4696
DISCUSSIONPeat is distinguished from other organic soil materials percussion drillinga drilling technique that uses solid or
by its lower ash content (less than 25 % ash by dry weight) and from hollow rods for cutting and crushing the rock by repeated
other phytogenic material of higher rank (that is, lignite coal) by its blows. (ISRM)
lower calorific value on a water saturated basis. percussion drillinga drilling process in which a hole is
peatlandareas having peat-forming vegetation on which advanced by using a series of impacts to the drill steel and
peak has accumulated or is accumulating. attached bit; the bit is normally rotated during drilling. See
rotary drilling.
penetrabilitya grout property descriptive of its ability to fill
perforationa slot or hole made in well casing to allow for
a porous mass; primarily a function of lubricity and viscos-
communication of fluids between the well and the annular
space. D 5299
penetrationdepth of hole cut in rock by a drill bit. (ISRM)
periodtime interval occupied by one cycle.
penetration groutingfilling joints or fractures in rock or permafrostperennially frozen soil.
pore spaces in soil with a grout without disturbing the
permanent plugginga seal that has a hydraulic conductivity
formation; this grouting method does not modify the solid
that is equivalent or less than the hydraulic conductivity of
formation structure. See also displacement grouting.
the geologic formation. This term is often used with uncased
penetration resistance (standard penetration resistance) boreholes. D 5299
(Proctor penetration resistance), pR, N (FL2 or Blows permanent strainthe strain remaining in a solid with respect
L1)(a) number of blows of a hammer of specified weight to its initial condition after the application and removal of
falling a given distance required to produce a given penetra- stress greater than the yield stress (commonly also called
tion into soil of a pile, casing, or sampling tube. residual strain). (ISRM)
permeabilitysee coefficient of permeability.
(b) unit load required to maintain constant rate of pen-
permeabilitythe capacity of a rock to conduct liquid or gas.
etration into soil of a probe or instrument.
It is measured as the proportionality constant, k, between
flow velocity, v, and hydraulic gradient, I; v = kI. (ISRM)
(c) unit load required to produce a specified penetration
into soil at a specified rate of a probe or instrument. For a permeability intrinsic, n (L3)a measure of the ease with
Proctor needle, the specified penetration is 212 in. (63.5 mm) which a porous medium can transmit a fluid under a potential
and the rate is 12 in. (12.7 mm)/s. gradient.
penetration resistance curve (Proctor penetration curve) DISCUSSIONIntrinsic permeability is a property of the medium alone
the curve showing the relationship between: (1) the penetra- and is independent of the nature of the fluid and of the force field
tion resistance, and (2) the water content. causing movement.
percent compactionthe ratio, expressed as a percentage, of: permeation groutingfilling joints or fractures in rock or
(1) dry unit weight of a soil, to (2) maximum unit weight pore spaces in soil with a grout, without disturbing the
obtained in a laboratory compaction test. formation.
percent consolidationsee degree of consolidation. pH, pH (D)an index of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil in
percent finesamount, expressed as a percentage by weight, terms of the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion
of a material in aggregate finer than a given sieve, usually concentration.
the No. 200 (74 m) sieve. phase differencedifference between phase angles of two
percent saturation (degree of saturation), SrSr(D)the ratio, waves of same frequency.
expressed as a percentage, of: (1) the volume of water in a phase of periodic quantityfractional part of period through
given soil or rock mass, to (2) the total volume of inter- which independent variable has advanced, measured from an
granular space (voids). arbitrary origin.

D 653 05
phreatic linethe trace of the phreatic surface in any selected plasticizerin grouting, a material that increases the plasticity
plane of reference. of a grout, cement paste, or mortar.
phreatic linesee line of seepage. plastic limit, wp, PL, Pw (D)(a) the water content corre-
phreatic surfacesee free water elevation. sponding to an arbitrary limit between the plastic and the
phreatic watersee free water. semisolid states of consistency of a soil. (b) water content at
piezometera device used to measure head at a point in the which a soil will just begin to crumble when rolled into a
subsurface. D 5269 thread approximately 18 in. (3.2 mm) in diameter.
piezometric line (equipotential line)line along which water plastic soila soil that exhibits plasticity.
will rise to the same elevation in piezometric tubes. plastic state (plastic range)the range of consistency within
piezometric surfacethe surface at which water will stand in which a soil or rock exhibits plastic properties.
a series of piezometers. plow layerthe depth typically reached by a plow or other
piezometric surfacean imaginary surface that everywhere commonly used earth turning device used in agriculture.
coincides with the static level of the water in the aquifer. This depth is commonly one to two feet (0.3 to 0.61 m)
(ISRM) below land surface. D 5299
pilerelatively slender structural element which is driven, or plugging materiala material that has a hydraulic conduc-
otherwise introduced, into the soil, usually for the purpose of tivity equal to or less than that of the geologic formation(s)
providing vertical or lateral support. to be sealed. Typical materials include portland cement and
pillarin-situ rock between two or more underground open- bentonite. D 5299
ings: crown pillars; barrier pillars; rib pillars; sill pillars; Poissons ratio, (v)ratio between linear strain changes
chain pillars; etc. (ISRM) perpendicular to and in the direction of a given uniaxial
pilot drift (pioneer tunnel)a drift or tunnel first excavated stress change.
as a smaller section than the dimensions of the main tunnel. pore-liquidliquid that occupies an open space between solid
A pilot drift or tunnel is usually used to investigate rock soil particles. Within this guide, pore-liquid is limited to
conditions in advance of the main tunnel, to permit instal- aqueous pore-liquid; that includes water and its solutes.
lation of bracing before the principal mass of rock is D 4696
removed, or to serve as a drainage tunnel. (ISRM) pore-liquid tensionsee matric-suction or soil water pres-
pipingthe progressive removal of soil particles from a mass sure. D 4696
by percolating water, leading to the development of chan- pore pressure (pore water pressure)see neutral stress under
nels. stress.
pitan excavation in the surface of the earth from which ore pore waterwater contained in the voids of the soil or rock.
is obtained as in large open pit mining or as an excavation porosity, n (D)the ratio, usually expressed as a percentage,
made for test purposes, that is, a testpit. (ISRM) of: (1) the volume of voids of a given soil or rock mass, to
plane of weaknesssurface or narrow zone with a (shear or (2) the total volume of the soil or rock mass.
tensile) strength lower than that of the surrounding material. porositythe ratio of the aggregate volume of voids or
(ISRM) interstices in a rock or soil to its total volume. (ISRM)
plane stress (strain)a state of stress (strain) in a solid body portalthe surface entrance to a tunnel. (ISRM)
in which all stress (strain) components normal to a certain positive displacement pumpa pump that will continue to
plane are zero. (ISRM) build pressure until the power source is stalled if the pump
plane wavewave in which fronts are parallel to plane normal outlet is blocked.
to direction of propagation. potential drop, Dh (L)the difference in total head between
two equipotential lines.
plastic deformationsee plastic flow.
potentiometric surfacean imaginary surface representing
plastic equilibriumstate of stress within a soil or rock mass
the static head of ground water. The water table is a
or a portion thereof, which has been deformed to such an
particular potentiometric surface.
extent that its ultimate shearing resistance is mobilized.
active state of plastic equilibriumplastic equilibrium ob- DISCUSSIONWhere the head varies with depth in the aquifer, a
tained by an expansion of a mass. potentiometric surface is meaningful only if it describes the static head
along a particular specified surface or stratus in that aquifer. More than
passive state of plastic equilibriumplastic equilibrium
one potentiometric surface is required to describe the distribution of
obtained by a compression of a mass.
plastic flow (plastic deformation)the deformation of a head in this case. D 5092
plastic material beyond the point of recovery, accompanied powdersynonym for bulk solid, particularly when the
by continuing deformation with no further increase in stress. particles of the bulk solid are fine.
plasticitythe property of a soil or rock which allows it to be power spectral densitythe limiting mean-square value (for
deformed beyond the point of recovery without cracking or example, of acceleration, velocity, displacement, stress, or
appreciable volume change. other random variable) per unit bandwidth, that is the limit
plasticityproperty of a material to continue to deform of the mean-square value in a given rectangular bandwidth
indefinitely while sustaining a constant stress. (ISRM) divided by the bandwidth, as the bandwidth approaches zero.
plasticity index, Ip, PI, Iw (D)numerical difference between pozzolana siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material,
the liquid limit and the plastic limit. which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but

D 653 05
will, in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture, principal planeeach of three mutually perpendicular planes
chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary tem- through a point in a soil mass on which the shearing stress is
peratures to form compounds possessing cementitious prop- zero.
erties. intermediate principal planethe plane normal to the
pre-conditioningan activity conducted prior to placing direction of the intermediate principal stress.
plugging material into a borehole in order to stabilize the major principal planethe plane normal to the direction
hole. D 5299 of the major principal stress.
preconsolidation pressure (prestress), pe (FL2)the great- minor principal planethe plane normal to the direction
est effective pressure to which a soil has been subjected. of the minor principal stress.
preplaced aggregate concreteconcrete produced by placing principal stresssee stress.
coarse aggregate in a form and later injecting a portland principal stress (strain)the stress (strain) normal to one of
cement-sand or resin grout to fill the interstices. three mutually perpendicular planes on which the shear
pressure, p (FL2)the load divided by the area over which it stresses (strains) at a point in a body are zero. (ISRM)
acts. Proctor compaction curvesee compaction curve.
pressure bulbthe zone in a loaded soil or rock mass Proctor penetration curvesee penetration resistance curve.
bounded by an arbitrarily selected isobar of stress. Proctor penetration resistancesee penetration resistance.
pressure headthe head of water at a point in a porous profilesee soil profile.
system; negative for unsaturated systems, positive for satu- progressive failurefailure in which the ultimate shearing
rated systems. Quantitatively, it is the water pressure divided resistance is progressively mobilized along the failure sur-
by the specific weight of water. D 4696 face.
pressure testinga method of permeability testing with water progressive failureformation and development of localized
or grout pumped downhole under pressure. fractures which, after additional stress increase, eventually
pressure-void ratio curve (compression curve)a curve form a continuous rupture surface and thus lead to failure
representing the relationship between effective pressure and after steady deterioration of the rock. (ISRM)
void ratio of a soil as obtained from a consolidation test. The proportioning pumpsee metering pump.
curve has a characteristic shape when plotted on semilog proprietarymade and marketed by one having the exclusive
paper with pressure on the log scale. The various parts of the right to manufacture and sell; privately owned and managed.
curve and extensions to the parts of the curve and extensions protective filtersee filter.
to the parts have been designated as recompression, com- PTFE tapejoint sealing tape composed of polytetrafluoro-
pression, virgin compression, expansion, rebound, and other ethylene. D 5092
descriptive names by various authorities. pumpabilityin grouting, a measure of the properties of a
pressure washingthe cleaning of soil or rock surfaces particular grout mix to be pumped as controlled by the
accomplished by injection of water, air, or other liquids, equipment being used, the formation being injected, and the
under pressure. engineering objective limitations.
primary consolidation (primary compression) (primary time pumping of pavement (pumping)see pavement pumping.
effect)see consolidation. pumping testa field procedure used to determine in situ
primary filter packa clean silica sand or sand and gravel permeability or the ability of a formation to accept grout.
mixture of selected grain size and gradation that is installed pure sheara state of strain resulting from that stress condi-
in the annular space between the borehole wall and the well tion most easily described by a Mohr circle centered at the
screen, extending an appropriate distance above the screen, origin. (ISRM)
for the purpose of retaining and stabilizing the particles from quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)the efforts
the adjacent strata. The term is used in place of gravel pack. completed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of a
D 5092 sampling or testing procedure, or both. D 5088
primary holein grouting, the first series of holes to be quarryan excavation in the surface of the earth from which
drilled and grouted, usually at the maximum allowable stone is obtained for crushed rock or building stone. (ISRM)
spacing. Quer-wave (love wave), Wdispersive surface wave with one
primary liningthe lining first placed inside a tunnel or shaft, horizontal component, generally normal to the direction of
usually used to support the excavation. The primary lining propagation, which decreases in propagation velocity with
may be of wood or steel sets with steel or wood lagging or increase in frequency.
rock bolts and shot-crete. (ISRM) quick condition (quicksand)condition in which water is
primary permeabilityinternal permeability of intack rock; flowing upwards with sufficient velocity to reduce signifi-
intergranular permeability (not permeability due to fractur- cantly the bearing capacity of the soil through a decrease in
ing). intergranular pressure.
primary porositythe porosity that developed during the quick testsee unconsolidated undrained test.
final stages of sedimentation or that was present within radius of influence of a welldistance from the center of the
sedimentary particles at the time of deposition. well to the closest point at which the piezometric surface is
primary state of stressthe stress in a geological formation not lowered when pumping has produced the maximum
before it is disturbed by man-made works. (ISRM) steady rate of flow.

D 653 05
raiseupwardly constructed shaft; that is, an opening, like a thermal expansion coefficient is not uniform throughout the
shaft, made in the roof of one level to reach a level above. body. (ISRM)
(ISRM) resinin grouting, a material that usually constitutes the base
range (of a deformation-measuring instrument)the of an organic grout system.
amount between the maximum and minimum quantity an resin grouta grout system composed of essentially resinous
instrument can measure without resetting. In some instances materials such as epoxys, polyesters, and urethanes.
provision can be made for incremental extension of the DISCUSSIONIn Europe, this refers to any chemical grout system
range. regardless of chemical origin.
Rayleigh wave, vR (LT1)dispersive surface wave in which
element has retrograding elliptic orbit with one major resolution (of a deformation-measuring instrument)the
vertical and one minor horizontal component both in plane ratio of the smallest divisional increment of the indicating
of propagation velocity: scale to the sensitivity of the instrument. Interpolation within
vR 5 avt with 0.910, a , 0.995 for 0.25 , v , 0.5
the increment may be possible, but is not recommended in
(5) specifying resolution.
reactantin grouting, a material that reacts chemically with resonancethe reinforced vibration of a body exposed to the
the base component of grout system. vibration, at about the frequency, of another body.
reactive aggregatean aggregate containing siliceous mate- resonant frequencya frequency at which resonance exists.
rial (usually in amorphous or crypto-crystalline state) which responsethe motion (or other output) in a device or system
can react chemically with free alkali in the cement. resulting from an excitation (stimulus) under specified con-
DISCUSSIONThe reaction can result in expansion of the hardened retardbank-protection structure designed to reduce the ri-
material, frequently to a damaging extent.
parian velocity and induce silting or accretion.
reflected (or refracted) wavecomponents of wave incident retardationdelay in deformation. (ISRM)
upon second medium and reflected into first medium (or retardera material that slows the rate at which chemical
refracted) into second medium. reactions would otherwise occur.
reflection and refraction lossthat part of transmitted energy reverse circulationa drilling system in which the circulating
lost due to nonuniformity of mediums. medium flows down through the annulus and up through the
refusalin grouting, when the rate of grout take is low, or drill rod, that is, in the reverse of the normal direction of
zero, at a given pressure. flow.
relative consistency, Ic, Cr (D)ratio of: (1) the liquid limit revetmentbank protection by armor, that is, by facing of a
minus the natural water content, to (2) the plasticity index. bank or embankment with erosion-resistant material.
relative density, Dd, ID (D)the ratio of (1) the difference Richards outflow principlethe principle that states that
between the void ratio of a cohesionless soil in the loosest pore-liquid will not generally flow into an air-filled cavity (at
state and any given void ratio, to (2) the difference between atmospheric pressure) in unsaturated soil. D 4696
the void ratios in the loosest and in the densest states. riprap stonematerial generally less than 2 tons (1814 kg) in
relative water contentsee liquidity index. mass, specially selected and graded, when properly placed
remolded soilsoil that has had its natural structure modified prevent erosion through minor wave action, or strong cur-
by manipulation. rents and thereby preserves the shape of a surface, slope, or
remolding index, IR (D)the ratio of: (1) the modulus of underlying structure.
deformation of a soil in the undisturbed state, to (2) the rise time (pulse rise time)the interval of time required for
modulus of deformation of the soil in the remolded state. the leading edge of a pulse to rise from some specified small
remolding sensitivity (sensitivity ratio), St (D)the ratio of: fraction to some specified larger fraction of the maximum
(1) the unconfined compressive strength of an undisturbed value.
specimen of soil, to (2) the unconfined compressive strength riserthe pipe extending from the well screen to or above the
of a specimen of the same soil after remolding at unaltered ground surface. D 5092
water content. rocknatural solid mineral matter occurring in large masses
residual drawdownthe difference between the projected or fragments.
prepumping water-level trend and the water level in a well or rockany naturally formed aggregate of mineral matter oc-
piezometer after pumping or injection has stopped. D 5269 curring in large masses or fragments. (ISRM)
residual soilsoil derived in place by weathering of the rock anchora steel rod or cable installed in a hole in rock;
underlying material. in principle the same as rock bolt, but generally used for rods
residual strainthe strain in a solid associated with a state of longer than about four metres. (ISRM)
residual stress. (ISRM) rock bolta steel rod placed in a hole drilled in rock used to
residual stressstress remaining in a solid under zero exter- tie the rock together. One end of the rod is firmly anchored
nal stress after some process that causes the dimensions of in the hole by means of a mechanical device or grout, or
the various parts of the solid to be incompatible under zero both, and the threaded projecting end is equipped with a nut
stress, for example, (1) deformation under the action of and plate that bears against the rock surface. The rod can be
external stress when some parts of the body suffer permanent pretensioned. (ISRM)
strain; or (2) heating or cooling of a body in which the rock bursta sudden and violent expulsion of rock from its

D 653 05
surroundings that occurs when a volume of rock is strained saturation curvesee zero air voids curve.
beyond the elastic limit and the accompanying failure is of scattering lossthat part of transmitted energy lost due to
such a nature that accumulated energy is released instanta- roughness of reflecting surface.
neously. schistositythe variety of foliation that occurs in the coarser-
rock burstsudden explosive-like release of energy due to grained metamorphic rocks and is generally the result of the
the failure of a brittle rock of high strength. (ISRM) parallel arrangement of platy and ellipsoidal mineral grains
rock floursee silt. within the rock substance. (ISRM)
rock massrock as it occurs in situ, including its structural secant modulusslope of the line connecting the origin and a
discontinuities. (ISRM) given point on the stress-strain curve. (ISRM)
rock mechanicsthe application of the knowledge of the secondary consolidation (secondary compression) (secondary
mechanical behavior of rock to engineering problems deal- time effect)see consolidation.
ing with rock. Rock mechanics overlaps with structural secondary filter packa clean, uniformly graded sand that is
geology, geophysics, and soil mechanics. placed in the annulus between the primary filter pack and the
rock mechanicstheoretical and applied science of the me- over-lying seal, or between the seal and overlying grout
chanical behaviour of rock. (ISRM) backfill, or both, to prevent movement of seal or grout, of
rolled erosion control product (RECP), nin erosion con- both, into the primary filter pack. D 5092
trol,a material manufactured or fabricated into roll form, and secondary holein grouting, the second series of holes to be
designed to reduce soil erosion and assist in the germination, drilled and grouted usually spaced midway between primary
establishment or protection of vegetation. holes.
rooftop of excavation or underground opening, particularly secondary liningthe second-placed, or permanent, structural
applicable in bedded rocks where the top surface of the lining of a tunnel, which may be of concrete, steel, or
opening is flat rather than arched. (ISRM) masonry. (ISRM)
rotary drillinga drilling process in which a hole is advanced
secondary state of stressthe resulting state of stress in the
by rotation of a drill bit under constant pressure without
rock around man-made excavations or structures. (ISRM)
impact. See percussion drilling.
sediment basina structure created by construction of a
rounda set of holes drilled and charged in a tunnel or quarry
barrier or small dam-like structure across a waterway or by
that are fired instantaneously or with short-delay detonators.
excavating a basin or a combination of both to trap or
restrain sediment.
running groundin tunneling, a granular material that tends
to flow or run into the excavation. See flowing ground. sediment sumpa blank extension beneath the well screen
used to collect fine-grained material from the filter pack and
rupturethat stage in the development of a fracture where
adjacent strata. The term is synonymous with rat trap or tail
instability occurs. It is not recommended that the term
pipe. D 5092
rupture be used in rock mechanics as a synonym for fracture.
(ISRM) seepa small area where water oozes from the soil or rock.
rupture envelope (rupture line)see Mohr envelope. seepagethe infiltration or percolation of water through rock
saggingusually occurs in sedimentary rock formations as a or soil to or from the surface. The term seepage is usually
separation and downward bending of sedimentary beds in restricted to the very slow movement of ground water.
the roof of an underground opening. (ISRM) (ISRM)
samplepiece or quantity of bulk material that has been seepage (percolation)the slow movement of gravitational
selected by some sampling process. water through the soil or rock.
sample contacting equipmentequipment that comes in seepage face, na boundary between the saturated flow field
direct contact with the sample or portion of sample that will and the atmosphere along which a subsurface liquid dis-
undergo chemical analyses or physical testing (for example, charges, either by evaporation or movement downhill
ground water well bailer, split-spoon sampler, soil gas along the land surface or in a well as a thin film in response
sampling probe). D 5088 to the force of gravity.
sandparticles of rock that will pass the No. 4 (4.75-mm) seepage forcethe frictional drag of water flowing through
sieve and be retained on the No. 200 (75-m) U.S. standard voids or interstices in rock, causing an increase in the
sieve. intergranular pressure, that is, the hydraulic force per unit
sand boilthe ejection of sand and water resulting from volume of rock or soil which results from the flow of water
piping. and which acts in the direction of flow. (ISRM)
sand equivalenta measure of the amount of silt or clay seepage force, J (F)the force transmitted to the soil or rock
contamination in fine aggregate as determined by test (Test grains by seepage.
Method D 2419). seepage linesee line of seepage.
sanded groutgrout in which sand is incorporated into the seepage line, nthe uppermost level at which a flowing liquid
mixture. emerges along a seepage face.
sapric peatpeat in which the original plant fibers are highly seepage velocity, Va, V1(LT1)the rate of discharge of
decomposed (less than 33 % fibers). seepage water through a porous medium per unit area of void
saturated unit weightsee unit weight. space perpendicular to the direction of flow.

D 653 05
segregationin grouting, the differential concentration of the shear forcea force directed parallel to the surface element
components of mixed grout, resulting in nonuniform propor- across which it acts. (ISRM)
tions in the mass. shear planea plane along which failure of material occurs
seismic supportmass (heavy) supported on springs (weak) by shearing. (ISRM)
so that mass remains almost at rest when free end of springs shear resistancesee internal friction.
is subjected to sinusoidal motion at operating frequency. shear strainthe change in shape, expressed by the relative
seismic velocitythe velocity of seismic waves in geological change of the right angles at the corner of what was in the
formations. (ISRM) undeformed state an infinitesimally small rectangle or cube.
seismometerinstrument to pick up linear (vertical, horizon- (ISRM)
tal) or rotational displacement, velocity, or acceleration. shear strength, s, Tf (FL2)the maximum resistance of a soil
self-stressing groutexpansive-cement grout in which the or rock to shearing stresses. See peak shear strength.
expansion induces compressive stress in grout if the expan- shear strength(monitoring wells) a measure of the shear or
sion movement is restrained. gel properties of a drilling fluid or grout. D 5092
sensitivitythe effect of remolding on the consistency of a shear stress, ta stress acting parallel to the surface of the
cohesive soil. plane being considered.
sensitivity (of an instrument)the differential quotient dQ0/ shear stressstress directed parallel to the surface element
dQ1, where Q0 is the scale reading and Q1 is the quantity to across which it acts. (ISRM)
be measured. shear stress (shearing stress) (tangential stress)see stress.
sensitivity (of a transducer)the differential quotient dQ0/ shear testan experiment to determine the flow properties of
dQ1, where Q0 is the output and Q1 is the input. a bulk solid by applying different states of stress and strain
series groutingsimilar to stage grouting, except each suc- to it.
cessively deeper zone is grouted by means of a newly drilled shear testeran apparatus for performing shear tests.
hole, eliminating the need for washing grout out before shear wave (rotational, equivoluminal)wave in which
drilling the hole deeper. medium changes shape without change of volume (shear-
setin grouting, the condition reached by a cement paste, or plane wave in isotropic medium is transverse wave).
grout, when it has lost plasticity to an arbitrary degree, shelf lifemaximum time interval during which a material
usually measured in terms of resistance to penetration or may be stored and remain in a usable condition; usually
deformation; initial set refers to first stiffening and final set related to storage conditions.
refers to an attainment of significant rigidity. shock pulsea substantial disturbance characterized by a rise
setting shrinkagein grouting, a reduction in volume of grout of acceleration from a constant value and decay of accelera-
prior to the final set of cement caused by bleeding, by the tion to the constant value in a short period of time.
decrease in volume due to the chemical combination of shock wavea wave of finite amplitude characterized by a
water with cement, and by syneresis. shock front, a surface across which pressure, density, and
set timein grouting, (1) the hardening time of portland internal energy rise almost discontinuously, and which
cement; or (2) the gel time for a chemical grout. travels with a speed greater than the normal speed of sound.
shaftgenerally a vertical or near vertical excavation driven (ISRM)
downward from the surface as access to tunnels, chambers, shotcretemortar or concrete conveyed through a hose and
or other underground workings. (ISRM) pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface. Can
shaking testa test used to indicate the presence of significant be applied by a wet or dry mix method. (ISRM)
amounts of rock flour, silt, or very fine sand in a fine-grained shrinkage-compensatingin grouting, a characteristic of
soil. It consists of shaking a pat of wet soil, having a grout made using an expansive cement in which volume
consistency of thick paste, in the palm of the hand; observing increase, if restrained, induces compressive stresses that are
the surface for a glossy or livery appearance; then squeezing intended to offset the tendency of drying shrinkage to induce
the pat; and observing if a rapid apparent drying and tensile stresses. See also self-stressing grout.
subsequent cracking of the soil occurs. shrinkage index, SI (D)the numerical difference between
shear failure (failure by rupture)failure in which move- the plastic and shrinkage limits.
ment caused by shearing stresses in a soil or rock mass is of shrinkage limit, SL, ws (D)the maximum water content at
sufficient magnitude to destroy or seriously endanger a which a reduction in water content will not cause a decrease
structure. in volume of the soil mass.
general shear failurefailure in which the ultimate strength shrinkage ratio, R (D)the ratio of: (1) a given volume
of the soil or rock is mobilized along the entire potential change, expressed as a percentage of the dry volume, to (2)
surface of sliding before the structure supported by the soil the corresponding change in water content above the shrink-
or rock is impaired by excessive movement. age limit, expressed as a percentage of the weight of the
local shear failurefailure in which the ultimate shearing oven-dried soil.
strength of the soil or rock is mobilized only locally along sieve analysisdetermination of the proportions of particles
the potential surface of sliding at the time the structure lying within certain size ranges in a granular material by
supported by the soil or rock is impaired by excessive separation on sieves of different size openings.
movement. silosynonym for bin.

D 653 05
silt (inorganic silt) (rock flour)material passing the No. 200 slush groutingapplication of cement slurry to surface rock
(75-m) U.S. standard sieve that is nonplastic or very as a means of filling cracks and surface irregularities or to
slightly plastic and that exhibits little or no strength when prevent slaking; it is also applied to riprap to form grouted
air-dried. riprap.
silt sizethat portion of the soil finer than 0.02 mm and smooth (-wall) blastinga method of accurate perimeter
coarser than 0.002 mm (0.05 mm and 0.005 mm in some blasting that leaves the remaining rock practically undam-
cases). aged. Narrowly spaced and lightly charged blastholes, some-
simple shearshear strain in which displacements all lie in times alternating with empty dummy holes, located along the
one direction and are proportional to the normal distances of breakline and fired simultaneously as the last round of the
the displaced points from a given reference plane. The excavation. (ISRM)
dilatation is zero. (ISRM) soil (earth)sediments or other unconsolidated accumula-
single-cased wella monitoring well constructed with a riser tions of solid particles produced by the physical and chemi-
but without an exterior casing. D 5092 cal disintegration of rocks, and which may or may not
single-grained structuresee soil structure. contain organic matter.
size effectinfluence of specimen size on its strength or other soil bindersee binder.
mechanical parameters. (ISRM) soil bioengineering, nin erosion control, the applications of
skin friction, f (FL2)the frictional resistance developed engineering practices and ecological principles to design and
between soil and an element of structure. construct systems composed of plant materials, frequently in
slabbingthe loosening and breaking away of relatively large association with inert materials and manufactured products
flat pieces of rock from the excavated surface, either to repair past or prevent future soil erosion and shallow slope
immediately after or some time after excavation. Often failures.
occurring as tensile breaks which can be recognized by the soil-forming factorsfactors, such as parent material, cli-
subconchoidal surfaces left on remaining rock surface. mate, vegetation, topography, organisms, and time involved
(ISRM) in the transformation of an original geologic deposit into a
slabjackingin grouting, injection of grout under a concrete soil profile.
slab in order to raise it to a specified grade. soil gasvadose zone atmosphere. D 5314
slakingdeterioration of rock on exposure to air or water. soil horizonsee horizon.
slakingthe process of breaking up or sloughing when an soil mechanicsthe application of the laws and principles of
indurated soil is immersed in water. mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing
sleeved grout pipesee tube A manchette. with soil as an engineering material.
slidingrelative displacement of two bodies along a surface, soil physicsthe organized body of knowledge concerned
without loss of contact between the bodies. (ISRM) with the physical characteristics of soil and with the methods
slopethe excavated rock surface that is inclined to the employed in their determinations.
vertical or horizontal, or both, as in an open-cut. (ISRM) soil profile (profile)vertical section of a soil, showing the
slow testsee consolidated-drain test. nature and sequence of the various layers, as developed by
sludgea water charged sedimentary deposit. deposition or weathering, or both.
DISCUSSIONthe water-formed sedimentary deposit may include all soil stabilizationchemical or mechanical treatment designed
suspended solids carried by the water and trace elements that were in to increase or maintain the stability of a mass of soil or
solution in the water. Sludge usually does not cohere sufficiently to otherwise to improve its engineering properties.
retain its physical shape when mechanical means are used to remove it soil structurethe arrangement and state of aggregation of
from the surface on which it deposits, but it may be baked in place and soil particles in a soil mass.
be adherent. D 4700 flocculent structurean arrangement composed of flocs of
sluga volume of water or solid object used to induce a soil particles instead of individual soil particles.
sudden change of head in a well. D 4044, D 4104 honeycomb structurean arrangement of soil particles hav-
slumpa measure of consistency of freshly mixed concrete or ing a comparatively loose, stable structure resembling a
grout. See also slump test. honeycomb.
slump testthe procedure for measuring slump (Test Method single-grained structurean arrangement composed of in-
C 143).2 dividual soil particles; characteristic structure of coarse-
slurry cutoff walla vertical barrier constructed by excavat- grained soils.
ing a vertical slot under a bentonite slurry and backfilling it soil suspensionhighly diffused mixture of soil and water.
with materials of low permeability for the purpose of the soil texturesee gradation.
containment of the lateral flow of water and other fluids. soil-water pressurethe pressure on the water in a soil-water
slurry grouta fluid mixture of solids such as cement, sand, system, as measured by a piezometer for a saturated soil, or
or clays in water. by a tensiometer for an unsaturated soil. D 4696
slurry trencha trench that is kept filled with a bentonite solute phasea condition of contaminant residence in which
slurry during the excavation process to stabilize the walls of contaminants are dissolved in ground water in either the
the trench. saturated or the vadose zone. D 5314

D 653 05
solution cavernopenings in rock masses formed by moving spherical wavewave in which wave fronts are concentric
water carrying away soluble materials. spheres.
sorbed phasea condition of contaminant residence in which split spacing groutinga grouting sequence in which initial
contaminants are adsorbed into the surface of soil particles (primary) grout holes are relatively widely spaced and
or absorbed by soil organic matter. D 5314 subsequent grout holes are placed midway between previous
sounding wellin grouting, a vertical conduit in a mass of grout holes to 88split the spacing.; this process is continued
coarse aggregate for preplaced aggregate concrete which until a specified hole spacing is achieved or a reduction in
contains closely spaced openings to permit entrance of grout. grout take to a specified value occurs, or both.
DISCUSSIONThe grout level is determined by means of a measuring spring characteristics, c (FL1)ratio of increase in load to
line on a float within the sounding well. increase in deflection:
c 5 l/C (6)
spacingthe distance between adjacent blastholes in a direc-
tion parallel to the face. (ISRM) where:
spalling(1) longitudinal splitting in uniaxial compression, or C = compliance.
(2) breaking-off of plate-like pieces from a free rock surface. squeezing ground, nin tunneling, soil or rock that contains
(ISRM) a large amount of clay and that advances slowly into the
specific capacitythe rate of discharge from a well divided by excavation with no perceptible increase in volume and
the drawdown of the water level within the well at a specific without fracturing. D 5878
time since pumping started. D 4043 stabilitythe condition of a structure or a mass of material
specific discharge, n (LT1)the rate of flow of water through when it is able to support the applied stress for a long time
a porous medium per unit area measured at a right angle to without suffering any significant deformation or movement
the direction of flow. that is not reversed by the release of stress. (ISRM)
specific gravity:
stability factor (stability number), Ns (D)a pure number
specific gravity of solids, G, Gs, Ss (D)ratio of: (1) the
used in the analysis of the stability of a soil embankment,
weight in air of a given volume of solids at a stated
defined by the following equation:
temperature to (2) the weight in air of an equal volume of
distilled water at a stated temperature. Ns 5 Hcge/c (7)
apparent specific gravity, Ga, Sa (D)ratio of: (1) the where:
weight in air of a given volume of the impermeable portion Hc = critical height of the sloped bank,
of a permeable material (that is, the solid matter including its ge = effective unit of weight of the soil, and
impermeable pores or voids) at a stated temperature to (2) c = cohesion of the soil
the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at a
stated temperature. NOTE 1Taylors stability number is the reciprocal of Terzaghis
stability factor.
bulk specific gravity (specific mass gravity), Gm, Sm (D)
ratio of: (1) the weight in air of a given volume of a stabilized borehole liquid levelthe borehole liquid level
permeable material (including both permeable and imperme- which remains essentially constant with time, that is, liquid
able voids normal to the material) at a stated temperature to does not flow into or out of the borehole. D 4750
(2) the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at stabilizationsee soil stabilization.
a stated temperature. stagein grouting, the length of hole grouted at one time. See
specific storagethe volume of water released from or taken also stage grouting.
into storage per unit volume of the porous medium per unit
stage groutingsequential grouting of a hole in separate steps
change in head. D 4043, D 4050, D 4104, D 4105, D 5269
or stages in lieu of grouting the entire length at once; holes
specific surface (L1)the surface area per unit of volume of
may be grouted in ascending stages by using packers or in
soil particles.
descending stages downward from the collar of the hole.
specific storage, n (L1)the volume of water released from
or taken into storage per unit volume of the porous medium standard compactionsee compaction test.
per unit change in head. standard penetration resistancesee penetration resistance.
specific yieldthe ratio of the volume of water that the standing wavea wave produced by simultaneous transmis-
saturated rock or soil will yield by gravity to the volume of sion in opposite directions of two similar waves resulting in
the rock or soil. In the field, specific yield is generally fixed points of zero amplitudes called nodes.
determined by tests of unconfined aquifers and represents the static water levelthe elevation of the top of a column of
change that occurs in the volume of water in storage per unit water in a monitoring well or piezometer that is not
area of unconfined aquifer as the result of a unit change in influenced by pumping or conditions related to well instal-
head. Such a change in storage is produced by the draining lation, hydrologic testing, or nearby pumpage. D 5092
or filling of pore space and is, therefore, mainly dependent steady-state vibrationvibration in a system where the
on particle size, rate of change of the water table, and time velocity of each particle is a continuing periodic quantity.
of drainage. D 4043 stemming(1) the material (chippings, or sand and clay) used
specimenpieces or quantity taken or prepared from a sample to fill a blasthole after the explosive charge has been
for testing. inserted. Its purpose is to prevent the rapid escape of the

D 653 05
explosion gases. (2) the act of pushing and tamping the mitted from grain to grain of a soil mass. It is the stress that
material in the hole. (ISRM) is effective in mobilizing internal friction.
step-drawdown testa test in which a control well is pumped neutral stress (pore pressure) (pore water pressure), u, uw
at constant rates in steps of increasing discharge. Each step (FL2)stress transmitted through the pore water (water
is approximately equal in duration, although the last step filling the voids of the soil).
may be prolonged. D 5269 normal stress, s, p (FL2)the stress component normal to
stick-sliprapid fluctuations in shear force as one rock mass a given plane.
slides past another, characterized by a sudden slip between principal stress, s1, s2, s3(FL2)stresses acting normal to
the rock masses, a period of no relative displacement three mutually perpendicular planes intersecting at a point in
between the two masses, a sudden slip, etc. The oscillations a body, on which the shearing stress is zero.
may be regular as in a direct shear test, or irregular as in a major principal stress, s1(FL2)the largest (with regard
triaxial test. to sign) principal stress.
sticky limit, Tw (D)the lowest water content at which a soil minor principal stress, s3(FL2)the smallest (with re-
will stick to a metal blade drawn across the surface of the gard to sign) principal stress.
soil mass.
intermediate principal stress, s2(FL2)the principal
stiffnessthe ratio of change of force (or torque) to the
stress whose value is neither the largest nor the smallest
corresponding change in translational (or rotational) deflec-
(with regard to sign) of the three.
tion of an elastic element.
stiffness-forcedisplacement ratio. (ISRM) shear stress (shearing stress) (tangential stress), t, s
stonecrushed or naturally angular particles of rock. FL2)the stress component tangential to a given plane.
stopin grouting, a packer setting at depth. total stress, s, f (FL2)the total force per unit area acting
stop groutingthe grouting of a hole beginning at the lowest within a mass of soil. It is the sum of the neutral and
packer setting (stop) after the hole is drilled to total depth. effective stresses.
stress ellipsoidthe representation of the state of stress in the
DISCUSSIONPackers are placed at the top of the zone being grouted. form of an ellipsoid whose semi-axes are proportional to the
Grouting proceeds from the bottom up. Also called upstage grouting.
magnitudes of the principal stresses and lie in the principal
storage coefficientthe volume of water an aquifer releases directions. The coordinates of a point P on this ellipse are
from or takes into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer proportional to the magnitudes of the respective components
per unit change in head. For a confined aquifer, the storage of the stress across the plane normal to the direction OP,
coefficient is equal to the product of the specific storage and where O is the center of the ellipsoid. (ISRM)
aquifer thickness. For an unconfined aquifer, the storage stress (strain) fieldthe ensemble of stress (strain) states
coefficient is approximately equal to the specific yield. defined at all points of an elastic solid. (ISRM)
D 4043, D 4044, D 4050, D 4104, D 4105, D 4106, D 5269 stress relaxationstress release due to creep. (ISRM)
strain, e (D)the change in length per unit of length in a given strikethe direction or azimuth of a horizontal line in the
direction. plane of an inclined stratum, joint, fault, cleavage plane, or
strain (linear or normal), e (D)the change in length per unit other planar feature within a rock mass. (ISRM)
of length in a given direction. structureone of the larger features of a rock mass, like
strain ellipsoidthe representation of the strain in the form of bedding, foliation, jointing, cleavage, or brecciation; also the
an ellipsoid into which a sphere of unit radius deforms and sum total of such features as contrasted with texture. Also, in
whose axes are the principal axes of strain. (ISRM) a broader sense, it refers to the structural features of an area
strain (stress) raterate of change of strain (stress) with time. such as anti-clines or synclines. (ISRM)
(ISRM) structuresee soil structure.
strain resolution (strain sensitivity), Rs (D)the smallest
subbasea layer used in a pavement system between the
subdivision of the indicating scale of a deformation-
subgrade and base coarse, or between the subgrade and
measuring device divided by the product of the sensitivity of
portland cement concrete pavement.
the device and the gage length. The deformation resolution,
subgradethe soil prepared and compacted to support a
Rd, divided by the gage length.
structure or a pavement system.
strain (stress) tensorthe second order tensor whose diago-
nal elements consist of the normal strain (stress) components subgrade surfacethe surface of the earth or rock prepared to
with respect to a given set of coordinate axes and whose support a structure or a pavement system.
off-diagonal elements consist of the corresponding shear submerged unit weightsee unit weight.
strain (stress) components. (ISRM) subsealingin grouting, grouting under concrete slabs for the
streamline flowsee laminar flow. purpose of filling voids without raising the slabs.
strengthmaximum stress which a material can resist without subsidencethe downward displacement of the overburden
failing for any given type of loading. (ISRM) (rock or soil, or both) lying above an underground excava-
stress, s, p, f (FL2)the force per unit area acting within the tion or adjoining a surface excavation. Also the sinking of a
soil mass. part of the earths crust. (ISRM)
effective stress (effective pressure) (intergranular pressure), subsoil(1) soil below a subgrade of fill, or (2) that part of a
s, f (FL2)the average normal force per unit area trans- soil profile occurring below the A horizon.

D 653 05
sulfate attackin grouting, harmful or deleterious reactions tertiary holein grouting, the third series of holes to be
between sulfates in soil or groundwater and the grout. drilled and grouted usually spaced midway between previ-
supportstructure or structural feature built into an under- ously grouted primary and secondary holes.
ground opening for maintaining its stability. (ISRM) textureof soil and rock, geometrical aspects consisting of
surface forceany force that acts across an internal or size, shape, arrangement, and crystallinity of the component
external surface element in a material body, not necessarily particles and of the related characteristics of voids.
in a direction lying in the surface. (ISRM) texturethe arrangement in space of the components of a rock
surface wavea wave confined to a thin layer at the surface body and of the boundaries between these components.
of a body. (ISRM) (ISRM)
suspensiona mixture of liquid and solid materials. theoretical time curvesee consolidation time curve.
thermal spallingthe breaking of rock under stresses induced
suspension agentan additive that decreased the settlement
by extremely high temperature gradients. High-velocity jet
rate of particles in liquid.
flames are used for drilling blast holes with this effect.
swampa forested or shrub covered wetland where standing
or gently flowing water persists for long periods on the
thermo-osmosisthe process by which water is caused to
flow in small openings of a soil mass due to differences in
swelling ground, nin tunneling, soil or rock that contains a temperature within the mass.
large amount of clay and that advances into the excavation thicknessthe perpendicular distance between bounding sur-
principally because the materials volume is increasing. faces such as bedding or foliation planes of a rock. (ISRM)
D 5878 thixotropythe property of a material that enables it to stiffen
syneresisin grouting, the exudation of liquid (generally in a relatively short time on standing, but upon agitation or
water) from a set gel which is not stressed, due to the manipulation to change to a very soft consistency or to a
tightening of the grout material structure. fluid of high viscosity, the process being completely revers-
takesee grout take. ible.
talusrock fragments mixed with soil at the foot of a natural throwthe projection of broken rock during blasting. (ISRM)
slope from which they have been separated. thrustforce applied to a drill in the direction of penetration.
tampera heavy cylindrical metal section of tubing that is (ISRM)
operated on a wire rope or cable. It slips over the riser and tightrock remaining within the minimum excavation lines
fits inside the casing or borehole annulus. It is generally used after completion of a blasting record. (ISRM)
to tamp annular sealants or filter pack materials into place tillsee glacial till.
and prevent bridging. D 5092 time angle of internal friction, ftinclination of the time
tangential stresssee stress. yield locus of the tangency - point with the Mohr stress circle
tangent modulusslope of the tangent to the stress-strain passing through the origin.
curve at a given stress value (generally taken at a stress equal time yield locusthe yield locus of a bulk solid which has
to half the compressive strength). (ISRM) remained at rest under a given normal stress for a certain
target monitoring zonethe ground water flow path from a time.
particular area or facility in which monitoring wells will be time curvesee consolidation time curve.
screened. The target monitoring zone should be a stratus time factor, Tv, T (D)dimensionless factor, utilized in the
(strata) in which there is a reasonable expectation that a theory of consolidation, containing the physical constants of
vertically placed well will intercept migrating contaminants. a soil stratum influencing its time-rate of consolidation,
D 5092 expressed as follows:
temporary decommissioningthe engineered closure of a T 5 k ~1 1 e!t/~avgwH 2! 5 ~cvt!/H 2 (8)
well intended to be returned to service at some later date
(generally no more than six months). Temporary plugging where:
should not damage the structural integrity of the well. k = coefficient of permeability (LT1),
Plugging materials consist of sand, bentonite, or other easily e = void ratio (dimensionless),
removed materials. D 5299 t = elapsed time that the stratum has been consolidated
tensile strength (unconfined or uniaxial tensile strength), To
av = coefficient of compressibility (L2F1),
(FL2)the load per unit area at which an unconfined gw = unit weight of water (FL3),
cylindrical specimen will fail in a simple tension (pull) test. H = thickness of stratum drained on one side only. If
tensile stressnormal stress tending to lengthen the body in stratum is drained on both sides, its thickness equals
the direction in which it acts. (ISRM) 2H (L), and
tensiometera device for measuring soil-water matric poten- cv = coefficient of consolidation (L2T1).
tial (or tension or suction) of water in soil in-situ; a porous, top of boreholethe surface of the ground surrounding the
permeable ceramic cup connected through a water filled tube borehole. D 4750
to a pressure measuring device. D 4696 topsoilsurface soil, usually containing organic matter.
test pita shallow excavation made to characterize the torsional shear testa shear test in which a relatively thin test
subsurface. D 5092 specimen of solid circular or annular cross-section, usually

D 653 05
confined between rings, is subjected to an axial load and to impervious membrane is subjected to a confining pressure
shear in torsion. In-place torsion shear tests may be per- and then loaded axially to failure.
formed by pressing a dentated solid circular or annular plate triaxial state of stressstate of stress in which none of the
against the soil and measuring its resistance to rotation under three principal stresses is zero. (ISRM)
a given axial load. true solutionone in which the components are 100 %
total soil-water potentialthe sum of the energy-related dissolved in the base solvent.
components of a soil-water system; for example, the sum of tube A manchettein grouting, a grout pipe perforated with
the gravitational, matrix and osmotic potentials. D 4696 rings of small holes at intervals of about 12 in. (305 mm).
total stresssee stress. DISCUSSIONEach ring of perforations is enclosed by a short rubber
toughness index, IT, Twthe ratio of: (1) the plasticity index, sleeve fitting tightly around the pipe so as to act as a one-way valve
to (2) the flow index. when used with an inner pipe containing two packer elements that
traction, S1, S2, S3(FL2)applied stress. isolate a stage for injection of grout.
transformed flow neta flow net whose boundaries have tunnela man-made underground passage constructed with-
been properly modified (transformed) so that a net consisting out removing the overlying rock or soil. Generally nearly
of curvilinear squares can be constructed to represent flow horizontal as opposed to a shaft, which is nearly vertical.
conditions in an anisotropic porous medium. (ISRM)
transmissivitythe volume of water at the existing kinematic turbulent flowthat type of flow in which any water particle
viscosity that will move in a unit time under a unit hydraulic may move in any direction with respect to any other particle,
gradient through a unit width of the aquifer. D 4043, and in which the head loss is approximately proportional to
D 4050, D 4104, D 4105, D 4106, D 4631 the second power of the velocity.
transmissivitythe rate at which water of the prevailing ultimate bearing capacity, qe, qult (FL2)the average load
kinematic viscosity is transmitted through a unit width of the per unit of area required to produce failure by rupture of a
aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient. supporting soil or rock mass.
DISCUSSIONIt is equal to an integration of the hydraulic aconduc-
unconfined compressive strengththe load per unit area at
tivities across the saturated part of the aquifer perpendicular to the flow which an unconfined prismatic or cylindrical specimen of
paths. D 5092 material will fail in a simple compression test without lateral
transmissivitythe volume of water of the prevailing kine- unconfined aquifer, nan aquifer that has a water table.
matic viscosity transmitted in a unit time through a unit unconfined compressive strengthsee compressive strength.
width of the aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient. D unconfined yield strength, fc the major principal stress of
5269 the Mohr stress circle being tangential to the yield locus with
transported soilsoil transported from the place of its origin the minor principal stress being zero. A synonym for
by wind, water, or ice. compressive strength.
transverse wave, vt (LT1)wave in which direction of unconsolidated-undrained test (quick test)a soil test in
displacement of element of medium is parallel to wave front. which the water content of the test specimen remains
The propagation velocity, vt, is calculated as follows: practically unchanged during the application of the confining
pressure and the additional axial (or shearing) force.
vt 5 =G/r 5 =/r 5 =~E/r!@1/2~1 1 v!# (9)
undamped natural frequencyof a mechanical system, the
where: frequency of free vibration resulting from only elastic and
G = shear modulus, inertial forces of the system.
r = mass density, underconsolidated soil deposita deposit that is not fully
v = Poissons ratio, and consolidated under the existing overburden pressure.
E = Youngs modulus. underdamped-well responseresponse characterized by the
transverse wave (shear wave)a wave in which the displace- water level oscillating about the static water level following
ment at each point of the medium is parallel to the wave a sudden change in water level. (See for comparison over-
front. (ISRM) damped well response.) D 4044, D 4104
tremiematerial placed under water through a tremie pipe in undisturbed samplea soil sample that has been obtained by
such a manner that it rests on the bottom without mixing methods in which every precaution has been taken to
with the water. minimize disturbance to the sample.
tremie methodthe method whereby materials are emplaced uniaxial (unconfined) compressioncompression caused by
in the bottom of a borehole with a small diameter pipe. the application of normal stress in a single direction. (ISRM)
D 4696 uniaxial state of stressstate of stress in which two of the
trenchusually a long, narrow, near vertical sided cut in rock three principal stresses are zero. (ISRM)
or soil such as is made for utility lines. (ISRM) uniform flow, nin hydraulics, the condition of flow where
triaxial compressioncompression caused by the application the rate of energy loss due to frictional and form resistance
of normal stresses in three perpendicular directions. (ISRM) is equal to the bed slope of the channel.
triaxial shear test (triaxial compression test)a test in DISCUSSIONWhere uniform flow exists, the slopes of the energy
which a cylindrical specimen of soil or rock encased in an grade line, the water surface, and the channel bed are identical.

D 653 05
Cross-sectional area and velocity of flow do not change from cross various seasons of the year, often exhibiting contrasting
section to cross section in uniform flow. colors when partially dried.
uniformly gradeda quantitative definition of the particle velocity, ntime rate of linear motion in a given direction.
size distribution of a soil which consists of a majority of vent holein grouting, a hole drilled to allow the escape of air
particles being of the same approximate diameter. A granular and water and also used to monitor the flow of grout.
material is considered uniformly graded when the uniformity vent pipein grouting, a small-diameter pipe used to permit
coefficient is less than about five (see Test Method D 2487). the escape of air, water, or diluted grout from a formation.
Comparable to the geologic term well sorted. D 5092 vented capa cap with a small hole that is installed on top of
unit weight, g (FL3)weight per unit volume (with this, and the riser. D 5092
all subsequent unit-weight definitions, the use of the term vibrated beam wall (injection beam wall)barrier formed
weight means force). by driving an H-beam in an overlapping pattern of prints and
dry unit weight (unit dry weight), gd, ge (FL3)the weight filling the print of the beam with cement-bentonite slurry or
of soil or rock solids per unit of total volume of soil or rock other materials as it is withdrawn.
mass. vibrationan oscillation wherein the quantity is a parameter
effective unit weight, ge (FL3)that unit weight of a soil or that defines the motion of a mechanical system (see oscilla-
rock which, when multiplied by the height of the overlying tion).
column of soil or rock, yields the effective pressure due to virgin compression curvesee compression curve.
the weight of the overburden. viscoelasticityproperty of materials that strain under stress
maximum unit weight, gmax(FL3)the dry unit weight partly elastically and partly viscously, that is, whose strain is
defined by the peak of a compaction curve. partly dependent on time and magnitude of stress. (ISRM)
saturated unit weight, gG, gsat(FL3)the wet unit weight of viscositythe internal fluid resistance of a substance which
a soil mass when saturated. makes it resist a tendency to flow.
submerged unit weight (buoyant unit weight), gm, g8, gsub viscous dampingthe dissipation of energy that occurs when
(FL3)the weight of the solids in air minus the weight of a particle in a vibrating system is resisted by a force that has
water displaced by the solids per unit of volume of soil or a magnitude proportional to the magnitude of the velocity of
rock mass; the saturated unit weight minus the unit weight of the particle and direction opposite to the direction of the
water. particle.
unit weight of water, gw (FL3)the weight per unit volume viscous flowsee laminar flow.
of water; nominally equal to 62.4 lb/ft3 or 1 g/cmt3.
voidspace in a soil or rock mass not occupied by solid
wet unit weight (mass unit weight), gm, gwet (FL3)the
mineral matter. This space may be occupied by air, water, or
weight (solids plus water) per unit of total volume of soil or
other gaseous or liquid material.
rock mass, irrespective of the degree of saturation.
void ratio, e (D)the ratio of: (1) the volume of void space,
zero air voids unit weight, gz, gs (FL3)the weight of
to (2) the volume of solid particles in a given soil mass.
solids per unit volume of a saturated soil or rock mass.
unloading modulusslope of the tangent to the unloading critical void ratio, ec (D)the void ratio corresponding to
stress-strain curve at a given stress value. (ISRM) the critical density.
upliftthe upward water pressure on a structure. volumetric shrinkage (volumetric change), Vs (D)the de-
crease in volume, expressed as a percentage of the soil mass
Symbol Unit
unit symbol u FL2 when dried, of a soil mass when the water content is reduced
total symbol U F or FL1 from a given percentage to the shrinkage limit.
upliftthe hydrostatic force of water exerted on or underneath von Post humification scalea scale describing various
a structure, tending to cause a displacement of the structure. stages of decomposition of peat ranging from H1, which is
(ISRM) completely undecomposed, to H10, which is completely
upliftin grouting, vertical displacement of a formation due decomposed.
to grout injection. wall friction, f 8 (FL2)frictional resistance mobilized be-
vacuuma degree of rarefaction below atmospheric pressure: tween a wall and the soil or rock in contact with the wall.
negative pressure. D 4696 wall yield locusa plot of the wall shear stress versus wall
vadose zonethe hydrogeological region extending from the normal stress. The angle of wall friction is obtained from the
soil surface to the top of the principle water table; commonly wall yield locus as the arctan of the ratio of the wall shear
referred to as the unsaturated zone or zone of aeration. stress to wall normal stress.
These alternate names are inadequate as they do not take into washingin grouting, the physical act of cleaning the sides of
account locally saturated regions above the principle water a hole by circulating water, water and air, acid washes, or
table (for example, perched water zones). D 4696, D5314 chemical substances through drill rods or tremie pipe in an
vane shear testan in-place shear test in which a rod with open hole.
thin radial vanes at the end is forced into the soil and the washout nozzlea tubular extension with a check valve
resistance to rotation of the rod is determined. utilized at the end of a string of casing through which water
varved clayalternating thin layers of silt (or fine sand) and can be injected to displace drilling fluids and cuttings from
clay formed by variations in sedimentation during the the annular space of a borehole. D 5092

D 653 05
water-cement ratiothe ratio of the weight of water to the for development, a jetting tool with nozzles and a high-
weights of Portland cement in a cement grout or concrete pressure pump is used to force water outwardly through the
mix. See also grout mix. screen, the filter pack, and sometimes into the adjacent
water content, w (D)the ratio of the mass of water contained geologic unit. D 5092
in the pore spaces of soil or rock material, to the solid mass wetlandland which has the water table at, near, or above the
of particles in that material, expressed as a percentage. land surface, or which is saturated for long enough periods to
water gainsee bleeding. promote hydrophylic vegetation and various kinds of bio-
water-holding capacity (D)the smallest value to which the logical activity which are adapted to the wet environment.
water content of a soil or rock can be reduced by gravity wetting agenta substance capable of lowering the surface
drainage. tension of liquids, facilitating the wetting of solid surfaces,
water-plasticity ratio (relative water content) (liquidity and facilitating the penetration of liquids into the capillaries.
index)see liquidity index. wet unit weightsee unit weight.
water tablesee free water elevation. working pressurethe pressure adjudged best for any par-
water table (ground-water table)the surface of a ground- ticular set of conditions encountered during grouting.
water body at which the water pressure equals atmospheric
pressure. Earth material below the ground-water table is DISCUSSIONFactors influencing the determination are size of voids
saturated with water. D 4750 to be filled, depth of zone to be grouted, lithology of area to be grouted,
water table aquifer, nsee preferred term unconfined aqui- grout viscosity, and resistance of the formation to fracture.
fer. yieldin grouting, the volume of freshly mixed grout pro-
wavedisturbance propagated in medium in such a manner duced from a known quantity of ingredients.
that at any point in medium the amplitude is a function of yielding archtype of support of arch shape, the joints of
time, while at any instant the displacement at point is which deform plastically beyond a certain critical load, that
function of position of point. is, continue to deform without increasing their resistance.
wave frontmoving surface in a medium at which a propa- (ISRM)
gated disturbance first occurs.
yield locusplot of shear stress versus normal stress at failure.
wave front(1) a continuous surface over which the phase of
The yield locus (YL) is sometimes called the instantaneous
a wave that progresses in three dimensions is constant, or (2)
yield locus to differentiate it from the time yield locus.
a continuous line along which the phase of a surface wave is
constant. (ISRM) yield stressthe stress beyond which the induced deformation
wave lengthnormal distance between two wave fronts with is not fully annulled after complete destressing. (ISRM)
periodic characteristics in which amplitudes have phase Youngs modulusthe ratio of the increase in stress on a test
difference of one complete cycle. specimen to the resulting increase in strain under constant
weatheringthe process of disintegration and decomposition transverse stress limited to materials having a linear stress-
as a consequence of exposure to the atmosphere, to chemical strain relationship over the range of loading. Also called
action, and to the action of frost, water, and heat. (ISRM) elastic modulus.
weep holea small diameter hole (usually 14 in.) drilled into zone of saturationa hydrologic zone in which all the
the protective casing above the ground surface that serves as interstices between particles of geologic material or all of the
a drain hole for water that may enter the protective casing joints, fractures, or solution channels in a consolidated rock
annulus. D 5092 unit are filled with water under pressure greater than that of
well completion diagrama record that illustrates the details the atmosphere. D 5092
of a well installation. D 5092 zero air voids curve (saturation curve)the curve showing
well screena filtering device used to retain the primary or the zero air voids unit weight as a function of water content.
natural filter pack; usually a cylindrical pipe with openings zero air voids density (zero air voids unit weight)see unit
of a uniform width, orientation, and spacing. D 5092 weight.
well screen jetting (hydraulic jetting)when jetting is used

D 653 05

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. References

X1.1 Dictionary of Mining; Mineral and Related Terms, Commission on Terminology, Symbols and Graphic Represen-
2nd edition, Compiled by the American Geological Institute for tation, Final Document on Terminology, English Version, 1972,
the U.S. Bureau of Mines, 656 pp., 1997. and List of Symbols, 1970.
X1.2 Glossary of Landform and Geologic Terms, National X1.4 Jackson, J.A., (ed), Glossary of Geology, Fourth
Soil Survey Handbook-Part 629, 61 pp., Natural Resources Edition, 800 pp., American Geological Institute (1997).
Conservation Service, USDA, (2002frequently revised)
X1.5 Thrush, R. P. (ed), et al., A Dictionary of Mining,
X1.3 International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM), Mineral and Related Terms, U. S. Bureau of Mines (1968).


NOTE X2.1These symbols may not correlate with the symbols s normal stress
appearing in the text. sx, sy, sz stress components in rectangular coordinates
X1.1 Space s1, s2, s3 principal stresses
S1, S2, S3 applied stresses (and reactions)
V, v solid angle sh horizontal stress
l length sv vertical stress
b width t shear stress
h height or depth txy, tyz, tzx shear stress components in rectangular coordi-
r radius nates
A area e strain
V volume ex, ey, ez strain components in rectangular coordinates
t time
v velocity gxy, gyz, gzx shear strain components in rectangular coordinates
v angular velocity
g gravitational acceleration u volume strain
E Youngs modulus; modulus of elasticity
X1.2 Periodic and Related Phenomena E = s/e
e1, e2, e3 principal strains
T periodic time G shear modulus; modulus of rigidity
f frequency G = t/g
v angular frequency c cohesion
l wave length fs angle of friction between solid bodies
X1.3 Statics and Dynamics f angle of shear resistance (angle of internal friction)
h hydraulic head
m mass i hydraulic gradient
r density (mass density) j seepage force per unit volume or seepage pres-
Gm mass specific gravity sure per unit length
Gs specific gravity of solids k coefficient of permeability
Gw specific gravity of water h viscosity
F force hpl plasticity (viscosity of Bingham body)
T tangential force tret retardation time
W weight trel relaxation time
g unit weight Ts surface tension
gd dry unit weight q quantity rate of flow; rate of discharge
gw unit weight of water Q quantity of flow
g8 buoyant unit weight FS safety factor
gs unit of solids X1.5 Heat
T torque
I moment of inertia T temperature
W work b coefficient of volume expansion
W energy
X1.6 Electricity
X1.4 Applied Mechanics
I electric current
e void ratio Q electric charge
n porosity C capacitance
w water content L self-inductance
Sr degree of saturation R resistance
p pressure r resistivity
u pore water pressure

D 653 05

In accordance with Committee D18 policy, this section identifies the location of changes to this standard since
the last published edition (04) that may impact the use of this standard.

Revision in 2004

(1) Added Scope Section. (3) The third sentence of Footnote 1 has been changed.
(2) Added Significance and Use Section. In addition, the text in (4) Reference Section was changed (editorially) to an appendix
the Introduction Section was moved to this section with a few and placed before Symbols. References to textbooks and older
editorial changes, such as the word centimeter has been glossaries have been dropped in this appendix, and references
changed to meter and Footnote 2 was added editorially to to newer glossaries and technical dictionaries have been added.
cover the alternate spelling of metric units.

Revision in 2005

(1) Added definitions for the following terms; articulating and added Referenced Documents section.
concrete block (ACB) revetment system, discharge, erosion (3) Made editorial and formatting corrections throughout the
control blanket (ECB), and modular erosion control product standard.
(MECP) (4) Editorially corrected the spelling of remodeling to remold-
(2) Editorially added reference to Terminology D 7099 in 1.4 ing and remodeling sensitivity to remolding sensitivity.

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