Rigid Foundation Inclined Load

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Rigid Foundation Inclined Load

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LOADING

Soumya Roy, Assistant Prof, CE Dept, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, roy.shoummo@gmail.com

Dr.B.C. Chattapadhyay, Ex. HoD & Ex. Prof., Civil Engineering Department, Bengal Engineering &Scince

University,Howrah, ccbikash@yahoo.com

Pritam Dhar,M-Tech student, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology Kolkata, pritamdhar21feb@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:It is an important aspect in the design of spread footings to understand the behaviour of surrounding

soil when footing are subjected to inclined and eccentric loads.The conventional method of footing design require

that footing must possess sufficient safety against failure and settlement must be kept within the allowable value.

To have a safe design, the bearing pressure on the underlying ground has to be kept within the allowable bearing

values and eccentricity must satisfy the criterion of less than 1/6 of the footing width (e < B/6) so as to avoid

tension between the foundation and the soil (Coduto, 2001). Similar condition applies also in case of load having

certain inclination with the vertical axis of a footing, conventionally inclination angle, <. This is the reason why

footings subjected to large overturning or rotation also require large footing dimensions which sometimes become

uneconomical. This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on behavior of a model footing resting on

Ganga sand under eccentric inclined load(through load frame for application of inclined -eccentric load at a time,

developed by Roy &Chattopadhyay , 2011). The ultimate load carrying capacity of a square & rectangular footing

resting on surface dense sand bed has been studied. Initially, the behavior of footing subjected to axial load is

studied to compare with the shape factors at the for surface footings.The influence of shape of footing on ultimate

load carrying capacity due to the different shape of model footings are studiedusing BCR a non-dimensional factor.

The load settlement characteristics of footings of different shapes resting on the surface of sand of same area are

also studied through the load settlement curves. To study the effect of eccentricity on ultimate load carrying

capacity of footings, model footings are subjected to both one way and two eccentricities. Lastly effect of load

inclination with vertical on surface footing is presented in this paper

.

INTRODUCTION

In civil engineering constructions, foundations may been suggested for application in bearing capacity

be subjected to inclined loads or eccentric loads or equation. I.S 6403 [1] also recommended similar

both. In such situations load carrying capacity is procedure. However in literature studies regarding

found by some simplified procedures. For example the bearing capacity of footing subjected to

a footing of size LXB having vertical loading with inclined eccentric loadings, experimental results

eccentricity eB along breadth and eL along length are not available.

from center, is assumed to have loaded area [(L-

2eL) X(B-2eB)]. I.S 6403 [1] recommends a similar In view of the above there is need for systematic

procedure. However there are some theoretical experimental study on footings under inclined

solutions for eccentrically loaded footings (Saran loadings to failure with or without eccentricity.

[2] ,Char ,Purakayastha[3] ) but not much literature Result of such study are expected to bring out the

available regarding validation of such theoretical mechanism of such failure under different

predictions with laboratory or field conditions and ultimate failure loads under such

experimentation results. cases may help to develop some relationship with

Similarly no theoretical formulations are available bearing capacity of footings under central loading

for finding the bearing capacity of footing with those of the footings under inclined load , and

subjected to inclined loading through the C.G of also the effects of eccentricity to change the

the loaded area. So some modifying factors have ultimate bearing capacity of footing.

Page 1 of 9

Soumya Roy, Bikash Chandra Chattopadhya and PritamDhar

Any foundation constructed must satisfy two take into effect of ioad with the inclination of

criteria loadings. I.S 6403 [1] have also provided general

i) There should not be any shear failure in bearing capacity equation incorporated inclination

the foundation medium,supporting the factors ic, iq,i.Muhs and Weiss [11] alsoconcluded

foundation, and that the ratio of the vertical component Qu(v) of the

ii) This resulting settlement of the ultimate with the vertical to the ultimate load

foundation must be within permissible Quwhen the load is vertical (that is, = 0) andis

limit, depending on type of the approximately equal to (1-tan)2.Dubrova [12]

foundation and nature of the supporting developed a theoretical solution for the ultimate

soil. bearing capacity of a continuous foundationwith

There had been extensive research work both centric inclined load and presented formulations of

experimental and theoretical regarding bearing ultimate bearing capacity of such footings.

capacity of axially loaded shallow foundations and From the above review it is observed that severall

as a result designer can design shallow foundation methods have been suggested to estimates the

subjected to central vertical loading with great bearing capacity of shallow footings subjected

confidence. But the problems of footings subjected to either inclined or eccentric loading. However no

to eccentric-inclined loads are frequently report in literature is available to validate the

encountered in the case of the foundations of findings of proposed method in actual practice.

retaining walls, abutments, columns, stanchions,

portal framed buildings etc. For such cases adopted SCOPE OF PRESENT STUDY

foundation are subjected to either inclined load or A series of central vertical, centrally inclined and

eccentric load or both. eccentric load test on model surface footing were

Theoretical analyses are reported on shallow under taken by the authors. Choosen model

foundation subjected to eccentric vertical loads by footings are of different shape and sizes. In the

Hansen [4] , Hansen and Lundgern [5] , De Beer present study, square and rectangular footing

[6]. They suggested modification of the footing subjected to central vertical load followed by

area by reduction factors. I.S 6403 [1] has also central inclined load is given. After that rectangular

incorporated the effect of eccentricity in similar footing is subjected to the same load condition as

manner as single eccentricity and double square footings. These tests gave the ultimate load

eccentricity. Prakash and Saran [7] also carried out carrying capacity of the footing subjected to central

an theoretical study, with modified failure wedge. vertical loading. From the test results a

Purakayastha and Char [3] also presented stability comparative study was done with the conventional

analysis of eccentrically loaded continuous theoretical formulations of IS 6403: 1981.

foundation supported by sand using the method of

slices proposed by Janbu. They presented reduction EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

factor of ultimate load carrying capacity of footing

due to eccentric loadings. Circular Footing Model

In the past,the footing subjected to central oblique Mild steel plates of diameter 20 cm and thickness 5

load were designed by resolving the oblique load mm was used as raft footing. Base of the footing

into two components: model was made rough by gluing a very thin layer

i) Central vertical load and of dry sand beneath the circular plates. Footing

ii) A horizontal load plates had small pin pointed groves to

For the central vertical load the footing was accommodate steel plunger.

checked against shear failure while for the

horizontal load, it was checked against sliding. Model Test Tank and Load Frame

Some theoretical analyses were presented Model tests were conducted in a test tank made of

byMayerhof [8], Hansen [9], Saran [10] on footing 16 mm thick mild steel plate to avoid any

subjected to central inclined loadings. They deformation. Dimensions of the tank are 120cm x

Page 2 of 9

Behavior of Rigid Footing Under Inclined and Eccentric Loading

tank was decided by the size of the footing and the Sand was poured in the tank by rainfall technique

zone of influence. The test tank has arrangement to thorough a constant height of 60 cm to maintain

fix the proving ring with specially fabricated semi constant relative density throughout the bed. The

circular load frame for applying the axial as well as verification of relative density and uniformity of

inclined load to the footing. Load frame were also density of the sand bed was done by fixed volume

fixed with guiding bars for maintaining proper method and by keeping and monitoring weighs of

inclined alignment of the load as well as the lightweight aluminum calibrating container placed

proving ring. The assembly is schematically shown at different heights of the tank after completion of

in Fig. 1. each test. Footing was placed at the surface of

sand bed and the load is applied at the center of the

footing. Load inclination was varied as desired

through semi circular load frame. Load was applied

by frictionless manually operated wheel-axle

arrangement. A pre-calibrated compressive proving

ring was introduced in the loading system to

measure the load at any instant as shown in Fig. 1.

Each load increment was maintained constant till

the footing settlement had stabilized. Both the

vertical and horizontal displacements were

measured by means of dial gauges of 25 mm travel

and 0.01 mm least count. Vertical displacement of

each test footing was measured by taking average

Fig. 1Schematic Diagram of load frame with readings of the two dial gauges placed in plane of

testing tank loading of each footing. By gradually increasing

the load, tests were carried out to observe the

Foundation Bed Material complete load-settlement behavior till the ultimate

Dry brown uniformly graded Mogra sand obtained shear failure. The detailed test program for the

from sand mines of Hoogly district, West Bengal present study is mentioned Table 1 and Table 2.

was used as soil medium. Grain size analysis,

specific gravity test Physical properties of the sand

are given in Table 1. TEST PROGRAM

Table 1 Test Schedule for square footing and

Table 1. Physical properties of Sand rectangular footing subjected to vertical and

Property Value inclined centric loading

Specific gravity 2.65

Uniformity coefficient, CU 1.25 Type of Size No. of Total

Coefficient of Curvature, CC 0.96 footing test test

Effective size, D10 in mm 0.45

Maximum dry density, max in 1.545 00

175 x

gm/cc Square 175 150 3

Minimum dry density, man in 1.431 300

6

gm/cc 00

Relative density of sand in test 65% Rectangular

150 X

3

39 210 150

Angle of internal friction in degree 300

Classification of sand Medium

dense

Page 3 of 9

Soumya Roy, Bikash Chandra Chattopadhya and PritamDhar

Table 2Test Schedule for square footing and 210)mm under vertical and inclined load at center

rectangular footing subjected to vertical and of footing is shown in Fig 3.

inclined eccentric loading

Size e

Type test test

B/6 0

Square 175 x 15 6

175

B/8

30 12

B/6 0

Rectang

ular 150 6

X 15

210

B/8

30

Fig.2 Load-Settlement curve on square plate (175 x

Footings were subjected to central monotonically 175)mm under vertical and inclined load at center

increasing inclined loading at chosen inclination of footing.(ex =0, ey=0).

angle to vertical till failure. The angle was

varied through 15 degree to 30 degree.

The results of the test series gave an opportunity to

measure variation in ultimate bearing capacity of

footings with change of inclination of loading.

These results were further compared with

theoretical values from available literature.

TEST RESULTS

Initially the each of the square and rectangular

model footing were subjected to monotonically

increasing load to failure with inclination of load to

vertical being 0, 15 and 30. From the load

settlement curves, the ultimate load in each case

was determined.

In the next series each of the above model footing

were subjected to similar loading to failure not

centrally, but at a point with double eccentricity ex

, ey where ex = vary from B/6 and B/8 and ey varied

from L/6 and L/8. For this case also ultimate load Fig.3 Load-Settlement curve on rectangular plate

carrying capacity was also obtained from load- (150 x 210)mm under vertical and inclined load at

settlement curve. center of footing.

i)Load-Settlement curves on square plate (175 x

175)mm under vertical and inclined loading at The ultimate load in this both cases was found

center of footing are shown in Fig. 2 and load- from the load settlement curves and tabulated in

Settlement curve on rectangular plate (150 x Table 1

Page 4 of 9

Behavior of Rigid Footing Under Inclined and Eccentric Loading

centric loads

.

Shape of = 0 = 15 =30

Footing

Square

Footing 3.8 KN 2.3 KN 0.44 KN

(175x175)

Rectangular

Footing (150 3.4 KN 1.53 KN 0.44KN

x 210)

Fig:5 Load-Settlement diagram of square plate

In the second series,load were applied at two way when load is applying at B/6 eccentricity at various

eccentricity1= (B/8, L/8), 2 =(B/6, L/6) for inclination.

rectangular plate and 1=(B/8,B/8) , 2 = (B/6,B/6)

for square plate in vertically to 30 with considered

15 at square plate.Fig 4 for 1 eccentricity and fig

5 for 2 eccentricity.

Then load were applied similarly as before at B/8

and B/6 eccentricity in vertically to 30 with

considered 15 at rectangular plate.Fig. 6 for 1

eccentricity and fig 7 for 2 eccentricity.

rectangular plate when load is applying at B/8

eccentricity at various inclination.

when load is applying at B/8 eccentricity at various

inclination.

load at B/8 eccentricity at various inclination angle.

Shape of Footing 0 15 30

Square Footing 2.71KN 1.01 KN 0.14

(175mmX175mm) KN

Rectangular 1.23 0.63 KN 0.135

Footing KN KN Fig:7 Load-Settlement diagram of rectangular

(150mmX210mm) plate when load is applying at B/6 eccentricity at

various inclination.

Page 5 of 9

Soumya Roy, Bikash Chandra Chattopadhya and PritamDhar

Table6Ultimate of loading by applying eccentric Ultimate load at footings under inclined load at

load at B/6 eccentricity at various inclination angle center.

As the square and rectangular model footing were

Shape of =0 =15 =30 subjected to monotonically increasing inclined load

Footing to failure but loading point is at the center of the

Square Footing 1.08 0.42KN 0.062 footing. Test were conducted for inclination of load

(175x175) KN KN being 0, 15, 30 respectively. Ultimate load of

Rectangular 0.92KN 0.42 0.11 KN such footing placed on dry sand is given by Qult =

Footing KN *B*N*S.i , Where i = Inclination Factor =

(150x210) (1-/)2.

Theoretical value of S for square plate is 0.8 and

DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS (1-0.4 B/L) for rectangular plate and in this case i

Ultimate load of footing under axial vertical load. for 15 and 30 inclination are 0.40 and 0.07

In this pogramme two model footings , square respectively.

footings (175X175) and rectangular (150X210) From the experimental values of the failure load i

were chosen and placed over dry sand of density was determined assuming theoretical values of S

1.36gm/cc and = 41.5. which were found both same in theoretical and

Theoretical values of ultimate load from [1] is experimental studies for axially loaded footings

given by Qult = *B*N*S. Where S = Shape earlier.

factor =0.8 for square footing, and (1-0.4B/L) for Experimental and theoretical value is shown in

rectangular footing, Corresponding to =41.5 , N Table 8.

= 130.22, = 1.36 gm/cc, B= 175 mm.

For the experimental value of the ultimate load S Table 8 Compare of inclination factor between

is back calculated for both square and rectangular theoretical and experimental when E=0.

plate. Both theoretical and experimental values are

compared in Table 7. Inclination I.S E=0 E=0

Angle Value (Square (Rectangular

Table 7 Compares of Shape factor between Plate) Plate)

theoretical and experimental. 15 0.40 0.29 0.15

I.S.Code (S) Test value 30 0.07 0.03 0.04

Shape e= e = e= e e= e

type 0 B/8 B/6 =0 B/8 B/6 Effect on eccentricity on vertical load carrying

Square 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.93 capacity of footing

2 6 In third series both the square and rectangular

footing was subjected to monotonically increasing

vertical load to failure but loading point has two

Rectangu 0.7 0.71 0.71 0.8 0.7 0.80 way eccentricity, , and was varied through 0, 1

lar 2 3 1

, 2 as described earlier.

For eccentrically loaded on vertical

direction [1] recommends

It is observed that ultimate load and shape factor S Qult = 0.5 B* * N * S

is moral less same for square footing, and for Where,

rectangular footing experimental value is higher B = (B-2eB)

than theoretical value. Hence prediction by I.S- L = (L-2eL)

6403, through slightly lesser than experimental And for rectangular footing ,

value but safe value. S=(1-0.4 B/L)

Page 6 of 9

Behavior of Rigid Footing Under Inclined and Eccentric Loading

Theoretical values of S and experimental values of Effect on inclination of load or load carrying

test value were described in Table 7 capacity.

From the table it is observed that theoretical To investigate the effect of inclination load act at

experimental value S is moral less same when center on the load carrying capacity of the

loading is axial. But for both square and foundation, non dimensional figure has been made,

rectangular plate with increase of eccentricity but in where , where Q = Ultimate load when

vertical loading S value does not remain constant inclined = i and Quv is the ultimate load when i= 0

but goes on increase of eccentricity. degree has been plotted against inclination of the

However for square plate rate of increase of S is load i in Fig.8 and Fig 9. On the same plot the

seem to be higher compare to the rectangular plate. theoretical values are shown against inclination of

But I.S. Code does not satisfy any changes in the load. In Fig.8 the plot is made for square plate and

value of S with change of eccentricity. in Fig. 9 same plot has been shown for rectangular

Effect of inclination of loading when loading point plate.

is various eccentricity.

Both the model footing was subjected to loading to

failure at various inclinations while the loading

point has different eccentricity. And the inclination

factor i is tabulated in table 8

Plate

e= e= e=B/ e= e=B e=

0 B/8 6 0 /8 B/6

0 9 064 8 15 90 043

3

30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.000 0. 0.00 0.0 Fig 8Non dimensional diagram compares in square

7 3 008 69 04 19 015 plate.

9

eccentricity was tabulated in table 3. Where it is

observed that due to eccentricity, vertical load

carrying capacity decreases when load is acting at a

point over the footing eccentricity.

However if the load act at an inclination the load

carrying capacity factor decrease at an increasing

rate in fact as the inclination increases. The lateral

component of load increase leading to sudden

sliding failure of footing itself . It is to be

remember further we think the increasing the

inclination of further load. Vertical load

component decreases causing the decreases of

frictional resistence at the base of footing. Fig 9Non dimensional diagram compares in square

plate.

Page 7 of 9

Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference

December 22-24,2013, Roorkee

Comparison of ultimate load by polar diagram 1. For centrally loaded footing in

vertical direction the ultimate

bearing capacity of the square

footing are found to be higher than

that of the rectangular footings.

Base area of the footings being

nearly same. For vertical centric

loading square footing found to be

carry much higher load.

2. The predicted theoretical values of

ultimate load from I.S.Code 6403

always gives safe and conservative

value compared to experimental

values for both the shapes of

footings. The co-relation between

experimental and codal value is

Fig 10 Polar diagram for square Plate much more consistent than

corresponding values from other

theoretical models.

3. For both the shape of footings when

inclination of centrally acting load

with vertical increases , the load

carrying capacity falls and when the

inclination approaches 30 degree

decrease is remarkable and tends to

decrease to very low values. This is

true for both the cases of footings

and also for any eccentric loading.

4. With increase of eccentricity of

applied loading whether vertical or

inclined, load carrying capacity also

decrease and I.S.Code 6403

provides very consistent but safe

value.

5. Irrespective of eccentricity the load

carrying capacity of footing

decreases with increase in the angle

of inclination of loading. As the

inclination of loading increases the

Fig 11 Polar diagram for Rectangular Plate load carrying capacity decreases

drastically to a low value as with

CONCLUSION increase of inclination. The

From the series of loading tests on square and horizontal component of load

rectangular model footing, with increasing the load becomes more and there the

to failure under vertical or inclined loading, the resistance offered by the soil

loading being applied centrally or with certain bellow, in horizontal direction

eccentricity with respect to the both axis of becomes operating to cause failure

footings, following conclusions may be draw. by sliding.

Page 8 of 9

Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference

December 22-24,2013, Roorkee

REFERENCES 6. Saran.S. (1971) Bearing capacity of

1. Code of practice for determination of Footings under inclined loads, Seminar on

breaking capacity of shallow foundation foundation problem , New Delhi.

(First Revision)-Bureau of Indian Standerd 7. Prakash S and S.Saran (1973) A new

, New Delhi, 1981 method for designing eccentricity loading

2. Terzaghi.K. Theoretical Soil Mechanics footing Journal Indian Geotechnical

,John Willey ,Newyork 1943 SociteyVol 3,No1.

3. Mayerhof G. G the bearing capacity of 8. Muhs.H.Wesis .K inclined load test on

foundation under eccentric and inclined shallow strip footings in proc VIII

loads in proe III international conference on international conference soil mechanics

soil mechanics Foundation Engg, Zurich, foundation and engineering, Moscow

Switzerland.(1953) 1.3,1973.

4. Hansen .J.B (1961) A general formula for 9. Dubrova G.A. Interaction of soils and

bearing capacity Danish Geotechnical structures RechnoyTransport ,Moscow

Institute ,Bulletine. ,1973.

5. Mayerhof G. G the ultimate bearing 10. Purakayastha R.D and char R.A.N ,Stability

capacity of foundation Canadian Geotech analysis for eccentricity loaded footings J.

J.I (1) ,16,1963 GeotechenggDiv ASCE 103(6),647 ,1977.

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