Lateral Load Pile Scour Depth

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Lateral Load Pile Scour Depth

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SUBJECTED TO SCOUR

A. K. Yadav, Resident Engineer, Jayprakash Associates Pvt. Ltd., Noida, India, akyiitg30@gmail.com

A. Dey, Assistant Professor, IIT Guwahati, Assam-781039, India, arindam.dey@iitg.ac.in

ABSTRACT: Pile foundations of bridges are often subjected to detrimental changes in lateral load capacity in

event of extreme scouring. Based on the permissible deflection of the pile at its cut-off level, this article reports the

estimation of lateral load capacity of a single free-headed pile embedded in stratified deposit. Two softwares with

different working principle, BEF and OASYS ALP, have been utilized. Extreme scouring depths (in the tune of 5-7

m has been accounted) portray vivid degradation of the lateral load capacity of pile, guided by the thickness and

stiffness of the substratum.

INTRODUCTION

For piles supporting bridge structures, it is very difference theory to solve for the flexural response

important to estimate the ultimate lateral load of the beam in terms of deflection, bending

capacity of the pile in order to have a-priori idea moment, shear stress and contact stress profiles.

about its failure. Conventionally, such piles are The responses are provided as graphical response

estimated for their ultimate load based on specific envelopes as well as in tabulated format as nodal

deflection criterion. This article reports the information. Fig. 1 depicts an arbitrarily loaded

findings of a study to estimate the lateral load prismatic beam of unit width and length L resting

capacity of a single pile embedded in stratified soil on an elastic foundation with variable foundation

deposit in river bed, based on the permissible reaction.

deflection of 10% of the pile diameter at the cut-off

(in absence of scour) or at the maximum scour

level (in the presence of scour). Flexural response

of the pile (in terms of deflection, bending moment

and shear force and contact stress profiles) has

been illustrated using two different softwares

namely Beams on Elastic Foundations (BEF)

[linear elastic analysis] and OASYS ALP v19.1

[nonlinear P-Y analysis]. Analysis of Laterally

Loaded Piles (ALP) has been found to be more

efficient since it has the ability to consider the Fig. 1 Arbitrarily loaded prismatic beam resting on

effect of water table and nonlinear earth pressure Winkler foundation

generation in the soil surrounding the pile. Based

on the results, the article reports the lateral load The governing deflection response of the above

capacity of the piles embedded in stratified deposit beam is expressed as:

with or without the effect of scour. The effect of

4 y

scour on the lateral load capacity of the pile has EI w ky (1)

x 4

also been reported.

where, E is the modulus of elasticity and I is the

moment of inertia of the beam, y is the deflection

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF BEF

at any point of the beam, w is the magnitude of

BEF [1] utilizes the concept of beam resting on

applied load, and k is the modulus of subgrade

elastic Winkler foundation [2,3] and uses finite

reaction of the elastic foundation.

Page 1 of 9

A. K. Yadav & A. Dey

In order to solve the above problem numerically, analyzed for three different diameters (1000 mm,

the beam is discretized into several nodes, and the 1200 mm and 1500 mm). The pile is considered to

central difference scheme of the finite difference be made of M25 grade concrete, and is assumed to

theory is utilized to express the governing be free-headed. Seven different soil-pile

deflection response at any node i as: configurations have been analyzed, although not

ki h4 Ph 3

presented here for the sake of brevity [4].

i 2

y 4 yi 1 (6 ) yi 4 yi2 yi2 i

(2)

EI EI

where, Pi is the computed equivalent nodal load,

and h is the uniform spacing of two nodes.

appropriate boundary conditions and changes in the

flexural rigidity of the beam and subgrade modulus

of the soil.

ALP models the pile as a series of elastic beam

elements and the soil as a series of non-interactive,

non-linear Winkler springs. The outcome conforms

to the prediction of contact pressures, horizontal

displacements, shear forces and bending moments

induced in a pile when subjected to lateral loads.

The load-deflection behaviour of soil is modelled Fig. 2 General soil-pile interaction model in ALP

either assuming an Elastic-Plastic behaviour, or by

specifying or generating load-deflection (P-Y) data

(depending on whether the soil is clayey or sandy).

The pile is discretized into several nodes, and two

separate stiffness matrices (one for the pile in

bending and one for the adjacent soil) relating

nodal forces to displacements are developed. The

pile stiffness is provide at each node, and remains

constant between successive nodes. The software

allows for incremental load application which aids

to monitor the progressive change in flexural

response. ALP is capable of considering the

presence of water table. Fig. 2 describes the

general schematic of a soil-pile interaction model

in ALP.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Fig. 3 depicts a single pile embedded in a stratified

soil. BEF and ALP have been used to determine

the lateral load capacity for a specified deflection

at its cut-off level (maximum allowable deflection

criterion considered as 10% of the pile diameter),

the length of fixity of the pile and the

corresponding flexural response envelopes at the Fig. 3 Soil-pile configuration of the present study

lateral load capacity of pile. The pile had been

Page 2 of 9

Lateral load capacity of piles in stratified soil deposit subjected to scour

A linear elastic analysis has been carried out using Finite difference method is subjected to various

BEF, considering the laterally loaded pile as a types of numerical instabilities originating due to

beam resting on elastic foundation (representing either sparse meshing (missing response variations)

the soil stratification with varying subgrade or even very dense meshing (progressive error

modulus). A vertical load is applied at the tip of the accumulation). Both the instabilities result in a

free-headed pile. The bottom of the pile is non-convergent solution. Hence, it is necessary to

considered to be restrained both from translation carry out a sensitivity study and arrive at an

and rotation. BEF does not account for water table optimum number of nodes which results in a stable

in the analysis. and convergent solution which does not vary with

small changes in the number of nodes [8]. In BEF,

Estimation of Model Parameters the sensitivity study was carried with 151, 677 and

For an analysis in BEF, the contributory 1201 nodes and the changes in the flexural

parameters are (a) Pile - the modulus of elasticity responses were investigated. 151 nodes were

of pile material, geometry configuration (length considered to be optimum and have been used in

and cross-section dimensions) and moment of further studies.

inertia, and (b) Soil - modulus of elasticity and

subgrade modulus of soil. Load-Deformation Response and Lateral Load

Depending on the grade of concrete, the elastic Capacity of Pile

modulus of concrete (Es) is estimated (using Indian The lateral load capacity of the free-headed pile is

Standards [5]) as: estimated based on the maximum permissible

Ec 5000 fck 25 kN/mm2 (3) deformation criterion of 10% of the pile diameter

2

where, fck is the grade of concrete (in kN/mm ) at its cut-off level. For the present study, the load at

the pile head is continually increased till the

Based on standard literature [6], the modulus of the permissible deflection at the pile head or cut-off

clayey and sandy stratum is estimated as: level is reached. Fig. 4a depicts the load-deflection

Es clay 350c 227.5 kg/cm2 (4) response of the pile. Since BEF operates on linear

elastic springs, the response curves have also been

Es sand 400 10.5 N 998.5 kg/cm2 (5) obtained as linear. It is observable that the lateral

load capacity of pile increases with the diameter of

where, c is the cohesion of clayey soil, and N is the the pile due to the enhanced flexural stiffness of

SPT blow count obtained in a sandy soil. the pile.

Considering a 1000 mm diameter of pile, the

moment of inertia is estimated to be 4.9x106 cm4. The lateral load capacity of the pile, as estimated

Using Vesics expression [7], the modulus of above, is further used to determine the flexural

subgrade reaction (ks) (Pile diameter = 1000 mm) response and estimate the maximum bending

is estimated to be 11.76 and 54.88 kN/m2/mm moment, shear force and contact stress generated at

respectively for silty-clayey and sandy strata as the verge of failure. Fig. 4b depicts such a typical

shown in Fig. 3. flexural response as obtained from the software. In

0.65Es E D4

actual practice, the pile needs to be designed based

ks 12 s

(6) on these maximum magnitudes. Moreover, the

D 1 s2 Ec I p

length of fixity of the laterally-loaded pile has also

where, D is the pile diameter, Es is modulus of been determined from the maximum moment/zero

elasticity of soil, s is the Poissons ratio of soil shear force criterion. The point of fixity is referred

(0.35 for clayey soil and 0.25 for sandy soil), and Ip to as that point above which the pile can be

is moment of inertia of the pile. modelled and analyzed a fixed cantilever beam.

For piles of other diameters, the subgrade modulus Beneath this point, the pile is considered to be

has been similarly calculated. fixed and does not contribute to rotation of the pile.

Table 1 enlists the response of the pile (for various

Page 3 of 9

A. K. Yadav & A. Dey

reflects that increase in pile diameter results in Scouring is the removal of sediment such as sand

increment of the lateral load capacity as well as the and rocks from around bridge abutments or piers.

length of fixity of the same. Scour, caused by swiftly moving water, can scoop

out scour holes, compromising the integrity of a

structure. For Indian rivers and river bed

conditions, guidelines are available related to the

estimation of scour depth in accordance to the

Laceys theorem [9, 10, and 11]. For Indian rivers

like Ganga and Brahmaputra, scour depth as high

as 18m have been reported [12]. Fig. 5 depicts the

flow structure and scouring around a bridge pier.

An attempt has been made in this study to

comprehend the effect of scouring on the lateral

load capacity of the pile. A scouring depth of 11 m

has been considered in the present study. The

methodology, as stated earlier for BEF, has been

used to estimate the lateral load capacity with

Fig. 4a Load-deformation and lateral load capacity increasing scour depth by taking into account the

of pile using BEF increase in the cut-off level due to scouring. The

lateral load capacity is estimated based on the

permissible deflection of 10% of pile diameter at

the pile-head. Fig. 6 reveals the degradation in the

lateral load capacity of pile due to increase in the

scour depth. It is clearly understandable that

scouring of softer soil layers result in faster

degradation of the lateral load capacity of the pile.

obtained from BEF

capacity as obtained from BEF

D ycut- Pu Mmax Qmax pmax Lfix

(mm off (kN) (kNm) (kN) (kPa (m)

) (mm )

) Fig. 5 Flow structure and scouring around a bridge

1000 10 222 817 147 115 5.3 pier

1200 12 366 1541 233 147 6.5

1500 15 675 3342 413 197 7.2 OASYS ALP NONLINEAR P-Y ANALYSIS

Note: ycutoff - Deflection at cut-off level, Pu - Unlike BEF, ALP is capable of considering the

Lateral load capacity, Mmax - Maximum moment, effect of water table. The software also facilitates

Qmax - Maximum shear force, pmax - Maximum to determine the flexural response through

contact stress, Lfix - Length of fixity from the automatic load increment, and hence compared to

bottom of the pile.

Page 4 of 9

Lateral load capacity of piles in stratified soil deposit subjected to scour

weight, percentage strain, and cohesion for clayey

soils and (b) unit weight, angle of internal friction

and coefficient of earth pressure at-rest for sandy

soil. The unit weight of soil for all the problems is

considered to be 18 kN/m3, and the strain is

considered to be of magnitude 5% for all soils. The

coefficient of earth pressure at rest is computed

using Jakys expression [13] as follows:

K0 1 sin (7)

uniform spacing of 0.5 m, with required

refinements being made in the intersection with the

Fig. 6 Lateral load capacity degradation with water table and soil strata interface.

increased scouring

Load-Deformation Response and Lateral Load

BEF, utilizes lesser time to estimate the failure Capacity of Pile

load. ALP also considers the passive resistance of The advanced feature of automatic load increment

the soil (not available in BEF) and indicates available in the software OASYS ALP 19.1 has

whenever the passive resistance of the soil is been used to estimate the lateral load capacity of

exceeded. The methodology taking into account of the pile. For the present problem, the load acting at

the generated P-Y curves has been considered in the pile head has been set to a reasonable value

the present study. Fig. 7 depicts a typical sample (e.g. 250 kN) and the number of increments to

output as obtained from ALP. reach the load has been provided (13 increments).

This enables to obtain the cumulative flexural

response of the pile with the load increments. Fig.

8a-8d shows a typical load increment procedure in

terms of the deflection response of the pile (1000

mm diameter).

obtained from ALP 19.1

Both elastic and plastic soil properties are required

to be provided in the ALP input model. Apart from

the modulus of subgrade reaction (identical as used

Fig. 8a Deflection envelopes for load increments

in the BEF software), depending on the soil type,

(Pile diameter = 1000mm)

Page 5 of 9

A. K. Yadav & A. Dey

Fig. 8b Bending moment envelopes for load capacity of piles using OASYS ALP 19.1

increments (Pile diameter = 1000mm)

From the above observation, considering the

deflection criterion as 10% of the pile diameter at

cut-off level, the lateral load capacity of the pile

has been estimated. Fig 9 depicts the lateral load

capacity as estimated from the ALP software. It

can be observed from the plots that, unlike BEF,

the load-deflection curves reveal nonlinear

behavior for higher diameter piles.

lateral load estimated obtained from BEF and ALP

considering the permissible deflection criterion as

10% of the pile diameter at the cut-off level of the

pile. It is noticeable that the lateral load capacity

estimated from ALP is lower than that obtained

Fig. 8c Shear force envelopes for load increments

using BEF.

(Pile diameter = 1000mm)

Fig. 8d Contact pressure envelopes for load Fig. 10 Comparison of lateral load capacity of piles

increments (Pile diameter = 1000mm) of varying diameters obtained from BEF and ALP

Page 6 of 9

Lateral load capacity of piles in stratified soil deposit subjected to scour

This may be attributed to the nonlinear analysis of condition. The sandy layers show mostly bilinear

ALP which inadvertently considers the soil to be behavior and, as indicated in the figure, needs to be

remaining in a softer state at any stress level as subjected to large load values to reach their

compared to the linear elastic analysis, and hence ultimate state. Hence, the linear/nonlinear flexural

shows lower lateral load capacity as the soil offers behavior of the pile will be governed by the

more displacement as compared to the other thickness and location of the clayey or sandy

procedure. Moreover, the consideration of the stratum.

water table results in soil layers remaining in the

submerged condition, which further lowers the Table 2 Response of the pile at lateral load

lateral support of the soil due to the reduction of capacity as obtained from ALP

the effective unit weight of the soil. D ycut-off Pu Mmax Lfix

(mm) (mm) (kN) (kNm) (m)

Using the estimated lateral load capacity, the 1000 10 101 488 7

flexural response of the pile has been determined 1200 12 181 984 7

for various diameters and is represented in Figures 1500 15 388 2370 7.5

11a-11e. Similar to BEF, it is observed that with

the increase in the pile diameter, the maximum

responses (deflection, rotation, bending moment,

shear force, and contact stresses) also reveal

increment in their magnitudes. However, it is

worth noticing that the point of fixity, represented

by the position of maximum bending moment, does

not reveal significant change with the change in the

diameter of the pile. This is dissimilar in

observation to BEF. This may be attributed to the

fact that BEF considers solely the modulus of

subgrade reaction as the support system while

neglecting the passive resistance offered by the

soil. Moreover, the response of soil is generally

nonlinear under high load and especially when the

structures reach the verge of failure. The nonlinear Fig. 11a Deflection envelope of pile as obtained

P-Y curves provide much realistic behavior of the from ALP 19.1

soil under such condition. The deformation

behavior of the soil does not proportionally

increase with the increment in the load, and hence

shows relatively softer behavior in comparison to

the linear elastic medium. Moreover, the load-

deformation behavior of the alternatively placed

sandy and clayey stratum is significantly different.

All this factors might actually result in maintaining

the point of fixity of the pile to be same despite

change in pile diameter. The results are enumerated

in Table 2.

generated at the top and bottom of each soil layer.

It is noticeable that the clayey layers (which are

more plastic than the sandy layers) show more non- Fig. 11b Rotation envelope of pile as obtained

linear behavior, and reaches the plastic limit from ALP 19.1

Page 7 of 9

A. K. Yadav & A. Dey

discussed earlier. Table 3 enumerates the lateral

load capacity of the pile of various diameters under

the extreme scouring condition. It is observed that

the lateral load capacity increases while the length

of fixity is not significantly increased with the

increase in pile diameter.

obtained from ALP 19.1

from ALP 19.1

capacity under 5 m scouring as obtained from ALP

D ycut-off Pu Mmax Lfix

(mm) (mm) (kN) (kNm) (m)

1000 10 70 491 8.5

Fig. 11e Contact stress envelope of pile as obtained 1200 12 134 964 10

from ALP 19.1 1500 15 278 2323 10

The pile as depicted in Fig.3 has been analyzed for Based on the conducted study, the following

a condition where the maximum scouring was important conclusions can be stated:

observed to be 5 m from the existing ground level Mesh refinement in BEF revealed that 151

(EGL). The rest of the pile passes through 4.5 m of nodes proves to be sufficient to obtain a stable

silty-clay soil underlain by 15.5 m of sandy soil. and convergent solution and can be considered

Page 8 of 9

Lateral load capacity of piles in stratified soil deposit subjected to scour

problems. 1. Jones, G. (1997), Analysis of Beams on Elastic

BEF models the soil as a linear elastic Foundations using Finite Difference Theory,

material, and hence, the load-deformation Thomas Telford, UK.

behavior of the soil has also obtained to be 2. Hetenyi, M. (1946), Beams on Elastic

nonlinear. Modeling with ALP resulted in the Foundations: Theory with Applications in the

nonlinear portrayal of the load-deformation field of Civil Engineering, University of

behavior of the pile, since in this case, the soil Michigan Press, Ann-Arbor.

is modeled using nonlinear Winkler springs 3. Winkler, E. (1867), Die Lehre von der

and generated P-Y curves. Elastizaitat unde Festigkeit, H. Dominicus,

Owing to enhanced flexural rigidity, lateral Prague.

load capacity of a pile increases with the 4. Yadav A.K. (2013), Lateral Load Capacity of

increase in the diameter of the pile. Piles in stratified Soil Deposit Subjected to

As observed from the results of both BEF and Scour, BTP Report, Department of Civil

ALP, increase in the diameter of the embedded Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,

piles results in the increase in the maximums Guwahati, India.

of the flexural responses of the pile. 5. IS 456 (2000) Plain and Reinforced Concrete,

BEF results revealed that the length of fixity of Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.

the pile increased with the increase in the pile 6. Bowles, J.E. (1997), Foundation Analysis and

diameter. However, ALP results revealed that Design, Tata McGraw Hill, USA.

the length of fixity is not significantly affected 7. Vesic, A. B. (1961), Beams on elastic subgrade

by the change in the pile diameter. This is and the Winklers hypothesis, Proceedings of

attributed to the fact that the length of fixity is the 5th International Conference on Soil

not governed alone by the flexural rigidity of Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Paris,

the pile, but by the relative flexural rigidity of France, Vol. 1, 845-850.

the pile and the surrounding soil. This feature 8. Dey, A. (2009), Nonlinearly Elastic and

is portrayed better by the software ALP and Viscoelastic Unreinforced and Reinforced

hence, length of fixity remain primarily Foundation Beds: Modeling and Model

invariant with the change in the pile diameter Parameter Estimation, Ph.D. Thesis, IIT

Increase in the scouring significantly decreases Kanpur.

the lateral load capacity of the soil. The 9. IRC 45 (1972), Recommendations for

degradation is more prominent when scouring estimating the resistance of soil below the

takes place in the softer soil stratum. maximum scour level in the design of well

The presence of water table, thus reducing the foundations, Indian Roads Congress, New

effective unit weight of the submerged soil, Delhi.

also decreases the lateral load capacity of the 10. IRC 78 (2000), Standard specifications and

embedded pile. code of practice for road bridges. Section-VII,

Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.

P-Y curves generated reveal that the clay

11. IRC: 5 (1998), Standard specifications and

layers show prominence in nonlinear behavior

code of practice for road bridges. Section 1,

and reaches the plastic limit under failure load

Indian Roads Congress, Delhi.

condition, while sandy layers, commonly

12. Kothyari, U. (2007), Indian practice on

behaving as elastic, show at most bilinear

estimation of scour around bridge piers A

behavior and indicates that this kind of soil

comment, Sadhana, Vol. 32, Part 3, 187-197.

require high loads to reach into their plastic

13. Alpan, I. (1967), The empirical evaluation of

limit.

coefficient of K0 and K0R, Soils and

Foundations, Vol. 7, No. 1, 31-40.

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