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Principles of MRI

EE225E / BIO265
Lecture 18

Instructor: Miki Lustig


UC Berkeley, EECS

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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Question Answer

What is the difference between the images? Both T1-weighted


spin-echo gradient-echo

Meniscus
(short TE)
Lower
SNR
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Spin-Echo Properties Spin-Echo Properties
Robust to off-resonance effects Robust to off-resonance effects
Excellent Contrast Excellent Contrast
but...
SAR limitations (high-power RF)
Long scan times, and long echo-time
Mostly multi-slice 2D
Artifacts/long scan-time in 3D
You -- Get cervical, thoracic and lumbar
T2 weighted Fast Spin-Echo MRIs

Gradient-echo: Fast, short TE, often 3D


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Spin-Echo Pulse Sequence Gradient-Echo Pulse Sequence


Refocusing No Refocusing!
Excitation 180 TE~10+ ms

RF RF

Gz Gz
Acquisition

Gy Gy

Gx Gx

A/D A/D
Spin-Echo+ Gradient-Echo
Gradient-Echo

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Gradient-Echo Pulse Sequence

TE~1+ ms

RF

Gz MRI is all about contrast......

Gy

Gx

A/D
Gradient-Echo

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley http://thundafunda.com


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Contrast Knobs: GRE Variations Assumptions


TR TE
m(x,y,t) is a function of time
Prep. Approximation:
when analyzing I(x,y), assume m(x,y,t=TE)

Spoiling (sequence) Consider:


Flip/Phase Spoiling
Fat-saturation
No preparation T1 > TR > 3T2
RF: Flip / Phase
Later : TR < 3T2
Timing (TR, TE)
Preparation Sequence
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Review Magnetization Dynamics

RF Excitation 90 90 90 90

TR
RF

Free-precession/
(gradient induced)

Relaxation

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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Very Long TR: Full Relaxation Long TR: T1-Weighting


TR>>T1 TR~T1 >> T2

Mz Mz

Mxy decays completely before next RF Mxy decays completely before next RF
Mz recovers fully before next RF Mxy Mz partially recovers before next RF Mxy

Full signal after RF T1-weighted signal after RF

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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90 90 90 90

TR
RF

M0
TR
M0 1 e T1

Mz

||Mxy||0
TR

M0 1 e T1

||Mxy||

1st TR usually not used

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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180 180 180

90 90 90

TR
RF

M0

Mz
TE TE
||Mxy||0

T2
T2*

||Mxy||

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TR
RF

Mz-
Mz+

Mz

M0

||Mxy||

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180 180
90 90
TI TI
TR
RF

(1)
M0
(5)
(7)
(3)
Mz
(4) (8)

(6)
(2)

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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T1 SE T2 FSE T1 SE

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T2 fluid
T2 FSE T1 SE T2 FSE
suppressed

Minor Stroke
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T2 FSE fluid suppressed
T1 SE T1 FGRE + Contrast

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Short TR Steady-State Imaging


TR << T1,T2
T2 FLIR T1 FGRE + Contrast

Mxy persists before next RF


May have shifted in phase
Adds/Subtracts from next signal

makes a HUGE difference on image contrast


M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Balanced SSFP Balanced SSFP
60 -60 60

On-Resonance 1/4 cycle precession 1/2 cycles precession

True-FISP, FIESTA, balanced FFE, BASG

Do nothing at the end


Balanced Gradients
High steady-state signal
T2/T1 mixed contrast

Oppelt 1986, Duerk 1997 Sensitive to off-resonance


M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Balanced-SSFP Dark Bands Balanced-SSFP Cardiac Imaging

Must limit precession


Short TR
Limits resolution Fast (TR=2-5ms)
Good contrast
Flow-compensated
Signal Magnitude

1/TR

Frequency

Freeman 1971
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Gradient Spoiling Question

RF RF
Gz Gz

FFE, FISP, GRASS, GRE, FAST, Field Echo Does gradient spoiling eliminates
Spin distribution across slice
transverse signal at the end of TR?
Spin distribution across slice Spin distribution across slice
Reduce sensitivity to off-
resonance by Spoiling Mxy
before next RF

First TR Steady State


M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Answer Gradient Spoiled vs Balanced SSFP


Gradient-Spoiled Balanced SSFP
RF
Gz

No, its an average of balanced-SSFP


but....
No dark bands
Lower signal than balanced-SSFP
Reduced contrast

(Courtesy of Krishna Nayak, USC Electrical Engineering)

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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RF Spoiled Imaging RF Spoiling Quadratic-phase increment

Goal: Pure T1 contrast with short TR RF


Gz
Fast, 3D T1-Weighted imaging
The Trick:
Need to Zero Mxy at the end of TR
Quadratic Phase Increment of RF
Effectively Random angle RF every TR
SPGR, FLASH, T1-FFE, RF-spoiled FAST Spoiled magnetization has random phase and
does not add

Low SNR!

Frahm 1987, Zur 1991 Real distribution Effective distribution


M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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RF Spoiled Contrast Enhanced MR RF Spoiled Dynamic Contrast MR


Enhancement over Time
Pre-Contrast SPGR Post-Contrast SPGR

Repeated 6-second breath holds, 10 seconds apart


32 slices using 3x accelerated imaging
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Gradient Echo Sequence Comparison

Sequence Balanced Gradient RF-Spoiled


SSFP Echo

Spoiling None Gradient RF + Gradient

Transverse Retained Averaged Cancelled


Magnetization

Contrast T2/T1 T2/T1 T1

High
SNR Moderate Lower
(but Banding)

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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Quiz I Quiz I
Here are a balanced SSFP and RF-Spoiled post-contrast
image. Which is the image on the left?
1) RF-Spoiled Post Gd 2) Balanced SSFP 1) RF Spoiled post Gd
2) Balanced SSFP Bright Fluid (T2-like) T1 contrast, enhanced wall

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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Image Comparison Image Comparison
Identify the images shown (Same TR, TE, Flip)
Same TR, TE, flip angle
1) RF Spoiled Balanced SSFP Gradient Spoiled Differences: Signal, Contrast, Dark-Bands
2) Gradient Spoiled RF Spoiled Balanced SSFP
3) RF Spoiled Gradient Spoiled Balanced SSFP
3) RF Spoiled Gradient Spoiled Balanced SSFP

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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Contrast Knobs: GRE Variations Flip Angle in Gradient Echo Sequences


TR TE

Does increasing the flip angle increase signal?


1) Yes: Signal always increases with flip angle.
2) No: Signal decreases as flip angle increases
3) Sometimes: The signal peaks at a specific flip angle
Spoiling (sequence) Flip

RF: Flip
Timing (TR, TE)
Preparation Sequence
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Flip Angle in Gradient Echo Sequences Flip Angle Selection

Does increasing the flip angle increase signal?


1) Yes: Signal always increases with flip angle.
2) No: Signal decreases as flip angle increases
3) Sometimes: The signal peaks at a specific flip angle

Ernst Angle
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley Buxton 1990
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Flip Angle Selection? Flip Angle Selection?


The best flip angle to use is found by:

The best flip angle to use is found by: 3) Both 1 and 2: maximizing SNR and contrast (CNR)

1) Maximizing the image SNR


2) Maximizing contrast between certain tissues
3) Both 1 and 2

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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Flip Angle Examples Contrast Knobs: GRE Variations
RF-Spoiled Best? TR TE

Gradient Spoiled

Spoiling (sequence)

Balanced SSFP
RF: Flip / Phase
Best?
Timing (TR, TE)
Preparation Sequence
5 10 20 30 40 50
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Echo Time (TE) Considerations Dixon-Based Imaging


Longer TE: T2* weighting (BOLD, Perfusion)
BOLD Imaging for fMRI RF

T2*-weighted perfusion Signal

Short TE Water Fat


Reduced flow/motion sensitivity
Reduced T2* weighting
Fat
In-phase and Out-of-phase TE Water

Water/Fat cancellation, Dixon Imaging


M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Liver Imaging Question
In-Phase Out-of-Phase
Gradient spoiled images - which is opposed phase?
1) Left
2) Right

Water Fat

M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley


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Gradient Spoiling: TE Effects Contrast Knobs: GRE Variations


2) Right
In-Phase Opposed-Phase
Prep.

Spoiling (sequence)
RF: Flip / Phase
Timing (TR, TE)
Left adrenal lesion with signal loss on opposed phase imaging Preparation Sequence
Diagnosis Benign Adenoma
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Preparation Options Fat Saturation Example

Fat Saturation
Inversion - Recovery
Myocardial Tagging
T2-prep
Magnetization Transfer
Not Fat-Sat RF-Spoiled Fat Sat RF-Spoiled

Mag Prep ... Mag Prep


Imaging Sequence
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Cardiac: bSSFP and IR-RF-Spoiled Summary


TR TE

Prep.

Spoiling (sequence) Flip/Phase Spoiling


No preparation Fat-saturation
RF: Flip / Phase
Timing (TR, TE)
Balanced SSFP IR-Prep RF-Spoiled
Preparation Sequence
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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Summary and Acronyms Slide Acknowledgements

RF spoiled Robert Herfkens


Brian Hargreaves
SPGR, FLASH, T1-FFE, RF-spoiled FAST
Lewis Shin Anne Sawyer
Balanced SSFP
Krishna Nayak Marcus Alley
True-FISP, FIESTA, balanced FFE, BASG
Phil Young
Gradient spoiled Shreyas Vasanawala
Neal Bangerter
FFE, FISP, GRASS, GRE, FAST, Field Echo
Pauline Worters Jiang Du
Vendor acronyms are confusing -- Demand that they tell
you what it really is...! Bruce Daniel Graeme Bydder
Acronym source: mr-tip.com Misung Han Gary Glover
M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley M. Lustig, EECS UC Berkeley
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