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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

In this studies there are 10 related literatures that talks about motivation, academic performance
and the relationship between motivation and academic performance. It also tackled about the difference
of motivation according to age, gender, and year level.

Related Literature

Motivation Commented [1]:


No underline on the heading,,nawala ang heading na Related
Motivation is something that is vital to a learners role as a student. Hitt (2005) defined motivation Studies pls insert..Almost all the statemnts from the authors
were not properly cited..may paragraph din na walang au-
as a set of forces that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. These forces can come from the person, so- thor, is that your own statement? Needs improvement

called "push" of internal forces, or they can come from the environment that surrounds the person, so-
called "pull" of external forces. Furthermore, Wendy (2008) defined motivation as to give reason, incen-
tive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Also, one main importance
of motivation is to improve the morale of students. In this respect, Mitchel explained that motivation is
essential to increase a students self-confidence, which will be a factor in continuing to strive towards
success. It is well known that highly motivated students have a lower rate of absenteeism than bored or
de-motivated students (Garber & Moustafa, 2015). In nursing education, students need to be motivated
to be able to function and perform well during their clinical exposure. In addition, motivated students
always look for better ways to improve their competence during their duties, which would likely result
to more achievements thus, success.

Motivation is defined as invigorates and energies behaviour (Brown, 2007). An alternative ap-
proach to understanding motivation comes from Walter Cannon (1929) notion of homeostasis. This con-
cept assumes that an ongoing attempt is made to maintain many bodily function at optimal levels. How-
ever Cannons homeostatic notion let to drive reduction by Hull (1943) that suggest animals and human
strive to reduce needs and drives whenever possible, The major short coming of drive reduction is that it
does not lend itself to higher order motivated behaviours. In this state rather than seeking a constant state
of reduced drive level, humans frequently seek increase levels of stimulation. Thus, the optimal state
may be a moderate, or even high level of stimulation, rather than as little as possible.
An explanation for such behaviour led to incentive theories of motivation. According to these
theories they define motivation differently, which reveals the difficulty of describing it in clear and sim-
ple terms. Motivation is commonly thought as an inner state of need or desire that activates an individual
to do something to satisfy them. Motivation is typically defined as the forces that account for the arousal,
selection, direction, and continuation of behavior. Williams and Burden (2000) also give a proposed
definition of motivation. In their opinion, motivation maybe constructed as a state of cognitive and emo-
tional arousal, which leads to a conscious decision to act, and which gives rise to a period of sustained
intellectual and physical effort in order to attain a previously set goal.

Academic Performance

According to Steinmayr (2014) academic achievement represents performance outcomes that in-
dicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in
instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university. A thorough, short, and in-
formative overview of academic achievement is provided in Spinath 2012. Spinath (2012) emphasises
the importance of academic achievement with regard to different perspectives (such as for individuals
and societies, as well as psychological and educational research). Kithinji, & Kanga (2017) also defined
academic achievement as the total score or grade point which is attained by distance learners. It is meas-
ured using a trimesters grade point average (GPA) and an academic years cumulative grade point ave-
rage (CGPA).

Many authors have discussed the different factors that affect the student academic performance
in their research. There are two types of factors that affect the students academic performance. These
are internal and external classroom factors and these factors strongly affect the students performance.In
addition it also shows that students performance depends on many factors such as learning facilities,
gender and age differences, etc. that can affect student performance (Hansen, Joe B., 2000).

Motivation and Academic Performance


According to Atkinson (19964) students motives to achieves in school are the joint function of
their expectancies for success in academic work and the value that school success has for them. Motiva-
tion, in turn, is presumed to affect achievement related behaviour and subsequent academic achievement.
Eccles et al. (1983) found expectancies and values to be significant predictors both of later subject
achievement and plans to take a specific subject course in the future.

It is possible that gender differences in motivation contribute to other differences that


have been observed between boys and girls within an educational context. For example, it is widely
recognised within education that there are gender differences in academic attainment. More boys perform
below their potential than girls, as defined in value-added terms (achievement above that which is ex-
pected) (Gibb, Ferguson & Horwood, 2008)A published book entitled Development of Achievement
Motivation by Winfield and Eccles, 2002 provides a comprehensive overview of current work on the
development of motivation and how instructional practices influences children motivation. The book
discussed research and theory on how motivation changes as children progress and aged through school,
gender differences in motivation, and motivational differences as an aspect of ethnicity. Motivation is
discussed within the context of school achievement as well as athletic and musical performance. The
book is organized the into four sections. Its purpose is to provide motivation from different theories
perspectives on the development of motivation beliefs values and goal. Achievement motivation refers
to motivation in situations in which individuals competence is at issue (Nicholls, 1984).

Development for them is the number of important ways in which children go through their school
years (Wigfield, 1994). One fundamental way is that children understanding of racial motivational con-
structs such as their concept of ability changes as they mature (Nichollls, 1978). Motivation became more
differentiated and complex through the childhood years. This differentiation has important implication
for the achievement behaviour, especially their choices to pursue and their response to negative feedback.
Although this pattern of differentiated beliefs, values, and goals has been posited to characterized the
development of children motivation, but some theories has different point of view. Bandar (1997) self-
efficacy argued that self-efficacy initially is task specific and gradually becomes more generalized. Heidi
and Harackiewicz (2002) discussed how the interests often become generalized into deeper personal
interest.
The levels of motivation changes as they mature. Young children are optimistic about their abil-
ities and thus positively motivated for school learning (Eccles et al., 1998). Over the years many chil-
drens academic motivation decreases due to changes both in themselves and in the school environments
experience and at risk for developing negative motivational beliefs and goals (Dweck, 1998).
A science and profession of education require a general theory of learning productivity that is
empirically tested and proven in educational practice. Theories can be ranked not only on their scientific
parsimony, comprehensiveness, and explicitness but also on how well they fit the facts and are useful in
the practice of education. By such criteria, education is neither a science nor a profession. Walbergs
(1981) theory of educational productivity was empirically tested as one of very few theories of academic
achievement. Walbergs theory of academic achievement posits that psychological characteristics of in-
dividual students and their immediate psychological environments influence educational outcomes (cog-
nitive, behavioural, and attitudinal) (Reynolds & Walberg, 1992). Further, Walbergs research identified
nine key variables that influence educational outcomes as: student ability/prior achievement, motivation,
age/developmental level, quantity of instruction, quality of instruction, classroom climate, home envi-
ronment, peer group, and exposure to mass media outside of school (Walberg, Fraser, & Welch, 1986).

Much has been discussions on reasons why students do not do well in school. With the rapidly
changing educational environments in many countries in the world over, there is an opening for research
exploring solutions to the challenge of enhancing student academic performance to getting a good edu-
cation. Many variables play a role to students academic performance. Academic motivation is an im-
portant psychological construct for learning and academic performance in all the school subjects. Since
it is unobservable, it can only be inferred from actions or. The relationship between academic motivation
and academic performance is still unclear and can only be determined with continued observation of the
students.

Extrinsic Motivation

According to Hoyenga & Hoyenga 1984, extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that are outside
of the behaviours they cause , the motive for the behaviour is not inherent in or essential to the behaviour
itself. If a student studies hard to do well on a test because a good grade will result in a brand new phone
or less reprimand from their parents, then the motive behind studying is not what it is intended to do
which is to gain and obtain knowledge. Studying information is a essential to earning, however, it is often
manipulated to lead toward other things such as money, acceptance, or power. Adding an extrinsic in-
centive to study or complete a task has also been found to decrease intrinsic motivation (Hoyenga &
Hoyenga, 1984). Such a finding is harmful to education. To help students develop academic intrinsic
motivation, it is important to define the factors that affect their motivation (Dev, 1997). Two extrinsic
factors that need to be further explored are power motivations and fear of failure.

Power motivations are difficult to spot in students because unlike other extrinsic motivations,
they increase achievement measures (Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1984). It is often seen in students, especially
in university setting. A student who is motivated by power feels the need to control his/her environment.
The best way they find to do this is to prove their ability and competence to others. A study performed
by Fortier, Valler and, and Guay (1995), confirmed perceived academic competence to be directly related
to autonomous academic motivation, which is directly related to school performance. To sum it up power
motivation tend to be easily mistaken for intrinsic motivation. Both seems to be the same but theres a
hindrance and a block occurs in the process of reaching the goal, a intrinsic student will find a strategy
to get around the hindrance or a block however the power motivator may feel frustrated and helpless
(Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1984). If this is the case,
then the intrinsic students would continue to persist in challenging tasks while a student with power
motivations would give up in the face of difficulty. The fact is that the two goals are entirely different,
only the means are the same. This type of behaviour can lead to an aversive reaction toward education.

Fear of failure is inhibitory to everyone. It brings about avoidant approaches to situations in order
to avoid such fear. The motive to avoid failure is a general disposition to avoid failure or the capacity to
react with shame and embarrassment when the outcome of an achievement task is a failure. The only
way to avoid failure is to avoid achievement tasks or simply not doing anything that could lead to failing.
This avoidant behaviour lacks intrinsic motivation. Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1984 research shows that fear
of failure is noticed most when such students are given moderately difficult task to achieve. Reasons for
this may be that these students expect to fail at difficult tasks, and often do succeed at relatively simple
tasks. If the task is simple, then the need to avoid failure will motivate the student to find the necessary
means to achieve. However, if the task is moderately difficult, the anxiety that may build up could cause
avoidant reactions to such a task and inhibit the necessary means to achieve. Both of these factors clearly
inhibit the characteristics of intrinsic motivation. Not only do they inhibit positive behaviour, but they
may cause students to avoid academics all together.
Intrinsic Motivation

The book Intrinsic motivation by Edward Deci (1975)he describe affect as the first approach
which is the basis of motivation as it precedes behaviour and energies and directs the behaviour. While
the cognitive approach to motivation places primary emphasis on a persons thought process. It assumes
that people will decide what to do on the basis of their evaluations, goals and desired end states of the
likely outcomes of their behaviour alternatives. Then they behave in accordance with their decisions this
means that cognitive processing is an important determinant of behaviour. This approach views human
as striving to satisfy their needs by setting goals and choosing behaviours that they believe will allow
them to achieve these goals. And lastly the exploration of personality and behaviours as predictors of
academic performance and attrition is becoming increasingly apparent in the nursing literature. These
include: anxiety, self- efficacy, support seeking and academic engagement. Intrinsic motivation requires
much persistence and effort put forth by an individual student. Students with intrinsic motivation would
develop goals such as, the goal to learn and the goal to achieve. A mastery goal, the desire to gain under-
standing of a topic, has been found to correlate with effective learning strategies, positive attitudes toward
school, the choice of difficult tasks as opposed to a simple task, perceived ability, effort, concern of future
consequences, self- regulation, the use of deep cognitive processes, persistence, achievement, choice and
initiative (Archer, 1994; Miller, Greene, Montalvo, Ravindran, & Nichols, 1996; Garcia & Pintrich,
1996).

Related Studies

Academic Performance

Student success often closely related to the faculty in University being successful in retain-ing
the best educators, programs and enrolments of the best talent (Waggoner and Goldman, 2005). Ma-
laysian always emphasized on academic success for student where they will be looked highly compare
to others. Examination scores is the measurement in differentiating students level of knowledge for
them to go further in their studies, gaining scholarship and obtain better entry level at top universities
(Habibah et al., 2011). Student depends on university ability to provide them with the best available
programs as pathway to their future success so that they will develop best skill and knowledge during
their working life (Waggoner and Goldman, 2005). It was the student attitude towards their study being
the one criterion that makes the difference in their academic performance at university level where
there has been positive relationship between the variables (Kamariah et al., 2010). Andon et al., (2010)
stated that companies and professional accounting bodies are seeking to acquire and retain the most
flexible graduates with wide range of skills and knowledge. They also stated that the new era breeds
extensive demand for this type of graduates and these corporate organization have started to go to
extra length for the sake of finding the best talent with distinctive values (Andon et al., 2010). Hence,
there is a need to justify the relations between the variables and academic success outcome for univer-
sity student for example the attitude from student taking mathematic subject and how they perform
where positive attitude toward the subject can be the defining factor for success (Kamariah et al., 2010).

A study form Galiher (2006) and Darling (2005), also used GPA to measure student academic
performance.Some other researchers used test results or previous year result since they are studying per-
formance for the specific subject or year (Hijazi and Naqvi, 2006). They researchers have discussed the
different factors that affect the student academic performance in their research. There are two types of
factors that affect the academic performance. These are internal and external classroom factors and these
factors strongly affect the students performance. Internal classroom factors includes students compe-
tence in English, class schedules, class size, English text books, class test results, learning facilities,
homework, environment of the class, complexity of the course material, teachers role in the class, tech-
nology used in the class and exams systems. External classroom factors include extracurricular activities,
family problems, work and financial, social and other problems. Research studies shows that students
performance depends on many factors such as learning facilities, gender and age differences, etc. that
can affect student performance (Hansen, Joe B., 2000).

Soom (2010) this study, investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different mo-
tivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year
college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with
these student groups. Results shows the motivation levels and academic achievement of a student pre-
sents no difference due to constant factors of hindrances to motivation for academic achievement.
Ryckman et al. (1988) conducted a study on gender relationships among intellectual achieve-
ment, responsibility, questionnaire and measured achievement and grades. Data were col-lected from
145 girls and 142 boys of fourth to sixth grade students of California usingCalifornia achievement test.
The results revealed no significant gender differences in academic achievement of the students.

Yukselturk and Bulut (2009) analyzed gender differences in self-regulated learning compo-
nents, motivational beliefs, and achievement in self-regulated online learning environments and sug-
gested that test anxiety was a significant factor in female students achievement and self-efficacy for
learning and performance as well as task value were significant factors in male students achievement.
Their research reported no statistically significant gender differences in terms of motivation, self-regu-
lation, and achievement.

Study from Balam and Platt (2014) examined differences between male and female undergrad-
uate students in terms of motivation and learning strategies. The outcome from the study has con-
cluded that there is no statistically significant difference was found between male and female students
in their motivation or learning strategies. In general, male and female students demonstrated similar
measures of motivation and learning strategies.

Balam (2015) study investigated whether gender had an impact on the motivation and learning
strategies used by post-graduate students at a southeastern university. No statistically significant differ-
ence was found between male and female students in their motivation or learning strategies. However,
regardless of gender, graduate students showed differences in extrinsic goal orientation, test anxiety (mo-
tivation) and effort regulation and peer learning (learning strategies)

Alshammari, Saguban et al (2017) study aimed to determine the factors that affect the academic
performance of the student-nurses at the University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Result
indicate that many year level of the respondents had a significant difference in the extent of effect they
have on the academic performance of students.
A study by Niebuhr (1995) investigate the effect of students age on academic motivation and
academic performance among secondary school students attending day schools within Nakuru munici-
pality. The objectives specific to this study were to investigate how students age affected academic
motivation and academic performance. The study adapted the ex-post facto research design. The target
population comprised all Form two and Form four students in the sixteen secondary schools in Nakuru
municipality from which seven day schools were sampled using the stratified random sampling tech-
nique. The sample was made up of 489 students. Data was collected using a students questionnaire and
the academic performance scores were obtained from the school records of the previous year. The major
statistical methods used in this study were: Pearsons r, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Descriptive
statistics, means, frequencies, percentages and standard deviations were used for data presentation and
to explain the variables in this study. The findings of this study indicated that there was a positive rela-
tionship between academic motivation and academic performance. It was also established that students
age had a significant effect on the students academic performance and students age had no significant
effect on the academic motivation. These findings will assist teachers, parents, administrators and other
stake holders to engage in interventions in school and at home, that can improve the quality of learning
and hence boost the students academic performance. included an investigation of the relationship of
individual motivation and its effect on academic performance. The findings of this study indicated that
student motivation showed no significant effect on the relationship with academic performance

Sadeghi, Moghadam, Ahmadi, Sadeghi,& Parvizifard (2016) study investigates the relationship
between academic motivation and academic performance of students at Mazandaran University of Med-
ical Sciences in 2013 Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, analytical study, data analysis was
performed by, descriptive statistics indices (mean and standard deviation), inferential statistics (Pearson
correlation coefficient and independent T-test) and using SPSS17 software. The data of the present study
showed that, more than half of the study subjects from the viewpoints of academic motivation had the
score more than the mean level. In the present investigation, there was insignificant relationship between
the academic motivation and academic performance. It is necessary that the educational administrators
pay attention to this important issue.

Eymur and Geban (2011), the researcher found that extrinsic motivation was generally nega-
tively related to achievement whereas intrinsic motivation positively related with achievement. Eymur
and Geban (2011), proposed that there are three main types of motivation, namely intrinsic motivation,
extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to being engaged in an activity for it-
self and for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from participation (Deci, in Eymur and Geban 2011).
Intrinsic motivation is widely regarded as the highest level of motivation as it is completely from
within an individual (Grolnick, in Eymur and Geban 2011)

A study by Nilsson, Kerstin & Stomberg, Margareta. (2008) study focuses on Swedish nursing
students' motivation toward their studies during their three year academic studies. Earlier studies show
the importance of motivation for study commitment and result. The aim was to analyze nursing students'
estimation of their degree of motivation during different semester during their education and to identify
reasons for the degree of motivation.Results showed that nursing students mainly grade their motivation
positive and similar distributed throughout the entire education. The main motivation factor was extrinsic
and goal oriented. The main motivation factor was becoming a nurse.

E Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. (2017) study examines the influence of age, financial status and gender on
Academic Performance among undergraduates. To guide this study, one question was asked and three
hypotheses were formulated and tested 0.05 level of significance. The design is correlational and simple
random sampling was used to select sample size of 175 respondents. The instrument used for this study
has face and content validity. Cronbach alpha was used to obtain reliability coefficient of 0.84. In addition
to the instrument, the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of the respondents was collected from the
departmental office and marched with the names of the respondents. The findings of the study reveal that
gender, age and finance are not significant predictors of academic performance. There was no significant
difference in academic performance based on age, gender and financial status. It was recommended that
counselling centres should open to handle varying problems confronting student irrespective of age, fi-
nancial status or gender.

Gamze Sarikoc and Emine Oksuzas (2016) conducted a study to determine nursing students
academic motivation and academic self-efficacy levels. Results in this study shows intrinsic motivation
levels of first year students were higher than in the second and fourth years. The extrinsic motivation
levels of the third year students were lower than in the other years. They also found a positive relationship
between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation levels and students self-efficacy to all year levels.
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