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Department of Engineering Science,

University of Oxford,

Osney Mead,

Oxford OX2 0ES, UK On the Real-Time Estimation of

e-mail: andrew.vanparidon@eng.ox.ac.uk

Marko Bacic

Disk Temperature Spatial

Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,

Department of Engineering Science, Distributions in Aeroengines

University of Oxford,

Osney Mead, This paper presents a novel approach to real-time modeling of disk temperature distribu-

Oxford OX2 0ES, UK; tion using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The method combines singular value

Rolls-Royce PLC, decomposition (SVD) techniques with a series of low-order transfer functions to predict

Moor Lane, the disks thermal response over a typical flight. The model uses only typically available

Derby DE24 8BJ, UK full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) measurements to predict temperature

with accuracy of 630 K over the whole flight cycle. A Kalman filter has also been devel-

Peter T. Ireland oped based on a single temperature measurement, and the location of the measurement

Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, has been assessed in order to select the most appropriate target for instrumentation.

Department of Engineering Science, Points all around the front and back of the disk have been assessed, and the best practice

University of Oxford, result is found to be near the center of the disk neck. This represents a compromise

Osney Mead, between matching the fast dynamic response of the rim, with the slower dynamics of the

Oxford OX2 0ES, UK cob. The new model has been validated against an independent flight simulation.

[DOI: 10.1115/1.4037870]

Ron Daniel

Department of Engineering Science,

University of Oxford,

Parks Road,

Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK

A survey of analytical approaches to summing the damage mecha-

Efforts to improve engine efficiency mean that the average tur-

nisms above is provided by Changan et al. [6]. However, thermo-

bine entry temperature continues to increase. As such, there is a

mechanical damage models have no agreed upon standard, so they

growing need to actively monitor thermal fatigue damage on each

are designed and applied on a case-by-case basis. As such, specific

disk in order to fully exploit its maximum safe life. Furthermore,

examples are proprietary, and there is very little in the literature

future developments in adaptable engines open up the opportunity

that directly links disk temperature measurements to fatigue life.

to modulate disk temperatures and further reduce thermal fatigue.

Overall, it has been demonstrated that knowing a disks temper-

This paper develops the methodology for a real-time temperature

ature distribution can drastically improve the confidence with

model that can be used in both health monitoring and control

which this life is predicted [7,8]. Additionally, any potential active

applications of the future.

control concepts that modulate disk temperature would require a

The expected damage accumulation is usually computed and

similar model. Consequently, disk temperature models must be

declared at the design stage and applied across the whole fleet,

able to resolve the nonlinear boundary conditions of the disk sur-

using a probabilistic approach that assumes the worst case scenar-

face in real time, conditional on the processing power of the full

ios and flight profiles [13]. The stress evaluation is typically car-

authority digital electronic control (FADEC) system. The objec-

ried out through finite element (FE) computer simulation [4] in

tives of this paper are therefore to

combination with computational fluid dynamics. For many manu-

facturers and operators, the results are validated against experi- (1) develop a reduced order, accurate, open-loop model for

ments on disks that have been withdrawn early from service [1]. disk temperature estimations and

This means that the majority of the fleets engines are taken off (2) assess the potential benefit and location of a single disk

the wing for overhaul on the basis of a conservative life predic- temperature measurement to filter such a model.

tion. By monitoring service loads on a flight-by-flight basis, some

of the statistical scatter can be reduced [3]. The target of the model is an engine that has been simulated in

Life consumption due to service loads is attributable to low- Rolls-Royce SC03 finite element software. This full engine simu-

cycle fatigue, high-cycle fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, lation has been preloaded with thermal, fluidic, and structural

creep, creepfatigue interaction, and fatigueoxidation interaction information. It generates engine representative data that have been

[5]. These mechanisms can behave independently or in combina- validated against instrumented engine tests. Similarly, reduced

tion; high temperature environments lead to thermal strain and order models used for online monitoring will also need to be vali-

creep while also generating brittle oxides. Both of these dated directly against similar engine tests to meet civil aircraft

standards. Further details of SC03 data can be found in Armstrong

and Edmunds [9] and Amirante et al. [10].

1

Corresponding author. A previous paper presented by van Paridon et al. [11] uses a

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Committee of ASME for publication in the

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received May 12,

gray-box physics approach to model the temperatures. This model

2017; final manuscript received July 25, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. divides the disk into large lumped elements that have purely

Editor: David Wisler. axial and radial temperature gradients. In this paper, we develop

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power MARCH 2018, Vol. 140 / 031901-1

C 2018 by Rolls-Royce plc

Copyright V

the linear parameter-varying systems-proper orthogonal decompo- 2 Preliminaries

sition (LPV-POD) model that is accurate to 630 K anywhere in

the two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric profile. The addition of a 2.1 LPV-POD Modeling. The temperature of the disk is

Kalman filter allows accurate simulation within a noisy environ- strongly coupled to the heated rotating flows on either side. These

ment, and for the model to follow unseen trajectories. The model cavities have highly nonlinear behavior, which makes it difficult

is named for the two techniques used to create it: LPV and proper to solve the heat equation analytically along the boundary condi-

orthogonal decomposition (POD). In particular, we exploit the use tions. Numerically, it becomes highly complex and computation-

of singular value decompositions (SVDs) to identify the modes of ally exhaustive to recreate accurate physical behavior. Further,

the POD. this does not lead to a low order model suitable for online applica-

The use of SVDs to model thermal systems was set forth by tion. Another approach is to identify energy-based modes of the

Gay and Ray [12]. They exploit the properties of SVD truncation temperature field, and link them with independent variables that

to select only the most significant spatial and temporal modes of fully parameterize that field. To this end, the LPV-POD model

the system, and use this to reduce the model. Such POD models was developed.

do not require knowledge of a materials physical properties or

boundary conditions in order to accurately approximate the gov- 2.2 Singular Value Decomposition of a Temperature Field.

erning equations (subject to a sufficiently rich data set). However, We start from the heat equation in 2D, though the technique can

where complex nonlinear boundary conditions need to be consid- readily be applied in three-dimensional cases as well;

ered, further modeling is required. For instance, Widrich et al.

[13] tested a variety of SVD techniques using multilayer feedfor- @T

ar2 T (1)

ward neural networks to model turbine metal temperatures. A sim- @t

pler method is to consider matching the nonlinear effects to

known conditions using an LPV model. When solving partial differential equations analytically, we

Quasi-LPV models are useful in guidance applications because often resort to a solution with separation of variables, where

the equations of motion governing each axis do not need to be dependence in space and time is separated. We therefore assume

assessed independently. They have been applied for the control that we can represent a solution to the heat equation as

of a generic missile [14], a 747 aircraft [15], turbofan shaft

speed [16], and for a twin rotor model [17]. However, analytically X

M

derived LPV models will often miss key dynamics necessary for Tx; y; t Wl x; yUl t (2)

l1

creating accurate models for control. For applications outside

of motion control, identifying quasi-LPV systems from experi-

where Wl are eigenfunctions of the r2 operator. In cases with

mental data is a method that has seen increasing popularity. There

homogeneous boundary conditions and simple geometries, Wl are

are two methods presented in the literature: techniques that iden-

sinusoidal functions in space which have corresponding functions

tify LPV models based on one set of measurements with time-

Uk that are exponential functions in time. For models considered

varying parameters, and techniques based on multiple different

here, with complex boundary conditions, we assume only that

sets of measurements using frozen values of the scheduling

Wl(x, y) can be represented by an orthogonal set of functions such

variable [18].

that

Designing the Kalman filter (see Fig. 1) is based on the assump-

tion that a sensor could be manufactured such that the temperature

1; i j

of the disk could be measured to the accuracy proposed by Garg Wi x; yWj x; ydxdy (3)

et al. [19]. There have been a number of reported uses of Kalman D 0; i 6 j

filters used in real-time models to understand the core-flow per-

formance degradation in gas turbines [2023]. where D is the domain of the disk. This assumption allows us to

This paper presents the development and validation of the use SVD and experimental data to identify Wl and Ul. To see this,

LPV-POD model and an associated Kalman filter. Section 2 dem- consider subsampling the transient temperature field of a body at

onstrates the theory behind the LPV-POD model architecture and m discrete locations v1,, vm (where vi v(xi, yi)) and at n dis-

Kalman filter design. Section 3 presents the application of the crete times t1,, tn to get the matrix T(v, t). We postulate that this

model to the simulated disk system and then Sec. 4 discusses the can be represented as

results and analysis of the model methodology. Section 5 contin-

X

m

ues with the development of the model to include the Kalman fil- Tv; t Wl vUl t (4)

ter and Sec. 6 presents the validation of the updated model and a l1

discussion on best practice for identifying good filters. Section 7

summarizes the conclusions. In this case, we assume m M because generally m < n for most

time series data.2 Expanding the equation becomes

2 3

Tv1 ; t1 Tv1 ; t2 Tv1 ; tn

6 7

6 Tv2 ; t1 Tv2 ; t2 Tv2 ; tn 7

6 7

T6 .. 7

6 . 7

4 5

Tvm ; 0 Tvm ; t1 Tvm ; tn

2 32 3

W1 v1 Wm v1 U1 t1 U1 tn

6 .. 76 .. 7

64 .

76

54 .

7

5 (5)

W1 vm Wm vm Um t1 Um tn

If n < m then the subscripts change slightly but the overall result is much the

(L) same.

This is immediately identifiable as an equivalent to the SVD of When the final model is put together, the p, z, and k values are

the data set recalled as the driving functions of state matrix A and input matrix

X

m B such that Ui(h, t) is given by

T Ui :ri Vi>

i1 x_ i t Ai hxi t Bi hut

>

U1 Um r1 V1 rm Vm (6) Ui h; t Ci xi t (11)

It follows that each function can be approximated from the Keeping the output matrix C constant ensures that gain schedul-

equivalent singular vector as Wi Ui and Ui ri Vi> . Ordering the ing does not unnaturally force the output. For instance, the func-

elements of the SVD such that ri > ri1, the relative contribution tion U2 has the structure

of each successive term is diminished. An approximation for tem-

perature, T^, can be generated by selecting only the first r terms U2 h; s s zh

kh (12)

X

r U s s p1 h s p2 h

T^ W i Ui (7)

i1 which can be realized in state-space form as

The selection of r can be chosen to satisfy some predetermined p1 h 0 kh

criteria for accuracy. System identification can be performed on x_ 2 t x2 t ut

p2 h zh p2 h 0 (13)

each ri Vi> to identify equivalent temporal functions Ui. Thus, it is

possible to create a reduced order model by identifying the first r U2 h; t 1 1 x2 t

modes of the SVD.

The state vector x does not correspond to any direct physical

2.3 Quasi-LPV Identification of the Temporal Vector Ui. variables as the model is crafted through inputoutput identifica-

The SVD model above is excellent for recreating a single tempera- tion. It can be understood broadly as the thermal energy modes of

ture profile, whereby truncation can be easily applied to minimize the disk.

the number of modes given some target accuracy. However, aircraft

will usually fly through trajectories of differing operating condi- 2.4 Incorporating the Spatial Vector Wi. As the temporal

tions that are unknown a priori. The complex changes in the heat functions Ui(h, t) are derived from multiple data sets, it follows

transfer rates at the disks surface create nonlinear boundary condi- that a similar process would help provide a more broadly applica-

tions and lead to complex sets of temperature profiles. The model ble solution for Wi(v). By stacking the full list of training data,

must be able to recreate a diverse set of trajectories within the tem- and taking the SVD, the resulting Ui provides the best approxi-

perature space. This can be achieved by gain scheduling the param- mate to the average Wi solutions. These can be adapted into the

eters of Ui with flight conditions that, in general, are also nonlinear. state space directly. When the final model is built, Wi can be

In the present case, we apply system identification using the experi- incorporated by multiplying the row vector C with the spatial vec-

ment based frozen-value quasi-LPV method [18]. The resulting tor Ui

model is only limited by the operating conditions used in the train-

ing data and the linearity of the behavior far from those points. Wi v Ui vCi (14)

First, a parameter vector h, based on the flight conditions, is

selected such that it adequately parameterizes the trajectories of This way, the number of columns in each Wi will match the

the aerodynamics. Then, a series of experiments are recorded that number of rows in the related xi such that the overall model will

span the temperature space of interest. Each experiment records stay consistent. The final model will directly produce the tempera-

the plants response to a step change in u and h. The SVD is taken, ture output

resulting in a number of vectors ri Vi> of length N. The parameters

of the temporal function Ui are recorded through parametric iden- 2 3 2 32 3

x_ 1 t A1 h 0 x1 t

tification of ri Vi> [24]. This is done by first assuming the number 6 7 6 7

6 x_ 2 t 7 6 A2 h 76 7

of coefficients (ai, bi) in the transfer function

6 76 76 x t 7

6 2 7

6 7 6 6 .. 7

76 7

b0 b1 s b2 s2 bm sm 4 5 4 . 54 5

Uh; s (8) x_ m t 0 Am h xm t

a0 a1 s a2 s2 an1 sn1 sn

2 3

B1 h

and minimizing e subject to 6 7

6 B2 h 7

X

N 6 6 7ut

7 (15)

e Ui utj ri Vi> 2 (9) 4 5

j1 Bm h

2 3

x1 t

As each Ui is identified, it can be converted to pole-zero form. 6 7

It is important that the number of poles and zeros for each Ui is 6 x2 t 7

T^h; v; t W1 v W2 v Wm v 6 6 7

7

consistent across all h responses. This can become a limiting fac- 4 5

tor in the order of the final model if, for example, U3 is identified xm t

with no zeros in one experiment, and two in another. In this case,

the final model will be constructed from U1 and U2. For a set of h,

the transfer function will have the form The model can be easily reduced by selecting the first r func-

tions from the m identified. The basis for this can be determined

YM

by the designer.

s zi h

Uh; s

kh i1 (10)

U s YN 2.5 Kalman Filter Design. To answer the second objective

s pi h of this paper, we need to assess the value that a potential disk

j1 measurement might have on improving the accuracy of the model.

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power MARCH 2018, Vol. 140 / 031901-3

solid mechanics. As such, a vast array of measurements are

available to be used for inputs to the LPV-SVD model; however,

we limit ourselves to measurements that are typically available to

the FADEC, such as the compressor exit temperature (T30 ). It is

noted that SC03 results have been validated against engine tests,

including the use of rotating instrumentation, and represent

physics that could be expected in an engine.

several variables that govern a particular turbines temperature,

Fig. 2 The implementation of estimator correction in a state- the most important being the temperature of the gas in the core

space model flow and in the disk wells. These can be consolidated using a mea-

surement of T30 . Normalizing this by the maximum and minimum

temperatures provides the input variable u(t)

Consider how a measurement of the disk could improve the T30 T30;min

model, given some process noise (w) and measurement noise (v). ut (21)

T30;max T30;min

In this setup, the plants state-space equations can be expressed as

In the case of the turbine disk, the most important parameter

_ Axt But B1 wt

xt that defines the nonlinear boundary conditions is perhaps the

(16)

Tt Cxt vt rotational Reynolds number (Re/), which drives the Nusselt

number (Nu) and the local heat transfer coefficients. Working

where B1 allows us to include some weighting factor as required. backward, the most important parameters would be the engine

If u and w are strictly additive, such as is the case here, B1 and B LP spool speed (X), and the initial air thermodynamic properties,

are equal. The LPV-POD model corrections are based on differen- which are directly related to atmospheric pressure, modeled as

ces between a given model output (T^i ) and a single measured pressure altitude alt. Therefore, we chose to model the parameter

value (Ti) from the plant. vector as h h(X, (alt)). Other parameters such as the other shaft

In a Kalman filtered model, there is a discrete update between speeds, fuel flow, and power extraction will vary in a near fixed

time steps based on the new Ti information as shown in Fig. 2. relation to these two as the shaft speed is often used as a proxy

The current state estimate (^ x ) is found from previous, or predic- for thrust.

x ) and the residual of T^i and Ti

tor, state estimate (

3.3 Acquisition of Training Data. The disk profile was sub-

x^ x LTi T^i (17) sampled at 121 discrete query points for each step cycle. The

points were arbitrarily selected by imposing a square grid pattern

The design of the estimator matrix (L) for the Kalman filter is on the profile and selecting all the points that fell within the

based on a stochastic balance of v and w, and is calculated assum- boundary (see Fig. 3).

ing that the noises have a Gaussian distribution, zero mean, and The SC03 simulations were run with step cycles starting from

are not correlated with time. The mean-square noise levels of each steady sea-level-static (SLS) conditions, rising to one of nine

are defined from their expectation values other conditions (see Table 1) and returning back to SLS. A tenth

point was investigated for conditions at descent approaching

Rw Efwkwk> g (18) 1.5 kft; however, because the temperatures at the start of the step

cycle are so similar to these conditions, the simulation and

Rv Efvkvk> g (19) resulting SVD failed to capture the full responses of the system.

Instead, the parameters at this point have been heuristically

Rv can be understood as a measure of sensor accuracy; thus, it determined based on other nearby points. Good agreement with

is reasonably easy to estimate. However, there is no objective the data in the final validation was easy to achieve using this

means to assess the value of Rw. As such, it is usually selected method.

based on the designers best understanding. The matrix L can be

calculated from the solution to minimizing the variance of the fil- 3.4 SVD Analysis. Figure 4 shows a representation of the

ter error with respect to its state estimate and is the solution to the spatial singular vectors (Ui) produced using a full set of step

Discrete Algebraic Riccati Equation. Details of the derivation can response data. Vectors U1 and U2 appear to correlate with the disk

be found in Franklin et al. [24]. This is a common solution as

employed in MATLABS kalmam.m function and is expressed here

simply as

L LA; B; wi ; Rv ; Rw (20)

points. It is defined by zeroing all the rows of [W1 W2] apart from

row i. This means that only the measurement Ti is considered

when filtering the model, but still affects all other points.

3 MethodologyModel

3.1 Plant Description. The plant is taken to be the tempera-

ture output from an FE simulation of an IP turbine disk. The soft-

ware used is SC03, which has been discussed by Sun et al. [25].

The SC03 model incorporates the entire engine for both fluid and Fig. 3 Grid of points used for subsampling the SC03 model

Table 1 The operating points used in the frozen value train-

ing data

Climb after take-off 0.985 1.5

Cruise 0.919 36.0

Reacceleration 0.972 36.0

Cruise 0.910 38.0

Reacceleration 0.966 38.0

Cruise 0.914 40.0

Deacceleration 0.647 40.0

Cruise (low hold) 0.862 1.5

Descenta 0.529 1.5

Fig. 5 First six temporal modes (riVi) of a SLS-MTO step cycle

a

Point derived from other nearby conditions

means that the benefit of including them can only be achieved by

incorporating all of them. The problem is that these vectors do not

resemble consistent transfer function structures across other

responses. The first two vectors, r1V1 and r2V2, are identified

consistently as first- and second-order responses, respectively.

This trend does not continue over the subsequent modes, nor is it

consistent across all data sets. If the order of the response is not

consistent, it makes it extremely difficult to model them using the

LPV methodology as described. Thus, to simplify the process, the

final model is based on the approximation that uses only the first

two modes

Fig. 4 Contour representation of the first four spatial vectors

(Ui)

temperature profiles at steady-state and midtransience, respec- identify the form of the functions U1 and U2 that best model r1V1

tively (as will be shown in Sec. 4.4). On the other hand, they also and r2V2, respectively. For U1, this is a transfer function with a

represent physical phenomenon that appear in the temperature single-pole (p1) and gain (k1). In state-space form, this is realized

profile, but they are less explicitly defined. It is best to consider as

them all in the context of their respective riVi.

A plot of the first six temporal modes (riVi) as identified by the A1 p1 ; B1 k1 ; C1 1 (23)

SVD of the SLS-maximum take-off (MTO) step cycle is shown in

Fig. 5. These have been normalized to the maximum value of The second function, U2, is best represented by a dual-pole (p2,

r1V1 to show the relative contribution of each vector. A closer p3), single-zero (z) structure, with gain (k2), which, in state-space

view of the plot is shown in Fig. 6 where r1V1 has been removed. form, is

We are mostly concerned with the ascent (step-up) portion of the

data, as this is used for each of the operating points. The descent p2 0 k

A2 ; B2 2 ; C2 1 1 (24)

step (step-down) is used from the SLS-MTO cycle only as a p3 z p3 0

means to determine the appropriate SLS parameters.

As can be seen in Fig. 6, the first mode (r1V1) is the only one The parameters of each LPV function are identified through the

that does not tend to zero at steady-state, implying that U1 repre- frozen value approach. That is, for each set of data, the gains

sents the steady-state temperature profile. The second mode (k1, k2), poles (p1, p2, p3), and zero (z) are identified in relation to

(r2V2) is almost 20% the value of the first, which is why U2 is the parameter vector (h) and stored in a set for later interpolation.

clearly discernible in the temperature profile. r3V3 ! r6V6 are of To visualize how this interpolation would work, a typical map of

all of similar magnitude in ascent. This implies that they would the results is shown in Fig. 7. This plot shows p1 for both the

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power MARCH 2018, Vol. 140 / 031901-5

Fig. 8 Overview of the final LPV-POD model for the disk

flight profile overlaid

(contours). The black line shows a typical flight cycle as it varies

with X and patm.

The corners where no data exists were estimated to ensure

smooth interpolation of the rest of the results. It was found after

validation that similar model accuracy could be achieved with

fewer data points, particularly in the upper-right corner of this

plot. However, the aim of the research is not to minimize the num-

ber of data sets used as these are inexpensive to generate through Fig. 9 Difference between original data (T) and truncated data

SC03 simulations. (T^ r 5 2 )

concatenated into single state-space matrices to make it more

succinct.

2 3 2 3

p1 h 0 0 k1 h

A4 0 p2 h 0 5; B 4 k2 h 5 (25)

0 p3 h zh p3 h 0

_ Ahxt Bhut

xt Fig. 10 Comparison of the LPV transfer functions with their

(27)

T^h; v; t Wvxt target output (ri Vi> )

the individual Ui values for validating the identification process reasonably well during take-off, cruise and midcruise reaccelera-

by substituting the original [C1 C2] in place of W. tion, but the descent period (from 0.9) does not match as well.

This is due to the lack of local data to support the interpolation of

4 Validation and Discussion the state-space parameters (k, p, z). It is also likely due to the fact

that cooling is a slower process than heating, which leads to more

4.1 Natural Limit of SVD Model. The final model has an complex interactions. However, a full physical reasoning is best

accuracy limit imposed by the nature of the truncated SVD. As a conducted alongside the realization of the temperature profiles.

reference for the final model, a rank 2 SVD of a full flight profile

across 121 points has been compared with the original data. The 4.3 Validation of LPV-POD Model. A number of validation

difference between the two is shown in Fig. 9. The maximum studies have been carried out to identify the strengths and weak-

error associated with this truncation is about 20 K. This occurs at nesses of the model methodology. As an example, the temperature

the start of take-off, at maximum temperature, and during descent. profile for an arbitrary point selected the center of the disk is

The erms of this model is 2.14 K. shown in Fig. 11. This plot is included to show the closeness of fit

in any one point.

4.2 Reproduction of Orthogonal Time Functions. Each of The temperature profile of all 121 points is shown in Fig. 12(a)

the identified Ui was validated against riVi as produced by an and the error for each point is shown in Fig. 12(b). The initial

SVD of the full flight cycle. This is shown in Fig. 10. For the warmup period (0 < t < 5000 s) has no discernible error. This is

purposes of comparison, each profile has been normalized to the because the models range only starts above SLS conditions, and

maximum value of U1. Both transfer functions appear to match this early period only shows the Tbase, which is the same across all

During descent (d), the error balloons out again. This is partially

due to the lack of data used to identify the local parameters. This

will be discussed further using the 2D profiles in Sec. 4.4.

The overall width of the error spread in Fig. 12(b) is similar to

that found in the natural limit shown in Fig. 9. The difference

being that the error in the natural limit error is centralized,

whereas the model error drifts high and low with the simulation.

The erms of these data is 2.18 K, which is not statistically different

from the natural limit. This effect is partly corrected with the addi-

tion of the Kalman filter presented in Sec. 6.

It is possible to take snapshots of the disk temperature in Fig. 12

and remap the thermal distribution on to the disk geometry. An

Fig. 11 Comparison of a single point (T^ 50 ) against the original example of this is shown in Fig. 13 alongside the equivalent snap-

(T50) shot from the SC03 simulation. The data between points in the

simulation have been interpolated assuming a linear gradient

between nearest neighbors. Figure 13 highlights the incredible

tests. The point of maximum error occurs just after MTO at point (a). detail that can be reconstructed from the SVD methodology.

This value is in agreement with the natural limit identified in Figure 14 shows the temperature profile (a)(d) and respective

Sec. 4.1. By the time the simulation reaches maximum temperature error (e)(h) for the series of time stamps shown in Figs. 12(a)

at (b), the error reaches a minimum across the entire model. This is and 12(b). Focusing on the temperature profiles first, there is an

due to the way that Wi is defined from the Ui vectors, in turn based obvious similarity between (b), (c), and the contour plot of U1

on the overall training data. It has optimized the model to simulate (Fig. 4). These are examples of quasi-stable conditions that tend

the temperature at this point. Using a different set of training data, toward the dominant steady-state mode. Similarly, (a) and (d)

with different steady-state maximum temperatures and reside look much more like U2 contours, as they are examples of tran-

times, will shift this optimization (e.g., to the cruise conditions) sient conditions.

but having it optimized to the maximum temperature conditions From a physical perspective, the steady-state plots show the

was expected to be most beneficial for life management. near linear temperature profile that dominates the geometry from

The steady-state error at cruise (c) is very low, as it is during front to back due to the steady heat transfer between the disk

midflight reacceleration, and both are well within the 20 K target. wells. During transients, the cob of the disk lags behind the tem-

perature change of the rest of the disk due to its greater mass and

heat capacity, so the contours have a local minimum/maximum

near to the center of the cob.

Turning attention to the absolute error plots is shown in

Figs. 14(e)14(h). The first thing to notice is that the distribution

of the error in (f) and (g) corresponds very closely with U2. Simi-

larly, (e) corresponds very much with U3 while (h) appears to

have some similarity to both U3 and U4, particularly with the latter

when observing the high gradient on the rear surface of the cob.

Physically, plots (e) and (h) reflect the locations of local con-

vective forces that have been ignored by the truncation of the

higher order modes in the SVD. For plot (e), an impingement

mechanism exists on the front of the cob. This is caused by both

the flow injection from the stator surface and the core region cir-

culating toward the disk surface. On the rear side of the disk in

plot (h), there is a strong convective force across the entire sur-

face. This is due to a heat transfer mechanism that is only partially

dependent on the T30 air, and thus not properly incorporated into

the model. This invalidates the assumption that the thermal field

Fig. 12 Temperature results for all 121 model points and com- Fig. 13 Comparison of disk temperature contours at maximum

parison with the original SC03 data: (a) temperature and (b) conditions. Contour levels are the same for each: (a) SC03 data

temperature error and (b) model data.

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power MARCH 2018, Vol. 140 / 031901-7

Fig. 14 Normalized temperature profile of the disk (a)(d), and the respective error in K of the model relative to the original data

(e)(h). The scales are the same across the row for each of the four figures: (a) start of take-off, (b) maximum T, (c) cruise at

36,000 ft, (d) descent, (e) start of take-off, (f) maximum T, (g) cruise at 36,000 ft, and (h) descent.

can be parameterized by T30 and h alone. This will be the subject The ability for the model to resolve surface points appears to be

of future work. relatively sound in this instance. The next step is to test and evalu-

ate different Kalman filter designs.

4.5 Extrapolation of Surface Points. An important consider-

ation in the practical application of this method is how well tem- 5 MethodologyFilter

peratures on the surface of the disk can be extrapolated from the

available data. This analysis considers five points spaced around 5.1 Filter Description. In designing the Kalman filter, we

the disks surface as identified in Fig. 15. The extrapolation assume that the measurement is taken directly at one of the plant

technique for the simulated points involves minimizing differen- outputs (T^i ). The measurement noise (v) occurs at the theoretical

ces in the local temperature gradient, effectively smoothing the sensor that measures the temperature of the disks surface. In

temperature toward a local linear profile. This is consistent with place of the sensor, raw data from the SC03 simulations are used

temperature distributions in an isotropic material under quasi- as the measurement, with v applied artificially. The process noise

steady conditions. The SC03 data at these points can be extracted (w) must account for the random fluctuations in the temperature of

directly. the air leaving the compressor, the fluctuation of the heat transfer

The temperature data for these five points are shown in effects as the air passes from the compressor to the disk well, and

Fig. 16(a) and the relative error plot is shown in Fig. 16(b). All the noise of the measurement of T30 in the first place.

points perform worse than their nearest neighbors that have been Figure 17 shows the setup for the Kalman filter. The original

directly simulated, but not all to the same extent. Point 1 (inner LPV-POD model is at the bottom-left with input T30 and output

cob surface) and Point 2 (front cob surface) still perform within Ti. This value is compared with the artificial Plant measurement

the natural limitation. Point 3 (center radius front) and Point 4 T^i , before passing to the Kalman filter L at the bottom-right. In

(front of rim) appear to be the worst affected at the start of take- this case, B1 B, and both A and B are functions of h. A steady-

off. Both are very close to impingement areas from secondary state Kalman filter can be found using the formula

flows so they face large nonlinearities. Point 5 (back of disc) is

most affected by the variation in the flow entering the disc well

that was identified in Fig. 14(h). L LA; B; wi ; Rv ; Rw (28)

Fig. 17 Setup of LPV-POD model using raw SC03 data and arti-

ficial measurement noise v to create a Plant for filtering

independent trajectory to confirm its effectiveness.

Two methods for calculating L are presented. The first is calcu-

lated using constant values of A, B, wi based on a single parameter

vector h, thus producing a constant L. The second considers a fil-

ter based on LPV systems, where L L(h). Each method is eval-

uated across multiple measurement points.

Fig. 15 Five points on the disks surface where temperature For Rw, we assume that the error associated with the T30 sensor

data have been extrapolated. Labels match Figs. 16(a) and 16(b). is roughly equivalent to the fluctuations between T30 and the disk

wells. If the standard deviation of the measurement is r 3.3 K,

and we use assume a covariance of 3r, then Rw 10 K. On the

other hand, Rv is based on the predicted accuracy required for life

as outlined in Sec. 2.5. As we only use a single measurement of

monitoring as suggested by Garg et al. [19], which is 5 K.

the plant (at location vi), and the model is a function of h, there is

no clear method to optimize the solution based on either vi and/or

h. The approach taken here is to evaluate filters at a selection of 5.2 Filter Design

different vi and h, and then compare each filters ability to correct 5.2.1 Constant Filter. The complete h map is based on 12

the model over a known trajectory. From this comparison, an engine spool speeds (X) and five pressure altitudes (alt), giving a

total of 60 operating points. However, these were interpolated and

extrapolated from the ten original operating points used in the

training data. As such, in choosing h for evaluating the constant

filter, only the original ten are considered. Furthermore, we start

by prioritizing accuracy at the extremes of operation, so only

MTO and 38k cruise conditions are considered initially. These

represent two very different flight conditionspeak temperature

and long hold time at low atmospheric pressureand should high-

light any differences that the choice of h might have on the overall

effectiveness of the filter. The resulting constant filters are called

LMTO,i and L38c,i respectively, and calculated using

vi. Not all points in the simulation make sense for the location of a

virtual measurement, as any location not near the surface of the

disk does not make practical sense and generally produces an

unstable filter. The selected points for evaluation are presented in

Fig. 18. It will be shown that the choice of measurement point is

far more important than the basis of h, which is why only two con-

stant flight conditions for the LPV model are presented.

5.2.2 LPV-Based Filter. The LPV-based filter has been inves-

tigated using the same nine vi as defined above. The filter is con-

structed by evaluating L at all 60 h where A(h) and B(h) have

been identified in the original model

Fig. 16 Temperatures for the five extrapolated points: (a)

temperature and (b) relative error compared with the FE/CFD Lh can then be utilized in the model with a look-up table similar

solution to A(h) and B(h). The motivation for this method was that the

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power MARCH 2018, Vol. 140 / 031901-9

throughout the entirety of the simulation. The second analysis

considers the erms at each point in order to identify where there is

significant sustained drift in the accuracy.

A selection of the emax and erms contour plots for a LMTO,i filter

based on each of the nine measurement points is shown in

Figs. 1921. Blue indicates regions where the output is nearly an

exact match to the training data, and red indicates either signifi-

cant over- or under-estimation. The contour levels have been cho-

sen to highlight the difference between results. It is important to

acknowledge that the contours are included for esthetics, and that

the interpolated data away from the sample points are less signifi-

cant than the values at the points themselves (yellow points). This

is particularly apparent when considering the significance of the

error at the top left corner of Fig. 19(a), compared with the error

Fig. 18 Points on the disk that were investigated to find the at the top right of Fig. 19(b).

best possible Kalman filter virtual sensor location It was found that the greatest factor affecting the results is the

large difference in the dynamic response between the rim and the

cob. Using a filter measurement at the cob will lead to gross inac-

curacies at the rim because the cob responds much slower to ther-

mal mechanisms than the neck and rim do. This can be seen in

Fig. 20. The exception to this observation is shown in Fig. 19(a),

where a point at the front edge of the cob does a reasonable job of

controlling the temperature error distribution across all points.

This is because the front of the cob has dynamics similar to the

rim due to a local impingement of air from the disk well.

On the other hand, a measurement near the rim of the disk will

tend to over correct the cob for extended periods, as indicated by

Figs. 21(c) and 21(d). The closer the measurement is to the rim,

the more yellow and red areas appear in the cob. Another feature

that can be seen from both Figs. 20 and 21 is that there is a slight

benefit to choosing a measurement at the front side of the disk.

This is because the rear of the disk is known to be affected by

flows that have not been modeled properly (see above discussion).

If this issue was resolved, a sensor that measures the back of the

Fig. 19 Contour plot of the emax at every point in the disk pro-

disk would be favorable because it would be easier to install.

file using a LMTO with measurements at the highlighted dot: (a) Based on the above observations, the location of vi should be a

point 42 and (b) point 102 point that reflects the dynamics of the disk on average. However,

it is not yet clear how to derive this location analytically. The best

compromise between the extremes has been found heuristically.

filter could be optimized at different operating points throughout a As such, the best choice is a measurement at the mid span of the

flight. neckv102 (see results shown in Figs. 19(b) and 21(a)). This is

mildly inaccurate, as measurements are more likely to be at the

surface of the disk, whereas all the vi locations are internal. This

can be mitigated in practice by assuming larger measurement

5.3 Selection by Measurement Point. First, consider how

noise, or creating a disk model based on surface measurements

the choice of vi affects the filter by comparing the results of

only.

LMTO,i alone. The profile used for evaluating and comparing the

filters is the same as used for validation above. The desire is that

the filter will mitigate both large singular spikes in the error, and 5.4 Filter Selection by Operating Condition. It could be

significant extended offsets. To that end, two basic analyses were assumed that the choice of vi primarily affects the spatial resolu-

generated. The first considers the emax experienced at each point tion of the error, whereas the choice of h would affect the error

Fig. 20 Contour plot of the emax at every point in the disk profile using a LMTO with measure-

ments at the highlighted dot: (a) point 66, (b) point 76, (c) point 87, and (d) point 92

Fig. 21 Contour plot of the erms at every point in the disk profile using a LMTO with measure-

ments at the highlighted dot: (a) point 102, (b) point 103, (c) point 116, and (d) point 117

distribution over time. This is true and further analysis showed shows the process on a neighboring point (y88) that has not been

that the choice of h did affect the results. However, the effect is directly measured. The filter allows a large influence on the mea-

almost negligible in the cases studied here. Overall, there is no surement point, so T^102 follows the measured value precisely,

clear difference in the results that would suggest one technique albeit with a lower variance. This appears to work against the

over another. As such, LMTO,102 has been chosen for validating accuracy of point 88 at take-off, but the absolute accuracy of all

the final model. points has improved (as shown between Figs. 23 and 24) so this is

understandable. The filtering process has shown the greatest

6 Validation and Discussion

An independent flight profile has been introduced to validate

the final filter selection, LMTO,102. This is shown in Fig. 22 and

represents a flight that was aborted after take-off. For reference,

the error simulating this profile without the Kalman filter is shown

in Fig. 23. The errors are much greater than previously observed

for the LPV-POD model due to the trajectory operating far outside

the original training data. Even the initial temperature of the disk

does not align with a typical take-off.

The data from the original SC03 simulation are used as a mea-

surement signal for the Kalman filter. The signal has an artificial

measurement noise vt to emulate the sensor error that might

exist in a real engine. A similar process noise wt is applied to

the models input signal to replicate the sensor error associated

with the upstream measurement.

The error associated with the complete, filtered results is shown

in Fig. 24. The improvement in accuracy compared to the unfil-

tered results is stark. The error is now bounded to 630 K, and

most points perform far better. The signal is noisy, but this can be

improved in downstream processing.

Figure 25 shows the results of the filtered model as applied to

singular points. Specifically, Fig. 25(a) shows how the filter works

on T^102 where the virtual measurement is taken, and Fig. 25(b)

Fig. 23 Error in simulating the new flight profile with the LPV-

POD model only

Fig. 22 Flight profile used for validating the Kalman filter LPV-

POD model. Each color represents one of the 121 points where Fig. 24 Error in simulating the new profile with the Kalman fil-

the disk was sampled. ter in place

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power MARCH 2018, Vol. 140 / 031901-11

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank Rolls-Royce PLC for their con-

tinued support on this project.

Nomenclature

alt pressure altitude

A state (or system) matrix

B input matrix

C output matrix

emax maximum absolute error

erms root-mean-square error

k transfer function gain

L filter matrix

p transfer function pole

t time

T temperature

u input vector (or forcing function)

Ui left-singular vector

v measurement noise

Vi right-singular vector

w process noise

x state vector

z transfer function zero

Greek Symbols

h parameter vector

ri singular value

Ui temporal function

v position vector

wi point targeted spatial function matrix

Fig. 25 Unfiltered model, measured signal, and filtered output Wi spatial function

for a single point: (a) measurement point (102) and (b) compari- X engine spool speed

son point (88)

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