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Xof]Ndf] g]kfnL c+u|]hL


Yohlmo - Nepali - English


A -

jU U M

Compiled by

Anna Maria Hari and Chhegu Lama

Central Department of Linguistics

Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu

Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

The compilers

First published October 2004

This dictionary has been published in a shorter and longer version.
(See also note on page iv.)

Number of copies printed:

Shorter version: 800
Longer version: 400

ISBN 99946-31-30-6

For overseas orders contact:

Mandala Book Point, Kantipath, Kathmandu, Nepal
E-mail <> or <>
Maximum retail price for overseas orders:
Shorter version U.S. $ 10.- plus postage and handling
Longer version U.S. $ 15.- plus postage and handling


V j
U t 4479-731
This dictionary is also available at the BOUDHANATH BOOK STORE,
located at Bauddha, Tusal, near the main gate to the Bauddhanath Stupa.

Maximum retail price for shorter version NRs 200.-

Maximum retail price for longer version NRs 300.-

Cover design by Anna Maria Hari

Printed and bound by Jagadamba Press, Nepal


Language is a fascinating affair, and there are so many different languages

spoken in Nepal. Some of the minority languages of Nepal have been
documented quite well, and others not yet too well. One of those not yet too
well documented minority languages is Yohlmo, spoken by a Buddhist people
group in the mountains north and somewhat north-east of Kathmandu. It has
been my privilege to learn and analyse this language over a period of roughly 25
years, and it is my desire to make some of the results of these studies available
in the form of this dictionary, so that Yohlmo will also become one of the better
documented minority languages of Nepal.
The dictionary is intended to be useful both to scholars with purely linguistic
interests, as well as to Yohlmo speakers who are interested in their language, or
want to improve their English or Nepali. For this reason the lexical entries and
some of the other material is given both in Devanagari and in Roman script. To
combine these two goals was not always easy, and we may not have found the
ideal solution. But we did our best to make this dictionary helpful for both target
The introduction starts out with a Guide to the Devanagari orthography for
Yohlmo written in Yohlmo. After that follow the most important technical details
about the layout of the dictionary with illustrative examples in Devanagari and
Roman transcription.
In Appendix 2 (Various tables about numerals, measurments, etc.) the illustrative
examples and tables are given in Roman and in Devanagari so as to serve both
target audiences.
Appendix 3 (Bibliography for Yohlmo) lists all the publications on Yohlmo which
I could discover. While most of them are in English, there are also two
publications on Yohlmo in Nepali, as well as some publications in the Yohlmo
language itself.
Appendix 4 (The parts of an entry in detail), appendix 5 (The parts of speech in
detail), appendix 6 (Phonological sketch of Yohlmo), and appendix 7 (Morpho-
phonemic processes) are mainly intended for people with some linguistic
training. So in these parts the Yohlmo examples are given only in Roman
The English - Yohlmo index is also intended for both target audiences, and for
that reason the Yohlmo item is given in Devanagari and in Roman transcription.

This is a language learner's dictionary; therefore I have not restricted myself to
entering only simple lexemes, but have also entered many noun-verb collocations
and other idioms.
For more information about the name of the language, its relatedness to other
Tibeto-Burman languages, places spoken, number of speakers, and dialect
studied, the reader is referred to appendix 1 of this volume.


Language Assistants
In the course of the years the following persons have greatly contributed to the
contents of this dictionary: Miss Dawa-Kyahlmu Lama from Nee-Ngemba1, Mr.
Peema Lama and Mr. Chyahmba Lama from Chhimi, Mr. Tahndul Syarpa from
Syuhnggan-Che, Mr. Kyahlsang Tamang from Syabru (whose mother is from
Yohlmo), Misses Karmu Lama, Peema Lama, and Urken-Tohlma Lama from
Chhimi, Mr. Chhegu Lama from Syuhnggan-Che, Misses Karma-Yangjyen and
Dam-Kyahlmu Syarpa from Naahkote, and Mrs Dawa-Rhikchyung Syarpa from
Maahngu. Mr. Chhegu Lama has been especially faithful in helping with the
pitch contour classification, with the checking of the dictionary for many aspects,
and with the entering of the Nepali translations.
Further, I also want to express my gratitude to the many other Yohlmo friends
whom I met informally, and who graciously talked with me in their own
language and patiently explained the meaning of their words to me whenever it
was necessary. Most often they did this by giving me several good examples of
how they use the word in their daily lives.
In the final stages of the production of this dictionary I also received helpful
feedback and advice from Mr. Binod Lama (originally from Syom-Kharka), Mr.
Karma Kyahldzen Lama (originally from Tapka-Kharka), Mr. Dawa Chyahba
Yolmo (orginally from Sermathang), and Mr. Sangye Lama (originally from
Here I want to express my heartfelt appreciation for the able assistance of all
these Yohlmo friends in learning the language, collecting these data. and
bringing this dictionary to completion.

For the key to orthographic Roman transcription used for the Yohlmo names in this section see
Appendix 1, section 6.
Technical assistance
The following people have also helped towards the completion of this dictionary:
Miss Eleanor McAlpine from Canada did the keyboarding of the first draft of the
dictionary entries; she also helped with checking the grammar and spelling of the
English glosses and translations of the illustrative examples.
Dr. Austin Hale from the U.S.A. gave a lot of linguistic advice, as well as a lot of
help with installing and getting acquainted with the computer software
(Shoebox), which I used during the completion phases of the dictionary.
Mrs Karen Buseman, also from the U.S.A., modified the existing dictionary
formatter in ways which greatly facilitated the conversion of the dictionary data
base into photo ready copy. Mr Peter Oatly was the expert when I needed help
with other aspects of the electronic production of this manuscript.
Mr Binaya Rijal (originally from Dhading District) assisted me in the
proofreading of the Nepali glosses and the Nepali translations of the illustative
examples of this dictionary.
To these friends, too, I want to express my heartfelt gratitude. I myself am from
Switzerland, and so this volume represents a truly international collaboration

The material presented in this dictionary has been collected between 1980-91,
and 1995-2004. The last four years I was under the auspices of the Central
Department of Linguistics of the Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal.
During that time Prof. Dr. Churamani Bandhu, and Prof. Dr. Yogendra Yadava of
the Central Department of Linguistics, Tribhuvan University were my supervisors,
and Prof. Dr. Karmacharya and Dr. Chandra Lal Shrestha of the Department of
Foreign Relations of Tribhuvan University helped with the official formalites.
Thank you for the privilege of letting me do this research in one of the minority
languages of Nepal.

Kathmandu, September 2004 Anna Maria Hari

Note to the buyer
This dictionary has been published in a shorter and a longer version. This is the
shorter version, which ends with appendix 3. The longer version has the
following four additional appendices:
Appendix 4 The parts of an entry In detail
Appendix 5 The parts of speech In detail
Appendix 6 Phonological sketch of Yohlmo
Appendix 7 Morphophonemic processes
The shorter version is quite independent from these additional appendices,
except that the grammar and phonology notes in the dictionary itself contain
occasional references to these appendices. Therefore the buyer who is interested
in linguistic details should get the full version.


1. Guide to the Devanagari orthography for Yohlmo ........................................ 1

Xo U U ..................................................................... 2
1) Xo ` () -` ` S LH .................... 2
2) J ` `
-` ` `A` S LH ...................... 3
3) -` Xo T J`UU -hU ................ 3
4) L U U w h ....................................................................... 5
5) LL h ............................................................................................. 6
6) Xo l LHU U........................................................ 6
7) "A " ` "A " U ......................................................................... 7
8) " " ` " / " U ........................................................................ 8
9) j-jL (P) H jLU U ..................................... 9
10) -` `U U TU ...................... 9
11) Xo jLU UU ` lMU
U ............................................................................................. 10
2. Alphabetical ordering of entries................................................................... 11
2.1 Note on some orthographic conventions in Devanagari...................... 13
3. The parts of an entry Overview .............................................................. 15
4. Abbreviations and notational conventions................................................... 18
5. Xo `U U M ......................................................... 20

Xof]Ndf] g]kfnL c+u|]hL .....................................................23

Yohlmo - Nepali - English .........................................................23

c+u|]hL Xof]Ndf]uL sf/5f .............................................531

English - Yohlmo Index...........................................................531
Some notes on the format of the index........................................................... 532
Semantic domains section .............................................................................. 669

Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

Appendix 1 The place of Yohlmo in the Tibeto-Burman Family ................... 699

1. Name of the language ................................................................................ 699
2. Relatedness to other Tibeto-Burman languages......................................... 699
2.1 Lexical similarity calculations with Solo-Khumbu Sherpa and
Central Tibetan ................................................................................... 702
3. Places spoken ............................................................................................. 702
4. Number of speakers.................................................................................... 703
5. Dialect studied............................................................................................ 703
6. Map of the Yohlmo area with key to an orthographic Roman
transcription ............................................................................................ 703
Appendix 2 Various tables .................................................................. 707
1. Numerals .................................................................................................... 707
1.1 Numerals up to 20 .............................................................................. 707
1.2 Alternative ordinal numbers............................................................... 708
1.3 Counting the days of the lunar month ............................................... 709
1.4 Counting by twenties .......................................................................... 710
1.5 Pricing things ...................................................................................... 711
1.6 Higher numbers .................................................................................. 712
1.7 Fractional numbers and some other expressions related to
numbers .............................................................................................. 713
1.8 Coins and Notes .................................................................................. 714
2. Measures and Weights................................................................................ 715
2.1 Volume Measures................................................................................ 715
2.2 Weights ............................................................................................... 717
2.3 Length measures ................................................................................. 718
2.4 Estimating longer distances and size of fields.................................... 718
3. The calendar............................................................................................... 719
3.1 The twelve year cycle ......................................................................... 719
3.2 The twelve year cycle compared with the western calendar............. 720
3.3 Months and days of the week............................................................. 721
3.4 Counting weeks, months, and years ................................................... 723
Appendix 3 Bibliography for Yohlmo.................................................. 724
1. Linguistic field ............................................................................................ 724
2. Ethnological field ....................................................................................... 724
3. Publications in Nepali ................................................................................ 726
4. Publications in Yohlmo .............................................................................. 726

Appendix 4 The parts of an entry In detail.................................... 727
1. Headword................................................................................................. 727
1.1 Diagnostic forms to indicate whether a suffix with a voiceless or
voiced initial is needed ...................................................................... 728
1.2 Variant forms of a headword............................................................. 729
1.3 Optional elements of a headword...................................................... 730
1.4 Preferred collocational verb for a given noun................................... 730
1.5 Source designation and dialect information...................................... 730
1.6 Homophone number .......................................................................... 731
2. Parts of speech Overview.................................................................... 732
3. Sense enumerator..................................................................................... 733
4. Register and honorific vocabluary ........................................................... 734
5. Nepali gloss or definition......................................................................... 736
6. Semantic domain...................................................................................... 736
7. English gloss or definition........................................................................ 738
8. Cross-references........................................................................................ 738
9. Explanatory notes..................................................................................... 738
10. Illustrative examples ................................................................................ 740
11. Subentries................................................................................................. 741
Appendix 5 The parts of speech In detail ...................................... 743
1. adj. Adjective........................................................................................... 743
1.1 Adjective modifiers ............................................................................ 744
1.2 Exclamatory form of adjectives: adj.excl............................................ 745
1.3 Adjective suffixes ............................................................................... 747
2. adv. Adverb ............................................................................................. 748
3. att.p. Attitude Particle ............................................................................. 750
4. aux. Auxiliary Verb ................................................................................. 750
4.1 Dependent Auxiliary Verb: aux.dep. .................................................. 752
5. cl. Clause ................................................................................................. 753
6. clit. Clitic ................................................................................................. 753
7. conj. Conjunction .................................................................................... 753
8. cop. Copula/ Copular .............................................................................. 755
9. dem. Demonstrative................................................................................. 760
10. det. Determiner ....................................................................................... 760
11. dir. Directional ........................................................................................ 760
12. excl. Exclamation .................................................................................... 761
13. intens. Intensifier ..................................................................................... 762
14. loc. Locative ............................................................................................ 762
15. n. Noun ................................................................................................... 764

Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

16. num. Numeral .......................................................................................... 765

17. p. Particle ................................................................................................ 765
18. pp. Postposition ....................................................................................... 765
19. pr. Pronoun.............................................................................................. 766
20. prf. Prefix................................................................................................. 768
21. Predicate Phrase ........................................................................ 768
21.1 Non-ergative predicate phrases ............................... 769
21.2 Ergative predicate phrases ............................................. 775
21.3 Direceptive predicate phrases ......................................... 777
21.4 Receptive predicate phrases .............................................. 778
21.5 Semi-receptive predicate phrases .............................. 779
21.6 Eventive predicate phrases ............................................... 779
21.7 Copular predicate phrases ............................................. 780
21.8 Note on genitive embedding of roles................................................. 780
22. q.w. Question words................................................................................ 781
23. qt. Quantifier ........................................................................................... 782
24. sf. Suffix................................................................................................... 783
25. temp. Temporal........................................................................................ 783
26. v. Verb ..................................................................................................... 784
26.1 Active set ............................................................................................ 785
26.2 Observations on the omission of the ergative marker....................... 786
26.3 Receptive set ...................................................................................... 788
26.4 Suppression of argument markers by <-ni> ..................................... 789
26.5 Marker suppression with co-actors and co-experiencers ................... 790
26.6 v.i. or v.r. ? ......................................................................................... 791
26.7 Varying transitivity ............................................................................ 791
26.8 Stative verbs ....................................................................................... 792
27. v.imp. Verb Imperative ............................................................................ 792
Appendix 6 Phonlogical sketch of Yohlmo............................................ 793
1. Abbreviations and notational conventions used in the appendices............... 793
2. Consonants................................................................................................ 794
3. Vowels ...................................................................................................... 794
4. Tonal contrasts ......................................................................................... 794
Register contrasts:.................................................................................... 795
Contour contrasts:....................................................................................795
4.1 Restrictions in the distribution of the register contrast..................... 796
4.2 Summary table of register and contour tone contrasts in Yohlmo.... 796
4.3 Tonal behaviour and marking of suffixes .......................................... 799
4.4 Tones of stem compounds.................................................................. 802
4.5 Tonal behaviour of reduplicated verb stems ..................................... 803

4.6 Stability of morpheme tone and pairing of pitch contours............... 804
5. The status of the voiced sibilant fricatives .............................................. 805
6. The status of word-medial voiced stops and affricates ........................... 806
7. Ambivalence of word-medial /pr/ and /pl/ ............................................ 806
8. Nasalization.............................................................................................. 806
9. Neutralization of stem-vowel length before suffixes with an initial
vowel or semi-vowel ............................................................................... 809
10. Centralization of /a/, /o/, and /u/ ......................................................... 809
11. Deletion and replacement of intervocalic /g/, /z/, and // ................... 809
12. Assimilation of verb stem final /n/ ......................................................... 810
Appendix 7 Morphophonemic processes ............................................. 812
1. Voicing assimilation of suffixes with initial stops or affricates............... 812
1.1 Voicing assimilation rule ................................................................... 813
2. Fricativization of affricates ...................................................................... 814
2.1 Consequences for the orthographic transcription.............................. 814
3. Further morphophonemic changes for certain suffixes ........................... 815
3.1 Deletion of intervocalic /g/, /z/, and // ......................................... 815
3.2 Two exceptional verbal suffixes......................................................... 820
3.3 The probability suffix: <-o>........................................................... 821
4. Irregular verb stems in regard to voicing assimilation............................ 822
5. A special suffix: <-ti> .......................................................................... 823
6. List of strictly verbal suffixes ................................................................... 824
7. The copulas .............................................................................................. 826
8. Other suffixes ........................................................................................... 827
8.1 Compounding with (verb) stems ....................................................... 830
9. Clitics........................................................................................................ 830
10. The two verb stem bases: verb stem and verb stem perfect ................... 832
10.1 An exception verb .............................................................................. 835
11. Imperative verb bases .............................................................................. 836
11.1 Irregular imperatives.......................................................................... 837
12. Examples for verb stems marked with voiceless suffix ........................... 837
13. The negative prefix .................................................................................. 838
13.1 Change in vowel quality .................................................................... 839
13.2 Transfer of stem vowel length ........................................................... 839
13.3 Tonal behaviour of the negative prefix and the following verb
stems .................................................................................................. 843
13.4 Nasal insertion in negative verb phrases........................................... 847


Anna Maria Hari

1. Guide to the Devanagari orthography for Yohlmo

In this short guide to the Devanagari orthography for Yohlmo I first show with
some examples that the language has a conrast between high and low register, and
then give some rationale for symbolizing the low register with "h" after the vowel,
rather than with the choice or modification of the initial consonant, as
orthographies modeled on Tibetan transliteration usually try to do (1).
Further I illustrate with some examples that Yohlmo also contrasts short and long
vowels, and that phonological vowel length is signalled with a low dot under the
short vowel symbol or under the consonant carrying the short vowel symbol (2).
(For more details see section 2 below).
Then follow lists of contrastive pairs for the consonant contrasts which occur in
Yohlmo, but not in Nepali. This also introduces the characters used for the
additional consonants (3).
In (4) I explain that the voiced stops, affricates, and sibilants occur only before low
register vowels, and that therefore low register does not need to be symbolized
with "h" after those consonants.
In (5) I show that it is helpful to show the high falling contour of the suffix /-'a/
'also' (attached to the end of the noun phrase) with a high dot before the suffix.
These five points are followed by the consonant and vowel charts in Devanagri (6).
In point (7) the symboliztion of /a/ vs /aa/ in the Devanagri orthography is briefly
In (8) the symbolization of /i/ vs /ii/ in the Devanagri orthography is explained.
(For the details see section 2.1 below).
In (9) the significance of the diagnostic forms "-k" and "-g", which occur after verb
stems ending in one of the short front vowels /i/ or /e/, is explained. (See
appendix 4, section 1.1).
In (10) the significance of (E) and (W) appearing after some of the headwords is
explained, (E) pointing out that the headword as an Eastern dialect variant, and
(W) that it is a Western dialect variant.
And finally, in point (11) the significance of the tone numbers appearing with the
Roman transcription of the Yohlmo headword is briefly explained. (For the details
see appendix 6, section 4.2).
2 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

Xo U U
Xo l U `
yE | Vl`
l ` U LH, J A` Lh hg `g
LH, J U -` w yU| Xo U
U `
` UA` tU-` U
| Ly , J
` l- J`U H
J LH Lh `

1) Xo ` () -` ` S LH
gU jL L U U `U `

() (U
() (k)
() (j)
L (U) L? (U?)
(AL) (L)
` (V) ` (Ew)
` (E) ` ()
U ky jL ` h `, ` U (=-h
=L-S-A) jL `L` h` H| T `` J`U
" " H L m LH , " " H L m LH| T
-h (L-S-A) , `` H |
L -`
lU` S MU jL Xo `` J`U| A
` J`U L U U `U `
l SH
l `U UU -h ` "A" H ` hM J`U
`U` `` tU Xo U ` SH, J
Xo U U "" [toh] t` tl | J `
L MU jL L ` hHU
" M
"" | ` V l` , U jL h`
Introduction 3

M | jL ` L M` yl

| h , U k L
l `U ` MMU ""
L ` hHU
hl` HA` LH| J jL
` L Xo U k` LH U
L U h ` `` l LU U h hl`
LH | J
l-` tl ` J`U| L
` hl l`
` |
LA` J`U L -h(L-S-A) ` l
j -h t`k S hU U h ` m LH, J
M U M` yH| J
lA` `U, J
l-` tl S-L J`U |

2) J ` `
-` ` `A` S LH
gU jL L `U U `U g tL M
() ()
() (h)
() (L)

J Xo U -h (L-S-A) , A
U U` h
U | ` -h l` y SH

U m SH|
U -hU g
L h |

-` Xo T J`UU -
3) - -hU
k m
k`U (nUy U) m
mU ()
kU ( U) mU (j)jt
k ( ) m ()
4 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

/ ` (kU) ` (E)
() (C)
() (AF)
g h
g (t) h (Lt)
g (k) h (L)
g (g) h (h)
j j
j (A) j (S)
j () j ()
j (Sl) j (h )
k l
k` (nUy U) l` (U)
k? ( U?) l ()
k () l (y)
m l

m (HEt ) l (g)
? (?) l
m () l ()
l - l
l () l (k)
l (y) l
l () l` ()
L` () M` (g
L `l (A ) M (L)
Ll (jM) Ml (Eg)
Introduction 5

S (n) T (LL)
() T (L j)
S (S) T ()
? (V?) V (j)
U (Yt) V ()
U (tEL) V (jt)
` `
(H) ` ()
g () `
` () ` (j)

(l) (E)
(t) (t)
() (Q)
( ) ()

` () (U)
U (y) (ML)
( ) (nL nL)

Xo l LHU -h (L-S-A) l`
` H |

4) L U U w h
[ U, k, m, l, l, y, , ] H -
-h (L-
(L-S-A)U ` L
J`U | J `U` J -hU ` L U
6 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

U LH | U, U, V, V`, k, k, m,
mU`, l, l, l, l , y, yU, , , U, |

5) LL h
A` / A / A
A () H jLL ` l ML LH|
L l -A`U tL h M tl l-
J`U| gU
A` / A / A (L ) - ` (`)
A` / A / A (C ) - ` ()
A` / A / A (F ) - ` (UD)

U j
l V l Xo U -`
tM yU, J l, tl l- J`U|

6) Xo l LHU U
-h (L-

L M S T U V ` `

g h j j k m l l

t w y

Introduction 7

` ()
` L-` -hU ` J`

` ` `
` `



` jLU ` U


7) "A " ` "A " U

U L-j `U
` MU "A " H `
| U "A "
U U "A " l`, J "A "
`U U "A " ` J`y H ` MH | `
` `U M S T
- ` |
"A " l S` m LH, J y LA` `
yH| Xo S T L
- `` , S m
8 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

` ` l (C, E, H-` J)A`

-` ` J`U| J
` J ` ` lU U hl L` LH| J ` `
` hl ` U g tL M ` `Ut` j-
Xo U ` j j-` ` SU|
J `U` tU-` U h J`U| h Xo
`U j` J
J J h H , "A "
"" M jLU M -h `U J`U V`
( ) M LH, J jLU ` U -h `

8) " " ` " / " U

"C" "D" H ` `U U LlU U
Xo U w h LH|

w ` -
` ` jLU gU1 ` `l` S LLH
H| jL g
hMU `
J`U| J ` D `U
U `'U CL-` CLL g tL ( ) M, jL gU
` ` , ` J`UU ` `U CL
()M` yU
| J
`U CL-` `U CL
M LHU Lh jLU U Hl` t LH, J l
` J`U| h , jL H `U CL( )L L SU
`` LH `U` H J J` `-
j` U SL
J l, VU w L -` L U Lh`
yU L -` L A` jLU gU ` `l` S
LH| ` hMU J T `U|

, ", `, " H jL jL g h` ,
` J`UU U h |
"L-t, C-, S-g" H jL jL g ` M J`U|
Introduction 9

9) j-
j-jL (P) H jLU U

L j-jL H jLU ` L l l
S- khol- v.i. E| boil (water, milk).
L h lM , j-jLL ` `-j -
l (Al) LH
l J L lM |
J j-jLU ` -
-L M , J j-jLU
` -
-U M |
-L e-k v.dt. | tell; give a message.
-U i-g v.i. | die.
-L i-k v.dt. E| drive out (a spirit of sickness).
M -U kye-g v.i. E, k| sprout; be born.
-L ` -
-U U h ,
-L MMU j-jL hL U
L ,
, h, t
-U MMU j-jL hL U
U , M, Ml, M|

( h C-` H HU ` ` MU j-jLL `l` l
LH , h , ` (E, J-` A)U ` A

T `U |)

10) -
-` `U U TU

Xo `U `U U -` `U U U HU
T `, jL `
` yU| `
U U jL ` M h U| -`
T h
l L `U
`l` H jLU U (= AUk )U ` (E)
J `U `l` H jLU UU ` (W) M
h U| (E)U k Eastern , J (W)U k Western
10 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

LU jL L `-j `U U M
`U` `l
` HU jL l` h
t| L
L jLU U T M lM, Jl` h M

11) Xo jLU UU ` lMU U

Xo jLU U (=AUk
)U jLU
l lM h
U| U h , L
` ` ` J`U , L ` ` ` J`U |
Ly , L LU jLU U ` L
` LH , jLU U ` l j
V` L LH | J L LU jL
`` J
Tt` | J J T ` hl jL

U h lM | L L ` yU
H J`U gU L-j
M lL
U U U `U
L ` rah .............. A
` nah ..............

L ` na ..............
` na ..............
U ` `U ` ` T l` , J
U U `-j U U h l
| ` h
` J `lU` S M
J`U, J l V`
L `U U jLU tL M` yU
M ............ h ............ , U

M ............ h ............ HL
Introduction 11

2. Alphabetical ordering of entries

Each main entry is given in Devanagari and in Roman transcription. Since the
Devanagari transcription precedes the Roman transcription, we have followed the
sequence of the Devanagari alphabet. For the readers who are not familiar with
the Devanagari script, the sequence of the Devanagari alphabet is given below
with Roman and Devanagri symbols. (Of course the tables include only the sounds
needed for Yohlmo.)
The sequence of the Devanagari alphabet is easy to remember, because it follows
articulatory principles. First all the vowels are listed and then the consonants. The
consonant sequence starts with the consonants produced furthest back in the
mouth and works its way forward to the bilabials:

Vowels: a i u e o

Consonants: k ky kh khy g gy y
L M S T U V ` `

ts t tsh th dz z d
g h j j k m l l

t w y

t th d n

p py ph phy b m

y r rh l lh w

s h

12 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

The long vowel phonemes are treated as units. Thus we have the following
sequence for the vowels:
high register short vowel, e.g. 'a' A

low register short vowel, e.g. 'ah' A

high register long vowel, e.g. 'aa' A
low register long vowel, e.g. 'aah' A
The table below spells out the sequence of the vowels after a given consonant,
and also shows that initial consonant clusters are listed after the vowels. (/l/ and
/r/ are the only consonants occurring in the second position morpheme initially.)

C a ah aa aah L L L L
C i ih ii iih L L L L
C u uh uu uuh L L L L

C e eh ee eeh L L L L

C o oh oo ooh L L L L
Cy2 (followed by all vowels)
Cr (followed by all vowels)
Cl4 (followed by all vowels)

The dictionary has main entries and subentries. However, all subentries start with
the morpheme of the main entry. That is, subentries are either collocations starting
with the main entry, or derivations of the main entry. Subentries can be easily
recognized by their indentation from the left-hand margin.
Occasionally it seemed desirable to draw attention to some collocation containing
the main entry, but not starting with it. In such cases a cross-reference to the main
entry is given.

The consonant+/y/ is viewed phonologically as a single segment. (See the consonant
chart in appendix 1, section 2). But for the purpose of alphabetization these segments
are taken as a sequence.
Only /br/, /pr/, and /phr/ clusters occur.
Only /bl/, and /pl/ clusters occur, and these are rare.
Introduction 13

2.1 Note on some orthographic conventions in Devanagari

The tables in section 2 above show how the Devanagari and Roman symbols for
the phonemes of Yohlmo match up with each other. But because of the nature of
the Devanagari script, we have established some orthographic conventions for
which further precision needs to be given. The first convention we want to discuss
is the following:
Symbolization of /i/ and /ii/: as already mentioned, basically vowel length is
symbolized with a dot under the short vowel symbol. And as can be seen in the
table above, in the case of /ii/ and /uu/ we combine this dot with the so called
long vowels symbols of the Devanagari script. (In Nepali there is actually no
phonemic contrast between long and short vowels.) The combination of the dot
and the long vowel symbol makes the difference between the short and long
vowels somewhat more visible.
In addition, it allows us to make a convenient orthographic rule for the
representation of /i/ ( = rasva) and /ii/ ( = dirgha). In order to understand
the convention, we also need to know the following restriction in the distribution
of long vowels: The phonemic contrast between long and short vowels occurs only
on the first syllable of stem morphemes. It does not occur on non-inital syllables of
stem morphemes, and also not on suffixes. Thus we can say, that in uncompound
words the contrast between long and short vowel is only relevant for the first
syllable of the word.5 Now, according to the matching up of symbols shown above,
we would have to use the rasva symbol ( ) for all non-initial i-sounds of a word.
But this results in quite an unfamiliar- and unpleasant-looking text. Furthermore,
since the rasva symbol for /i/ has to be placed before the consonant after which
the i-sound occurs, this creates difficulties in reading and writing, especially for
new literates. But the use of the dot under the dirgha symbol ( ) for /ii/,
together with the distributional restriction stated above, allows us to use the
dirgha symbol without a dot ( ) in all non-initial syllables of the word. That
means that the rasva symbol ( ) occurs only in word-initial syllables. This
convention enhances the appearance of the text and makes reading, and especially
writing, easier.
Some other features of the Devanagari orthography are discussed in the
phonological sketch of Yohlmo, together with the phonological properties of the
language to which they relate. They are the following:

This restriction in the distribution of long vowels does not apply to compound words
(i.e. stem+stem). For this reason we find it important and convenient to use a hyphen
in stem compounds. See also appendix 1, section 4.4.
14 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

For the representation of the register and pitch contour contrasts see
appendix 6, section 4.
For the tonal properties of suffixes and their marking see appendix 6,
section 4.3.
For the representation of intervocalic voiced fricatives see appendix 6,
section 5.
For the representation of nasalization see appendix 6, section 8.
For the neutraliztion of the vowel length contrast in certain environments
see appendix 6, section 9.
To round up these notes on the Devanagari orthography some remarks on the
representation of low register may be in order. The reader may have noted that
on the front pages Yohlmo appears as Xo while elsewhere we use . The
first version is the spelling used traditionally by the Yohlmo people. The second
version is spelt according to the convention we have chosen for the representation
of low register.
Various alternatives for the representation of low register have been explored and
rejected. For example:
Modifying the initial consonant of low-register morphemes with the
). This, however, results in quite a number of initial conjunct
h-character (
characters consisting of two half-characters followed by :
h /tah/ would be h , U

/uuhgen/ would be U
, etc.
Further, consonants which have no half-character form will have to be marked
with 'halant':
t` /ahbu/ would be t` , ` /ah/ would be ` , etc.
Furthermore, this choice also results in a conflict for the symbolization of /lh/ and
low-register morphemes starting with /l/. Compare the following pairs:
/lha/ 'god' vs /lah/ 'high hills' would both be .
The same conflict arises with the symbolization of /rh/:
/rhilmu/ 'round' vs U /rihlgen/ 'fall over' becomes U .
All this results in an unpleasant-looking text, and makes reading and writing
Following the example of the traditional spelling of Yohlmo (Xof]Ndf]) we also
tried to place the half-character symbol X in front of the initial consonant of low-
register morphemes:

/uuhgen/ would be X:o"u]g, ` /ah/ would be Xf , etc.
Introduction 15

For single words this solution may seem quite acceptable. But everybody agreed
that texts written this way were difficult to read.
Symbolize low register with 'bisarga' () after the vowel:
U /uuhgen/ would be U, ` /ah/ would be `, etc.
This would be a very simple and adequate solution. But it generally met with
disfavour because of the unfamiliar appearance of the text. (Low register, of
course, is much more frequent than the occurrence of 'bisarga' in Nepali texts.)
So in the end, placing an h ( ) after the low-register vowel seemed to be the best
solution. It just means that people will have to learn that in this position does
not represent a consonant, but low register - a phonological feature of their
language which they are very much aware of. (The consonant phoneme /h/ occurs
only morpheme initially, never after a vowel. Therefore there is no conflict
between the two different usages of h / .)
For the headwords in the dictionary which are mostlly words in isolation, we
deemed it helpful to place a halant under the h ( ). This will remind the reader
that this does not represent a consonant (which according to the rules of the
Devanagari Script carries the inherent vowel [] with it), but that it is just the
symbol representing low register. For longer stretches of text, however, it is not
necessary to use the halant. The correct pronunciation of the postvocalic // can
easily be understood from the context.

3. The parts of an entry Overview

An entry consists minimally of the following obligatory parts:
the Yohlmo headword in Devanagari script
the Yohlmo headword in a phonemic Roman transcription
the part-of-speech designation
the Nepali gloss or definition
the English gloss or definition
All other parts are optional.
Headwords are given first in Devanagari script and then in Roman script. Every
entry has a headword:
LL` karku
Source: In some entries a source language is identified for the headword. In the
first example below the designation (N) identifies the headword as a loanword
16 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

from Nepali, and in the second one (H) identifies the headword as a loanword
from Hindi. ( (T) identifies the headword as a loanword from Tibetan.)
L kame (N)
A abru (H)
Free alternating forms of a given headword are separated by a slash.
`/ `/ ` ama/ yema/ ema
(For the use of the slash for meaningful alternations see appendix 4, section 1.2).
Optional elements of a headword and any corresponding elements in another
part of the entry are enclosed by parentheses:
MU (k
'kye-gar ('tiihzi) n.(ph.) k | birthday.
Part of speech comes next and is set in italics. Every headword has a part-of-
speech designation. The designation adj. identifies the headword as an adjective.
ihmbu adj.
Register: This field of the entry gives various kinds of information about the
appropriate register for (i.e. usage of) a given headword. For example, headwords
which are honorific lexial items have this information added in this field. It is
simple enclosed by ordinary parentheses:
eebu adj. (hon. of 'ihmbu') w (t.)| tasty.
This register field states that the headword is a honorific lexial item, and
it also adds for which ordinary lexical item the honorific item stands.
Sense enumerator: If a headword has more than one sense, the different senses
are numbered with arabic numerals followed by a closing parenthesis.
` yihma n.
1) Y| sun.
2) | day.
3) OL | names: personal name.
The Nepali gloss or definition comes next, and then the English gloss or
definition. See example above.
Semantic domain is optional. It appears between the Nepali and the English
definition and is underlined and followed by a colon. See sense number 3) above.
Cross-reference: Some headwords have a cross-reference to some sematically
related headword. Such a headword is followed by the related headword in
Introduction 17

Devanagari, followed by which is the Nepali equivalent for 'See also',

after which the related headword appears in Roman script:
` yihma n.
1) Y | sun. 'A `' | See also: 'ama yihma'.
Various notes: Many entries contain notes giving some information about the
phonology, grammar, or discourse features of the headword. These are enclosed in
square parentheses and introduced by the following labels respectively:
[Phon: ............ ] [Gram: ............ ] [Disc: ........... ]
Towards the end of an entry the following two parts may also occur:
[Usage: ............]
This part gives some explanatory remarks on the usage of the headword.
[Note: ............ ]
This part contains notes on some cultural detail or general semantic feature of the
Subentries: Every subentry starts wtih the same morpheme as the main entry.
That means, that subentries are either collocations starting with the headword of
the main entry or derivations of the headword of the main entry.
The Devanagari headword of a subentry is slightly indented from the left-hand
Illustrative examples: For many of the semantically more complex headwords
one or more sentences are given to illustrate the usage of the given headword in
context. Each sentence has four parts, given in the following order:
Yohlmo text in Devanagari script
Yohlmo text in Roman transcription (phonemic)
Nepali free translation (in Devanagari script)
English free translation
In order to facilitate any analytical studies of the language, the Roman
transcription shows the morpheme breaks for each word.
Subentries: In many cases the main entry is followed by subentries. The
headwords for such subentries are slightly indented from the left-hand margin, so
that they can be easily recognized as such.
For more details on the parts of an entry discussed in this overview, and for the
detailed discussion of all the potential parts for a given entry see appendix 4.
18 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

4. Abbreviations and notational conventions

act. action conn. connotation

adj. adjective cop. copula/ copular
adj.excl. exclamatory form of cus.pres. customary present
adj.tiv. adjectivizer dem. demonstrative
adv. adverb dep. dependent
aff. affirmative des. desiderative
anim. animate dest. destination
asking f.p.r. asking for positive det. determiner
att.p. attitude particle dir. directional
attr. attributive (E) Eastern dialect variant
aux. auxiliary verb e.e.pst. expressive, exclamatory
aux.dep. dependent auxiliary emph. emphatic
aux.vs.f.l.v. auxiliary verb stem for (Eng) English loan
loan verbs
C consonant erg. ergative
c.e.foc. contrary to expectation evid. evidentiality
cerem. ceremonial excl. exclamation/
cl. clause exclu. exclusive
clit. clitic exp. experiencer (experiences
the effect of the verb)
coll. colloquial expl. explanatorily
cond. conditional f. female form
conj. conjunction (fig.) figurative sense (of the
English gloss)
Note: Abbreviations in italics are part-of-speech designations.
Abbreviations and notational conventions 19

fig.u. figurative usage (of the n.pst. neutral past

Yohlmo entry)
foc. focus neg. negative
friend.spurr. friendly spurring on nom. nominalizer
gen. genitive non-erg. non-ergative
(H) Hindi loan num. numeral
hon./ h. honorific num.ord. ordinal numeral
imp. imperative o.f. old fashioned
imperf. imperfect op. optional
inanim. inanimate opta. optative
inclu. inclusive p. particle
indef. indefinite percep. perceptive
indep. independent perf. perfect
inf. infinitive ph. phrase
infer. inferential pl. plural
instr. instrumental pol. polite
int.pres. intentional present poss. possessive
intens. intensifier pp. postposition
interj. interjection pr. pronoun
lit. literal sense predicate phrase
loc. locative/ locational pres. present
m. male form prf. prefix
m.p.pst. main point past prob. probable
mir. mirative (evidentiality) prom. prominent
mitig. mitigating prs. person
modif. modifier pst. past
(N) Nepali loan q.w. question word
n. noun qt. quantifier
n.inser. nasal insertion qual. quality
20 Yohlmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

repo. reported (information) v. verb

S sentence v.aux. auxiliary verb
s.b. somebody v.dr. direceptive verb
S.intro. sentence introducer v.dt. ditransitive verb something v.e. eventive verb
sarc. sarcastic v.i. intransitive verb
seq. sequential v.imp. imperative form of verb
sf. suffix v.r. receptive verb
sg. singular v.semi-r. semi-receptive verb
spec. specific v.t. transitive verb
sup. superlative vd.sf. voiced suffix
(T) Tibetan loan vl.sf. voiceless suffix
temp. temporal vs verb stem
tr.emph. truth emphasized vs.perf. verb stem perfect
undg. undergoer vsf. verb suffix
V vowel (W) Western dialect variant

List of notational conventions:

/ Slash is used for separating variant froms of a given headword. For

more details see appendix 4, section 1.2.
{ } Curly brackets are used to enclose the preferred collocational verb
for a given noun. The part-of-speech designation of such a verb, and
its Nepali and English gloss are enclosed by curley brackets as well.
For more details see appendix 4, section 1.4.
( ) Optional elements of a given headword are enclosed by parentheses.
See section 3 above and appendix 4, section 1.3.
' ' Yohlmo expressions used in English texts are enclosed by single
~ Tilde is used for: "alternates phonologically with".

5. Xo `U U M
Xof]Ndf] g]kfnL c+u|]hL

Yohlmo - Nepali - English

A -A`

A a n. C jtL L| short
form for 'ada' "elder brother". [Usage: 'akhye 'mehme-'ya
preceding a personal name, e.g. 'a S, kk k| ancestors.
ai, a Mihmar'.] AT 'akhye 'yibi
J U A V Hl L| ooh AL k A|
'yuhl-gi 'a 'gyurmi 'ma-e-i 'yehken. great-grandmother.
UE V C H| In that A`-
A`- a- v.t. `UE| bend
village there was a man called elder outwards.
brother Gyurmi. L` A`l `U,
AC ay n. jtL L| short jU| kemda 'a-de meh-yoh-ge,
form for 'ai' "elder sister". [Usage: mihn-si-'ma-na thaa-ge. L gt
preceding a personal name, e.g. 'ay `UE , gj| You mustn't

teea, ay saye'.] pull the bamboo tongs apart,
otherwise they will break.
l ! 'rahmne-la 'ay samden y-/ -L 'a-di o-/
A` y-
'yeh-ba 'yeh-na 'kahze 'lu lehn-de 'teh-k y
LH y
'yeh-ba! | walk/ sit with stomach sticking
AC L U UEj! If elder
sister Samden is at the dedication -A`/
A`/-A/-A -a/-aa/-aa sf.
festival she sings a lot! , | also; too; even (though).
[Phon: The variations represent
AC- ay-phal 'E' |
See: 'aw'. different styles of speech, from very
distinct to rather slurred
AE aw n. LL, w , , pronunciation. For the fusion of this
| uncle (father's brother, or husband suffix with /-la/, /-na/ and /-'ya/ and
of mother's sister, stepfather). with preceding syllable final /-a/ see
AE / / {-
{-} aw appendix 6, section 4.3.]
dawa/ dayum/ dayim {ar-} n. `U ALU A J `
{v.i.} g, k {V} moon {shine}. V! ah-gi 'arkal-gi piihmi-'aa
[Note: 'dayum/ dayim' may also be ooh 'leehmu-'ra 'yeh-ba-'gyile!
preceded by 'aw'] g j ! I think
AE J-M J`- the woman is also like this, naturally!
aw 'dayum-la 'ohp-'kyal oh- cl.dr. S ` A` -M ?
g U V| be a lunar eclipse. 'kho ah 'mee-de-'a 'thap-'thukpa
'yeh-ba le? F Yt j ?
AT akhye mehme
Would he really be worse than I am?
AL k |
-A` A

E ! 'nohno-'laa 'aw peh-te, ah 'ame thame kahl-sin!

ter le! D E F ! Give L L U, L L U, A H!
little brother some apple, too! Which work shall I do now, I am in
Sg M hg `A dilemma!
`U| 'khartsani 'kyah ti-tse A`/
A`/ A -L aya/ anya
'yeh-na-ni 'da'aa dage. Sg HL (N) peh-k A U|
k H Uj| If you have about wrong s.b.
one hundred to spend this will do.
TU `
...-A`... -a...-a... ` A` M | 'khya-gi
double_conj. ...... conjunctions: di 'ban-la tohbo 'tup-si-'ma-na
and; both. [Phon: For phonetic 'yih-la 'aya peh-'kyo 'yihmba.
variations and fusion with other S Lt
suffixes see previous entry.] [Gram: D A UL j | If you cut'a + +'a + trees in this forest, you are doing us] [Disc: an alternative way of an injustice.
conjoining noun phrases]
Ag/ Aj/ A/ A! atsa/
J AA` , kA` atsha/ ata/ atha! excl. A|
M `U | ohle 'ama-'a 'ii-de, exclamations: ouch (used when feeling
pehza-'a 'ii-de 'kyohwa tagu 'du. a burning or pricking pain).
A hg j L P Aj, U j! 'atsha, 'meh-gi
U j| Both the mother and the 'tshii-sin! A, AU ! Ouch, I
child died, and they are performing got burned!
the after funeral rites.
A, SL ! 'atha, 'khap-ki
U T hU UA 'suuh-sin! A, Yh! Ouch, I
J`U, TU hU UA got stung!
J`UV! piihmi-gi 'khyowa-la
'tur-lu-gi 'gin-'aa oh-ge, 'khyowa-gi Ah/
Ah/ AhC! ata/ atay! excl.
piihmi-la 'tur-lu-gi 'gin-'aa k, A, Ah! exclamations: oh, (I
oh-gen-'gyile! V D forgot); I missed it.
UE L j, V D Ah - `C t h ! ata -
UE L j! The wife has ah-y 'ehmba 'teh 'du! A,
a method to discipline her husband, ! Oh, I forgot it!
and the husband has a method to Ll - Ah - S-
discipline his wife! 'kohlda-ni - ata - 'khawa-ni... g
, C C, E .... As to the lock,
A` ` y-
y- ame thame no, I mean as to the snow...
o- ,
| be in a dilemma. Al ai n. | elder sister.
h, ` A` A ada n. k, C| elder brother.
` L! kaahndi kaahndi 'leeh
A ado adv. L , wL |

moderately; quite a lot; quite long; 1) , Ck, , Al,

somewhat more. kwL | aunt (father's sister, or
A t | ado 'aah-di 'yeh. L mother's brother's wife).
k HL j| He feels somewhat 2) QD U U U |
better. form of address for a nun.
J` A m y Lh ! 3) D U U U |
ohra ado 'zap-te o 'koh-te leh! form of address for one's
L `U U kj! We mother-in-law.
must go dressed up still a bit more!
A anya 'A`' | See:
LV ` L? - 'aya'.
Al L| 'moh kahl-'gyo
'yihnda 'rih-'le kahl-ba? - ado-i A A!/ A! apa apa!/
kahl-sin. E UHL L ? - L apapa! excl. A , J!
exclamations: expressing admiration.
| How long is it since she has
gone? - Oh, it's quite a while. U L, `
U L L,
M A gM , Lh L h ` l ! A A! 'laptar
'sulgar kehn-de, teega karpu kehn-de,
! di 'kyibu-ni ado tsokpa 'du,
'kahp-te peh-ku 'du! LL A ti 'so diba leh! apa apa! J!
j, tM Sl j! This is MS UH! L
quite a vicious dog, he is about to bite SHL! Wearing a Nepali
me! outfit and a white woolen jacket, how
smart, just look at him!
Al ado-mu-i adv./ adj.
(HL, UHL) quite A h-L apta te-k
well (referring to quantity and U, t`V E| come to a decision
quality). quickly (without much deliberation).
Al L | 'leeh-ni ` yH V `U` A
ado-mu-i peh-ku 'du. L L U h, `U ! 'nama 'la
j| Oh, she is working quite well. o-en 'gyaa-la 'moh-'ra-gi-'ra apta
Ly ?- Al | 'te-ti, "meh-yoh-ge" 'mee-di lo!
'nama 'kahnu-mu 'du-ba? ado-mu-i V k wE A

'du. L j? wML j| L t`VC ! When they went to
What is the bride like? She is quite ask for the bride, she herself made a
nice. quick decision and said, she wouldn't
accept the proposal.
A ana (N) n. (o.f.) A| money:
four-paisa coin. A aba n. , | father. ''
y lU A h A`U| 'ibu | See also: 'paba'.
'i-gi 'ana tii oh-ge. g HL A A aba 'ama (coll.)
A j| Four paisa make an 'ana'. A| parents. '' |
See also: 'phama'.
A ani n.

A/ AC! abi/ abuy! (N) excl. V kUA` A
Lt U | l yE ! di 'gyaa-la
exclamations: expressing surprise or pehza-'ya-gi-'a 'mih-la 'abru ten
fear. 'aa-di o-w 'du! wE hg
A! y J`! abi! 'lhani jD Clk U k j!
oh-sin! AC! A! Ohhh, this is In this place even the children behave
a ghost! indecently towards you!
AE/ AE! abow/ amow! j`U L `U `
excl. ! k t U l` A V , J `!
exclamations: expressing tha-gi uk-la-ni ah-gi-ni rahn-la
disapproval or fear. dibu-'ra 'abru ten-'gyo 'du-ba, ooh
'yihmu-ni! ML ky
M hA` S , AE!
'mikya ti-'a phii miih-khu 'du, abow! AD Clk UL j,
ASL Lg j M j, ! I realize now that in my
drunkenness I disgraced myself
AC! Oh dear, he can't even wipe his
eye secretion off! terribly that day!
AE l! h J`U ! - 'abru 'or-
A -
abow 'diiba! ta 'phuu-la 'ten oh-gu Clk | disgrace
'du! , L y V! E: t oneself; become infamous. [Gram: exp.
takes <-ti>]
Y AE j! How dangerous, a
tiger is coming from over there! U J k` y ,
A` A L, SA` A
A abdali (N) adj. A, L| 'moh-gi ooh 'leehmu dzi-di
L | childless; barren mehno 'ma-si-'ma-na, 'moh-ti-'a
(of people). '' | See also: 'abru 'or-ken, 'kho-ti-'a 'abru
'thaara'. 'or-ken. nUy U k
S A | 'kho 'abdali , L Clk j, EL
'yihm-ba. F A | He has no
Clk j| If she quarrels like
children. that and says she won't accept the
U A M| 'moh-gi 'abdali proposal, she disgraces herself and
'tuh-'kyo. E A EwC| She him as well.
inherited it from a childless relative.
A MU ` | di A am att.p. Ahj Lt U |
attitude particles: expressing
'abdali 'tuh-'kyo-gi ih 'yihm-ba.
foreboding; "unlucky" emphasis.
A EwHL kVU | (He) inherited
this field from a childless relative. [Gram: is preceded by vs+<-ko>]
[Disc: occurs after foreboding
A - abru (H) ten- questions]
Clk U, A U| disgrace s.b. or S` L ! k
oneself; defame s.b. or oneself; behave U A! di 'khaba-la 'keehlam

then 'du! nahm-dze-le phar rohm-go on the top of 'Yangri Kahng'.

am! Y gM j! L Lj, L!
Al` amda n. w|
There is a crack in this house, it may handful-sized lump.
collapse any time!
C h
A hL hL/ A U/ A m
`! mahy piihru-la ter-te-la 'polda
L L L am tak tak amda 'zee-do! L yD
(E)/ am plege/ am plek plek SED wL wL y F!
plek (W) t, S| tasteless Make handful-sized lumps of this
(of liquids). dough to give to the buffalo calf!
A -/ A U y-
y- am Al` L` amda 'kah
looh-/ am lohge o- w| a handful.
ML V/ | get fed up (mostly g Al` L` UU| 'tsamba
used for food). ' -, M -, M amda 'kah gam-ge. w
U' | See also: 'na looh-, L Sj| I will throw a
kyu looh-, kyu lohge'. handful of roasted flour into my
` k A
| 'sehn mahbu seeh-di Al amdi n. A L gLL|
pehza-'ya-la am looh-sin 'du. y doctor who practises herbal medicine
SH hg ML Hj| The (usually a Tibetan monk).
children got fed up with eating corn J Al ``
mash all the time. `U` L| ohle amdi 'mehme
'ohwa 'mahr 'phep na-ge-'ra
A ama n. A| mother. ''
| See also: 'ma'. 'yehken. A A L gLL k
L A| 'kal 'ama. w L| `` AE | And
engine. grandfather Ngohwang, the doctor
was on his way to come here.
A| 'rel 'ama. L Ck|
train engine. A M- ambur 'kyahp- tL S| dig one's teeth
A `
` {-
{-} ama
yihma {ar-} {v.i.} Y into food.
{V}, {EE} sun {shine/ rise}. `U U A M M|
'`' | See also: 'yihma'. 'yih-gi magi ambur 'kyahp-ti
sah-'kyo. L tL SHL| We
A ` J-M
dug our teeth into the corn on the
J`- 'ama 'yihma-la 'ohp-'kyal
oh- cl.dr. U V| be a solar cob.
eclipse. A` A` M
A h amlu yeh-'kyo
h ` ama tohmu
yari Q HEt L HL| tasteless (of liquids).
| names of deities: goddess residing A/
A/ AE! aya/ ayaw! excl.
A A!

A! exclamations: expressing a person will wander around feeling lost

sudden pain. in the place between heaven and hell.
A! M t! 'aya! 'lahkpa AE! alaw! excl. S
'em-di! AE! h! Ouch! my
| exclamations: expressing a lasting
hand got caught! pain.
A aren (N) n. A| blacksmith's AE! ` U M! alaw!
workshop. ah goo 'suh 'kyahp-sin! A!
Ag` artsa n. M y| tEL T! O dear! I have a terrible
household utensils: equipment for headache!
distilling whisky. [Note: consists of A M- almal (N) kyahp-
'phui/ phoi, miiza/ miira, A UE, A M,
belu', and 'baa'] k U| fine s.b. for damage done
j` U Ag`| tha ten-ge by cattle in fields.
'artsa. M y| the
A {-L} ali (N) {peh-k}
equipment for making whisky. adj. Aj {U}, {} {be} lazy.
A arti n. J St| A asa n. LL, w A,
clothing: shawl worn by monks. [Note:
A| aunt (father's brother's wife).
lamas also wear it when dressing up]
A A 'asa 'ama Lj
A arpa (W) n. n`Ut| house A, A| stepmother.
parts: tile (used for roofs). '' |
A -L asatya (N) peh-k
See: 'yarpa (E)'. U U, | do
A T-
T- ala khyam- wrong. A , | A M j j hH|
feel lost; wander around (in circles). 'asatya peh-'kyo-di-la thaa 'tshal
'S T-' | See also: tuu-en. U ULD Yy tL V
'khorwa khyam-'. Ej| The one who has done wrong
A A k A has to bow down ceremonially in the
TU| aba 'ama meeh-na pehza temple.
'phema-'ya ala 'khyam-ge. A j
A` aa n.
j| When 1) , , kw, k| uncle
the parents are not home small (mother's brother, or husband of
children wander around feeling lost. father's sister). [Note: The latter may
` M S A also be called 'mahkpa'.]
TU| sa 'kyeeh miih-khu-na 2) D U U U |
'imbu pahrto-la ala 'khyam-gen. form of address for one's
U V L g father-in-law.
A j| If he cannot go to
heaven, the spirit of the deceased A! aha! excl. J, A!

A Ay
exclamations: expressing admiration or A ahna conj. H, H|
excitement. conjunctions: in that case; so.
A! Lk S`! 'aha! 'kahze A MkA` J` ?! -
khamsaa! A! L D! Oh! A, A L EC ? 'a
How much fun! 'kyahldzen-'a oh 'du rooh?! 'amo,
ahna 'kah-wa 'uy rooh? C Vk
A/ H! aha/ e! excl. U
U AL n | AEHj! - A! L C
exclamations: oh, (I made a mistake). ? Elder brother Kyahldzen has
come, too! Ah, in that case it will be
A, `! 'aha, di-di
mah-yoh-ba! J, g H! Oh, good fun, won't it, my friend?
this won't do! J U U, A
H, `C k! 'e, ah-y dzol-sin! H, j y LH! | ohle-ni
'yuhl-gi 'mih-'ya-gi, "ahna-ni tshol o
! Oh, I made a mistake!
'koh-en!" 'mee-di 'ma-sin. j
A` J` aha ohe adj./ adv. UEL j, H Sl
SL| wide open. 'A`' kj! | And then the
| See also: 'ahe'. villagers said, "In that case we have to
L A` J` S M ! 'koh go and look for him!"
'aha ohe 'kha phee-'kyo 'du-ba! L
SL j! Oh, the door is wide A...
... A... ahna... ahna...
open! double_conj. ... ... conjunctions:
either... or (with aff.;
M A` J` ! 'phukpa 'ahe
ohe 'du! Jy L j! Oh, this neither... nor (with neg.
is such a wide cave. A h ` yl H ,
A S` L H | ahna
A` ahe adj. EYL| open. tihmba ta-de o-e 'ma-e 'yihm-ba,
L A` | 'koh 'ahe 'du. L ahna khamsabu peh-ke 'ma-e
S j| The door is open. 'yihm-ba. U L , C
L S A` | kahm 'kha 'ahe U L | She says either she wants
'du. LL L S j| The lid of to give sacrificially to people, or else
the chest is open. she is going to have a good time.
Aw/ Uw
Uw! ahhe/ gahe! excl. A SH , A
H!, hg! exclamations: expressing T yH | ahna 'situp pi
wonder or astonishment. miih-khu-e lo, ahna 'khyowa-di phar
l` S` J`, Aw, mehno-e lo. E Kw L
! dibu-'ra khamsabu Mj , EL A kj |
oh-de, 'ahhe, 'rahmne-la-ni! hg! Neither is she able to pull off the ring,
C , ! The nor will her husband go away.
dedication festivities were such a lot
Ay ahna-bar (W) adv.
of fun, really! , | this way. 'Ay()'

Ay() A-E

| See: 'ahna(-mu) (E)'. just like that!.

` mH HU Ay T A k
, Al A! 'yih pohmbo 'zo-e L , Ly , y!
'ma-e-di-'ga 'ahna-bar 'nahle, 'ai tee 'khyim aba 'yihm-ba-'laa pehza
'aa! nP L , 'leehmu tam 'mee 'teh-ku 'du,
! Look sister, this is the
'kahnumu 'mih 'yihm-ba, 'yehnamu!
way we become a shaman! Y H hg k L U
Ay()/ y()/ y()/ j, L j j, ! Even
though he is the head of the
y() ahna(-mu)/
yehna(-mu)/ dena(-mu)/ household, he goes on talking like a
dene(-mu) adv. , | this child, such a fellow!
way. [Usage: 'dena/ dene' is o.f.] Ay`/
y`/ y` ahna-'ra/
J Al, y ! 'oo 'ai, yehna-'ra adv. , | for
dene tam 'yihm-ba! , L nothing; free.
! Yes sister, this is the way it is! A t` Ay` L?
Ay/ y ahna di ahmyen 'ahna-'ra ter-ke?
'yehna peh-ti U, H t` ? So will you
U| this way; in such a way; this give this string instrument to me for
kind. nothing?
Ay/ y 'ahna/ Ay` w `l
'yehna 'ma-na SH? 'ahna-'ra-ni 'mih-la him
, | conjunctions: in that case. ta-de-la 'su 'teh khuu-en? L
Ay/ y 'ahna/ L U L Mj? Who can
'yehna 'ma-si-'ma-na be a judge for the people without j, getting anything for it?
j| conjunctions: in that case. A-E ahp-uhp
Ay/ y Lt U | intensifier for 'tuh-,
'yehna 'mee-di , khyer-, kyaa khyer-, tooh-'.
| this way (in speaking l` A-E
g ! di pela thamdi-'ra
Ay()/ y()/ y()/ 'ahp-'uhp 'tiih-di tselba-la 'luu!
y() ahna(-mu)/ nt nt EwH yL ! Gather
yehna(-mu)/ dena(-mu)/ up all these things swiftly and put it
dene(-mu) excl. ! into the carrying basket.
exclamations: such a thing/ person!;


A aa att.p. (E U U A M h- 'aar (N) 'kye tuu- | encourage.
) attitude particles: friendly
emphasis. [Disc: frequently used after A j 'aar (N) thimbu
orders] | courageous.
, `` A! loh AL/
L/ AL aarak/ arak ' L/
'pheebe 'meehme-'ya, 'sen na-do 'aa! L' | See: 'yeerak/ yerak'.
lk , ! Okay, ladies A/ A -L aas/ aase (N)
and gentlemen, listen please! peh-k A U| hope for.
A, k, LU S ` hA` lL A
` LH! tee 'aa, pehza-'ya, 'mih M| ah-la ti-'a dor-ke ni
kehmba-gi 'kha-la 'yihn 'koh-en! , 'mee-di 'aase peh-'kyo. L Ej L
, L L j! Look A UL| I hoped I would get
children, you must listen to what something.
older people say!
A -L 'aase peh 'teh-k
A, `C L| di 'leeh A U| keep
mah-be 'aa, ah-y peh-ken. L U hoping.
, Uj| Don't do this work, I'll do it. ` T J`U A M,
A -
- aa tap- gt, ! ah-ni khye oh-ge 'mee-di 'aas
tM, g| sting; bite (if not peh 'teh-'kyo, rooh! AEj
preceded by snapping). 'L-' A U L ! I kept hoping
| See also: 'kahp-'. you would come, friend!
U A L| bu-gi aa 'tap-ken. ...HU A h quote +
L tMj| Bugs bite. 'ma-en-gi 'aas tii 'yeh
L CU A , M! ... A U| hope
'polda ter-ke-mu mahy-gi aa 'tap-ti, that.... [Gram: cop.= specific
'lahkpa-la! jL w SE
existence] [Disc: quote states the
tM, ! The buffalo bit my hand event hoped for]
when I gave it a lump of flour dough. SU ` J`
A aa amu E HU A h | 'kho-gi ah-la di
'leeh-la rooh peh oh 'ma-e-gi 'aas tii
hE| foods: large orange-coloured
mushroom. [Note: grows on tree 'yeh-ba. E D L Uj
trunks] A SL j| I am hoping
that he will help me with this work.
A M-U aar (N) kye-g ...H (`U) A -L , E E| have quote + 'ma-en-di (ah-gi) 'aas
courage; be encouraged. peh-k ... A


()Uj| hope that.... [Gram: transitive emphatic adjectives]

construction] [Disc: quote states the A! di seeh yaah-ba
event hoped for] 'aah! A! gk L ! Oh, how
h `U J Lh ` nice this is!
H `U A | 'mih tii T L A! khye-ni 'kah-wa
yii-gi-ni ooh 'keta 'oh ee-ro 'aah! D A j! Oh, you are
'ma-e-di ah-gi 'aas peh-ti 'yeh-ba. HL well off!
Ck L pj A Ly yl A? ` l
HL j| I am hoping that one or two A! 'kahnum peh-te o-e aba?
people would know about this. ah-ni 'dii-ba 'aah! L k ?
aah att.p. Aw Lt U D y Vj! How can I go father,
I am afraid!
| attitude particles: astonishment/
foreboding. [Disc: occurs often after

D, j A! , tshera aah! | interjections: expressing loneliness
elliptic_S O, ML V U U or boredom.

E u n. (hon. of 'goo') tEL (t.) l EC! taah 'tihri
` j
head. tsheeba 'i 'uy! Ak g ! Now
today is the forth day of the lunar
E-` 'u-'yee n. (hon. of
'yeebul/ yeembul') L, month, isn't it?
(t.) cushion. Ek -L uzur (N) peh-k
E-t 'u-a n. (hon. of 'a') L Ek U| make a court
(t.) hair (of head). complaint.
E- 'u-'ah n. (hon. of E-
E- up- v.t. j| cover up.
'ahmu') t (t.) clothing: cap;
SU J J U E lH |
hat. 'kho-gi ooh 'om toh-gi 'up 'aa-en lo.
EC uy att.p. , C | attitude j Tj | He
E `U
particles: asking for affirmative said he would cover up that hole with
response. stones.
Al A, ` yH EC! E umali n. | work utensils:
'ai tee 'aa, 'yih 'mih-'ya 'nehpa o-en scales.
'uy! , j j,
L- 'umali-la kar-
E L-
C ? Look sister, we people kT| weigh with
become sick, don't we?
Ek E-

scales. tam ma- C gC U

Ek/ k {-L} umdze/ | exaggerate.
yindze {peh-k} n. {v.i.} pt ` J` E l
kE ( k H| ah 'poh-la oh-di 'uhru diba
tam 'ma-en. jE AH C gC
){} lamaisms: {perform the duty
of} the musician. [Note: 'puhptal U L Uj| She comes to me and
tuh-, kyahli phu-, etc., second exaggerates everything terribly.
rank of the lamaistic hierarchy] E uldumba adj. S| foolish;
EL urken n. OL | names:
personal name. h E , T! ti 'mih
uldumba 'du-ba, khye-ni! M S j
EL urken peema j, ! What a stubborn person
UL | names of deities: name of you are!
a god.
E`y `-
`- uha la-
Eg -L urtsu peh-k hgE| strike out.
AU U, A U, L UE| urge LU E`y ` L
s.b. M ` !
S`U, T y` LH Eg prehka-gi 'uha 'la-di ter-ken
L| khu-gi, "khye o-'ra 'koh-en" 'bela-ni 'sodi-di 'yahr 'kyer 'lah-sin 'du
'mee-di 'urtsu peh-ken. E, lo! xD hgH tS Vg
k j L Ej| They are kML Ewj ! When he struck out and
urging you to go. hit the good luck, it jumped up to his
E -L urti (N) peh-k feet and stood straight up! E U| request to come.
E () uhp (rohwa)
` J k LH , E L intens.(ph.) tML, | intensifier for
| 'tihring ooh-la dzom 'koh-en lo, 'tiih-, tuh-, kyaa-'.
'urti peh-ku 'du. Ak j E() L!
E Uj| He is requesting 'meh-ni 'uhp (rohwa) 'tiih-di kahl-di!
people to gather there today.
AU U! The fire
E` M- uhri kyahp- devoured everything! E| hurl at; throw l` E L!
away (negative conn.). 'nehpa-ni 'dua 'uhp 'tiih-di kahl-di!
l , E` M! HL j L U! The sick
to-'ya sah-e meeh-ba, 'uhri person died in one moment!
'kyahp-ti! S C, Hj!
E- uhr- v.i. Ey| fly.
Instead of eating the food they threw h-` h EL| 'tihbi-da
it out! 'tahmu 'uhr-ken. g LS Eyj|
E l -
- uhru diba Birds and chickens fly.

E F`

E E uhr uhr 'tshii 'du lo. u S Hj |

- (E) intensifier for Both caught fire in one moment and
'thu-'. burnt up to completely.
M E E `U| 'thukpa 'uhr 'uhr ` Ll E |
thu-ge. S U Sj| I 'tihri sa 'ko-e-ni 'uhruru sihn-sin.
am drinking up the soup quickly. AkL t S L gy |
Today we finished digging up the soil
E/ E uhr/ uhruru (E) intens.
with gusto.
Lt U | intensifier for
'tiih-, tshar-, sihn-'. 'k' | E uhlu n. (Ug
See: 'dzorroro (W)'. g gt Lw) weaving terms: flattish
`L` E ` j | piece of wood used to pull out the
yi-ka-'ra 'uhr 'tiih-de 'thala 'phue warp threads alternately.

breathe. ' `-' | See: 'puuh
F uu n. , | breath; fermenting
gases. '' | See also: 'puuh'. ta- (W)'.
j` U F U| , S F `U/ `U |
tha ten-ge-mu 'uu 'or-na 'preeh maah-'i 'yeh, 'kho 'uu ta-gu/ 'a-gu
yahl-gen. M M 'du. L j, F j| He is not
dead, he is still breathing.
Ej| If some steam escapes
(between the 2 bottom bowls) when y- 'uu then-/
F -/ j-L/ y-
you distill whisky it becomes tasteless. 'the-k/ o- k,
'uu gyo khuu-
F V` S
S- | die. E| be able to - 'uu 'sor-
F -
control one's breath, e.g. when , U| be short of breath (when
singing. sick); rattle in throat.
U U F V` SE | di - 'uu hal-
F -
piihmi-gi 'lu lehn-ge-mu 'uu gyo ` ` | pant.
khuu-w 'du. Lt U UE EL F- h 'uu-'dep tii-la
E j| This woman is able HL | in one breath.
to control her breath when she sings. F` uuna n. , U| physical
F j- 'uu 'tshup- well-being; vigor. [Disc: Observed with
| be choking. negative only.]
-U 'uu 'tshup-ti 'i-g
F j - `C k F`` ! ah-y H | choke zubu-la "uu-na-'ra meeh-ba!
to death. kE j! I feel great physical
F `- `- 'uu ta-/ 'uu
`-/ F `- weakness.
'a- | ` F`` L| ah


'uu-na-'ra meeh-ba kahl-sin.

H| I lost all strength and vigor. F S yH h, F y|
'uuh-di 'kha o-e ti, 'uuh-di 'men-ni
F uuh (W) pr. ( UL
mehno. S kj L,
OD t ) we (inclusive). [Disc:
potential dual form '*uuh yii' not | Our mouth keeps
t k
used] 'J`' | See: 'ohra'. working, our battery doesn't run out.
A A, F A ! aba F` 'uuh-'ra (W) pr.
'aa, di-ni 'uuh 'ama mihn leh! , ( UL OD t ) we
ourselves (inclusive, emphatic).
A C! Father, this is not our

H e 'A' | See: 'aha'. H ! 'e rooh! J , H !
Hey friend!
H/ H e/ ee p. H| vocatives: hey.

J/ J o/ oo p. H, | vocatives: J Al! 'yihm-ba 'oo 'ai!
attention-drawer; imploration (when ! Yes, I agree with you, elder
used to gods). [Disc: 'o/ oo' + title of sister!
the person addressed] [Usage: to JC oy p. k| interjections: yes, I
people who are at some distance, but heard you; yes, what is it?.
not very far.] `U L M S`U JC !
J , ` ! 'o 'mehme, ah-gi 'kee 'kyahp-na khu-gi "'oy"
de-la 'phep-to leh! J k, meh-'ma 'du! H E
AE ! O grandfather, please k j! When I call out to
come here! them they don't respond to me!
J Ll, ` l m ``! JE ow p. ky E U U
'oo kindo, 'yih-la 'thu-i 'zii
( t E)
na-do! , D U ! vocatives: particle added to the name
Oh God, be gracious to us! (or term of address) of a person called
J 'o rooh H ( out to from a considerable distance.
U U ) vocatives: hey friend. [Disc: occurs finally]
[Usage: among friends of the same
A AE! y J` , !
sex, between husband and wife, to 'ama 'ow! de-la ombo oh 'du, o!
A ! AEHj, AE!
J/ J o/ oo p. | interjections: Mother, mother! Guests have arrived,
expressing agreement. please come!

J` J`-

J` o n. AL, , AT|} {/ A} A`U (A`U)

authority; power. {have complete/ incomplete}
l J` LU ` members (of human body or faculty).
E ! yahmbi-i o
L`- A AU M k
'yeh-ken-'ya-gi 'mih 'prabu 'du J` j` MH | aba 'ama-gi
'mee-di-ni 'kah-neene 'ma-w 'du! 'tihkpa peh-si-'ma-na pehza obu
AL AL U j mah-'tsha-ba 'kye-en lo. A
j! The ones who have U hg A`U kj |
some power say whatever they like to People say that if father and mother
the poor people! commit sin, their children will be
J` j- o 'thee- born as cripples.
AL gE| assume authority; J` `- obu yahm-
power. [Gram: undg. takes <-ki A`U | defective
thoo-la>] member (of human body or faculty).
J U `U J` jE [Gram: exp. takes gen. <-ki>]
! ooh 'mih-gi 'prabu-'ya-gi 'thoo-la LU J` ` ! di 'ku-gi
o 'thee-w 'du! j Ut obu-ni yahm-sin 'du! L
C EwE j! That person is -Su gLHj! The limbs of this
taking advantage of the poor! idol are damaged!
J` j U o 'theemu
L J`-
J`-` o-luh n. Q Q|
'yeh-ken-gi AL HL, instruction; guidance; qualification
L (AL) weak (as (pertaining to religious services).
to authority).
-k HU j SU `
- o thop- dr.
J` - SH, SU J`-` M|
AL U/ E| get authority; lam-'rehndzen 'ma-e-gi 'thowa 'kho-gi
power. ta khuu-en, 'kho-gi o-'luh
J` o 'yeh thop-'kyo. -k k-w
ALL | have authority; power. E Mj, L U E Q
[Gram: cop.= specific existence]
Q UL j| He is allowed to
J` obu n. A`U| member (of perform the worship ceremony called
human body). "Lam-Rehndzen", he got the
J`U k A` j U qualification for it.
| ohra-gi zubu-la obu J`-
J`-` `- o-'luh na-
thimbu-di goo 'yihm-ba. L Q Q | give
T A`U tEL | The most instruction/ guidance.
important member on our body is the -j J`-`
head. `U| h `U, M
{j`-/ j`} obu
J` {j`- `U| lama
h `U!
{'tsha-/ mah-'tsha-ba} n. {v.i./ 'rihmbur-'thee 'phep-si-'ma-na


o-'luh na-ge. "'lobi peh-te `U () J | ah-gi

meh-yoh-ge, 'tihkpa peh-te sa(-la) 'om 'pruh-sin. D
meh-yoh-ge!" 'mee-di su-gen. S| I dug a hole in the ground.
-j AE Q Q `U ` J | ah-gi
j| U

, U

! i-la 'om 'pruh-sin. Lw
j| When the reincarnated lama | I carved out a hole in the piece
comes, he gives instruction. He says, of wood.
"You must not be greedy, you must
J M- om kyaa-
not commit sin!"
| snatch away (intensified); lift up
J`-` - o-'luh 'uh-
J`- (intensified). Q Q U/ | get
j` `U J M T |
instruction/ guidance. ''thuma-di 'yalmu-gi 'om 'kyaa
J J`U J`-` | 'khyer-te lo. D g nP
ohle ohra-gi o-'luh 'uh-sin. A
V | The giant woman
Q Q U| And we snatched away his wife.
got instruction.
J/ J/ J omu/ omo
J om n. , | hole. 'g`, lama omu n. L jL
l J -/ -' | See
U U U | designation for a
also: 'tsahli, namdo om tol-/ lama's daughter.
-/ -/ - 'om tol-/ phu-
J - J {M-} ohrta (W+E)
(E)/ 'om tol-/ 'phru- (W) {kyahp-} n. {v.t.} {E} {build}
, jy| make a hole. a fence. 'L' | See also:
`U Lh J | 'kahrta (E)'.
ah-gi di 'kapta-la 'om tol-sin. JU`/
JU`/ JU` olga/ olgo n.
U | I made a hole into U, Yt| gullet; esophagus (body
this piece of clothing. part).
J - 'om tohl- J olba adj. kU, | r. | get a hole;
industrious; diligent.
get pierced.
J | 'moh olba 'du. F
` J | 'haya 'om kU j| She is industrious
tohl-sin 'du. Mg j| There
U J L | 'moh-gi 'leeh
is a hole in the pot. olba peh-ku 'du. E kU H L
Lh J | di 'kapta Uj| She works diligently.
'om tohl-sin 'du. U j|
Oh, this piece of clothing has a hole. J - oe uh-
J -/ - 'om 'pruh-/ 'phru- gE| beg instently. St S, | dig a `U Ll J H, `
hole. MU ``! ah-gi kindo-la
'oe 'uh-en, ah-la di 'tuhkpu-le-gi
JL` Jk

ten na-do! D historical.

! Oh
gEj, D St E U J`- oh- cop. | be (in the
God, I beg you instently, please take sense of general quality or existence);
me out of this trouble! grow (in the sense of growth
- 'oe 'ku-khye
J L-T - possible). [Gram: copula for general
'ma- U| beg (as opposed to specific) existence,
insistently. location and attribution; after the neg.
`U J L-T `U t`U prefix the stem is 'yoh-']
`M ! ah-gi 'oe 'ku-khye M gM J`U| di 'kyibu
'mee-de-'ra-'ga 'aga yihkya ter-pa! tsokpo oh-ge. LL j| This
j E is a vicious dog.
C ! After begging
` J`U| 'yih 'yuhl-la
insistently, he finally gave me one 'he oh-gen. UE A j|
hundred rupees. Potatoes grow in our village.
`/ J` ohka/ ohwa J`U() oh-ge(n) j
n. jy| house parts: ground-floor room. (L) alright; okay.
[Note: used for storage and keeping J`l w/ w oh-de hi/ he
small animals] k| seem suitable.
J`- oh- v.i. AE| come. [Gram: J`l w , T` y|
after the neg. prefix the stem is 'nama oh-de hi 'du, khyo-na
'yoh-'; imp. is 'o!'] ii-ro. LL k j, H
` J` J` j | She will be alright as a wife
(for our son), we might as well take
L ! ah oh oh-la-ni 'moh-ni
'phet 'thal-de kahl 'du-ba! ACV her.
F UCLj| Oh I see, while I was J`l oh-de 'du
coming she went ahead swiftly. j| be suitable.
J`U/ J`U ohgu/ ohgo -wU U L l
n. A| income. J`l U l lU
'yuhl-him-gi 'laagi-la kaahndi 'aa-na
h h, , y
oh-de 'du tee-di goba 'i 'aa-gen.
`, J`U hA` ! ti
peh-te, de-la di 'yuhl-la o-sum-di UEL k gED L L T
mahbu, oh-gu ti-'a mihndu! L U, j gk AU StCj| We
look who might be suitable to guard
UE Sg , A ! What can
we do, here in this village we have the village tradition and appoint four
many expenses, but there is nothing leaders.
coming in! J` J` -L oh oh
J`` J`VU
`VU peh-ti 'teh-k '' | See: 'meh'.
oh-'ra oh-'gyo-gi tam Jk (`) ohze (-'ra) qt.
CAHL L| real-life experience; (), E() that much.
Jl J`

Jk L` ohze 'kah-la J-M L| 'yibi-la | conjunctions: at that 'ohp-'kyal kahl-sin. l S E|
time. [Disc: occurs sentence initially] Sorry, this is inconvenient for you.
'L`' | See also: 'kahla'. J-M - 'ohp-'kyal phul-
Jk ohze 'bela-le (hon. of 'tuhkpu ter-') S S, ES| conjunctions: , Lt | make it inconvenient for
at that time. [Disc: occurs sentence s.b; give hardship.
initially] kU J-M |
Jk ohze-ba qt./ adv. L| pehza-'ya-gi 'yibi-la 'ohp-'kyal phul-sin.
that much (referring to quantity and hg lD S H| Sorry, the
quality); such. '-g/-k' | children were bothering you.
See also: '-tse-ba~-dze-ba~-ze-ba'.
J- ohm- v.t. LE, LE|
Jk T ! 'lahbu entice; coax; comfort.
ohze-ba 'khyer o! k F!
Bring about that much radishes! J ohma n. | milk; female
(Indicating the amount wanted on the breast.
basket.) -U/ - 'ohma 'i-g/
J -
Jk | 'ii- t| the milk goes
tahlen 'he ohze-ba yaahbu maah-yah sour.
'du. A j| -j` 'ohma-'tsha n.
The potatoes haven't done too well Lgy| udder.
this year. `U J-j` hL |
Jk (`) ohze-la (-'ra) 'pahla-gi 'ohma-'tsha 'tarka
temp. S (), () mihn-du. UDL Lgy g j| The
conjunctions: just then (emph.). [Disc: udder of the cow is not firm.
occurs sentence initially] J-- 'ohma-'tar n. L |
cream of milk. 'U' | See
Jl ohndu n. also: 'priga'.
MS E g| clothing: Tibetan J- , J m ,
style blouse.
` U| 'ohma-'tar
J ohp (W) n. Sy| crevice; 'tiih-di, ohle oh 'zee-di, oh 'a-di
hole in ground. 't' | See: 'mahr ten-ge. L EwH,
'hopa (E)'. kH, A YE Lj| Taking
J M | 'baso 'ohp-la of the cream of the milk we make
'kyahp du. UD Sy j| Oh, curds, and then we churn the curds to
the animal fell into a crevice! make butter.
y- 'ohp-'kyal o-
J-M y- J` ohra (E+W) pr. (hon. of 'tuhkpu yuh-') 1) ( UL OD t )
S , Lt | endure hardship; be we (inclusive) (E). 'F' | See:
inconvenient for s.b. 'uuh (W)'.
J-j J

2) D| you (somewhat hon., sg. and ! 'ai ooh-la ee ter,

pl.). 'ohr-'thee, 'yih 'nuhmu 'nehpa 'yeh!
J` ` ohra yii j , UC,
Ck ( UL OD t ) j! Sister, please go there, my
we (inclusive, dual); you (dual). younger sister is sick!
[Usage: The dual form is not ` `, Al J-j! ah
obligatory, but it is good style to use mih-thu, 'ai 'ohr-'thee! j,
it when it applies.] S! I don't want to drink any,
J`` ohra-'ra pr. sister, please don't force me!
A ( UL D t ) J ohle conj. A| conjunctions:
we ourselves (inclusive, emphatic); and then.
you yourselves.
` ohle 'yehpa-'ra
J` h ` ohra tii yii A | conjunctions: further; HL Ck ( in addition to.
UL OD t ) some of us JU ohle-gi conj. S,
(inclusive); some of you.
t| conjunctions: after that;
J-j ohr-thee p. | afterwards.
interjections: please; polite, sincere
J` ohwa 'JL`' |
refusal. See: 'ohka'.
Al J y , J-j, `

that. 'L`' | See also:
J oo 'J' | See: 'o'.
J- oo- (E) v.t. t (, , , J L` U k j k
A) pick (flowers, leaves, fruit). -j L L| ooh 'kah-la
'`-' | See: 'oo- (W)'. Yohlmu-gi pehze 'theemu 'dzati
kU E JE | pehza-'ya-gi lama-'thee 'lop-ko 'yeh-ken.
'aw oo-w 'du. hg E t
L hg k -AQ
j| Oh, the children are picking H| At that time all the small
apples. children of Helambu were learning
J M- oodum kyahp- from the lama books. yL, ML | hit ooh hi/ he
J w/ w
with the fist. peh-ti , E| in that
way; in that manner.
J ooh dem. | that. ', / '
| See also: 'too, di/ de'. J ()! ooh 'yihno
(taah)! elliptic_S (L
J L` ooh 'kahla
(lamaistic) j| conjunctions: after LL YtL E Lt U

J -L

) interjections: yes, that's quite so!. conjunctions: the same way.

[Usage: means the same as 'ooh J `U`/ J ` ooh
yihmba taah', but has a sarcastic or sogo-'ra/ ooh sobe
funny overtone] HL , L| conjunctions:
J ooh rohwa therefore. [Disc: occurs clause
, E| like that; that way. initially]
J L , ` J
ooh-la loc. | there.
mH HU| ooh rohwa peh-ke J ooh-'ya-la loc. |
'nahle, 'yih pohmbo 'zo-e ma-e-di-'ga. somewhere there.
Uj , nP E L J ooh-le-gi loc. S|
| That is the way the shamans from there.
/ J

J ooh 'leehmu J
` ooh-le peh-ti/
, E| like that; that way. ooh-le peh-temba-'ra/ ooh-le
J `/ J

ooh 'leehmu-'ra/ ooh 'leehmu
| conjunctions: afterwards; after that.

peh-ti / U, E U|

L ka n. AW| commandment. `- 'ka na- AW
L `-
`VU L H J` L | | give order; instruction.
sagye-gi 'ka 'ma-e-di ohra 'ka J MU L ` | ohle
'yihm-ba. L AW g 'kyahlbu-gi 'ka na-sin 'du-ba. A
AW | The commandment of the UHj| And we realized
k L
god is our commandment. that the king had given the order.
S LlU L M` ! L ` 'ka nahdar
'kho-la kindo-gi 'ka bap-'kyo-'ra AW, A| precepts; commandments.
'yihm-ba! E t AW L M- ka kyahl-
HL ! He did get the word of God. A, j ,
L S- 'ka khur- | get a shock.
AWL | follow a commandment. -`
L `- 'ka 'yee- | di tam 'thee-'luh meeh-ba
(high hon. of 'thusem ee-', only 'ka 'kyahl-di thome 'lih-sin. L
used for gods) | be pleased. L AH t | When I
L ` | 'lha 'ka 'yee-sin. heard this, I got a shock and was
| The god is pleased. completely perplexed.
L g- 'ka 'tsii- AW -L/
L/-U -ka~-ga sf. PD
U| obey a commandment. E A| verb stem

-L L`-

nominalizer. [Phon: For the regular `- h-L !

phonological alternations of suffix di-ni i-par 'mee-ba-ni taa-par-'ka
initial stops and the exception verbs 'du-ba! LwL j L L
marked with <-k> see appendix 7, j j! I thought this was a
sections 1-3.] [Disc: This nominalizer wooden printing block, but it is one
is not very productive.] made of iron!
` T`V h LL ` LC kayn n.
| cerem. terms:
S| 'tihri khyo-'gyo 'tini kar-ka portal-like structure spanning the
'loh maah-khu. Ak HL gL path, decorated with religious
U | The weight of the sugar I symbols. [Note: built for protection of
brought today was less than what I the village or region]
asked for.
L ` | di LC L`/ LC L` kayn
'paalo 'bree 'tahp-ka 'loh-sin 'du. kah/ kayni kah LL|
place names: Kakani (village on the
L gL C Uj | Oh,
today the rice makes up the expected eastern slope of the Melamchi River
quantity! valley, after Timbu on the way to
L/-U -ka~-ga clit. |
contrastive focus; contrary to LM` LM` kakta kukti
expectation focus. [Phon: For the Y| very winding.
regular phonological alternations of LM` LM` yH| 'lahm
suffix initial stops and the exception 'kakta kukti peh-ti o-en. t `U
verbs marked with <-k> see appendix t`U U kj| It's a very winding
7, sections 1-3. This alternation also path.
applies to clitics.] [Disc: occurs phrase LM` LM` -L 'kakta
finally and is used very generously] kukti peh-k `U
t `U Al t`U U| wriggle (e.g. snake).
` ! 'moh 'or-ti 'mini 'a-la-'ga L` ka n.
amdi-'ya 'phep na 'du-ba! E L 1) , U| marrow.
HL g tj 2) S, | close relative; race.
ACVHj! The practitioner of k` , L``
herbal medicine with his companions `, `-h! 'meehme
finally arrived five minutes after she 'dzamma-'ra 'i-sin, 'ka-'ra 'to-sin,
had died! ni-'thowa! ,
k `U ! , g! The whole family died,
'dzomo 'yihm-ba 'mee-ba-ni 'pahla-'ga the race just died out, how sad!
'du-ba! gUD L UD j! I
L`- ka- v.t. | fill. [Gram: filling
thought is was a 'dzomo, but it was a
amount may take instr. <-ki>, in
which case the liquid to be chosen is

L`V L`

emphasized] HL L | step

` j L`` ! di further than intended or allowed.
'elbu-la thu 'ka-do le! L` - 'kaba paa-
! Fill this bottle with water. C tM, Su tM|
` JU L``| di put one's feet down (on the ground);
'elbu-la 'ohma-gi 'ka-do. step onto.
| This bottle you fill L` ` 'kaba pila
with milk. Y| thigh (body part). 'L`- m'
L`V kagyur n. L | See also: 'kaba-zuu'.
HEt LL | cerem. utensils: name L` `/ 'kaba
of a religious book. [Note: contains pihba/ pihmba y| calf of
some details about creation of the leg.
world] - 'kaba
L` M -
'lahkpa 'or- Su
L` kaba n. Su| foot; leg. g M, Q | be paralyzed.
L` M 'kaba kyili [Gram: exp. takes gen. <-ki>]
SuL ky| hip joint. L` 'kaba lohma
L` T- 'kaba khyoo- L U| top part of foot AU k, U (body part).
(k ALU C L` / M-
k) marriage: a girl who has been 'kaba 'set 'set/ 'seht 'seht 'kyaa-
asked for marriage changes her mind Su kML-kML EwE|
and takes off with/ accepts s.b. else. tap one's feet.
' T-' | See also: 'sem
y- 'kaba-gi o-
L`U y-
khyoo-'. y k| walk; go on
L` `` 'kaba 'ahrto foot. SuL | shin (body part). L`U - 'kaba-gi 'nem-
L` kU/ kU/ k 'kaba Su Lg| trample
'dzugu/ 'dzugi/ 'dzubi SuL on
K| toe. L`-j 'kaba-'tshii n. Yy
L`- |
L` ` 'kaba 'tiba knee.
LLhg| heel (body part). L`-j g- 'kaba-'tshii 'tsuu-
- 'kaba tuh-
L` ` Yy tM| kneel down. Su k| stamp one's
L`-m 'kaba-'zuu n. |
foot/ feet (on ground). thigh (of humans and animals).
S `U L` `U | 'kho h L` m hU` M
'ihta-gi 'kaba tuh-gu 'du. F J` ! 'tahmu 'kaba-'zuu
Su kj| Oh, he stamps his foot in tii-gi-'ra 'kyilo 'phee oh 'duba!
anger. LSL HEt A L Hj! A
- 'kaba 'thal-
L` - single chicken leg weighs half a kilo!
L`` L-

L`-`/ L`-
L`-g L L katar kotor
'kaba-'tih/ 'kaba-tsoo n. | peh-ti LM
L U| huddled
sole of foot. up.
L`` {-} kali {phu-} n. L L L !
{v.t.} z {M} (L z) 'nohno-ni katar kotor peh-ti 'teh-ku
musical instruments: {blow} human 'du! C LM
L U j! Oh,
bone of lower leg. [Note: blown like a little brother is sitting there huddled
horn; used in lama ceremonies] up!

L` `-
`- kasu ta- L() h-L/ h`-
h`- kadu (E)/
LD nE ()
kadup (W) te-k/ ta-
ceremonies: drive away anticipated Lt U, S U| work
hardship by placating the house god/ hard; toil and labour.
spirit. [Note: This is also called l` L h L |
'khaba-gi suma kyo-gen'.] 'moh dibu-'ra 'kadu 'te-ti 'leeh
peh-ku 'du. E Lt U L U
L` `U ML| 'kasu
ta-gen 'bele lii 'kyur-ken. LD j| She is working very hard.
nE U j| During the 'kasu' L L
kandar kundur
ritual millet flour statues are thrown peh-ti L U| huddled up.
out. L L lH |
'roh-la kandar kundur peh-te 'aa-e
Lg g y-
y- katsa matsa o-
'nahle. D L Tj | The
'' | See: 'sem-la'.
corpse is placed into a huddled up
Ll kae n. C| place names:
Raithan (first Yohlmu settlement on
the ridge when coming up from L kandi adj. M ( n
Melamchi Pul). ) thick (of sauces, mashes, milk,
L-t/ Lt/ L-
L-t / Lt L L | 'balu 'kandi kahl
ka-ihn/ kain/ ka-ehn/ kaen 'du. ky M Hj| Oh, this grain
n. , L| graciousness. beer is too thick.
h SM l , LlU
L-t ! ti peh khuu-'kyo L-
L- kap- v.t. J| cover.
'yihn-de le, kindo-gi 'ka-ehn 'nahle! ` L L LL|
'yahl 'teh-ken 'bele 'irak 'kap-ken.
L U LL j , L L
! Whatever I could do, it's the grace L Jj| For sleeping

of God! you cover yourself with a quilt.
L-t k-L 'ka-ihn 'dze-k
L- S` Lh ` ` l L | be gracious. LH| 'khaba 'kap-te-la 'toh-le
tuhma 'aa 'koh-en. Y jE
Lt/ Lt kain/ kaen Tj| To build the roof of a
'L-t' | See: 'ka-ihn'.

house you first must put the charisma).

horizontal rafters into place. S` t` `UU L
L kapu n. OL | names: M| 'kho-'ra-la ahmyen
personal name. tuh-gen-gi 'ka-bap thop-'kyo. E
kE HL j| He
LM `-
`- kapkyen na- received the gift of playing the string (hon. of 'barta la-') U instrument.
U (t.) scold. LlU L `U| kindo-gi
Lh kapta n. 'ka-bap na-ge. D j|
1) U, Ly, J| clothes; bed God gives gifts.
covers; (W) also cloth.
L kabe n. L| raw cotton wool.
2) j| roof. [Note: Very rarely L (`) {g-} 'kabe (dure)
'kaptar' is also used for 'roof'.] {'tsuu-} n.(ph.) {v.t.} U {}
S` U Lh | di cerem. utensils: {fix} wick for butter
'khaba 'thoo-gi 'kapta 'yihmba. lamp.
YL j | This is the roof of the
house. L-
L- kam- v.i. M| dry.
Lh LU/ LU| 'kapta L kambu adj. LL | dry.
kehn-gen/ ken-gen. U UE/ [Gram: no excl. form (see appendix 5,
section 1.2)]
UC| dress yourself/ dress s.b.
else. L-/ L l- kam-/ kam 'aa-
v.(ph.)t. LE| dry/ put to dry.
Lh -- 'kapta 'po-
change clothes. [Usage: In transitive contexts 'kam
U |
aa-' is more common.]
-L 'kapta 'u-/
Lh -/ -
pi-k U E, LE| `U ` L l| ah-gi
take off clothes. thama kam 'aa-sin. L
LHL j| I have spread out the
Lh kaptar 'Lh' | See: grain to dry.
'kapta 2)'. U Ly| 'lhaaba-gi kam-o.
L kapi n. , S| house M| The wind will dry it.
parts: supporting post (in houses and
L kama 'L' | See: 'kema'.
J `U L L h L kame (N) n. Ek, LC|
produce from fields; crops.
| ohle 'en-gi kohmba-la 'kapi
tiiru 'yeh-ba. A U 16 t L M- 'kame 'kyahp- LE| cultivate fields.
j| And in the old temple
there are 16 supporting posts. L - 'kame 'tuh-
A EwE, LC EwE| harvest.
L {-
{-} ka-bap {thop-} n.
{v.dr.} DL { U} L m-
m-/ L
{receive} gift (in the sense of kayam (N) zo-/ kayam (N)

L -L()

peh-ti aa- L T| Offering eggs can be interpreted

divination: bring under control. either as 'kar ta-gen' or as 'mar
`U `M ` L ta-gen'.]
mH! 'yih-gi 'mih 'yo-'kyo-'ya w L V J L, J L
'nahre-'ra 'kayam 'zo-en! `U H| 'haa ter-ken 'gyaa-la 'ohma
D A L Tj! The 'tor-ke, ohle kar ta-ge 'ma-en. U
people who are insane (because of wE k Uj, A gE
spirit possession) we bring under j| Instead of offering blood, milk
control in one moment! is sprinkled about, and this is called
'kar tagen'.
L kayul 'L' | See:
'karyol'. L {} kar {du} adj./ adv. {cop.}
L- kar- v.t. kT| weigh. ky {j} it's an odd number.
E LL| j L? ! 'thap ni kar? 'mee!
Yohlmu-la 'umali-la 'mahr kar-ken. ky L ky? ! Is it an even or an
odd number? Tell me!
YE kSj| In
Helambu butter is weighed with J Mh t` L
scales. LH| ooh 'rehmu 'kyahp-te-la
'ohba kar 'koh-en. uL U Y
LL/ L kar-ka/ kar-lu n.
kSC| weight. '`-' | See ky j| For this pattern you
also: 'loh-'. need an odd number of stitches.
J ElU LL / gM L -L()/
L()/-U() -ka(r)~-ga(r)
| ooh 'sawdi-gi kar-ka yaahbu/ num.sf. -t| numeral group. [Phon:
tsokpa ter-ku 'du. EkL kSC For the regular phonological
wL/ Yt j| That shopkeeper gives alternations of suffix initial stops and
good/ bad weight. the exception verbs marked with
<-k> see appendix 7, sections 1-3.
L- kar- v.semi-r.(E)/ v.dr.(W)
Note, however, that numerals ending
nE| lie on a hard spot.
in long vowels get shortened and
` ` ` L! 'tihri
ah-la 'yahlsa-la kar-ti! (E) Ak D require the vl. sf. Further, if the
num.sf. is followed by /-'ra/ (which
Jj n! Last night I lay on a
hard spot! is frequently the case) doubling (i.e.
lengthening) of the [r] sound does not
` ` ` L! 'tihri
ah-la 'yahlsa kar-te! (W) Ak D occur.]
Jj n! Last night I lay on `L ! yi-kar de-la o!
a hard spot! k AE! Both of you come here!
` ` L` `L`
L `-
`- kar ta- HM C | 'ti-me 'yihmu-di
Lt U| cerem. terms: offer a milk 'kaba yi-ka-di-'ra 'eks 'rey ten-sin.
product instead of blood. [Note: AL g SuL HM L|


The next day they made an x-ray of L` L S, LM y |

both legs. 'kah-ri karpe 'khawa, karkyen a-sa
h U` ! 'tahmu mihn-du. gL E, L
sum-ga-'ra 'i-di! t LS j! tLk j| There is white snow on
All three hens died! the mountains, but nothing is like the
butter mark.
L {h`-
{h`-} kara {ti-} n. {v.t.
and dt.} tL {} clothing: {put on} Lh kartu n. (hon. of 'ohma' and
cummerbund. 'oh') (t.) milk; curds.
L {-/ -} kara {'u-/ 'ii-} Lh
karten n.
n. {v.t. and dt.} tL L| {take off} 1) P | big star.
cummerbund. 2) OL | names: personal name.
LC karay (N) n. LD| cooking
L karta (N) n. L, gML| small
utensils: small iron pot for frying
(bowl-shaped with handles).
L` l` -L kar-ta
LL` karku n. p, SyL| aa-da peh-k
S-kS U| lamaisms: weigh and
LL` ` karku 'puba keep record of a person's sins and
pL wy gL| house parts: merit. [Note: done in the place of
vertical part of window frame. punishment for the dead (=iyala)
L-M kar-kyahp n. OL by 'ini-thee-gi kyahlbu']
| names: personal name, m. y jU MU M-`
LM karkyi n. OL | names: U L` l` k `U |
personal name. 'ini 'thee-gi 'kyahlbu-gi 'tihkpa-da
'phayin-gi kar-ta 'aa-da 'dze na-ge
LM M- karkyen kyahp- lo. k L S-kS Uj L tL {UE} cerem. | It is said the judge of the dead
terms: apply dabs of butter on food or
weighs their sins and merits.
drink offered to gods or given as gifts
L` l` J`- kar-ta
to people. 'L' | See also: 'aa-da oh- cl.cop. S-kS |
'yahrka'. lamaisms: there will be weighing and
U gH S LM keeping record of a person's sins and
M LH| 'ahlgar 'tsuu-e merits. [Gram: cl.cop.= general
'belale tahmbe 'kha-la karkyen sum existence]
'kyahp 'koh-en. Lh T LwL
L S wE L tL L karna marna k,
Ej| When you present a k (tPtP `U Ly) scraps
ceremonial gift of alcohol, you must of cloth.
apply three dabs of butter on the U ` jL L
bottle's mouth. LH| pohmbo-'ya-gi 'suhbu


'the-ken 'bele karna 'marna-'ya L karmu adj. `UL |

'koh-en. nP U S tPtP colours: white (used only for white
`U LyL k gj| When female animal).
the shaman sacrifices an animal to the J k Ll | ohle
spirits some scraps of colored cloth 'dzomo karmu-i 'tor-sin 'du lo. A
are needed. HEt gUD Hj | And a white
'dzomo' got lost.
L karpu adj. | colours: white.
M- karpu 'kya-'tele
L M- L karmu n. LtL | names: Ek | colours: very white. personal name, f.
w ! M` L M- L/ L/ L karyol/
L ! 'haa then raah-di! kayul/ kalyor n. HL LL
'lahkpa-'ra karpu 'kya-'tele kahl 'du!
Lg| household utensils: small china
U LL Hj! He lost bowl. [Note: cup-size, used for serving
a lot of blood! His hand has become salt tea]
all white!
L/ L/ L l
L karpu n. LtL | names: karyol/ kayul/ kalyor mehnda
personal name, m. LD UHL Lg| household
utensils: small enamel bowl.
L karma n.
1) | star. L` karsa n. OL | names:
2) t| minute. personal name.
L h` kU Ctt L {M-} kahrta (E)
L| karma teea-ze-la-'ga 'balla {kyahp-} n. {v.t.} {E} {build}
'bas 'isar kahl-sin. t fence. 'J' | See: 'ohrta
tt | Finally, after about 15 (W+E)'.
minutes the motor of the bus started.
3) OL | names: personal name. L` {J`-} kahrna {oh-}
4) | day of week. n. {v.i.} Sy {} {be} a drought.
h L J`U? ti karma-la L` J` `U,
oh-ge? L AEj? Which day will J L| kahrna
you come? oh-si-'ma-na 'baali 'rebe noh-ge,
L h? karma ti? L ? What ohle 'mih 'tooba 'lih-ken. Sy
day of the week is it? [Note: t j, A L
'*kaahndi karma?' is not used.] j| When there is a drought the
` L | 'tihri crops fail and people go hungry.
karma 'sombar 'yihm-ba. Ak L` -L kahrna 'teh-k Sy | drought
| Today is Monday.
- karma ta- U
L -
| observe auspicious days. L kahrpa adj. | strong in
taste. '' | See also: 'haa
L` L

(W)'. L-
L- kal- v.dt. LE| load.
` ` g L L | -tU J y- `
'tihri ''those 'martsa kahrpa kahl 'du. `U L | 'min-'ohlma-gi ooh
Ak L Hj| Oh, today ul-'mih yii-la lehgu 'kal 'du lo.
the curry is too peppery. -t C tU S wC
h L| 'tah kahrpa. Ly `UL | Min-Tohlma gave the two travelers
g| strong tea. a message to carry.
h j L| 'tah 'tsha kahrpa. L`-
L`- / L`-
g gL| too salty tea. kala-seeh/ kala-siih n. |
h h L| 'tah 'tini kahrpa. fruits: a kind of sour fruit (malla
g g gL| too sweet tea. dubla). [Note: used to make chutney]
j` L| tha kahrpa. jHL
ky, Ly M| strong beer, strong L {y-
{y-/ -L} kalam {o-/
whisky peh-k} n. {v.i./t.} L, t
{/ U} {have} a disagreement;
L`/ L` kahri/ {make} a fuss; {have} an argument.
kahi n. P| work utensils: pole. ` L L|
L` LH| tamra-la 'mih-'ya nah-la kalam kahl-sin.
kahi ter 'koh-en. D P
L | An
j| Beens must have poles. argument arose among the people.
L kal (N) n. U l L `
1) L, A, Ahj| cerem. terms: L| 'moh-gi tam 'phema-i-la kalam
inauspicious sign on the calendar. mahbu peh-ken. E L
L t` T`l L Uj| She makes a big fuss
`U| 'kal-la 'paar-'tii-si-'ma-na about little things.
'ohba khyo-de meh-yoh-ge.
L kalam malam ''
kS A S | See: 'sem'.
U| You must not get married on
a day which has the inauspicious sign L kalama n. OL |
names: personal name.
of "kal".
2) L| machine. L L
kale kaahbu (W)
Lh gU L| 'kapta 'tsem-ge HL Aw, HL U| very
'kal. U E L| sewing machine. ' | See:
difficult. 'S L
L A 'kal 'ama T 'khenda kaahbu (E)'.
Ck| engine. h L L | di tam
LSU L A j 'lop-te-la 'kale 'kaahbu meeh.
| di 'kaar-'khana-gi 'kal 'ama MD U j| It is not very
'the-o di 'yihm-ba. LSL T difficult to learn this language.
Ck | This is the main engine
L `
kalda tuhbu
of this factory.
L S| trees: silver fir.

L kaldo (E) n. SL U| of Yohlmu, in the upper Tadi Khola

share of food. '' | See: 'bo valley, north of Kulu.
L kah n. U (UL
T AU k` L U) bit (for the horse).
L| 'khyim 'ama-gi 'meehme
L U L hU mM J`U|
'dzamma-la-'ra 'kaldo 'keeh ter-ken. tabu-gi 'kah taa-gi 'zo-'kyo oh-ge.
Y A D S YyL U HL j| The
yj| The mother of the home bit for the horse is made of iron.
dishes out to each family member his
share of food. L- kah- v.dr./t. | be fond of;
like or s.b. ' L-' |
L kalba n. U| age (time span). See also: 'sem kah-'.
/ ` kalba
L M ` LH| ah-la 'he 'kah-en.
'tuhkpu/ 'ehmba LU
D A j| I like potatoes.
(S U) bad age. LU J LE |
L m` kalba zabu karma-gi ooh piihmi-la 'kah-w 'du.
U, L U| good age; L LtD Ej| Karma
preceding age. likes that girl.
L kalyor 'L' | See: L 'kah-wa adj. S, A|
'karyol'. well-off; prosperous.
L kawa n. (C Lt HL Ll ! de-la 'kah-wa-i 'du!
) house parts: post; pole. [Note: in A j! It's lovely here!
houses, sheds, or outside, with forked T L A! khye-ni 'kah-wa
top] 'aah! M A! You are
L h-L kawa te-k
(poetic for 'kadu(p) te-k') S U, LL/
/ LML kahkala/
U| endure hardship; work
kahkkala (W) adv. HL, A|
hard. extremely, very much. 'LL
hU t L hL
| See: 'kaahkala (E)'.
g y H hA` ! J T h t` `U
'tomdende-gi loh 'uuh 'kawa 'te-ke LL` k L | ohle
'bela-le 'tsamba 'u 'ma-e-di ti-'a 'khyim tii 'ohro yii-gi piihmi
maah-seh-ba! U j kahkala-'ra thimbu 'dzamu 'yeh-ken
'du lo. A jLL C A
A, w L SH!
When Buddha was enduring hardship H | And the two close
for six years, he ate no flour or grains neighbor ladies got along with each
at all! other extremely well.
J -h` U
L kair n. wEL | place
LL` ` L
names: settlement in the western part
! ohle 'moh-ni "tah pohmbo-gi
L` L`-

'yuhl-la meh-no" 'mee-de kahkala-'ra L` U | 'kah-di

'tuhal peh 'teh-ke 'nahle! A E 'ahl-ge 'samma. S| full to
E nPL UE k overflowing.
U j! She said, "I am not going L` 'kah qt. | full; whole.
to the village of the north shaman!" ` L`| 'yihma 'kah.
And she worried terribly. | the whole day.
L` kah n. yy| hill; low L`
/ L` L

mountain. 'kah 'yeh-ba/ 'kah 'yeh-ken(-di) HL| everything at hand;
L`-L 'kah-kar n. |
snow mountains. everybody present; the full amount.
L`-g 'kah-'tse n. yyL t| t y SU
top of hill. L` L| 'mehme pohmbo-la
'iih o-si-'ma-na 'kho-gi 'kah 'yeh-ba
L`- 'kah-daa n.
e ter-ken. nP kD U
(j) spirits: dangerous being
living in the mountains. [Note: E Cj| If you go and
sometimes also called 'kah-gi taa'; ask grandfather shaman he will tell
its footprints can sometimes be seen; you everything.
possibly an animal (yeti?)] L`V 'kahgya qt. | all full;
all over.
L` 'kahdo n. y yy|
hill. L L`V ! kayul 'kah-gya
'luu! L ! Poor a full cup!
L` 'kah-ba n. yy UEL
SL| person living on a hill. L`- -L 'kah-nee peh-k U| do whatever
L` t ! di 'kah-ba
'pai 'yihm-ba! yy UEL SL ! occurs to you.
This is the group from the hill! S S` L`- L ! 'kho
'kho-'ra 'kah-nee peh-ku 'du! F
L`-` 'kah-'luh n./ adj.
yy S, g AU| mountainous U j! He is doing whatever
country. he likes!
L`-` ` | S`U S L`- | khu-gi
Yohlmu-la 'kah-'luh mahbu 'du. 'kho-la 'kah-nee peh-sin. E
yy S j| Oh, ED U| They did everything
Yohlmu is a very mountainous to him (i.e. treated him badly).
country. L` - -L 'kah nee-nee
peh-k A U|
L`- kah- v.i. , | fill treat s.b. according to one's own
up; be full. [Gram: filling amount must whims and wishes. [Gram: undg. takes
take instr. <-ki>] <-ki thoo-la>]
M jU L`| di nekyi L` - ``
thu-gi 'kah-sin. y | L
` L, J A`
This pot is full of water.
H| 'mih 'thoo-la 'kah nee-nee
L` L`

peh 'yuh-na 'keehna peh-ken, ohle L`, L`, J L`'

mihn-si-'ma-na tam-'a meh-'ma-en. | See also: 'ohze kah-la, di
A U H Ej, C kah-la, ooh kah-la'.
| If he gets to treat people
L U ` yH L` T `
according to his own whims and L| 'yih o-e 'kah-la khye lep-'ra
wishes, he is happy, but if not, he mah-lep 'yehken. wE jy
won't even speak to you. ACUL H| When we left you
L` (`)/ L` (`) hadn't arrived yet.
'kahye (-'ra)/ 'kahyi (-'ra) qt. yy L`| o-o-pa 'kah-la.
H L| everything; all; k k| after having walked for
including. some time.
h` ` MU T L`| 'khyaabu 'kah-la.
L` l ! 'yuhrma tii-'ra ky | during the cold
pi-to 'mee-ba-ni 'kyahgar 'kahye pi season.
'aa 'du! n ES L L
L`-SL kah-kharka n.
ESj! I told him to pull out only U`-SL| place names: Kahng-Kharka.
the weeds, but he pulled out the [Note: one of the two villages east of
millet as well! Langgyapsa behind the ridge on the
L`` J`| 'mih western slope of Yangri Khola. The
'kahye-'ra oh-sin. k AH| All inhabitants are "Sherpa", i.e. they
the people came. speak a different dialect, which
A` 'kahye-i-'a
L`lA` Yohlmowas find difficult to
temp.pp. | even while. [Gram: understand.] '``' | See
vs+-ken + temp.pp.] also: 'pahda'.
w ML L`lA` h
l? 'mih 'hii 'kyahp-ken L`k kahdzi '`k' | See:
'kahye-i-'a ti ta-e? A HL 'yadzi'.
L ? Why are you looking L`-
kah-yuhl n. U`U|
even while he/she is taking a bath? place names: Gangjawal (village on the

L` () kah-la loc. | on eastern slope of the Melamchi River,

top of (e.g. on top of shoulder, head, about 1 1/2 hours' walk north of
etc.). Sermathang on the way to
U L` l yE |
'yuhldum goo 'kah-la 'aa-di o-w L`- (
) `-
'du. F L tEL S k j| kah-suhr (peh-ti) yahl-
He is walking along with a bundle on Lt U | lie on
top of his head. one's side.
L` () kah-la temp.pp. , L` ( ) `-
| at the time of "verbing". 'Jk kahyal (peh-ti) yahl-

L-j Ly E U | lie on the leaders and lamas of that village

one's back. held counsel, and they decided that
L` ` - kahyal they would have thangkas painted.
dae rihl- E L-w kah-hi q.w. L SL|
y| fall flat on one's back. how; what kind.
/ L-j S L-w ? 'kho 'kah-hi
kah-thewa/ kah-thowa q.w. 'mih 'du-ba? F L SL j j?
L w? how big?. What kind of a person is he?
L L-j l? 'kee 'kah-hi peh-ti
'kah-'thowa ten-de? L L? L U, L| which way; in
How high (or loud) shall I sing? which manner.
Lk kahze q.w. L| how much; L-w h? di 'leeh
how many. 'kah-hi peh-ti peh-te? L L
` Lk M? di U? How is this work done?
'mehlo-la 'kahze ter-'kyo? I L
L / L kahna thete/
L LL? How much did you give kahne thete k |
for this mirror? wherever (you like); everywhere.
Lk ? 'kahze 'bat-'tii-ba? L L- `, L !
l? What's the time? 'theka-sire su, 'kahne 'thete 'uuh-di
Lk 'kahze excl. L| how...! mah-teh! kF, E !
(exclamatory). [Gram: 'kahze' + Go there straight, don't enter and stay
exclamatory adj.] wherever you like.
Lk h`! 'kahze 'taa! L L -/ L - 'kahna
gS! How clever! nee-nee/ 'kahne nee-nee k
Lk / Lk 'kahze Vj | wherever (you) wish;
'ma-na/ 'kahze 'ma-'ma k H wherever (you can think of).
| as many as you like. L - jA` L`
Lk 'kahze-ba q.w. LL| l! kahne neene tshol-de-'a
how well; how much. [Note: may refer kaah-'la mahn-dor! k Sk
to quantity or quality] L C! I looked for it wherever I
could think of, but I haven't found it
Lt -L kahi peh-k (lamaistic) U| hold anywhere!
counsel. Ly/ Ly/ Ly kahnu/
J U U-` lU kahnu-m(u) q.w./ excl. L?,L!
Lt `U l
y| how...?; how...! (exclamatory).
ooh 'yuhl-gi goba-da lama thamdi-gi Ly ! di 'mehndo
'kahi peh-ti thagu 'pruh-e 'mee-di 'kahnu-mu yaah-ba! L !
'sala ii-sin. UEL S What beautiful flowers!
`L T U| All 'kahnu-m(u)
Ly L

peh-ti L| which way. same thing as a few days ago!

T t `k`U `U L- kahp- v.t. tM| bite
? 'khya ooh
Ly ` l (preceded by snapping). 'A -'
nahdza-gi tam 'yih-gi 'kahnumu | See also: 'aa tap-'.
peh-ti 'oh ee-e? L L
MU LL| di 'kyibu-gi
L E? How shall we 'mih-la 'kahp-ken. LL jD
know what's going on among the two
tMj| This dog bites people.
of you?
Ly 'kahnu-m 'ma-na L kahpa 'L ' | See: L | in any case. 'kehpa'.
[Disc: S introducer] L kahpu (W) adj. w| big.
L Ly | 'sarki [Gram: no excl. form (see appendix 5,
'kahnum 'ma-na 'mih 'yihm-ba. L section1.2)]
k H | In any case the J k ` j L L
leather worker is also a human being. L | ohle-ni pehza yii 'tshar-te
Ly 'kahnu-m kahpu kahpu kahl-de lo. A Ct
'ma-si-'ma-na L hg L w w Hj | And the
| to explain how. [Disc: S two children grew and became big.
L kahpu 'L ' | See:
Ly , CyU U 'kehpu'.
M l` M
`U| 'kahnu-m 'ma-si-'ma-na, L-t kahp-ih (E) n. SL|
di 'Indiya-gi 'pahl-le-gi thaa-'kyo tehn big, curved knife (Nepali dagger).
thamdi-'ra 'yahr peeh-gi 'kyahmi ' | See: 'uhgu (W)'.
'yuhl-la ta-ge. L , Cy L-t m- 'kahp-'ih zer-
g SL | gird a dagger.
wEj| To explain how it works, all L-t - 'kahp-'ih 'thoo-
the carpets woven with this Indian SL | carry a dagger.
wool are sent up to the Chinese in L-t - | 'kahp-'ih
Tibet. lehm-lehm 'thoo-di. gL SL
H| with an unsheathed and
Ly kahnu-bar (W) q.w./ flashing dagger.
excl. L| how?; how! (exclamatory).
L-t - |
'Ly' | See: 'kahnu-mu (E)'. 'kahp-'ih 'mar lehm-lehm 'thoo-di. U
, T Ly U HL SL H| with a bloody
Ay ` ! pohmo, khye dagger.
daanu 'kahnu-bar 'mee-ba 'ahna-bar
'mee 'teh-to loh! j, A L kahba n. | Newari
L L , goldsmith.
S ! Daughter, keep saying the gM M LU
L| di ser yaahbu tsokpa tahkar

'kahba-gi peh-ken. SLL y gj| To fix

g Uj| The the handle to a khukuri blade you
Newari goldsmith will ascertain need black resin.
whether this is pure gold or not. -yU Sh L`! di
phul-'in-gi 'khaptu kahr-to!
L kahm n. L| work utensils:
box; chest. LL L E! Put the lid onto
this fountain pen.
Ll` kahm-du n. L|
work utensils: small chest. LL LL kahrak kohrok
adj./ n. g AU| obstacles on paths
L kahma n. ty
| hair of grain
ears. (rocks, etc.).
h`-` kE L ` `, j LL LgL
J`U| tada-da 'dzaw-la 'kahma J`U|
mahbu oh-ge. L kL ty 'lahm-la i 'tsherma 'kahrak 'kohrok

'leehmu-'ya sal-si-'ma-na 'phayin
j| The barely and oat ears have
lots of hair. oh-ge. t HL Lw, Ly, ny
A t j| If you clear
L kahmu 'L
' | See: the path of obstacles like fallen trees
'kehmu'. or thorny brushwood you gain merit.
LV {-} kahmgya {pruh-} L` L`/ U` U`
n. {v.t.} kL {T} kahra kohro (E)/ gara
marriage: {make} written marriage
goro (W) adj./ n. `U
contract with agreements for HL| rocky, uneven
restitution in the case of divorce (an (ground).
optional custom). L` L` ` L y LE
L kU U | 'kahra 'kohro nah-le phar-ki o
U LV H| paahma peh-ken 'koh-w 'du. `U
t k
'bela-le 'pandza-'ya-gi piihmi-gi j| Oh, we have to go through this
'laagi-la kahmgya 'pruh-en. rocky area.
US Lt QL j LtL U
kL Ej| When L- kahl- vs.perf. kL
getting married the witnesses write a QL | perfect aspect base of 'o-'
marriage agreement for the woman. (to go).

L kahyen 'L' | See: L kahlda n. | bag. [Note:

'kahwun'. made of cotton material, used for
keeping flour]
L- kahr- v.t. UE| push onto;
fix by inserting; push onto. L {j-} kahlba {thaa-} n.
{v.i.} {k} {get/ end up with}
L-t LL
scales of dirt (on the skin).
l LH| 'kahp-'ih-la yohwa
kahr-ken 'bela-le 'laha 'koh-en. L` M w` w


L jH| 'kaba 'lahkpa-'ya L kaah q.w. L| where.

'hu-'ra mih-'hu-si-'ma-na 'kahlba LU , LU ?? di kaah-gi
thaa-en. Su L H L 'mih, kaah-gi 'mih? ? A LL j,
kj| If you don't wash your feet LL j?? Where could this
and hands you end up with scales of person be from? ?
dirt on them. L() kaah(-la) q.w. L|
L/ L
kahwun (E)/
kahyen (W) n. LP| foods: J L ? ooh 'mih
cucumber. kaah-la 'du-ba? L j?
Oh, where is that person?
L` kahi 'L`' | - kaah-la nee-nee
See: 'kahri'. k V| wherever (you)
L() kahi(-le) conj. (poetic; like.
elevated) Lt, | conjunctions: in A` kaah-le-'a conj. ,
case; in the event that. Lt| conjunctions: in case (in the
L M event that).
! pohmo kahi-le ter-na 'lahmo LA` J` S `
'kyahp-la mah-ter! j `U `` ! kaah-le-'a oh
yy Lt ! In case you give miih-khu-si-'ma-na ah-la lehgu
away your daughter, don't give her to ta-do loh! AE L D
a place behind the mountains! S wE ! In case you should not
be able to come please send me a
L- kaa- v.t. M, jM| stop;
` L ` L y LL
kaahkala (E) adv. HL,
h| 'tihri 'pulis-ki 'yih-la A| very much; extremely. 'LL'
'kaa-di o maah-tu-ba. Ak D | See: 'kahkala (W)'.
L k H| Today the J LL `
police stopped us, and did not let us ` | ohle 'moh-ni kaah-kala
go (where we wanted to go). 'ita 'lah-sin 'du lo. A ED A
Ll kaai n. OL | names: Ewj | And then she became very
personal name, m. angry.
t` LL ! di
t/ Ly kaani/ kaane (N) ahmyen-ni kaah-kala yaahbu 'du!
(W) n. C| work utensils: knitting t` HL j! Oh, this string
needle. 'C' | See: 'suyro (E)'. instrument is extremely beautiful!
L kaandar (N) adj./ n. L, L kaahndi q.w. L g| which
yj| easily alarmed; overanxious. one.
L kaami (N) n. L| blacksmith. ? di
` L U
'aahma yii-la kaahndi yaahbu

L Ll

nee-ge? Ct ( Lk j t t l LL|
jy Ly) Lg Vj? kindzam-la 'thee 'aah-de 'aah-de
Which one of these two back-aprons 'uu 'koh-ke. U j|
do you like better? During the retreat they must keep
reading the religious books.
kaahbu adj. U| difficult.
'S L' | See also: Ll {`-
{`-} kindam {na-}
'khenda kaahbu'. n. {v.i./t.} (hon. of 'ahpru tham-')
S h L J`U | h (t.) {perform} a dance.
'kho-la de-la 'teh-te-la 'kaahbu oh-gu L `U Ll `U | 'mih
'du. ED D U j| keehgen-'ya kindam na-gu 'du.
Oh, it is difficult for him to stay here. - h j| Oh, the
L -L 'kaahbu peh-k old people are dancing. Aw | be
Ll kindo n. t U |
unwilling (to do creator God.
S yl L L | 'kho h SM l , LlU
o-e-la 'kaahbu peh-ku 'du. F k
L-t ! ti peh khuu-'kyo
U j| Oh, he is unwilling to 'yihn-de le, kindo-gi 'ka-ehn 'nahle!
L U LL j , L L
L`U kiga 'L`U' | See: Whatever I could do, it's the grace
'kihga'. of God!
L(L)/ L(L) `-/ `- Ll(U) L -
kiti(k)/ kihti(k) oo-/ aa oo- kindo(-gi) 'taarik 'uh- (E) LEL E| tickle. LL gv | cast
lots (to distribute responsibilities).
`U ` LL `H| 'Pasa-gi
'yih-la 'kitik oo-en. ` D Ll(U) L -
-/ -
LEL Ej| Pasang is always
kindo(-gi) 'taarik thop-/ bap-
tickling us. gv | lot falls to s.b.
(for a certain responsibility).
L (`) kin (-'ra) qt. , `U| Ll ` l M-
the whole. [Usage: collocates only kindo pabu 'aa-di 'na 'kyal-
with 'luhba'] L L S|
` L` M` J`U| ceremonies: oath performed in the
'luhba 'kin-'ra 'kyasae oh-ge. 'kohmba' to establish a person's
El j| The whole world/ innocence or guilt.
region is light. Ll kindo sum
Lk kindzam n. (hon. of DL | lamaisms: the essence
'tsham') HL wE of lamaism. [Note: i.e. (1) 'sagye
L L U kindo': the deity; (2) 'thee
(t.) retreat (lama's); seclusion. kindo': knowledge and teaching; (3)

L` -L

'genden kindo': the priesthood L/ L-

/ M/
(ulgu, lama, kehlo)] M- (`) kihnup/
, J Ll U H| kih-nuhp/ kyihnup/ kyih-nuhp
'paapi 'su 'du-ba, ooh-di-ni kindo (yihmu) temp.(ph.) g AY| four
sum-gi ta-en. L j, days ago.
U j| God will Ll L kihndi pako
decide who is the guilty one.
Yt t| place names: Ghope Pai
L` {`
-} kindi {tuh-} n. (lodge settlement between harepai
} work utensils: {tread
{v.t.} L {Lt and Gosainkuna).
on} device for husking grains.
L/ M/ L
/ M
L kii (W) n. E| insects and kyihpu/ kehpu/ kyehpu adj.
worms: flea. 'LM' | See: U| expensive. [Gram: no excl. form
'kiikpa (E)'. (see appendix 5, section1.2)]
LU A ! 'kii-gi aa L/ M kihbe/ kyihbe temp.
'tap-te 'nahle! E tM ! The
Y ( j) in three
flies bit me! years (three years ahead).
LM/ MM kiikpa/ -L/
U/-C 1 -ki~-gi/-y sf. -|
kyiikpa (E) n. E| insects and ergative; instrumental; reason
worms: flea. 'L' | See: 'kii
(causer). [Phon: For the regular
(W)'. phonological alternations of suffix
J LMU ` `` initial stops see appendix 7, sections
h, L`` A ! 1-3; and for the deletion of
ooh-la 'kiikpa-gi 'ah-la yahl-'ra intervocalic /g/ see appendix 6,
maah-tu-ba, 'nuhp 'kah-'ra aa section 11.]
'tap-ti! E D H,
S`U l ` `
tL! There the fleas did not t`U| khu-gi lohemba 'yambu
let me sleep, they bit me the whole 'yambu 'mahni 'ah-gen. E
U UU Ej| They
U/ L`U kihga/ kiga n. sing ritual prayers together with the
(poetic) g | winter. prayer specialist.
Ll kiha n. wEL | place C w T`U l `
names: small village on the eastern LH| lama-y 'lahmna 'hi-ti
slope of the Melamchi River valley, khyo-ge-mu 'darpu 'tho 'koh-en.
below Sermathang, near Kolama. (D) Ly
yE E Sj| When the
`/ M` kihni/ kyihni lama leads (the corpse) with the long
temp. L ( AY) three white cloth it must look fittingly.
years ago. J L ` `V|

-L L

ooh 'ahmu-di yahp-ki ah-la miih-khu-e(-gi) 'mih-'ya-la 'dzara

na-'gyo. t g D 'kyal-de-la ta-ge 'nahle. Ut Lt

HL | My father gave me that MD Sk E wEj |
hat. The people who are not able to break
`C L-tU ML, T! up stones are sent to take the snacks
ah-y 'kahp-'ih-gi 'se-ti 'kyur-ken, (to the workers).
khye-la! D SL Lt j! I
-ki~-gi/-y peh-ti
am going to kill and finish you off -, - U| instrumental;
with my dagger! through the mediation of. [Phon: For
L U M the regular phonological alternations
` U `U L| of suffix initial stops see appendix 7,
'yuhl-la 'teh-ken 'mih-gi yopta sections 1-3; and for the deletion of
'kyahp-na-ni i meeh-ba-gi intervocalic /g/ see appendix 6,
meh-yoh-gen kahl-sin. UE section 11.]
j S ED E D S A `U yH|
| When the people in the villages 'khawa-ni 'ama 'yihma-gi 'iih-de
want to cook, they can't because they o-en. E Y Uj V kj|
have no firewood. The snow melts when the sun shines.
U/-C 2 -ki~-gi/-y sf. -L M L U
(ALgL, LL gL) h `| taah 'kyohwa
possessive; genitive; optional peh-ke 'bela lama-gi peh-ti 'mih-la
adjectivizer. [Phon: For the regular tihmba ta-sin. Y (Z) US
phonological alternations of suffix U AD C| At the
initial stops see appendix 7, sections time of the death rites the people are
1-3; and for the deletion of given food through the mediation of
intervocalic /g/ see appendix 6, the lama.
section 11.] [Gram: With personal
L` kiisa n. OL | names:
possessive pronouns <-ki> is often personal name.
S`U A L` L| L M- kiih kyahp-
khu-gi ani 'kalimpo-la 'yehken. EL Yt , M | have a loss.
L` C| Their paternal L ` L
aunt was in Kalimpong. ML| kar-lu yaahbu ter-na-ni
ah-la 'kiih meh-'kyahp-ken.
J` ``U |
ooh-di-'ra 'yune-gi tehnda kS D Yt | If you

'yihm-ba. L A | give me good weight I will not have a
That is the meaning of fasting. loss.
Ut ` SH(U) k L/ M (`) kiih/ kyiih
Ml `U | 'gii tuh (yihmu) temp.(ph.) g j| in

L -L

four days (four days ahead). -L/-U -ku~-gu sf. PD E

` M ` S` yH| ah A| verb stem nominalizer.
'kyiih 'yihmu 'khaba-la o-en. g [Phon: For the regular phonological
j Y kj| I will go home in alternations of suffix initial stops and
four days. the exception verbs marked with
<-k> see appendix 7, sections 1-3.]
L ku n. (hon. of 'zubu') kE
[Disc: This nominalizer is not very
(t.) body.
productive, except in the
- 'ku sil-
L -
(hon. of 'zubu hu-') E (t0) <-ku> + 'the-k, see next entry.]
take a bath. `U HU ``U l! ah-gi
'ma-e-gi tam 'yihn-gu 'oo! L
L `U | 'mehme 'ku sil
na-gu 'du. k E j| L S! Take note of what I am
Grandfather is taking a bath. saying!
L J`- 'ku silbu oh- J` ` L `U | ohra (hon. of 'khyaa-') ky yii-di ter-ku leh-gu meeh. CL
(t0) be cold. j| We don't owe each other
L J`U | 'yibi-la 'ku
silbu oh-gu 'du. lD ky
j| -L/-U j-L -ku~-gu the-k
Oh, grandmother feels cold! M| be able to keep up with
the activity of vs. [Phon: For the
L- 1 ku- v.t. E, | apply;
-' | See also:
rub in. 't regular phonological alternations of
'uhl-'. suffix initial stops and the exception
verbs marked with <-k> see appendix
/ LU | 'men/ 'num 'ku-gen.
7, sections 1-3.] [Gram:]
K/ E| apply medicine/ oil.
k yU j?- j| di
L- 2 ku- v.t. g| steal. [Usage: rare, pehza ogu 'the-pa? - 'the-sin.
more commonly 'kumen kyahp-'] hg y M? M| Was this
L/ Ly {l`-
`-} ku/ kuna child able to keep up with you on the
{a-} n. {v.t.} {E} {make} way? - Yes.
an idol; statue. [Usage: 'ku/ kuna' is k yU jL? di
the same as 'dzogu/ dzo-ku'.] pehza 'lahm-la o-gu 'the-ko-'wa?
J Ly l`UU L L| hg t y M ? Will this
` L` l` j| ohle 'kuna child be able to keep up with us?
'a-gen-gi 'leeh 'baaki 'yehken. 'ti-le (when walking).
'ku-'yaa 'a 'tshar-sin. A E SUA` ` tU jL ?
L L | j CH| 'kho-gi-'a rooh 'yambu 'aah-gu
Then the making of the idols was left the-ko le? E U M ?
to do. Later the idols were also Do you think he will be able to keep
finished. up with his friend in reading?


SU LH L jL? LL kuku n. LC| birds: cuckoo.

'kho-gi ter 'koh-en pela-'ya ter-ku
LL {g-U/ g-
g-} kuku {tse-g(E)/
the-ko-'wa? E tsa-(W)} n. {v.t.} ` {S} swing.
M ? Will he be able to give the `A` LL gl, t! ah-'a
things he needs to give? 'kuku 'tsa-e, oohbu! ` Sj,
L/-U l! I also want to swing, my
-ku~-gu~-w~-wa~-ko~-go vsf. - special friend!
(A Q kE PL A) LL(L) -L kuku(k) teh-k
imperfect aspect. [Phon: For the '` -L' | See: 'noma
regular phonological alternations of teh-k'.
suffix initial stops and the exception
verbs marked with <-k> see appendix LM`/
`/ LM
` kukti/ kuhkti
7, sections 1-3. For more details on adj. `U| bent (e.g. of a tree, not at
the imperfect aspect see the same the top but at the middle or lower
appendix, section 3.1.] [Gram: This part, stick, path). 'L ' |
suffix does not occur pred.phrase See also: 'kuuh-'kyo'.
final; it must be followed by an ` LM` T LH| tah
auxiliary.] kukti peh-ti 'khyer 'koh-en. L
S J`U | 'kho oh-gu 'du. F YH j| You must speak with
AE j| He is just coming. contour tones.
` yE | ah o-w 'yeh. k j| ` LM` | tohbo 'rin
I am about to go. kukti 'du. SL `U j| Oh,
J`U L| the tree trunk is crooked.
'yibi-la-ni petam oh-go 'yeh-ke. LM -L kukpa teh-k
lD L AE| Grandmother (
used to know stories. U) fast. [Note: go without
U ` U ` | food and, if done strictly, also without
'tohm-gi sah-wa-'ra magi noh 'du. talking]
SHL L Uj | Because the j M
` k` LM
bears came to feed on it the corn L| tsheeba 'kyeeh-la 'yih
harvest is spoiled. 'dzamma-'ra kukpa 'teh-ken. Aw
J` SU L `U j| On the eighth day
L| taah ohra
L L of the lunar month we all fast.
'kho-gi peh-ko-'wah ah-gi LM ` kukpa 'yihmu n.
peh-ko-'wah 'mee-di kuuh-di 'teh-ken. gyL | festivals: 3rd
A E U U S day of 'yune'. [Note: participants
L j| Now we are waiting for fast completely, and also abstain from
each other to act (and nobody is talking]
doing anything). LM ` hA` l


`U, A` l `U| k n Tj| The two of

kukpa 'yihmu-di ti-'a sah-e them put all their money into a
meh-yoh-ge, tam-'a 'ma-e common fund.
meh-yoh-ge. L S
L`/ jL` kuu/ theku n.

| On the fasting
, L U | cerem. utensils: lamp stand for
day you are not allowed to eat butter lamp.
anything; you are also not allowed to
L` L t g LH| 'kuu-la
talk. 'kabe 'ihl-di 'tsuu 'koh-en. U
LU kugar 'L' | See: L j| The raw cotton
'kuwar'. wool must be twisted and put into the
lamp stands
L`- ku- v.t. ShE| pull up
limbs. Lh kuta (N) adj. `U| crippled.
L` L` L| 'kaba ku-di [Usage: offensive if said in presence of
'teh-ken. Yy
ShH | sit with the person concerned] 'St'
knees pulled up. | See also: 'khoo'.
M L` `! 'lahkpa phar ` AlC L` Lh L
ku peh-to! E ShF! Bend AlC U, St
your arm towards the other side! L LH| 'yih 'ai-y
'kaba 'kuta kahl-di 'yeh-ba 'ma-na
L` ku n. n| common fund.
'ai-y sem-la 'phoo-ge, 'khoo kahl-di
` ` L`U Sg
'yeh-ba 'ma 'koh-en. L Su
L| di 'paalo 'rah 'rah mihm-ba
ku-gi 'khartsa peh-ken. Sy j D Vj,
A-A C Sg Uj| This Lk j j| If you say "our
time we will pay the expenses from sister's foot is crippled" she feels hurt,
the common fund, not each one you must say "her foot is incomplete".
separately. Ll` {`-
{`-} kua {ta-} n.
L` ku-la 'yeh {v.t.} (hon. of 'neebar ta-')
n | have common funds. U P (t.) ceremonies:
[Gram: cop.= specific location] burn a piece of paper which carries
` `U L` t`U k | the name of the deceased person.
'yih yii-gi ku-la 'aga de-ze
L` kudu 'L' | See:
'yeh-ba. CL n S 'kubur'.
j| We have this much money in our
common fund. Ly kuna 'L' | See: 'ku'.
L` l- ku-la 'aa- L kup n.
n T| put into a common fund. 1) (W) gL| buttocks (body part).
S` `U t`U Lk L L` 'U' | See: 'goondo (E)'.
lH| khu yii-gi 'aga 'kahze 2) (E) U, | anus; vagina.
'yeh-ken-di ku-la 'aa-en. E CkL

L kupa n. U| thread; yarn. 'mih-'ya 'i phando 'ide 'theki

LU S| 'kupa-gi 'kha. UL t| 'kyahlbu-gi 'kumden-la lep 'koh-en lo.
beginning/ end of thread. j kL AUy Vj
L kubar n. (hon. of 'par') M | It is said that as soon as people
die, they have to stand before the
(t.) picture of a venerated
person. judge of the dead souls.
jt U L lU| L kumbu 'L' | See:
'thei-la 'dale lama-gi 'kubar 'aa-ge. 'kombu'.
C L t Sj| On the L
{M-} kuyen {kyahp-} n.
house altar we put a picture of the {v.t.} , Q {} {give} reward for
Dalai Lama. ritual services (in cash).
L/ L` kubur/ kudu n. (hon. , U L hU
of 'roh') , | corpse. '`, ' L ML| lama, pohmbo-gi 'kurim
| See also: 'phubu, peh-ti-le tihnda-gi 'kuyen 'kyahp-ken.
phumbu'. , nP k Uj kk Q
L/ L` h`- 'kubur/ 'kudu j| When the lamas or shamans
tah- (hon. of 'roh have performed rituals the sponsors
saa-') L U| burn a corpse; give them a reward in money.
cremate. J `U MU L S`U
L kumen n. g| thief. ` | ohle thagu
'pruh-'kyo-gi 'kuyen khu-gi ah-la
L M- 'kumen 'kyahp- g| steal. phul-sin. A `L SL l
L g- 'kumen 'tsuu- E D H| And then they gave
me the reward (pay) for painting the
gL E| accuse of theft
(accusation has to be specific). thangkas.
- 'kumen 'or-
L - L kuri n. L| work utensils: big
g | have burglars. hoe with short handle. 'k'
` S` L | 'yih | See also: 'toozi'.
'khaba-la 'kumen 'or-sin. Y LC L MU gH| 'kuri-y sa
g | We had burglars in the 'kee-di 'kyahgar 'tsuu-en. L t
house. tH L j| The big hoe is
used to dig up the fields for planting
Ll kumdi n. (hon. of 'pin') k,
C, , (t.) sibling.
L () kumden(-la) loc. L -L kurim peh-k
(elevated) AUy, S (t.) nP k
before; in front of. UE| ceremonies: an individual or a
family sponsor a ceremony for monks,
l `l jL
nuns, lamas, or shamans. [Note: in


order to have good luck and success; L- -

- kur-tap or-
not involving the community] (hon. of 'rihl-') y
, , , g M`, (t.) fall over.
k` L M | 'lha, 'lu, , , L-
'tiih, 'tsen-'ya kyo-na, di ! 'lop-'see peh-ti 'phep, 'mehme,
'dzamma-'ra 'kurim peh-'kyo kur-'tap 'or-'wa! , k,
'yihm-ba. k , , y ! Walk slowly, grandfather,
- D j, LD you might fall over!
L U j| When we placate L/ L -
-/ - kurpa/
gods, forest spirits, demons and other kurwa tap-/ uh-
evil spirits, this all is called 'kurim 1) (hon. of 'barta la-' and 'meemu
pehken'. kyahp-') U U, (t.) scold;
`- 'kurim ta-
L `- curse.
nP k U| perform the U S j L
'kurim' rituals.
| di 'paalo 'mehme-gi 'kho-la
J A h L tshem meeh-ba kurpa 'tap-ti lo.
` yH| ooh ani 'tohmu-'ya 'mih k ED |
sa-la 'kurim ta o-en. Q They said this time grandfather
L Y k U kj| Those scolded him terribly.
nuns go to people's houses to perform 2) U| blaspheme (inferiors
the "kurim" rituals. "scold" superiors).
/ L -L kurimba/ SU L M| 'kho-gi 'lha-la
koremba peh-k L kurpa 'tap-'kyo. E UL
gy H Y-Y U S| U| He blasphemed the gods.
festivals: take turns in giving house
L(`) kurma() n. U ALL
parties. [Note: done after 'lohsar' and
LP| household utensils: round basket.
at other festival times]
L L| L kurwa 'L' | See:
loh-sar-la Yohlmu 'mih-'ya 'kurimba 'kurpa'.
peh-ken. L kurwa (N) n. L| measures
D U SEj| At the and weights: measuring pot. [Note: for
beginning of the New Year the people grains, flour and whisky: 2 maanas =
in Yohlmu take turns in giving house 1.1 litre]
parties. LU - 'kurwa-gi 'tahp-
` ` V L | L | measure with
'tihri 'yih 'gyaa-la 'kurimba 'yeh-ba. the 'kurwa'.
Ak D SE j|
L kura n. (hon. of 'aa') wu
Today we have a house party at our
(t.) joke.
`U L M| ah-gi

L- L`

'mehme-la kura 'uh-'kyo. kU L kuh num. | numerals: nine.

wu UL| I am just telling you a joke. LM
` kuhkti 'LM`' |
U L `U/ kL| 'mehme-gi See: 'kukti'.
kura su-ge/ 'dze-ken. k wu
Uj| Grandfather is joking. LL
kuhk-'se 'L ' |
See: 'kuhr-'se'.
L- kul- v.t. AE| order. 'L
`-' | See also: 'kepa ta-'. L`
/ `
kuhmu/ nuhmu
LU M M J`U | temp./ n. | late evening; earlier part
'leeh kul-ge 'mih 'nahkpu 'nahkpu of the night. 'l, , , `
oh-gu 'du. L AE j ' | See also: ''tahi,
L j| The people who give the toohri, tahlda, da kuhmu'.
orders for the work are very black. [Gram: temp. does not take <-la>]
J `C L l V L` L` h` l `U|
V J`! ohle ah-y kuhmu kuhmu tii-'ra yuuh-e
'leehmi kul 'aa-di gyooba gyooba meh-yoh-ge. - HM y

looh-di oh-di! A S You must not wander around by
U jt-jt L AH! And then, yourself at night.
having arranged for field workers, I S ` | 'kho
came back quickly! nuhmu sum de-la 'teh-sin. F
| He stayed here for three
L kulu n. UEL | place names:
village in the western part of Yohlmu,
in a corner below Gosainkuna range; L`
kuh-la ' L' | See:
outsiders call it Kulu, the inhabitants 'nuhp-ki'.
talk of Tsyang-Sahzyu and L`
-` - kuh-sa ten-
Kyah-Thang. LS n L| clear up
L/ in the evening after a rainy day
/ LU -
-/ `-
`- kuwar/
kugar sol-/ ta- U, (usually red clouds can be seen).
AD L | ceremonies: ` L`-` | 'tihri
yearly celebration performed for the kuh-sa ten 'du. Ak L j`U
upkeep of religious monuments, Hj| Oh, today it has cleared up.
especially to repaint them. L`
/ L`
L U U kuh-see temp. L| evening; late
L ML| 'kuwar sol-gen 'bela-le afternoon.
'mahni-'ya-la sagar karpu 'kyahp-ken. `-t L` j
k U L j| J`! 'yihm-'ohlma kuh-'see-la
When the religious monuments are tshur looh oh-di! `-t
renovated the prayer walls are L L AC! Ngyihma-ohlma
whitewashed. came back here in the evening!


kuhba num.ord. | ordinal S U g L L | 'kho
numerals: ninth. 'mih-gi tsoo-la kuhr-ti 'teh-ku 'du. F
L kuhr n. LL (LL ALL j| Oh, he is
submissive to those people.
Ly HL AL) cerem.
terms: effigy representing the dead L -L kuhr peh-k
person during the 'kyehwa' rituals. | bend over/
J M ` L mH
L| ohle 'kyehwa 'yihmu-di l L ! yahmbi-i kuhr
kuhr 'zo-e kahl-sin. A YL peh! HL j ! Bend over a little
LL E | And on the
day on which the death rites are U L L | 'moh goo
performed and effigy has to be made. kuhr peh-ti 'teh-ku 'du. F tEL
H j| Oh, she sits with
L - kuhr- v.i. , J V| take her head bent over.
shelter; bear; endure. [Usage: endure: kuhr-'se/
L / LL
restricted contexts, more commonly kuhk-'se '-/-' | See:
'naa-'] '-se~-see'.
jt ML J` LL| ` L ! di tohbo-ni
nam 'thata 'kyahp-ken 'bele ohra kuhr-'se 'du-ba! S HL k
kuhr-ken. J j! Oh, this tree is somewhat bent!
Vj| When it rains heavily we take
shelter. L kuhram n. S| raw sugar;
` ` L |
'yih tohbo 'rin-la nam kuhr 'teh-sin. L ` kuhri n. ES| sugar
SL J U | We cane.
waited under a tree for the rain to
- kuhl- v.t.
pass. 1) (E) g (Su) move limbs.
L ` kuhr ta-di 2) (E+W) YE (E) push wood
U, U U| into the fire.
uninterruptedly; diligently. [Disc: not
used as indep.] 'L `, L
jL t
-j kuhlbu
SL `' | See also: 'thak thubar-ki uhp-thu g
tadi, khuk tadi'. (guL gt L wEL
L ` LH| kuhr ta-di ) place names: rock spring near
'leeh peh 'koh-en. SS L U j| Gyang (near Golbhanjyang).
You must work diligently. L
) kuhlbu (peh-ti)
-L kuhr-ti 'teh-k
L adv.(ph.) (U) slowly. | be L L | 'leeh kuhlbu
submissive. [Gram: superior party peh-ku 'du. L U j| Oh, he
takes <-ki tsoo-la>] is working slowly

L L-

S L yE | 'kho kuhlbu o-w / E| arrest s.b.

'du. F y
j| He is going S` ` wM M `U`
with slow movements. `L L Ay L T |
khu yii daanu 'hukpa 'or-'kyo
L kuu n. , L| cause; pretext.
'(U) L' | See also: sogo-'ra yi-kar-la 'pulis-ki 'aa-la
'tam(-gi) kuu'. kuu 'khyer 'du. E CkL A
h LU k`V? ti kuu-le-gi nUy HL D Az
nUy UL? What is
dzi-'gyo? L Uj| Because the two of them had a
the cause of your fight? fight some time ago they were both
arrested by the police.
l- kuu dor-
L l-
LL A E| get the point; get L kuuda 'h`
' | See:
the idea. 'sohrtu'.
Ly l L
L kuuma n. | corner which is
L S L l| 'kahnumu the result of bending (e.g.
peh-ti 'ma-e 'mee-di kuuh-di 'teh-ti bamboo when weaving it).
'yeh-ken 'bela 'kho-la kuu dor-sin.
kuusa n. `, ``|
place names: Tarangmarang,
D A | When he was
waiting to see how he should say Talamarang. [Note: not inhabited by
things, he got an idea. Yohlmuwas]
`- kuu 'la- L
L `- L- kuuh- v.i. | hang down; be
U| start an argument. bent (e.g. branch); be obstructed.
L- kuu- v.t. ` h LM | tohbo
1) E| bend down (e.g. a 'todo kuuh-'kyo 'du. SL t
branch). HL j| Oh, the tree top if
hanging down.
`U U L | ah-gi
yahlga-la kuu-sin. UD H| I J M jU L M | ooh
bent down the branch. 'phukpa 'tham-gi kuuh-'kyo 'du-ba.
2) LE () redirect; fetch (e.g. A L L j| The
cattle). cave was obstructed with boards.
EL-t L` C L L- kuuh- v.t. S, jM| wait;
LU| 'urken-'ohlma-'ya stop; obstruct.
kuh-'se-la mahy kuu kahl-'gyo. U ` L L | 'nama-gi
EL-t LS LE ah-la kuuh 'teh-ku 'du. Ek D
UH| Urken-ohlma and her S HL j| My sister-in-law
companions went to fetch the buffalos is waiting for me.
in the evening. `U L-M UyU
T`- kuu(-di)
L() T-/ T`- | thaga kor-kyihle 'pulis
'khyer-/ khyo- LH 'gaar-'ya-gi kuuh-sin. gD `U

L Lh

CL H| All L k` y L
around the meadow the police guards ! de-la 'yahr-ki 'mih-'ya
were keeping people within their 'dzamma-'ra ombu 'ke-ti lo!
limits. L j D HL
- kuuh-da 'thal-
- j ! I heard that they invited all the A | become people from up here!
too late; wait too long. [Gram: exp.
Lh {/ -} keta {yeh/
takes gen. <-ki>] yihn} n. {cop.} L {} a matter
HL l L L
M, {be}; a subject {be}.
, J h Lh ? ti 'keta
J`V| 'ek 'bae 'samma kuuh 'yeh-ba leh rooh? L L ? What's
'teh-ke 'ma-'kyo, taah-ni kuuhda on your heart, friend?
'thal-sin, ohle looh oh-'gyo. HL
J ` J `
k S j L H| S, L H Lh ,
A L AH| I said I would wait | ohle 'ti-le ooh
until one o'clock, but now it is later 'yalmu-'ya 'tor-te 'tor-te 'lah-la
than that, and so I came back. kahl-sin 'ma-e keta yeh-ba, 'yahr
`U L , L S| Yohlmu-la-ni. A j nP
ah-gi kuuhda 'thal-sin, taah-ni kuuh

L UH L j,
miih-khu. LL , A L | Up in Helambu they say
M| I have waited for too long, that later those giant women
now I can't wait any longer. gradually disappeared and went into
`- kuuh-da 'rih-
L the high mountains. Q U|
`t AL L H Lh
wait for a long time.
| rooh 'eup 'amrikan-la
L `, J` y LH, kahl-de 'ma-e 'keta 'yihm-ba.
SH| kuuh-da 'rih-sin, `t AL UHL L | It's about
taah-ni ohra o 'koh-en, 'toohri lep my friend Ngeup who went to
miih-khu-en. SC , A America.
y | We can't
j, V L h Lh `? ti 'keta-le
wait any longer, we must go now, 'phep na-ba? L L ?
otherwise we won't be able to reach What did you come for?
there today.
Lh J` SH 'keta oh
S` L ` | khu kuuhda khuu-en cl. | be possible.
'rih-sin 'du. E Lj | I [Gram: cl.= general existence]
see, they waited for a long time.
Lh J` SH| di 'keta oh
L -L ke-k v.dt. E| call for a khuu-en. j| This is possible.
visit. 'y L-L' | See also: H 'keta
Lh J`` S
'ombo ke-k'. oh-'ra miih-khu-en cl. A |

Lh -L

be impossible. [Gram: cl.= general Tsiiri.

existence] T U h Lh M?
Lh J`` SH| di 'keta 'khya 'meehme-'ya-gi ti 'keta 'lahp
oh-'ra miih-khu-en. A j| 'teh-'kyo? D L U U
This is impossible. HL? What are you ladies
Lh j` j` 'keta 'thaa talking about?
'thue - L|
L-/ L - ken-/ ken ter- v.dt.
insignificant matters.
UE, UC| dress s.b. else.
Lh 'keta mihm-ba k Lh L / L`! | be untrue. pehza-'ya-la 'kapta ken ter/ ken-do!
[Gram: cop.= identification; evid.:
hgD Ly UCF! Please
truth emphasized] dress the children!
Lh 'keta 'yihm-ba | be true. [Gram: -L/-U/-
cop.= identification; evid.: truth -ken~-gen~-en~vvn/-ke~-ge vsf.
emphasized] kE PL A|
present; intentional present;
Lh | Lh Ly
customary present; repetetive action
J` SH H? di 'keta 'yihm-ba.
di 'keta 'kahnumu peh-ti oh in the past; adjectivizer. [Phon: For the
miih-khu-e ma-en? L | occurrence of the phonological
L A L? This is variations of this suffix see appendix
true; how can you say that this is 7, section 3.1. The variant separated
impossible? by the slash is conditioned by the
dialect or personal preference of the
Lh {-L/ -/ -
-} keta speaker.]
{e-k/ lahp-/ ma-} n. {v.dt.} ,
` S` yH| ah 'khaba-la
g {U, } {talk about} a matter. o-en. Y kj| I am going home.
[Usage: rare in collocation with these (i.e.: I intend to go home; I want to
dt. verbs; 'tam' is more common in go home.)
these contexts, 'keta' more common
` `
with the copulas 'yeh-k/ yihn']
` `
J ` L` `C g 'yih arpa-di 'mih 'i-si-'ma-na
LU Lh k` M 'toh-le 'too-le 'yahr tae 'yal-de 'reeh
M | ohle ah karpu-gi 'up-ke. L j
kahl-sim-ba-'ra ah-y 'tsiiri
kohmba-gi 'keta-'ya 'dzamma-'ra
L Lj| When somebody dies,
'kyahlbu-la e-'kyo 'yihm-ba. A we Sherpas first lie him down there
UH g UL L kD vertically and cover him with a white
L | And then I went and told the death cloth.
king everything about the temple of
Jk h` MU

L -L

l t lU | 'ohze 'bele 'yihn-si-'ma-na 'kema mahbu 'dzaa

'nuhmu 'tu-o-di 'kyahgar 'sipa-i 'koh-en. k EL
am 'aa-ge lo. S Lj gj| If you go to Helambu, you
AL L jT L U | have to climb a lot of steep paths.
At that time the youngest sister would l` L | di 'lahm
scatter about some millet. dibu-'ra 'kema 'du. t EL
Jk U AlU U j| Oh, this path goes ascends very
h` LU L ` steeply.
| 'ohze 'bele simbu-gi 'ai-gi goo -L/-U/-H
'thoo-la ta-de 'yeh-ke-gi 'laahwor -ke-mu~-ge-mu/-e-mu vsf. -
'mahr 'phok ta-sin 'du lo. S
(O L kE PL A)
Q LtL tEL nyCSL concomitant action participle 1.
k HML jy | At that '-M/ -V' | See also: '-kya~
moment the monster quickly loosened -gya'. [Phon: For the occurrence of the
the millstone, which was hanging phonological variations of this suffix
above the head of the girl. see appendix 7, section 3.1. The
L `-
`-/ -L/ - kepa ta-/ variant separated by the slash is
peh-k/ ten-
| conditioned by the style of speech.]
oversee work; give orders. 'L-' J L l`UA` j
| See also: 'kul-'. MLA` l ML| ohle
`U L ` LL| kohmba 'a-ge-mu-'a thaane
ah-gi 'yahr 'mahr peh-te 'kepa ta 'kyahp-ke-mu-'a 'baandam
'koh-ken. wE
'kyahp-ken. A U E ,
j| I have to alternate between U S gj| And when the
being down there and up here to building of a temple is started, as well
oversee the work. as when it is dedicated, masked
S` `U L - HU dances are performed.
L l` | khu yii-gi 'kepa L yH L |
peh-ti yii-samye ma-e-gi kohmba ''kohre-la ta o-e-mu-ni kehpu-ni
'a-sin lo. E CkL t mihn-du lo. Uw k j
- U HL | The two j | When she went to look in the
of them gave the orders and built the cattle shed the old man was not there,
Yii-Samye Temple. she said.
/ L {k-} kema/ kama L`/
`/ L kemda (E)/ kemba
{dzaa-} n./ adj. {v.i.} EL, wy (W) n. L gt| household utensils:
{g} {climb} steep incline. '-g' bamboo tongs.
| See also: 'thur-tsuu'. -L/
yl L ` -kemba~-gemba/-emba vsf. g
k LH| Yohlmu-la o-e UL kE PL A|

decided future. [Phon: For the her).

occurrence of the phonological
L kere p. S, S-S| interjections:
variations of this suffix see appendix well...; let's see....
7, section 3.1. The variant separated
L, hU l? 'kere, ti-'ga
by the slash is conditioned by the 'ma-e? S, L ? Well let's see,
style of speech.] what shall I say?
`U L | 'yih-gi pohmo L, ` !
ter-kemba. j UL j| 'kere, tahnda 'samma ah-la meeh-ba
We have decided to give our 'yeh-ba! S, A U L j!
daughter. Well, up to now I have not had any
S `A` yU/ with me!
yH| di 'paalo 'Pokhara-la 'yih-'a
o-gemba/ o-emba. S LL
kehk n. L S
kj| We have decided that | spirits: evil spirit which
we too are going to Pokhara this time. particularly troubles people in relation
to their wedding and marriage.
L kembu 'L' | See: LL -L 'kehk 'se-k
U U L| marriage: kill evil
`/-H` spirit by performing a ritual dance.
-ke-'ra~-ge-'ra/-e-'ra vsf. - [Note: is part of wedding ceremony]
(C A Q kE A) ' g-U' | See also: 'silu
imperfect continuous aspect. [Phon: tse-g'.
For the occurrence of the
kehn n. L E
phonological variations of this suffix old age. 'L U' | See also:
see appendix 7, section 3.1. The 'keehgen'.
variant separated by the slash is
V- kehn-la 'gyur-
conditioned by the style of speech.] ,
L V|
A L ` | 'ama 'balu become old.
'nur-ke-'ra 'yeh. A ky t j|
y- kehn-o
L y L y y-
Mother is just mixing beer. kehn-o o- '-/-y/-t...' |
AU j `U` | 'ada-gi See: '-ro~-o~-o...'.
'thee 'lo-ge-'ra 'yeh. C L
L `/ L
-` j-/ y-
Sl j| Older brother is just kehn-di/ kehn-'tih thaa-/ o-
searching in the books.
L {j}
J M-T `-` become middle-aged.
`-` yH` L | ohle J L` y`,
'kyep-'khyowa-di-ni 'toh-'to
` y L H M |
'toh-'to o-e-'ra 'yehke lo. A ohle-ni kehndi o-wa-'ra-ni, ''mahr
Vj g AUy AUy y | roh-la o 'koh-sin' 'ma-en sem 'kyee
And the man kept going ahead (of 'du lo. A
- L

kj wj | When he got `U t` LH|

middle-aged he thought he should go 'imbu-gi tshe-di-la 'leeh 'kehwa
down to the lowlands. 'tihkpa 'oh maah-e-ba 'yehna 'tihkpa
taah-e'gi 'thir-la 'mih mahbu-gi
- kehn- v.t. UE| put on
(clothes, etc.); dress yourself. 'mahni 'ah 'koh-en. L kE

HL H g
/ L kehpa/ kahpa n. k kj| The
L| terrace wall (steep slope of deceased person may not have been
terraced fields). much aware of works of merit or sin
kehpu 'L' | See: when he was alive; so in order that
'kihpu'. his sin may be wiped out many
people must recite ritual prayers.
/ L kehpu/ kahpu n./ adj.
( ) old man; old male L 1 kee n. | voice; noise; sound.
animal. [Usage: 'kahpu' is mostly (W)] L M`() - 'kee
kyah(-da) ten-
L / M kehper/
kyahpar n. A| spices: ginger. w L ( U
L) shout continuously (sustained
kehbe een n. shouting).
(lamaistic) | wise man. 'kee
L M`() `
/ L kehmu/ kahmu n./ kyah(-da) 'rihbu peh-ti
adj. ( ) old woman; old w U| continuously
female animal. [Gram: adj. has no (shout, speak, sing loudly for a long
excl. form (see appendix 5, time).
section1.2)] [Usage: 'kahmu' is mostly L M- 'kee 'kyahp-
(W)] E| call.
S`U L M L , `U
L kehmba adj. (poetic)
L M L| khu-gi 'kee 'kyahp
L| old (of people; m. or f.).
kahl-sin 'du-ba, 'yih-gi 'kee 'kyahp
`/ L
` kehlo/ kehlu n. mah-kahl. E E UHj,
U (Q ) monk. E UHL C| They went to call
` - 'kehlo 'uh-
L them, we didn't go. U J () L M
(Q ) take the vows of a T` h | ohle-ni
monk. pohmbo(-la) 'kee 'kyahp-ti khyo-di
kehwa n. , , P| 'moh ta tuusin 'duba. A nPD
religious merit. 'M' | See H D kS Hj| I
also: 'kyahwa'. learned that then they called the
U j L M ` shaman and had him perform a
M lU j divination ceremony.


L g`U 'kee 'tsaga , L 'kee 'bolbu

gL | high voice; screeching | full voice; resounding voice.
voice. L U| 'kee 'bolbu
L l` g`U L| 'kee peh-ti 'lu lehn-gen. L
dibu-'ra 'tsaga kahl-sin. gL U UEj| They sing with a full and
| My (his/ your/ etc.) voice resounding voice.
sounds very high. L -L 'kee 'reh-k
S`U L g`U U M, | croak;
`U` ` ` y S | have laryngitis. [Gram: exp. takes attr.
khu-gi 'lu 'kee 'tsaga peh-ti lehn-ge <-ti>]
sogo-'ra ah 'yambu ii miih-khu L- 'kee-'lu n. g| manner
'du. E gL UE of talking.
U UE M| Because they sing L 2 kee p. SC, L| interjections:
so high we can't sing together. where; what about; why. [Disc: occurs
U ` l` g`U , clause intially or finally]
t`-t` E | 'mehme pohmbo-gi
aa dibu-'ra 'tsaga 'du, o-o L- kee- 'g' | See: 'tsamba'.
'ma-w 'du. nP kL `U gL L`
keeyer n. U g U
l j, ` ` U j| The j| person hired to look after a
drum of the shaman has a temple.
high-pitched, clear beat. L `UU L` hU
L j 'kee thimbu w U h`U| kohmba
| loud/ deep voice. su-gen-gi 'keeyer-la tihnda-gi
L j/ 'kee 'theemu/ phul-'gyo-gi seeh-'ya-gi 'phowa
'phema | soft/ high tah-ge. UL S-S U j The
voice. person who looks after the temple
L - 'kee ten- lives from the things the adherents
erg. ghE/ U U| shout/ shout at. offer to the temple.
H, L ! 'e, 'kee mah-ten! H,
` keesa n. OL | names:
ghF ! Hey, don't shout! personal name.
y- 'kee ten o-
L y- Ek U| complain. L ` keei n. M ()
MU lM w `U thickening of sauces with flour. 'g
` , L yl J`U| L-' | See also: 'tsamba kee-'.
'kyahlbu-gi 'aa-'kyo him ta-gen 'mih MU g L ` j J`U|
'yeh-'ra 'yeh, 'kee ten o-e oh-gen. 'kyahgar 'tsamba 'keei thimbu
k SL U j j j, Ek oh-ge. LL w ()
U k Lj | There are the judges M j| Millet flour thickens (a
appointed by the king; you can go soup) well.
and complain there. L
keeh n. (poetic) U (U )
- L

clothes. 'kapta LyL U|

h ` `, L costly, colourful dresses.
`! yahpten yahm-di 'phep-so, L

`/ L

` -L keehda/
'keeh-la lhemba 'phoo-so! keehna peh-k S
k, A U t E! E| rejoice.
(UL tML) My honoured father, S L ` L| 'kho
dying has gone, and I had to patch nahm-'ma-na 'keehna peh-ke. E
my clothes!
k S Ej| He always
L - 'keeh kehn-
L rejoices.
nPL U UE| cerem. terms: L

`/ L ` `- 'keehda/

{put on} the white robe the shaman 'keehna 'lah-
dresses up with for certain
, S | be joyous; be happy.
performances. ' ' | See
also: 'meeyol'. L

keeh-ba-gi leeh
g L, AL L| necessary
- keeh- v.i. gL| crack up; split. work; needed work.
L () - 'keeh(-di) ter- 'L-
)' | See: 'koh- (divide)'.
(y L

M- keehmu kyahp-
{-} 'keehlam {then-} n. | laugh; smile.
{L} crack
{v.i.} gLL L
- 'keehmu 'or-
{appear). Ew| laugh
U keehgen n./ adj. L| ` L | ah-ni 'keehmu
' | See also:
old (people). 'L 'orsin. D Ew| I had to
'kehn'. laugh.
-g` keeh-tsama adj. gS, L-
L- ko- v.t. S, S| dig; carve.
, | clean.
-g` | di 'gyaa
V L -L/
U/-E +-
/- -ko~-
'keeh-'tsama 'du. wE j| go~-w +-wa~-wah '-/-'
This is a very clean place! | See: '-wa~-wah'.
U k AU k L-
L- kom- 'S' | See: 'kha'.
-g`! 'nooh-gi pehza'ya 'mee-di-ni
L koma n. HL LL tt
'ada-gi pehza'ya 'keeh-'tsaa! CL
L L U| cerem. utensils:
hg kL hg ! red colour applied to the rice statues.
The children of the older brother have
[Note: gained from the roots of the
cleaner habits than the ones of the
'koma tuhbu'; mixed with butter
younger brother!
before being applied to the rice
keehen n. C statues (tshoo)]
Ly| costly, colourful cloth.
L ` 'koma tuhbu
l U Lh 'keehen-gi L C L t| trees:

Lk L

bush from the roots of which the red, M-' | See also: 'kora
edible colour is obtained. kyahp-'.
L ` - `U| ` Ay` L J`V| 'yih
'koma tuhbu 'lah-la 'praah-dep-la 'ahna-'ra kor oh-'gyo. L
'tho-ge. UL t LL Y AHL| We came just to have a
Sj| The 'koma' bush can be seen look around.
in the mountains on rocky cliffs. `U L | ah-gi
Yohlmu kor sihn-sin.
Lk `- komdze lah- S V| be thirsty. YL| I have been to Helambu.

L komba n. g| work utensils: L (-

(-) -/ L - / -
big carrying basket (tightly woven). kor(-len) loo-/ kor tuh-/ sah-
', g' | See also: L U
'sohlma, tselba'. (SE, E A U LP)
cerem. terms: reciprocal system of
L/ L/ L kombu/ eating at each others' death rites and
kumbu/ kembu adj. L, L, other festivals sponsored by individual
A| rare. families.
` l` t L ! `` M `U MH
ah-ni dibu-'ra 'ehmba 'kombu ` `` j
'yeh-ba! O L j! I am
L ``U L |
very forgetful!
J ` M `|
L/ L/ L y-
y-/ J`- M L di 'yih-'ra
'kombu/ 'kumbu/ 'kembu o-/ oh- 'kyehwa-di ah-gi sem-la 'kye-e A , L | be needy 'leehmu 'yihnsimana 'toh-le 'yih-'ra
(be in need); become rare. 'thoo thata-la kahl-di 'yih-'ra-gi kor
gC CL j L yH| 'tsayta 'tuh-sin. ohle 'yehpa-'a di 'kyehwa
'baysak-la thu 'kombu o-en. g ta-sin. 'kyehwa-la kor loo-sin.
S L A j| In April and Pg, g wE
May the water becomes rare. UH Sj | A AD
` j L L| 'yih-la P SEj| A Uj|
thu 'kombu kahl-sin. D L If it's the way I think with our death
Sg j| We are in need of water. rites, we go to different places (to
H L J`U| di eat), and we get ritually indebted.
'yuhl-la sah-e seeh 'kombu oh-ge. Then again we perform death rites
U SLL A j| It's (ourselves) and so we reciprocate.
difficult to get food in this region. L - kor 'phoo- S
L- kor- v.i./t. Y| walk around; V (L U M
trek. [Gram: actor takes <-ki> in past A) cerem. terms: accumulate debts
tenses if scope is mentioned] 'L in the 'kor' system. [Note: not be able

L L`

to reciprocate in the 'kor' system] abusive term for a lama (sponger).

L kora n. Y-| walk. korna piihru
A j L LV| 'ama LwL j| abusive expressions:
'thorten kora-la kahl-'gyo. A L abusive term for lama's children.
U Y kHL j| Mother has L` J`-/ y-
y- korya-la
gone to the circle of Bauddha. oh-/ o- (W)
L M- kora 'kyahp- LL U AE/ k| make a trip for erg. Y| go for a a special purpose.
walk; trek. [Gram: actor takes <-ki> ` `y` L` yl| 'yih
in past tenses if scope is mentioned] Laa-la korya-la o-e.
'L-' | See also: 'kor-'. kj| We want to
`t` j t
`U L M J`| go and meet somebody in Langang.
ah-gi Yohlmu kora 'kyahp-ti oh-sin.
L kohrmu adj./ n. t, U|
Y AH| I have come back circular; round (but not ball-shaped).
from a trip to Helambu. '' | See also: 'rhilmu'.
L koremba 'L' | U L| loma-gi kohrmu.
See: 'kurimba'. `L UC| roundness of bamboo
L-M kor-kyihle loc. `U|
on all sides; from all around. U M LU t j L
'-L' | See also: L | 'lah-gi kyil-la 'yeh-ken-gi
'ti-kohre'. [Gram: does not take 'uhpu tsho-di kohrmu kohrmu
<-la>] 'yeh-ba. LL g HL t S
L` L-M`| 'kah t j| The Pilgrimage Lake in the
kor-kyihle-'ra. yy `U (yyL middle of the mountains is very
g)| all around the hill.
J ` L-M E ! L
L kohrmu n. , gL
ohle-ni ah-la-ni kor-kyihle ta-w 'du! | Indian Rupee; Chinese coin.
A D j! And she is L-
L- kol- v.t. E| boil (milk,
looking at me from all sides! water, etc.). 'S-, -, -'
L- -
- kor-tam ma- | See also: 'khol-, yo-, bloo-'. YH | talk deviantly.
L kolama n. UEL | place
L- l S l` S | names: village on the eastern slope of
kor-tam 'ma-e-la 'kho dibu-'ra the Melamchi River valley, located
'kheebu 'du. YH L UD F between Syuhnggan-Che and
j| He is very clever in Nuhrpu-Kahng.
distorting the truth.
L` kolda n. SL P|
L korna n. U D U thick bark. [Note: of fir trees, e.g.
U U U | abusive expressions: 'kyel tuhbu, kalda tuhbu']

L kowar n. | animals:: v.dr. g| need.

weasel?; small marten? (long-tailed, -w ml Jk LH|
kills chickens). 'yuhl-him 'zo-e-la ohze 'mih 'koh-en.
L koh n. L| door; gate. UEL ED O
L M- 'koh 'kyahp- gj| To establish the village laws L U| close door. you need that many people.
L ` 'koh 'puba L-U/ L-U
LL wy gL| house parts:
'koh-'rihmba-gi/ 'koh-'rimba-gi adv.
doorjamb. AM A| as needed (as much
as needed and at the time when
L-V 'koh-'gyaa n. LL t|
doorway. needed); as necessary. 'U/
U' | See also:
L- koh- v.t. U UE| divide '-rihmba-gi/ rimba-gi'. 'L M-' | See t`U L-U y `!
also: 'kohpa kyahp-'. di 'aga 'koh-'rihmba-gi o-sum
J A-` `C peh-to! AM A
L | ohle 'ada-da 'nooh gE! Use this money as you need
yii-y 'phai 'koh-sin 'du lo. A k it!
C Ay Uj | And then the L-

/ L- t`
two brothers devided up the 'koh-'rihm/ 'koh-'rim 'ahma
inheritance. '-/ - t`' | See:
S` , T` L '-rihm/ -rim ahma'.
! 'khaba-la to 'yeh-ba, 'khya-'ra
pin-'ya 'keeh-di 'soh! Y j, L -U/ L -L koh-g/ koh-k
aux. | must. [Gram: vs + aux.]
y SF! There is food at
home, divide it up among yourselves ` S` y L|
and eat it! taah-ni ah 'khaba-la o 'koh-sin. A
) - 'keeh(-di) ter-
L() D Y k| I have to go y | share out; home now.
distribute. 'M-' | See also: TU ` hA` LH|
'kyee-' v.dt.'. khye-gi ah-la ti-'a ter meh-koh-en.
l` L LH| | You don't
thamdi-la-'ra 'keeh-di ter 'koh-en. need to give me anything.
D y j| We must L j-L koh the-k
distribute it to everybody. L V| come in handy; be useful.
AU k L L| 'ama-gi J kU L jL| di
pehza-'ya-la to 'keeh ter-ken. A 'leeh-la ooh pehza-gi 'koh
hgD S y j| Mother meh-'the-ken. L hg
shares out the food to the children. U M| That child will not be
suitable for this work.
L -U/ L -L koh-g/ koh-k
LL L`k

l m`l U L 'dii-de 'dar-te 'dar-te thaa 'tshal-sin!

L ! 'leeh yaahbu-i
jL E L HL yH U! As
zu meeh-ba-'ga 'koh meh-'the-ke for them, they bowed down
'leeh peh-ken 'nah! HEt L huddled-up in fear and trembling!
U g L Uj ! Instead of h j` L` L| 'tahmu
engaging in a good occupation he is 'tsha-la 'koh-di 'teh-ken LS J
doing some useless business! j| Hens hatch eggs.
L j 'koh 'thepu L 2) Sg| shrink in size; get wrinkled.
V, EU| useful; handy. [Gram: t w L`V| di 'swiar
excl.: 'koh thewa!'] 'hii-di 'koh-'gyo. Ct H
J k L j | ooh pehza SgHL| This sweater has shrunk
'koh 'thepu 'du. hg L V from washing.
j| That child comes in handy. L`- koh- v.t. j
| knead; form
LL kohko n. | foods: crisp
layer of corn mash. [Note: scraped off SU L`U | 'kho-gi 'polda
the pan in which the corn mash was 'koh-gu 'du. E w j y
cooked] j| Oh, he is kneading a ball of
roasted flour.
/ LL
kohrkor aahma UE L
S` U L`U | khu
phee-be-'ya-gi torma 'koh-gu 'du.
E Ly| clothing: back
apron of firm cotton material. [Note: E j E j|
the kind the Tamang women usually Oh, the gentlemen are forming rice
wear] (or flour) statues.

LM kohkpa n. | spices: L` koha n. , Ay| egg;

garlic. testicle.
L` M-U 'koha 'kye-g
/ L kohga/ kohwa n. | lay eggs.
g| house parts: firepit. L` L - 'koha pako 'u-
`U LU U V| ah-gi L P j| peel
'kohga sasa-gi 'thel-'gyo. g boiled eggs.
t | I plastered the firepit with L` M- 'koha
mud. 'baabar 'kyahp- AyL
LU kohgre 'L ' | See: At E| foods: make an omelette
'koohre'. (without flour).
L`- koh- v.i. L`k {`-
{`-} kohdzo {ta-} n.
1) LP, L| take a huddled-up {v.t.} (hon. of 'kyehwa ta-') P
position; get stiff from cold. {U} (t.) ceremonies: {perform}
S` L` L` l j funeral rites.
j! khu-ni 'koh-de 'koh-de
L` L`

L` `-
`- kohba na- L Uj| I hope that all my plans will be fulfilled.
1) (hon. of 'chhui ter-')
L` `-/ `-
`- kohba su-/
(t.) give leave; dismiss s.b. so- (hon. of 'ihta
` ` Ll lah-/ peh-k') E, ML
, L` ``! ah nahbar (t.) be upset. [Disc: affirmative
lehmen 'leeh peh 'koh-e 'yeh-ba, usage is rare]
'kohba na-do! L L U
L` `! 'kohba mah-su!
j, D ju ! I have L E ! Please don't get
something else to do tomorrow, please angry!/ Please don't mind!
give me leave for it.
A, Ly L` `!
U ` L` `, 'amomo, 'kahnmu 'kohba su-de!
J ` J`| 'mehme A, L ML HL! Oh, he
lama-gi 'yih-la 'kohba na-sin, ohle became very upset!
'yih looh oh-sin. k D
ju , L A| The L` - kohba uh-
lama dismissed us, and so we came (hon. of 'chhui
back. lehn-') V, AW V (t.)
2) (hon. of 'lee ta-') take one's leave. [Gram: addressee
(t.) forgive. takes <yambu/ yimbu>]
`U k, h J ` L A
L` ``! ah-gi 'leeh dzol-sin, yMt ` L`
lehma tii-la 'kohba na-do! L J`| ohle 'yih
U, HL gtD ! I made 'pheebe sum 'Kullu 'aspatal-le 'akar
a mistake, please forgive me for this 'yambu 'kohba 'iih-di 'yahr
time! 'Yahmbu-la looh oh-sin. A
k L AL yMtU
L` -L kohba peh-k U Lwy A| And the three of (rare) A U, L us took leave from the doctor of the
U| hope. hospital in Kullu and returned up to
` ` y ``l Kathmandu.
L` L| ah 'mih 'luhba-la o
'yuh-du 'mee-di 'kohba peh-ken. L` - kohba uh- V| apologize.
k Ej L A UL
j| I am hoping to get to go to a kVU U `U L`
foreign country. M, J L` `V| di 'leeh
k` yh
`U dzol-'gyo-gi 'laagi-la ah-gi 'kohba
L` L| 'leeh 'dzamma-'ra 'uh-'kyo, ohle 'kohba na-'gyo.
tehnda 'up-tu 'mee-di ah-gi L UL U, E
'kohba peh-ken. L | I apologized for my
mistake, and he forgave me.
L` L

L` kohbi n. L L| L-` - koh-yi looh-

lama's assistant. [Note: mainly S S AY E|
performs when the lamas are in fall asleep before the meal.
seclusion] k L-` U! di
'kohbi 'aa-
L` l- pehza-'ya 'koh-'yi looh-ge! hg L T| choose lama's S S AUy Ej! These
assistant. children fall asleep before the meal!
L` -L 'kohbi 'teh-k L-g` (L) koh-tsili (kohmba) n.(ph.) Z`| place
1) L | serve as lamas' names: lama settlement with temple on
assistant. the eastern slope of the Melamchi
2) , A | be at leisure. River valley (above the path between
`-` ` L` L| Kahng-Yuhl and Langgyapsa).
da-'tihri ah 'kohbi 'teh-ken.
Ak j| These days I am L-t koh-ohmu adj. Aw|
at leisure. strange; unpredictable.
S L-tl L U
L`- -
- koh-yar or- ! 'kho-ni 'leeh 'koh-'ohmu-i Ejt, jy| be left peh-ken 'mih-'ga 'du-ba! F L
out; be left behind.
L L U j j ! He
S L`- M| 'kho surely is an unpredictable person!
'koh-'yar 'or-ti 'lih-'kyo. F jy| He
`U h L-tl L!
was left behind. ah-gi sem ti 'koh-'ohwa-i kahl-sin!
g ` U
L`- D Aw V! I experienced a
h| di 'tsamba 'eebi thaa-ge-mu strange feeling!
'koh-'yar 'or maah-tu.
Ejt | When you grind these L kohndum n. L()
parched grains, don't allow any to be vegetable garden near the house.
left out! (i.e. unground) '-L ' | See also:
/ L`- kohlo/ L j, LM, j - gU|
koh-loh n. (hon. of 'loh') 'kohndum-la 'thabi, 'kohkpa,
E (t.) year (used when asking tsheema-ree 'tsuu-ge. L
for people's ages).
j, , U A j| In the
U L`- Lk L? vegetable garden near the house we
'mehme-gi 'koh-loh 'kahze kahl-ba? plant small onions, garlic, and
k L L ? How old is spinach-like vegetables.
L M- kohpa kyahp-
L`- koh-op n. AyL U y UE| divide up.
P| egg shell. 'L-' | See also: 'koh-'.

L- L

t`U L M S` ` villagers hire a person to look after

l j` - L | 'aga the temple.
'kohpa 'kyahp-ti khu yii di 'dawa S`U l`V LA`
'yihndu 'tsho 'so-'so peh-ken lo. J`U| lama 'kho-'ra-gi 'a-'gyo
E Ck U UH kohmba-'a oh-ge. L k U
S ju-ju U | They j| There are also temples which
said they would divide up the money, have been built by a lama personally.
and each one would pursue his own 2) place names: alternative name for
business starting this month. Langgyapsa.
L- kohm- v.t. k| meditate; Ll kohmdur n. UL
wish fervently. y| porch of a temple.
L`! 'lha kohm-do! E L-U/
U/ L-U
k! Meditate before a god! koh-rihmba-gi/ koh-rimba-gi
` `
`U 'L-U/ L-L' | See: 'koh-g/
L LL ! "ah-la di 'leehmu koh-k'.
'la" 'mee-de 'rah-gi sem-la kohm
L kohre n. Uw| cattle shed.
'kohke 'nahle! D F
` L`U k L `
kj , A! In your heart | yari 'kah-gi 'rin-la 'dzomo 'kohre
you must wish fervently, "Give me mahbu 'du. ` yyL
one like this!"
g Uw j| Oh, at the foot of
L M- kohmda kyahp- the Yangri peak there are many L | sling across dzomo cattle sheds.
L kohrowa n. Uw, L,
k L ML| 'dzoola gL| herder (e.g. of sheep or pigs);
kohmda 'kyahp-ken. L n | servant.
sling shoulder bag across shoulders.
L kohmden n. g| place | 'kho 'nooh 'baabu sa-la
names: Chitre (small settlement on the 'kohrowa 'teh-ken-di 'yihmba. Fg
western slope of the Melamchi River CL Uw | He
valley, high above Kyahldum, near is the one who serves in brother
Chipling and Thodung). Baabu's household.
L kohmba n. L/ L (
) kohle/
1) U| temple. kohlee (peh-ti) adv.(ph.) ,
k L L` U lU| | slowly; softly. [Phon: The
'diizo kohmba-la 'keeyer 'yuhlba-gi second syllable becomes long with
'aa-ge. n U g U UEL emphatic intonation.]
j HLk j Tj| L () `! yahmbi
For the community temple the 'kohle (peh-ti) 'mee-do! A

Ll L

! Please say it slowly/ softly! L kooba n. j| skin of animals;

J UA` L L ` leather; animal hide.
-j m j j ! ohle J A VU U L T`
'moh-gi-'a 'kohlee 'kohlee 'tohba L` | ohle 'a
de-'thowa 'zee-de thaa 'tshal-sin lo. 'gyurmi-gi 'baso-gi kooba khyo-di
A E (E) S H 'kaba-la yaahbu peh-ti tahm-sin. A
U ! And then she made an V C UDL j H Su
ugly grimace and also bowed down | And brother Gyurmi took
very slowly! an animal skin and wound it tightly
around the leg.
Ll kohlda n. g| lock.
Ll ML| 'kohlda L kooma n. h, gEy| chin
'kyahp-ken. g E| put on the (body part ).
L` kooi n. | fruits: wild
Ll (S) U | 'kohlda ('kha)
'phee-gen. g S| unlock.
L` ` kooi tohbo
L` kohlda n. U| gate L S| trees: fig tree. [Note:
which is closed with sliding bars (for grows wild in the lower regions of
enclosure). Yohlmo]
L` M`! 'kohlda Lk
koohzum 'L
' |
'kyahp-to! U F! Close the gate! See: 'koohbur'.
L` `! 'kohlda 'phee-do!
U EY! Open the gate! L
koohdum n.
1) wEL | place names: upper part
L kohwa 'LU' | See: of Timbu.
'kohga'. ' | See also:
2) 'L
L L` kohwa kah 'koohbur'.
'M-L`' | See: 'kwah-kah'.
/ Lk
/ L
L koo gC, | three koohzum/ koohdum n. LwL
quarters full or long. S (S, , A D)
L| 'mana koo. gC | household utensils: small wooden
3/4 of a "maana". mortar. [Note: used for grinding
w L-` `| 'hu koo-da yii. spices]
C | 1 and 3/4 cubits. L koohra '-L ' |
L kooti n. Lw HL See: 'lahp-koohra'.
| work utensils: small rake (used to L / LU {j-} koohre (E)/
pull together dry leaves). kohgre (W) {thaa-} n. {}
L koodap '' | See: scales of dirt {accumulate}.
'lahdap'. w `MU L

M-L` M`

jU| maah-'hi-ba peh-ti wEL | place names: Ghwakang

'teh-si-'ma-na yokpa-gi koohre (settlement on the western slope of
thaa-ge. DL L the Melamchi River valley, opposite of
kj| If you don't wash yourself, Phaadungdung Chhyu.
scales of dirt will accumulate.
t- kwaahn
M-L`/ L L` kwaahn aah- M
kwah-kah/ kohwa kah n.(ph.) M U (LS) cackle (hens).

'keehna 'lah-sin! D O
M / M kya
rhaba rhibe/ kya rhaba rhebe Vj, AE| E k C El| at dawn V! Coming back (from festivals) I
(partly light). get very sad; going over there I was
S M ` `
L | 'kho 'kya 'rhaba MM kyakpa n. , U| feces;
'rhibe-la-'ra 'lah-de kahl-sin 'du. F excrements.
El Ew UHj| I saw him `- 'kyakpa ta-
MM `-
getting up and leaving when is was , U V| defecate.
just getting light.
MM kyakya 'MM' | See:
M/-V () -kya~-gya 'kyaakya'.
(lahmu) vsf. - (O L kE
M`- kya- v.t. , ME|
PL A) concomitant action stretch one's limbs.
participle 2. '-L/-U/-H' |
`t ` l `U M
See also: '-ke-mu~-ge-mu/-e-mu'.
M`U| au 'lah phando ah-gi
[Phon: For the regular phonological 'lahkpa kya-ge. Ewj
alternations of suffix initial stops and
LEj| In the morning when I get
the exception verbs marked with up I stretch my arms.
<-k> see appendix 7, sections 1-3,
and for the exceptional behaviour of M`k` kyadza n. y
this suffix in regard to voicing kE w k| work utensils:
assimilation see section 3.2.] [Disc: cupboard and shelves beside the left
frequently used in the W dialect, but side of the fireplace.
rarely in the E; +'lahmu' occurs in M` t`- kyaba ah-
elevated speech] U| money: count
` jL , j money in Mohars (half rupees).
J`V| yM L ` `! 't`U, y' | See also: 'aga,
ah-ni 'pata meehba 'tsher-ke 'nahle, ibu'.
tshur oh-gya. phar o-kya-ni

M` M-

M` L-
L-/ - kyaba sa trustworthy.
ko- (E)/ ter- (W) `C M hU, J
gt Uy| cultivate the first S`U j ML| ah-y 'lha 'lhamu-la
time. [Gram: 'he(-la)/ may(-la)' + 'kyap 'tol-ge, ohle khu-gi tshur] 'kyap-ken. QL
S`U M` l L| Uj, A E D Q
khu-gi 'he kyaba sa-i 'ko-sin. j| I trust the gods and
E A gt Uy| They goddesses, and in return they protect
broke the ground and weeded the first me.
time in the potato fields.
M- kya-mahr n. YE|
M- kyap- v.t. foods: fresh, unboiled butter. 'l-'
1) Q U, kUE| protect. [Usage: | See also: 'u-mahr'.
usually gods protecting people]
My/ My/ M `-
LlU M `U| kyamo/ kyamu/ kyamru ta-
kindo-gi 'mih-la 'kyap na-gen. kw U| ceremonies:
L Q U j|| God perform personal worship. [Note: recite
protects people. prayers and light butter lamps, etc.]
S `U M T`V| 'kho-la j U U M `U| 'thee

ah-gi 'kyap-ti khyo-'gyo. ED ee-gen 'mih-'ya-gi kyamru ta-ge.
kUH HL j| I brought him here U k kw Uj| The
safely. people who know the books perform
2) T| trust s.b. (without this personal worship.
knowing whether he is fully
trustworthy or not). M/
M/ M kyaya/ kyaye
J M y L| ooh 'MM' | See: 'kyaakya'.
'mih-la 'kyap-ti o 'koh-sin. M-
M- kyal- v.t. E| take s.b./
L k| I have to go to some other place.
with him hoping that he is
M- kyal- v.dt. E| deliver
h- kyap tol-
M h- QL U| trust M-
M- kyal- v.i. S (V) last
s.b. (without knowing whether he is (of things). [Gram: inanim. "actor"
fully trustworthy). ' S-, L-, takes instrumental <-ki> and is
-' | See also: 'lee followed by an obligatory time span]
khal-, lee kal- (E), lee phral- (W)'. S` hU j L` M |
J M h y L| 'khaba tii-gi tshe 'kah meh-'kyal
ooh 'mih-la 'kyap 'tol-di o 'koh-sin. 'du. HEt Y kU E
jL k| I must go j| One house does not last for the
with this person, hoping that he is whole of your life.

M M`-

M kyalba n. jL | purse M - 'kyah 'mehndo

(leather bag to store money and prup- g n| get rid of
precious metals); fig.u.: forever dandruff.
hungry children.
MMg (`) kyahktse (-'ra) qt.
M Lk h ` | much; a lot.
L` ! di 'kyalba-'ya-la 'kahze ` `U MMg` t|
topta 'luu-'na meh-'kah 'du! 'tihri ah-gi 'sowa 'kyahktse-'ra
k S j! 'ap-sin. Ak | Today I
However much food you give to these winnowed a lot of unhusked rice.
children, they are forever hungry!
MM kyahkpa adj. t| strong;
M kyawa n. (Lw ) healthy; fat.
cooking utensils: flat ladle (of wood).
/ M kyahgar/ kyaahr
`/ M-
M-` {-L} n. L| millet.
kya-sa/ kya-ha {peh-k} n./ adj. MU j` 'kyahgar tha n.
{v.i.} QL l {gL} flash of light
LL M| foods: whisky made of
{appears}. millet.
g ML M`/ MU 'kyahgar 'balu n.
M-` L `| tsilim LL ky| foods: beer made of
'kyahp-ken 'bele nam-la 'kyasa/ millet.
'kya-'ha peh-ken 'tho-sin. k
gL AL El HL S| MU/
/ M kyahgar/ kyaahr
When it was lightning I saw the n./ adj. , | lowland; of the
flashing in the sky. lowlands.
M-A` 'kya-'ahe n./ adj.
M- MU 'kyahgar peena
AL El| faint light. | fruits: naspati (Manchurian
M- 'kya-'tele 'L' |
See: 'karpu'. M`- kyah- v.t. LE| stretch
M-` 'kya-sae adj. El|
bright light; clear (of weather). M M` LH| di thakpa
kyah 'koh-en. y LEj| This
M M-U kyah kye-g
E AE| have a beard. rope has to be stretched.
M`() ` kyah(-da)
M (h) kyah (tii) num. (HL) 'rihbu 'L' | See: 'kee'.
| (one) hundred.
M- 'kyah-lor '' | M`- kyah- v.i. Su t,
See: 'lor'. LE| stretch one's limbs apart.
L` M`` ` `!
M M- kyah mehndo 'kaba kyah-simbara 'lah-di
kyahp- g | have 'teh-to! EH Su t !
dandruff. Stand with legs astride!
M` M-

`l h M M` LH| 'kyahp-ki 'pohwa

'prahda 'tap-te-la 'lahkpa kyah w EwL| hunch back.
'koh-en. A`U D S ML U L
LEj| In order to hug somebody yE ! 'kho 'kyahp-ki 'pohwa-gi peh-ti
you have to spread out your arms. kuhr-ti peh-ti o-w 'du! EL w
M`U kyah-le-gi loc. A j! Because
EwL U y
tt| from some distance. of his hunch back he walks bent over!
'V`U ' | See also: M() 'kyahp(-la) loc.
'gyabu-le-gi'. jyu| behind.
SU M`U | 'kho-gi M L 'kyahp-la
kyah-le-gi ta-sin. E A tt kahl-di ' ' | See: 'mih

| He watched from some meehba'.
distance. y- 'kyahp-lu o-
M y- jy y
, Et y
M` -L kyah se-k ( ) kill go backwards.
(intensified). M-L - 'kyahp-lohk ten- jy SE, jy T|
-U kyah 'i-g
M` - ( ) die neglect s.b; turn one's back on s.b.
(intensified). M 'kyahpa n. jyL t|
back part (of clothes).
Ml kyahe n. | place names:
M` 'kyahpu n. wE
Pheedi? (lodge settlement between
( U) lower back (body part).
harepai and Gosainkuna).
M- kyahp- v.dt. LE| hit.
`/ M-` kyahda/
kyah-tha n. M
M- kyahp- v.t. | throw.
1) , | plains. S`U M|
'khu-gi 'thoo-le 'mahr 'baso-la toh
M` M- J`U|
'kyahda-la 'kyah-'lahm oh-ge. C 'kyahp-sin. E D t
w yL j| In the plains there are | They threw stones at the
big roads. cattle from above.
2) wEL | place names: settlement S` `C h Mh?
in the western part of Yohlmu, in the khu 'baso-la 'yih-y ti-be toh
upper Tadi Khola valley, eastern part 'kyahp-te? EL D L
of Kulu. ? Why should we throw
stones at their animals?
M {m-
{m-} kyahdu {zo-} n. {v.t.} M` h` 'kyahp-ta
gE gE, M {E} foods: {cook} tii-la-'ra HL S , HL
gt | in one throw.
M kyahp n. w| upper back M- kyahp- v.i. , V| hit
(body part). against; fall into accidentally.

[Usage: has many other meanings as M 'kyahla adj. A, U,

well, depending on the collocation | outshine (fig.).
and grade of transitivity] S`` L C
L jU ML | `U T`V C M !
phar-ken 'dep-la thu-gi pahlap khu-'ra sa-la 'yeh-ken mahy 'mee-di
'kyahp-ku 'du. u L j tahnda 'yih-gi khyo-'gyo mahy
j| The waves are lapping against 'kyahla 'du! EL HL
the other bank of the river. A HL U j! The
S j M ! 'kho thu-la buffalo we bought outshines the one
'kyahp 'du! F j! Oh, he they have!
landed in the water!
M- kyah-lahm n. DL
M/ M kyahpre/ kyahbre yL L yL| road in plains.
(W) n. | plants: buckwheat. 'E'
M` {-} kyahli {phu-} n.
| See: 'prahw (E)'. {v.t.} kAk U kE k
M/ M kyahper/ ( Lw, , g
kyehper n. A| spices: ginger. A L ) musical instruments:
{blow} small wooden trumpet. [Note:
M kyahmi n./ adj. g
with silver or brass rings; used in
(gL ) Chinese.
lama ceremonies]
M 'kyahmi 'yuhl
g| China. M-S kyahl-khap n.
U M CyU U (lamaistic) l| kingdom.
M l` M ` ` M-S
`U| peeh-gi 'kyahmi-'ya-la di -S t | tahbu tahbu
'India-gi 'pahl-le-gi thaa-'kyo tehn peeh 'kyahl-'khap-la de-kham 'uuh
thamdi-'ra 'yahr 'kyahmi yuhl-la 'yeh-ba lo. E L l 6 t
ta-gen. gL Q L k H | Formerly there were
gD F L six districts in the kingdom of Tibet.
Ug wCj| All the carpets woven MU` kyahlga n. kL |
from Indian wool are sent up to to the king's palace.
Chinese in Tibet, in the Chinese
regions. Mk kyahldzen n. OL |
names: personal name.
Mk kyahmdzo n. OL |
names: personal names, m. M-w kyahl-him n. I
'j-Mk' | See also: L| law of the country; secular law.
'tsho-kyahmdzo'. M kyahldum n. V`|
place names: Gyalthung. [Note: not
M- kyahl- v.t. k, k |
win. [Gram: undg. frequently takes inhabited by Yohlmuwas]
<-ki thoo-la>] M kyahlbu n.
M M-

1) k| king. U h MU|
2) names: OL | personal name, m. nahm nahm lama-gi tihnda-la
'kyaa-ge. LL kkD
M kyahlmu n.
1) | queen. L Ej| Sometimes the lama praises
2) OL | names: personal name, f. his supporters.
` U ` MU | 'rah
M` kyahlsa n. OL | sem-gi 'rah-la 'kyaa-gen. A
names: personal name, m.
AD w w| praise oneself.
/ M
/ L
/ M M T- 'kyaa 'khyer-
{`-} kyahwa/ kyehwa/ kehwa EwH | snatch away.
(E)/ kyohwa (W) {ta-} n. {v.t.} `- 'kyaa-di ta-
M `-
Y (Z) {U} (Lk P U) Eg wE, L L
ceremonies: {perform} funeral rites. wE| incite s.b.
[Gram: beneficiary takes gen. <-ki>] T U M `? khye-la 'su-gi
[Note: performed 3-7 weeks after a 'kyaa-di ta-ba? D L Eg
person dies] w? Who incited you?
/ M/ MM/ M/ M
`U| 'kyehwa-la lama-gi nee par-ti {-
{-/ -L} kyaakya/ kyaaya/
'imbu-la 'lahm ta-ge. Y (Z) kyakya/ kyaya/ kyaye {ma-/
LL SL LUk kH peh-k} n. {v.dt.} wu {U} kLE|
D U SEj| During the joke; tease.
funeral rites the lama lights the
` , MM M
ceremonial paper with the deceased | di 'tehmba-'ra 'mihm-ba,
persons name on it, and thus he sends 'kyaakya peh-'kyo 'yihm-ba. g
the spirit (soul of the deceased) on his C, wu UL | This is not true, it's
way. just a joke.
M `- 'kyehwa
h `- `U M M! ah-gi 'kyaya
tihmba ta- U 'ma-'kyo! wu UL! I was just
LE| perform funeral rites (for joking!
oneself) when still alive. `U M M,
-` kyahwa-riha n. `A` `! ah-gi 'kyaye
Lt (M LUk HL g peh-ti tam 'ma-'kyo, 'moh 'ihta-'a
`UL) cerem. utensils: crown of 'lah-sin! kLH L UL, E
cardboard with coloured pictures. C! I was just teasing her, but she
[Note: put onto 'kuhr' during the got angry!
performance of the after funeral rites]
M- kyaah- v.i. tE| become
M- kyaa- v.t. fat; become strong. '` M-'
1) EwE| lift up. | See also: 'yahm kyaah-'.
2) E E| praise (people). M- kyaah- v.t. | squander.
M M()

SU `U t`U L M ! M kyidu n. S| painful

'kho-gi ah-gi 'aga 'phok 'kyaah-sin circumstances of life; troubles.
'du! E u j! He `U `U M |
squandered my money just like that! ah-gi rooh-la 'rah-gi kyidu esin.
M kyaahbe n. A, S | S D SH| I told my
provisions (food). troubles to my friend.
m- 'kyaahbe 'zo-
M m- -L kyidu 'kuhdu
M L A, S `L e-k S-S SE| tell
one's troubles.
U| store up provisions.
M -/ S- 'kyaahbe 'thoo-/ V kyidu
M ``
khur- A, S 'yuh-'gyo 'mih S HL
M| carry provisions. O| a person wise through
M kyaahr 'MU' | See: `- kyidu yom-
M `-
'kyahgar'. S-S | be/
M-` kyaahr-ih n. become equal in prosperity. [Gram:
L| millet field. experiencers take gen. <-ki>]
A `U M ` S|
M/-V -kyi~-gyi clit. M|
attitude particles: as you probably 'ada 'nooh yii-gi kyidu yom
know. [Phon: For the regular maah-khu. C k CL E
phonological alternations of suffix H| The brothers did not prosper
initial stops see appendix 7, sections
1-3. This alternation also applies to J` `U M ` |
clitics.] [Disc: occurs clause finally] ohra yii-gi kyidu yom-sin taah-ni.
`U h` A CkL E k j|
We two are equally prosperous now.
LHV| 'lahm ta-gen 'bela-le
tahbar-la 'mihn 'pruh 'koh-e-'gyi. M j kyidu thimbu
w S| misfortune; tragedy.
D U wE kE LUk
LL Tj M| When you U M jl
send him (the spirit) on his way you j HU M| de
rohwa-gi kyidu thimbu-i yohlmu
must write his name onto the ritual
Thimi 'ma-e-gi 'yuhl-la 'par-'tii-'kyo.
death paper, as you probably know.
SL w S L j
L l L y`
UE L j| Such a big tragedy
`-` ` J`UV! 'mih sa-la
happened in the Helambu village
kahl 'yihndu-ni kaah-la o-'na
'ti-ti 'e-ti oh-gen-'gyi! LD called Thimi.
L Uj k UH jH M()...
M()... M()... kyi(-ni)...
AEj M! If you accept a fellow he kyi(-ni)... double_conj. L ... L ...
will come chasing after you later! conjunctions: either... or. [Gram: 'kyini'

Ml M

+ cl. + 'kyini' + cl.] M-


M j L` J`y M 'leehmu peh-ti AU, g
J`y| 'kyi tshe 'kah oh-o 'kyi U| comfortably.
'aah sum oh-o. L kU ` M-h `
L C L | Either it will be for L| 'yihma-la kyip-'te 'leehmu
the whole life, or it will be for a few peh-ti 'yahl 'teh-ken. Y A U
days only. | sprawl out in the sun.
Ml kyindi n. AV S g M kyibu (E) n. LL| dog. 'T'
(L) house parts: iron hook | See: 'khyi (W)'.
which is used to pull shut the inside M MM/ TM 'kyibu
door bar from outside. 'kyihrkya/ 'khyirkya (E) LLL
S` ` L V L UL y| excrements of dogs.
Ml g`U J J`U| 'khaba M -L kyibe yarpe
niba 'yehken 'gyaa-la 'koh-la kyindi peh-k t U, Hgg

'tsah-ge 'om oh-ge. SL
U| practise borrowing and lending.
YL L AV SD g U U t` `` M
jE j| In older houses the ` L| 'yuhl-gi 'mih-'ya-gi
door has a hole, through which the 'ohro nahdo kyibe 'yarpe mahbu
iron hook key can be pushed. peh-ken. UEL jL
M kyipu n. S, A| comfort; -t Uj| Among neighbours
ease. the villagers practise a lot of
- kyipu 'yuh-
M `` borrowing and lending. S E| become M - kyibe 'yarpe-la ta-
prosperous. Hgg | be willing to
M -L kyipu peh-k lend (habitually). S U| live a t` A` M `
comfortable life. ! 'ohro 'yihn-de-'a kyibe
'yarpe-'la meh-ta 'du! jL H
M kyipu adj. A, | at
ease; prosperous; warm (for climate Hg
g j! Even though he is

and clothes). ' M' | See a neighbour he is not willing to lend
also: 'sem kyipu'. anything.
` M | ah sem kyipu M h-
h- kyimba tal-
'yeh. S j| I am happy.
M | 'meh kyipu 'du. AU 1) | take revenge.
j| It's nice and warm by the fire. 2) t HL | return
UM` M M J`U| borrowed money.
nembu garkya kyipu kyipu oh-ge. M - kyimba ter-
L j| The woolen , t | lend (food, money;
1) g
blanket keeps you very warm. to receive back the same in kind). '
M -M

-, M -' | See also: 'yar LtU M` t l |

ter-, kyii ter-'. 'koa-gi pahrkyi-la-'ra 'ebul 'aa
2) g, t | return 'du-ba. LwL g t Sj| Oh,
borrowings (foods, etc.; return the they put a table into the very middle
same in kind). ' M-, M of the room.
h-' | See also: 'loo kyal-, ` `U M/ M !
kyimba tal- 2)'. 'yih yii-gi pahrkyi/ kyil-la 'teh!
- kyimba lehn-
M CL g ! Sit between us!
, t | borrow g M M `U M
(food, money; to return the same in t`U ` M | di 'kyahlbu
kind). 'kyahlmu yii-gi pahrkyi-la 'aga 'a
y j` j` M `U ter-'kyo 'yihn 'de. k CtD
A` M | 'ibu U g HL | For these
'thaa 'thue ter-'kyo-di ah-gi brooches of the king and queen I paid
nahm-'a kyimba meh-lehn 'yeh. five mohars for both together.
L t L U| It is M-
M- kyi-lahmdo n. wEL
not my custom to borrow just small
| place names: crossing of paths on
amounts of money here and there. the ridge above Chhimi where the
M kyirpu 'M' | See: path from Chhimi and Sermathang
'kyurpu'. meet.
MM kyihrkya (W) n. | M {M-} kyili {kyahp-} n.
excrements of chickens or birds. {v.t.} AV {E} {bar} door with a
[Usage: usually tahmu ; tihbi ] wooden bar. 'L` M' |
See also: 'kaba kyili'.
M- kyil- v.t. Y, Y |
surround. Jk L() M M
MU ` M L L| ohze-la 'koh kyili(-la) 'kyahp-ti
'yehken. S L AV UHL
J`! 'kyibu-'ya-gi ah-la kyil-di
'kahp oh-sin! LL D Y tM | At that time the door was
AH! The dogs surrounded me and
snapped at me! -M/-V -kyile ~-gyile clit.
M/ M kyil/ pahrkyi n./ loc. , | attitude particles: it's
obvious, isn't it?. [Phon: For the
g, n| middle. ' M'
| See also: 'di pahrkyi'. regular phonological alternations of
suffix initial stops see appendix 7,
M` S L M
sections 1-3. This alternation also
! 'lahm kyil-la-'ra 'kheebu lohk
'kyahp-ti rihl 'du! tL g Yt applies to clitics.] [Disc: occurs clause
yj! In the middle of the road
he fell flat on his nose! jl h` ,
`A` J`UV! di
My M-

'tshiiu di 'paalo ti-'ra mihm-ba, MM kyiikpa 'LM'

'ti-le-'a 'paalo oh-gen-'gyile! | See: 'kiikpa'.
jlL gy C, j M kyihtu 'M-' | See:
! We don't celebrate the 'tshiiu' 'kyeh-toh'.
festival just this year, there will be
other years as well, obviously! M` kyihni 'L`' |
M w jL, -M! See: 'kihni'.
di-ni thakpa hi meh-'the-ke, di-ni M/ M-
'taar-'kyile! y k gy

, kyih-nuhp 'L' | See:
! This will not break like 'kihnup'.
string does, this is wire! (As you can
/ M
kyihpa/ kyuhpa n.
see, or as you know that wire doesn't 1) (E) k, , | tribe; race; clan.
break easily.)
' | See: 'riihba (W)'.
My kyili n. L ( 2) (W) k, | tribe; race.
AL) cooking utensils: kettle. M kyihpu 'L' | See:
M` kyilda (W) n. 'kihpu'.
M kyihbe 'L' | See:
| fruits: fruit of a vine (grape-like). 'kihbe'.
` UU kyilda 'guugi
HL L | plants: vine M` kyihlda n. y| birds:
with red, grape-like fruit. pheasant. [Note: colourful bird with
long pointed tail]
M h- kyildum tee- t L | cross M` kyihlda phuu n.
one's legs. wEL | place names: Keldang (cattle
M h
, g L | shed settlement north of Yangri
kyildum 'tee meeh-e 'du, piimu 'tsuu Kahng).
'teh-ku 'du. t k Yy tL M- kyii- v.t.
j| Oh, she is not able to cross 1) L| bind. 't M-' | See
her legs, she sits kneeling on the also: 'peei kyii- (W)'.
floor. J h M
M h() - L kyildum ` | ooh 'luhndi tipu-di-la
'tee(-di) 'teh-k t yaahbu peh-te kyii-de tuh 'du lo.
L | sit cross-legged. HEt D tj | This
` M h L| ah kyildum one jackal he bound firmly and beat
'tee-di 'teh-ken. t L j| I him up.
am going to sit cross-legged. , t | borrow (money,
2) g
M` kyildo n. | house parts: foods, that is, things which are used
top cross beam of roof (axis). up and to be returned the same in


kind). [Gram: lender takes <yambu/ See: 'sem-la'.

yimbu>] 'M -, -'
M kyiih n. , g| knowledge;
| See also: 'kyimba lehn-, yar-'. awareness.
U U `C t`U l ` M | ah-la kyiih 'yeh.
S ` M| tahnda-gi 'laagila D j| I know it.
ah-y 'aga 'sipi-i 'kho 'yambu
M J`- kyiih oh-
kyii-sin. AL U EU L
| realize.
t H| For now I borrowed ` ` M
some money from him.
`| 'moh de-la-'ra 'yeh 'mee-di
M - kyii ter- g , ah-la kyiih mah-yoh. E j
t | lend (foods, money: things D H| I didn't realize
which are used up; to receive back that she was just here.
the same in kind). 'M -, '
kyiih-'tha meeh
| See also: 'kyimba ter- 1), A- j| without
yar ter-'. letting you know; by surprise. [Gram:
ElU S t`U M | cop.= specific existence; affirmative
'sawdi-gi 'kho-la 'aga kyii tersin. usage not observed]
k ED t | The M-j J` !
shop keeper lent him some money. kyiih-'tha meeh-ba peh-ti oh 'duba!
M M- kyii-da 'kyahp- L S D AHj! He came without , L| bind up letting us know beforehand.
t`U `U A A
`` `C M M `U! M| di 'aga
'toh-o-'ra ah-y kyii-da 'kyahp-te 'yih-gi aba 'ama-la kyiih-'tha
tuh-gen! D meeh-ba peh-ti ter-'kyo.
tj! I will bind him and beat him up AD HML H | We
right away! gave this money to our parents as a
M - kyii meh-ter- surprise. | give no peace. l-/ `-L kyiih dor-/
M l-
[Usage: affirmative not yet observed] ye-k dr. E, g
kU ` M` ! di E| get to know.
pehza-'ya-gi ah-la kyii-'ra mah-ter! TU h M `U/ `
hg D H! These M l/ `| 'khya-gi ti tam
children gave me no peace at all! 'ma-'kyo-di ah-gi/ ah-la kyiih
J U ` M/ M | dor-sin/ ye-sin. k L U
ooh 'lha-gi ah-la kyii/ kyipu mah-ter. H| I got to know what
U D S H! That you said.
god gave me no peace. M `- kyiih 'loh-
M J`- kyii oh- '' | UE| find out. [Note:

M M-

is more volitional than 'kyiih dor-' S`U ` ! `

(] M-U L| khu-'ya-gi tam
S y gM L , mah raah-di! ah-la 'kyu-lohge
`U U M `! kahl-sin. EL L D
'kho-ni 'yehna-mu 'leeh tsokpa ML V| They talk too much! I am
peh-ken 'du-ba, ah-gi-ni tahpse-'ga fed up with it.
kyiih 'loh-sin. F L
ML t- kyuk oh-
U j, A H! He is Y V| find s.b./
doing such evil work, I have found disgusting.
him out now!
ML t! 'kyuk 'oh! excl. L
M kyiih n. | line of Y V! exclamations: how
ancestory; family tree; genealogy. disgusting!.
`U M(U ) L | ML tE! 'kyuk
'rah-gi 'kyiih(-gi tehnda-la) e-ken. 'oh-w-'wah! excl. j, L Y V!
A L E| explain exclamations: how disgusting!.
one's family tree. ML t

'kyuk 'oh-e
'leehmu Y V k|
M ` kyiih yihmu 'L'
| See: 'kiih'.
kyiihba n. jL y| M- kyur- v.t.
musical instruments: string of stringed 1) | throw away.
instrument. SU Lh A` M |
'kho-gi 'kapta pi-te-'a 'phe 'kyur-sin
M L L J`-/ -L kyu 'du. E Ly L j|
lohk lohk oh-/ peh-k He took off his clothes and just threw non-erg. ML ML U| them down.
be about to vomit. 'M-, SM -' 2) -u, - | throw to s.b.
| See also: 'kyuu-, khokpa [Gram: goal takes <oo-le>]
looh-'. `U l ` MM| ah-gi
Ml M L L L ! 'bool dimi oo-le 'kyur-'kyo.
'kyuu-e 'mee-di 'kyu lohk lohk peh-ku Ly k | I threw the ball
'du! ED AE ML ML to Jimi.
Cj! He is about to throw up! J E j M` ! ooh 'aw
y- 'kyu-lohge
M-U J`-/ y- tshur 'kyur-to le! E !
oh-/ o- non-erg. ML Please throw that apple to me!
, UUE| get fed up. `- 'kyur
M g`-/ M `-
` ` M-U J`U! 'tsah-/ 'kyur ta-
di 'mih 'tho-na ah-la 'kyu-lohge
| throw away for good.
oh-ge! j S D ML Vj!
`U `M` M `|
I am fed up with this person! ah-gi yohkto 'phe 'kyur ta-sin.

M M-

H| I threw the rubbish jD L UD yj |

out. If somebody wants to institute a new
M l- 'kyur 'aa- festival he holds counsel with the
jy T| leave behind. lamas and village leaders, and then
U k M l `-` they distribute the money to the
L ! pehpa-di-gi pehza 'phi people of the village.
'kyur 'aa-de ta-'lah kahl 'du lo!
M 1 kyuh n. | wealth;
t hgD tML jy UHj ! possessions.
They said the Tibetan left the child
m- 'kyuh 'zo-
M m-
behind and took off!
LE| acquire wealth, possessions.
M/ M kyurpu/ kyirpu adj./ n. A AU M H, ` H,
A, A | sour. fruits:: J l`
sour citrus fruits. ` yH| aba 'ama-gi 'kyuh ta-en,
'leeh-na ta-en, ohle 'na thamdi-'ra
MM kyuhrkyen n. UEL
yaahbu 'yeh-si-'ma-na 'nama 'la
(L L) U A
o-en. A j , j ,
C | festivals: money given to
villagers when a new festival is S V kj|
established. [Note: instigater gives the The parents look at the wealth and at
money to the village leaders who then the way she works, and if everything
distribute it to the villagers] is favourable, they go and ask for the
girl (as a bride for their son).
t- 'kyuhrkyen am-
MM t- UEL UD L M m T`
U | (village leaders) distribute the V? 'barma-la kahl-di 'kyuh
money. yaahbu 'zee-di khyo-di 'yeh-ba-'gyi?
MM - 'kyuhrkyen loo- UH LH HL j UEL U M M? Did you bring back a lot of
wealth with you when you came back
A U| return the
money to the festival fund. [Note: in from India?
order to get out of the obligations M 2 kyuh n. Y (Ly C
involved] ) weaving terms: warp.
hU j ml M- kyuh- v.t. E, Yg| thread
M U ` t (beads); push a long object through
M U MM tU| loops or holes; stab.
'mih tii-gi 'thepa samba 'zo-e sem
` `U M|
'kye-si-'ma-na lama goba-'ya 'yambu 'phowa-la-'ra i-gi 'kyuh-sin. t

'eeh 'kyahp-ti 'yuhl-gi 'mih-'ya-la
E Yh The piece of wood
'kyuhrkyen am-ge. LD UE E, stabbed his stomach.
, gy, L U H S L M ! 'khap-la 'kupa
UU U UEL kyiih ter! U EF! Thread

this needle for me! hard-hearted.

kyuhk n. YL T J `U `U M
t| house parts: lath. [Note: fixed MU M M| ohle ah-gi
onto 'ahlu' (vertical roof rafters) to 'ahba-gi 'kyuhma 'nahkpu-gi 'kyiih
fix 'palep' (shingles) to them] e-'kyo. A ` L t
TL H| And then I told
kyuhkpa n. w| long, them about the evil ancestory line of
heavy stick. ' ' | See also:
L the "ahba".
L Mh MM ` M - kyuhr- v.t. M, P |
sell (used in the context of carrying
` T` | kahrta 'kyahp-te
'mee-di 'kyuhkpa 'rihbu 'rihbu on trade); redirect (e.g. irrigation
khyo 'du. E - canals).
w Hj| Oh, he brought poles gHl Mt`
to build a fence. M | 'pasal 'tsuu-e-di peh-pa-ni
'kyuhr-'a mih-'kyuhr 'du. L
kyuhba 't' | See: P - j| I wanted to run a

'a'. shop, but I am not selling anything.
kyuhbu 'M`' | SU j-L M T`
See: 'kyohbu'. `U ` yH |
'kho-gi thu-'kula 'kyuhr-ti 'khyer-'na
kyuhpa 'M' | See:
mih-'yihn-gen peh-ti phar-ti-'ra phar
o-e lo. E L L L
M h {m-
{m-} kyuhpte {zo-} n. (A S) U g ALu
{v.t.} S {`L U} festivals: UCj | He would redirect the
{prepare} food supplies for festivals irrigation canals (to his fields), but
and other special occasions. the water would not obey, but always
`U U Mh m only go to the other side.
Ll | di 'paalo 'yih-gi
'naahra-gi 'kyuhpte 'zo 'koh-e M- kyuu- v.i. j, U| throw
up food; vomit. 'SM -, M L
'yeh-ba. L
L, M-U' | See also:
U SLL U j | This
'khokpa looh-, kyu lohk lohk,
year we have to prepare the food
supplies for the 'naahra' festival. kyu-lohge'.
k l` M| di
kyuhma n. A| intestines. pehza-ni dibu-'ra 'kyuu-sin.
C M H| mahy 'kyuhma hg j This child vomited
L A SCj| The terribly.
intestines of buffalos are eaten.
M 'kyuhma 'nahkpu
M My M- kyuune kyahp- EUE| ruminate.
(W) t, w| evil;
U My ML| 'baso-'ya-gi

'kyuune 'kyahp-ken. 'kye-'yuhl n. kL UE|

EUEj| Cattle ruminate. birth place.
M kyuundi n. U ALL M () 'kye-sa ('phayu)
j| work utensils: chisel. [Note: for kL Q| birth place; homeland.
wood carving, with roundish blade] M -U kye-g v.t. kE, E| give
J L l M LH| om birth.
kohrmu 'phru-e-la 'kyuundi 'koh-en. CU M| di
U ED U ALL j mahy-gi piihru sum 'kye-sin.

gj| To carve round holes you gt | This buffalo cow has
need a chisel with a roundish blade. given birth to three calves.
M- kyuuh- v.i. M kyeda n. E t|
1) (E) yy U ( ) roam around. weaving terms: weaving belt. [Note:
2) (W) | flow properly (e.g. of ink). used to fasten the loom around the
'k M-' | See also: '(W) weaver's waist]
naaza kyuuh-'. U
L` j y thaa thaa-e-la 'kyepa-la 'kyeda 'kyahp
k g MU lU, | 'koh-en. MS L t
kuhmu phar tshur o-si-'ma-na 'lahm Ej| For weaving you must put
sumdza-'ya-la 'tsen 'kyuuh-ge 'mee-di the weaving belt around your waist.
'dii-ge, 'mih-'ya. E y M y-
y- kyen o-
t Vj yHj, | come to harm.
j| When people are on errands `- 'kyen ta-
M `-
in the dark, they are afraid that there
| inflict harm.
will be evil spirits roaming around at
cross roads.
M `U H| yohlmu-la 'thablo
M kyuuhbu n. | kahl-si-'ma-na 'lha 'lu-gi 'kyen ta-gen
father-in-law. [Usage: not used as term 'mee-di 'ma-en. E
of address; term of address: 'aa'] A AU
M kyuuhmu n. | Uj j| In Helambu we say
mother-in-law. [Usage: not used as a that if something boils over the hearth
term of address; term of address: spirit or gods will inflict harm on us.
'ani'] M - 'kyen taa- (E)
S U| despise s.b; look down upon.
M -U kye-g v.i. E, k| '-' | See: 'phya-(W)'.
sprout; be born. J U S
) 'kye-gar ('tiihzi)
MU (k L, J U M U
n.(ph.) k | birthday. ! 'moh-ni ooh rohwa peh-ti 'gaal
Ml 'kyeu n. L | spring khur-ti kahl-sin, ohle 'mih-'ya-gi 'kyen
water. taa-gen 'nahle! E U

U, A S Uj ! a house, lest they become sick.]

Misbehaving like that she went (with 't' | See also: 'ihp'.
him), and now people look down E L M-
upon her. (`-)` l `U|
-/ M- 'kyen 'or-/
M - 'siw 'yeh-ken 'mih 'kye-'rip (pah-'rip)
'kyahp- V| get hurt nah-la 'uuh-e meh-yoh-ge. E
(physically or mentally). UHL j L L Y
` ` `, `

| (E nP
T` M L! 'nomsa ) A person who wears rudraksha
yaahbu ta-di tam 'mee-do, 'ti-le seeds as an amulet must not enter
khye-'ra-la 'kyen 'or-ko-'wa! into a place defiled by birth. See:
g U L U, j AD Aw 'raaha' for 'rudraksha'.
! Think things over well before M kyere adv. wy, w`U| straight
speaking, otherwise it will be and stiff.
awkward for yourself afterwards.
M `A` L | 'kyere
M kyepa n. L| waist (body 'lah-de-'a 'teh-ku 'du. w`U EH
part). j| He remains standing
M J`- 'kyepa oh- straight up. j , | have M 'kyere peh-ti
menstruation. [Usage: This is more w`U U, wy U| stiffly.
modern than 'zubu 'liih oh-'.] j M
` t M
M-T kyep-khyowa n. | t` j j L! tsheeba
man; fellow. 'kyeeh 'yihmu-di 'ehpa 'too-ba 'kyere
peh-ti 'mahni 'ah-di thaa 'tshal-di
M `- kyer lah- 'teh-ken! AtL L kML Ew| get up k U U j| On the eighth day
(intensified). 'M' | See also: of the lunar month one sits with a
'kyere'. very hungry stomach and says
M ` ! mantras and prostrates oneself.
'sodi-di 'yahr 'kyer 'lah-sin 'du lo! M ` -L 'kyere 'lah
EL Vg w`U EHj ! The 'teh-k w`U EH
good fortune jumped right up onto his
| stand up straight.
M ` kyel tohbo
M- (`-) kye-rip U | trees: Himalayan cedar.
(pah-rip) n.(ph.) LL kw (wE,
Y) cerem. terms: defilement caused by M` kyeldo n. wEL | place
names: very small settlement north of
birth. [Note: The house becomes
ritually unclean and therefore some Chhimi in the forest.
people have to avoid going into such M M {} kyewa kyemu

M M-

{yeh} {cop.} g {} {be S`U ` Ly LM

in} distress; {get} extreme hardship. , M M ` `
M M M-U 'kyewa kyemu M| khu-gi ih 'kahnumu
'kye-g S | be peh-ti 'koh-'kyo 'ma-na, 'kyehn
born into distressed circumstances. 'kyahp-ti 'rah 'rah 'mihn-la
M M / J`- 'kyewa thop-'kyo. E A L U
kyemu bap-/ oh- S UHL , U A-A
ACV| go through distress; go L H| To tell you how they
through hardship. allotted the fields, they cast lots, and
each one received his portion
M - kyewa lehn- k | enter into a according to the lot he received.
different form of life. M k {M-} kyehndzen
S U MU M l! {kyahp-} n. {v.t.} L
laa 'khase 'mih-gi 'kyibu-gi 'kyewa U {E} jewelry: festive belt-like
mah-lehn-du! L LL L silver and gold ornament. [Note: worn
k E! If possible, people should by women; with silver chains hanging
not take the life of a dog. down]
M-/ M/ M ( ) M l {-} kyehnda {taa-} n.
kyeh-toh/ kyihtu/ kyihpu (pin {v.t.} U {E} jewelry: {put on}
sum) n. ( g| work utensils: jewelry. ' -' | See also:
(the three) hearth stones. 'taa ter-'.
M- kyehn- v.dt. U| adorn. M
kyehpa num.ord. Aw|
-k mL M ordinal numerals: eighth.
l J`U| piihm-pehza-'ya M
kyehpu 'L' | See:
'zap-ke 'bele pela-'ya 'kyehn-di 'yeh-na 'kihpu'.
'darpu oh-ge. U
LL U H Sj| When M kyehper 'M'
the women dress up, it looks nice if | See: 'kyahper'.
they adorn themselves with all sorts M
kyehldar n. wEL |
of ornaments. place names: small lama settlement
M M | with a temple above Prahwal, on the
'kyahlbu-la 'rahna 'rihne 'kyehn-di 'du. western slope of the upper Indrawati
kD LL `U U valley.
UL j| The king is adorned
kyehwa 'M' | See:
with all sorts of ornaments.
M M- kyehn kyahp- M- kyee- v.i. | move away. U , gv | cast
S` S`U M | khu di
'khaba-le-gi 'kyee-sin. E Yt

M- -M

| They moved away from this M

kyeema adj./ n. (UD
house. ) cow or buffalo which has

M y- 'kyee-di o-
y- recently given birth to a calf. k| move on. ` M | di 'pahla
[Usage: often used instead of the 'kyeema 'yihm-ba. UD S HL
intransitive 'kyee-'] | This cow has recently given birth
to a calf.
M- kyee- v.t. | move
| khu-gi 'kohre
kyeeh num. Aw| numerals:
'kyee-sin. E Uw | They eight.
moved the cattle shed.

kyeehba adj. | with
M- kyee- v.dt. U, y
| much expense; abundantly.
distribute. S`U M
y l Ml
khu-gi paahma 'kyeehba oh-sin.
L| taah-ni ombu-'ya-la eero L | They had a
'kyee-e 'bela kahl-sin. A bountiful wedding.
M/-V -kyo~-gyo vsf. -HL
! Now it's time to
y ( L T kE PL
distribute the fried wheat bread.
A) telling past; main point
T`- kyeega khyo- past. [Phon: For the regular L E| bring a phonological alternations of suffix
present; gift. [Note: most often done initial stops and the exception verbs
when coming home from traveling] marked with <-k> see appendix 7,
MU l- 'kyeega dor-
l- sections 1-3, and for the exceptional L E| receive as behaviour of this suffix in regard to
a present. voicing assimilation see section 3.2.]
`U MU l/ [Gram: can be used with or without
MU `U l| 'moh-la pagap an auxiliary]
'kyeega dor-sin/ 'moh-la 'kyeega J yH E `
pagap dor-sin. E L `U LV, `| ohle pohmbo o-en
(jy Ly) C| She bela-le pihw 'la kahl-'gyo, ah. A
received a fine back apron as a nP k j-j V
present. UHL| When the shaman went (for the
MU - 'kyeega ter- festival) I went to ask for a calf.
L | give as a present. M ` j jU
U ` MU M! di M | 'kyehwa
'situp rooh-gi ah-la 'kyeega ter-'kyo! 'yihmu 'mahni 'thepa 'tham-gen-di
Aw D L HL| My 'imbu-la rooh-ram peh-'kyo 'yihm-ba.
friend has given me this finger ring as Y (Z)L UH gL g
a present. LD UL | The reciting
M`- M-

and dancing of ritual prayers at the god has to be satisfied. If we don't

death rites is to help the deceased satisfy it, it will harm the people of
soul (to enter into heaven). the house.
T` A ` ` U ` M` LH|
M `U| "khyera 'ama'ya lama-'ya-gi 'luhba-la kyo 'koh-en.
'yambu 'yahmbu-la'ra 'teh" 'mee-di UE L Uj| The
'ma-'kyo ah-gi. , AU lamas have to attend to the needs of
Lwy ! L| I told the people.
her that she should stay with her
M`/ M`/ `` kyomu/
mother's family in Kathmandu. kyomo/ yomo (E) adj. AyL
-M/- -'kyo~-'gyo seeh
M/-V (g UL) oval (ball-shaped,
vsf.+p. -HL | irrealis (perfective); not flat). '``' | See:
would have. ' , -h ' | 'yomu (W)'.
See also: 'seeh, <-te> seeh'.
h L` Lk M` | di
S S yl M , y 'tahmu 'koha 'kahze kyomo 'du.
S! 'kho di 'kha-le phar o-e LSL L g UL j|
'mee-di peh-'kyo seeh, o Oh, this is a very longish egg.
maah-khu-ba! F t k
SkL , k L! He wanted M kyoma (W) 'g' | See:
to walk over this ledge, but he 'tsamba'.
couldn't! M-
M- kyor- v.t. AyE, Ay |
`U k` S support s.b./
h` M ! ah-gi j`U mM M T LH,
mah-zu-ba 'yeh-na 'kho de-le 'mahr U| tha-gi 'zi-'kyo

'tahp-te-'ra peh-'kyo seeh! 'mih-la 'kyor-ti 'khyer 'koh-e,
L H F t S ! If I lehmen-ni 'praah-la rihl-ge. L
had not caught him, he would have D j, t
fallen down here! yj| When leading along a drunk
person, you have to support him,
M`- kyo- v.t. E, nE|
satisfy (the gods by giving them otherwise he will fall down a
offerings); attend (to people). [Gram: precipice.
with first sense recipient of the M-
M- kyol- v.t. j, U|
offering (=undg.) does not take avoid; make pretexts.
<-la>] SU l M| 'kho-gi sah-e
jM` ` M` LH| M` kyol-sin. E S j| He pretended
MU| 'thekyo suma kyo to have already eaten.
'koh-e. meh-kyo-na 'mih-la 'ne S U M
'kyal-ge. LED nEj| L| 'kho 'leeh peh
YL D S j| The house mah-'lahm-ba-gi kyol-di kahl-sin. F

M- S

L U U j U| He didn't | See: '-le~-lee'.

feel like working, so making a pretext M`- kyoh-'leeh n. S
he left. L| rough work.
L, S U
MU| M kyohwa 'M' | See:
'leeh peh meh-'lahm-na ah-gi 'leeh 'kyahwa'.
kyol-ge. L U U L
jj| If I don't feel like working, I M- kyoo- v.i. j| deviate from
avoid doing it. the original course.
` `U` S` MM| ah
M- kyoh- v.i. (vulgar) U U| 'tho-go-'ra khu kyoo-'kyo. D
have sexual intercourse. [Gram: v.i.
S E jL| They saw me and
because co-actors do not take erg. sf.] avoided me.
M`/ M`/ M`
y- kyoo-di o-
M y-
kyohbu/ kyohbo/ kyuhbu j k| avoid s.b.
adj. S, | clumsy (hand); thick 'U M' | See also: 'goo
(pen line); coarse (things, e.g. flour). kyoo-di'.
M` kyoh-'le '-/-'

S kha n. S, | mouth; snout; S LL -L 'kha kuluk peh-k
entrance; beginning; cutting edge of a S L U| rinse
tool. 'LU S, MU S' | mouth.
See also: 'kupa-gi kha, phukpa-gi L- 'kha kom-
S L-
kha'. SE, S V| be thirsty.
L-t SU` ! 'kahp-'ih S M- 'kha 'kyahp-
'kha-gi-'ra ter-ti! SLL L E| close (e.g. a pot). 'Sl
M-' | See also: 'khau
! He hit him with the very
cutting edge of the dagger! kyahp-'.
J- 'kha ol-
S J- SU M() S M| 'kho-gi
nekyi(-la) 'kha 'kyahp-sin. E y
LME, SE| have an
astringent taste in the mouth. [Gram: L U| He closed the pot.
exp. takes gen. <-ki>] S S -/ S - 'kha
'khapi ten-/ 'khapi ten-
` , j S S wML, L ML!
JU| 'he umbu sah-na, yaa
maah-tshe-ba sah-'naa 'kha ol-ge. utter empty words; make empty
promises. [Gram: addressee takes
A, LL y S S
LMEj| If you eat green potatoes or
unripe arum you get an astringent S g- 'kha tsum- S
taste in your mouth. U, g V| close mouth; close

S S by pulling together (e.g. a purse). sense =] '`-'

`U S S g| ah-gi 'khuma | See also: 'tah-'.
'kha tsum-sin. L S U| I ` U L S |
closed the purse. 'ti-le-ni 'nuhmu-gi 'koh 'kha 'phee-sin.
S () h 'kha ('lee) 'tolbu j L S| Then later Lt| talkative (with negative the younger sister opened the door.
connotation). S 'kha phodol
S S () h | 'kho 'kha lee Yt| Adam's apple.
'tolbu 'du. F Lt j| He is too S ` - 'kha
talkative. mah-yah-ba peh-ti 'ma-
S k- 'kha 'dzem- L jtL | say briefly. S | restrict one's S - 'kha 'yer-
diet. S LME| have a prickly sensation
S l 'kha 'dambu in mouth. [Note: e.g. when eating
, S g| courteous; deceitful green potatoes, timmur, etc.]
(talk). - 'kha 'rup-
S -
S , l J`U! 'nama erg. S / E (L)
'kha yaahbu, 'dambu oh-gen! opening becomes narrower/ make
L j, j! The bride opening narrower. [Gram: undg. takes
will talk in a nice and friendly way! < ->]
S l| 'mih 'kha 'dambu. S `U k M` , S |
g HL , L | a ah-gi 'dzoola kyah ter, 'kha 'rup-sin
deceitful person/ a courteous person. 'duba. nL S A EYF,
S - 'kha tohl- Hj| Please open up my bag, the
1) A L U| admit (a crime). opening has become too narrow.
LU S | 'kumen-gi 'kha g U TU S h `U!
tohl-sin. g A gL L tselba thaa-ge-mu khye-gi 'kha 'rup-te
U| The thief admitted his theft. meh-yoh-ge! yL yLL
2) L gt (nP), U S Y ! When you weave a

L S| divination: speak as an carrying basket, you must not make
oracle for the first time. the opening at the top narrower!
- 'kha 'thal-
S - `U k S L| ah-gi di
, , A L U| blab out; 'phazi 'kha 'rup-ken. PL S
make indecent talk. [Gram: addressee Uj| I will gather together the
takes <poh-la>] opening of this sack.
S - 'kha 'phee- S `- 'kha 'lah-
non-erg./ erg. P U| revolt.
1) jt/ juE| become separate/ J U S ` J` EC!
separate; sort out. ohle 'tiih-gi 'kha 'lah-de oh-de 'uy!
2) S| open. [Gram: this second A kU A ! And then the

demons started to make a revolt! S - 'kha 'aah-

S M-/ -L 'kha
'lahpi 'kyur-/ peh-k U 1) A , L |
M, Uy | talk insincerely. swear. [Gram: speaker takes gen.
S / S 'kha lemba <-ki>]
(m.)/ 'kha lema (f.) t S, TU S M ! khye-gi 'kha
| simple and honest; 'aah-'kyo 'duba! LL U
pronounce very poorly. j! You betrayed (me)! / You let
S - 'kha lehn- (the secret) out!
C S| kiss (appropriate among 2) S t | be split at the top. [Gram:
grown up persons). 'hL -L' undg. is unmarked]
| See also: 'tuk peh-k'. L S ! 'koohbur 'kha
S - 'kha looh- S 'aah-sin 'du! JSL S tj ! Oh,
V| talk back to. the rim of the mortar split!
S 'kha salbu S, - 'kha 'or-
S -
| outgoing; friendly. L U UL| not be covered
J S | ooh 'mih 'kha tightly. ' (S) -' |
salbu 'du. j| This See also: 'tam (kha) or-'.
person is outgoing. j` S | tha 'kha
S - 'kha sah- 'or-sin 'du. kyL L U U
U U| tell off s.b. sharply. [Gram: LH A Hj| The beer
undg. takes gen. <-ki>] was not covered tightly and so it
SU ` U S became sour.
| 'kho-gi tehnda - 'kha-la
S k (`) -
meeh-ba-la-'ra 'mih-gi 'kha sah-sin. then-de (-'ra) 'ma-
E L U U| He | talk indiscriminately.
scolded/ cursed him without any SU L - 'kha-le-gi 'phok
reason. then- St
S ( ) - 'kha (yaahbu) L| blurt out. [Gram: speaker
sah- | cut takes gen. <-ki>]
well (e.g. tools).
S () kha(-la) loc. -| on top
L S | di 'karta 'kha of.
meh-sah 'du. L V j| This
L S |
knife doesn't cut. 'luhndi-di yuuh 'kehpa 'kha-la 'teh 'du
S- -L 'kha 'see-/
S -/ S- lo. g L j | The
'kha-'see peh-k kw jackal was sitting up there on the wall
SE ( L kw SE of the terraced field.
LP) marriage: bride and groom U S S yH l M|
drink from the same cup. [Note: is part 'gaari 'khawa 'kha-la o-en-mu
of the wedding ceremony]

rihl-de peh-'kyo. Uy Et k y stuttering.

AtL | Running over the snow S SM | 'kho 'khakle 'du. F
the car was about to turn over. LL j| He is a stutterer.
S S/ S S 'kha 'kha-da/ S SM E | 'kho
'kha-da 'kha | along 'khakle peh-ti tam 'ma-w 'du. F LL
on top of. U L U j| He stutters.
l- S S lU| 'u-'mahr S` {-} khaden {ter-} n.
'kha 'kha-da 'am-ge. SL YEL {v.t.} Y
k nLj| You skim the LL A k U) ceremonies:
melted butter. {give} a house-warming party.
, J h j S S yE ! tee, S` yU| 'khaden sah
ooh 'tihbi thu 'kha-da 'kha o-w 'du! o-gen (W). Y E k|
, g y j! go to a house-warming party.
Look, that bird is walking on the
S` yU| 'khaden-la o-gen
water! (E). Y k| go to a
S(U) 'kha-le(-gi) loc. t| house-warming party.
from the top.
j t S(U) | di S` khaba (E) n. Y| house.
'thee 'ebul 'kha-le(-gi) 'tahp 'du. 'T' | See: 'khyim (W)'.
L tt Sj| This book fell off - 'khaba 'ehn-
S` t
the table. dr. YL AE| be
S 'kha-le 'mahr
t| from above. S S` tU | 'kho 'khaba
'ehn-gu 'du. ED YL AE
`U A J S
J` | 'tihri-'ga 'a pemba ooh j|| He is homesick.
'kha-le 'mahr then-de oh 'du. Ak S S` tU | 'kho-la
D L AHj| Just 'khaba 'ehn-gu 'du lo. ED YL
today brother Pemba came appearing AEj | They said he is homesick.
from above there. S` M 'khaba tahkpu Yt, Yu| landlord.
S 'kha-le phar
t| along the top of. S`-` 'kha-su n. YL|
S S yl M| 'kho watchman. 'T-`' | See
di 'kha-le phar o-e 'mee-di peh-'kyo. also: 'khyim su'.
F t k AtL j| He wants S` ` khasa ihsa
to go along the top here. Y kVU| property (house and
SM khakti adj. | bitter.
SL 'khatik adj. A | S` ` ` j yH|
somewhat bitter. 'khasa ihsa pa-di 'thee-la o-en.
Y kVU U Q j| I will
SM khakle adj. LL| give up house and fields and become
Sk() S

a monk. E j! Here they are building

the houses poorly (with modest
Sk() -L kha-zum(-ba)
teh-k gg | be means)!
quiet. S {-} khada {taa} n. {v.t.} S
Sk , k! 'kha-zum 'teh, {E} cerem. terms: {present}
pehza-'ya! g U, hg! Children, ceremonial scarf. [Note: presented to
keep quiet! s.b. you want to honour]
/ Sk S - 'khada 'luu-
'kha-zum(-ba) peh-ti/ S | marriage: present a
'kha-zumba-le gg U, ceremonial scarf and a gift of money
ggU| quietly; secretly. to the marriage couple.
S` Sk A` L| khu S U | 'khada pra sal-di
'kha-zum-ba peh-te-'a kahl-sin. E 'luu-gen. Hj H S
gg UH| They left quietly/ secretly. UC| announce the amount of the
Sk ! 'kha-zum-ba-le o! g gift and put the 'khada' around the
U AF! Come secretly! neck of the bridegroom or bride.
Sl khau 'Sh' | See: S (`) khadi (phue) adj.(ph.)
'khaptu'. EL , L| unfinished (intensified);
incomplete (intensified). ' l-'
Sl l- khaem aa- C A Dhj | See also: 'phior aa-'.
g| give last instructions (a dying J ` S ` ` j|
person). ooh doma 'khadi-di 'time 'yihmu
'tshar-sin. L L wg AL
l L U `U
` Sl lH| 'lahla 'i-e H| The unfinished reading
peh-ke 'mih-gi 'rah-gi 'yohwa-la of the book called 'domang' was
'khaem 'aa-en. UL L finished the next day.
AD A Dhj Tj| Some ` t H S ` | ah
people who are about to die give last 'swiar thaa-e-di 'khadi 'phue 'yeh.
instructions to their relatives. t LL, L L j| I
know only a little about knitting
S S khatar khotor sweaters.
| rickety; in poor shape (used l l S L |
for biggish things). 'leeh 'phior 'aa phando 'khadi
S` S S L | 'khaba 'lih-ken 'nah. L U L Sj L
'khatar 'khotor kahl 'du. Y Hj| j| If you interrupt the work it
The house is in poor shape. obviously remains unfinished.
S` S S mE
! de-la 'khaba-'ya 'khatar 'khotor S J`-/ y-
y- khadu-la oh-/
peh-ti 'zo-w 'du! S S Y o- t t
k| come/ go to meet. [Gram: met
S- S

party takes gen. <-ki>] U jCF ! - jH|

- 'khadu-la 'ma-
S - Please thread this needle! - I did it.
, | tell S S-L` 'khap-ku n. w |
to one's face. work utensils: awl-like needle. [Note:
S L/ L M- 'khadu used for sewing leather or sack-cloth]
lok/ lohk 'kyahp- Sh
Sh/ Sl {M-} khap-tu/
wL t| run into s.b./; be an kha-u {kyahp-} n. {v.t.} L
unfortunate coincidence.
{UE} {put on} lid. 'S M-'
S- - kha-nem sah- | See also: 'kha kyahp-'. Skj S SL | eat `() Sl M` ! more substantial after a eating a 'haya(-la) 'khau 'kyahp-to le!
snack. yMgL L UE! Please put a lid
k l ` `U S- onto the aluminium pot!
M| 'he 'dzara seeh phando 'ti-le Sh ML|
'yih-gi 'kha-'nem sah-'kyo. AL 'phumba-la toh yemba 'khaptu
Sk SHj AL SL 'kyahp-ken. Z `U L
SHL | After eating potatoes for a L UEj| For a lid I am going to
snack we also eat some more put a flat stone onto the big earthen
substantial food. pot.
S-/ S-
S- k-L kha-nem/ S-
S-h khap-te qt. w|
kha-nen dze-k measures and weights: brimful.
(elevated) D U| bind evil S-h L| 'bree 'padi
spiritual powers/ forces of nature. 'khap-'te 'tahp-ken. E g
' -/ l-, l L-' w j| (He) makes the measuring
| See also: 'tahm-la taa-/ aa-, container brimful when he measures
tahmda kal-'. out the rice.
U S- kL | S khaptar adj. Uy, Lt|
lama-'ya-gi simbu 'kha-'nen 'dze-ken. talkative.
QD Uj| The S Sh ! 'kho 'khaptar-ti 'du!
lamas bind the giants.
F Uy j! He is very talkative!
S khap n. | needle. S () khaptur(-la) loc.
S t 'khap 'ohwa S() opposite. [Gram: opposite
, t | safety pin. takes gen. <-ki>]
SL / SL ` 'khap-ki SU S() L| 'kho-gi
'mii/ 'khap-ki 'miyo L 'khaptur(-la) 'teh-ken. EL S
| eye of needle. | sit opposite of him.
SL L M` ! -`C S` ` St` m |
M| 'khap-ki 'mii phar 'kupa di 'khaba yii-ni 'khaptur-'a 'zo-sin
'kyiih-do le! - ah-y 'kyuh-sin. L

'du. Ct Y A- CHj| predestined from birth; the lama can

These two houses were built just look it up in the books: 'meh-kham,
opposite of each other. sa-kham, thu-kham, etc.]
S khapla 'S' | See:
'khabla'. S
S - `- kham thin-/ thi-
-/ `- U | horoscopes
S khapse n. A E match; destinies match. [Gram:
HL LL SL| foods: deep-fried experiencers take gen. <-ki>]
slightly sweet pastry. [Note: a Tibetan S` `U S ` | khu
speciality made for 'lohsar'] yii-gi kham mih-thi 'du. E
S - khapi ten- 'S' | CkL U j| Their
See: 'kha'. horoscopes don't match.
S khabup n. p, LL S
/ kham sehn/ to
gL S Lw| SH A w U LLD
house parts: board supporting the wall y | small handful of cereal
above the door or window frame. mash. [Note: given to the dog from
one's own plate]
S/ S M-U khabla/
khapla (E) kye-g S khame pp. U S (U ) in
U E (L L) branch out; no way; it won't do. [Disc: has to be
sprout doubly. [Gram: location of preceded by neg.]
sprouting takes <-la>] '' | t` L l
See: 'habla (W)'. S! 'mih 'ohba-la kahl phando-ni
U S ME | yahlga-la meh-'teh 'khame! U UCLj
'khabla 'kye-w 'du. U L S ! After you have gotten
Hj| On this branch another twig married you can't say that you won't
is branching out. stay with him, that will never do!
t h S ME | a 'todo-la S khamda n. -g, |
'khabla 'kye-w 'du. LL t U care; matter needing attention.
tj| The hair ends are splitting. ! peema-la
k S
S kham n. pehza khamda meeh! D hg
1) | power; authority. nnt j! Peema does not have

J S j , UA` to care for children!
S hA` S| ooh 'mih-di S| 'leeh khamda. LL
kham thimbu 'du, 'su-gi-'a 'kho-la -g, LL | work needing
ti-'a 'ma maah-khu. jL w to be done.
j| L EL L Lt S| 'baso khamda. L
M| That fellow has authority; -g, L | animals
nobody could talk back to him. needing to be cared for.
2) U| cerem. terms: destiny. [Note: fate ` S `` ! ah-la

khamda mahbu-'ra 'yeh-ba! D `- khamsabu 'tho-

S` `-
tt j! I have a lot of things to care C S| look beautiful
for! (beautiful sight).
S g-U khamda 'tse-g y- khamsae
S` J`-/ y- -g U, U| pay oh-/ o- A, ML |
attention; consult each other. [Gram: feel good about; feel relieved.
partner takes <yambu/ yimbu>] [Note: physical or mental relief]
T ` ` S` g! khye [Gram: cop.= general attribution/
'yimbu ah-ni khamda-'ra meh-'tse! eventive form]
U L U! I won't have S {-} kharal {thuu-} n. {v.t.}
anything to do with you!
{uE} {come upon} a carcass.
J` y j` L `U S gM
J`U V S g LL| ohra H| nahm nahm 'yih-gi rih-la kharal
ii-di 'tsho peh-si-'ma-na 'kaahbu tsokpa 'thuu-en. L L
oh-gen 'gyaa-la khamda 'tse 'koh-ken.
k`U LQ uEj|
n U Aw Sometimes we come upon ghastly
j| If we
AC wE U carcasses in the forest, and we take it
partner in business we must consult as a bad omen.
each other when things become
difficult. SL kharka (N) n. wEL | place
names: village on the eastern slope of
S khamba n. | plants:
the Melamchi River valley, south-west
fragrant weed of the wormwood of Kolama,.
family with little yellow flowers.
[Note: rubbed on the wooden floors to SM` kharkya qt.pp. | only;
keep them clean and shiny] exclusively.
S khambu n. A| fruits: peach. yE | ooh 'mih-gi 'mih-la yaahbu
S` khamsabu adj. C| kharkya peh-ti o-w 'du.
pleasant; happy; joyful. AD C U y j| That
S` -/ J`- khamsabu person does only good things to
nee-/ oh- C V/ others.
| be fun; be enjoyable. J U L SM` M yE
` S` J`| | ooh 'mih-gi 'kumen kharkya
'rahmne ah-la khamsabu oh-sin. 'kyahp-ti o-w 'du. g
EYt D C V| I j| That person is always
found the dedication ceremony (for stealing.
this monument) enjoyable. J kU l`
S` -L khamsabu m` SM` ! ooh 'tiihzi-gi 'mih
peh-k C U| tham-di-'ra semba zabu kharkya
rejoice; have a good time. 'yeh-ba! kL

HL H! All the people of that twenties: twenty, forty, etc. [Note: for
time were generous! more details see appendix 2, section
SM M-/ SMU -
kharkyal kyahp-/ kharkyal-gi SL khalak (N) n. , ,
ter- LE, L, n| SL| race of men.
grumble about s.b; find fault with s.b. -` SL gM ! di
S`U ` lM , J phar-ee 'khalak-'ya tsokpu 'yihn!
MU `U SM M! tL j! The
khu-gi 'leeh no 'aa-'kyo 'du-ba, people over there are a bad lot!
ohle tahkpu-gi ah-la-'ga kharkyal jU SL |
'kyahp-ti! E L U Sj, Thimi-gi 'khalak yaahbu 'yeh-ba. j
L D n! They UEL j| The people of
spoiled the work, but now the master Thimi are good people.
is finding fault with me!
S khale ' S -L, t
Sg khartsa (N) n. Sg| expense. S' | See: 'sem-la khale lih-k,
ehmba khale'.
/ S-
khar-nuhp temp. A| day before Sy khali (N) n. S| pocket.
S khalma n. MD M
S khal (N) n. SL, S| kind k k | pleura (body part).
(what kind? this kind). S U | 'khalma
S `/ ` 'khal 'lawa-gi rooh 'yihm-ba. MD M
'yihm-bu/ mih-'yihm-ba k ML | The pleura is
AWL/ AWL| obedient/ the companion of the lungs.
disobedient. [Gram: excl.: 'khal
S {M-} khawa {kyahp-} n.
yihmba!'] {v.i.} E {} snow {fall}.
J k S `/ S S ML| 'khawa 'yulu
` | ooh pehza 'khal 'muhlu 'kyahp-ken. y E ,
'yihm-bu/ 'khal mih-'yihm-ba 'du.
E M| everything is covered with
hg L / j| Oh, snow.
this is an obedient/ disobedient child.
` ` ` J w
S- khal- v.t. U L| spin. h S M| 'yihma yii
` U SU | 'yih nah-la-ni ooh 'yuhl-la 'hu tu
'yibi-gi 'pahl 'khal-go 'yeh. k 'thumbu 'khawa 'kyahp-sin. C
F L j| Our grandmother UE AV E |
spins wool. Within two days ten cubits of snow
fell in that region.
S h, S `, A
A khal
tii, khal yii, etc. num. , S 'khawa 'lah
g, A| numerals:: counting by g| snow mountains.


`U S ` S ` khasal ohsal
`U| Serma-tha-le-gi 'khawa 'lah , S| socially clever;
'poh-la-'ra 'tho-gen. `t friendly.
kL Sj| From - l`U `k Lk S
Sermathang you can see the snow `! 'mih-'yuhl 'u-gi 'yendzen
mountains at close range. 'kahze 'khasal 'ohsal! A wEL
S S -L khasar khusur L ! How friendly are these
peh-k jj jj U| friends from foreign places!
fumble around. S khaser n. S| place names:
SU S` ` S S L settlement below the ridge behind
| 'kho-gi 'khaba nah-la 'khasar (the former) Yangrima School,
khusur peh-ku 'du. E Y jj Sermathang.
jj U j| He is fumbling S () khaso(-la) loc. jE| on
around inside the house. the edge (of).
S S khasar khosor S` | di
, | rickety; in , 'khaba 'praah 'khaso-la-'ra 'du. Y
poor shape (used for smallish things). L jE j| This house is on the
'S(L)' | See also: very edge of the abyss.
S khaee qt. (lamaistic) L|
S S L | di pela some.
'khasar 'khosor kahl 'du.
U jU g S
Hj| These things are in poor l | lama-gi di-la 'thee-gi 'temba
shape. 'tsuu-di loh 'khaee 'uu 'du lo.
SU L S S m | U L
'kho-gi 'sendok 'khasar 'khosor 'zee 'du.
| Establishing buddhism the lama
E L S U () Hj| stayed here for some years.
Oh, the finishing of this chest is
rough. S/
/ S khaaba/ khaama

S S -L 'khasar 'T/ T' | See: 'khyaaba/
'khosor peh-k At U| have just khyaama'.
enough. St khaaso (N) n. St| clothing:
` S S L ! 'yih shawl (fine quality).
'khasar 'khosor peh 'teh-ken 'nah!
S/ SC khii/ khuy (W) n. n,
At U L j! We just had | foods: sauce; juice. 'S/ SC'
enough to get along!
| See: 'khowa/ khuy (E)'.
k S S m |
'bidzuli 'khasar 'khosor peh-ti 'zee 'du. S- khu- 'S-' | See: 'khuu-'.
kL L L kyj| The SC khuy 'S, S' | See:
electrical wiring is rather poorly done. 'khii, khowa'.


SL ` khuk ta-di oh- | have

U, U U| leisure; spare time. '`' |
uninterruptedly; diligently. [Disc: not See also: 'loh'.
used as indep.] 'L `, l U S-``
L `' | See also: 'kuhr `UV, h h? 'thuu-e-la
tadi, thak tadi'. 'leeh-gi 'khum-'luh-'ra
J`U SL ` LH| meh-yoh-ge-'gyi, ti peh-te? t D
ohra-gi khuk ta-di 'leeh peh 'koh-en. L , L U? Because of all

SS L U j| We must the work I have no leisure time to
work without interruption. meet with you, what to do?
S` khu pr. E, | they. S khuma n. | small bag;
S` ` khu yii E, purse. [Note: used to keep precious
Ck| they (dual). [Usage: The dual things or money]
form is not obligatory, but it is good
S `-
`-/ -
- khumbu ta-/
style to use it when it applies.] or- non-erg. L |
S`` khu-'ra pr. E A| sigh.
they themselves (emphatic).
` ` `U S `` `
A S`` j J`l? ahna LH! da 'tihri ah-gi 'khumbu
khu-'ra 'tham oh-de? H mahbu-'ra ta koh-en! AkL
E A h AEj? Some will D L j! Nowadays I
they come and dance themselves? have to sigh a lot!
S` -L khu peh-k ` S | ah 'khumbu
ShE, L | bend a body part. 'or-sin. D L | I
SU L` S` L | 'kho-gi sighed just like that.
'kaba khu peh-ku 'du. E Su
S- khur- v.t. M| carry on back,
ShE j| He pulls up his legs. head, or shoulders. '-' | See
S- khum- v.i.
| fit in also: 'thoo-'.
timewise; have time. S/ S khuru/ khurpu n. |
` SU| ah 'khum-ge. D
j| I have time for it. `U S ` j| ah-gi
S 'khumbu 'yeh khurpu 'ahl tsho-sin. H| I
| be unoccupied. put down the load to rest.
[Gram: cop.= specific attribution] S khur-pa n. | carrier.
L, T S j `! J ` A S ? ohle
'kaami, khye 'khumbu 'yeh-na thu 'yih 'ada-la khur-pa 'du ni? A
lehn so! L, D H CU j L? And does our
kF! Kaami, if you are free go brother have a carrier?
and fetch some water!
S khura n. t| foods: bread (flat,
J`- 'khum-'luh
S- S

unleavened). work that I could not come.

S- khuu- v.i. wL, V | (W): Sl khuu-e-ni (W)
materialize; (E): be adequate. ' L| if possible.
S' | See: ''rihn maah-khu'. Sl J T` y Lh
-` S l | khuu-e-ni ooh 'khyowa-la-'ra
o 'koh-te 'nahle. L LtU
S H| tahra-da 'mahr 'kha 'phee
phando '' 'mahr khuu-sin' 'ma-en. (W) j | If possible at all, she
must marry the man (she has been
promised to.)
j|| When the buttermilk and
the butter have separated you say, S/ S khuut/ khut (N) adj. S,
"The butter has formed." S| in reality; the real one.
Sl | taah 'mahr L S S` U , U
khuu-e peh-sin. (W) A LU ! 'kumen 'khuut-ni 'kho-'ra
V| Now the butter is about to 'yihn-ge 'nah, 'mih-la-'ga 'dos ken-gu
form. 'du! S g g F A , AD
S- khuu- v.t. U k (, A UEj! He is accusing s.b. else
while in reality he is the thief himself!
A U ) take
after; be exactly alike. [Usage: take S khen n. L, S| kind (what
after a parent or an older relative; kind? this kind).
only used for physical appearance, not Ly SU j` ? di
for character] [Gram: relative taken 'kahnu-mu khen-gi 'tsho 'yihm-ba?
after is unmarked] L LL ? What kind
S A S | 'kho ani khuu-sin of business is this?
'du. F U UHj| He took after his
S - khen paah-
(maternal) aunt. erg. / | be
S AU j S ! 'kho aba-gi added; add.
tshenda khuu 'du. EL A
`U U U M,
L k j! He looks exactly ` S A` `!
like his father. ah-gi to 'mehnda sum-gi 'laagi-la
S-/ S- khuu-/ khu- aux. M| be yo-'kyo, 'mehnda yii khen paah-di
able; can. [Gram: vs + aux.] to-'a mahn-da-ba! kD
J U y S! LHL, Ck H, U ! I
ooh simbu-gi pohmo paahma o cooked for three people, then two
maah-khu-ba! QL jL people were added, and I had not
L! The daughter of that giant enough food!
could not get married! j S | di
`U ` J` S| 'leeh tshooba-la 'mih khen paah-sin.
mahbu-gi ah oh maah-khi. y H| The number
L U AE C| I had so much of this congregation grew.
Sy S

`U t` h S ` mH| lehn-'gyo. Y ED k
ah-gi 'ohba tii khen paah-di yii HL j| I took the responsibility for
'zo-en. HL Y Ct Ej| building that house.
Adding one stich I make two out of it. SU S m`V| 'kho-gi
'khee lehn-di thin zu-'gyo. E A
Sy/ Sy khenamu/
khenomu n. OL , L k H kL j| Having
taken a vow he devotes himself to
| names: personal name, f; name of
a goddess. meditation.

Sy kheno n. OL | names: S - kheendo ten-

personal name, f. k U| show
off with a skill or one's cleverness; be
khenda kaahbu (E) priggish. Aw| very difficult. 'L U L Lk M T
' | See: 'kale kaahbu (W)'.
L h S y LH? 'mih-gi
j h ` l` S peh-ken peh-ken-dze-la pahrkyi-la
L J`| lama 'thee 'lop-te-la khye tibe 'kheendo ten o 'koh-en?
ah-la dibu-'ra khenda 'kaahbu A L UL wE L
oh-sin. U MD D g k H U ? Why do you
U | I found it very difficult to need to interrupt and show off while
learn the buddhist scriptures. they are doing it?
S-g( /
/ M) `- S
kheeba n. , S
khep-tsuu (peh-ti/ kyahp-ti) HL j| person skilled in art or
yahl- Yt (U/ handicrafts.
)| lie on one's stomach.
S-g M() l- 'khep-'tsuu S
kheebu adj. , k|
'kyahp(-ti) 'aa- Yt skillful; clever.
T| put upside down. -L 'kheebu peh-k
S Ct| want
S -gU - 'khep-'tsuu
lohge rihl- Yt to be clever.
y, t| fall flat on one's stomach. ` `U` S L m

(L) M-' | See
'S ` ! ah 'rah-gi-'ra 'kheebu
also: 'kheebu (lohk) kyahp-'. peh-ken 'zee-di 'lha-en seeh noh-sin
'du! A CtL L
S khea n. U, | animals:
! Making this I wanted to be
deer. clever, but my knitting is spoiled!
-/ -L khee lehn-/ S
(L) M- kheebu
seh-k k | take (lohk) kyahp- non-erg.
responsibility. (u)Yt , | turn upside
J S` ml `U S V| down (intensified); land on one's
ooh 'khaba 'zo-e-la ah-gi 'khee

stomach. 'S-g' | See also: g , S |

'khep-tsuu'. interrogate s.b. [Gram: undg. takes
L M ` gen. <-ki> or <-la>]
`! 'nuhmu-gi tehrma 'kheebu h- khokpa 'tol-
SM h-
lohk 'kyahp-ti to 'phu 'pu-sin! , U| trust
L u Yt SHj! s.b; depend on.
Little sister turned the plate over and SM - khokpa ta-
SM -
all the food is spilled. gL Q U, Uk kh| test s.b.
S 'kheebu peh-ti [Note: find out what the other person
Yt , | turned upside down. thinks] ' -' | See also:
S S A` | 'kho 'sem ta-'.
'kheebu peh-te-'a rihl 'du. F Yt SM M khokpa 'nahkpu
yj| He fell on his nose. L , Yy, w| evil;
S kheelo adv. Lw AE U| by
heart. S SM M | 'kho khokpa
'nahkpu 'du. F L L j| Oh, he
S`U S U | khu-gi
'lu-'ya 'kheelo lehn-gu 'du. E is evil.
U Lw U UE j| Oh, they SM M -L khokpa
are singing the songs by heart. 'nahkpu peh-k Yy,
`- 'kheelo ta-
S `- w | be harsh; pursue evil
w Lw U| recite by heart.
S h` -L 'kheelo S SM M L | 'kho khokpa
tahdar peh-k Lw U 'nahkpu peh-ku 'du. F Yy U j|
He pursues evil.
U| learn by heart habitually.
S m`- 'kheelo zu- SM `U khokpa
nah-gi tam AL L,
Lw U, t | learn by heart.
L| motives.
S kho pr. F, E, | he. [Usage: SM - khokpa 'pruh-
generally only for humans, very rarely g , g LE|
also for 'it'] interrogate s.b. [Gram: undg. takes
S` 'kho-'ra pr. F A| he gen. <-ki>]
himself (emphatic).
`- khokpa 'lo-
SM `-
SM khokpa n. , A, t| | pry for motives.
inner self; conscience; heart. [Usage: [Gram: undg. takes gen. <-ki> or
for concrete and abstract concepts] <-la>]
` j SM` l ! SM - khokpa looh-
'prah tshee-di khokpa-'ra 'aa-e (elevated) U,
peh-sin! j t
k ! I j| throw up food; vomit. 'M-'
have a stabbing pain in my chest! | See also: 'kyuu-'.
L- khokpa kor-
SM L- SM - khokpa 'uu-
SM` S j, V| have yH| khye-gi 'mahr khyo meh-ter-na

diarrhea. ah-la 'khoo o-en.
SM` khokso (W) adj. LhgHL| CH D Sg j| If you
lame; crippled. 'St' | See don't bring any butter, I will be left in
also: 'khoo'. need of it.
A` U L` SM` ` ` L St L|
'tihri ah-la 'mahr-ki 'khoo kahl-sin.
L? 'aa 'dame-gi 'kaba
khokso kahl-ba? L Su Ak D YEL Sg | Today I
should have some butter, but I don't!
Lhg L? Are uncle Dame's feet
crippled? S(L) khotro(k) adj. |
SM` y- khokso peh-ti
y- rickety; in poor shape. 'S S'
o- (W+E) ShH | See also: 'khasar khosor'.
| hobble.
y M Sl | nekyi 'khotro-i
A` SM` yE | 'du-ba. HEt y j| Oh, there
'aa 'dame khokso peh-ti o-w 'du. is a dirty old pot.
ShH y j| Uncle
` V S` Sl |
Dame hobbles. ah-ti 'teh-sa 'gyaa 'khaba 'khotro-i
'yeh-ba. D HEt n Y j|
St khoo (N) adj./ n. Sg, A`U|
defective; crippled. [Usage: not My dwelling place is a rickety house.
offensive if said in presence of the S j-L khoda the-k
person concerned] 'Lh, SM`' , L | get
| See also: ''kuta, khokso (W)'. fed up; be deeply wounded.
` Al(C) L` St L M LH, ` S
| 'yih 'ai(-y) 'kaba 'khoo j! 'leeh 'tuhkpu peh 'koh-e,
kahl-di 'yehba. L Su A`U ah-ni 'khoda 'the-sin! S U j,
HL j| My elder sister's foot is H! You have to work hard, I got
crippled. fed up with it!
L` M St M AU l` ` l
j `l L | 'kaba k AU S j yH
'lahkpa 'khoo peh-'kyo 'mih-'ya | 'paba 'ama-gi dibu-'ra barta
'thorten-la 'la-de-la 'teh-ku 'du. 'la phando pehza-'ya 'paba
Su Sy HL Q 'ama-le-gi 'khoda 'the-ti o-e 'yihn.
U j| Around the stupa in A A U U S hg
Bauddha people with crippled feet AS L kj| When
and hands are sitting there begging. parents scold their children too
y- 'khoo o- Sg
St y- harshly, the children get deeply hurt.
| be left in need of [Gram: the S khona 'S' | See:
needed thing takes gen. <-ki>] 'khoona'.
TU T` ` St


S {-/ `-`-} khopin {luu-/ S/

S/ SC khowa/ khuy (E) n.
ta-} n. {v.t.} {} weaving terms: n, | foods: sauce; juice. 'S/ SC'
shuttle {push through}. | See: 'khii/ khuy (W)'.
S- khor- v.i. (poetic) Y| S/
/ S -L khoona/ khona
visit; come by. peh-k kLE, nME|
irritate s.b; provoke s.b.
S khorlo n.
1) U| wheel-like things (e.g. the `U k` S M|
round stone at the top of a prayer flag ah-gi-ni 'nooh-la 'dzen-'ra khoona
pole). peh-'kyo. CD n kLHL| I
2) gS| work utensils: spindle for provoked my younger brother all the
hand-spinning of wool; distaff. more.

S T-
T- khorwa khyam- S `- khoonro lah- A , AU | | be irritated.
wander around without finding rest S S `! di tam-la
(soul in 'pahrto'). 'A T-' 'kho khoonro 'lah-di! L F
| See also: 'ala khyam-'. ! He was irritated by this matter!
L -` , Lh `-/ -L khoonro 'la-/
S `-
j T` S TU |
peh-k L hgE| make
'teh-ken 'mih-da 'nohr, 'kapta-'ya-la a fuss.
sem thaa-na-ni khye-'ra khorwa S` J` SU S `U |
'khyam-ge 'yihm-ba. kE , 'khaba-la oh-di 'kho-gi khoonro
'la-gu 'du. Y AH E L
j| I your heart-mind remains hgE j| When he comes home
attached to the living people, to your he makes a fuss.
possessions and clothes your soul will S ` h- khoonro 'lah
wander around without finding rest. tuu- E| irritate
S- khol- v.i. E| boil (water, U U AlU A
milk). 'L-, -, -' | See S ` h! 'nuhmu-gi tam-gi
also: 'kol-, yo-, bloo-'. peh-ti 'ai-gi 'ada-la khoonro 'lah
j L L SU | thu 'blok tuu-di! L L U
'blok 'khol-gu 'du. LL EHj| kD C| Elder sister has
Oh, the water is boiling briskly. irritated her elder brother because of
S M- 'kholbi 'kyahp- their younger sister's affairs.
'g' | See: 'tsamba'.

T khya pr. | you (pl.). T ` 'khya yii


Ck| you (dual). [Usage: The dual () stretch oneself (e.g. in the
form is not obligatory, but it is good morning); try to make oneself tall.
style to use it when it applies.] ` `U T` L|
T` 'khya-'ra pr. A| 'yahl-di 'lah-gen 'bela-le khya
you yourselves (emphatic). peh-ken. Ew
TL TL (hA`) - LEj| When I get up from sleep I
khyak khyok (tii-'a) meh-be- stretch myself. L g, | not lift T`` T`` y- khyaa
a finger (to help with work). 'khyuu pehti o-
TL TL hA` ! E `U t`U U k| wriggle
'mih-ro-ni 'khyak khyok tii-'a along (e.g. a snake).
meh-be 'du! A AL T` khyae peh-ti
j! He is not lifting a finger! U| stiffly erected.
J g ` UA` T`
TL-TL -L | ooh pruhl 'tsa nah-la
khyak-khyak khyok-khyok goo-'a khyae peh-ti 'teh 'du.
peh-k erg. Y tEL wy j| That
1) , t | be reserved; snake is lying there in the grass with
be unfriendly. his head stiffly erected.
2) pu U| make abrupt movements.
T` -L khyae 'se-k
TM` TM` -L khyakta w | kill (intensified).
khyokto peh-k T-
T- khyam- v.i. y y
`U t`U U| wriggle about. wander around aimlessly. 'A, S'
TM j- khyakpa thaa- | See also: 'ala, khorwa'. YE, , A k| grease ` S ` L` T|
on liquids or pots. [Gram: loc. takes 'tihri 'kho 'yihma 'kah 'khyam-sin.
<-la>] Ak F L U y y|
jl TM j | 'tsha-a-la Today he walked around aimlessly all
'khyakpa thaa 'du. g YE day.
| Oh, there are globules of butter
j TV 'khyam-gyi n.
floating on the salt tea. LL , UE y LL | abusive
expressions: vagabond.
T`- khya- v.i. k| solidify (of
things which melt). TV ! 'khyam-gyi di!
lH k ` T`U| 'u-e 'dzati LL k! You vagabond!
'rebe-'ra khya-ge. VL k T 'khyambu-wa n. y,
| vagabond.
kj| Anything which can be melted
solidifies afterwards. T T y-
y- khyala khyole
T` -L khya peh-k o- , LE, U | feel weakness in one's limbs.

T` T

'T-' | See also: 'khyol-'. 'khyaa-w 'du. Su g Hj| Oh

h `l L, my feet are cold.
m` T T L! ti tam T 'khyaabu adj. ky| cold (of
meh-yem-ba-i 'thee 'koh-sin, weather).
zubu-'ra 'khyala khyole kahl-sin! T J`U | 'khyaabu oh-gu
L L , kE U! 'du. ky j| It is cold.
These are very disturbing news, I just T J`- 'khyaa-ri oh-
feel week in my limbs! g | become cold (of
T` T` y-
y- khyalda
khyoldo o- L T/
/ S khyaaba/ khaaba n.
, M| be exhausted. 'T` E(h) abusive expressions:
j-' | See also: 'khyoldo such quarrelsome people (m.).
thaa-'. T ` h LV? 'khyaaba
T` T` -
L 'yambu tibe kahl-'gyo? EU
'khyalda khyoldo peh-k L UHL? Why did you go with such At U, Aj U| idle quarrelsome people?
(about); potter (about); waste time.
/ S khyaama/ khaama n.
J`U T` T` A (h) abusive expressions:
h `U| di 'leeh-la ohra-gi such quarrelsome people (f.).
'khyalda khyoldo peh-te
y, lU! - T ?
meh-yoh-ge. L At 'phi-la mehn-o, 'dii-ge! - 'khyaama
U | We must not waste any time 'duba? k, y Vj! - A
doing this work.
j? I am not going outside, I am
T T ( ) khyasar afraid! - Do you think there is a
khyosur (peh-ti) k U| ghost?
T khyi n.
SU T T E | 'kho-gi 1) (W) LL| dog. 'M' | See:
'khyasar khyosur 'pruh-w 'du. E 'kyibu (E)'.
AA T j| Oh, he is writing 2) (E) g Dg| measures and weights:
like a beginner. "hand-span" with the index finger bent
T- khyaa- v.e./i. ky | be cold at the second joint.
(of weather)/ feel cold. T- 'khyi-'so n. LL |
` ` TE | da 'tihri canine tooth. '-, y-'
'khyaa-w 'du. Ag ky
j| It's | See also: 'din-so, am-so'.
cold these days.
T khyim (W) n. Y| house.
` ` T| ah 'tihri 'S`' | See also: 'khaba'.
'khyaa-sin. D Ak ky | I am
T A 'khyim aba YL
cold today.
, Y | father of the house.
`U L` TE | ah-gi 'kaba
T T-

T A 'khyim 'ama flour soup).

YL A, Y | mother of the TM khyukpu adj. kU, gS|
house. industrious; agile. [Gram: excl.:
Tk 'khyimdzi n. jL| 'khyukpa!/ khyuga!']
neighbour. 't`' | See also:
h TM , k! 'leeh
'ohro'. peh-te-la 'khyukpu 'du, di pehza-ni!
J Tk J` | L U kU j, hg !
ohle 'khyimdzi-'ya lee oh-di ta-sin. This child is very industrious in his
A jL AH | And the work!
neighbors came and looked.
T M 'khyim tahkpu n.+ n. T khyubu 'T' | See:
Yu, Yt| landlord.
T-` 'khyim-su n. Y L|
T- T- khyuu- v.i. tL| have a
watchman. 'S`-`' | See throbbing pain (in a wound); seep.
also: 'kha-su'. 'k T-' | See also: 'naaza
T khyimbur n. (o.f.) gg| khyuu-'.
spoon. TE | owa 'khyuu-w 'du. YE
tL j| I have a throbbing in this
TM khyirkya 'M' | See: wound.
T khye pr. | you (sg.).
T- khyil- v.i. k | T` khye-'ra pr. A|
fill up (with liquid). you yourself (sg., emphatic).
L S j T
| 'nuhp-ki 'khawa mih-'uh-na tsho T- khyen- v.t. (hon. of 'ee-')
mih-khyil 'yeh. g E V g, (t.) know.
S k | If the snow in
j J`U ` , J`U
the west does not melt, the lakes will TU| 'thee ohra-gi 'nom-do
not fill up. 'laah, ohra-gi 'khyen-gen. L k
, kD Mj| You
Tl khyildu n. S, | pool take the book, you know (how to
(of water, small or biggish). read) it.
L S Tl `
U| 'yarka rih-la toh 'kha-la
h T- khyep- v.dr. A-A
khyildu mahbu 'teeh sihn-ge. U E| receive one's share. 'U
T-' | See also: 'sem-gi
k`U `U kL
uEj| During the rainy season you
find many little pools of water on the S` l T | khu
rocks in the forest. 'meehme-'ya-la eero mah-'khyep 'du.
T/ T khyildo/ khyilto j| Oh, these ladies didn't get their
n. LLL S| dog's meal (millet share of fried wheat bread.
T() T

T() {

} khyepa(r) T- khyer- v.t. , V| take
{meeh-ba/ yeh-ba} n. {cop.} L along/ with/ to.
{HL/ HL} {there isn't/ is} a J S L L T L
difference. | ohle 'kho-ni 'bet-ki prehka
` h T ? di yii-la 'khyer-ti kahl-di mihn-du leh. A
ti khyepar 'yeh-ba? Dt L L E L v U UHj | And he
j? What is the difference between took a cane stick with him!
these two? T-! 'khyer-o! v.imp. F!
bring!. [Gram: imp. of 'khyo-']
T` {-/ J`-} khyepsa
{sah-/ oh-} n. {v.t./ dr.} {} T M- khyer kyahp-
{make} a margin; profit. gM E, yLE|
J j`U T` ` H| slander s.b. behind his back; incite
ooh 'tshoba-gi 'khyepsa mahbu (through bad talk).
sah-en. Sj| gM m` T
That businessman makes a large M yH| 'moh-ni tam tsokpa
margin on his goods. 'zo-simba-'ra 'khyer 'kyahp o-en.
U l T` J`U EL L H ELE k
| 'brumsi thaa-ge-mu yahmbi-i j| She makes up scandalous stories
'khyepsa oh-gu 'du. Ug A and stirs up other people.
j| Oh, you can make a T khyere intens. S
little bit of profit when you weave
Lt U | abusive expressions:
carpets. intensifier used in cursing talk.
T khyemu adj. | cheap. T `!/ T y Ll!
'thala 'khyere so!/ 'thala 'khyere o
/ T khyemba/
khyembo n. k , | 'koh-e! Ck! ! May
knowledgeable person; scholar. you become all ashes!
/ T M -g T M! pi-'tsar 'khyere
'khyemba 'kyaahbu (E)/ 'khyemba 'kyohp! Yt yk! May you fall
tahkpu (W) k| especially right upside down!
knowledgeable person. T y-
y-/ `-
`- khyero (N) o-/
T T MU m ` ta- erg. S k/
, ` hA` ! 'khya | be wasted/ waste
'pheebe 'khyemba 'kyaahbu-'ya-gi 'zii
khyee meeh
na-na mihm-ba-ni, 'rah-ni ti-'a
L j| there is no difference.
meeh-e! D k [Gram: cop.= specific existence]
, A L k! Unless you [Usage: observed only with neg.
knowledgeable gentlemen look into it,]
I myself don't understand anything!
` T -da khyee


meeh-ba 'mih L HL our son.

j (LL wE L L T/
T/ T khyobo/ khyubu n.
A Sj) be equal to ; behave V| husband. '`-S' |
like . [Disc: The dash is filled with See also: 'yih-kho'.
the name of an animal or some other
T M T j yH

unflattering designation.] 'khyubu 'kyahp-la 'khyubu tshol
`U-` T ! 'lago-da o-en piihmi U
khyee meeh-ba 'mih! Uk j!
T | adulteress.
He behaves like a bull!
`-` T ! T-
T- khyor- v.i. , S|
'yomba-da khyee meeh-ba 'mih! stagger; feel wobbly.
L ! What a fool! S j`U m TL | 'kho
tha-gi 'zii-di 'khyor-ku 'du. F M
TL -L khyok peh-k S j| He is staggering jL| bend sideways; because he is drunk.
look sideways.
` hhC M TL | T-
T- khyol- v.i. E| stagger;
ah-ni 'tehte-y 'kyahp-la khyok wobble. 'T-, T T y-,
peh-sin. jL jy jLH | T-' | See also: 'khyor-,
I bent sideways hiding behind my khyala khyole o-, sem khyol-'.
mother's sister. S j`U m TU | 'kho
tha-gi 'zii-di khyol-gu 'du. F M
TM` khyokto adj. `U| j| He is staggering
uneven; crooked; slanting (e.g. a because he is drunk.
L` TU | kindi khyol-gu
TM`| tam khyokto. `U 'du. L `U V j| (The arm
L| distorted statement. of) the rice pounding device wobbles.
TMg khyok-tse adj. jyL| T` j- khyoldo thaa-
somewhat slanting. '-g/-k' | , AO, h |
See also: '-tse~-dze~-ze'. be unsettled (life style); be idle.
L l TMg L | di 'T` T` -L' |
'kawa yahmbi-i khyok-tse kahl 'du. See also: 'khyalda khyoldo peh-k'.
S AL `UHj| Oh, this post ` ` ` T` j
is somewhat slanting.
| ah 'tihri nahbar khyoldo
T`- khyo- v.dt. E| bring. thaa-di 'yeh. Ag h HL j| I
[Gram: imp. = 'khyer-o!'; have an unsettled life these days.
'*khyo-do!' does not exist]
T - khyololo then-
`U T` LH| L| appear
taah-ni 'yih-gi puh-la 'nama khyo swiftly.
'koh-en. A jL
Uj| Now we must get a wife for T khyowa n. (somewhat

elevated) , V| husband; ugly; strange looking; bungling (not

man. capable).
TUU h `U | TL h h L
'khyowa-gi-'ga 'puhptal tuh-ge 'nah. ?! di 'mih khyosor-ki ti ti
Vj nt kEj| The men peh-ken 'yihm-ba?! L L Uj L
play the cymbals. L? Look, what is this bungler about
T k 'khyowa pehza to do?!
Vj, Ltj| menfolk. T- khyoo- v.t. A | waver;
TL khyosok (W) adj. Aw get off course. 'L`, ' |
( k) queer. See also: 'kaba, sem'.
H, l TLL k M l U TU | 'lahm-le-gi
| 'ee, dimi khyosok-ki pehza 'phi khyoo-gen. t Y k| wander off
'kyur 'aa 'du lo. l hgD the path.
jyj | Oh, they said Jimi, this queer y- khyoo-di o-
T y-
fellow just left the child behind. `UH k, AL t
T khyosor adj. , | V| skirt; avoid s.b./

'gara goro'.
-U -ga '-L' | See: '-ka'.
` U` U` | i gandra
UE -
- gaw ma- yL| gondro 'du. L L E j|
burp. There are small and big pieces of
k t L` j , UE wood scattered around.
E | taah-ni pehza-'ya 'ehpa U` U` | 'so gandra
'kah-ba tshee 'du, 'gaw 'ma-w 'du. A gondro 'du. EL L
hgL t HL k j, yL j| His teeth are out of row.
j| Now the children seem to have
had enough, they are burping. Ut gapu (N) adj. U| hidden
Uw gahe 'Aw' | See: j `C Ut l
'ahhe'. | lama 'thee-la-ni tahbu-y tam
Ul gandir (N) n. t, Uk| 'gapu 'aa-di 'yeh-ba. L
clothing: sweater; T-shirt. EL L LH SHL j| The
ancient myths are hidden away in the
Uy gana (N) n. Yt| hour.
buddhist scriptures.
U` U` gandra gondro , HL HL| U-
U- gam- v.t. S
uneven (in size or arrangement). | throw into mouth.
'U` U`' | See also: ` g ` , `U L


L UV! di 'thosi 'tsiibu mah-ta bedspread; ordinary shawl.

'yeh, ah-gi 'phok 'phok gam-'gyo!
U gale n. L | clan names:
L kw L j, non-lama clan (='maba').
S SHL ! This curry is not
defiled, I just threw some pieces into U galba n. EL yy| piece of
my mouth! wood (for fire).
U h` ! di 'galba
U gara (N) n. U, y`| terraced tuu-do leh! E ! Please
field. put this piece of wood onto the fire!
U` U` gara goro U {t-
{t-} galbandi (N)
A g, HL| uneven {il-} n. {v.t.} U {} clothing:
(ground, piles). 'U` U`' {put on} neck scarf. [Note: long and
| See also: 'gandra gondro'. narrow, also used like a turban]
U` U` ` J`U| toh
'gara 'goro mahbu oh-ge. U/
/ UU {-} galburi(E)/
`U -`U HL k | This is galgole(W) {then-} n. {v.i.} y,
uneven stony ground. U {AE} mumps {get/ have}.
` U` U` , g | k U | di pehza-la
i-'ya 'gara 'goro peh-ti 'du, 'galburi then 'du. hgD y
maah-'tsi 'du. E AV g U AHj| Oh, this child has the mumps.
Sj, H Sj| This is a U- gaa- v.t./i. AyL| plug up; get
disorderly pile of wood, it's not stuck (in the throat, food, talk).
stacked up properly. [Gram: actor is often inanimate] mate
(for dogs, vulgar).
U/ U gari-la/ gari-le (N) Yy, | at the time. ` U U, j `! ah-la
J` gH U g yy to-gi 'gaa-sin, thu 'la! D
L` h l LLV| ohra AyL, ! Some rice got
'muta 'tsa-en 'gari-le 'muta 'tsee-de stuck in my throat, please give me
o-o-pa 'kah-le 'saati 'aa some water!
'kohken-'gyile. S t L t U| 'prin
S k Q Tj | When peh-ke-mu 'prinar 'gaa-sin. t U U
we have a court case, as we go to the t AyL| The printer got stuck
court, we obviously must have a during printing.
witness with us. M UE | 'kyibu-'ya 'gaa-w 'du.
LL kwj| Oh, the dogs are
U garu n. L| household utensils:
metal urn with straight spout. [Note:
you pour the water into your mouth UE gaanwra (N) n. E, Uy|
directly from the spout of the urn] desolate place; ambush.
E-t l UE
UM` garkya n. , L| gM | 'Bawne 'paai 'poh-la

yahmbi-i 'gaanwra tsokpa 'yeh-ba. 'nahle. SL `U , A

tL jE A k wE j| Lt L| There is a
Near Bahune Pai there is quite a stone like this, and from this corner
desolate place. water flows down.
UE L-/ -L 'gaanwra-la UU/
/ UC gugi/ guy n. | vine
kuuh-/ 'teh-k L , (wild).
E | lie in ambush.
SU UE L | 'kho-gi U {m-
{m-/ M-} gumi {zo-/
'gaanwra-la kuuh-sin 'du. E Uy kyahp-} n. {v.t.} E LE
L j| We realized that he had {E/ } {make} loop on the rope
been lying in ambush. for tying up cattle, bow of a loop.
't' | See also: 'ohldi'.
U S- gaal (N) khur- CU (U) U j L | U | bear a bad mahy-gi 'rehl(-gi) 'gumi 'theemu kahl
reputation. 'du-ba.
t J U S Hj| The loop on the cord for tying
L| 'ohlma-ni ooh rohwa peh-ti up the buffalo is too small.
'gaal khur-ti kahl-sin. y
L U A U U| U j
gumba tsheden n.
Because olma behaved like that she OL | names: personal name, m.
left, bearing a bad reputation. U gur n. (hon. of 'diba') Yt
`- 'gaal ta- U
U `- (t.) throat; neck.
| defame; bring s.b. into ill-repute; U-j M- gur-'tham
defame. 'kyahp- (hon. of 'thamba/
J U U `U| ohle themba' 'kyahp-) U (t.) catch a
'mih-'ya-gi 'moh-la 'gaal ta-gen. A cold.
j ED U j| And now U-jU J-M L |
people defame her. 'mehme-la gur-''tham-gi 'ohp-'kyal
U gin (N) n. U| kind deeds. ter-ku 'du. kD U S j|
Grandfather is bothered by a cold.
h- 'gin tal- U
U h-
| reciprocate. U guri n. | cat.
U l- 'gin 'aa- U U guru (N) n. U| teacher (in
T| do something kind in return. religious contexts).
U -L 'gin peh-k U - /- 'guru 'thuu- (E)/ 'tuu-
U U| do something kind. (W) UL |
U gu n. L, S| corner (of associate oneself with a teacher.
room); notch (of landscape). -j 'guru
L, J U 'rihmbur-'thee EL
j U | di 'leehmu toh 'yehken, | names of deities: an important
ohle di 'gu-le 'mahr thu then-ge god. [Note: He is often the main deity

of the 'kohmba'.] mountain cedar has no pointed top, it

U - 'guru 'uh- is roundish. U U| get oneself
U gus (N) n. Y| bribe.
a teacher; become a pupil.
U 'gua (N) n. Y| bribed
J S U | ohle 'kho 'guru person.
'iih 'du. A E U Uj| And
he got himself a teacher. U- guu- v.i. `U, `U| be bent
U' | See
over; sag. ' `
{M-} gurtum {kyahp-} also: 'rihn maah--gu'.
(W) n. {v.t.} Uw {} {make} a knot ` U | padap tohbo
in cloth. '' | See: 'butur (E)'. guu-sin 'du. L `U `UHj| The
U {`-/ -} gurma {su-/ bamboo is bending over.
thaa-} n. {v.t.} (hon. of 'lu lehn-') U T U | 'khya-ti 'darni guu
{UE} (t.) {sing} a song. 'du. L UHj| Oh, your
ceiling beam is sagging.
U- gul- v.i. g ( LS)
move limbs. [Usage: Only appropriate U`U - gego ter-
for babies moving in the mother's , AyLE | impose on s.b.
womb; in other contexts 'tsaal-tii' h U`U h? 'mih-la
(N) is used.] tibe gego ter 'teh-te? AD L
k UU ! pehza gul-gu 'du! C? Why should we keep
g j! Oh, the baby is kicking (in imposing on people?
my tommy)! y- gego oh-/ o-
U`U J`-/ y- / | be imposed
U {-} guldar {luu-} n. {v.t.}
{} marriage: {give} wedding gifts ` J` T U`U
in kind and money. 'U' | L ! 'yih oh-di 'khya
See also: 'godar'. 'meehme-'ya-la gego kahl-sin taah!
kV U U U|
paahma-la dzom-'gyo 'mih-'ya-gi Sorry that we have come, we are
guldar 'luu-ge. HL imposing on you!
E U- gen- v.i. AyL| get caught in
j| At the wedding
ceremony the people give the couple S ` UU | khurpu
a turban, a 'khada', and money. tohbo-la gen-gu 'du. S
U guldum adj. wy
| blunt point. AyL j| Oh, the load got caught
in the tree.
M ` h `U, U
J`U| 'kyel tohbo 'todo Uy gene pombo
meh-yoh-ge, guldum-ba oh-ge. U (poetic) w () honoured
L SL t
j| The
, wy leader.


UU gergen (W) n. L E U| field quite big clods of earth are

lamaisms: teacher of Buddh. scriptures. turned up.
U- go- v.i. V| stick to. UM U y-
y- gokpa goo-di o-
kU y M U | di (E) | crawl on
pehza-gi 'amba-la dakpa 'go-sin 'du. all fours. '-, U-, -' | See:
hgL U Uj| This 'boo- (W), goo- (E), puhr- (W)'.
child has mud on his cheeks. UM g -L gokpa 'tsuu-di
U - go then- 'teh-k tL |
lean on one's hands (when kneeling).
A Su E| become
independent; self-reliant. 'U' UU goge adj. y (AL, L)
| See also: 'goba'. big and ball-shaped.
S U | taah 'kho go ! goo-la
U w UU h
then-sin. A F A Su E M 'haambur 'goge 'tee-di! tEL
| Now he has become ttL Ewj! I have a big round bump
independent. on my head!
UL `/ UL-
UL-UL gok UU l- 'goge 'aa- HL
ta-di/ gok-gok peh-ti wE T (Ag) put down,
not attending to it; leave uncovered
tt, , tCt | do
intently. (e.g. food).
`A` ` UL UU
- L 'goge 'teh-k HL wE
` yE | 'tho-de-'a mah-'tho-ba
rohwa peh-ti 'gok ta-di o-w 'du. S (U) be immobile and unmoved;
sit around idly.
S n U k j| Even though
he sees us, he proceeds intently on his U` {M-} go {kyahp-} n.
way as if he didn't see us. {v.t.} U, E U| {set} the price;
{set} the rate.
UL-LL gok-kok A w
t kEL| quite big and roundish `U L U` ML| ah-gi
(of animate beings). di lekam-la 'go 'kyahp-ken.
k UL-LL h | pehza kL Tj| I will set the price
'gok-'kok tii 'du. A w t for these shoes.
kEL j| The child is quite chubby. U E U`
l, J | yohlmu-gi
UL-UL gok-gok A w 'aw-la 'yahmbu-la 'go yaahbu
U| quite big and roundish (of mahn-dor, ohle 'tor-sin. L
inanimate things).
`U H y UL-UL U | EL S | The apples of
'lago 'mo-en 'bele 'allo 'gok-'gok Helambu did not get a good price in
then-gu 'du. k tL y Kathmandu, and so they dissappeared.
y Lj| When ploughing the (Are not cultivated anymore.)
U`-U` U

U`/ U``` go-go/ LyL ) clothing: kind of thick
gooo adj. L, L
, A cloth.
O U U U | big and U` gondo '`' | See:
bouncy, fluffy (e.g. cumulus clouds). 'i'.
` U``` j!
di tohbo-ni tee-de tee-de-'ra U U gop gop V
'gooo 'tshar-sin! S V (S) intensifier for 'sah-'.
ML ! This tree grew big and U/ U M- gopu/
bouncy quickly! gopi kyahp- A`L
U` 'goro adj./ adv. V, V| (-t AD
big for roundish or cubit-like things. E) lamaisms: call the dead soul.
` U` ! ah-la 'sehn lU M U U
'goro 'luu ter-ti! D y V U M T`U| mahlsa
C! She gave me a big lump of 'aa-ge-mu 'i-'kyo 'mih-gi sem lama-gi
corn mash! 'gopu 'kyahp-ti khyo-gen. LL
` ` U` j | U A LyD Lk D
di tohbo loh yii sum-la 'goro 'tshar T D H
'du. S C ML j| Ej| When the cloth dummy (for a
This tree grew lush in only two to person who just died) is prepared, the
three years. lama calls the spirit of the deceased
U` 'go 'leehmu
person into it.
(slang) A w (, ,
U goba n. AU, CL| leader.
Ak U ) big and showy.
`L ` UU
U gotor adj. | deformed; h| nahbar-ki 'leeh-'ya 'tihri
misshapen. goba-'ya-gi thaa 'te-sin. CL
S U h | 'kho 'gotor tii 'du. F U LL Ak U| The
j| Oh, his body is deformed. leaders decided today what needs to
U {-} godar {luu-} n. {v.t.} be done tomorrow.
E {} marriage: {give} U -L goba peh-k
gifts of money. [Note: given to the AU , CL | be
bride and bridegroom during the a leader. 'U ' | See also:
wedding ceremony] 'U' | 'go then-'.
See also: 'guldar'. L`-j`U A U L|
S ` U H| 'kah-'tshiri-gi aba goba peh-ken.
paahma-la 'khada 'yimbu godar L`-j`L UEL AU j|
'luu-en. SU E Kahng-Tshiring's father is as village
j| At weddings you give a gift
of money with the ceremonial scarf. U-j go-'thewa n./ adj.
L| elder.
U gonam n. U (HL LL
U- U

U- gom- v.i. Z, Ej| jump idly; waste time.
over. U (TL) M- goo ('khyak)
S M-w U | 'kho 'kyaa- EwE| hold up
'kyahl-him-la gom-sin 'du. E head (connotation: be innocent).
L D Ejj| He broke the U TL TL TL TL
law. M- goo 'khyak 'khyak 'khyuk
'khyuk 'suh 'kyahp-
U t gombo ohlma n.
dr. tEL kyU T| have splitting
OL | names: personal name, f.
headache. [Gram: if non-erg.: exp.
U- gor- v.i. | be delayed; takes gen. <-ki> or attributive <-ti>]
- goo yii tuh-
U ` `
` M `g UL| ah tEL kE wLE
'ahkpu yi-tse 'yuhl-la gor-ken. C (L A
k UE j| I intend to be two L) marriage: knock the heads of
or three days in the village. the new couple together three times.
U {h-/ M-} gorto {tee-/ [Note: is part of the wedding cermony;
kyahp-} n. {v.t.} Uw {} {make} a performed by the 'paahrol' on the
knot. 'U' | See also: 'gumi'. instruction of the 'mihktemba']
U gormu n. HL L| U j- goo 'tshuu-
household utensils: lid made of U| get involved; start new.
mountain bamboo strips (used to U wM goo hakpu
cover the pot for making curds). ( L-g U) stern when
U M gormen kyahlmu j` U wM | di 'tshoba goo
) names HEt L ( U hakpu 'du. Lw j| This
of deities: queen of the earth. is a stern businessman.
U -L gowaar (N) peh-k U ` ` M- goo thi U U, U| give free thi 'suh 'kyahp- dr.
labour. tEL A A T| have a mild
headache. [Gram: if non-erg: exp.
U goo n. tEL, t, | head;
takes gen. <-ki> or attributive <-ti>]
beginning (of songs, 'mahni', etc.).
U / / goo
L- goo kor- tEL
U L-
'thu-la/ 'thur-la ten-di/ then-di
S, Uk SE| confuse s.b. (in E t U| head-down.
a deceitful way); take up s.b.'s time
[Note: vertically; or if horizontally:
(with idle talk, etc.).
with head in the wrong direction in
- goo kyoo-di ta-
relation to the house altar, i.e. feet j | avoid looking.
pointing to the altar]
S- goo khor-
U S-
L U `
A| be confused; hang around
M | kehpu-ni goo 'mahr
U- U

'thur-la then-di 'yahl 'teh-'kyo 'du-ba. me.

j| We
E t U L U- goo- v.i.
found the old man lying (on a rock) 1) (W) tH | sit around idly.
with his head hanging down.
A T` UU , `h
U ` -L goo yah-di g`U| 'ada-ni 'khyim-la-'ra goo-gen,
'teh-k | be 'yohpte-'ya 'tso-gen. C Y
engrossed in/ with
tC hj| My elder
U - goo 'yihr- brother sits around idly at home, and
t V| feel dizzy. [Gram: exp.
`U he sells some goods.
takes gen. <-ki>] 2) (E) | crawl (e.g. small
U- - goo-yuu 'so-yuu
- children). '-, -, UM U y-'
peh-ti E tEL E| | See also: 'boo- (W), puhr-
gesticulating with your head. (W), gokpa goo-di o-'.
U `
U goo 'rin-'ra k U yE | pehza goo-di o-w
meeh-ba-gi t, jE t 'du. hg j| Oh, the child is
HL| mixed up; senseless. crawling.
U ` U / / U| goo k U SH L |
'rin-'ra meeh-ba-gi tam/ 'lu/ 'yihgi. tahnda-ni di pehza goo khuu-en
jE t HL L/ U/ | senseless 'samma kahl 'du. A hg
talk/ mixed up song/ letter.
Hj| I see, this child is able to crawl
U goo serpu LC, S now.
(U ) white person (a
caucasian). U goondo (E) n. gL| buttocks
(body part). 'L' | See: 'kup
U -L goo e-k
L L| comb hair. (W)'.
U L- goo-la ken- 'U' U M- goola kyahp- (W)
| See: 'mih-gi'. gv | cast lots.
- goo-la bap-
U - U
gruup (Eng) n. | group.
AC, ACV| fall to; be under
`y -L 'gruup 'loh-i
obligation. peh-k j U|
j U` L| make a public investigation.
'thewa-di-la lama 'leeh goo-la-'ra
`y L SU
bap-ken. kwD L L
LU ! 'mih-'ya-gi 'gruup
j| The oldest (son) is 'loh-i peh-ken 'bele 'kho-gi
obligated to take on the lama
'narko-la-'ga 'phoo-sin! jL
U E V!
`U U` | di 'leeh When they conducted a public inves-
ah-gi goo-la-'ra bap-sin. L tigation, the blame fell on himself.
A| This work just fell to

V` V

V`/ t-j V` gya/ U| He changed what he said.
uhp-thu gya n. wEL | place V (j) J`- 'gyur
names: settlement on the western ridge (thimbu) oh- (w)
of Yohlmu, after Golbhanjyang. | gain (great) merit. [Note: by
offering or performing a ritual at
V` gyabu adj. t, | distant an auspicious time]
(relatives); at some distance. '`
| See also: 'yehwa'. V gyurmi n. OL | names:
personal name, m.
V` V`
gyabu peh-ti t t U, V- gyul- v.i. j| sneak under;
L L U| well spaced. slink up to.
U L V` V` g t g A V L | 'ebul
LH| magi 'sen 'tap-ke-mu gyabu tsoo-le phar-'aa 'gyul 'teh-ku 'du. F
gyabu peh-ti 'tsuu 'koh-en. LL E t t jj| He keeps
wL wL j| When sneaking back and forth under the
sowing the corn you must make sure table.
that it is well spaced.
V/ l gyul (E)/ dul (W) n.
V`U gyabu-le-gi loc. A AV| black salamander.
tt| from some distance.
'M`U' | See also: V -
-/ J`-/ `- gyepa
'kyah-le-gi'. ar-/ oh-/ lah-
SU V`U | 'kho-gi jE| regret
gyabu-le-gi ta-sin. E A tt ` CL , U V
| He watched from some | ah 'iskul 'paar maah-'ti-ba,
distance. 'nahre-'ga 'gyepa ar-sin. L
UC, A jHL j| I did not go
V gyaa n. wE| place. to school, but now I regret it.
-V -gyi '-M' | See: '-kyi'. t`U , ` V `U |
'aga 'tor-te, ah-la 'gyepa 'lah-gu
-V -gyile '-M' | See:
'-kyile'. 'du. H D j V| I lost
some money, I regret it so much.
V- gyur- v.i./t. / U| V -L 'gyepa peh-k
change. jE| wallow in
T j V | khye tshenda self-pity; regret
'gyur-sin 'du. A Hj|
h m
l LU V
Oh, your appearance has changed!
h` | tii-di zubu
SU J V| 'kho-gi ooh meeh phando-ni 'teh-ken-di-gi 'gyepa
tam 'gyur-sin. E L

V`- `

peh-ti ti-'la phen meeh-'tho 'du. 'du. U

HLk gLj h jC She doesn't have enough breath when
L C j| One is not
she sings.
alive anymore; but I realize that it is
V (
) gyooba (peh-ti)
no good for the one who remained to adv.(ph.) jt U, U| fast;
keep wallowing in self-pity. quickly.
V`- gyo- v.t. E| contain; V gyoo-'se '-/-' |
hold (fig.). 'U V`-' | See See: '-se~-see'.
also: 'sem-gi gyo-'. V ! 'yihn gyoo-'se o!
U U F V` S | 'lu UH gy AE| Come in a
lehn-ge-mu 'moh-gi 'uu gyo miih-khu short while!

arrive in good time for this wedding.
` a num. g| numerals: five.
`/ ` 'a-ba/ 'a-wa `/
`/ `/ ` ama/ yema/
num.ord. g| ordinal numerals: fifth. ema n.
1) hj| tail.
`-/ `-
`- a-/ o- v.t. Lt (Y,
2) (AL) ear (of grains).
E, A) cut (grass, stalks, etc.).
[Usage: 'ema' is rare.]
``- a- v.i. n`U , |
start; jerk (of people; for animals see ` ar (T) temp. AYL, L|
'oo-'). former.
k ` ` ``U| `L arko n. `L| place names:
pehza-'ya 'yi nah-la 'a-gen. small settlement below Sermathang.
hg nLj| Children `h/ `-
`-h arta/
sometimes jerk in their sleep. ar-tah n. U g| foods: sweet
L ``U| phrik 'a-gen. n`U tea.
| jerk, intensified.
` armu adj./ n. U| sweet.
`l ao n. OL | names:
personal name, f. `M -L ahrkyal peh-k AL , wL|
`t au (E) temp. | morning. lamaisms: be overbearing. '`
' | See: 'oohle (W)'.
' `M' | See also: 'ihta
` andi temp. | early; in ahrkyal'.
good time.
`` ahrto 'L`' | See:
`` LH| di 'kaba'.
paahma-la andi-'ra lep 'koh-en.
gy ACVj| We must `/
`/ ` M y-
y-/ j`-
ali/ ale kyahp-te o-/ tho-
`` `

(W) g k| not afraid to beat people.

trot fast (horse). 'h`
`- ahm- '`-' | See:
j`-' | See: 'phirtu kyahpti 'ohm-'.
tho- (E)'.
` jM ahm thakpu
`` asa temp. gy| early (has '` jM' | See: 'yahm
comparative conn.). [Usage: not thakpu'.
necessarily early in the morning.]
'`' | See also: 'phisa'. `- ahr- v.i. Uk| roar. '` -,
`-' | See also: 'uhr-,
l `t `` !
taah 'yihndu au yahmbi asa o! ohr-'.
AS A gy AF! From `- ahl- v.i. U, M| become
now on come a little bit earlier in the tired. [Usage: for limbs, not the whole
morning! person]
` a-'se '-/-' | See: `U| 'phet thule
'-se~-see'. 'ahl-gen. U| be exhausted.
`` M` m`/ `l` j- 'ahl tsho-
` j-
M m` aa ekya erg. E| stop for a
zabu/ aa akya zabu rest (when carrying a load); rest
g U U (AkL (i.e. put down). '` -'
ED UL j) lamaisms: | See also: 'tha so-'.
founder of 'tsiiri kohmba' near ` l ` j| ah
Langgyapsa. [Note: around 1680; yahmbi-i 'ahl tsho-sin. HLj
nowadays worshipped as a god] H| I stopped a little while for
a rest.
` `` M` m`U M
| 'yih 'aa ekya zabu-gi `U S ` j| ah-gi
'kyiih 'yihn. `` M` khurpu 'ahl tsho-sin. H| I
m`L | We are of the line of put the load down to rest.
Ngasyang Syekyang Zangbu. ` M-/ t`- aa kyahp-/
` ah pr. | I. ah- nL U
`` ah-'ra pr. A| I (D L L ) say
myself (emphatic). mantras. [Note: murmur holy verses,
and if it is a curing ritual, it also
` ahbar adj. k, | includes blowing on the sick person]
self-assured; relentless; unyielding.
U ` M l `
` A ` , `l t`U| lama-'ya-gi phraa 'lahkpa-la
l | pasa aba ahbar 'du, 'mih 'aa-di aa 'ah-gen.
tuh-de-la miih-n-'di 'du. `L
H kj| Holding the
j, jD Lt yE
j| prayer beads in their hands the lamas
Pasang's father is self-assured; he is murmur mantras.

` ` -

` `
- aa tuh- AE| perspire.
`U kE| musical instruments: ` `l ` Lh`
beat big drum (used in lama `| ah-la 'uldu mahbu
ceremonies); beat smaller drum with then-di 'kapta-'ra pah-sin.
handle (used by the shaman}. [Note: L U k| I perspired so
The big drum is hung up on a rafter much that my clothes are just soaked
when beaten.] S `l ` L | 'kho-la
'uldu 'thiiba-'ra 'tahp-ku 'du. EL
`-/ ` aa-baa/ aaba n.
jl g-U U U n j| Oh,
he is dripping with perspiration.
S T L| cerem. terms:
masked dancer in the 'tshiiu' `- uh- v.i. | weep; cry.
`/ `
j -L
`-/ ` j- aa-'baa 'thee- uhpra tihra/ uhpra thapra T L SL peh-k ghE,
UE| dress up as/ take on the role U| wail.
of a masked dancer.
TL ` j
jl tU ` jU

| `H| roh 'khyer-ken 'bela-le
'tshiiu-la 'iga lama aaba 'thee-gen. 'mih-'ya uhpra 'thapra peh-ti
jl S T L uh-en. S
SL UEj| For the U j| When a corpse is taken (for
'tshiiu' ceremony the head lama cremation) the people will wail.
dresses up as a masked dancer.
` / ` uhmbu/ ohmbo
` umbu '`' | See: (E) adj. , | real (as opposed
'ombo'. to dream). [Gram: no excl. form (see
` - urpa ten- appendix 5, section1.2)] '` ,
Y| snore. '` -' | See also: ' | See also: 'ehmbu
'uhr-'. (W), ehsum'.
` ul n. g| silver. , ` ! di
'milam mihm-ba, 'uhmbu 'yihm-ba!
`-L 'ul-'kooti n. L
( g A kyL SL) C, ! This is not a
work utensils: silver-plated knife sheath dream, this is reality!
and knife handle. ` -/ `- uhr-/ ohr- v.i. Y,
`-E 'ul-'diw n. gL | Uk| snore; roar; rattle in throat.
jewelry: silver bracelet. '`-' | See also: 'ahr-'.
'ulbur n. | household
` ` ` J -` h `L |
utensils: small wooden bowl lined with da nuhmu ooh phar-oo-la 'ten
silver. 'uhr-ku 'du. k u Y
`l - uldu then- | Last night a tiger roared

` `

over there. times; ancient.

SU ` H| 'kho-gi tam J` `U` M
'uhr-ti 'ma-en. F LL U j| He | taah di-di ohra-la
rattles in his throat when he speaks. 'en-le-gi-'ra thop-'kyo 'yihm-ba. A
` -L/ ` -L e-k (E)/ ye-k () g gLS
(W) v.t. St | pursue; run
, S HL | Now, we have this
after. (custom) since ancient times.
U S ` ` J` ` ema (T) temp. L, L|
| 'mehnda sum-gi 'kho-la 'ye-te former.
'ye-te oh 'du-ba. k ED S ` - `U Ll h`
S AHj| Three people came V| taah 'tohma - 'ema-gi
pursuing him. kindo-ni tii-'ra 'yeh-ba-'gyile. A
`-/ ` g`- 'e ta-/ 'e
` `- - HEt | Now
'tsah- St, S| as to the first - the original God, there
drive away. is only one.
` M-/ `U - ` J` j ` M
'eal 'kyahp- / 'eal-gi ter- (E) `U` | tahbu C, UC| chase ohra tshe 'ema yaahbu peh-'kyo
away. sogo-'ra 'mih 'mihli thop-sin. E
` - 'yeel ter- (W) k L UL A C, UC| chase L k | We received human
away. life, because formerly, in our former
life we did good works.
``V -L egyul peh-k U, U| spoil ` ema n. '`' | See:
(concrete things). 'ama'.
U ` ``V ` ` {-} emba {ter-} n. {v.dt.}
` l | 'phaa-gi ih-la 'egyul E {} ( D)
peh-ti 'he 'rebe-'ra 'lo 'aa 'du. marriage:: wedding gift of the groom's
A S Sj| The family to the bride {give}. [Note: This
wild pigs spoiled the potato field; they is not an obligatory gift; usually the
turned over everything! "gift" is agreed upon before the bride's
`t eup n. OL | names: family agrees to the marriage; it may
personal name, m. be a sum of money or a certain
amount of gold for jewelry.]
`l -L enden peh-k U, U| despise `t
-L ehi peh-k '`t
s.b; hate s.b. -L' | See: 'ohi peh-k'.
`(U) en-le(-gi) (T) temp. `
ehn n. M-| sorcery;
gLS, S| from old spell.

` `

M- 'ehn 'kyahp-
` ` () ee(-le) '`()' | See: U (t) practise 'oo(-le)'.
sorcery; cast a spell.
(g) eebi (tsamba)
- 'ehn loo-
` n.(ph.) | foods: flour made from
U tE (t) counteract parched grains.
` k ` g H| 'tihri
U ` SE ! pohmba-gi 'dzara 'eebi 'tsamba sah-en. Ak Sk
'ehn loo khuu-w 'du. nP U
Sj| Today we are going to
tE M j! I realize that the have parched flour for our snack.
shaman is able to counteract spells.
- 'ehn 'suuh-
` `
eerup n. A, AL|
U V| be affected by a spell. supernatural gift; gift of blessing.
-UM 'ehn-gokpa n. M|
` ` `- 'eerup na-
sorcerer. A | give a supernatural gift.
[Note: the gods give it]
` ehnda '` ' | See: ` - 'eerup thop-
A U| receive a supernatural
/ ` - ehn-lo/ gift.
yehn-lo n. (lamaistic) k| - 'eerup 'uh-
people; humans (as opposed to gods). A | ask for a
supernatural gift.
` /
/ ` / ` / `
ehmba/ yehmba/ ehnda/ ` -/ ` T- eei ee-/
yehnda adj. g, L, eei khyen- W
g, A, | evil; immoral. | have foreknowledge.
` -L 'ehnda peh-k ` - 'eei ee-di
- g, A, L, tam 'ma- L|
U| act immorally; be evil. foretell.
` ehmbu (W) adj. , | ` -
` {`-
{`-/ -
real (as opposed to dream). '` ' eei-eelu {na-/ thop-} n.
| See also: 'uhmbu (E)'. {v.dt./ v.dr.} A, AL {/ E}
supernatural gift; gift of blessing
/ `
` ehsum/ ehsu
adj. , E| true; real. '` , {give/ receive}.
` ' | See also: 'uhmbu, `
eeh att.p. g Lt U |
ehmbu (W)'. attitude particles: intimidating.
Ll ` ` lU| j ` y L
kindo 'ehsum 'poh-la-'ra dal-gen. J ` ! thu mah-'pu 'ma-na
g L E| have a 'amba rhop rop ter-ke ohle eeh!
vision of the true God/ see the true SF L, A U gyLCj
God. A! I told you not to spill the water.

` `

Just wait, I am going to slap you on dark tan.

the cheek! k `U ` |
pehza-'ya-ni 'yihma-gi 'or-sin 'du.
` o n. | scabies.
`U | 'o-gi owa hg Y yj| The sun gave
'dal-sin 'du. U HL YE L the children a dark tan.
ML Uj| The sores of the scabies ` oh n. jt| cut; form.
have spread quite a bit. ` | di toh-'ya 'oh
yaahbu 'du. `U L jt
`- o- v.t.
1) t| roast; parch. j| These stones are cut well.
2) Lt (Y, E, A) cut (grass, j- 'oh 'tsha-
` j-
stalks, etc.). '`-' | See also: k V, | be shy (transitory
'a-'. shyness). '`k -L' | See
also: 'oh-za peh-k'.
`/ ` ombo/ umbu adj. ` ` ` jH !
, | colours: generic word for Pemba ah-la 'tho-di 'oh 'tsha-en
blue and green. [Gram: excl.: 'owa!'] mihn-du! D S k j !
` `k umbu 'oze Pemba is shy with me!
U| leafy green vegetables; lush ` k k k -L 'oh dzum
green plants. dzum dzum 'teh-k
` -/ - umbu L | be very
'naa-rhile/ 'naa-'rihle upset.
U-, U-| colours: deep ` w- 'oh 'hee- (W)
green/ blue. | sulk
` umbu seeh angrily.
| greenery; vegetation. 'oh tee-di '' |
`k oze n. L| foods: See: 'mih'.
curry made from leafy green ` - 'oh 'naa-
SE| be upset; be unhappy.
`-L/ L o-'nahk/ 'nak adj.
`- ` - 'oh ee- g,
L `U HL| colours: k| know.
navy blue. SU l` ` E |
`-U o-lohge adj. -,
`- 'kho-gi tam tham-di-'ra 'oh ee-w
-| completely green/ blue. 'du. E L p j| He knows
`-` o-sa adj. gL ,
`- everything.
AL | colours: sky blue; royal `U S ` U | ah-gi 'kho-la
blue. 'oh ee-ge. ED gj| I know
`-` o-'hi adj. L ,
`- him.
L | colours: pale blue/ green. `U SU ` ! ah-gi
`- or- v.t. y| scorch; give a 'kho-gi sem 'oh ee-sin! EL

`k `-

L L n! I found him out! ! I am

SL S E g n
` hg- 'oh ee tuu- dissatisfied because I didn't get to eat g U, gC| this particular food.
introduce s.b.
`-/ `-2 ohm-/ ahm- v.t.
`k -L oh-za peh-k L gk V| (W) cherish (e.g. k , U| be food or possessions). [Usage: especially
shy (long-term shyness). '` j-' said of children]
| See also: 'oh tsha-'. k U, ` ` l
/ `t/ `
-L ohi/
`U, J `l H|
ohe/ ehi peh-k pehza 'phema-'ya-gi, "ah-la-ni 'prah
dor-sin" 'mee-di 'ohm-gen, ohle
'ohm-dar ten-di sah-en.
A P U) cerem. terms: give the
spirit of the deceased person hg gMt H j,
instructions. [Note: done by the lama A SH Sj| Little children
shortly after a person dies] settle cherish the sweets they have received,
things with the spirit of the deceased and they eat them displaying them
person. [Note: The nearest relatives of before the others.
the deceased person tell the spirit not ` l- 'ohm 'aa- (W)
to remain attached to this world, but g U SE|
to leave for good; this ritual is awake false hopes in others by
performed during 'kyehwa'.] displaying
`l -/ `k
k h-L
` ohdo adj. MS, hg| real 'ohm-dar ten- (E)/ 'ohm-dzar
(primarily used for kinship terms). 'te-k (W) L
Al `` ? 'ai U SE| cherish; show off
'ohdo-'ra 'yihm-ba? DL MS (with one's possessions); awake false
? Is she your real sister? hopes in others by displaying
`-/ `-1 ohm-/ ahm- SU ` `U | 'kho-gi
v.dr./r. (elevated) , t | be 'yen-la 'ahm-gu 'du. (W) E
sufficient; be satisfied. [Gram: if r.: CtL U j| Oh, he is so
exp. takes gen. <-ki>] proud of his relatives.
j ` ` Lk `` ` ohma adj. , L|
`| di thu thu-di ah-la original; real.
komdze 'ohm-'ra mah-'ohm. Ll `| kindo 'ohma.
H S t tH| This water | the real God.
didn't kill my thirst.
U `U ` ` ohmbo '` ' | See:
`! di seeh maah-seh-ba-gi
ah-gi sem-'ra mah-'ohm! `- ohr- '` -' | See:

`` `-

'uhr-'. 1) (E+W) E| irritate '

`-' | See also: 'sur oo-'.
`` ohwa n. OL |
names: personal name, m. ` k H| owa-la oo-na
'dzen ya-en. YE n
` y-
y- ohi o- gEj| If you irritate the wound it g , gk | will become even more itchy.
be acquainted. 2) (W) t ( A) pick (flowers,
`- 'ohi karto
` L `- leaves, fruit). 'J-' | See: 'oo-
ta- kL U| (E)'.
establish a social relation. [Gram: goal
takes <yambu/ yimbu>] ` ()/ ` () oo(-le)/
ee(-le) dir. -u, -| towards.
`- 'ohi ta-
` `- g U| get acquainted. S ` `! 'kho oo-le su! Fu
[Gram: goal takes <-la> or kF! Go towards him!
<yambu/ yimbu>] ` ` ! ah oo-le o! u
AF! Come towards me!
`- oo- v.t.

`- ya- '` `-' | See: ` ` ` E !
'ti yaa-'. ah-la-ni yap-ti yap-ti ta-w 'du!
D L L j! Stretching
`-F ya-uu n. | white round her body she looked and looked
sediments in water. at me!
j `-F | thu-la 'ya-'uu 'du.
j| Oh, there are white `h/ `h/ `h
sediments in the water. yaptu/ yapte/ yapti n.
, , L| oppression.
`` ya n. kU y| animals:
`h - yaptu 'naa-
wild mountain sheep. [Note: the ram L | suffer
has big, curved horns] oppression.
``U` -L yagu peh-k `h -L yaptu peh-k erg. LE (kE) L U| oppress s.b.
stretch oneself (as in stretch and
`- yam- v.t. gT| taste
yawn). '` M`-' | See: 'yee
kya- (W)'. `U j`U lA` `
`- yap- v.t. , L, ``! ah-gi tha-gi
LE| stretch (arm or body) to 'preeh-i-'a yam mah-'yuh!
`-' |
reach for 'h j` gT C! I have never
See also: 'teeh yap-'. even tasted whisky.

` `

`/ ` yambu/ yimbu children]

(E) pp. -, -U| with. kU A A ` L|
` ` LV| 'yih pehza-'yagi aba 'ama-la yamser
rooh-'ya 'yambu kahl-'gyo. peh-ken. hg AU
U UHL| We went with our Uj| Children keep begging for
friends. things from their parents.
T ` ` ` y LH! `-
`- yal- v.t. E| lay down
khye-ni ah 'yimbu thi-te-'ra o s.b./
'koh-en! U tH kj! You
must come with me keeping close to ` yala '`' | See:
me! 'yalwa'.
) 'yambu/
`/ ` ( ` ` yala yile
'yimbu (peh-ti) U (H) ML| limp; listless.
together. ` ` ` L | di
` ` ` tohbo-di 'yala 'yile kahl 'du.
| di 'paalo 'yih tg ML Hj| Oh, this plant has
'meehme 'rebe-'ra 'yimbu peh-ti become limp.
lohsar sah-sin. ` T F``
k H | This year our ` L! ah 'too-raa 'khyer-ti
whole family celebrated the New 'uu-na-'ra meeh-ba 'yala 'yile
Year's day together. kahl-di! D L UL ML
A ` yH ! ahna H! I am so hungry that I am
'yimbu o-e 'nahle! H U kK completely listless and without
! So let's go together! strength!
`/ yambu/ yambu ` yalmu (W) n. nP|
(W) pp. -, -U| with. spirits: female forest spirit. [Note: lives
! S ` ` J`V ! in the forest or mountains] ''
'thuu-de! 'kho 'yih 'yambu oh-'gyo | See: 'yalmu (E)'.
leh! t! F U AHL ! We h` M `U
met him! He came with us! S L J` | rih-la
J AjA` tii-'ra 'lih-'kyo 'beleni yalmu-'ga
M` L| ohle 'Atsham-'a 'kho 'poh-la 'phok then oh 'du lo.
'yambu 'yambu tahda 'kyahp-te-'ra k`U HM HL nP
'yehken. A Aj E U-U LACj | When he was left
jE | And Atsham was also behind alone in the forest, suddenly a
following them. female forest spirit appeared before
` -L yamser peh-k U (hg) keep `/
`/ ` yalwa/ yala n.
begging. [Usage: especially said of U, L| hell.

`` `

`/ ` j-
j-L/ - 1) Yt| lose intrinsic value; lose
'yalwa/ 'yala-la 'thi-k/ 'uuh- merit.
v.i. L | go to hell. L` h lM g
J J`U , M k `U| 'kehlo 'tohmu-'ya
` jL | ohle 'dikten 'tsuu-si-'ma-na tahmdzi
ohra-gi 'se-si-'ma-na, 'tihkpa yahm-gen. Q Q U
peh-si-'ma-na 'yala-la 'tik-ke lo. A g t j| If monks or nuns get
, U L married they destroy the merit of
j | They say that if you kill and their vows.
commit sins you will go to hell. 2) [Usage: poetic] | die.
`` {L-
{L-} yai {kal-} n. `/ ` yahm/ ahm n.
{v.t.} k {} {put on} yoke. k, , S| pleasure; experience;
` yah n. j| animals: fish.
` m`UU 'yah j , h M
zu-gen-gi 'oo j E
`` | 'thee-la ta-na
mihm-ba, de-la-di ti 'ma-'kyo 'du
() tL| work utensils: basket for
catching fish. 'mee-de yahm-'ra meeh-ba.
`l` 'yahu n. (poetic) L L L
j (U ) animals: small D E A | Unless I

fish. look up the book, I have no
experience in saying what it says in it.
`M {-} yahkta {taa-} n. ` M- yahm 'kyaah-
{v.t.} P {E} jewelry: {put on} (W: hon. of 'kyaah-';
chain jewelry. E: not hon.) tE, tE| put on
`U `U yahga yohge weight. -, jt| messy; old l LH,
and odd bits and pieces. JU ` MU! sahe ihmbu
M `U `U lH| ihmbu sah 'koh-e, ohle-'ga yahm
nekyi yahga yohge-'ya 'phi-la 'kyaah-ge! S w U Sj,
'aa-en. - y A tEj! You must eat good
Sj| Odd old pots and pans are food, and then you will put on
put outside. weight!
`` -L yahen peh-k ` h-L yahm 'te-k L O U| worry; A U, U T,
grieve. gE| examine; check up on
s.b. [Usage: not necessarily secretly,
`` M-U 'yahen 'kye-g L | have deep positive checking up]
regrets. `/ ` jM/ jM
yahm/ 'ahm thakpu/ 'tshakpu
`- yahm- v.i.
` ` g, SCV| stately and j-L 'yahlsa-la

` j-
imposing appearance. [Note: well-built, 'thi-k Jj |
well-dressed, self-assured] be seriously ill.
` (j/ j) / `L `L y-
/ ` {-/ -L} yahm yahlak yohlok peh-ti o-
('thewa/ thimbu) peh-ti/ ten-di/ | slip n U y
ta-di {sah-/ teh-k} {v.t./i.} through.
k- U S/ | {eat, live} S ` `L
`L yE | 'kho 'mih nahle
` -L yahm peh-k phar 'yahlak 'yohlok peh-ti o-w k U| enjoy life. 'du. F L k y
` yahm 'yeh j| Oh, he is just slipping through A | be experienced. the crowd.
[Gram: cop.= receptive possession]
L U S ` | ser-ki `L `
L -L
'laagi-la 'kho-la yahm 'yeh. L yahldak yuhlduk peh-k y, E|
ED A j| He is
experienced in dealing with gold. wriggle (e.g. snake).

` J`- yahmlen oh- `L `L yahsak A | experience yohsak peh-ti `,
-L yahmlen peh-k
U| messy; dirty. A U, A ` yaa n. | semen.
U| attempt; investigate
`- yaa- v.t. Yh| adhere to.
`` - yahmsa ten- [Usage: lit. and fig.] 'M , `' erg. SE, H | See also: 'tuhrkya, ti'. [Disc:
SE| show off with one's Often used for scolding somebody.]
prosperity. TU `? khye-gi to
Yg? Why are you
` -L yahmser peh-k kg U| inspect eating with such bad manners?

` ` yahra yohre `/ m`-/ -/ - yaah/ k, Uklk, Y V| raah zu-/ dii-/ then-
crumpled up; rumpled; disgusting. C (t O) be adhesive;
stick together (of a mass). [Gram: the
`- yahl- v.i. | lie down. sticky mass takes loc. <-la>]
` 'yahlsa n. , g hL `` |
Jj| sleeping place. 'tsamba 'top-ke-mu 'yaah-'ra
` h- 'yahlsa 'tee- miih-n-'di 'du. w j E ( wE
j| The dough is not sticking
E) arrange bedding. together.
`` `

l ` m`U | di pindu-la Sl| stir up a

'yaah zu-gu 'du. U A t quarrel; aggravate s.b.
Hj| This glue is sticky enough now. TU ` j! khye-gi 'yi
mah-tshol! Sk! Don't
`` yaahyo n. L`U,
aggravate me!
, | dirt; litter; rubbish.
`` yaahla n. H

| fruits: `L` yika-'ra num.emph.
raspberries. [Note: are mostly bright, | numerals: both (emphatic).
light-orange in colour, but red and '-L()/-U()' | See also:
white ones are said to grow, too] '-ka(r)~-ga(r)'.

` yi n. | sleep. `g M-/ J`- yitsu

kyahp-/ dr.
U ` ` H| 'moh-gi
'yi nah-la tam 'ma-en. E V| feel sleepy. '` M-'
L Uj| She talks in her sleep. | See also: 'yiiru kyahp- (W)'.
m- 'yi 'zo-
` m- `t y-
y- yiu o-
(D) lull (babies) to sleep. dr. U,
` / h `-/ ` SE| have disturbed sleep; be
- 'yi tum/ 'tup tii 'yahl-/ aroused from sleep.
'yi looh- HL `() `t yE | ah(-la) 'yiu
| sleep for a moment. o-w 'du. S Uj| Oh, I
` / ` `-/ ` have such a disturbed sleep.
- 'yi tum/ 'tup yii 'yahl-/ ` -L yido (N) peh-k
'yi looh- ML 'U' | See: 'tam-gi'.
E| sleep a good while.
` - 'yi looh- `k yindzen '`k' | E| sleep. See: 'yendzen'.
` - 'yi rhile looh- ` yipa num.ord. | ordinal ML E| be fast numerals: second.
asleep. ` yipu '-/-' | See:
` -L 'yi loohi '-pu~-bu'.
peh-k (euphemistic)
` yimbu '`' | See:
| die.
L U E, L 'yambu (E)'.
` -L/ ` j-L 'yi 'se-k
(E)/ 'yi tshe-k (W) ` yilbu adj. L| malleable
n| wake up. (e.g. gold); supple (e.g. bamboo
- 'yi 'or-
` - strips). Ew M| ` -L yisen peh-k
oversleep. Ew
`/ ` j-
j- yi/ ye tshol- () act in drowsiness (because

` `

of disturbed sleep). you going to obey what I say?

` yih pr. ( UL ` -L 'yihndi peh-k L
, U|
O L) we (exclusive).
observe (e.g. laws); obey consistently.
`-S 'yih-'kho n. |
my husband. ` 'yihmbu 'S' |
See: 'khal'.
` ` 'yih yii
Ck ( UL O L) we `- yihn-nuhp
(exclusive, dual). [Usage: The dual peh-ti U|
form is not obligatory, but it is good continually.
style to use it when it applies.]
`-/ `- yihp-/ yiih- v.i.
`` 'yih-'ra pr. A | swallow.
( UL O L) we T h A `L
ourselves (exclusive, emphatic).
| khye-ni topta 'muhr-'aa
``U -L/ l- yihgu mah-muhr-pa 'yihp-ku 'du. S
peh-k/ aa- C U, gE gD j| Oh, you are
T| take note; be attentive. swallowing your food without
L ``U , J ` chewing it first.
U U tH! 'lop-ken 'bele 'yih-gu ` yihpa adj. , C U|
meh-be, ohle 'ti-le 'gari 'gari 'ih-en! double. 't`U `/ y t`-'
LE , A j j j | See also: ''aga yihpa/
j! He doesn't pay attention during 'abal 'ah-'.
the teaching, and then later he keeps
L-/ - yihpa sa 'ko-
` L-
asking! (E)/ ter- (W) H
U ``U LH| sem-gi Uy| cultivate the second time
'yih-gu peh 'koh-en. S j| (potatoes, maize). [Gram: 'he(-la)/
You must obey in your heart.` may-(la)' +]
`-/ `
- yihn-/ yehn- S`U ` L| khugi 'he
v.t. , | listen; obey. [Gram: for yihpa sa 'ko-sin. E A
obey: the undg. of obeying is usally H Uy| They broke up the
inanim. and takes <-la>; usage with ground and weeded the potato fields
anim. undg. is rare] for the second time.
Al, `` , `U ` yihma n.
! 'ai, di yahmbi ta-do taah, 1) Y| sun. 'A `' |
'yihn-ge 'nah! , HLj kE See also: 'ama yihma'.
, ! Sister, play this now for a 2) | day. [Usage: mainly when
moment, I want to listen! counting days] '`' | See
A `U , ? aba also: 'yihmu'.
tam-la 'yihn-ge leh, pohmo? L
` ` yH ` J
LD j, j? Daughter, are
` `

U j | 'tor-ti - 'yihma ar-

` -
'yihma 'a o-e 'yihmu-di ohle Y V| sun shine.
pohmbo-gi yalmu 'the-sin 'du-ba. F ` g/ g
HL g nP nPD 'yihma ar-tseba/ ar-tsiba
jCHj| I learned that on the fifth L gt Y nLj| every
day after he got lost the shaman time the sun shines; constantly.
pacified the female forest spirit. `- 'yih-ar-la temp.
3) OL | names: personal name. | at the time of sunrise.
` ` k/ ` ` 'yihma-la temp. E|
`k/ ` `
`k (
) in the afternoon. [Note: from about
'yihma 'yehndzen/ 'yihma 11:00-16:00]
'yihndzen/ 'yihma 'yihndzi ` y yihma umbu n.
(meeh-ba) | day by
wEL | place names:
day; every day. (Bhundurghyang?) settlement with a
` h-L 'yihma 'te-k temple, high up on the western slope E, Lt| of the Melamchi River valley.
spend time.
` t` M 'yihma ` yihmu n. | day
'ahma 'kyahp-ti (a specific day). '`' |
| gradual increase of
U See also: 'yihma'.
the circumstance given in the seq.act. J ` ` ` h t
participle which follows. [Disc: L t| ohle 'time + seq. act. participle 'yihmu 'doma tii 'aah 'koh-sin'
reduplicated (giving circumstance) + 'mee-di 'aah-sin. A t `
'o-'] (L L) |
kU h ` t` And the next day I said, that we
M ` ` yE | di should read a religious book, and I
pehza-gi 'tepa-ni 'yihma 'ahma read it.
'kyahp-ti noh-di noh-di o-w 'du! ` yihmu adj. '`
' |
hgL U j| The See: 'yeehmu'.
behaviour of this child gets worse
`-t yihm-bui n. OL
every day!
| names: personal name, f.
j ` t` M L
L yH| di 'tham 'yihma 'ahma `- yihl-dep '' |
'kyahp-ti 'keeh-di 'keeh-di o-en. See: 'rih'.
L t kj| The crack ` yihu num. | numerals:
in this board gets bigger every day. twenty.
` - 'yihma 'tuuh-
` L yihu kohu Y | warm kL| information; facts.
oneself in the sun.
-` ``

[Usage: only observed with neg. ` yii num. C| numerals: two.; aff. = 'kyiih yeh'] yii-gi
`U M

` L hA` pahrkyi-la L
g| both
U l `U| yihu together.
'kohu ti-'a meeh-ba peh-ti 'mih-gi `() yii-la(-ni) qt. Ct
tam 'ma-e meh-yoh-ge. L kL | out of two. [Gram: n./pr. + qt.]
DL AL L U | One must ` M- yiiru kyahp- (W)
not talk about people without having V| feel sleepy.
any facts. '`g M-' | See also:
-` -yi vsf. Chj kE PL 'yitsu kyahp- (E)'.
| expressing strong wish. `- yiih- '`-' | See:
AEU ` Lh M, J 'yihp-'.
AEU ` Lh `
U AE U| aw-gi 'yih-la `` yu n. `UL L| pen
'kapta ter-'kyo, ohle aw-gi 'yih-la made of mountain bamboo.
'kapta ter-'yi 'mee-di 'mehme-gi ``- yu- v.i. (hon. of 'nah-')
aw-la 'yih thaa-gen. LL D (t.) be sick.
Ly HL LLU k - 'yu-i 'tap-
`` -
UUEj| Our uncle gave us (hon. of 'nah-')
clothes, and now grandfather (who is (t.) be sick.
staying with the uncle) is bringing
``- yu- v.dr. (hon. of 'suh
this up again and again. kyahp-') T (t.) hurt; ache.
-` -L -'yi 'teh-k `U E `` | 'yih-gi
T P L L U Chj U| 'mehme-la 'u 'yu-di lo. kD
feel very much like doing [Gram:
tEL T | He said our grandfather
vs +]
had a headache.
`` `, `
, y` yH, y` `` yune n. HEt
L! 'yahl-'yi 'teh-na gy| festivals: fasting retreat held in
'yahl-sin, sah-'yi 'teh-na sah-sin, the 'kohmba'. [Note: time varies from
o-'yi teh-na o-en, o-'yi place to place]
meh-'teh-na 'teh-ken! U , `` -L 'yune 'teh-k
S U S, k U U, k , gy
U ! If you feel like U | fast.
lying down you do it, if you feel like ``/
/ yuma/ miima n.
eating you eat, if you feel like going `U| trees: mountain bamboo.
somewhere you go, and if you don't - 'yuma-lo n.
feel like going, you stay! (The `UL U| handicrafts: inner layer
priviledge of the single person.) of the mountain bamboo. [Note:

` `k

whitish and somewhat soft] 'yeh-pa-'ra-'aa dal 'yuh-go-'ra o!

` yumbu '`' | See: U F! May I again get
'yombu'. to venerate them!
` ` ``U` !
``- yuh- v.i./dr. L | ah 'yeh-pa-'ra sah 'yuh-go-'ra o!
become less; be/ receive too little. S F! May I again get
`-` g` l to eat this again!
``| da-'tihri 'tsube-'ya
yahmbi-i 'yuh-sin. Ag L ``
U/ ``

L j| Nowadays there are a little
yuhgar/ yuhma lahbu
less rats here. | foods: round purple
U, Ut
` l ``| ah-la
to yahmbi-i 'yuh-sin. D A ` -L ye-k (W) v.t. (hon. of
L | This is not quite enough rice 'dor-') uE| find.
for me. J U U ` |
``A/ `` H/ `` ohle lama-gi 'el-gi torma ye-sin 'du.
'yuh-'a(a)/ 'yuh-'e(e)/ A LgL uHj| And the
'yuh-'se(e) qt. L| quite little; lama found the glass statue.
less (in quantity). [Phon: The vowels
` -L ye-k '`-L' | See:
of the suffixes become long with 'e-k'.
emphatic intonation.] '-/-'
| See also: '-se~-see'. ` yen n.
``k 'yuh-dze '-g/-k' 1) (hon. of 'namdo') L (t.) ear.
| See: '-tse~-dze~-ze'. 2) [Usage: poetic] Ct| friend and
`` (`` y- 'yuh-ro
) y-
('yuh-ro) o- '-/-y/-t...' | ` , t L V| 'yen
See: '-ro~-o~-o...'. 'phee, ah 'phee 'yeh-ken 'gyaa-la. Ct
A, t A HL wE| in front of
``- yuh- aux. E| get to. friends and enemies.
[Gram: vs + aux.]
` `U, t jL| 'yen-la
h J`? T ` 'ohm-ge, ah-la 'thar-ken. CtD
``U? ti-be lee oh-ba? E U, D y U! (He is
'khya 'luhba-la to sah mih-'yuh-ge? dressed up), and his friends are
? pleased, but his foes get jealous!
Why did you come here? Do you not
get enough to eat in your country? `k/ `k yendzen/
``U` ! 'yuh-go-'ra yindzen n. Ct| friends.
o! L U| may the `k ` / `k `
event expressed by vs happen. [Gram: `k ` 'yendzen
vs +] 'yehwa/ 'yindzen 'yehwa (E)/
`A l ``U` ! 'yendzen 'yohwa (W) Ct|

` ` -

friends and relatives. j| This child keeps bothering

` yendar n. U
nyE Ly| cerem. utensils: ` S- yerpa khur-
banner-like cloth. [Note: hung up (L UwL U) festivals: be
vertically in the 'kohmba'] '`' responsible for the organisation of a
| See also: 'dibu'. festival.
` yema '`' | See: `(`) yerma() n. gE|
'ama'. wrinkle (of skin).
l`/ `l` yemdu/ `
- yehn- '`-' | See:
yomdu adj. , k| 'yihn-'.
humble (of people, talk); subservient;
` k / `k/ `k
well-mannered. ' `l`' yehndzen/ yihndzen/
| See also: 'tam yomdu'. yihndzi '`' | See:
S S S , `l` | 'yihma'.
'kho 'kha 'lahpi 'kheeba 'du, 'mih
yemdu 'du. EL U w j, j ` yehnda '` ' |
See: 'ehmba'.
k j| Oh, he is such a clever
and well-mannered talker. `
- yehn-lo '`
` ` ()/ `
() | See: 'ehn-lo'.
-L yemba yeeri(m)/ `

yehmu '`
' | See:
yeehri(m) peh-k 'yeehmu'.
U| treat with partiality. ` yehmba '` ' |
A AU ` ` ` See: 'ehmba'.
L| aba 'ama-gi puh yii-la
'yemba 'yeeri peh-ken. A ` - yehr- v.i.
A Ct jD Uj| 1) SC, U S| become
These parents don't treat their two thread-bare.
sons equally. Lh V , `M
| di 'kapta 'rahl-'gyo 'mihm-ba,
` yembu adj. k| smooth; 'yehr-'kyo 'yihmba. Ly hHL
C, SCHL | This piece of
`| tam yembu. w | clothing is not torn, it is thread-bare.
sweet talk. 2) UUE, E, LgLg U|
`| 'lu yembu. U| grumble at.
sweet sounding song.
S` M J`, `L !
`- yer- v.i. ( 'khaba tahkpu lee oh-sin, 'yehr-ko
hg) pester; bother s.b. 'yeh! Yt A, A UUEj| The
k ` ` L| di pehza landlord has come, he is grumbling at
'yer-te-'ra 'teh-ken. hg D
` `-

everything! any kinship term can be substituted

`L j 'yehrka 'tshandi for it.] ' -' | See also: A LgLg, A UU| be 'seenu paar-tii-'.
very exacting. LU ` ` yH |
J S` M `L j | karmu-gi 'mihmar-la 'yehwa o-en
ooh 'khaba tahkpu 'yehrka 'tshandi 'nahle. LL `U j |
'du. Yt A LgLg j| That Karmu and Mihngmar are related.
landlord is very exacting. LU ` A yH |
karmu-gi 'mihmar-la 'ada o-en
` `
yehl yehl '

' | See: 'nehl nehl'. 'nahle. ` LL k |
Mihngmar is Karmu's older brother
/ ` yehwa/ yohwa (or older paternal cousin).
n. | relative. h` U U ` hh yH|
j V `U U| teea-gi pohmo-gi ah-la 'tehte
tshoo-sa 'gyaa-la 'yehwa-gi tam o-en. h` L jL (A
then-ge. HL wE L
w) | I am the maternal aunt of
L Lj| When people are Teenga's daughter.
gathered together, they start talking `U h` U j yH|
about how they are related to each ah-gi teea-gi pohma-la tshamu
other. o-en. h` L j k j|
` V` 'yehwa gyabu Teenga's daughter is my niece. tL | distant relative.
` ` V` | 'yih `- yee- v.t. Ay UE| lean
'yehwa gyabu-di 'yihm-ba. L against. [Usage: implies quite a large
plane of contact] 'L `-, wL wL
A tL j| We are quite
distant relatives. ` -, t-L' | See also: 'ka
yee-, hwak hwak yee ter-,
` `/ `
/ `

'yehwa 'yihmu/ 'yehmu/ eh-k'.
'yeehmu kLL | close `U ` `M | ah-gi
relative. tohbo-la 'yee-'kyo. S Ay
` ` `` | 'yih UHL j| I was leaning against the
'yehwa 'yihmu-'ra 'yihm-ba. tree.
kLL | We are close ` M`- `- 'yee kya-/
M`-/ `-
relatives. o- (W) kE LE|
stretch oneself (as in stretch and
y- 'yehwa o-
` y- | be related. [Gram: yawn). '``U`' | See: 'yagu
person in focus takes erg. <-ki>, (E)'.
associated person takes <-la>] [Disc: ` M- 'yee 'kyahp-
In this construction 'yehwa' is U| give an oil
incorporated into the predicate and massage (to s.b. else).


` M- 'yee 'tuuh 'kyahp- 'yeehba dzolwa/ 'yeehba thuuba L U| give a 'yeh/ meeh. gL j/ j| Have/ have
massage and expose to warmth. no guilt.
/ ` 'yeebul (W)/
` ` k U ()lU
'yeembul (E) n. L, | 'yeehba dzolwa goo 'thoo-la (tum-di)
cushion. 'aa-gen. A U| heap up guilt.
M- yeea kyahp- `
L- 'yeehba 'kal-
L- L U U (LL k | punish.
U HEt ALD S ) push ` LU| 'ii-di-le
' | See
work on s.b. else. 'y` 'yeehba 'kal-ge. j k Cj|
also: 'eea'. After death you will be punished.
` S- 'yeehba khur-

yeebu adj. (hon. of 'ihmbu') k M| undergo
w, (t.) good; tasty. punishment.
yeemu n. | sister-in-law ` - 'yeehba 'phoo-

(only husband's sister). V, k | become
guilty; be punished.
` ()/
()/ `
() -L
yeeri(m)/ yeehri(m) peh-k gM h `U, ` (lamaistic) Yt- U| U! di 'leeh tsokpa peh-te
treat with partiality. '` ` ()' meh-yoh-ge, 'yeehba 'phoo-ge!
| See also: 'yemba LL U , k Cj| You must

not do this evil thing, you will
become guilty!
- yeeh- v.i. M (LE
L) get absorbed (liquid). `
yeehmu qt. | little; less
| to yo-e-mu
- H j `
thu 'yeeh-sin. LE M| ` | paa 'yeehmu
While the rice was cooking the water ter-ken. | give little or less
got absorbed. curry.


yeehba n. y, k, | `

/ `
/ ` yeehmu/
shortcomings; guilt; punishment.
yehmu/ yihmu adj. kL| close

k/ `
j -L
'yeehba dzolwa/ 'yeehba `
() yeehri(m) '` ()'
thuuba peh-k U, | See: 'yeeri(m)'.
U| do wrong. `-
`- yo- v.i. U , E|
` k/ ` j MU become insane.

| 'yeehba dzolwa/ 'yeehba ` 'yom-ba (m.) adj./ n.

thuuba peh-'kyo-gi 'leeh. A| | insane; insane person. [Usage:
transgression. (W) also uses 'yo-ba/ yo-wa' for m.]
` k/ `
j /
`M `M

`/ ` 'yom-ba-mu LL h g ALL j| Some

(f.)/ 'yoma (f.) n./ adj. | people have a longish chin.
insane person; insane.
`- yom- v.i. | be
`M yokpa adj. | dirty. even (in height).
Lh `M | di 'kapta ` MHV, `
yokpa 'du. U j| Oh, this `` `U| tuhbu 'yahr
piece of clothing is dirty. 'kye-e-'gyile, 'yih-'na 'rihdo
`M M- yokpa 'kyahp- meh-yom-gen. S EH j , semi-r. {} (be/ L EgC | The trees

become) dirty. [Usage: mainly of body sprout up, but they don't grow to
and clothes] equal height.
`U Lh()`M M | `-
`- yom- v.t. U| level
ah-gi 'kapta(-la) yokpa 'kyahp 'du.
U Hj| Oh, my clothes are g l J`U `
LH| 'he 'tsuu phando ohran-gi sasa
S(U) m() `M M| yom 'koh-en. A Lj t
'kho(-gi) zubu(-la) yokpa 'kyahp-sin.
j| After planting the

EL kE L j| He is dirty. potatoes, the earth has to be leveled.
`M M| 'dep-la
yokpa 'kyahp-sin. j| The `l` yomdu '`l`'
wall is dirty. | See: 'yemdu'.
m- yokpa 'zo-
`M m- `/ `/ ` yombu/ erg. E| make yumbu/ yome adj. (Sy
dirty. Sy HL) smooth; even.
` `U Lh `M m|
`- yor- v.t./i. `U ,
ah rah-gi 'kapta yokpa 'zo-sin.
T| mess up (e.g.
A U H| I made my clothes, crops, etc.).
clothes dirty.
C g ` lU L
`U U Lh() `M U! mahy-'ya 'tsa maah-seh-ba
m| ah-gi 'nooh-gi 'kapta(-la) yor-ti 'aa-di-'ga 'kee ten-gen.

yokpa 'zo-sin. CL U
Y SC LgH LEj! Having
CH| I made the clothes of my messed up the fodder without eating
little brother dirty. it, the buffalos are mooing loudly!
`` yomu (W) adj. AyL `- yoh- v.t. L| buy.
(g ALL) oval (ball-shaped,
not flat). 'M`' | See: 'kyomu `M` yohkto n. |
(E)'. rubbish; litter; dirt.
U L `` | 'rehre `M yohki adj./ n. Uklk|
'mih-gi kooma yomu 'yeh-ba. L messy; mess.

`U gL-

h , m `M M | See also: 'yahga yohge'.

L| ti-be 'ma-si-'ma-na, zubu `U m- y- yohge 'zo-/ o-
m-/ y-
yohki 'tooh-'kyo kahl-sin. L S /r. / | make/
kEL L k | Because become dirty or messy.
the attachment of the flesh has been kU `U m l |
done away with. pehza-'ya-gi yildo-la yohge 'zee 'aa
S` hU
S` `M U| 'du. hg AU Sj|
'khaba 'tee-ge-mu 'khaba-la Oh, these naughty children, they
yohki then-gen. Y U made the courtyard so dirty!
- Lj| During SU ` Lh `U m l |
renovation work a lot of dirt appears. 'kho-gi ah 'kapta-'ya yohge 'zee
`M m- y- yohk-i 'zo-/
m-/ y- 'aa 'du. E U Uklk
o- /r. Uklk / | CSj| Oh, he messed up my
make/ become messy. clothes.
k, g g, S` `h M- yohpte 'kyahp-
`M yH| pehza-'ya, de-la 'tsemu L U| go shopping.
mah-'tse, khaba yohki o-en.
hg S, Y j| `- yohr- v.i. U| fall apart.
Children, don't play here, the house ` S ` | i khurpu
will get messy. yohr-sin 'du. EL Uj
| The
load of wood is about to fall apart.
`U yohge adj. | dirty;
messy. [Usage: mainly of ` yohwa '`
' |
surroundings] '`U `U' See: 'yehwa'.

g tsa n. | blood vessel; ligature. S M gL gL gL gL L !
'kho 'lahkpa 'tsak 'tsak 'tsuk 'tsuk
g- tsa- (W) v.t. S| play peh-ku 'du! EL j! He
(game-like activities). 'g-U' | has long/ sticky fingers!
See: 'tse-g (E)'. 'g, U, g-'
| See also: 'tsemu, igar, gL tsakar (N) n. U , gML|
mehndo tsa-'. wheel (of vehicles).

g {`-
{`-/ `-
`-} tsa {a- (E)/ o- gL-
gL-gL y-
y- tsakal tsekel
(W)} n. {v.t.} Y {Lt} {cut} grass. o- tP-tP | be
torn up.
gL gL gL gL -L tsak tsak mU gL-gL L
tsuk tsuk peh-k gLgL | zubu-gi 'a-'ya-ni 'tsakal-'tsekel
U| be careless with things; be kahl 'du-ba. kEL tP-tP
inclined to steal. Hj| The flesh of his body was torn up.

gMt g

gMt tsaka n. D, DL u| gEj| Whatever you offer to the

matches; matchbox. gods must be undefiled.
gMt gMt tsaka tsoka g` g` 'tsama 'tsari (W) HL gS, | completely
- tP| scraps (which result from
cutting, e.g. glass). undefiled.
g` M- 'tsa-al 'kyahp-
gU -L tsagar (W) peh-k gTE, S| rinse g U| care for (take dishes with clean water.
care of s.b.). [Gram: beneficiary takes
gen. <-ki>] 'g -L' | See: g/ g` tsaden/ tsada n.
'tsara (E) peh-k'. wEL | place names: Jatang,
Jatanthala? (settlement on the
g`U tsaga 'L' | See: 'kee'. western slope of the upper Indrawati
g`U tsagu n. w (jL) valley, below Jyalsa.
purse. [Note: leather or biggish cloth g tsana (N) n. g| foods: pieces
bag to keep money and other precious of potato or other vegetables or fruit
things] which are cut up into longish pieces:
g` tsaba (W) n. j| animals: 'tsel-'gyo'.
lizard. [Note: quite big, living outside] g tsamar (N) n. g (U U
'' | See: 'tiya (E)'. ) abusive expressions: what a pest;
g` 1 tsabu 'h`' | See: what a pickle!.
'tabu'. l g, Lk ` jU
! dimi 'tsamar-ti, 'kahze 'yi
g` 2 tsabu n. S, | river.
[Usage: frequently 'thu-tsabu'] tshol-ge 'yihm-ba! l g L
g` ` 'tsabu 'luh SkL ! What a pickle, this Jimi, he
is always looking for a quarrel!
S| river valley.
g` tsama adj. gS| undefiled; g
g tsamba n. , w| foods:

-g`' |
ritually clean. 'L flour made from parched grains.
See also: 'keeh-tsama'. g L- 'tsamba 'kee-
w V (n E) thicken (e.g. a
T S` L m g`
sauce or soup). [Gram: thickening
`| khye 'khaba-la kahl-di zubu
'tsama peh-ti 'teh-to. Y UH mass takes loc. <-la>]
gS H | You go home and M g L | 'thukpa-la
watch that you live in a ritually clean 'tsamba 'kee-sin 'du. S w Uj |
manner. The soup has now thickened.
h h U, J g`
g M -/ g

- 'tsamba 'kyoma sah- (W)/
LH| 'lha-la ti ti phul-ge,
ooh-di 'tsama peh-ti phul 'koh-en.
'tsamba 'laahlo sah- (E)
g Y S () foods: eat
UD k k gEj, gS U

g g`

parched flour made up as a paste. (poetic) S | head lama;

g S M-/ g
g honoured lama.
M- 'tsamba 'kholbi 'kyahp- g -L tsara peh-k
(W+E)/ 'tsamba 'thal 'kyahp- (E) g U| look after (animals, w (n) foods: people, fields). 'gU -L' |
add some flour to already on the See also: 'tsagar (W) {peh-k}'.
stove. [Note: done to prepare the water
U A g L |
to absorb the main lot of the flour for 'nooh-di-gi 'ama 'tsara peh-te teh-ken
a mash, or to thicken a sauce or soup] 'du lo. C g AD g U
[Gram: thickened mass takes loc.
j | The younger brother would
<-la>] look after his (old and sick) mother.
g h `- 'tsamba
'tahmdur thu- (E) gM/ g`/ g` {M`-}
g Y S () foods: drink tsarkyi/ tsaryi/ tsarye
thin paste of parched flour. {kyah-} (W) n. {v.i.} k {Uy}
g l `- 'tsamba {take} root. [Usage: Some easterners
'damdur thu- (W) (hon. also use it.] 'h`' | See:
of 'tsamba kyoma thu-') g 'tahba (E)'.
Y S () foods: drink thin g tsawa n. (elevated) k,
paste of parched flour. , kU (U ) descendant;
g M- 'tsamba 'thal line (in genealogy); foundation
'kyahp- 'g S' | See: (poetic).
''tsamba 'kholbi'. ` `` M` m`U g
g m- y- 'tsamba thule
m-/ y- | 'yih 'aa ekya zabu-gi
'zo-/ o- non-erg. 'tsawa 'yihn. `` M`
E/ | crush become m`L k | We are descendants
crushed. of Ngasyang Syekyang Zangbu.
g - 'tsamba 'polda g - 'tsawa phel-
sah- g j [Gram: exp. takes gen.
y H S| foods: eat dough of <-ki>] | descendants
parched flour. increase.
g ` m- y- 'tsamba 'phue
m-/ y- `- 'tsawa 'to-
g `-
'zo-/ o- non-erg. A | line
E/ | crumble become dies out. [Gram: exp. takes gen.
crumbled. <-ki>]
'tsamba 'laahlo
g / gM) 'tsawa
g (
'g M' | See: 'tsamba (yaahbu/ tsokpa) n. (adj.) {/
kyoma'. } (good/ bad) hereditary strain.
g/ g tsayi/ tsaye lama g` tsah n.

g`- g

1) L| household utensils: storage 'tsahli then 'du. t U j| Oh,

container for grains. [Note: made of there is a hole in the path.
heavy bamboo mats]
g- tsaa- v.t.
2) S| enclosure for small animals. 1) g| sift; strain.
g`- tsah- v.dt. wE, | 2) L E, g` UE| stack up
send; put into; pour into. '` g`-' (pots). '-, g-' | See also:
| See also: 'ta tsah-'. 'paah-, tsii-'.
J `A` S`U S SU M g l| 'kho-gi
, g` | ooh nekyi-'ya 'tsaa-di 'aa-sin. E y
'yihmu-di-'a khu-gi 'kho-la 'baasa g` UH T| He stacked up the
ter-ti, to ter-ti 'tsah-sin 'du lo. pots.
E ED H, S H g -L tsaa peh-k
wHj | That day, too, they let him U| honour s.b.
stay overnight and fed him, and then
g j 'tsaa thimbu
sent him on his way.
| important; honoured.
g tsahbya 'k' | See: g j L| lama-la 'tsaa
'dzabya'. thimbu peh-ken. D
g tsahma n. y| cooking Uj| The lamas are greatly
utensils: clay pot. [Note: used for honoured.
parching grains, or in the process of g tsaama (W) n. j (g j
distilling whisky (put inside of y) household utensils: tea strainer.
'miiza')] 'h/ hk' | See: ''tah-o/
'tah-za (E)'.
g- tsahr- v.i. S| fall down.
'-' | See also: 'tahp-'. g tsaalo n. g, g|
TU t`U g | khye-gi 'aga household utensils: sifting tray of
'tsahr 'du. Sj| Oh, you bamboo; big sieve (made of metal).
dropped your money!
g L-
L- tsi kor- kS
`/ g` tsahro/ tsahru | divination: divination ritual. [Note:
n. k HL U Sy| cavities usually done by the lama] '
in stony ground. M-' | See also: 'moh
g` tsahli (E) n. U ( U
Sy) deep, shaft-like cavity (in the U U | lama-gi
g LL
ground); hole in ground. '-g`' 'yihgi-la tee-di 'tsi kor-ken.
| See: 'toh-tsahli (W)'. AQ kS j| The lama
looks in the book for the divination.
g` `-` J`U| 'tsahli
'tih-'rihbu oh-ge. U U j| A g M- tsi kyahp-
shaft-like cavity is deep. | hand over (permanently).
g` | 'lahm-la 'h-' | See also: 'tol- v.dt.'.
gL- g

`U ` g MM| 'tsir-to! Ly H g!
ah-gi ih-'ya puh-la 'tsi 'kyahp-'kyo. After washing the clothes, wring them
jD k UHL j| I well!
handed my fields over to my son. gL - 'tsir-ke ten- (W)
g - 'tsi lehn- k kk LE| scream;
| take on responsibility; be shout. 'g `-' | See: 'tsiira
responsible for. la- (E)'.
` k ` t`U g S! g L -/ g `- 'tsir-ti 'kee
ah-ni deze maha 'aga 'tsi lehn ten-/ 'tsir-ti uh-
miih-khu! L k ky LE| scream.
M! I don't want to be responsible g-
g--/ g - -L
for so much money! tsi-ruhm-ruhm/ tsi-
gL- - tsik-tor tuh- rhum-rhum peh-k UL t | house parts: `U `U | shudder.
level the top of the walls when t`` M m g--
building. L | 'ahi 'kyee-di zubu-'ya
'tsi-ruhm-ruhm peh-ku 'du. ky AE
gM tsikpa/ tsiira n. U, S|
wall (of stones or bricks; used in the k H kE `U `U j|
context of house building). 'g I am so cold that all my limbs are
M-' | See also: 'tsiira shuddering.
kyahp-'. g/
g/ g/ g / j/ j/
gM g- 'tsikpa 'tsii- j M- tsilam/ tsilim/
U E| build a wall. tselem/ tshilam/ tshilim/
gM 'tsikpa 'dep UL tshelem kyahp- k
| house parts: wall of house (built gL| be lightning.
of stones and mud). g M j
gM S
tsikso kheeba - - L ! 'tsilim
'kyahp-ti nam-la phar tshur 'yaht-'yaht
yL| mason.
'yiht-'yiht peh-ku 'du! AL
g` tsi-du 'g`' | See: nL-L U j! Oh, I see
'tsii-du'. lightning flashing across the sky!
g` tsipro n. jL| fibrous g M- 'tsilim 'kyuuh-
material in fruit and vegetables. k gL (Y Uk
lightning flashes (jagged bolts of
g- tsir- v.t. g, g| wring
(clothes, etc.); press out (juice from lightning).
sugar cane, etc.); squeeze out (juice, gg tsihtsup 'g' | See:
liquid). 'tihtsup'.
Lh w j g`! g M- tsihn kyahp-
'kapta 'hii-di thu yaahbu peh-ti
g- g-

| lie (i.e. tell erg. t calculate.
a lie).
g tsiibu adj. kw, kw| defiled;
SU ` g ML | 'kho-gi ritually unclean. [Gram: no excl. form
ah-la 'tsihn 'kyahp-ku 'du. E D (see appendix 5, section1.2)]
t j| Oh, he is lying to me. `- 'tsiibu ta-
g `-
g`U/ g`U/ g`U kw | defile s.b.
'tsih-gere/ 'tsih-gerba (m.)/
'tsih-germu (f.) n. t| liar. g tsiima n. L`| rib.
g- tsii- v.t. g M- tsiira kyahp-
1) L E, g` E| stack up. 'g-, U| build a wall (lowish,
-' | See also: 'tsaa-, in the open, not for house building).
paah-'. 'gM g-' | See also: 'tsikpa
SU l g l| 'kho-gi tsii-'.
pea-'ya 'tsii-di 'aa-sin. E L g `-
`- tsiira la- (E)
L UH T| He stacked up the ghE| scream. 'gL
books. -' | See also: 'tsir-ke ten-
S`U LU gM gH ` | (W)'.
khu-gi kohmba-gi 'tsikpa 'tsii-e-'ra J U ` g
'yeh-ba. E UL U UE j| `| ohle 'mih-'ya-gi hada
They are just building the walls of the meeh-ba peh-ti 'tsiira 'la-sin. A
temple. AgL ghH| And
2) , U| consider to be; suddenly the people started
observe (e.g. custom). screaming.
U ` ` g| 'moh-gi
g L tsiiri kohmba
ah-la rooh-'ra maah-'tsi. E D
HEt UL | place names:
U| She didn't accept me as important temple near Langgyapsa.
her friend.
J`U g LH, h gl g ` tsiiri labra
`U| ohra-gi 'tuuh 'tsii 'koh-e, wEL | place names: small
tahrtu 'tsuu-e meh-yoh-gen. settlement in the Nuhrpu-Kahng area
kw j, k E | We have (below Pa-Sasa and Padap).
to observe the period of mourning, we g-/ g- tsiih-/ tsuh- v.t. AL
mustn't erect a prayer flag. U| change into; transform into.
g` -L 'tsii-na peh-k 'g y' | See also: U, L U| respect; 'tsuhmul'.
honour s.b. MU U g| 'boki-gi 'guri
g` M- 'tsii-du/
g`/ g 'tsiih-sin. M L
'tsi-du 'kyahp- Ak U| The witch changed into a cat.
U, U| estimate (e.g. costs); S(U) L gE | 'kho(-gi) 'kee

g y

'tsiih-w 'du. E AL L (E) n. | animals: rat; mouse.

j| He is putting on another voice. gg tsutso '-gg' | See:
J`- tsiih-di oh-
g 'mah-tsutso'. AL U
AE| appear transformed. g -L/ h- tsunap (N)
M U g J`U | 'boki
peh-k/ tun-tii- (N) v.(ph.)t. g
'guri 'tsiih-di oh-gu 'du. M U| elect.
L U AE j| The g tsup 'g' | See:
witch appeared in the form of a cat. 'tihtsup'.
- tsiih-di ten-
g g/
/ g tsupi/ tsubi (N) n. g, U SE|
j| dagger.
gU M T` l ! 'tsubi-gi
k hU Sy 'kyahp-ti khyae 'se 'aa 'du! g
g V| 'rasuwa 'dilla-la piihmi
ML j! He stabbed him to
tii-gi khenamu 'tsiih-di ten-'gyo.
death with a dagger!
k HEt Lt SyL
U SHL C| A woman g (g) -L tsum (tsum)
in Rasuwa Jilla was able to peh-k v.t./ U| close
counterfeit the goddess Khendamu. (a roundish opening); close mouth.
g (g)L| 'mii tsum (tsum)
tsiihda n. , M peh-ken. AS g U| close eyes.
YL HL| ghostly apparition.
S g (g)L| 'kha tsum
T ` ` ` `, (tsum) peh-ken. S U|| close
J gU Th ! 'khya rih mouth.
nah-la thaa-'rihbu 'rihbu so, ohle
'tsiihda-gi 'khyer-tu nah! g- tsuh- 'g-' | See: 'tsiih-'.
k`U t t kF, A YL g
`- tsuhp ta-
HL M U | Just mind, just L UE| put under a spell;
go very very deep into the forest so harm s.b. 'g' | See also:
that a ghost may capture you! 'tihtsup'.
tsiihma adj. ML| U S`` ` U
counterfeit (of precious stones or g `U| lama pohmbo-gi
metals); artificial. khu-'ra nah-la 'mipa-gi peh-ti
J g | ooh-di-ni ser 'tsuhp ta-ge. nP HL-AL
'tsiihma 'yihn. ML | CW L UEj|
That is artificial gold. The lamas and shamans put each
other under spells by transcendental
g`U tsuga (W) n. Lt| clothing:
coat (of cloth).
g y/ g - tsuhmul/
/ g` tsubi (W)/ tsube tsuhmrul ten- k

g- -g

SE, gtL SE| ghosts appear. J`U j gl LH| ohra-gi

[Note: spirits, witches or people in 'thee 'tseu peh 'koh-en.
disguise putting on haunting Sk U j| We must
manifestations] 'g-, g-' | investigate the religious books
See also: 'tsiih-, tsuh-'.
-g/-k -tse~-dze~-ze sf. k, k|
g- tsuu- v.t. about; approximately; as much as.
1) | plant. [Phon: This suffix follows the normal
gU| 'he 'tsuu-gen. A | assimilation rules for suffixes, see
plant potatoes. appendix 7, sections 1-3. But note the
2) | put down; step on; establish following exception: numerals ending in a long vowels get shortened and
M gU| nekyi 'tsuu-gen. y require the vl. suffix.] [Disc: Used
(g)| put pot on stove. with quantities, qualities, verb stems,
L` gU| 'kaba 'tsuu-gen. Su noun stems and temporals.]
tM| step on ` `g ! 'those-la 'he
gU| 'pasal 'tsuu-gen. yi-tse 'luu! L A Ctk
T| establish, start a shop. ! Put about two potatoes into the
g tse n. gg, t| peak (of
mountain); top of high objects (e.g. of Lh k T ! 'kapta
tree or prayer flag pole). 'h' yaah-ze 'khyer o! Ly A
| See also: 'todo'. E! Bring somewhat nice clothes!
-g/ -h| 'lah-'tse/ L L jk | karma
'lah-'todo. yyL t| mountain 'mee-di 'kaami 'the-ze 'yeh-ba.
peak. L L A w j| Kaami was
somewhat bigger than Karma.
`-g/ `-h|
tahri-'tse/ tahri-'todo. kL Lk | 'nehpa

daanu 'mee-di yahmbi 'kah-ze 'yeh.
t| top of prayer flag pole.
`-g/ `-h| k-A L j| The
tohbo-'tse/ tohbo-'todo. SL patient is somewhat better than a few
days ago.
t| top of tree.
h ``kl ` ! 'tini
g -U tse-g (E) v.t. S| play 'yuh-dze-i 'luu-do le! g
(game-like activities). 'g-' | See:
! Please put in only a little
'tsa- (W)'. 'g, U' | See quantity of sugar!
also: 'tsemu, igar'. ` t g
g/ gl -L tse/ tse-u peh-k | pehma 'tohme 'mee-di di 'ip-la (lamaistic) Sk U, yahmbi bap-tse 'du. t
A U, Sk U| investigate; do t L j| This trip
research. there is a somewhat larger heap of

g -g

sand than in the first one. mahy taa-'dzen/ taa-'zen ten-gu 'du.
hg Mg ! phattsi 'ihk-tse E tj| She pretends to
peh! AL E ! Move over a tie up the buffalos.
little bit! U -k U | moh-gi 'bree
`k j` ! 'mahr sal-'dzen ten-gu 'du. g
da-dze 'thowa-'ra 'luu! YE kL LCtj| She pretends to clean
k ! But in about as much rice.
butter as yesterday! SU -gk U | kho-gi
U Lk ` , h ! 'zap-'tsen-dzi ten-gu 'du. E
'mih-ni nahmga karma-ze-'ra 'du, ti `Utj| He makes a show with
'maa leh! j ALL dressing up.
j, L ! There are as many SU ` -gk U !
people as there are stars in the sky, 'kho-gi solwa 'tap-'tsen-dzi ten-gu
how impressive! 'du! E Utj! He makes a
show of praying!
g tsedar n. Ly UE Ly|
cerem. utensils: cloth on mask. [Note: g- tsep- v.t. Lt| slit open
hanging on mask to conceal the back (mostly used for meat).
of the head and neck] gMU U U g|
'mih tsokpa-'ya-gi 'mih-gi goo-la
g tsen n. (D SL ) evil
spirit. 'tsep-sin. A ALL tEL
g J`- 'tsen oh- (W) Lt| The criminals slit open the | get a fright. people's heads.
g - 'tsen sihn- -g/
/-k -tse-ba~-dze-ba~-ze-ba
V| an evil spirit caused the illness. sf. kL| as much as; as many as; as
well as. [Phon: For the regular
/-m -tsen~-dzen~-zen
pp. L L St U| [Gram: phonological alternations of suffix
vs+pp. + <ten->:] pretend to initial stops or affricates and the
perform an action. [Gram: exception verbs marked with <-k>
vs+pp.+<-ti(i)> + <ten->:] make see appendix 7, sections 1-3.] [Usage:
a show of an action. [Phon: For the referring to quality, rather than to
details on the phonological and tonal quantity] '-g/-k, Jk ' |
behaviour of this item see appendix 7, See also: '-tse~-dze~-ze, ohze-ba'.
section 8.1.] `k A` ! ah-ze-ba
'su-'a mihn-du. kL L j!
U -k U | 'moh-gi
'rah 'luuh ta-'dzen/ ta-'zen ten-gu 'du. Nobody is as (rich, clever, etc.) as I
E y-S k
U j|
She pretends to watch the goats and t` Sk , EC
sheep. ! di ahmyen-di 'kho-ti-ze-ba-ni
meeh-ba, 'uy rooh! t` EL
U C -k U | 'moh-gi
g- g

kL j, ! This string U| watchfully. 'k'

instrument is not as nice as his, isn't | See: 'dzembu (E)'.
it, my friend? g h- tsembu peh tuu-
`kU `U| 'he da-dzeba (W) E| give a fright.
mehn-da-ge. A kL k V|
g tsere mere 't ' |
The same amount of potatoes as See: 'ehpa'.
yesterday will not be enough.
jl l- M-g g- tsel- v.t. tPE| cut into
`U| 'tshaa-la 'u-'mahr longish pieces (vegetables).
'luu-na 'kya-'mahr-tse-ba ihmbu g
tselem 'g' | See:
meh-yoh-ge. -g YE 'tsilam'.
YE L kL | If you

/ g tselba/ tselbu n. yL|
put boiled butter into salt tea it is not work utensils: loosely woven carrying
as nice as with fresh butter.
basket. ', L' | See
g- tsem- v.t. E| sew. also: 'sohlma, komba'.
Lh j gU| 'kapta 'tshul
tsehra kyahp- 'j`'
'tiih-di 'tsem-ge. Ly k H
| See: 'tshera'.
Cj| Sowing clothes one gathers
folds. g
tsehrep n. Y, ny| thicket;
g g-
g-/ g/ g g-U tsemu tsa-
(W)/ tsemu/ tseme tse-g (E) g
tsehlap 'h
' | See: S| play games. 'tehlap'.
L `U g ` g tsee n. S| rust. '' |
gM| 'phema 'yeh-ken 'bele 'yih-gi See also: 'ya'.
'tseme mahbu 'tse-'kyo.
g M- tsee 'kyahp-
S| We played a lot when we S | become
were small. rusty.
g tsembu n. E, HL wE| - tsee-gi sah-
seam. S S| be destroyed by rust.
g U| 'tsembu 'ii-gen. E [Gram: the rust takes the erg. <-ki>
E| undo a seam. (see neutral word order for inanim.
g U| 'tsembu 'iih-gen. E actors, appendix 5, section 21.2)]
E| seam comes undone. g
tseeden (E) n. U| household
g ML| 'tsembu 'kyahp-ken. utensils: straw mat.
E E| make a seam.
U tseehgor n. y (, LL
g gU| 'tsembu 'tsem-gem. E
St A HL gML) household
E| sew a seam. utensils: straw ring used to place pots
g tsembu peh-te (W) on.

g g-

g tso (W) n. L| cause. table or beam to place food on. [Note:

g - tso ten- (W) 10-30 cm. high]
L SE, T| engage in gM/
gM/ gM/ gM tsokpa/ tsokpo/ tsokpu adj. t, | bad;
A AU g lU, evil.
J kU L| aba gM gM/ gMt gMt y- y-
'ama-gi 'leeh yaahbu tso ten-di tsok-ro tsok-ro/ tsok-o tsok-o o-
'aa-na-'ga, ohle pehza-'ya 'leeh
'-/-y/-t...' | See:
yaahbu peh-ken. A L '-ro~-o~-o...'.
U hg L
Uj| Only if the parents themselves gU tsogi 'gL' | See: 'tsok'.
engage in decent work will the gU tsoge 'jU' | See: 'tshoge'.
children do decent work as well.
g`- tso- v.t. h, P U| sell.
g- tso- v.t. (rare) `UE| dye. 'j' g-
g- {M-} tsom-lu
| See also: 'tshee'. {kyahp-} n. {v.t.} k {S} {sing}
SU L g| 'kho-gi 'kupa competitive songs. [Note: usually with
tso-sin. E U `U| He dyed the
turn taking between boys and girls]
L ` g-
gL/ gU
gU tsok/ tsogi n. k| M J` LH! taah kohmba
interest. 'ykL' | See also: 'mih-'ya 'yimbu tsom-'lu yaahbu
'uzok'. 'kyahp-te oh koh-en! LY `L
h- tsok/ tsogi tal-
gL/ gU h- jU U UH Lj! k | pay interest. We must have a good turn at
tsok/ tsogi tshee-
gL/ gU j- competitive singing with the people of k V| interest Tarke-Gyang before we come back!
g- tsor- v.i. E (j`,
gL/ gU - tsok/ tsogi 'tahp- A) ferment. k | pay interest in
j` ` t U g |
form of grain.
tha-ni 'yihma 'eeh-gi 'tsor-ti
gL/ gU - tsok/ tsogi 'tuh- then-sin 'du. ky YL E
(E) k EwE| collect
Lj| The beer fermented in the
interest on a loan in form of grain. warmth of the sun, and it spilled over.
`- tsok/ tsogi lee
gL/ gU `-
ta- k jy () g-
g- tsor- v.t. T (M)
cancel interest (on a loan). cause to ferment. ' M-'
| See also: 'phap kyahp-'.
gMg/ hMg/ hMg tsoktsi/ ` `U j` g Ll
toktsi/ toktse n. (hon. of
| 'tihri-ni ah-gi tha 'tsor
'soldo') gk S t 'koh-e 'yeh-ba. Ak M D
(t.) household utensils: bench-like
g hMt

T j| Today I have to add See also: 'tam 'suhr kyahp-'.

the fermenting agent (phap) to the U gU | tam-gi tsoo-gen. L
grain mash for the whisky. | say to aggravate s.b.
g tsolo (N) n. g g| g g yU| 'mih-la tsoo-de
clothing: Nepali style blouse. tsoo-de o-gen. AD L jy k|
say to aggravate s.b.
g tsoo n. , L| cause; pretext. g U| 'mih-la tsoo-de
g S` ! tsoo-ni 'kho-'ra tam 'ma-gen. AD jy | say
'yihm-ba! F ! He is the to aggravate s.b.
g - tsoo ten- g () tsoo(-la) loc. , |
below; under; beneath.
nM| bring evidence.
SU w g `V ` L`U g |
'lagyapsa yari 'kah-gi tsoo-la
j J`l` ! 'kho-gi
di hi tsoo mah-tem-ba 'yeh-na-ni di 'yeh-ba. LY ` ` yyL j|
rohwa 'ih thimbu oh-de-'ra Langgyapsa is below Yangri Kahng.
meeh-ba! E nLL H g/ g tsooma/ tsoo-me adj.
w H! If he had | the lower; the one below.
not brought this evidence it would not g tsoor baati 't '
have become such a big issue! | See: 'oos baati'.
g- tsoo- v.t. g- tsooh- v.i. , M| be
1) jy| pierce. finished; be used up.
2) (W) jy , g | aggravate s.b; g h- tsooh tuu-
goad s.b. ' M-' | E| use up.

h ta 'h' | See: 'tandi'.
h h... h h... ta
h {g-} ta (W) {tsuu-} n. {v.t.} tii-le... ta tii-le... double_conj.
yL ` {, E} {install} HL ... AL ... on the
rope-ladder. '`' | See: 'pra one hand... on the other hand.... [Disc:
(E)'. S introducer]
h M -L ta tahkpu hMt taku n. Dg (w
peh-k gS , HL ) measures and weights: cubit
U| take good care of things. with making fist instead of
h/ h h(U) ta/ tah outstretched fingers. [Note: about 15
tii-le(-gi) HL L| inches]
conjunctions: in some way. [Disc: S hMt L`| taku 'kah. w

h`- h-

HL | one small cubit. | place names: settlement in the

western part of Yohlmu, in the upper
h`- ta- v.t./i. nyE, ny|
hang up; be hanging. ' h`-' Tadi Khola valley, south-west part of
| See also: 'semta-'.
SU k LL` h`| 'kho-gi h tandi adj. U| heavy.
'dzoola karku-la ta-sin. E n S h | khurpu tandi 'du.
p ny| He hung his shoulder U j| The load is heavy.
bag up on the window. h L L (L) ta 'tihk
` U ` h` LV| ah 'tihk ('tihk) U, S| heavy
'gaari nah-la ta-di kahl-'gyo. and compact. 'L L L'
Uy nyH UHL | I was hanging | See also: 'tihk tihk tihk'.
there in the car as we drove along. h-L-L-L J`U| ser
-U ta-di 'i-g A
h` - ta-'tihk-'tihk-'tihk oh-ge. S
nyH A U| commit suicide j| Gold is compact and heavy.
by hanging. h-U ta-'dige adj. ,
S` h` | 'kho-'ra UL| feel heavy.
ta-di 'i-sin. E A nyH A S h-U | khurpu ta-'dige 'du.
U| He commited suicide by Ak j| The load feels
hanging himself. heavy.
h`U tagi n. J| household ` ` j` ` `VU `
utensils: iron tripod. [Note: put into the m h-U J`| ah da tha
fire pit for putting the cooking vessels mahbu thu-'gyo-gi 'tihri zubu
on the fire] ta-'dige oh-sin. k ky
SHL Ak kE U HL j|
h`U tagu n. E| animals:
Because I drank a lot of beer
fox. [Note: fox according to the yesterday my body feels heavy today.
descriptions given; seems to be a rare
h ta-'le '-/-' | See:
animal] '-le~-lee'.
h` tada n. L (kk h ta-'se '-/-' | See:
L A) mountain barley. '-se~-see'.
h`-` k L ` hM/
hM/ hM tapkyi/
J`U| tada-da 'dzaw-la 'kahma tapkye amu hEL |
mahbu oh-ge. L kL ty foods: mushroom which looks like the
j| Mountain barley and regular antlers of a deer.
barley heads have lots of bristly
fibres. hM tapkye num. Aw|
numerals: eighteen.
h`/ g` tabu (E)/ tsabu
(W) adj. g| intelligent; clever. h-
h- tam- v.t. `U U| keep
company; associate with; fellowship
h`-l ta-sahu n. wEL
h h

with s.b. [Gram: associate takes hard lump in this boil.

<yambu/ yimbu>] CU J-j` hL |
`(U) ` hU | mahy-gi 'ohma-'tsha 'tarka mihn-du.
ah(-gi) 'mih yaahbu 'yambu L Lgy j| The udder of

'tam-go 'yeh. jL `U the buffalo cow is not firm.
Uj| I associate with good people. h-
h- M- tar-tap kyahp-
J ` l` S ` erg. j, j| fall/
h M| ooh 'mih-ni 'toh throw down forcefully.
'yihndu-'ra 'kho 'yambu 'tam-di
S h- M| 'kho 'tar-'tap
'teh-'kyo. j S EU 'kyahp-sin. F j| He fell down in
`U U L j| This person has a fit.
associated with him from the
SU h- M|
beginning. 'kho-gi 'mih-la 'tar-'tap 'kyahp-sin.
h tayu n. j| fish hook. E AD j| He threw the
` h ML| 'yah-la tayu man down forcefully.
'kyahp-ken. jD j j| The
hL tahrko n. g, Uy| birds:
fish hook is thrown to the fish. eagle?. [Note: a big bird which can be
h- tar- v.t. seen flying in the sky during the cold
1) t| press; stick together; stick season; it comes from the mountains
onto. and does not alight near villages]
t J h`! di 'phoo h-
h- tal- v.t. | pay.
ooh-la 'tar-to! t t!
Stick this picture onto the wall over h M- tal kyahp-
there! y S| swim.
2) gL, t| crack; squash. h tala 'j' | See:
L hL | 'iken 'tar-ken. k 'thepa'.
| crack lice.
h(L) h(L) tala(k)
` ` ` j! TU tolo(k) '' | See: 'tam'.
h L! ah-la 'yi mahbu
mah-tshol! khye-gi 'mii 'tar ter-ken! h talda n. `| chain.
U Sk! A AS h 1 tah n. g| tea.
tCj A! Do not aggravate me, h LU| 'tah 'kol-gen. g
otherwise I am going to give you a E| make tea.
black eye! h | 'tah lohma. gL
hL tarka n./ adj. g t, | (S)| tea leaves on tea bushes.
hard soil; compact; firm. h- 'tah-loh n. gL
t` ` hL j | di (t g E L ) foods: tea
'abur nah-la 'tarka thimbu 'du. leaves (when boiling 'tshaa').
w Ut j| There is a big, h- 'tah-rhil n. gL
h h`

y (t g) foods: tea leaves for liih/ thaa LSL | chicken

salt tea. [Note: ball-shaped, cheaper droppings.
than 'pahrtu']
h 3 tah n. AL
| opportunity;
h/ hk 'tah-o/ chance.
'tah-za (E) n. g, g| household h h(U) 'tah tii-le(-gi)
utensils: tea strainer. 'g' | See:
'h' | See: 'ta'.
'tsaama (W)'.
h - -/ y- 'tah thin-/
-/ -
h 2 tah n. (poetic) Q, LS| tin-/ ii- AL |
bird; fowl. have an opportunity; chance; work
h-h() out.
'tah-'tihwa(-'ya) n. LS, g| h `A` yl
all kinds of birds. M| 'tah thin-si-'ma-na 'yih-'a
h {-L} 'tahbu {peh-k} n. o-e 'ma-'kyo. AL
{v.i.} {} cock; rooster {crow}. kj L| If things work
h VU L` 'tahbu out we (exclu.) want to go, too.
sihn-'gyo-gi 'koha UL L M yl ` Ll
LSL | fertilized egg. L, T yl h SH SH?
h 'tahmu n. LS| hen. kora 'kyahp o-e-la ah-la rooh
h ` 'tahmu noma 'koh-e 'yeh-ken, khye o-e 'tah tin J L LS| '` -L, khuu-en ni miih-khu-en? Y kD
LL -L' | See also: 'noma D g , D k
teh-k, kuku teh-k'. brood-hen. L ? I need a friend to go
'tahmu piihru
h trekking, would you perhaps be able
LSL g| chick. to come with me?
h 'tahmu 'yoma h` y| 'leeh 'tah-'ra
LS ( AUyL) young maahn-i. LL AL | I had
hen before laying eggs for the first no opportunity to carry out my
time. purposes.
h `U 'tahmu 'oogo hE hE J`- tahw tahw LSL St| chicken wing oh-
(prepared to eat, or on the life
(LL) be a noisy
chicken). commotion.
` ` h `U` hE hE -L 'tahw 'tahw
`U ! 'tihri ah-la 'tahmu peh-k U|
'oogo'di-'ra 'oogo lep 'du! Ak make a noisy commotion.
D LSL St St j! Oh, hEy `- 'tahwa 'la-
today I got only chicken wings (on U| make noise;
my plate)! make commotion.
hU / j 'tahmu-gi
h` tah n. E| north.
h`- h

h`-j / h`l g`/ g`' | See also:

tah-thu semba/ tahdu semba 'tsarkyi/ tsaryi/ tsarye (W)'. | pure-hearted;
h` tahbar n. Lk-P U
LL E T LUk| cerem. utensils:
h` M- tahla 'kyahp- sheet of paper with the name of E V| north wind deceased person (this is burnt during
blows. the 'neebar' ceremony which is also
`t - h` ML| au called 'nee ta-gen/ par-ken').
nahm-'simu tahla 'kyahp-ken.
E Vj| Early in the hk tahza 'h' | See:
morning the north wind blows. 'taho'.
h` / - tah-la 'yeh/ hk` tahza n.
'paar-'tii- E / | 1) LSL S| chicken pen.
be in the north. [Gram: cop.= specific 2) g E wE Y (L )
location] place where tea is made. [Note:
h`- tah- v.t. Y, t| outside or in a shed, on special
dissolve '`/ h`-, occasions]
h`-' | See also: 'phubu h tahba n. L | clan
(E), phumbu (W) tah-, phowa names: non-lama clan (='maba').
h- tahm- v.i. ,
`U w(U) g | take to s.b; be attracted;
j h`U| 'toh-gi him-la get aquainted. [Gram: goal takes
'riihba-'ya 'tiih-di thu-la tah-gen.
<yambu/ yimbu>]
` H ` l L
Cj| According to the former J`U, J h l
custom, the bones (of a cremated
J`U| 'oh meeh-e-e 'mih 'yambu
person) were gathered up and tam 'ma-e 'kaahbu oh-ge, ohle
disposed of in the river. 'tahm phando 'tehmu oh-ge. g
j h` ` LH| di jU
L U U j, A
'men thu-la tah-di thu 'koh-en.
CLj k j| It is difficult to
A Y Sj| This talk with someone you don't really
medicine must be drunk dissolved in know, but when you have gotten
water. acquainted, it becomes easy.
h` -L tahdar peh-k h 'tahmba n. OL | U| practise (to gain names: personal name, m.
in skill). h -L 'tahmbu peh-k U| care for s.b.
h` {-} tahba (E)
{suuh-} n. {v.i.} k {Uy} {take} lovingly; be affectionate.
root. [Usage: lit. and fig.] 'gM/ h {y-} tahmda {ii-} n.
h h

{v.i.} {, } necessities; taa-zer (E)/ taa-ser (W) n. L|

necessary things (be available); nail.
necessary conditions (be fulfilled). h- taa-par n. L j|
iron printing block.
h tahmdur (E) 'g' |
See: 'tsamba'. 'l' | See h taabur n. L| cooking
utensils: small bowl-shaped frying pan.
also: 'damdur (W)'.
h {M-} taari {'kyahp-} n.
h- tahr- v.t. kt
, t, U| {v.t.} (o.f.) {E} {build} fence.
assemble; institute. h` taala n. | cooking
J j ` U utensils: big, bowl-shaped iron skillet.
U hMU j | [Note: used for parching grain, etc.]
ohle ''lahla 'thepa-di 'ti-le yuhl-gi
'mih-'ya-gi 'tahr-'kyo-gi 'thepa-'ya h- taa- v.t. h| break. [Usage:
'yihm-ba. A L gy g j sticks, limbs, cups; not used for
string-like things] 'h-L, h-'
UE HL gy | And
some of the festivals are ones which | See also: 'te-k, rihn taa-'.
the villagers instituted later. h taabe n. | insects and
` LU ` ` worms: gnat.
M hL M| i-so h taah n. t| house parts:
'karmi-'ya-gi "'tihri 'yih 'bako flattish roof beams. [Note: put
'tahr-ken" 'ma-'kyo. L Ak horizontally onto the vertical roof
k ky L j| The rafters (tuhma)]
carpenters said they would assemble
our cupboards today. h`
taah/ pehto n.
h l- 'thar-ti 'aa- j| house parts: attic; ceiling ktE, ky-k U| below attic.
accumulate (things). h`
j taah-la
iih-'kyo 'tham `
/ h tahro/ tahru n. UCHL L| house parts: floor
LU| birds: crow; raven. boards of attic; ceiling of main room.
h tahwa n. hh
/ h-h y-
y- taahta/
1) L | clan names: non-lama clan taah-taah o-
| toddle.
tLtL y
2) 'h' | See: 'tohwa'.
k U hh yl L
h (gM) 'tahwa (tsokpa) | di pehza tahpse-'ga taahta o-e
n. (adj.) ()U| fate; situation peh-ku 'du. hg S tLtL y
(has neg. conn.). 'lM h'
UL j| This child it just now
| See also: 'dikten 'tahwa'. starting to toddle around.
h taa n. | iron (metal). h ti q.w. L| what (has also
hk/ hk / h- taa-zar/ exclamatory usage).
h h

h h` ! ti ta-ba 'mih! things are; for the following reason.

L gL (g)! What a clever / h ti 'mee-di/ ti
person! 'mee L| why; what is your
L ti
h LL, h L intention?.
'koh-ke, ti meh-'koh-ke (W) h l!/ h L gj, L g | ! ti 'yih-'naa 'yihn-du!/ ti
may or may not be needed. 'h 'yih-'naa 'yihn! k H !
LH' | See: 'ti-la koh-en (E)'. interjections: whatever may be, let it
h ` ti teeen L be!.
(A) very; much (emphatic, h / ti 'yih-na/
expressive). 'yihn-na k H |
U h `
`U explanation introducers:: to show you
T` | di 'mih-gi-ni ti teeen how things are; let's see. [Note: used
lehgu yaahbu khyo-sin 'du. with appropriate gestures]
A g Hj| Oh, h ? ti lo? elliptic_q. L ? what
this man has brought us very good did you say?.
news! h ... ti lo... elliptic_q. L ?
h ti thete | interjections: what shall I say...; what
whatever. do you call it....
h - ti nee-nee Chj| jl , h ... J?
whatever (you) like. 'phuu-la 'tshiiu 'yeh le, ti lo...
h ti 'ma-na k , ooh-la? jl gy Cj , L
k | whatever (however much you wE? Over there the 'tshiiu'
say). festival takes place, what do you call
h ti 'ma-na it over there? L| conjunctions: h A` ti 'ol-de-'a
reason introducing. k | conjunctions:
`U h Ay M, under all circumstances; above all.
`- M `V| hA` ti-'a qt. [Gram: qt. +
ah-gi ti 'ma-na ahna 'ma-'kyo, de-la aff. + neg.] L|
'yih-ar-la 'tihkyi 'du-ba 'mee-di any/ none.
ta-'gyo. L L , hA` L ti-'a
SHL j meh-'koh-ro L

wHL| To tell you why I said nothing will happen.
this, here at the sun rising time there h/ h ti-ree/ ti-raa qt. L
is an auspicious sign; so I sent him at gk| something alike. '-/ -' |
that time. See: '-ree (E)/ -raa (W)'.
h ti 'ma-si-'ma-na H ti-la
h LH h L L S| 'koh-en, ti-la meh-'koh-en (E)
explanation introducers: to tell you how L gj, L g
h h

may or may not be needed. 'h tuh-ge-mu goo-gi 'tirtsup-la

LL' | See: 'ti koh-ke (W)'. 'kyahp-te meh-yoh-ge. hgD
h ti att.p. M, L| attitude particles: t t | When you are

accommodating; what does it matter?; beating the children, you mustn't hit
you see. [Phon: Note that the initial them on the crown of the head.
affricate of this particle, unlike the h tini (N) n. g| sugar.
clitics, does not assimilate in voicing
h... h... ti-ni... ti-ni...
to the preceding sound.] [Disc: occurs double_conj. L ... L ... conjunctions:
clause or phrase finally] either... or...; or. [Gram: 'tini' + cl. +
F S yH h, F y! 'tini' + cl.] [Disc: occurs in
uuh-di 'kha o-e ti, 'uuh-di 'men-ni statements; for questions cf. 'ni']
'mehn-o! S ,
J U ` SU h
! Our mouths can
t g`U L, h J`
keep going (i.e. we can keep talking),
M lH L| ohle 'lhaa-gen
our battery won't run out (as the tape i-di 'kho-gi ti-ni lehmen 'mih-la
recorder's battery does)! 'tso-gen kahl-sin, ti-ni ooh-la-'ra
` h, S , 'kyur 'aa-en kahl-sin. A gL Lw
T t` ! rooh nah-la ti, g L AD h , L
taah 'khal sum 'yihm-ba, khye
jyT | And the wood which
'raar-'a peh-na! L , is left over, either he will sell it, or he
, Uj ! Well, will just let it lie there.
among friends, what shall we say... I
will give it for 15 rupees if you really h`/
h`/ h` tini/ tihni
like it so much! temp. (rare) g AUy| four years
h`- ti- v.t. | wind around.
h`U| kara/ peei
L/ t h/ h-
'ti-gen. t/ tL | put on tinup/ tih-nuhp (yihmu)
cummerbund/ belt. temp.(ph.) g AUy| five days
h` `-
`- ti ta-
| urinate. h-
h- tip- v.i. j| mature (of
field products); be overripe (for some
h`/ h` tiyii/ tuyii products); be ripe (for others). ',
num. | numerals: twelve. m' | See also: 'sem, zubu'.
hg/ hg titsup/ tirtsup h tipa num.ord. | ordinal
(E) n. , t T wE| crown of the numerals: first.
head. 'g/ gg' | See:
'tihtsup/ tsihtsup (W)'. h tipu q.w. L ? interjections:
what shall I say?; how shall I say it?.
k `U UU hg
Mh `U| pehza-'ya-la J yl L, S``

h h`

h J`U , LL j j responsibility for the festival, each

J`U ! ooh pohmbo o-e one must take his turn.
'yeh-ke-di-la, 'kho-'ra-'ra tipu
h tibe temp. g j| in
oh-ge 'nahle, kahkala 'tshap 'tshup four years (four years ahead).
oh-ge 'nahle! nP D,
D - L - jtt Cj h/ h ti-be/ ti-le q.w. L|
! The one who is going to be a why.
shaman gets - what shall I say? - he h LH? 'temrel ti-le ta
gets very restless! 'koh-en? L j? Why
does one need to look up the
h (h) tipu (tii) (W) qt.(ph.) auspicious time?
HL, HMt| the only one. 'h h(/) ti(-be/-le)
h' | See also: 'timi tii'. 'ma-na L|
h () tiba (mih) n.(ph.) conjunctions: because; for.
k M O| festivals: family h h timi tii HM,
responsible for organizing festivals.
HEt | all alone; the only. 'h
`` h| 'yune 'tiba. h' | See: 'tipu (tii) (W)'.
gyL k | the family S h h` | 'kho 'puh
responsible for the 'yune' retreat. timi tii-'ra 'yihm-ba. F HM j
h S- 'tiba khur- | He is the only son. 'l M'
k M| festivals: be responsible for | See also: 'puh-ikpa'.
provisions for a festival (e.g. 'naahra,
l timi tii
h h M
tshiiu'). peh-'kyo-i k HEt| only one.
U h SL,
j LU U| 'yuhl-ba-'ya-gi h-
h- tir- v.t. g, h| press
'paalo peh-ti 'tiba khur-ke, 'thepa against s.b. (e.g. in a crowd). 'U
karpu-gi 'laagi-la. UE h-' | See also: 'tam-gi

k Mj, E gyL L tir-'.
U| The villager take turns in being ``` k J` `
responsible for the community h h | 'bas-la 'mih
festivals. 'buuu 'dzaa oh-di nah-la 'tir-ti
h - 'tiba 'phoo- 'tir-ti 'teh-sin. j g AH
k | festivals: the g g | A big crowd
responsibility for a festival falls onto. climbed onto the bus, and inside they
J t`` ` sat like sardines in a tin.
l h U| ohle loh SU ` hL | 'kho-gi ah-la
'ahma-'ra 'paalo peh-simba-'ra 'tir-ku 'du. E D h j| Oh,
thamdi-la 'tiba 'phoo-ge. A he is pressing so hard against me.
j U U D k Vj| Each h`
h` ti-'ra (W) qt. HM, HEt|
year people take turns in carrying the same; only; alone. 'h`' | See:


'tii-'ra (E)'. h tihnda n. kk (k

tirtsup 'hg' | See: UE O) cerem. terms: individual
'titsup'. or family who sponsors a ceremony or
festival; sponsor; adherents. [Note:
hM/ M tihrkya/ This is not an exclusive
pihrkya (E) n. | excrements of categorization. You can be an
chickens or birds. [Usage: usually: adherent of a lama and a shaman, but
'tahmu 'tihrkya/ 'pihrkya, or 'tihbi the ceremonies you attend will be
'tihrkya/ 'pihrkya] different.]
h tilim (N) n. g| small U h| lama-gi tihnda.
earthen pot. [Note: a part of the water L kk| the adherents of the
pipe, the tabacco and the embers are lama.
put into it] U h| pohmbo-gi
tihnda. nPL kk| the adherents
h ti-le 'h' | See:
of the shaman.
h S- tihnda khur-
h/ h h-L tiwa/ tewa kL | sponsor a
te-k gE, L U| ceremony or festival.
check up on s.b; examine [Usage:
usually done secretly to find out any h tihpa adj. | thin; weak.
wrongdoing] h tihbi n. Q, g| bird.
h j` L` L | 'tihbi
h` tihni 'h`' |
'tsha-la 'koh-di 'teh-ku 'du. g Uy

See: 'tini'.
J L j| The bird is
h/ h-
tihnup/ hatching eggs.
tih-nuhp 'h' | See:
'tinup'. h tihmba adj. Lg| raw.
l/ h`U -
- tihndi/ h `-
`- tihmba ta-
tihgi lap- A , U| cerem. terms: give a
public gift; offer up [Note: The
V| bless. [Note: referring to
blessings given by supernatural gift is usally given to the weak,
powers] ' M-, h' hungry and poor.] 'M h
`-' | See also: 'kyehwa
| See also: 'melam kyahp-.
tihmba ta-'.
J hU `U
h`U U
mah-'lap-a-gi sapi (elevated) MU h
`U| ohle 'yehpa 'tomdende-gi
wE| a cursed place.
'rah-gi 'lahkpa-gi 'a 'praah-de
hl MU V tihndi
'tooba-'ya-la tihmba ta-gen. A
'lap-'kyo-gi 'gyaa A UL
U A L Lt
wE| a blessed place.

h h

LHD U U| And again, h - tihlap 'uh-

Buddha would cut meat of his arm V| bow head to a lama
and offer it up for they hungry ones. or an elder to receive his blessing.
M hU `U m LlU [Note: i.e. a token of blessing or a
h `VU Lh `C touch from his hand] ' -L'
M| 'kyahlbu tii-gi 'rahgi | See also: 'uuh peh-k'.
zubu 'puhrkani-zi-gi tehnda-la tihmba
-h -ti '-l' | See: '-di'.
ta-'gyo-gi 'keta ah-y petam-la
'thee-'kyo. HEt k HEt L U h tii HL| numerals: one. [Disc: for
ordinal form see 'toh-o' and
A k UL L L
j| In a story I heard about a king
who sacrificed his life for the sake of hA` + LgL P,
a pigeon. `A` + LgL P
tii-'a +, yii-'a +
h tihlap n. double_conj. [Gram:
1) | cerem. terms: the token for a pred.phrases must be identical] HL C
blessing. [Note: a concrete thing: a
(U U) under all circumstances.
'khada', a small portion of 'tshoo',
` hA` S` yH, `A`
etc.] 'hl' | See also:
S` yH! ah ti-'a 'kho-la-'ra
'tihndi'. o-e, yi-'a 'kho-la-'ra o-e! HL C
2) AL| blessing (abstract).
EU U kj, EU
h M- tihlap 'kyee- kj! Under all circumstances I will
| distribute the y marry him, and only him!
token of blessing.
hA` + ALgL P,
h j-/ - tihlap `A` + ALgL P
thaa-/ 'thep- AL V| tii-'a + neg., yii-'a +
be blessed. neg. double_conj. [Gram:
h jM(U) V| tihlap pred. phrases must be identical] HL
thaa-'kyo(-gi) 'gyaa. AL L wE|
C (U U) under no
a blessed place. circumstances.
- tihlap thop-
h - -T H hA` , E| receive the
`A` , ` !
token of blessing. nam-'khyu 'ma-e-di-ni ti-'a meh-sah,
h - tihlap yahl- yi-'a meh-sah, sah-'ra meh-sah! AL V | lose its
gL L HL C S S!
blessing. Under no circumstances will I eat
jU h V| di slugs, I certainly won't!
'thee-gi tihlap yahl-'gyo. LL
hU h tii-gi tii-la pr.erg.+
AL A V HL j| This book pr.undg. HEt ALD| each other.
has lost its blessing.
h tii-ni conj. HEt |

h h`-
conjunctions: for one thing. h tiiru num. | numerals:
l tii peh-'kyo-i
h M sixteen. HEt | only one; the only
h -
- tiihnsa par-
one. U ( ) rituals:
h` tii-'ra (E) qt. HEt, HM| purifying ritual which involves
only; alone; same. 'h`' | See: burning grains.
'ti-'ra (W)'.
/-k -L h tu num. | numerals: ten.
-tii/-ti~-di~-i~-dzi peh-k '-l h tu-ba num.ord. | ordinal
numerals: tenth.
-L' | See: '-di peh-k'.
h 1 tii n. , U| nourishment. h- tu- v.t. EE| dip up a liquid;
h J`- 'tii oh- dr. scoop up with shovel.
V| benefit from one's food. -h/-l -tu~-du~-u vsf. -
[Gram: the food takes loc. <-la>; (ChjgL) optative. [Phon: For the
direceptive usage is rare] regular phonological alternations of
h J`UU h| 'tii suffix initial stops or affricates and the
oh-gen-gi topta. S| exception verbs marked with <-k>
nourishing food. see appendix 7, sections 1-3.]
T h E , h ` S ` h| 'tihri 'kho
J`y! khye-ni topta ihmbu sah-w de-la-'ra 'teh-tu. Ak F |
'du, 'tii oh-o! w S S Let him stay here today.
j, Vj ! Oh, you are LU `k
eating good food, it must make you ` `l! di 'lu 'yahmbu-la
strong! 'yeh-ken-gi 'yendzen 'yehwa-'ya
S` t h Lk 'yihn-du! U Lwy HL
h ` ! 'khaba 'ehn-di Ct- | May my friends
topta 'kahze ihmbu sah-'naa 'tii and relative in Kathmandu listen to
meh-yoh 'du. Y n k w SH this song!
D Uj| Even though I U h ! 'mih-gi
am eating very good food, it doesn't sem-la ti nee-na nee-u! AL
benefit me at all, because I am k w, w! Let the people think
homesick. what they want!
h (`)2 tii (yihmu) hL -L tuk peh-k
temp.(ph.) g j| in five days C S| kiss (appropriate for
(five days ahead). children). 'S -' | See
h/ also: 'kha lehn-'.
/ h/ h tiini/ tiine/
tuni n. EE y| water h`-/ j`- tu-/ thu- v.i.
dipper. , n | become too small.
SL h`/ j`| 'kharka
h` h-

'tu-sin/ 'thu-sin. SL | See: 'tuhrken'.

The grazing grounds have become too
hL turku num. EC| numerals:
small. nineteen.
h`/ j` 'tu-a/ 'thu-a adj.
g| younger; smaller (has hL
turken 'hL
' | See:
comparative conn.). 'tuhrken'.
h`/ j` T 'tu-raa/ hL

/ hL
/hL tuhrken/
'thu-raa 'khyer-ti '- T' | turken (E)/ turkani (W) n. U |
See: '-raa khyer-ti'. birds: sparrow.
h`/ j` 'tu-'se/ h tuli n. U (L U)
'thu-'se '-/-' | See: plants: leafy buds (before they unfold).
L `U h l J`U|
h`/ j` 'tu-o/ 'kera tohbo-gi 'tuli paa sah-e
'thu-o '-' | See: '-o'. oh-ge. LL UL L S j|
h` tubu n. OL | names: The leaf buds of the banana bush may
personal name, m. be used to make curry.
hk` tuza 'h' | See: h`
- tuh- v.dr. (poetic) ,
'toba'. E (U ) get; be.
h tuni 'h' | See: h
tuhru n. U| jewelry: coral.
'tiini'. ' | See also: 'padi
' h
h- tun-tii- 'g -L' |
See: 'tsunap peh-k'. (`U) {-} tuhru
(nahgor) {taa-} n.(ph.) {v.t.} U
h tuptin num. | numerals:
(){E} {put on} necklace
seventeen. with beads of coral, turquoise and
h tupi num. g| numerals: 'zi'.
fourteen. l {-} tuhru
h- tur- v.t. U| discipline daandum {taa-} {v.t.} UL
s.b; make submissive. L g S E L U|
jewelry: {put on} necklace with gold
k l h j L
or silver center piece.
`U| pehza 'yihndu
mih-'tur-na thimbu kahl-di yaahbu h- tuu- v.t. , Y, U|
meh-yoh-gen. Lt, LtS H push onto.
w Hj | If children
` hU | i tuu-gen. E
are not disciplined when they are Y| add wood (to the fire).
small, they will not turn out well
h- tuu- aux.
when they become bigger. 1) U | allow to. [Gram: vs + aux.]
hL turkani 'hL ' |
` S` g`U y hA`

hl h-

hH| 'yih 'khaba-la 'tsube-gi 'u o-e! L K H jH

ti-'a 'lih miih-tu-en. Y kj! Even if it is only a finger, I
A | In our house the rats want to go back having at least
don't spare any grain. touched your finger!
2) U UE| cause to. [Gram: vs + ` E l t Lh L|
aux.] ah 'aw 'sipi-zi 'uuh 'koh-te
`U M U S h| ah-gi 'yehken. D AL E t L
'lhakpa-la goo khor tuu-sin. | I had to pick some apples.
MD AH| I wasted Lhakpa's `U Lk g`l |
time. Maahgu-la 'he 'kah-ze 'ma-na
'tso-de 'du. `U A k g
hl tuui num. HY| numerals:
eleven. C j| In Maahngu there are as
many potatoes available for selling as
- tuui-ahl n. you want.
UL | names of deities: god
with 11 heads and 22 arms. -h/-l
-te~-de~-e seeh
(W) vsf.+p. - | indicating irrealis
h tuusum num. | numerals:
(imperfective); would. ' , -M '
thirteen. | See also: ''seeh, -'kyo seeh''.
h -L te-k v.t. `U L - L yl !
1) gyE| break (of string and S` h ! ah-ni 'kah-na
rope-like things); tear off (of limbs). nee-nee kor-te o-e seeh! khamsabu
'h-' | See also: 'taa-'. peh-te seeh! k Y
tLt hL | 'ika 'te-ken. tLt k H! C U H! As to me, I
Lt| buy a ticket. would go traveling everywhere! I
2) (yy)Lt, () U| cross would enjoy life!
(e.g. hills, water). Aj` h ! taah
'atsham-la-'ra paahma peh-te seeh!
-h/-l -te~-de~-e vsf. ChjM
kE PL A, PL AjU U L Chj ! Now
she really would have liked to get
| desiderative; infinitive. [Phon: For
the regular phonological alternations married with Atsham!
of suffix initial stops or affricates and h 1 ten n. Y| animals: tiger;
the exception verbs marked with leopard. [Note: smaller than 'taa']
<-k> see appendix 7, sections 1-3.] h `L
/ `L | 'ten
/ `L
S , Al J`l! 'kha 'uhr-ken/ 'ohr-ken/ 'ahr-ken. Y
'phee 'nah, 'ai 'thuu oh-de! S , Ukj| Tigers roar.
D t gj! Open h 2 ten n. (hon. of 'mii') AS
please, I want to meet you sister! (t.) eye.
M kl ` yl!
'lahkpa 'dzuu-i 'yeh-'na 'thuu-di h- tep- v.t. g, Ygt
| push

h h-

each other aside (in a crowd); push ground it leaves no traces!

through; jostle.
tehwa 'h' | See:
y- 'tep 'tep 'tep
h h h y- 'tohwa'.
do- gg | come to a
bottleneck. h- tee- v.t.
1) E, U| arrange
h tepa n. , | ` hU | 'yahlsa 'tee-gen.

disposition (of character); habit;
E|| arrange bedding.
behaviour (of humans and animals).
S hU | khurpu 'tee-gen.

A ` h h` | aba puh E| do up a load.
yii 'tepa tii-'ra 'du. jL 2) U, L | care for; cure;
E j| Oh, the son renovate (e.g. monument).
behaves just like his father.
U hU | pohmbo-gi 'mih

h M- tepa kyahp- 'tee-gen. nP/ D L | curse. [Note: gods j| The shaman cures people.
putting a curse on people] -L 'tee-dap peh-k
h g ( U
h tele n. k| tongue.
`U h wU | ah-gi 'tele SuE) diagnose a sickness and
'hil-gu 'du. k yy j| I perform the healing rituals.
can't pronounce it clearly. -L 'teebu peh-k
h U, k U| care for
h tewa 'h' | See: s.b. lovingly; be affectionate.
'tiwa'. h y- 'tee-la o-
` y-
hh tehte n. j, , , | be
w| aunt (mother's sister). spoiled.
hy tehnamu adj. `U| ` - 'tee-la ten-
naked. [Gram: no excl. form (see | prevail upon (e.g.
appendix 5, section1.2)] children upon parents); talk with
childish pronunciation.
h- tehp- 'h -' | See: h
-L/ h
` -
'teeh-'. 'tee-la peh-ti 'teh-k/ 'teela ten-
/ g / h
/ h , |
{j-} tehlap/ tsehlap/ spare oneself work; get drunk.
teehlap/ (E)/ teehla (W) h- tee- v.i. k, An| be
{thaa-} n. {v.i.} C {} {leave} formed.
footprint. ` M t` l hL
L` M h j ! ! ah 'lahkpa-la 'abur then-de
'kaba sa-la 'kyahp-ti 'tehlap 'mee-di 'tarka 'tee-di!
meeh-tha 'du. Su C
tM C LD Uw AHj! A hard lump has
j! If I put my foot on the formed on my hand; it's going to be a

boil! the raw rice grains back and forth I

M U h | di thakpa-la pick out the broken grains.
gorto 'tee 'du. y Uw j|
hMg/ hMg toktsi/ toktse
This rope has become knotted.
'gMg' | See: 'tsoktsi'.
/ h-` teea/ tee-a hU
hU toge adv. , g|
num. | numerals: fifteen. 'j h`
' immobile; still.
| See also: 'tsheeba teea'. hU ! toge 'teh! g ! Sit
/ h-` teea/ tee-a n. still!
OL | names: personal name. h`` {M-} tolo
/ h
{kyahp-} n. {v.i.} L {} (
teen-rehzi/ phaaba A) insects and worms: {be befallen
teen-rehzi UL | by} grubs and worms.
names of deities: god of deliverance.
h todo n. t| tip; pointed
[Note: The Dalai Lama is considered to end. 'g' | See also: 'tse'.
be an incarnation of this god.]
L h| 'kalam 'todo. LL
-/ h
- teeh-/ tehp- v.t. | tip of pen.
t| exchange (barter). h| 'naasum 'todo. LL
U| 'he 'amba
A ` h t| tip of nose.
'yambu 'teeh-gen. A AU U h| goo 'todo. tELL t|
tj| Potatoes are exchanged for top of head.
h- top- v.t.
h `- 'teeh yap-
`- 1) j | work through with fingers.
| catch up barely with t
hL| to 'top-ken. j |
s.b. break up/ mix rice with fingers.
- 'teeh sihn-
h Lh hL| 'kapta 'top-ken.
uE| find; meet up with s.b. Ly y (U )| work soap and

/ h

teehla (W)/ water through clothes with fingers.
teehlap (E) 'h ' | See: g hL| 'tsamba 'top-ken.
'tehlap'. w j | work through flour with
hML -L tokkol peh-k ` LE| 2) LhhE| dent (in); batter
shake back and forth. [Note: the (e.g. pots).
winnowing tray with a certain ` ` j j/l
technique which separates the broken h L! 'yi mahbu tshol-na
grains from the whole ones] pela-'ya 'thop/ 'dop 'top-ti ter-ken!
hML lU U| 'bree Sl y LhL LhL
'tokkol peh-ti 'dagi ten-ge. ` j! If you keep pestering me, I
am going to batter your pots and
g LH LL Lj| Shaking
h hl

pans! thu 'ahmu 'sipi 'tol-'gyo.

h h -L 'top 'top j, A AL g L|
peh-k j The whey is somewhat to hot, so I
( D U U ) added some cold water.
break up/ mix up food with the
h- tol- v.dt. k UE| hand
fingers for a small child. over; entrust (temporarily). 'g
h toba n. wEL | place M-, M h-, h-'
names: small settlement in the | See also: 'tsi kyahp-, kyap
Nuhrpu-Kahng area, between Kolama tol-, lee tol-'.
and Padap. ` S` L `U`
h/ hk` toba/ tuza n. Sk h |
'yih 'khaba-la 'mih meh-'teh-ken
kL L | clan names:
non-lama clan (='maba'). [Note: sogora pela-'ya khimdzi-'ya sala
these two names refer to the same 'tol-di 'yeh-ba. Y j
clan] yLy
jLL k
UHL j| We have entrusted our
h- tom- v.t. U, AP belongings to the neighbors because
U, E| attack; suppress s.b. nobody is staying in our house.
` jM jU `
hU| 'rah 'mee-di thukpu h toldo n. , L|
thimbu-'ya-gi 'rah-la 'tom-gen. regard.
A AD h - 'toldo ten- U| teach
Ej| The people who are richer
and more important than yourself s.b. better; set s.b. right.
suppress you. h j/ l - 'toldo
thimbu/ dibu ten-
h- tom-thili n. | g SE| meddle in other
place names: Pipse (settlement on the
people's talk and affairs.
western slope of the Melamchi River T h h! khye-la ti 'toldo!
valley, high above Kyahldum and a D L ! That's not your
little below Kohmden). business!
h tomdende n. h 'tolbu 'S h' |
(UL ) names of deities:: See: 'kha tolbu'.
Buddha. [Usage: also 'sagye hl toho n. k, C (
tomdende'] kD E ) elder
h- tol- v.t. n E brother. [Usage: used in lama families
( g ) mix liquids and for lamas; ordinary: 'ada']
of different qualities. ` hl S U ` g`V
L t , J j t` , | ah-la 'toho
hV| serku 'ohmo 'du-ba, ohle 'kheeba-gi ta 'tsah-'gyo 'yihm-ba,
h- j

'yahmbu-le 'yahr. D S C dung] 'j, ' | See: 'thaa,

wEHL , Lwyt| Elder liih'.
brother, the thangka painter has sent
/ h -L tooyap/
me from Kathmandu up here. tooyaa peh-k kLH
h- tohp- v.i. Lhg| become AL U| ape s.b.
dented; become battered. kU A h L|
`` A` l/ j pehza-'ya-gi 'ama-la 'tooyap peh-ken.
h! sahbu-ni 'phel 'tahp-te-'a hg kLH A k Uj|
'dop/ 'thop 'tohp-ti! UU S The children ape their mother.
LhML Lhg! The copper urn just h tooh n. | term of address
fell like that and became battered! for gods and spirits. 'h/ h'
h ` tohmu tha | See also: 'tohmo/
wEL | place names: saddle above tohmu'.
Langgyapsa, below Yangri-Kahng. h, h lU j!
'tooh, 'tohmu thamdi-gi 'ahl-la
/ h tohmo/ tohmu n.
1) Q| nun. 'the! , U U Male
2) | address for goddesses and and female unseen beeings, please
female spirits. 'h' | See accept this!
also: 'tooh'. U h L| 'lha-sa-gi 'tooh
'yeh-ken. L | Lhasa
h, h l` L ` k!
'tooh, 'tohmu thamdi-'ra 'ka had a god.
yeeba 'dze! ! h- tooh- v.t. | shove
All male and female unseen beings, together. [Note: earth, leaves, rubbish,
please rejoice! etc.]
h - 'tohmu 'uh- hU| liih 'tooh-gen. L Q g | gather (up) dry leaves.
| take the vows of a nun. `C j h |
ah-y yahpsa-la thaama 'tooh
/ h/ h
tahwa/ tehwa n. U| manure sihn-sin. y L | I
(of cow, buffalo and horse). [Note: W: already swepUt the porch.
also a mixture of dry leaves and cattle

j tsha n. | salt. j-F 'tsha-'uu adj. | too
salty. [Usage: stronger than
L j `H| 'yarka 'tsha uh-en.
S Vj| During rainy
season salt becomes wet. j-F` ! di paa-ni

j- j

'tsha-uu-'ra 'du! gL j`/ j` 'tshao (W+E)/

j! This curry is much too salty! 'tsheo (E) n. LP| cradle basket.
j ` M- 'tsha aa 'kyahp- j` L` -L 'tsha-la k | rituals: 'koh-di 'teh-k J
ritual performed by the lama or | hatch eggs.
shaman to cure headaches and
j`- tsha- v.i. | be
stomach-aches. complete.
jl 'tsha-a n. t g| foods: Jk ` m gM L
salt tea.
j`| ohze-la-ni 'moh-'ra
jl 'tsha-u n. UD L S| zubu tsokpa 'yeh-ken 'dawa 'tsha-sin.
soup for cattle; salted water with all
sorts of food scrapings saved to heat that time the term of her pregnancy
up and give to the cattle. was coming to an end.
j-M 'tsha-lokpa adj. |
j- j` 'tshabu adj. , |
salty taste. [Usage: slightly too salty, complete. [Gram: no excl. form (see
undefinable taste] appendix 5, section1.2)]
j-/ j M- tsha-/ tsha J` j` l
suh kyahp- v.i./ LH| ohra-ni 'phama 'tshabu
tuE, gE| smart; sting. 'meeh-ba 'lu-i lehn 'koh-en.
[Usage: of wounds or other sore spots] tL HEt U UE | We should
[Gram: smarting or stinging body part sing a song about somebody who lost
takes gen. <-ki>] 'j j-' | one of his parents.
See also: 'tshepa tsha-'.
j` j` tshaa tshue 'j`
`U L` j ML | ah-gi j`' | See: 'thaa thue'.
'kaba 'tsha 'suh 'kyahp-ku 'du. Su
ttCj| My leg is smarting! j` tshara 'j`' | See:
jE tshaw 'j' | See: 'tshoo'.
j` t`/ j`
jL jL -L tshak tshok t` {`` -} tshayal
teh-k LPM L | ahyal/ tsheyal ahyal
squat down; huddle up. {yuh-} {v.t.} (lamaistic)
jL L- tshaka ken- (W) -gL {E} (L) (hon. of 'tshaka tsa-') k {be} in agony; {be} tormented. [Note:
S (t.) gamble. [Note: the game because of change from extreme hot
is played with dice] to extreme cold]
g-/ jL g-U 'tshaka 'tsa-
jL g- jL jL tshatrak tshitrik
(W)/ 'tshaka 'tse-g (E) TEt ( LL) meager
k S| gamble. (growth). [Usage: only for plants]
j` tsha n. Uy
| nest. j tshandi adj. | hot (of
j j-

things, temper). or seclusion (for lamas, monks or

j j tshap tshup 'j j'
| See: 'tshabe tshube'. j tshar n. (lamaistic) tL (t.)
time (counting times).
j tshap-la pp. u| instead of;
in s.b. else's place. J j SU ` t`` j
SU LHU j ` t | ooh 'thee-di
'kho-gi 'yihma 'ahma-'ra 'tshar
`UU L ` l ! di 'men-ni
'kho-gi sah 'koh-e-gi 'tshap-la mahbu 'aah-di 'teh-sin. Lg
ah-gi-'ga dak ta 'aa 'du-ba! E hj | He kept
reading that book every day many
He should have eaten this times.
medicine, but instead of it, I took it j-
j- tshar- v.i.
by mistake! 1) (hon. of 'sihn-') (t.)
be finished.
j j/ j j J`- tshaba
tshube/ tshap tshup oh- 2) , L| grow (people and jtt | become restless; plants); grow up.
disturbed. ` j j` `l
j j/ j j -L 'tshaba H| tohbo 'theemu-'ya
'tshube/ 'tshap 'tshup peh-k 'tshar-simba-'ra ida-la phen jttE| be restless; 'thoo-en. L
disturbed; work carelessly. LwL U L Vj| After the
small trees are fully grown they can
j tsham n. be used for the wood work in
1) UL g U A, U| housebuilding.
retreat; seclusion.
j L/ lU | 'tsham-la
j- tshar- aux. (hon. of 'sihn-')
'teh-ken/ 'uu-gen. U U| , L (t.) finish an action.
remain in seclusion. [Gram: vs + aux.]
2) | break; border. '-j' J L `U j j,
| See also: 'sa-tsham'. U j j, S
j| ohle kohmba nah-gi
j h-L/ l- 'tsham 'te-k/
'aa- E, S E, thaalen-'yaa 'tshar, 'phi-gi
thaalen-'yaa 'tshar, 'kheeba-'laa
HLj M, E|
delimit an area; pause (in speech or kuyin phul 'tshar-sin. A UL
writing). L , L L
, gLD Q CL|
j tshamu n. k, k, , And then both, the work inside and
| niece; granddaughter. outside the temple was finished, and
jU` tshamga n. UL g they finished with giving the reward
UL j| hut for retreat to the artists.
j j

j -L tshara peh-k j tshawa n. l| fever. U| hurry up; be in a j M-U 'tshawa 'kye-g
hurry. l AE| have a
SU yl j | 'kho-gi o-e temperature.
'tshara peh-sin. E k U| S j ME | 'kho-la 'tshawa
He was in a hurry to leave. 'kye-w 'du. ED l AE j| Oh,
S ` j ` j he has got a temperature.
L| 'kho 'tihri 'tshara `- 'tshawa-gi ta-
jU `-
peh-ti-'ra thuda-la kahl-sin. F Ak l jy| temperature
U Yu U| Today he went to comes down to normal. [Gram:
the water mill in a hurry. 'temperature' takes the erg. <-ki>
(see neutral word order for inanim.
jM tsharkyin n. (elevated)
actors, appendix 5, section 21.2)]
| offspring (used only for
humans). ` jU `| ah-la
'tshawa-gi ta-sin. D l jy|
S` ` LA`
I have no fever anymore.
(S`) jM `| khu
paahma peh-ti loh 'a kahl-de-'a j j-
j- tshaa tshal- 'j j-'
(khu-la) 'tsharkyin mah-yoh! | See: 'thaa tshal-'.
EL UL g H j - tshaa tuh- kL
HL j| Even though they are A | become disabled.
married already for five years, they
L L j H
have no offspring yet.
J`U| kehpu kehmu-'ya-la
j- tshal- v.t. L| choke; 'tshaa 'tuh-e-mu rooh peh-na 'phayin
swallow the wrong way. [Gram: oh-ge. D kL A
experiencer takes <-la>, causer erg. U j| You gain
<-ki> (see neutral word order for merit if you help old people who can't
inanim. actors, appendix 5, section help themselves anymore.
21.2)] ' j, j/ j j-' j y- 'tshaa 'tuhmu o-
| See also: 'ha tshal-di, thaa/ U| be in a
tshaa tshal-'. disabled condition.
` gU j| ah-la l` j L |
'martsa-gi 'tshal-sin. D S 'yibi-la dibu-'ra 'tshaa 'tuhmu kahl
L| The vapor of the chili got my 'du. kL A kL Hj|
throat. Grandmother ('s health) is in a very
poor condition.
j-g/ jk/ jk
tshal-tsep/ tshaldzep/ tshaldzi U 'tshaa 'tuhmu-gi
n. t, g| household utensils: tam kL AL L| misery.
potholders. h j U H ! ti
'tshaa 'tuh-wa-gi tam 'ma-e 'yihm-ba!

j jl

L SL L UL! What a story of this world without leaving out any

misery! single word!
j tshaata (N) n. j| umbrella. j-
/ j-
Mh w , j tshin-ohlma/ tshin-ooma n.
T y| tahnda nam kyahp-te OL | names: personal name, f.
hi mihn-du, 'tshaata meh-khyer-'naa
j` tshiri n. OL | names:
ii-ro. A k j, j personal name.
U j | It doesn't look like
rain now, it's probably alright to go j/
j/ j tshilam 'g'
without an umbrella. | See: 'tsilam'.
- 'tshaata kehn-
j L j/ j tshilu/ tshilo n. | j J| use an fat on meat.
j 1 tshii n. y HL k| slim
` T yM ` j L| joint. [Usage: of limbs and plants]
da 'khyim-la o-kya ah 'tshaata
j`U 'tshiigor n. y HL
kehn-sin. k Y k j J UH|
k| knotty joint. [Usage: of limbs
I used an umbrella on my way home and plants]
j 2 tshii 'jL' | See: 'tshika'.
j tshaara (N) adj. jy| depraved
(of people and animals). j- tshii- v.i./t. y, | get burnt;
y- 'tshaara o-
j y- burn. [Gram: if transitive: the fire is jy | become the actor; see neutral word order for
depraved. inanim. actors, appendix 5, section
`- 'tshaara ta-
j `- 21.2)]
jy jy| neglect s.b. [Usage: mostly ` j | 'tihri to 'tshii 'du.
for children] Ak yj| Today the rice got
- 'tshaara 'or-
j - burnt. jy | become j hl `U! to 'tshii
unruly. tuu-e meh-yoh-ge! y !
You mustn't let the rice burn!
jL/ j tshika/ tshii n. | ` U j| ah-la 'meh-gi
word. ' jL, j' | See
'tshii-sin. AU D || It got
also: 'tam tshika, tshii'.
burnt by the fire.
J j k`U jL
y- 'tshii-'na 'phue o-
j- ` y-
hA` h `! ooh k S | burn
'thee-di 'dzambuli-gi 'mih-'ya-la
(down) to ashes.
'tshika ti-'a mah-'te-pa peh-ti
e-to! LL HEt jtD jl tshiiu n. gyL |
ceremonies: festivities and offerings
L D E! Tell the
contents of this book to the people of performed for religious merit. [Note:

j- j

This includes calling lamas to read jhg tshuttsi loc. A , A |

from the scriptures, entertaining them a little way over here. [Gram: is often
and other guests with food and drink, used without <-la>] 'j()'
presenting gifts to the lamas.] | See also: 'tshur(-la)'.
jl -L 'tshiiu peh-k j S jhg L L kH , jl gyL Ak U jhg L L kE | thu-ni 'kho
Sg HM U| ceremonies: an individual tshuttsi lep-ke 'phok 'dzaa-e lo,
organizes the festivities and bears the tshuttsi lep-ke 'phok 'dzaa-w 'du lo.
expenses. [Note: Purpose: add merit to H AE A A g U j
one's funeral rites while still alive. W: | As to the water, as he moved over
the ritual is part of 'so-kyohwa'; E: this side little by little it kept leaking
the ritual is part of 'kor looe'.] out.
`- 'tshiiu ta-
jl `- jy tshuno dir. AE
kL jl gy E| (L ) coming this way. [Gram:
ceremonies: the community organizes
short for 'tshur oh-ge-mu'; works
the festival and bears the expenses. like a]
[Note: Purpose: appease the spirits of
jy MMg` l|
sickness and misfortune of the region; tshuno-ni rooh 'kyahktse-'ra
usually celebrated after 'lohsar' (1-2 dor-sin. AE H|
weeks later) in different localities; Coming back I found a lot of friends.
includes masked dancing]
jl Ml ` J L j- tshup- 'F' | See: 'uu'.
l` SH | 'tshiiu 'kyeehba-i j h tshup tii temp.qt. HLj,
ta-na ooh kohmba 'a khuu-en Q| one moment.
'yihm-ba. jl U `, `A yl! 'tshup
j h L
U E Mj| If tii kuuh-do, ah-'aa o-e! HLj
you provide abundantly for a 'tshiiu' S, kj! Just wait a moment, I
festival, you will be able to build this want to go with you.
j () tshur(-la) loc. | this
jl U 'tshiiu 'yihgi side. [Gram: is often used without
jl L U L gEL <-la>]
S| cerem. utensils: register
() tshurken ('dep)-la
in which the gifts given for the (S) this side of the
festival are recorded (in view of
j-`/ j-` tshur-ee/
j-/ j- tshii-rihl/ tshur-oo loc. | on this side.
tshii-rhil n. | cerem. terms: [Gram: loc. takes <-la>, dir. <-le>]
ritual food. 'j h-' | See j/ tshur-'tep/-'tap loc.
also: 'tsherup tuu-'. -S | from there towards oneself.

j j

[Gram: reference point takes <-le> or | See also: 'mihli'.

<yihndu>] j ` tshe 'ema k|
J l j `C ` former life.
| ooh 'lahm 'yihndu tshur-'tep j j tshe 'thima jL
'yih-y ih 'yihm-ba. tS k, k| future life; next life.
| From the path over there j() m- tshe(-la) zem-
up to here the field is ours. A jt| come to
harm (one's life or health). [Disc:
j tshul n.
1) , AL| shape (of a building, 'zem-' seems to collocate only with
piece of clothing, etc.). 'tshe'] [Gram: exp. takes gen. <-ki>]
2) k| clothing: gathering; pleats; L U Lh l` t
folds. TU j mU| 'kaami piihmi-gi 'kapta
'diba-la 'il-di khye-gi tshe zem-gen.
j - 'tshul 'tuh- k
E| make pleats. LL Ly U j A
Ytj| If you wrap a piece of clothing
SU j H` |
'kho-gi tohrma-la 'tshul 'tuh-e-'ra of a blacksmith women around your
'yeh-ba. E k k E j| He neck like this, you will be harmed.
is just making the pleats in the skirt. {-} tshe 'tiihzi {lep-}
j k {v.i.} LU {AE} end of life
j- tshuu- v.t. U, | begin; {arrive}.
start j ` !/ j-`! tshe
AC l jl M| 'rihbu o!/ tshe-'rih! Y
'aytabar 'yihndu 'leeh 'tshuu-e ! well-wishings: may you have a
'ma-'kyo. ACS L U long life. [Gram: intransitive cl./
L| I am intending to start this job elliptic S]
on Sunday.
- tshe 'so- A
j -
j- tshuu- aux. U, | begin | live longer. [Gram: exp. takes
to. [Gram: <-te>/ +<-ken> + aux.] gen. <-ki>]
l j l jU
| h M `
'sombar 'yihndu 'thee 'pruh-e j ``U j H| tahrto-la
'tshuu-gen. S L T par 'kyahp-ti 'lubar 'thar-si-'ma-na
j| I am intending to start writing 'yih-'ra-gi tshe 'so-en. k j
the book on Monday. UH tV A j| If we
J `U -w `U U make a ritual prayer flag by printing
j| ohle ah-gi ih-ho thagu on it and hoist it, we will live longer.
'pruh-gen 'tshuu-sin. A -w jU (`U) tshe-di-gi
`L T U| And then I started 'mihli (ah-gi) () k|
to paint "ih-ho" thangkas. (my) life.
j tshe n. A| life span; life. '' j tshe-dila n. k|
present life.
j j

j-` tshe-su 'j`' | M `` j-`U

See: 'tshensu'. | tahnda 'tuhkpu 'yuh-na
tshe-'en-gi 'leeh 'yihm-ba. A S
j -L tshe-k v.t. , U|
measure s.b. L LL | If you
E k
endure hardship now, that is because
Lh gl gU U J`U
of your fate.
k jL| 'kapta 'tsem-de-la
'tsem-gen 'mih-gi ohra-gi zubu-la y tshe-'en
j-` M
tshe-ken. U ED k 'senam 'saah-'kyo 'ebu
kE U jMj| To sow clothes the LL | lamaisms: fruit (result) of
tailor take the measures from our the deeds of one's former life.
body. j` tsheo 'j`' | See:
j` -L tshe-ta peh-k 'tshao'. Ak, AyL U| be
/ j`/ g`
restrained; be moderate; guess. tshera/ tshara/ tsehra
j k j` kyahp- gt` | be
l LH| 'tshepa 'dawa-la lightning (with extra loud peals of
pehza-'ya-la tsheta peh-ti sah-e ter thunder).
'koh-en. U hgD S
j`/ j`/ g`
AyL j| During the hot season 'tshera/ 'tshara/ 'tsehra
one must give food to the children 'kyahp-ti gt` | struck
with moderation. by lightning.
J` y j` L | k ` j` M
ooh-di-'ra 'yihn-o 'mee-di tsheta
| di 'dzomo rih nah-la
peh-ku 'du. AyL 'tshera 'kyahp-ti 'i-sin 'du. g
Lt j| He guesses that that's the k`U gt` j| This
one. cross-bread yak cow was struck by
j`- tshe- v.i. t | be spread lightning in the forest and died.
over tautly (e.g. skin over a drum ).
j` t` tsheyal
't j`-' | See also: 'ehpa ahyal 'j` t`' |
tshe-'. See: 'tshayal ahyal'.
j`- tshe- v.t. LE| spread over j` tsheta 'j-L' | See:
tautly. 'tshe-k'.
`U L j`V| ah-gi kooba
'tshe-'gyo. j LHL| I fixed j `-
`- tsheter ta-
the skin tautly. U (Q EyE ) rituals: let
loose a bird or chicken, promising not
tshe-en(-gi) leeh to kill it, or make some other free will L, VL L| fate caused by gift. [Note: usually done when sick]
the deeds of one's former life.
j tshen n. (hon. of 'mihn')
jk j

(t0) name. 2) OL | names: personal name.

jk tshendze n. U| paint. [Note: j j-
j- tshepa tsha- U
bought in powdered form; used to | be hot (of weather).
paint religious pictures] ` j jE | 'tihri 'tshepa
`- tshendze ta-
jk `- 'tsha-w 'du. Ak U j| Oh, it's hot UE| paint religious today.
j j-
j- tshepa tsha- U
jl tshenda n. (S U | be/ feel hot (of people).
L) cutting tools made of iron. ` ` j jE | 'tihri
ah-la 'tshepa 'tsha-w 'du. Ak D
j {-} tshenda {thoo-} n. {v.i.}
A, {HL} {have} appearance U Cj| Oh, I am so hot today.
(mainly referring to the face); {have} j

tshem meeh-ba
shape. A (Ak U M) very much;
j / tshenda 'yeh/ 'du unbelievably. 'j -L' | See k j/ k j| look like also: 'tshee peh-k'.
being able to do what the preceding j ` J`U!
vs expresses. [Gram: vs+<-te> + 'laab-la tshem meehba 'nohr mahbu] oh-gen! A
U h j | di Ak j! At the auspicious time
'mih-gi 'leeh peh-te tshenda mihn-du. called "laab" they will become very
j L U k j| He doesn't wealthy!
look like being able to work.
j- tsher- v.i. O , V|
j`/ j-`/ j-` tshensu/ be bored; be lonely.
tshe-su/ tshee-su n. j 'tshera n. Ew, | sadness;
1) (lamaistic) A Q U k| boredom.
special amulet. '`' | See jl J`- 'tshera-i oh-
also: 'sua'. | be disappointed.
J MU U jh 'tsher-te 'leehmu

CU m j`
M O V| boring; desolate.
l| ohle 'kyahmi-gi 'yihi j 'tsherpu adj. ML| lonely; sad.
'nuhrpu-gi 'sipay-'ya-gi zubu-la j- 'tsher-'lu n. L U|
tshensu 'yeh-ba 'mee-di kyiih song for mourning and other sad
dor-sin. A g C L occasions.
L kE k j H| j `- 'tsher-i 'lah-
Then the Chinese got to know that the Aj V| feel lazy; be
soldiers of the Dalai Lama were tired of doing
wearing special amulets on their
j h- tsherup tuu-
L A k U| rituals:

j(`) j-

religious ritual performed for merit. phar-ee tshee o-e 'mee-di!

j(`) tsherma() n. L| thorn. k gj! I want to go up to
over there.
` j`(U)| ah-la
'tsherma(-gi) 'suuh-sin. D L j 2 tshee n. U
| dye; pigment for
p| I got a thorn (in my finger). paint.
j`U -L 'tsherma-gi 're-k j E- tshee 'uhr- L L| get scratched U E, SC| fade. [Gram: undg.
by thorns. [Gram: the thorns take the takes gen. <-ki>]
erg. <-ki> (see neutral word order g-/ M- tshee tso-/ 'kyahp-
j g-
for inanim. actors, appendix 5, section UE| dye. 'g-' |
21.2)] See also: 'tso-g'.
` ` j`U l` | SU L j g/ M, J j
'tihri ah-la 'tsherma-gi dibu-'ra U| 'kho-gi 'kupa tshee tso-sin/
're-sin. Ak D L L| 'kyahp-sin, ohle tshee 'go-sin. E
Today I got terribly scratched by U U, A U V| He dyed the
thorns. yarn, and it took the colour well.
j m- tshelam zii- y- tshee looh-/ o-
j -/ y-
dr. (hon. of 'milam tho-') T U k| colour runs.
[Gram: undg. takes gen. <-ki>]
(t.) have a dream.
U j m `| 'mehme-gi j- tshee- v.i.
tshelam 'zii na-sin. k 1) M| be cooked; be ripe.
T| Grandfather had a dream. 2) () begin (of time span).
j tshelem 'g' | See: j | loh samba tshee-di.
'tsilam'. | at the beginning of the
new year.
j` ` () tshesa M- tsheeda 'kyahp-
tihsa(-la) Yy| (at the) M| be
auspicious day and hour. [Note: overcooked.
especially auspicious are 'tsheeba 5, j M | 'he tsheeda
8, 10, 15' and 'namga')] 'kyahp-ti 'dal-sin 'du. A L
j 1 tshee loc.pp. | up to. [Usage: ML Hj| The potatoes are
Some people use this only for points overcooked, and so they have become
on body and clothes, others also for mushy.
distances.] `U j M h| ah-gi 'he
j L`-j j L | thu tsheeda 'kyahp tuu-sin. A
'kaba-'tshii tshee lep-ku 'du-ba. M H| I overcooked the potatoes.
Yy V j| The water is tsheebu adj. LL (S
coming up to the knees. A) well-cooked. [Gram: no excl.
! ooh
J -` j yl form (see appendix 5, section1.2)]

j j

j tshee du k j yihu-kuh. E| 29 days after

(LL) give the appearance of; new moon.
suspect; it seems that. [Gram: M U h`
vs+<-pa> +] ` LL M L| 'i-'kyo
J Ml j , t | 'mehme'ya-gi teea namga-la
ooh-di 'kye-e 'yeh-ba tshee 'du, 'ehpa 'yih-la kahkala 'tuhkpu ter-ke.
'yohre 'du. E j M, t kL K
Lj| Oh, it seems that this one is D A S j| The spirits of
going to have a calf, it has a fat belly. the ancestors bother us a lot at the
T L j ! khye times of full moon and new moon.
toba-ni 'baaki 'yeh-ba tshee 'du!
tsheema n. U| foods: leafy,
V j M! It seems that you are green vegetables.
quite lucky!
j | 'lahbu tsheema. L
j -L tshee peh-k U| radish leaves.
Ak U| with measure; restrain | 'ray tsheema. L U|
C j
s.b./ oneself. 'j` -L' | Nepali spinach.
See also: 'tsheta peh-k'. | 'prahw tsheema. uL
E j
j w` | di 'paalo U| buckwheat greens.
'he tshee habe-'ra yaah-sin.
j ` tsheera n. | day of lunar
A wL j| This year the potatoes calendar.
grew quite nicely.
` j ` Lk ? 'tihri
j` U | tshee-'ra tsheera 'kahze 'yihm-ba? Ak
meh-be-gen. Ak U| be without
L ? What day of the lunar
restraint. calendar is it today?
j` (j)

U/ j-` j ` j ` L ! 'tihring

U tshee-'ra (tshee) tsheeba yihu kuh 'nahle! Ak
meeh-ba-gi/ tshee-da tshee ! It's the twenty-ninth!
meeh-ba-gi A, A, A| ` j ` , J j
limitless; unrestrained.
j ! 'tihri
{} tsheeba teea tsheera yaahbu 'du, ohle 'thorten
{'yihn} {} {there is a} 'yahr 'theemi phul o-e 'mee-di! Ak
full moon. 'U`' | See also: j, A kF
'namga'. ! Today is an auspicious day, so I
j h/ ` tsheeba tii/ yii, etc. want to go to the stupa to offer butter
HL/ C one/ two days after new lamps.
moon, etc.
j-` tshee-su 'j`' |
j `| tsheeba yihu. See: 'tshensu'.
| 20 days after new moon.
j `-L| tsheeba j tsho n. S| pond; lake.

j- j

j ` t j- tsho squat down; huddle up. ' jU'

nah-la 'ihpsa thaa- | See also: 'pho tshoge'.
S j | reflection on water. j` M- tsho kyahp-
[Gram: intransitive cl.] U| do business.
j-Mk tsho-kyahmdzo n.
j- j`U` 'tshoga n. (o.f.) |
| ocean. shop.
j-Mk j- j j` 'tsho-ba n. |
ML| tsho-kyahmdzo-la businessman.
thu-pahlap thimbu 'kyahp-ken.
j` 'tshoben n. A
w j j| On the ocean | experienced businessman.
there are big waves.
j` - 'tshoro 'uuh-
j- tsho- v.t. gE| herd cattle n |
(take for grazing). have a business
J A j yH | partner.
ohle 'ada-di-ni 'rah 'luuh tsho o-en S` l` j`
'du lo. A kg y-S gE khu daanu 'yihndu-'ra 'tshoro
k U j| And the elder brother 'uuh-sin. E AS
would take the goats and sheep for n H| They are business
grazing. partners since quite a long time.
j L tsho kambu wEL j-
j- tshop- '' | See: 'sem'.
| place names: pond and open space j tshoba 'j' | See:
on the ridge above Sermathang with 'tshoo-ba'.
army barracks.
j tshom n. JS| household
jL (jL) - L tshok (tshok) utensils: big wooden mortar. [Note:
teh-k (W) tML | used for pounding rice or herbal
squat down; huddle up. medicine]
jM tshokpa n. | group. j tshombu n. | household
` `U jM utensils: big pestle (used with 'tshom').
| yohlmo 'mih-'ya-di 'rah j/
j/ j tshombo/ tshombu
'rah-gi tshokpa 'yeh-ba. adj.
L A-A j| 1) HL| nice and fat (used for
Among the Yohlmo people each one is meat).
part of his own group. 2) P HL| fig.u.: unconcerned.
jU j-
j- tshogar tsho-na ` j! 'nomsa
UCLy| place names: Gosainkuna. meeh-ba 'mih tshombu! h j
jU/ gU (
) -
L tshoge/ g HL! The ones who don't think
tsoge (peh-ti) teh-k (E) too much can be without worry. tPML (U)| 3) gS V (L) fig.u.: interesting.

j- j

' j' | See also: 'tam j tshoo-na n. L U

tshombu'. gE , wD A| cerem. foods:
foods (other than the rice statues) to
j- tshor- v.t. E| become
aware; get to know. be offered to the gods.
j -L 'tshora peh-k j {-} tshoo-yen {phul-} n. | give notice. {v.dt.} Q {gE} {give} a donation
for religious purposes.
j- tshol- v.t. Sl| search for.
j- tshoo- v.i. | assemble.
j- tshol- aux. Sl| look for an j/ j tshoo-ba/ tshoba n.
opportunity to perform an action; try
A| cerem. terms: cortege; retinue
to. (of the shaman at a festival).
S l jU | 'kho 'preeh-e j `| tshooba mahbu.
tshol-gu 'du. F V Sl j| I see, A, w | a big retinue.
he is looking for an opportunity to
j ` | tshooba 'yeehmu.
run away.
A, | a small retinue.
j/ j {-} tsholom/ | tshooba ee ter-ken.
j y L
tsholam (W) {ten-} n. {v.t.} E A UC| go in a retinue.
{L} {make} a hair parting. j/ jE tshoo/ tshaw n. k,
'j/ j-' | See: k, | nephew; grandson.
'tshoolam/ tshoo-lahm (E)'.
j j tshoo tshabi
j tshoo n. | descendants.
1) k Ak E L
j (M ) tshooma (kyil) (E)
| cerem. foods: rice statues to be , L g| fontanel. 'g/
offered to the gods. gg M' | See: 'tihtsup/
2) | foods offered to gods and tsihtsup (W)'.
later distributed to the people as a k j y` j L`U|
token of blessings. pehza-'ya thimbu o-wa-'ra tshooma
j Mk h - tshoo 'kah-ge. hg w UH j
'kyahzar tii phul- kj| As the children become
L gE| cerem. terms: offer bigger the fontanel closes up.
one hundred rice statues. k `U j M
j - tshoo phul- Mh `U| pehza-'ya-la
L gE| ceremonies: offer rice tuh-ge-mu tshooma kyil-la 'kyahp-te
statues, some other foods and butter meh-yoh-ge. D t
lamps to the gods. t | When you are beating the

jl` tshoo-a n. U children, you mustn't hit them on the
gE M ky| cerem. foods: fontanel.
whisky or beer to be offered to the j- tshoo-'lahm 'j'
gods. | See: 'tshoolam'.
j jM

/ j- {-} tshoolam/ 'j/ j' | See: 'tsholom/
tshoo-lahm (E) {ten-} n. {v.t.} tsholam (W)'.
E {L} {make} a hair parting.

peh 'koh-en. YL L L U-U
j tha n. ky| pair; matching.
'' | See also: 'hal (N)'. j| You have to do the different
household chores alongside of each
`C j L,
T`| ah-y 'lahmbur 'tha tihn
ten ter-ke, khye-'ra-la. ky y-/ l- 'tha-la o-/ 'aa-
j y- erg. k /
UE L Lj, D| I will
make seven pairs of weaving poles for T| take the rank of s.b. else/ put
you. s.b. in the rank of s.b. else. [Gram:
rank takes gen. <-ki>]
S MU j L | 'kho
yokpu-gi 'tha-la 'teh-ken 'yihm-ba. F SU ` gMU j
LL k j| He is their slave. ll jU | 'kho-gi ah-la 'mih
tsokpa-'ya-gi 'tha-la 'aa-e tshol-gu
T ` Lh j` T` L|
'khya yii-la 'kapta 'tha-'ra khyo 'du. E D jL k
ter-ken. CkD U ky T Sl j| He is trying to get
me involved with bad company.
Cj| I will bring you two exactly
matching outfits. j! tha! excl. Ah| exclamations:
j -L 'tha peh-k expressing disapproval; shooing away ky E| associate (e.g. dog).
with. [Gram: associate takes j ! Ly U `V! 'tha
<yambu/ yimbu>] rooh! 'kahnumu 'yihgi ta-'gyo! j,
J ` j , S ` L gv wHj! Oh dear, what an
! ooh 'mih 'yambu 'tha awful letter he sent!
mah-be, 'kho peh-ta yaahbu
jL-j/ jk thak-tshul/
mihn-du. U ky F, thazul n.
EL wL j! Don't associate 1) , AL| contour (of landscape).
with that person, his habits are not 2) L g| costume (legendary).
J VU U Lh jk
j 'tha-babap U
j | ooh 'gyaa-gi piihmi-'ya-gi
U| alongside of each other; side by 'kapta thazul yaahbu 'du. wEL
side (e.g. go side by side; do things
LtL - j| The
alongside of each other). women of that place wear a nice kind
S`U H j LH| of costume.
'khabagi 'leeh 'ma-en-di 'tha-babap
jM thakpali n. t`U|
j` jM
insects and worms: grasshopper. of 'thepa phul-']
j` tha n. | alcoholic j (j) -L thap
beverage. (thap) peh-k U
j` - tha ten- E| arrange neatly.
M | distill alcoholic beverages. J tC g `C j
j` `` j S- tha M| ohle 'ohlma-y 'tsa ah-y thap
thu-'na tshee peh khuu- peh ter-'kyo. A tL Y M | be U CH| And I arranged
temperate; be sober. Dolma's (load of) cattle fodder neatly.
m-U tha-gi 'zi- g
j`U m- j j/ j j
thap | get thap/ thep thep peh-ti
drunk. tH | stick together in a
j`U L tha-gi uk-la pair. [Usage: usually said of people] ML | in (his)
drunkenness. j j -L thap thop
j`k` {-L} thadzo peh-k j U|
{peh-k-} n. {v.t.} {U} defile ritually clean things with
{run} a business with alcoholic unclean ones.
beverages. g j j L| 'tsiibu 'thap
'thop peh-ken. kw j U| put
j`- tha-'lu n. U (
unclean and clean things together.
UE U) song for
L k
entertainment (without dancing). h j j U| topta
j` thasiwa n. ky| 'thap 'thop sah-gen. kw S| eat
drunkard. from other people's plates.

j` j`/ j` j` thaa j {} thap {du} adj./ adv.

thue/ tshaa tshue adj. {cop.} ky {} it's an even number.
A-A, -, | j j t``, k L
insignificant; ordinary. 'Lh, ' t` `! 'thap 'thap 'ah-do,
| See also: 'keta, tehnda'. dzol-di kar mah-ah yah! ky ky
U, ky U ! Count by
jk thazul 'jL-j' | twos, without making any mistakes!
See: 'thak-tshul'.
jM (`) thapkya (-'ra)
jt/ jt thaa/ thea pp. -U, -| together with; all
'U' | See: 'nam-gi'. at once.
j M- thap kyahp- L jM` LVU U gS jL| cerem. `U| 'kosa 'thapkya-'ra
terms: sprinkle ritually pure water onto kam-'gyo-gi tamra roli-gi tuh-ge.
the house altar, etc. [Note: usually LHL L LD Ltj|
done 3 times, with a fir twig; it is part Beans dried in the pods are threshed

jM j-

with a piece of wood. j j thama thome n| glittering;
jM thapkyi (W) n. g,
sparkling; glorious.
L| behaviour; circumstances.
` jM J | j M
thame kyiihme
'yih arpa 'thapkyi ooh 'leehmu A- HL, Ak|
'nahle. L | This unintelligibly.
is how we Sherpas do it.
j M- thamba (E)
j` thapsa (E+W) n. (hon. kyahp- U V| catch a
of 'thaara/ thaaza') g cold. 'j' | See: 'themba
(t.) outhouse. (W)'.
j` - 'thapsa-la j t- 'thamba 'aah-
'phep- (hon. of 'phi-la U L | recover
o-') U k (t.) go to from a cold. [Gram: exp. takes gen.
the bathroom. <-ki>]
j thapi n. g, L| `U j t| ah-gi
behaviour; circumstances. 'thamba 'aah-sin. U L | I
recovered from my cold.
J j `L`
k J`UV! ooh 'thapi jU m`- 'thamba-gi zu-
'lahm peh-na-ni yi-ka-'ra thimbu U V| catch a cold.
'dzamu oh-gen-'gyi! U [Gram: the cold takes the erg. <-ki>;
cf. neutral word order for inanim.
U j M! If you do it that
way, then both will bear up with each actors, appendix 5, section 21.2]
other! ` jU m`| ah-la
'thamba-gi zu-sin. D U t|
'thapi peh-ti
j L| by this method. I caught a cold.

j 1 tham (E) n. L| floor j-

j- thar- v.i. A (
board; board (big size). '' | nP L g A
See: 'phyam (W)'. ) possess (ancestral or
other spirits possessing people).
jy M- 'tham-i (E)
'kyahp- L JjE| j J`- 'thar oh-
house parts: lay floor boards. '' A | take
possession of s.b. [Gram: goal takes
| See: 'phyamri (W)'.
j 2 tham n. g| dance S j, J S j`
(religious dance). L| 'kho-la 'lha
j- tham- v.i. h| dance. 'thar-sin, ohle 'kho 'tho-di 'tuhrsa-la
', ' | See also: kahl-sin. E E g, A F y
'ahpru, mih thoo-la'. g U| A god took possession of
him, and he ran to the burning place
j- j

for the dead. straight into; straight at.

M ` j J`U | 'baati 'thare
j L
| 'mehme 'i-'kyo-'ya 'yih-la par-ken. L L | shine light
'thar-te oh-ge 'nahle. L kL straight at s.b.
AEj| The spirits j - - 'thare ta-
-/ j -
of the ancestors come and take (E)/ 'thar ta- (W)
possession of us. HL | look straight into.
j- thar- v.t. jL`
tharku n. Y| rain shield.
1) tV, (k, ny) hoist [Note: made of fine bamboo strips and
(flags). worn over the head and back like a
2) jL, jLE| ladle; splutter raincoat]
(when ladling '-' |
j-M - thar-kyal thuu-
See also: 'phyar-'. L | come to
AU J jL/ L | one's end (death).
'ama-gi 'ohma 'thar-ku/ phyar-ku 'du.
A EL gE j| j {M-} tharpa {kyahp-}
Mother is ladling the milk (to keep it n. {v.i.} n | longlasting heavy
from boiling over). rainfall.
3) hE| put s.b. down (fig.). ` j gM M! 'tihri
'tharpa tsokpa 'kyahp-sin! Ak
t jh ` ` LU,
J SU ` j j yH| ah-la n ! Today it keeps raining
'thar-te-la ser 'ul mahbu kehn-ge, heavily!
ohle 'kho-gi 'tho-di 'tshap 'tshup j thal n. (hon. of 'ehpa') t
o-en. tD hE g (t.) stomach.
Ej, A S F jttj| To put j/ t- thal/ 'ahl 'ee-
down an adversary you put on lots of (hon. of 'ehpa too-')
gold and silver, and when he sees it, L V (t.) be hungry.
he gets agitated. j t t| 'yibi thal 'ee
j -/ g- thar tahp-/ 'yeh-o. kAD L V |
tsahr- jtE| rain water Grandmother is probably hungry.
falls down from a roof. 'l' j {M-} thalu {kyahp-}
| See also: 'thiiar'. n. {v.t.} L {UE} {put on}
j L V ` LH| costume.
'thar 'tahp-ken 'gyaa-la toh 'ti
j 1 thaa n. (hon. of 'lahkpa')
'koh-en. jt wE `U
(t.) hand.
jEj| Where the rain water
`U k
from the roof falls down you must lay
M MU j |
stone slabs. yohlmu 'luhba-gi 'mehndo 'name
j thare adv. HL, | 'naze-'ya 'thoo-di 'kyahlbu 'kyahlmu-gi
j jk-

thaa-la phul-sin. UL deceased person will not cling to the

H k D gH| The living people.
people of Helambu brought all sorts
j M- thaa kyahp-
of flowers and presented them to the Su h, S y| crease
king and queen. thoroughly by treading on it.
jl - thaa-i phul- h Lh S j M L? (hon. of 'rooh peh-k') ti-be 'kapta 'kha-la thaa 'kyahp
U (t.) help. 'teh-ken? L Jj S yL? Why
j- thaa-'yih n. (hon. of are you trampling around on the
'yihgi') AQ, gx (t.) letter. bed-clothes?
j 2 thaa (E) n. | fertilizer. j/ j j-
j- thaa (E)/ tshaa
[Note: a mixture of dry leaves and (W) tshal- V (Yy

cattle dung] ', h' |
tL , Yt ) cerem. terms: bow
See also: 'liih, tohwa'. down to honour gods or venerated
j/ jk` thaa-raa (W)/ persons.
thaa-za (E) n. g| outhouse.
'j`' | See also: j/
/ j- thaador/
'thapsa'. thaa-tor n. L | names of
deities: god who has a human skin
j- 1 thaa- v.i. g| break wrapped around him and a snake in
(other than rope-like things). 'j-L' his mouth.
| See also: 'the-k'. j U LU tV J`U|
j- 2 thaa- v.i. thaador 'mih-gi kooba-gi 'il-'gyo
1) , t | become; come into oh-ge. jL L j
existence. j| "thaador" is wrapped with
` ` l j, l j| human skin.
tahbu tahbu sa-i thaa, nam-di
j M- thaane kyahp-
thaa. k t , AL A U (Q TD)
t | Long ago the earth came ceremonies: dedication ceremony
into existence, and the sky came into performed to protect from evil
existence. influences. [Note: The lamas say
2) (C, y) | leave a trace. mantras over grains and flip them
'h j-' | See also: into the air with well-wishings for the
'tehlap thaa-'. cling to ' religious monument and the people.
j-' | See also: 'sem This ritual is part of 'rahmne'.]
M U jk-
k-L` thaandza-kah n.
jU| 'i-'kyo 'mih-gi sem sombu wEL | place names: small
'mih-la meeh-tha-gen. kE settlement between asyi-Thang and
jU | The spirit of the Kahng-Yuhl.

j j

j thaabe n. (hon. of 'pea') jU y -

- thima-gi
L (t.) cerem. utensils: book yahnen thop- Ut
(religious). O | be released from hell. 'j
j' | See also: 'tshe
j(U) j thaa-be(-gi)
thaa-rap E, t () thima'.
the coming into existence (of j` thima n. L| saliva.
inanimate things).
j thimi n. jZ` (wEL
j thaama (E) n. Lg| broom. ) place names: village about 20
j h- thaama 'tooh- minutes walk north of Sermathang Lg E, | sweep the (Chhimighyang).
floor. ' -' | See:
j thimba n. Lk| liver.
'phyaama phyaa- (W)'.
j/ j/ j thimbu/
j / j thaa-len (E)/ thumbu/ thombo adj. w| big;
thaa-le (W) n. (hon. of 'leeh') L important. [Gram: no excl. form (see
(t.) work. appendix 5, section1.2); in excl.
h j U `M contexts 'thewa/ thowa' or
? 'yahmbu-la ti thaalen-gi 'phep 'kah-thewa/ kah-thowa' are
na-'gyo leh? Lyy L L likely to be used]
HL ? For what purpose did m- thimbu 'zo-
j m-
you come to Kathmandu? w E, Yy
j -L thi-k v.i. | end up (in a SE| be arrogant; be proud; be
location; negative conn.). unapproachable. 'j j -'
l jL| 'del-la 'thi-ken. | See also: 'theendo
k | end up in prison. thimbu ten-'.
` jL| 'yalwa-la j thir-la pp. (lamaistic)
'thi-ken. U | end up in hell.
, j| for this purpose;
j-MU thi-kyahl-gi afterwards. [Gram: purpose takes gen.
mih n. (lamaistic) | foreigner. <-ki>]
j- thip- v.i. (lamaistic) g U j S
(Yy A) ride. mM| 'lop-tam-gi 'thir-la di rohwa
tam kharpe 'zo-'kyo. A L
j thiba n./ adj. | outsider. ES HL | He made this
j `V 'thiba sagye illustration for the purpose of
(lamaistic) S | open teaching.
(non-secretive) religion. [Note: U U -` M
Hinduism and Christianity = 'thiba
t t L, JU j
sagye'] '` `V' |
t`U L ML| paahma-gi
See also: 'nah-ba sagye'. 'sagun-la 'nama samba-da 'mahkpa

j j

samba 'ahl iih-di teh-ken, ooh-gi {then-/ soo-} n. {v.i.} YEt

'thir-la 'aga 'kohpa 'kyahp-ken. {L/ k} watery pus {come out/
L t HL wE gather}.
j, j E AHL jM V j U| 'meh
ED U UCj| On 'tshii-'kyo 'gyaa-la thiiser then-gen.
the day after the wedding the new AU L YEt Lj| In
couple sit on their assigned places, burns watery pus appears.
and then the money is devided among
j thu n. | water; stream.
them equally.
j L {M -/ M T-}
j ` thisal nahsal thu 'kula {'kyuhr-/ 'kyuhr-ti t, | truthful; 'khyer-} {v.t.} L L {S
honestly; transparent. } {redirect/ establish} irrigation
J H j canals.
` `! 'toohri ooh-la 'ma-en j L thu 'kolmu L|
'bela 'thisal nahsal 'mee-do! water hole.
S ! When you j Ml thu 'kyeu (E+W)
talk there later this day tell things L | spring water.
truthfully! thu 'huma (W)
j w`
`- 'thisal
j ` `- L | spring water.
nahsal 'tho- t T| y- thu 'thoo-da
j y-
perceive clearly (in a moral sense). 'thoo o-
U gM h M, | float on water.
J`U j ` ` SH| j-g` thu-'tsabu n. ,
'mih-'ya-gi 'leeh tsokpa yaahbu ti S| river.
peh-'kyo, ohra-gi 'thisal nahsal j thuda n. Yu| water-mill.
'tho khuu-en. j L j- thuda-'luh
k UL j t T Mj| We k| place names: Sundarijal.
can perceive clearly whether people's j-M thu-dakpa n. YtE,
works are good or bad. Yt| mill owner.
j J`-/ y- y- thiiser oh-/ j-/ j thu-'pahl/
o- L | become thubal n. E| black or dark green
useless; meritless. scum in water.
j ` j yH| j- {M-} thu-pahlap
'thepa ta-di-le 'tehpa looh-na {'kyahp-} n. {v.i.} j {AE} {there
thiiser o-en. U j U are} waves.
L j| If we offer something as a g` j- ML|
gift and regret it afterwards, it is 'tsabu 'suhr-la thu-pahlap
useless ( becomes meritless). 'kyahp-ken. SL jE j AEj|
At the edge of the river there are
j {-/ -} thiiser
jM j-

waves. j thuptal n. yy A
j thumi n. L () ED T Lw| house parts:
source (water spring). carved board under the roof.
jV/ jl thumgyar j thupal n. U
(E)/ thumdar (W) n. n| T UL n| cerem.
waterfall. utensils: tassel. [Note: used when
-U thu-la
j - counting prayers with prayer beads]
'nuhp-ti 'i-g
y | drown. j thuba n. MS| clothing:

j thulum n. | spring Tibetan dress; cloak-like garment for

(man-made facility with some kind of women and men. [Note: men do not
a spout). wear it much nowadays]
j-` () thu-'luh(ba) n. SU j j E ! 'kho-gi
S| stream. thuba-la 'tshul 'tuh-w 'du! E
j-` thu-sah n. T MS k E j! Oh, he is
making a fold in the tibetan dress!
Z| household utensils: large copper
vessel for storing water. j thubal 'j-' |
See: 'thu-pahl'.
jM thukpu adj. | rich.
j`-/ j` thu-/ thua j thumbu 'j' | See:
'h`-' | See: 'tu-'. 'thimbu'.

j` thuma n. | wife jg thurtsa n. kyt| trees:

(used in common speech). ' small bush growing at high altitude.
| See also: 'piihmi'. [Note: its bulbous roots are dug to be
used as medicine]
/ jk thuzi/ thuze (T) n.
| time; hour. j- thuu- v.i. , , `U |
dissolve; be spoiled. ', ' |
J jk ` A` L H
See also: 'mipa, tee'.
Jk yl
E |
ooh thuzi-la da 'aa 'Sitar-ki ta-e ` yH k h
'bela-le "ohze-la ii-e 'du" 'mee-di g ` ` U `
'ma-w 'du lo. k j | pohmbo paahna-la o-en
wL j | 'bele pehza tii 'tsiira 'la-di iih-di
They said, when uncle Sitar looked up pohmbo-gi 'mi'pa 'sop thuu-de lo.
this time yesterday, he said it would nP HEt hg ghgH
be alright Hj, A `U | When the
shaman did his concentrated
jk - thuzi yaahbu ta-
- | look up an meditation, a child started screaming,
auspicious time. [Note: done by lamas and his concentration was gone, they
looking up in the 'lihdo'] said.

j! j

j! the! excl. j! exclamations: jL` theku 'L`' | See:

expressing disgust; dissapproval. 'kuu'.
j! h J ` hM! 'the! jM`/
`/ jM` `
tibe 'ohma 'pu tuu-'kyo! j! thekyo/ thekyo suma
L SHL! What a '`' | See: 'suma'.
waste, what made you spill the milk?!
jl` theu n. w-
j -L 1 the-k v.i. g y| break (of (E), L| size.
rope-like things). 'j-, -L/-U j-L,
L jl` J`U|
L j-L' | See also: lekam-'ya 'the-u tee-di 'rihn oh-ge.
'thaa-, -ku~-gu the-k, koh
k w j|| The
the-k'. price of shoes is according to their
j -L 2 the-k v.t. (hon. of 'sah-' size.
and 'thu-') S, E (t.) eat; S` jl` J w
drink. `lU ` L | 'khaba
jh 'thete n. (hon. of 'sahe 'the-u tee-di ooh-la habe
seeh') S, A (t.) food. da-de-gi tohbo 'tahp-ti ter-ken.
`U jh j| S Cj| They look at the size of
ohle 'kyahlbu 'kyahlmu-gi yohlmu the house and measuring the trees,
'luhba-gi 'the-te-'ya 'sipi 'sipi they give the corresponding amount
'the-sin. A k UL of wood.
SL A A S| And jt/
/ j-w thei/ the-hi n.
then the king and queen tasted a little
| altar (in house).
bit of Helambu food.
/ j-w theimba/
j -L 3 the-k v.t. nE| the-himba n. AU (
appease; pacify gods. [Note: with
) religious leader.
appropriate offerings; not used for
demons] [Gram: undg. does not take jt theo n. (poetic) |
<-la>] heart-friend.
J U, j LH S `U `U jt U |
| ohle pohmbo-gi-ni, 'kho ah-gi tahbu-gi 'theo 'yihn-gen
"yalmu 'the 'koh-e" 'mee-di 'ma-sin 'nahle. F EL | Oh,
'du-ba. A nP, nPD he is a former close friend of mine.
nEj j| I learned that j-w the-hi 'jt' | See:
then the shaman said, "The female 'thei'.
forest spirit must be pacified."
j-w the-himba 'jt'
jL` theka n. Y| altar (in | See: 'theimba'.
j thet p. D U
j j

| vocatives: vocative used for gods yune').

(when placating them). '' j LU U U
| See also: 'it'. h SL| 'thepa karpu-gi
H j! ! H, J 'laagi-la 'yuhl-ba-'ya-gi 'paalo peh-ti
kU L AU, j! ! 'tiba khur-ken. EL
`, ` `! H| to sah-e k-AkL U UE U
'bele "'thet! 'it!" 'ma-e, ohle pehza-gi k j| For the "white" festivals
'kaldo-la 'ama-gi, "'thet! 'it!! the villager take turns in being
'ahm-di, da-di so!" 'mee-di 'ma-e. responsible for the provisions.
SS 'j! !' j, A j M 'thepa 'nahkpu
hgL U A, 'j! ! Lk P | festivals: religious
AYH H kF!' j| Before festivals which are celebrated in
eating we say, "teht! it!", and for the connection with death (e.g.
share of the children the mother says, 'kyehwa').
"thet! it! Be satisfied, have enough, j M hU L/ `U|
and leave!" 'thepa 'nahkpu tihnda-gi peh-ken/
ta-ge. Lk P kk Uj| For the
j j thep thep 'j
j' | See: 'thap thap'. "black" festivals the adherents
concerned are responsible for the
j h thepa tala n. expenses.
L | cerem. utensils: the
instruments of the lamas needed for j
thepen n. L g
worship ceremonies ('thowa k ( kL U) lamaisms:
tagen'). head lama's peon. [Note: fourth rank in
the lamaistic hierarchy, performs
j - thepa phul- services and plays the 'lahba'] k U| ceremonies:
-L 'thepen peh-k
worship ritual performed at the house kL U|
altar or at the altar in the 'kohmba'. lamaisms: perform the duties of a peon.
[Note: consists of: 'yehnda phul-,
ukpa tuu-, thap kyahp-' and j(j j)/ j -L
'thaa (sum) tshal-'] thep (thep thep)/ thebe
teh-k gg ,
j (`) `-
`- thepa g | become quiet.
(sihda) ta- , j j j | 'thep 'thep
E| festivals: {celebrate} a religious 'thep 'du. j| Oh, it's quiet!
festival involving the community. j/ h - 'thep/ 'tehp
j L 'thepa karpu 'naa- , | suppress
E| festivals: religious festivals (e.g. anger).
which are not connected with death
(e.g. 'tshiiu, naahra, kuwar, j thebe 'j (j j)'
| See: 'thep (thep thep)'.
j j

j theme adv. k| altogether; 'the-ro (peh-ti) o- '-/-y/-t...'

the whole lot. | See: '-ro~-o~-o...'.
S M h` l` j 'the-'le '-/-' |
j l | 'khawa 'kyahp-ti-ni See: '-le~-lee'.
tada thamdi-'ra 'theme ril 'aa j 'the-'se '-/-' |
'du. E L yCSj| See: '-se~-see'.
The one snowfall has completely j 'the-o '-' | See:
flattened all the barley. '-o'.
j - themba sihn- (W) j 1 thee n. U V| catch a cold. 1) L, | religious book;
'j' | See: 'thamba (E)'. scriptures.
j t- 'themba 'aah- (W) 2) | teaching (religious); U L | recover religion.
from a cold. [Gram: exp. takes gen. `- 'thee dal na-
j l `-
<-ki>] (hon. of 'thee aah-')
j thembel n. OL | | read scriptures.

names: personal name, m. j t- 'thee 'aah-
| pursue studies (primarily
U/ -U religious).
the-rihmba-gi/ -rimba-gi `- 'thee na-
j `-
wS PU | one after the other (hon. of 'thee lop-') |
(starting with the biggest or oldest); give teaching.
as increasing with age or size. j -L 'thee peh-k
` k j-U ` Ak U (
yE | 'yih pehza-'ya-ni V) engage in religious
'the-'rihmba-gi noh-di ow 'du. studies.
hg U UCj| Our
U `- 'thee 'lo-
j `-
children get spoiled one by one.
S| search (examine) the
j `-
`- thewa ta- 'j' religious books.
| See: 'thowa'. j - 'thee 'uh-
(elevated) UD Q A U|
/ j thewa/ thowa n./
adj. kw, kw| older; bigger. request/ get instruction (religious).
'L-j/ L-j' | See `U j j ,
also: 'kah-thewa/ kah-thowa'. `U SH| ah-gi lama
thimbu-la 'thee 'iih-di 'yeh-ba,
jk 'the-ze '-g/-k' | See:
ah-gi 'se miih-khu-en. w U
L Q j , L
j T 'the-raa 'khyer-ti
'- T' | See: '-raa 'khyer-ti'. M| I am receiving instruction
from an important lama, I am not
j j (
) y- 'the-ro
) y-
j j

allowed to kill anything. W | get

j - 'thee ee- religious wisdom.
Q | be able to read the j 2 thee n. E| tree twigs
religious books. with leaves for animal fodder.
jU 'thee-gi pudi U j L | 'nuhmu-gi 'thee
L w| volume (of a book). 'tup-ku 'du. E Lt j|
[Note: usually each volume is wrapped Oh, little sister is cutting animal
up in a yellow cloth] fodder!
j-l 'thee-pea 'l' j 'theero n. nk E|
| See: 'pea'. brushwood (twigs without leaves).
j-w 'thee-him n. L
| religious law; religious j- thee- v.i.
tradition. 1) U| dress up in a costume for a
performance; take an actor's role.
`- 'thee-him ta-
j-w `- L | guard 2) Q | side up with; unite
the religious traditions. together. [Gram: associate takes
<yambu/ yimbu/ oo-le>]
/ j g- 'theedam/
'theendam 'tsuu- ` ` j L
L A E| have religious `U jE ! peema-ni ah
debates. [Gram: actor + actor + oo-le 'thee 'koh-ba-la-ni lehmen 'mih
nahla +] oo-le-'ga 'thee-w 'du! Q
j 'thee-ba/ 'thee-ne
/ j ALL Q j!
n. wL| person trained in reading the Peema really should side up with me,
religious books. but here, she is siding up with
` J j tU j Lk somebody else!
? 'tihri ooh-la 'thee 'aah-ge `U h L, S` U`
'theene 'kahze 'du-ba? Ak wL j J` ! ah-'ga tii 'yehken,
L j? How many readers are khu-ni 'pheebe sum-ga-'ra 'thee-di
there today, reading the religious oh 'du-ba! HM H, E k
books? AHj! Here I was all by
j- 'thee-'lu n. k| religious myself, but three of them came
song; hymn. against me all at once!
{`-/ -} j-E thee-u n. OL |
'thee-'luh {na-/ 'uh-} n. {v.t.} names: personal name, m.
L {/ U} (t.)
M- theega {kyahp-} n.
{give/ get} religious instruction. {v.t.} U U| put on a costume.
j {/ -L} 'thee-sem

{'yeh-k/ peh-k} n. {cop./v.t.} j
theenam n. OL |
names: personal name.
{/ U} {be} religious.
- 'thee-sem thop-
- j
theene 'j
' | See:
jk j`-

'theeba'. 'sipi(-i) (E), sipa(-i) (W),

jk theendzom n. OL
| names: personal name. j

theelen n. OL |
names: personal name, m.
jy theenu n. Aj| cerem.
terms: grain offering. jL `L -- thok yohk
j - theendo ten- ma- g g L k SE, Yy U| | talk nonsense. [Gram: addressee
pretend. takes <poh-la>]
yl ` ` h j jL `L `l U/
LH!? o-e 'yimbu 'yimbu-la ti t`U| 'thok yohk maha-i
'theendo ten 'koh-en!? Dhj H 'ma-gen/ 'ah-gen. A |
talk a lot of nonsense.
L ! Since you really want to go,
why do you pretend that you don't jM/
jM/ jL-
jL-jL thokpa/
want to go?! thok-thok pp. P L L
j j - 'theendo UD V | free to do;
thimbu ten- Yy qualified to do; fit to do. [Usage:
U, t| be arrogant; proud; whatever the vs expresses] [Gram:
unapproachable. vs+pp.]
j {-} theemi {phul-} n. S h l y jL-jL
{v.dt.} {} (t.) cerem. yH| khurpu 'tee sihn phando o
terms: {place} butter lamps on an 'thok-'thok o-en. tLj
altar. D j| When you have
finished getting the load ready, then
j l- 'theemi ee-
you may leave.
| burn; glow. [Usage: of
butter lamps.] ` J -jM | ah ooh
'leeh peh-'thokpa 'yeh. L
- 'theemi 'nal-
j -
| go out. [Usage: of butter UD V j| I am qualified to do
lamps.] that work.
` y-jM | ah
j theemu adj. | small; 'Barma-la o-'thokpa 'yeh.
tender; soft (of sounds). [Gram: no () k V j| I am fit to go to
excl. form (see appendix 5, India.
section1.2); in excl. contexts 'thua/
tua' are likely to be used] j`-
j`- tho- v.i. y| run away.
' j`-' | See also: 'phir
jl 'theemu-i qt. | a
small quantity of a sticky mass. [Note: tho-'.
e.g. 'to, sehn, polda, dakpa; top j` j` g-U 'tho 'tho
khuu-en-gi seeh'] '(l), 'tse-g y U
(l), l' | See also: U| compete in running. [Usage: any

j j

activity can be substituted] financial matters). [Usage: 'thol o-'

j` j` gH MU/ is also very common]
U| 'tho 'tho 'tse-en 'bela-le t`U ` j| 'aga
'kyahl-gen/ 'pham-gen. y U di-di-la-'ra 'thol-sin. A gO
k/ k | win/ lose a race. | With this payment we have
y- 'tho-di o-
j` y- become even. y k| run. 3) U ( hg HL) go bad
(of eggs).
j thodo n. Jw, | lips;
bird beak. j {M-} tholo {kyahp-}
n. {v.t.} {S} cerem. utensils: dice
j/ l thop/ dop intens.
with little holes {throw}. [Note: used
LgML, LgML| intensifier for
'tohp-, top-. to look up fortune]
j/ l h L! j - tholdam lahp-
pela-'ya 'thop/ 'dop 'top-ti ter-ken! E| be delirious.
y LgML LhhC j! I am j/
j/ j `-
`- thowa/
going to batter your things! thewa ta- kw U|
j thombo 'j' | ceremonies: worship ceremony offered
See: 'thimbu'. to 'kindo' or 'lha'. [Note: includes
ritual reading of the scriptures,
thorten n.
1) | stupa. [Note: monument ringing bells and playing instruments;
erected in the name of one's ancestors performed during festivals and other
to gain merit for the ancestors and for occasions]
the builder] L` `U S` j
2) | place names: Maha `U| 'kasu ta-gen 'bela-le
Bauddha. 'khaba-la 'thowa ta-gen. L
h` S 'thorten
j nE Y kw Uj| During the
'tahru 'khaor (poetic) 'kasu' ritual a worship ceremony is
performed at the home (which is
(U ) place names: stupa temple
in Bauddha. being put under protection.)

j- thol- v.i. j thoo n. | direction.
1) , jgL| shake back and j y 'thoo ombu
forth (liquid in a container). A wEL | visitors from other
villages. [Usage: at festivals]
M ` J j L U |
nekyi nah-la 'ohma 'thol-di 'kee j 'thoo thata
ten-gu 'du. y jgL j| kL| wherever.
The milk in the container is sloshing j - 'thoo 'ruhp-
back and forth. Q | side with s.b. [Usage: in an
2) t | become even (in argument or fight]

j- k`

jU 'thoo-gi 'mih `U S ` jM| ah-gi 'kho

A wEL j| people from other 'yambu 'thoo-'kyo. EL Q
villages. [Usage: at festivals] HL| I sided up with him.
j -L 'thoo-ri peh-k 2) E| comprise Q U| side with s.b; S `U h` j SH|
show partiality. di khurpu ah-gi lehma tii-la-'ra
'thoo khuu-en. HL gt
j- thoo- v.t.
1) Q | side up with. [Gram: Mj| I can carry this load in one
comitative takes <yambu/ trip.

kE dzaw (N) n. k| barley.
kE L ` J`U| 'dzaw-la k`/
`/ k`(`) dzapra/
'kahma mahbu oh-ge. k ty
dzabra (yii) n. | (one)
j| The ears of barley have many couple (husband and wife).
hairs. k` (`) -L dzapra
kU -L dzagar (N) peh-k (yii) peh-k V w, A AE| , U| have sexual
be naughty; be in a tantrum. intercourse; mate. [Usage: for small
animals such as birds, mice, dogs]
k` dza '`-' | See:
'yah-'. k/
k/ g ` dzabya (E)/
tsahbya (W) i CL
k` k` - dza dza tiih- LwL Uw| handicrafts:

'' | See: 'meh'. beautiful reddish wood. [Note: used to
k` k` dzaa dzue make the 'pharko']
gg (E A) one peak after k/ g L 'dzabya/
another. 'tsahbya pharko LwL UwL
k` k` | 'lah 'dzaa 'dzue | household utensils: small
'du. AV gg j| There is a row silver-lined wooden bowl. [Note: made
of peaks. of costly red wood; used for drinking
M k` k` | 'mukpa 'dzaa liquids]
'dzue then 'du. L j | k dzamu '' | See:
There are cumulus clouds. 'thimbu'.
k dzadi n. kC| spices: nutmeg. k`/
`/ k-` dzambuli/
k dzandiwa (N) n. k, k| dzambu-li n. , | world.
marriage: procession of the T k`U `

k k`U

Ll ` ! 'khya k dzaru n. yy| cooking utensils:

'dzambuli-gi 'mih-'ya ah 'leehmu bowl-shaped metal ladle.
peh-ti kindo-la solwa yaahbu 'top!
kL kL -L dzalak dzilik
L k D peh-k tML tL|
| You people of the
U glitter.
world pray fervently to God as I do.
k- 1 dzaa- v.i. g| climb up;
k dzamma (N) qt. k| all. ascend.
k dzara n. Sk| snack. ` L k| ah 'kema 'dzaa-sin.
k M (L)U| 'dzara EL g| I climbed up the slope.
'thukpa ('kol-di) sah-gen. Sk S ` ` k| ah tohbo-la
H S| have soup for a snack. 'dzaa-sin. S g| I climbed unto
k 'dzarsa temp. Sk S | the tree.
snack time. [Note: 13.00 - 15.00]
k- 2 dzaa- v.i. g| drip; leak.
`- U j L k | thu-ni 'phok
l ` kk 'dzaa 'du lo. gHj | The
T` yU | 'yih-ar-la 'ahlgar water had all leaked out.
'temrel peh phando-ni 'mahr-le
M kE | di nekyi 'dzaa-w 'du.
'yahr-ni 'yihma 'dzarsa-ze-le
y g j| Oh, this pot is
khyo-na ii-gen. Lh leaking.
U Uj (D) t Sk
S H j| If we k dzaatar (N) n. k (nP
present the ceremonial gifts at the UD U C E)
auspicious time of sunrise, then they festival organized by shamans.
may bring her from down there up k - 'dzaatar (N) ten-
here around the afternoon snack time. SE, k U|
make a commotion; have a festival.
- 'dzarsa 'phi-yohl
k - Sk S Z| late k`-
k`- dzi- v.i. L U, nnUy U|
snack time. quarrel.
k -A` L , h k`V V M-w L U
k l ! 'dzarsa 'phi-yohl-'a w L| dzi-'gyo 'gyaa-la
kahl-sin 'du, ti 'dzara sah-e taah-ni! 'kyahl-him peh-ken 'mih-gi him
Sk S UCLj, L Sk S peh-ken. nUy L wE
A! The snack eating time is over; L L Uj| When there are
let's not eat anything now! quarrels the government authorities
k {M-} dzari (N) {kyahp-} judge the case.
n. {v.i.} jt {AE}, n {} k`U -
- dziga or-
{be/ have} a rain shower; rain nUy | fight breaks
continuously. out.

k- k-

k- dzin- '' | See: V| have leprosy. [Usage: not very
'temba'. common]
k- dzir- v.i. E, g| seep k - 'dzene 'lune then-
through; have a slow leak. (coll.) LtU V| have
leprosy. [Usage: commonly used
j U kL | thu
'phumba-le-gi 'dzir-ku 'du. expression]
Zt E j| The water k dzetap n. (hon. of 'thap') E,
seeps through the clay pot. kO (t.) solution; means.
- 'dzire peh-ti ta-
k - k` UA SHU HL | stare at. k h | di 'dzambuli-la
- 'dzir-ti ta-
k - 'su-gi-'aa 'laa meh-'kha-e-gi 'dzetap tii
AS | stare at. 'yeh-ba. ( U)
-k -dzi '-l' | See: '-di'. L U M HEt E j|
There is a solution (to this problem),
kU/ k/ k/ kU dzugu/ dzuu/ which nobody in this world can
dzubi/ dzugi n. K, AU| master.
finger; toe. 'M k, L` k'
| See also: 'lahkpa dzuu, kaba k dzen (N) adv. n| more; even
dzuu'. more.

k`/ k`/ m` dzu/ dzo (E)/ -k -dzeba '-g' | See:

zo (W) n. | work utensils: chisel. '-tseba'.
[Note: for wood carving, with flat k dzem n. jL, L, gCt|
blade] splinter.
k dzubi 'kU' | See: 'dzugu'. k- dzem- v.t. U| avoid;
be on one's guard. 'S k-' |
k dzubru n. gL j| calf
(young, female 'dzomo'). See also: 'kha dzem-'.
k - 'dzembu peh-ti
k dzumu 'k' | See: , U| carefully;
'dzomo'. watchfully. ', g' | See
k dzuu 'kU' | See: 'dzugu'. also: 'tembu, tsembu (W)'.
h k , t
k -L dze-k v.t. (hon. of 'peh-k') U
ML! topta 'dzembu peh-ti
(t.) do.
'soh, 'ehpa 'suh 'kyahp-ko-'wah! S
U l HU kL |
lama-'ya-gi ta-e 'ma-e-gi semba U S, t T| Be careful
what you eat, otherwise you might
'dze-ku 'du-ba. U
get a stomach ache!
j| The lamas said they would like
to have a look at it. k dzerpa n. , Lw| wart.
k - dze then- LtU k- dzel- v.i. tP L| come

k` k

off in small pieces. k` k` dzo dzo adj.

kU| 'semu dzel-gen. ` g| ALL| conical.
fingernails breaking off.
k` dzoo n. ghg HL t|
kU| 'a dzel-gen. ` k| clothing: fancy conical hat.
callous skin coming off in small
pieces. k dzop n. C (C
A At At EwE )
k` dzelma n. jL, L| measures and weights: scoopful (using
small splinter. both hands to scoop up
` M ` k`U | M `U k L` H| 'he
ah 'lahkpa-la i dzelma-gi 'suuh-di. 'lahkpa yii-gi 'dzop 'kah 'tuh-en.
LwL L nj| I got a A EwEj| With both
wood splinter in my hand! hands I will scoop up some potatoes.
dzeebu 'l' | See: k M- dzop (N) kyahp-
'darpu'. k E| talk back to.
kL kL kL - L dzok dzok k M-M g-U 'dzop
dzok teh-k At 'kyahp-'kyahp 'tse-g
| sit in a daze (undisturbable!). U| argue with each other
for a prolongued time. ' j k
kL -L dzok teh-k gML | sit down M-' | See also: 'phar
(intensified). tshur dzop kyahp-'.
` S` k M-M
kM/ kM` dzoku/ dzoki gE
| 'tihri khu 'meehme-'ya 'dzop
'k`' | See: 'dzooi'. 'kyahp-kyahp 'tse-w 'du. Ak E
kU/ k-
k-L {l`-
`-} dzogu/ S-S Vj| Today the ladies are
dzo-ku {a-} n. {v.t.} , arguing for a long time!
{E} {make} an idol/ statue. k dzobo n. gL | bull
[Usage: 'dzogu/ dzo-ku' is the same (male counterpart of 'dzomo').
as 'ku/ kuna']
S U kU l`U| 'kheeba-gi dzogu k-
k- dzom- v.i. | gather.
'a-ge. L Ej| The `` j kU|
artists make the idols. 'yune-la tsheeba tihn-la 'mih
dzom-gen. gy L
kU l- dzoge aa- j j| At the fasting festival
w T| put down (intensified). the people gather on the seventh day
kU ( L dzoge
) - of the lunar month.
(peh-ti) 'teh-k At
HL wE | stay home doing k/
k/ k dzomo/ dzumu n. g
nothing; be immobile. UD| kind of cow (cross-breed of cow
and yak).
k` dzo 'k`' | See: 'dzu'.
k m

k j-
j- dzorroro (W) tshar- ` k ML | di 'leeh yii ML | grow dzoo 'kyahp-ku 'du. Ct L HL
quickly. 'E/ E' | See: 'uhr/ gt j| These two jobs conflict
uhruru (E)'. with each other.
k- dzol- v.i./t. , U| ` ` ` k
miss (a goal); make a mistake. M| ah 'tihri pemba 'yimbu
'lahm-la dzoo 'kyahp-sin. Ak
k, Al! 'lu dzol-de, 'ai! U
UE , ! The song was U t AgL t | Today
wrong, sister! I met Pemba by chance on the way.
` `U h k| da k`U dzoogo n. L| elbow.
ah-gi 'leeh tii dzol-sin. k HEt
k dzoobur (E) n. L|
L U| Yesterday I did something work utensils: post to which animals
wrong. are tied. '' | See: 'phurpa
k dzol-wa n. , U| (W)'.
U mH, J k LU|
`U k L` 'rehl-la 'gumi 'zo-e, ohle dzoobur-la
``| 'yih-gi tam-la dzolwa ken-ge. LE Ej, A
'yeh-na 'kohba na-do. L
L AyLEj| I am going to make
U HL H U | If we a loop which can be pulled together
made a mistake (in talking) please on the cattle tying rope, and then I
forgive us. slip it over the post.
k M- dzoo kyahp- k g- dzoori (N) tsuu- wML t , k Sl| pick an
| collide; conflict; meet by argument/ quarrel.
chance. [Gram: met party takes
<yambu/ yimbu>] k`/
`/ kM`/ kM M-
`-` S` ` H dzooi/ dzoki/ dzoku
k M | pasa-da pemba kyahp- L Yh| jab
'khaba nah-la 'uuh-e-mu dzoo with elbow.
'kyahp-sin du. ` Y SU ` kM M| 'kho-gi
ah-la dzoku 'kyahp-sin. E D
HL Uj| Pasang and Pemba ran
into each other when they entered the L L| He jabbed me with his
house. elbow.

m `-/ - za lah- (E)/ symptoms of insanity or epilepsy]
suuh- (W) jU V, m - za phu- jU
j | have fits. [Note: show ULD nL U| rituals: cure for

m m

people who are sick with 'za lah-' J H, mL `, L

or 'za sihn-'. [Note: performed by the EC! ohle 'ma-e, 'zap-ken
shaman] 'tohro, kohmba 'mih-'ya-ni 'uy! A
m (k) - za ('nahza) `Uj An, LY
`L ,
sihn- jU t
| have D! Indeed, they do dress up, the
spells of dizziness and bad headaches. people of Langgyapsa, don't they!
h m k m zi n. HL LL | jewelry:
| piihmi tii-la za 'nahza sihn-di precious stone (black with white
sa-la rihl 'du. HEt jU U stripes).
yj| A women was having a
C mU/ mU {-} 'zigor/ 'zii-gor
spell of dizziness and fell to the {taa-} n. {v.t.} L {E}
ground. jewelry: {put on} long necklace with
m {-} za {suuh-} n. {v.i.} C many 'zi' stones.
{V} {be} a rainbow. m -U zi- g v.i. | get intoxicated.
m` m` - za za tiih- '' S j`U mE | 'kho tha-gi 'zi-w
| See: 'meh'. 'du. F j| Oh, he is drunk!
m` zabu adj. E, Eg, | 'zi-gen seeh U
good; pure; auspicious. ' m`' | intoxicating substances.
| See also: 'sem zabu'. m-
m- zim- v.i. (hon. of 'yahl-' and
k m`` J`, A 'yi looh-') (t.) lie down;
l, MA l| sleep.
, L C kL mU` 'zimga n. (hon. of
| It turned out to be an auspicious 'khaba') Y (t.) house.
time, I got to pay homage to the lama
m- zii- v.t. (hon. of 'ta-' and
and to the king. 'tho-') , T (t.) look; see.
m` zada n./ adj. lk, |
good-natured; noble. [Usage: 'mih mU ziigor 'mU' | See:
zada/ sem zabu', but not '*mih 'zigor'.
zabu'] m`- zu- v.t. | catch; grab;
k Ly m` ! di pehza hold. [Usage: Some people from the
'kahnu-mu zada 'du. hg L Western area use 'zum-'.]
L j! What a
m zubu n. kE, | body; life.
good-natured child!
S(U) m ` j |
m` zabu n. OL | names: 'kho(-gi) zubu tai thimbu 'du. EL
personal name, m. kE LL j| Oh, he has a
good appearance.
m` zamu n. OL | names:
personal name, f. (U) m ` | 'moh(-gi)
zubu tai meeh. EL kE
m- zap- v.i. `U| dress up.
m- m

LL j|| She has a poor along his retinue unseen to hostile

appearance (physically). forces.
m ` zubu yihpa 'yeh m
` y-
y-/ y- zubu
y- (elevated) k | be yahdi o-/ yaahbu o-
pregnant. 'k -L' | See (elevated) L |
also: 'pehza teh-k'. [Gram: cop.= give birth to a child.
specific attribution] J`- zubu liih oh-
m gM zubu tsokpa 'yeh j , | have U | be pregnant. menstruation. [Usage: more old
[Gram: cop.= specific attribution] fashioned than 'kyepa oh-gen']
h- zubu 'tip-
m h- m
M zubu 'sakya kE j| mature meeh-ba kE g |
physically. [Gram: exp. takes gen. have no physical resistance; be weak.
<-ki>] [Gram: cop.= specific attribution]
`- zubu ta-
m `- M- zubu sil 'kyahp-
k | sacrifice one's life. `` | become
m - zubu tahm- apprehensive.
kE ( nP ) m ` zubu 'soyim
cerem. terms: the shaman or lama yeh (elevated) U |
keeps his and other people's bodies be pregnant. [Gram: cop.= specific
unseen/ untouchable to hostile forces. attribution]
h L U ` M J m ` | ooh piihmi
L ` `U m U, J zubu 'soyim 'du. ACC U
U mA` U| 'tee-dap j| Oh, that woman is pregnant.
peh-ke-mu pohmbo-gi aa 'kyahp-ti
m- zum- 'm`-' | See: 'zu-'.
'mipa kohm-di 'toh-le 'rah-gi zubu
tahm-ge, ohle 'nehpa-gi zubu-'a m zuu 'L`' | See: 'kaba'.
tahm-ge. g nP m zen n. y, y| clothing: loosely
CW k A kE j, woven Tibetan blanket.
A L kE j| When the m zep n. L, Lt | work utensils:
shaman is healing, he first 'binds' his
big bamboo basket for storing grain.
own body by beating the drum and
[Note: 1-1.5 meters high, narrowing
meditating, and then he also 'binds'
towards the top, with lid]
the body of the sick person.
m y lU| 'zep-la
k yH U j maah-tha-ba 'u 'luu-di 'aa-ge. Lt
U TL| 'dzaatar-la o-e-mu L LtL A Sj|
pohmbo-gi tshooba-'ya-la 'mipa-gi The 'zep' is used to store non-ground
tahm-di 'khyer-ken. k k nP grain.
yD j| When m-h` 'zep-'tu n. L
going to a festival the shaman takes
-m lU

tL| work utensils: smallish bamboo hgD L j| Children

basket. [Note: with lid, 20-30 cm high] are told made up stories.
U m-h` t, 'zeema 'lu t U|
E | pohmbo-'ya-gi newly made up song.
'zep-'tu-la 'ihlbu, 'raaha-'ya 'luu-w ` l L , m

'du. nP L tL Yt U| 'toh 'yihn-u 'yeh-ken-di
Q j| I observed that mihm-ba, 'zeema 'lu-'ya lehn-ge.
the shamans put their bells and S HL Ug UH, t
rudraksha seeds into the basket called U UEj| They don't sing the songs
'zep-tu'. of old times, they sing newly made up
-m -zeba '-g' | See: '-tseba'.
m- zem- 'j()' | See: m-
m- zo- v.t. E| make; build.
'tshe(-la)'. m - 'zo ten- g
L| shape; form [Gram:
m {M-} zer {kyahp-} n. {v.i.} undg. takes gen. <-ki>]
L {}, El {} beam of light U m U| toh-gi 'zo ten-gen.
{reach}. UL jt L| cut stones (for
m M- zer 'kyahp- building).
| have stabbing pains. m/ m/ m` 'zo/ 'zop-ta/
m-/ k- zer-/ dzer- v.t. , Y| 'zo-da n. , g, jt| shape; form;
gird; stick into; gird. design.
L-t mL | 'kahp-'ih
/ kL SU mU m ` U`
zer-ken/ dzer-ken. SL | stick 'kho-gi zubu-gi 'zopta i gondo
knife into cummerbund. 'leehmu 'du. EL kEL y LwL
y k j| His body looks just like
zeema adj. L, t| made up.
a block of wood.
'zeema petam
t L ES| made up stories.
m/ m/ m` U 'zo/

'zop-ta/ 'zo-da meeh-ba-gi
-k m
pehza-'ya-la 'zeema petam e-ken. g HL| formless; shapeless.

anas or 75 paisa. [Usage: was only
l da n. (hon. of 'tele') k
used with six "daws"]
(t.) tongue.
A hM lE t H| 'ana
lC day 'lU' | See: 'tapkye-la 'daw 'uuh 'ma-en. Aw
AD j lE j| Eighteen anas
lE t daw uuh n.+ num. (o.f.) are called six 'daw'.
Aw A (hg ) money: 18 lU/
lU/ lC/ lC dagi/ day/
l`U l

dey n. LL| broken rice grains. AL U ) crouch; duck.

[Note: are separated from the whole U l L | 'guri 'dap-ti
ones when cleaning rice] 'hML 'teh-ku 'du. kE ShH j|
-L' | See also: 'tokkol The cat is crouching.
lh dapti n. Lg
| household
l`U dagu adj. | colours: utensils: scissors.
grass-green. [Gram: no excl. form (see
l-w -L dap-hii peh-k
appendix 5, section1.2)] | rituals: purifying
l`-L/ l`-
l`-L rituals performed by shaman or lama.
da-'nahk/ da-'nak adj. U [Note: wash hands and head three
| colours: dark green. times, and gurgle three times with
l`- da-ser adj. L |
l`- ritually clean water, cf. 'tihtsi']
colours: soft green; yellow green; pale
k l-w Ll , J
tU| di pehza-la 'dap-'hii peh
l l dana dine adv./ 'koh-e 'du, ohle aah-gen. hgD Ly C L| uneven gTE L U j, A L j| We
in length, but neatly arranged (of have to perform a purifying ritual for
things hanging). ' ' | this child, and then he will get well.
See also: 'rahna rihne'.
l l h-
h- daba dobe
Lh l l h` l , top- LhLLgL j
A ! 'kapta 'dana 'dine ta Lg| crush and mess up. [Usage:
'aa 'du, 'mih-ni su-'aa mihn-du! things which don't break, e.g. cattle
Ly ML nyCSj, j trampling on young plants]
L j! The clothes are hanging
there neatly arranged, but nobody is l {j-L} dam {the-k} n.
around! {v.t.} (hon. of 'thukpa thu-') S
{S} (t.) foods: (eat) soup.
l` l` danda
dondo Aw U L l``/
l``/ l` damya/
nyHL| sloppy (clothes).
damya n. OL | names:
personal name, m.
h m
U Lh l`
l` LV , k! ti l damdur (W) 'g' |
'zopta meeh-be-gi 'kapta 'danda See: 'tsamba'. 'h' | See
'dondo kehn-'gyo 'yihm-ba, di also: 'tahmdur (E)'.
pehza! L E Aw L
l dambal n. OL |
U UHL, hg ! This child is names: personal name, m.
wearing such uncomely sloppy
clothes! l dambu adj. , ,
g| fine; thin.
l- dap- v.i. kE ShE (E g l ? 'tsamba 'dam-'le

l-` l

'du? w LL j? How fine is l-

l-M dar-kyahp n. OL
the roasted flour? | names: personal name, m.
l- 'dam-'leeh n. L l/ k
darpu/ dzeebu adj.
L| fine work (detail work).
E, | smart-looking; suitable.
l- `U SH| 'dam-'leeh `k t , hl
ah-gi peh khuu-en. L L U
` l J`U? "yendzen
Mj| I can do light work. 'ehmba sal-ne, seehbe 'tii-i
l ? 'leeh 'dam-'le 'du? mahyoh" 'ma-na 'darpu oh-gen?
L LL L j? How light is the CtL n SHL U
E? If we say, "Missing my
l-` dambe-ya n. friends so much no food would do me
UL | names of deities: god any good" - will that be suitable?
who carries a kind of a wooden sword
l- dal- v.t.
called 'rahli' in one hand. 1) V, U| pay homage.
l `-
`- damu ta- J M M An E, l| ohle "'kyahlbu 'du-ba"
| make even (e.g. with a 'mee-di 'kyahlbu-la dal-sin. A k
plane). j H kD U|
When they said that it was the king, I
l- dar- v.i. t| stick to;
adhere to. ' l-' | See payed homage to him.
also: 'lhep dar-'. 2) (hon. of 'thuu-') t (t.) meet.
` Lh h`U l! ah L L U
'kapta-la 'tigam 'dar-ti! Ly lU| kohmba-la kahl-di bulga
phul-di lama-la dal-ge. U UH
g`U t! Chewing gum stuck to
my clothes! t gH D Vj| Going to the
temple and offering a gift I will pay
S L `L` M l|
'kho lekam yi-ka-la-'ra dakpa homage to the lama.
'dar-sin. EL Ct k t| `- dal na- 'l' |
l `-
Mud has stuck to his shoes. See: 'daalo'.

l l dar dar lU `-

`- dal-ga na- (high hon. of 'then
...( S L) splattering;
gushing (of falling water). phep-') | appear to s.b;
receive a vision.
l l
gL | nam 'thiiba 'dar 'dar peh-te g jU ` lU `|
'thoo-le 'mahr 'tsahr-ku 'du. tsoo 'tehwa-gi ah-la dalga na-sin.
jt ... S j! The rain D | The Lord
water is gushing and splattering down appeared to me.
from the roof. l {-L/ l-} dal-den

l l

{peh-k/ aa-} n. {v.dt.} (high hon. of y | be in danger.

'kyeega ter-') L, E, t lM l- 'dikpa ten 'aa-
{gE, T}(t.) cerem. terms: g | warn s.b.
gift offered when paying homage to a - 'dikpa 'tor-
lM -
person (e.g. a 'rihmbur-thee'). y E| danger
passes; lose fear. [Gram: exp. takes
l dalsa n. wEL | place
names: Jatanthala (settlement high on gen. <-ki>]
the western slope of the upper lM ``/ lMt ``y
Indrawati valley, just below the ridge, y-} 'dikpa 'aba/
{J`-/ y-
about 1 hour before Sermathang. 'dzika 'aa {oh-/ o-} {v.i.}
{} be extremely frightened.
l daandi n. t U
Ly| amulet string. [Note: or a strip l`
l` di-ba n. U, Yg, U|
of cloth, both usually red] neck; throat.
l` ML| 'diba 'suh
l daandum n. UL L 'kyahp-ken. U T| have a sore
g nyCHL gL U| throat.
jewelry: gold or silver ornament
hanging from center of 'tuhru' l`` dilu n. U nyE
necklace. U| jewelry: jewelry worn around
the neck.
l `-
`-/ l `-
`- daalo
na-/ dal na- (hon. l din 'l' | See: 'den'.
of 'aah-') ( L)(t.) l L/ l L din sirki
cerem. terms:: read (religious books). (W)/ din surku (E)
lM h dikten tahwa E Lt| clothing: (poetic) k () lady's black coat made of cotton cloth.
married state. [Note: This kind of coat is now out of
lM g- 'dikten 'tsuu- U| start l-
l- dip- v.t. g| suck.
married life. k U J lL| pehza
y- 'dikten-la o-
lM y- 'leenu-'ya-gi 'ohma 'dip-ken. | get married. hg gj| Babies suck
lM -L 'dikten-la 'teh-k mother's milk. U | be
l/ l dibu/ dubu adj. A
w, A | huge; much. [Gram:
lM 'diktem-ba n. excl.: 'diba!']
O| married person. yy L` h `
lM dikpa n. y, | danger; l ` | o-o-pa 'kah-la-ni
fear. ti teeen thu-'tsabu dubu 'tho-sin
lM J`- 'dikpa oh- 'du lo. k-k A w Sj

l l-

| As he went along he saw a huge this way I will go.

river. kl | di-ni
l (`) dibu (-'ra) adv. A, yahmdzen-di 'du. AgL j|
| very. Oh, this is something astonishing!
g`U l` M L ! -l/
k/-h -L
'tsube-gi dibu-'ra 'tuhkpu ter-ken -di~-i~-dzi~-ti peh-k
nahle! S j ! The rats
L L U L U |
are giving us a lot of trouble! undertake without being
l dimi n. OL | names: completely successful. [Phon: For the
personal name, m. conditioning of the phonological
alternations see appendix 7, section
/ k/-h
-di~-i~-dzi~-ti sf. HEt, | 5.] [Gram: vs+<-ken> +]
one; only (has a variety of uses); [Disc: The clause ending in <-ken>
when suffixed to adj.: something of states the undertaking.] '...H h
that quality. [Phon: For the -L' | See also: '
conditioning of the phonological tii peh-k'.
alternations see appendix 7, section J kU Hl L | ooh
5.] pehza-gi 'meh phu-e-i peh-ku 'du.
j U `t Hl L| hg AU M L U j| That
'thorten-gi rooh 'eup 'ma-e-i child is trying hard to light the fire.
'yeh-ken. `t HLk U Uk L | 'moh-gi 'lu
lehn-gen-dzi peh-ku 'du. E U UE
| In Bauddha I have a friend
called Ngetup. L U j| She is trying to sing
a song.
J` j` l
LH| ohra-di 'phama 'tsha-ba U A, A! Hl L
meeh-ba 'lu-i lehn 'koh-en. g | 'tohm-gi-ni "'aya, 'aya!" 'ma-e-i
peh-ke lo. A, A
t UE U UEj| We must
sing a song suitable for orphans or k U Uj | "Ouch, ouch" the bear
half-orphans. would shout out loudly each time.
J L` l L, Jl ` y, y` y Hl
J` S! ooh-la 'kah M! ah-ni "meh-n-o, o-'ra
'leehmu-i 'yeh-ken, ooh-la-i 'olo meh-n-o" 'ma-e-i peh-'kyo!
oh maah-khu-ba! yy k , k, k k L k UL! I
made a big show, saying, "I am not
AE L! There was
something like a hillock; only there going, I am not going!"
the floods could not reach! l- dii- v.i./t. yE| be afraid.
J l ` yH| ooh ` y, ` lE ! ah
'leehmu peh-na-i ah o-en. mehn-o, ah-ni 'dii-w 'du! k,
U kj| Only if we do it D y Vj! I am not going, I am

lM l-

afraid! intimidate.
MU h lH| 'kyibu-gi 'ten-la l -L 'dii-su peh-k
'dii-en. LL YS yEj| Dogs are L | feel anxious.
afraid of tigers.
/ lM () dukol/
l-` J`-/ `- 'dii-'a oh-/ dukul(-la) temp. AS, A|
oo- erg. y / E| conjunctions: finally; at the end.
be frightened/ frighten s.b..
U lM J w`
h L LH! 'naahra-gi dukul-la ooh
k l-` `H| 'lahm-la 'yihp-ti hi-'ra peh 'koh-en! L
'teh-ti 'ten 'leehmu 'kee ten-di
A U j! That's what we
pehza-'ya-la 'dii-'a oo-en. F t have to do to conclude the 'naahra'
L Y k LH hgD festival!
Ej| He hides along the way and lMU dukol-gi tam
roars like a tiger to frighten the AL L| conclusion.
`-/ `- 'dii-'or 'la-/
l-` `- l` - dua tuh-
oo- y SE, E| A k| arrive at the moment
intimidate; frighten s.b. of death.
`- 'dii-'oh 'la-
l-` `- J U l` E A` T! L | give a warning. ooh 'nepa-gi 'dua 'uhp 'tiihdi-'a
AlU l-` `V| 'khyer-ti! HL j
'ai-gi 'nuhmu-la 'dii-'oh 'la-'gyo. V! The spirit of sickness took him
in one moment!
D L HL| The elder
sister warned the younger one. ` t T ` l``
'dii-e 'leehmu
ll l ! 'tihri 'ehpa 'too-raa y V, SL| dangerous. 'khyer-ti ah 'dua-'ra 'tuh-e
l `- 'dii-ba 'lah- peh-sin! Ak L k At! y V| be afraid. Today I almost died of hunger!
h Ay l lM, TC? l dubu 'l' | See:
tibe 'ahna-mu 'diiba 'dii-'kyo, 'dibu'.
'khya-y? L yHL,
l dul 'V' | See: 'gyul'.
? Why are you so much afraid!
l 'diisu n. y j, | l- dul- v.i./t. | crouch
coward; danger. down.
S ll | 'kho 'dii-su-i 'du. F S`(U) V `U g
y j j| He is a coward. l LV| khu(-gi) rihl-'gyo
SU lU| 'kho-gi 'dii-su-gi. tohbo-gi tsoo phar 'dul-di kahl-'gyo.
EL | for fear of him. E yL SL t j UH|
`- 'dii-su oo-/
l `-/ `- They crouched down to pass under
'la- | the fallen tree.

l- l-

l J`- 'dul oh- , things). 'l' | See also:

A | ask for refuge; protection. 'demba'.
` `U ` h lA l
l ,
l J`V| 'tama-'ya 'yih-gi ! daandum-'aa 'den
ih-la 'teh-te 'mee-di 'dul oh-'gyo. 'leehmu-i taa ter 'du rooh, 'moh-la-ni!
` l U L w
AHL j| Some Tamangs have come UCHj, ED ! Oh look friend,
and asked to live on our field. what a biggish ornament they have
L 'dul-di 'teh-k
l - put around her neck! | submit
l demba adj. , U,
(to authority). [Gram: superior party
| smart; successful; numerous;
takes <-ki tsoo-la>] massive.
MU h ` l ` l , J-j
LH| 'kyuuhmu-gi 'nama-la ti `U L`V` ! 'tihri 'mih
'ma-'na 'dul-di 'teh 'koh-en. 'demba 'du, oh-'thowa 'tihga
D k j| The 'kahgya-'ra 'du! Ak j j,
daughter-in-law has to submit to
g j| Today there are
whatever her mother-in-law says. lots of people here, such a big open
l- duu- v.i. y, U| spoil (of area full of people!
cooked foods). ` M` gH l
| 'he
` l lU l ! 'tihri 'baki 'tse-e
nahbar 'samma 'aa-na duu-gen. 'mih-'ya-ni 'demba 'demba 'du!
A S yj| I we AkL N k j!
leave the potatoes until tomorrow The boxers today are massive fellows!
they will be spoiled.
l dop 'j' | See:
l/ M de/ likpa n. y, 'thop'.
| penis. l-
l- dom- v.i. Yt (L
lC dey 'lU' | See: 'dagi'. HL Yt) decrease in volume.
[Usage: swelling going down; cake
l- den- v.t. k, A |
have the know-how. falling in the middle]
SU lU| di 'leeh 'kho-gi ` M t` L,
'den-ge. L E kj| This is ` l| da 'lahkpa di
the type of work he can do. 'samma 'a-di 'yeh-ken, 'tihri
'dom-sin. k HL
Lyl l lU! 'kahnumu-i
'ma-e 'den-ge! LL kj! He , Ak Ytj| Yesterday the hand
really knows how to talk! was swollen this much, but today the
swelling has gone back.
l/ l den/ din adj. w,
U| quite big (for roundish l-
l- dor- v.t. uE| find.

l- l`-

J ` hl yH ` They are not comfortable

j-j L` U `U ` 'doo meh-yoh
l| ohle-ni 'yihma tuui Aw V| feel uneasy
o-e 'yihmu-di tshol-tshol-ba 'kah-la about doing
'yih-gi 'mehme-la dor-sin. A Sl S`U LU `
Sl ED HY u| `U! khu-gi kul-ge
` l
And after having searched for him a 'leeh-la mah-'yihm-ba peh-na
long time, we finally found the old ah-la-ni 'doo meh-yoh-gen! E
man on the eleventh day. AHL L D
l- dor- v.dr. E| receive; get. Aw Vj| I will feel uneasy if I
keep disobeying their orders!
L` `
l! Yohlmo-la yohlmu 'kah-le S` yl ` l `|
'lhaama ah-la mah-n-dor! khu sa-la o-e-la ah-la 'doo
mah-yoh. EL k D
Ak (A) C|
In the Yohlmo region I did nowhere Aw V| I did not feel free to
receive more than a handful (of go to their place.
grains). l 'doo meeh-ba Aw | be awkward.
l- dol- v.i. (hon. of 'rihl-') [Gram: cop.= specific
y, E (t.) fall over. semi-attribution]
l dolmu n. gL | l l
birds: name of a small bird. L | yohlmu 'ma-e 'doo
meeh-ba-'ra 'helambu kahl-de 'nahle.
l(-) doo(-tehmu) adj.
k, U| easy; comfortable. Aw HL
' l' | See also: 'sem UHL | Because it is awkward to say
'yohlmu' it just became 'Helambu'.
S` l- ` |
l U 'doo meeh-ba-gi

khu 'meehme-'ya-la 'doo-'tehmu Aw| uncomfortable (e.g.
mah-yoh 'du. ED k Hj| clothes).

'phep-so, uu-so'.
`- a- v.i. (hon. of 'lah-') Ew
(t.) get up. l`-
`- a- v.t. (hon. of 'zo-') E
l` ! 'a-so 'ihba (t.) build.
'yeh! cl. Ew A U (UL J - L l` S |
S ) marriage: bid bride to ooh yii-samye kohmba 'a maah-khu
stand up. [Note: sung by the groom's lo. - U E L |
' | See also:
party] ', l And they could not build the

l`U l-

Yii-Samye temple. naughty cat licked off all the cream

(from the milk)!
l`U agul 'l`
U' |
See: 'egul'. l i num. g| numerals: four.
- am- v.t. LE, | scoop l ido n. 150 UL |
off (particles swimming on top of a measures and weights: weight used on
liquid). the 'umali' (150 grs).
AU L `M` lV| l` ini temp. | two years
'ama-gi 'mahr-ki yohkto 'am-'gyo. ago.
A YEL LE| Mother
scooped the dirt off the butter (when l/ l-
(`) inup/
boiling it). i-nuhp (yihmu) temp. nA
( AUy) three days ago.
- ar- v.t. j, SL
| rub off;
chip off; grate. l ipta n. L| spirits:

A`U -L l| forest spirit; house spirit.

'aa-gi 'sisa-'kalam ar-sin. J VU l M` T A
L j| Uncle has yL| ooh 'gyaa-gi
sharpened the pencil. 'ipta-la meh-kyo-na 'khya-la ooh
'gyaa-gi 'leeh tehnda mihn-'up-ken.
l- aa- v.t. T| put away; put wEL LD nH
down; keep.
wEL L | If you don't

l- aa- aux. L LL placate the spirit of that place your
kE P| do an action for good; work there will not succeed. (e.g.
perform a malefactive action. [Gram: contruction work, etc.)
vs perf. + aux.] [Disc: The semantic
l i-ba num.ord. g| ordinal
content of the main verb and the numerals: fourth.
wider context of the utterance define
which sense is intended.] l i-ba n. OL | names:

`U L l| taah-ni personal name.

rihgur-la 'kaa 'aa-sin. A l ibe temp. Y| in two years
L t | Now the wild (two years ahead).
cat is barred out for good.
-l -i '-l' | See: '-di'.
LL h l !
kowar-ki 'tahmu-'ya-la 'se 'aa 'du! l-
1 u- v.t. E| melt (e.g.
LS Sj! The butter). '-' | See also:
weasel (marten?) has killed the 'uh- (v.i.)'.
chickens! ` jU ` l-l
l ! 'tihri
` UUU U L` L` |
'guri-gi-'ga priga seeh 'aa 'du! Ak 'yihma 'tshepa-gi tahrta 'u-'u-ba
SCHj! Today the 'kah-la kuhse-la 'uh sihn-sin 'du lo.


E U E-E (E)'.
n Lj | As the sun l`-/ l` u-pahl/
was melting the ice the whole day, it ubal n. F U| handicrafts:
had melted away in the evening. fine wool.
'u-'mahr n. YE| foods:
boiled butter. 'M-' | See l/ l umbu/ ombo adj.
also: 'kya-mahr'. , | youthful. [Usage: for
humans and animals] 'l '
2 u- v.t. t, t| twist | See also: 'emba'.
threads together (with a spindle-like
Ly l ! di
device). 't-' | See also: piihmi-ni 'kahnu-ma 'ombo 'du!
L j! What a
U l `| 'yibi-gi 'pahl youthful young lady!
'u na-sin. l F t|
Grandmother twisted the threads l- ur- v.i. , L| drain off.
together. M j lh
J l|
nekyi-'ya thu 'ur-tu 'mee-di ooh-la
l/ lL u/ urku n. | bow 'aa-sin. yL L
(for shooting). '' | See also:
SL j| I put the pots there to drain.
` lLk ` L | di
l- ur- v.t. n| strip off. '
tuhma 'ur'ku-ze-ba-'ra kohrmu 'du. l-' | See also: 'soma ur-'.
kL `U j| Oh, this TU UU l`!
beam is curved like a bow for khye-gi di yahlga-gi 'lahpti 'ur-to!
shooting. UL n! Strip off
the leaves of this branch!
l L`- 'u 'ku-
E| curve a bow (when making lL urku 'l' | See: 'u'.
l- uu- v.i. (hon. of 'teh-k')
l M- 'u 'kyahp- (t.) sit; stay; live.
F t| tease wool (originally l 'uu-den n. (hon. of 'tego')
done with a bow).
Jj, wE (t.) sitting
l` u n. S| slope; hollow (in place.
landscape). l ! 'uu-so 'ihba
T `U l` | 'khya-ni 'yeh! cl. A U ( S
'maahgu 'u-di 'yihm-ba. D ) marriage: bid bride to sit down.
`U SL j| You are from [Note: sung by the groom's party]
the slope of Maahngu. ', l`' | See also:
'phep-so, a-so'.
l`-L u-kar (W) n.
HL UD| white-spotted l`
U/ l`U -L egul/
cattle. '`-L' | See: 'do-kar agul peh-k

l y l-

(lamaistic) EwE, kUE (C l 2 emba ' ' | See:

W) cause to stand up; wake up 'lehmen'.
l ee n. Lgy, | udder.
U ` `
l`U L| pohmbo-gi aa tuh-di l-
ee- v.i. (hon. of 'tiih-') k,
'lha 'lu-'ya-la 'agul peh-ken. nP (t.) cerem. terms: burn. [Note:
`U kH UD used of butter lamps which are used
kUEj| Beating the drum the shaman in worship]
causes the spirits to get up. l (`) ee (yihmu)
M -l U l` U temp.(ph.) L| in three days (three
L| 'kyehwa-la loh-'emba-gi 'mahni days ahead).
'egul peh-ken. Y (Z)
l /
/ l
eeba (m.)/ eema
U g A UCj| (f.) n. UL/ UL| expert singer and
During the after funeral rituals the dancer.
master of ceremonies (a lama) gets
`UU l S |
the people to get up and dance while
maahgu-gi eeba 'kho 'yihm-ba.
singing mantras.
`UL UL F | He is the expert
l y l y y-
y- en-o en-o singer and dancer of Maahngu.
o- '-/-y/-t...' | See: l , S` k ! eeba
'-ro~-o~-o...'. eema, de-la khamsa 'dze o! UL

emen ' ' | See:
'lehmen'. Singers and dancers, come and have
fun here!
l 1 emba adj. (poetic) k|
youthful. 'M l , l/ l' l L/
L/ l L eerak/ erak
| See also: 'taka emba, ' L/ L' | See: 'yeerak/
umbu/ ombu'. yerak'.
T Ay , L l eero n. YE LHL
LU t l, l l U t| cerem. foods: bread of
t `! 'khya 'ahnumu whole wheat flour, deep-fried in oil or
'minam meeh-ba mah-be, kehmba butter. [Note: made for the 'naahra'
kehmba-gi 'ahl-la 'uu, emba festival]
emba-gi 'ahl-la 'teh-to! l j eero thuda
E L U, L HL C tHL t| cerem. foods: deep-fried
, wt AL C ! Don't bread made into twists.
do things without using proper l C eero 'pay u HL
etiquette! You elder ones, please sit gL t| cerem. foods: deep-fried
on the places assigned to the elders; bread woven into big squares.
you younger ones, sit on the places
- o- v.t. | milk.
assigned to the younger ones!
lM t`-

lM {-
{-} okpa {lam-} n. | 'yih 'dzomo 'kohre-la 'dzomo
} foods: {fry}
{v.t.} A L {t oma mahbu 'yeh-ba. gL
potato curry dish (with little sauce). Uw g j| We produce a
lot of 'dzomo' milk in our 'dzomo'
l` oba n. (LwL w
farming shed.
y) wooden feeding trough; water
trough. l ombo 'l' | See:
l oma n.
/ UD| cow or
buffalo which gives milk; milk (as a l! oo! v.t. S! put it here!; keep
product). it!. [Gram: imp. of 'aa-']
` k L k l `

lock of hair.
t a n. L, L| hair of head.
g- a kuu-kuu 'tsa- (W)
t L-L g- tMg {L
{L- / M-} aktsi {ku-/ A L E| kyahp-} n. {v.t.} U {UE} {put
pull each other's hair. 't LL g-U' on} varnish.
| See: 'adu kuku tse-g (E)'. tM akpu adj. t| clear; forceful;
t M`/ M` a correct.
kyuhba/ kyohba HEt L
tM U| tam akpu
() one single hair. peh-ti 'ma-gen. t Ehg U| have a
t M`A` ` j clear pronunciation.
! a kyuhba-le-'a mah-a lama U tM| 'yihgi akpu. t AQ|
'thee 'yeh-ba! LL clear writing.
L L j| There are LL Az
more lama books than there are hairs
tM` E L| 'nepaal 'sarkar-ki
(on your head)! 'aa-'ya-la hyolmu 'mee-di akpu-'ra
t - a 'praah- 'pruh-w 'yehken. LL
erg. L Lt| cut hair.
Az t S| In
t a 'rahlba v the government offices of Nepal they
L| shock of hair. correctly used to write "Hyolmu".
t hU | a 'rahlba 'tee-gen.

L u / | hair gets tangled. tU tU agra ugra (N)
t a 'rihn 'rihn tPtP| odd pieces; scraps (e.g.
'rihn SlkHL L| tousled cuttings of carpets).
hair. t`-
t`- a- v.i. | swell.
t -L a e-k L t` M-/ - 'a-bur
L| comb. 'kyahp-/ then- AE/
t- a-lohma n. LL w|
t- L| have a boil.
t` t-

t` t` t` t` -
- a a 'aga 'markya yihkya godar 'luu-w
o o peh-ti ta- wy 'du. HL L E
L E| spy around carefully. [Disc: j| He is putting in 100 Rs as
usually collocates with 'phar the wedding gift.
tshur...'] m- 'aga 'zo-
t`U m-
t`U aga n. LE| make money.
1) | money: half-rupee coin. t`U () - 'aga
2) | money. 'y, , ' 'tiih(-di) sah- EwH
| See also: 'ibu, phidi, laahdi'. S| practise usury. [Gram: inferior
party takes <-ki thoo-la>]
t`U (M`) S h| 'aga
(kyaba) 'khal tii. (S )| t`U -L 'aga 'bolbu
ten rupees (change). peh-k
t`U `/ y S h| 'aga gE| spend a lot of money.
yihpa/ 'abal 'khal tii. | - 'aga 'or-
t`U -
twenty rupees. Sg | money:
money is spent. [Gram: exp. takes gen.
t`U M` 'aga kyaba
S | money: change.
t`U M` t`- 'aga t ada (W) n. gw U|
kyaba 'ah- U| ribbon for braid. 't' | See:
money: count money in Mohars (half 'amdi (E)'.
t LL/ t LL g- adu kuku/
t`U `/ y t`- 'aga adu kuuku tse-g (E)
yihpa/ 'abal 'ah- A L E|
y U ( ) money: count pull each other's hair. 't L-L g-'
money in rupees.
| See: 'a kuu-kuu tsa- (W)'.
`- 'aga
t`U gL/ gU `- k t LL gE | pehza-'ya
tsok/ tsogi-la ta- adu kuku 'tse-w 'du. hg L
k | lend money. jj U j| Oh, the children are
`U t`U ` hg gU pulling each other's hair!
`| 'yih-gi 'aga to ti-tse
tsogi-la ta-sin. . g k t-
t- ap- v.t. | winnow.
k HL j| We lent them about y l` U tL| 'u 'na
500 rupees, expecting to be paid thamdi-'ra loma-gi 'ap-ken. A
interest. ` j| All kind of grains
t`U M` 'aga 'markya are winnowed with the bamboo tray. (elevated for 'aga kyaba') t abe 'w' | See: 'habe'.
| money: count money in Mohars
t- am- v.t. j| spread out;
(half rupees).
scatter about.
t`U M` `M U E |
` Ll
`U ` t

t tM

l| i kam-du 'mee-di ah-gi U j| Even though they are

'yihma-la am 'aa-sin. E L brothers they keep fighting with each
Y kH SL j| I other like enemies.
spread the fire wood out in the sun so t -L ah peh-k
that it may become dry. U| show hostility.
t amdi (E) n. gw U| t- -L ah-sem peh-k t U| be hostile.
't' | See: 'ada (W)'. ribbon for
braid. t- ah- v.t. Lt (Ly jL
t- {J`-} a-ihba Lt) cut cloth (for sewing clothes).
{oh-} adj. {v.i.} (poetic) , I Lh tH V L U|
'kapta ah-en 'gyaa-la karna
{} {live in} prosperity; {become}
prosperous. marna-'ya then-ge. Ly jL Lt
jl l M
l ` , wE tP tP Lj| When
cutting up cloth for sowing something
J t- J` |
'tshiiu 'baandam 'kyeehba-i na-sin, we get scraps of cloth.
ohle 'yuhl-la a-ihba oh-sin lo. t M
ah tahkpu
jl S h , A UE peh-ti | one after the
| They organized festival other; in an orderly fashion.
with extravagant masked dancing, and t M ` ! tam
the the region became prosperous. ah tahkpu peh-ti e-to loh! L t
t ai n. OL | names: U ! Present things clearly!
personal name. t/ y jM
jM ah/ a thakpu , | well-behaved;
t ` ai tha n. wEL |
place names: small settlement on the civilized; noble.
eastern slope of the Melamchi River t/ y jM ah/ a
valley on the upper way to mah-thakpa A, A
Langgyapsa after Phaa-Dungdung HL| unruly; uncivilized.
Chhyu. `- S` t
jMl ! taah 'la-'darma
t ai dele (T) elliptic_S 'kho-'ra-la pe miih-'sih-ba ah
, L| well-wishings: a mah-thak-pa-i 'du. `- A
greeting. [Note: used traditionally in A L j| Now Lang-Darma had
Sermathang at 'lohsar'; nowadays an unbelievably uncivilized thing on
people use it occasionally informally himself.
also, especially in Kathmandu]
tM ahkpu adj. U| difficult;
t ah n. | enemy. advanced. [Gram: excl.: 'ahga/
A tk` k`A` L ahkpa!']
| 'ada 'nooh ah-zeba-'ra dzi-de-'a ` SU ` SH, tM/
'teh-ku 'du. kC k nUy
t`- t

tL | di 'bali 'kho-gi pha cold (of things, not of weather).

miih-khu-en, di ahkpu/ ahk 'leeh t`` M-U 'ahi 'kye-g
'yihm-ba. ` E ky L| shiver.
M, U L | He cannot t` ahbu adj. , C|
perform the "baling" ritual, this is righteous; honest; upright. [Gram: no
work for advanced lamas. excl. form (see appendix 5,
` ` L section1.2)]
tU | daa 'tohma lekam 'mee-di t` `! ` ` SU
di yahmbi ahga 'du. AL k
l k J`| 'ahbu 'lahp-to!
g L j| These shoes are nahbar 'na 'kho-gi 'thui 'zii oh.
somewhat better than the ones I had
g ! E U
before. Tell things honestly! Then later he
t`- 1 ah- v.t. U| count; recite will probably be gracious to you. with counting. t` t` 'ahbu
U t`U | 'ah-sum adj. , | righteous
lama-ya-gi 'mahni 'ah-go 'yeh leh. (emph.); holy.
kj | The lamas UC M U t` t`
recite mantras, as you must have LH| 'goy 'teh-'kyo 'mih-gi 'ahbu
seen. 'ahsum peh-ti e 'koh-en. Q L
t`/ t`/ t`k M- g g Ej| A witness
'ahma/ 'ahmu/ 'ahdzi 'kyahp- must tell the full truth. U U| count.
t` ahma qt. L| every;
TU t`k M | khye-gi each. '-/ - t`' |
'ahdzi 'kyahp meeh-e 'du. D See also: '-rihm/ -rim ahma'.
U AE j| Oh, you don't know S` t`` jM` `
how to count!
J`U| 'khaba 'ahma-'ra
t`- 2 ah- v.i. g | become 'thekyo suma oh-gen. YhjL
cold. L E j| Every house has a
` `C L` l` t`| house god.
da ah-y 'kaba dibu-'ra 'ah-sin.
tk` ahza n. j| cerem.
k Su g | Yesterday I utensils: tent; shelter erected for
had terribly cold feet! ceremonies.
t` {-/ J`-} 'ahdi
{lep-/ oh-} n. {v.i.} g tt {M-/ j-} aha
{ACV/ AE} {become} cold (of {kyahp-/ thaa-} n. {v.i.}
weather). {V/ k} soot {sticks to}.
t` l- 'ah-di 'aa- t ahndul n. OL | E| let cool down. names: personal name, m.
t` 'ahmu adj. g, wy| t ahba n. Ok| lamaisms:

t- t`

head lama's assistant. [Note: third rank place (according to importance).

in the lamaistic hierarchy, musician l- 'ahl iih-di 'aa-
t t
and reader] T| marriage: PU
t -L ahba peh-k place (bride and groom) on the seat of OkL L U| honour.
lamaisms: perform the duties of an t l- 'ahl-la 'uu-
assistant to the head lama. A U U|
sit on the seat(s) of honour.
t- ahm- v.i. | spread
(word, news, liquids). t- ahl- v.i. A , |
t | tam ahm-sin 'du. L end; come to a conclusion; (W):
Hj| The news spread. euphemistic for die.
jU j ` t | tsho-gi t t| ooh 'ahl-sin. k
thu 'rebe-'ra ahm-sin 'du. SL L
U AVU (HLk L)|
E L j| The The couple is separated for ever.
water of the pond is spilling onto the A` ` tl |
shore all around. nahm-'a 'tuhal 'ahl-e mihn-'du.
t/ t
ahmen/ ehmen n. L g O j| The
worries will never take an end.
E | animals: mongoose?. [Note:
20-30 cm long, kills chickens] t- ahl- v.t. SLE| pull apart.
t` {` -}/ ahmyen j t LH| 'tshii 'ahl 'koh-en.
{tuh-} n. {v.t.} t`
{kE} musical ky SLEj| The joints have to
instruments: {play} stringed be pulled apart. (of a calf which died
instrument. [Note: similar to a in the womb of its mother.)
mandolin; played mostly by males; TU l` `C t L
used for entertainment] ! khye-gi 'diba ah-y 'ahl-lu
ee-di 'yeh-ken 'nah! Yg SLE
t` (L) ahmra kL j ! I am going to pull
(kohmba) n. UL | place names: your head off!
small lama settlement below
Maahngu, in the western area of t` ahli n. w AE HL
Yohlmu. LL kyt| plants:
sweet-smelling herb growing at high
t ahl n. A| seat of altitudes.
honour. -` U t` U
t t- 'ahl iih- j U, j g` ml|
A PU U U| prepare lama-da pohmbo-gi ahli
seat of honour. 'puhmba-gi thu-la 'luu-ge, thu
t t -L 'ahl iih-di 'tsama 'zo-e-la. nP w
'teh-k PU | AE kyt D
ceremonies: sit in one's appropriate
nL j| The lamas and
t tU

shamans put the sweet-smelling herb SE, U M| boast; brag.

into the water of the ceremonial urn, t - 'aahndi 'thul
in oder to ritually purify the water. 'thul ten- U L|
keep bragging everywhere.
t ahlu n. yy| house parts:
sloping (vertical) roof rafter; rafter. tL-
tL-tL ik-ik adv. L| tightly.
t {M-} ahsor {kyahp-} tL-tL M | 'lheema
n. {v.t.} LL w j HL ik-ik 'kyahp 'du. gw L tj
This braid is tightly braided.
rituals: {throw away} small statues tU iga n. S L U| cerem.
made of millet flour. [Note: a ritual terms: the share which the 'iga lama'
performed by the shaman to placate gets.
evil spirits] ' M, ` `-' L tU J`U, J tU
| See also: 'torma nahkpu, LA` y S
bali pha-'. `U, J SU tU tU
U LH| kohmba-la 'iga lama
t ML| 'nehpa 'tee-gen 'bele oh-ge, ohle 'iga lama kaah-le-'a o
pohmbo-gi nahm nahm ahsor miih-khu-si-'ma-na lehmen 'mih-la
'kyahp-ken. nP LL g ta-ge, ohle 'kho-gi 'iga lama-la 'iga
t j| While ter 'koh-en. U S j, A
curing a sick person the shaman S L y-y U L AL
sometimes performs the ritual of jD wEj, (kkL)
throwing away small statues made of j S D QL U
millet flour. j| Each temple has its own head
lama, and if for any reason the head
t aah n. Lk| birds: caper
cailye. [Note: Nepal's national bird; is lama cannot go (when people call
colourful, has a shortish tail and a him), he sends somebody else, and
three-pronged comb] birds: caper this person has to give a share of the
cailye: reward to the head lama.
tU 'iga lama S
t- 1 aah- v.i. L | get well; | head lama. [Note: he looks after
heal. the 'kohmba']
t h- 'aah tuu- tU U tU H| 'iga lama-gi
(rare) L | heal. 'h-' | 'iga sah-en. S A U
See also: 'tee-'. Sj| The head lama takes a
t- 2 aah- v.t. , A U| recompense.
read; study. 'j, U' | See tU - 'iga 'uh-
also: 'thee, yihgi'. tL, L | cerem. terms: present
oneself to receive a butter mark on
t /
/ t - aahnde/
one's head. 'L' | See also:
aahndi ten- L
t t

'yahrka'. t -L 'ih-la 'teh-k

tU H, J A |
U L M ML| submit to discipline.
loh-sar 'bele-le 'phama-la 'iga uh-en,
t -L ih-k v.t. | pull (out/
ohle 'phama-gi 'yahrka 'kyahp-ti along).
'melam 'kyahp-ken. AL
U j t T`|
tL j, A A A 'nohno-gi 'theero 'ih-ti khyo-sin.
H tL UC j| During the L E | The little
New Year's celebration you present boy brought the brushwood pulling it
yourself to your parents to receive a along.
mark of blessing, and the parents put
a slab of butter onto your head and t -U ih-g 't-' | See:
bless you. 'iih-'.

t imba 'M' | See: tL tL tL ihk ihk ihk

'mukpa'. AL S SL| close
to each other (things arranged). 'L
t- il- v.t. | wrap around L L' | See also: 'tihk [Note: e.g. 'thee, galbandi, tihk tihk'.
rumal'] 't-, w-' | See
tL tL tL t |
also: 'ihl-, hil-'. pela-'ya ihk ihk ihk peh-ti iih-di
t - 'il ter- t 'du. y AL S S
| wrap around s.b. kHj| The pots and pans are
t ih n. A| discipline; arranged close together.
tL` ihko 'tL
' | See:
t jM/ t j 'ih 'ehkum'.
thakpu/ 'ih 'thepu
A, | disciplined; obedient. tU ihga n. Yt| throat.
h t j k! ti 'ih tU M- 'ihga 'suh
'the-pa pehza-'ya! L A 'kyahp- Yt T|
have a sore throat. [Gram: exp. takes
hg! How well behaved these
children are! gen. <-ki> or attributive <-ti>]
t jM/ t j tl` ihu n.
mah-thakpa/ 'ih meh-'thepa 1) L| small knife. A| undisciplined; 2) Yt| uvula.
t {-} ihp {phoo-} n. {v.i.}
t j k! 'ih
kw {V, } cerem. terms: {be
mah-'the-pa pehza-'ya! L A affected} by spirit of defilement acting
hg! What unruly children! at birth or death. [Note: It causes
t l- 'ih-la 'aa- emotional disturbances.] '`,
A T| discipline s.b.
t t

M-, -, ' | See kha- dr. UE,

also: 'pah, kye-rip, i-rip, AE| smell; stink. [Gram: source of
thomi'. odour takes gen. <-ki>]
k M`, `, `U U t S! de-la
J S` t J`U| pehza da-gi 'mih-gi 'ehma 'kha-sin!
'kye-si-'ma-'na, 'mih 'i-si-'ma-'na, kL jL U A! Here it
ooh 'khaba-la 'ihp oh-ge. hg smells of the person who came
kL Y j L Y A j| yesterday!
The birth of a child, and the death of ` ` U t
a person defiles a house. S! 'tihri ah-la-ni 'mih 'mih-gi
t ` l `U 'ehma 'kha-sin! Ak D jL
, E L t ` U A| Today I smell people!
l `U| 'ihp nah-la - 'ihma/ 'ehma
t/ t
'uuh-e meh-yoh-ge 'ma-si-'ma-na, 'num- ` | smell;
'siw 'yeh-ken 'mih 'ihp nah-la sniff (at)
'uuh-e meh-yoh-ge. A Y `U t | ah-gi

S, nP Q 'mehndo 'ehma 'num-sin. L
HL O | As to not
H| I smelled the flowers.
entering a place defiled by a 'ihp', a MU t J`|
person wearing a 'rudraksha' seed 'kyibu-gi 'ehma 'num-di 'num-di
amulet must not enter such a place. oh-sin. LL U ` A| The
See: 'raaha' for 'rudraksha''. dog came sniffing along.
t 'ihp-lo '' | See: 'rih'. t ihmbu adj. gL, w|
clever; intelligent.
t {j-} ihpsa {thaa-} n.
{v.i.} j {} (cast) shadow; (cast) t`, SU - -

reflection on water. ihm-da, 'kho-gi -la tee-di EL wC A|
j U t jE | tsho-la
'lah-gi 'ihpsa thaa-w 'du. S according to his ability.
yL j j|| Oh, you can see t- ihl- v.t. | roll up (paper,
the mountains reflected in the lake. rug); coil (thread, rope); roll out (e.g.
dough). 't-, w-' | See
t- ihm- v.t. t| twist (thread
with hands). 'l-' | See also: also: 'il-, hil-'.
'u-'. TU S tU m
U M t| 'nooh-gi thakpa LH| khye-gi 'khura 'ihl-ge-mu
ihm-sin. y t| Younger yahmbi lehpta 'zo 'koh-en. t
brother twisted the rope strands A ht Ej| When you
together. roll out the bread dough you must
make it quite flat and thin.
/ t
S- ihma/ ehma
j-/ t
h- ihlen
t t

thol- (E)/ ihlen tal- (W) U t| di 'mih-gi 'tiih AL gLE| ul-sin. j L
make up (repay) for the care your U| This person changed into the
parents have given to you by caring form of a demon.
for them adequately when they get tU {} ul-gu {'yihn} n. {cop.}
old. A {} {be} a reincarnation (of a
t ihlbu n. Yt| musical
instruments: small brass bell. [Note: tU w`- ul-gu 'hu-
used in lama ceremonies] A |
t L - 'ihlbu 'kee ten- Yt tt Ak U| t -L ul-ba peh-k
bell tinkles. (lamaistic)
'ihlbu pruu-
t - | reincarnate.
Yt kE| ring bell. tU
uhgu (W) n. SL| knife (big,
curved). 'L-t' | See:
t- ii- v.t. | put on by
tying. [Note: e.g. 'aahma'] 'kahp-ih (E)'.
m- 'uhgu zer-
t- iih- v.t. E| put into SL | gird knife.
order; line up neatly. 'uhgu silu ten-di
`U S` `U t| `U SL ( L) with
ah-gi 'khaba nah-gi pela iih-sin. an unsheathed knife.
YL y H| I tidied up t- 'uh-up (W) n. SLL
the house. | sheath (for knife). '' |
t-/ t-U iih-/ ih-g v.dt. See: 'up (E)'.
| ask. t`
tuh adj. MS| real (relative).
t/ t -L 'iih-dap/ t`-A`| 'uh-'aa. MS
'ih-dap peh-k j U| | real uncle (i.e. mother's real
find out; investigate. brother).
t- up- v.t. U| pull together t`-| 'uh-'mehme. MS k|
to close. [Usage: e.g. money bag, real grandfather.
umbrella] / t` 'uhba/ 'ohba
SU j tL | 'kho-gi 'tshaata n. (elevated) k-| nearest kin.
'up-ku 'du. E j U j| He t` A 'uhba
A/ t`
is closing his umbrella. aba/ 'uhba 'ama (elevated)
S S t`! 'khuma 'kha 'up-to! k| spouse.
L S U! Close the purse `U t` A | di
(by pulling the drawstrings). ah-gi 'uhba 'ama 'yihm-ba.
k | This is my wife.
t- ul- v.t. U, U|
change into another form of existence. t
- uhp- v.dt. U, O U|

make restitution; pay back. north of Yangri Kahng).

SU ` gM , SU t uhpi adj. gt, gL|
` k k t`U t Ll! 'kho-gi rectangular; square.
ah-la tsokpa peh-si-'ma-na, 'kho-gi
ah-la deze deze 'aga 'uhp 'koh-e! t
M- uhba kyahp-
E D U D S E| weaving terms:
j! If he treats me badly,
k fix the warp ends of the loom.
he will have to make a restitution of
LH, J t
such and such a sum of money! M LH| thaa prehn-di nee
'tuh 'koh-e, ohle 'uhba 'kyahp-ti thaa
uhpa num.ord. jt| ordinal
'koh-en. H tj, A S
numerals: sixth.
H j| Having put the warp
uhpa n. OL | names: onto the loom you must fix the
personal name, f. threads of the loom so they alternate,
and then fix the warp ends, and then
/ t
M-/ M -L
uhpa/ uhba kyahp-/ kyahp you can start weaving.
teh-k U| stay t
- uhl- v.t. | apply
in seclusion. [Note: lamas, monks and [Usage: for cream, medicine, mud]
nuns stay in seclusion for certain 'L-' | See also: 'ku-'.
periods of time; involves longer k M t g gE |
periods than 'tsham'] pehza-'ya dakpa uhl-di 'tsemu 'tse-w
'du. hg S j| Oh,
(U) j uhpu(-gi) tsho
the children are smearing each other
SL | place names: mountain
lake north of Yangri-Kahng. with mud as they play.

-j uhp-thu n. gL t- uu- v.t. gE| stir
(L g HL ) spring jU S`U LU t H|
coming from a rock. tsho-gi 'suhr-'ya-la khu-gi prehka-gi
'uu ta-en. S E w
t l- 'uhp-thu dal-
-j l- L gt L gH j | They are stirring up the
water at the edges of the pond to see
L L U| pay homage to
rock spring. [Note: usually done in the what's there.
course of a shamans' festival] t uuh num. j (AL 6) numerals:
-j V` uhp-thu gya
'V`' | See: 'gya'. t- uuh- v.t. t (L t A)
gather up/ in; pick off
- uhp-topa n. |
ascetic; holy man. ` tU| i 'uuh-gen. E
Lt| gather firewood.
t uhpu n. wEL | place
/ h`/ MU tU| 'neeh/

names: Dhukpu (cattle shed settlement
tada/ 'kyahgar 'uuh-gen. U/ L/
t t

L t| harvest wheat/ mountain 'ehn-gu 'du. YtL D AL

barley/ millet by cutting off the ears AHj| The granddaughter of the
of grain. landlord is longing to be with her
t (t t) ep (ep ep) h
() intensifier for 'zu-'. t
ehpa n. t| stomach;
t ebe 'w' | See: 'habe'.
(/ ) L`- 'ehpa
t- em- v.t. h, g| get caught ('dile/ 'dole) 'kah-
in [Gram: the erg. actor is usually
t (t)| have had enough food
inanim. (see neutral word order for (intensified). [Gram: exp. takes gen.
inanim. actors, appendix 5, section <-ki>]
21.2)] ' t-, tU -' t
g / yH -
| See also: 'tam em-, tam 'ehpa tsere 'mere/ 'mehre o-en
emga or-'. 'samma sah- y t U
` M LU t| ah 'lahkpa S| stuff oneself with food.
'koh-gi 'em-sin. L h| j`- 'ehpa 'tshe-
My hand got caught in the door. t y| have
Ah, M t! 'ata, 'lahkpa overeaten.
'em-di! H, h! Sorry, your - 'ehpa 'too-
hand (finger) got pinched! L V| be hungry.
U S t| di tam-gi t -/ - 'ehpa 'al-/ 'uu-
'kho-la 'em-sin. L ED A dr. S V| have
| This utterance caught him. diarrhea.
t -L eh-k v.t. Ay V| lean t
ehma 't' | See:
against s.b. [Usage: implies quite 'ihma'.
a small plane of contact] '`-'
| See also: 'yee-'. t ehmba n. , n|
`U A t M| ah-gi
ani-la 'eh-ti 'teh-'kyo. Ay t L/ L {} 'ehmba
UH L| I was sitting leaning
'kombu/ 'kumbu {'yeh} {cop.}
against aunty. O L {} have a bad
memory; be forgetful.
tL/ tL` ehkum (W)/ t S 'ehmba 'khale
ihko (E) n. UL y| ball of 'yeh n C| keep
thread. remembering. [Gram: cop.=
t- ehn- v.t. AE, n direceptive possession]
AE| long for s.b. 'S` t -' J Lh ` t S |
| See also: 'khaba ehn-'. ooh 'keta-'ya ah-la 'ehmba 'khale
S` MU jU A tU | 'yeh. L D n CL
'khaba tahkpu-gi tshamu-gi 'ama j| I keep remembering those things.
t- t`

t h-L 'ehmba 'teh-k {yeh} {cop.} {} | forget. {have} a good memory.
t lA`
y- 'ehmba
y- t - 'ehmba sihn-
ten-de-'a meeh-ba o- g , | keep g E| become one's senses; be alert.
unconscious; go into shock (e.g. from S t U j`
fright). [Gram: exp. usually takes `U | 'kho-ni 'ehmba mih-sihn-ge
<-ni>] 'samma tha thu-gu 'du. E
- 'ehmba 'tor-
t - E ky S j| He drinks | lose one's until he loses all his senses.
senses. L l L
-L 'ehmba
t t U,
'thule peh-ti 'teh-k n U| 'nehpa kahl-di 'i-e
C| keep remembering. peh-ken 'bela-le 'lahla-di 'ehmba
t /
sihn-ge, 'lahla-di mih-sihn-gen.
'ehmba 'yahda 'yihde/ 'yahla H V LL j, LL
'yuhle 'yeh A A | When people are sick and

| remember vaguely; remember about to die, some are still alert to
unclearly. [Gram: cop.= direceptive things around them, and some aren't.
t- ee- 'j t-' | See: 'thal
t ` l | ee-'.
'mehme 'ehmba ah-la 'yahda
'yihde-i 'yeh-ba. kL D A A t`

eeen adj. jhg| protective
j| I remember grandfather (of things); protective.
somewhat. ` l` t` | 'yih

'nuhmu-ni dibu-'ra 'eeen 'yeh.
- 'ehmba sal-
t - n| remember. jhg j| Our little sister
is very protective of her things.
t 'ehmba sale 'yeh j`U | be fresh in t` -L 'eeen peh-k

one's memory. [Gram: cop.= jhg U| be protective (of
direceptive possession] one's things); withhold things stingily.
J Lh ` t | A` , J t`

ooh 'keta-'ya ah-la 'ehmba sale M | 'yeh-te-'a
'yeh. L D j`U j| I meh-ter-si-'ma-na, ooh-di 'eeen
remember those things well. peh-'kyo 'yihm-ba. H C ,
` t ! 'mehme jhg | Even if you have it, if
ah-la 'ehmba sale 'yeh-ba! kL you don't give it, that's being
D j`U j! I remember protective of one's things.
grandfather well! SU t` L | 'kho-gi

t {} 'ehmba salbu pela-la 'eeen peh-ku 'du. E A

tk -t

jhg U j| He withholds and one religious leader decide a

his things. matter.
tk eendzar n. (hon. of 'dzara') t ` -L 'eeh-a peh-k
l j U| hold counsel.
Sk (t.) snack.
t eeba n. `, | house t
k-L eehnsal dze-k (W)
parts: stairs. n U| recall
U t kL | 'yibi-gi
t- eeh- v.i. | become warm. 'eehnsal 'dze-ku 'du. l n
t 'eeh n. , | warmth. UHL j| Oh, grandmother
`- 'eeh ta-
t `- remembers it.
E| warm up - 'eehnsal peh ter-
t () -L 'eeh 'phol (W) n UC|
('phol) peh-k remind s.b.
V| emit warmth.
` t () L j| t

eehbu n./ adj. (hon. of 'kehpu/
ah 'eeh 'phol ('phol) peh-ken kahpu') (t.) old man.
'tshor-sin. HL A -t/
y/- -o~-o~-ro vsf.
U| I felt the warmth. kE PL A|
t / t 'eeh
probable future. [Phon: For the
'hala 'hole/ 'eeh 'bala 'bole phonological conditioning see
| lukewarm. appendix 7, section 3.3.]
t 'eeh-m-bar 'dawa A` k l U| the warm months of the ` J`y h! 'mihro-'a
year. ' t -' | See also: 'manpar-'tii-di dzom phando-la
'rih eeh bar-'. yaahbu-'ra oh-o le ti! E
t M- eeh kyahp- ED HL j t-Yt U
U| hold counsel; discuss a j ! If he also likes her it will
matter. probably be alright for them to get
j t ML h LH|
tshoo-di 'eeh 'kyahp-ken 'bele tam h l `, h Lt
thaa 'te 'koh-en. H U ? topte 'luu-e 'paar peh-to,
topte ter 'koh-o mihn? S L
Uj| When we gather and hold
counsel we must decide things. U, S C ? Think
about giving food, we will probably
t l- 'eeh 'aa-
have to give them something to eat,
| decide a matter.
don't we?
U l-` jt hU t lH|
goba 'i-da 'theimba tii-gi 'eh S`U | khu-gi 'sehn
'aa-en. UEL gk AU HEt sah-ro. E y Sj | They
will probably eat corn mash.
L Uj| Four secular

t` t`l

t` t` -
- o o ta- o 'koh-en. LtD ( H) ML | look aside. V LtL AD nEj|
When you elope with a girl you have
t` t` -
- o o ma- `-` Ak to go and pacify her parents
AE| make a high and soft beating
noise. L 'olda peh-k
tl` - L UD
` t`-t` E | aa o-o
'ma-w 'du. `U L Ak `-` nE L (LtL AD)
marriage: pacify the parents of a
AE j| The drum is making a
high and softly beating noise. captured bride with a gift of 'tha'.
[Note: This custom is retained also in
-L oe peh-ti arranged marriage procedures.]
teh-k gS | be
watchful; be attentive. t/ t oh (E)/ ooh (W) n.
S| feather.
t/ t {h-} op/ opas (N) h t| 'tahmu 'oh. LSL
{tuu-} n. {v.t.} t {E} (L S| hen's feather.
UE HL LL U) jewelry: {put MU t| 'okpa-gi 'oh. StL
on} earrings (ear ornaments set with S| feather of wing.
stones). ` `U t| 'ama oo-gi 'oh.
t w U| 'opas-la ha 'luu-ge. hjL S| feather of tail.
t j| This kind of earring
is set with precious stones. tL -/ - ohk ter-/ sah- (o.f.) tC / S| give/
t- ol- v.t. get a beating.
1) SLE| take out of joint.
tM`/ tM` -/ -
C L `C CU ohki (E)/ ohku (W) ter-/ 'tar-
L` tV| mahy 'amba peh-ken tC | give a beating.
'bele ah-y mahy-gi 'kaba 'ol-'gyo.
` - ohki
tM`/ tM

L j E
L SuL (E)/ ohku (W) sah-
ky SLH| When taking off the tC S| get a beating.
skin of the buffalo I broke apart the
joints of its legs. t`- oh- v.i. (hon. of 'i-g')
2) , E| pacify. (t.) die.
h L L`C tU| t`l -
- ohdu or-
'tahmu 'se meh-'koh-na 'koha-y L EL
'ol-gen. LS E| (L) miss the chance to get
If it is not necessary to kill a chicken, married; be a bachelor. [Note: more
(the spirit) is pacified with an egg. commonly said of fellows than of
T` t y LH| girls]
'nama khyo-si-'ma-na 'phama-la 'ol S t`l | 'kho

t`` t

'oh-du 'or-ti 'lih-sin. E t ohm n. A, | bier.

UL L HM | He is a t ohmo adj. | warm
bachelor. (mainly used for foods). [Gram: no
t`` ohdi n. wEL | excl. form (see appendix 5,
place names: very small settlement on section1.2)]
the eastern slope of the Melamchi
t- ohl- v.i.
River valley, south-west below 1) SL| pop out of (e.g. joint).
Syuhnggan-Che. 2) L U O | be free of
t` ohba n. 'wU t-, t-' |
1) | household. 't` ' | See also: 'him-le-gi ohl-, lee ohl-'.
See also: 'uh'. cerem. terms: emerge from a seclusion
t` Lk ? 'ohba 'kahze or festival with the appropriate
'du-ba? L j? How many rituals.
households are there? jU t| lama-'ya
2) U Y| stitch (in 'tsham-le-gi 'ohl-sin. Ut
knitting). L| The lamas have come out of
t` A/ A 'ohba aba/ seclusion.
'ama Y| head of household. tU ohlgo n. gUD UL
T`- 'ohba 'tsuu-/
t` g-/ T`- t LL j| male offspring
khyo- Yk U/ Y of 'dzomo' and 'lago'.
| go into wedlock.
M H J` tl` `- ohl-da thu-
t` U | 'nama 'tihkyi M S (Ut L
'ma-e-di-la oh-si-'ma-na 'ohba UE D SE M) cerem.
terms: lay people drink the concluding
yaahbu nee-ge. M
C AC j| If the bride drink of whisky (after the lama(s)'
comes at the auspicious time called period of seclusion).
"tihkyi" she will like the married life. j tU tl` `
` S h ` t`` yH| 'tsham 'ohl-ge 'bele 'yuhlba-'ya
g! ah loh 'khal tii 'a 'thu-ni 'ohlda thu o-en. ()
'ohba-'ra miih-'tsu! g Ut LS UE
U U! I will not get kj| For the conclusion of the
married before I am 25 years old! lama(s)' period of seclusion the
t` -/ -L 'ohba 'luu-/ villagers go and have a drink of
'se-k Y / | cast whisky.
on/ off stitches. t {M-} ohldi {kyahp-}
t` ohro n. jL| neighbour. {E} {make}
n. {v.t.} LE, L
'Tk' | See also: a loop which can be undone by
'khyimdzi'. pulling. 'U' | See also:

t t

'gumi'. tahtse (pehza) 'lih-k

M l J`l t t | be orphaned.
M`! thakpa 'uh-e 'tehmu t oolum n. (n S)
oh-e-la 'ohldi 'kyahp-to! y S household utensils: churn (medium
k D LE F! Make a size). [Note: wooden container used to
loop which can be undone by pulling churn butter; mainly used in houses,
so that the cords will easily come off. not in cattle sheds; W: also used to
LU M t l fetch water] ', ' |
J`U| lekam-gi thakpa 'ohldi See also: 'sohm, tuhmbu'.
tahm-na 'uh-e 'tehmu oh-ge. kL
LE S k t/ g {-} oos (Eng)/
j| If you tie the shoe laces in a
tsoor baati (N) {thep-} {v.t.}
bow, you can undo them easily. tg {} {light with} torch;
{light with} flashlight. [Usage: 'tsoor
t ohlden n. gyL baati' is o.f.]
j (O ) festivals: the
4th (and last) day of 'yune'. [Note: t ooh n. (elevated) |
The fasting is concluded with a feast married couple; bond friendship. 't,
in which all the villagers may take t' | See also: 'oh (E), ooh
part.] (W)'.
U t ` h`!
t ohlma n. OL , L 'mih-gi ooh-'ya-la sem 'ehmba
| names: personal name, f. names of mah-ta! ALL V L
deities: a goddess.
D U! Do not try to
t ohwa n. tL, M, , S| destroy others union!
fastener; button; clasp; laces. t `k` ooh nahdza
t t ML| a-la 'ohwa (elevated) | among a
'kyahp-ken. L M E| fasten married couple.
a hair clasp. L U, T t
t ML| 'ohwa 'kyahp-ken. `k` J` Ll!
tL E| do up buttons. ML| paahma peh-ken 'bele
t U| 'ohwa tahm-gen. 'mihpten-gi, "'khya ooh nahdza
| tie/ fasten laces. thimbu oh 'koh-e!" 'mee-di 'melam
S-t| 'khap-'ohwa. , 'kyahp-ken. US EYL,
t | safety pin. " C"
tt k
/ g k
/ tt g A j| At weddings the
master of ceremonies blesses the
ooe pehza/ tahtse
pehza/ ooe tahtse pehza couple, saying, "May your marriage be
t, A| orphan.
) -L 'ooe
tt g (k t
/ t
oohbu (m.)/ oohmu

t` w

(f.) n. / | bond friend. and worms: ant.

M- oohbu/
t/ t t` J L L
oohmu 'kyahp- U | oohma-ya 'om-le 'yahr
E| make a bond friendship. [Gram: 'sihk 'sihk peh-ti then-gu 'du L
associate takes <yambu/ U t L j| The
yimbu>] ants are coming out of the hole in
t` oohma n. L| insects

species of hawk.
w ha n. | jewelry: inlaid
precious stone. w(L) {-L} hado(k)
w H| 'situp-la ha 'luu-en. {peh-k} n. {v.t.} D, y {U} be
Kw j| Finger rings are jealous.
inlaid with precious stones. U ` wL L | 'moh-gi
ah-la hadok peh-ku 'du. E D
wL wL wL wL -L hak hak
huk huk peh-k y U j| Oh, she is so jealous of
U| argue sharply;
dispute sharply. -L hado(k)
w(L) y`
'eea peh-k jy-jy
wL wL y-
y-/ -L hak huk U| compete with; struggle for a
o-/ peh-k non-erg. desired position.
/ U| dispute arises/ have w(L) `- hado(k) 'lah-
a dispute. [Gram: experiencers D, y V| feel jealous.
optionally take <nah-la/
nah-do>] w/ t/ w/ t habe/ abe/
hebe/ ebe adj. , wL| ready;
wM hakpu adj. , Ly| hard. right. [Usage: Peema: 'habe' for work,
[Usage: lit. and fig.] 'U wM' 'ebe' for clothes; Karmu: free
| See also: 'goo hakpu'. variation]
wM S | di toh hakpu y- habe o-
w y-
'khal-di 'du. Ly SL `U j| | be ready.
This is a hard kind of stone.
w -L habe peh-k
`- ha thupa erg. AD U/
peh-ti lah- H L gk AD U| get
| stand firmly (fig.). oneself ready/ get or s.b. ready.
()/ wl`() w hal n. kL L| social
hau(ma)/ heu(ma) n. k obligation; social responsibility.
(g k L Q) birds: small L-/ L- 'hal 'kal-/ ken-
w L-

w w kL L UE| put tshol-na 'haal 'maal 'zee ter-ken!

under obligation; oblige to pay levies D Sl U
and taxes. Cj! If you keep aggravating me,
w S- 'hal khur- I will cut you to pieces!
L | fulfill obligations w haa n. U| blood.
to pay levies and taxes.
w - 'haa then- U
w M M-/ M h- L| bleed. [Gram: +<-la> = loc./
'hal tahkpu 'kyahp-/ 'kyahp tuu- +<-le-gi> = source; if exp. is LL k E| hand mentioned the affected body part
over responsibility. takes gen. <-ki>]
w h- 'hal bap tuu- 'haa-da 'riihba
w-` L L UE| U y| blood and bones.
force s.b. to take on a responsibility. [Note: an expression used by the
w/ w hawa/ hawu n. g| shaman when placating spirits]
birds: hawk. J U w-` H| ooh
'lha-gi 'haa-da 'riihba sah-en.
wL - hasak (N) ten- C E| show off; be U y Sj| This god needs
conceited. 'L' | See also: blood and bones.
'phosok'. w-` `- 'haa-'lu 'lah- Y | have a heart
S Ly wL U ! 'kho
'kahnu-mu 'hasak ten-gu 'du! E attack. '`-`' | See also:
L C E j! What a conceited
fellow he is! wt -L/ -
-U haao (N) se-k/
i-g non-erg. w / |
w-` {}
hasal-ohsal {'yeh} kill/ die suddenly.
{} {have} vitality; w {h-} haambur {tee-} n.
{display} well-being. [Note: be in good {v.i.} ttL {Ew} {get} a blue bump.
health, well off, talk in a friendly U w U h ! goo-la
manner] 'haambur 'boge 'tee-di! tEL w
w -L hasale peh-k ttL Ew! I have a big blue bump
'`' | See: 'tohba'. on my head!
w / w w haaal maaal
{m-/ y-
y-} haal maal/ haaal 'w ' | See: 'haal
maaal {zo-/ o-} {v.dt./v.i.} maal'.
U, O, Lt {U/ } w hi n. | throne.
{make/ become a} bloody mess.
` ` ` j w w / w hi/ he n. , g|
m L! ah-la 'yi mahbu manner; way; kind. 'J`l w'
| See also: 'oh-de hi'.
w w

J L` ` Ly w U| follow the customs.

J w` L| ohle 'kaba U- him gom-
w U-
'tohme 'kahnu-mu hi 'yeh-ba ooh U| disregard the law.
hi-'ra kahl-sin. A Su k w - `- him ta-/ ta-
-/ `-
| And the leg became U| to judge.
again just the same as it was before. w HU/ `UU him
w/ w hi/ he pehti ta-en-gi/ ta-gen-gi 'mih
k U| pretend to perform an | judge.
action. [Gram: vs+<-ken> +] w HU/ `UU/ HU
k ` ll U
w him ta-en-gi/ ta-gen-gi/
L | pehza 'yihm-ba-'la dibu-i 'thuu-en-gi 'gyaa A,
ee-gen hi peh-ku 'du. hg H | legal court.
kL k U j| Even though he `- him no-
w `-
is just a child he thinks he knows E`Y U| break with customs;
everything. break the law.
w -L hi-k v.t. yE| lead (by w -L him peh-k
holding onto k | observe
the customs.
T`- 'hi-ti 'khyer-/
w T-/ T`-
khyong- yH / - him yal-
w -
E| lead s.b; show the way. Sk U| abolish a law.
wU t- him-le-gi 'ohl-
w (h) hi (tii) num. (HL)S| Lt O | be
numerals: ten thousand.
released from the law.
wL-wL `-`
w him-da n. (poetic) ,|
hik-hik yaah-yaah peh-ti custom. U, g U|
accurately; exactly. w-
w- hil- v.i. w, t, |
get twisted (e.g. rope); get entangled;
T J`U wL wL `
cling to (vines to trees). 't-, t-'
`! khye nahm lee
oh-ge 'hik 'hik 'yaah 'yaah peh-ti | See also: 'ihl-, il-'.
'mee-do! L AEj, g U A, ` w |
'amo, 'pahla piihru 'hil-de 'teh-sin
! Tell me exactly when you will
arrive! 'du. A, j tH
j| Oh, the calf got entangled in
w him n. , L, , | the ropes.
custom; rule; law. 'M-w, L w, J U | 'kupa
j-w, -w' | See also: hil-di, ohle then-ge 'nahle. U ,
'kyahl-him, thee-him,
A L | The thread got twisted,
yuhl-him'. and so I am undoing it.
w S- him khur-
w M- hii kyahp-
w w- E| take a bath. k, E (t.) be born;

w M - 'hii 'kyahp ter- sprout. C| give s.b. a bath. w`(U) w` 'hu-be(-gi)
w -L 'hii peh-k 'hu-rap (lamaistic) E, t
U ( AL U) cerem. () coming into existence (of
terms: purifying ritual. [Note: lama animate beings).
sprinkles ritually pure water onto a w`(U) w`,
`, j(U)
person and place defiled by birth or j 'hu-be(-gi) 'hu-rap,
death] thaa-be(-gi) thaa-rap
(lamaistic) E, t ()
w hiiba n. , | gall; gall
bladder. origin of things.
'hu-yuhl n. (hon. of
w hu n. (A Uk) measures and 'kye-yuhl') k (t.) birth
weights: cubit (18 inches).
w L`| 'hu 'kah. HL | one
cubit. w`- hu- v.t. (hon. of 'kye-g')
w | 'hu toh. C | two cubits. k, kE (t.) bear; give
w | hu sum. | three
cubits (etc.). w`/ w`-
w`- hu/ ho-sowa
w - 'hu 'tahp- n. L | clan names: non-lama clan
measure cloth (by cubits). (='maba').
w- hu- v.t. (U) wash (for w- hul- v.i. A , A
clothes, etc.). | make oneself invisible (said
U Lh w| 'nuhmu-gi of spirit beings).
'kapta 'hu-sin. U C| The S ` w J` ! 'kho
girl washed the clothes. 'yambu 'tiih hul-di oh 'du-ba! EU
w- hu- v.i. (A L t AHj! A demon followed him.
A`UD) wash (for one's own body w - hul ten- gtL
parts). SE| show strange behaviour;
haunting manifestations appear.
M w| 'nuhmu 'lahkpa
'hu-sin. | The girl w -L hul peh-k
washed her hands. j ( ), U U| harm (evil
spirits harming people); haunt.
wM hukpa n. nUy| quarrel. w hulmu n. j ( U
wM M- 'hukpa 'kyahp- ) unruly woman. nUy U| start to quarrel.
- 'hukpa 'or-
wM - w- huu- v.t. , t | nUy | quarrel conflict.
breaks out. `U L
| ah-gi
l M wU
w`- hu- v.i. (hon. of 'kye-g')
w w

peh-ken 'leeh lehmen 'mih-gi j| The beer/ the buttermilk is sour.

peh-si-'ma-na yahmbi-i pahrkyi-la J` ` S S, S
'huu-gen. U L A U wM | ohra 'yambu 'kho thin
t jU miih-khu-ro, 'kho hokpu-'se 'yeh-ba.
w -L huui peh-k U F M , F gL gL U| disagree; j| He probably cannot get along with
quarrel. us, he is somewhat rough mannered.

w ` {-L/ J`-} w-
w-g hop-tse temp.qt. nu| one
huui sihda {peh-k/ oh-} n. moment.
{v.t./i.} {U/ } {make/ be} a T A, ` wg L
riot; commotion. J`U| 'khya de-la 'teh 'aah, ah
hop-'tse kahldi lee oh-ge.
w/ w he/ hi 'w' | See: 'hi'. , nu UH AEj| Please stay here,
wU hega n. wL| household utensils: I will be right back.
wooden pot used for storing milk and
w hom n. n, wE
curds. (Y ) floor; flat piece of
wl`() heu(ma) ground.
'wl`()' | See: 'hau(ma)'. w homba n. lk|
w hebe 'w' | See: 'habe'. honoured guest. [Usage: ceremonial
expression for 'ombu'] ''
w- hee- v.i. w| sulk angrily.
| See also: 'nam-'ya'.
S l wE | 'kho tam
'phema-i-'laa 'hee-w 'du. F L LU t`U L M hU U
w j| He is sulking angrily E , H w-! Karma-gi 'aga
even about little things. kohrmu 'kyah tii-gi godar 'luu-w 'du,
'e homba-'nam-'ya! L HL
w heemba (N) adj. , w| L gE j,
mixed (of race, language). ' w ' lk! Honoured guests, Karma
| See also: 'tam heemba'. is putting in one hundred rupees for
wL hok adj. A-A| sour the wedding gift.
(of beer). w hoo n. L, P| force;
j` wL L | tha hok kahl violence.
'du. ky A-A Hj| The beer w S- hoo khur-
has become too sour. P | be insolent; be unfriendly.
wM hokpu adj. gL, jhg| sour; S ` w S ! 'kho-ti-ni
rough. ' wM' | See also: 'mii-'ra hoo khur-ti 'du! EL C
'tam hokpu'. P j! He has an insolent
j`/ wM | tha/ tahra (aggressive) look on his face!
hokpu 'du. ky gL/ A `- hoo ta-
w `-

w- y

LE| use force; be violent. ` L` w! ah 'kaba hoo-di!

- hoo ten-di tam
w - Su M! Oh, I sprained my foot!
'ma- L L U| talk wL wL ` - hwak hwak
vehemently; harshly. yee ter- w w
w- hoo- v.i. L| twist (a limb ); t| thrash s.b.
sprain (a limb).

y- a- v.i. E , | look alike; w ` y` | pepe 'haa
be alike. [Gram: counterpart takes thu-di 'a-sin 'du. kL U g t
<yambu/ yimbu>] AUHj| The leech is blown up from
the blood it sucked.
` ` ` j yE |
ah 'yih 'paba 'yimbu tshenda a-w y`U aga (N) n. `U| manner.
'yeh. A L AU j| I
y` ai 'y' | See:
look like my father. 'aani'.
S` ` j yE | khu yii
tshenda a-w 'du. E CL A y amba n. U| cheek.
E-E j| They look alike. y V V -L 'am 'gyur
S` ` ` yE | khu yii 'gyur-te 'teh-k (W)
peh-ta a-w 'du. CL E U S h| daydream.
j| They behave alike. yl/ yl -/ - 'amdi/
y awa adj. E| alike. 'amda ter-/ sah- erg.
S` ` Lh y` L | khu y, ny / S| give/ get a slap
yii 'kapta awa-'ra kehn 'du. on ones cheek.
Ck Ly E UHj| Oh, they y- 'am-'so n. `U| molar;
put on the same kind of clothes. back tooth. '-, T-' |
See also: 'din-so, khyi-so'.
y asa adj. (poetic) E| alike.
` `, k y | y/ y-
y- {`
-} ambu/
sa-la 'mih-bu maha, 'yuhmdzen am-phu (N) {tuh-} n. {v.t.} y
a-sa mihn-du. C k
j, {kE} musical instruments: {play,
A k L j| There are many beat} tambourine-like instrument.
people sitting here, but there is no
y/ y amsi/ amse n.
one like your own mother.
wEL | place names: small
y jM a thakpu 't' | settlement on the eastern slope of the
See: 'ah'. Melamchi River valley, below
y`- Lhaasisa (which is below ohngding,
y`- a- v.i. t AUE| be full; be
blown up. which is below Syuhnggan-Che).

y- yL

y- aa- v.i. y ( H) get S | money: change.

browned; get scorched. [Gram: instr. y M` t`- 'ibu kyaba
takes <-ki>] 'ah- U| money:
U Lh y | 'meh-gi 'kapta count money in Mohars (half rupees).
'aa-sin 'du. AU U yj| I see, the y - 'ibu sah-
clothes got scorched by the fire. wU| cheat.
yU - aango ten- y-h 'ip-tii HL |
money: one paisa.
y, SE| intimidate.
k h` `l y- ii- v.i./dr. | be alright;
`U, - yU LH| match; fit. 'yM' | See also:
pehza-'ya-la 'dar tira tuh-de 'ikpu'.
meh-yoh-gen, nahm-nahm aago ten y , Jk` |
'koh-e. hgD t
, 'sala ii-sin taah, ohze-'ra 'yihm-ba.
LL y SEj| You must , A | Now we
not beat the children all the time, have reached concensus, that's all
sometimes you just need to give them now.
a warning. J y`
/ y/ y` aani/ L ohle 'mih sum
aansi (E)/ ai (W) n. Ey| ii-simba-'ra 'pulis 'thaana-la kahl
insects and worms: bedbug. 'du. k w UHj|
And three people got together and
y aalo (N) n. y| household
went to the police station.
utensils: basket with short legs.
L ` y | di
yM ikpu adj. | lekam-ni ah-la miih-ni 'du. k
well-matched. [Gram: excl.: 'ikpa/ D j| Oh, these shoes
iiwa!'] don't fit me.
`l yM | ida pela y iina n. g| cerem. terms: gift of
ikpu 'luu 'du. Lw- H j| grain; grains thrown into the air for
The have put in (i.e. built in) gods and spirits. [Note: for religious
matching wooden furniture. purposes; non-religious contexts: 'u']
y ibu n. y u n. A, Ak| harvested grain.
1) | money. 't`U' | See [Note: grain on stalks: 'budi'] 'y'
also: 'aga'. | See also: 'iina'.
J ` yA` m S|
ohle 'yih-ni 'ibu-'a 'zo maah-khu. yL uk n.
1) Ak`U| dragon.
And we couldn't make any money 2) Bhutan. t|
2) | money: paisa. yL L - uk 'kee ten-
y M` 'ibu kyaba Y Uk| thunder.

ykL y

yM uk-pa adj./ n. t| ` yA` `

Bhutanese. J`, y J`, J
) {-} uk-ri ('rehmu)
yP ( ` ` H| 'mih 'yimbu
{'thoo-} adj. (n.) {v.i.} Ak`UL g 'lhani-'a 'brya-di oh-si-'ma-na,
{HL} {be} dragon-patterned. "ul oh-sin, ohle thabu mah-yoh"
'ma-en. U
A ,
ykL uzok n. Ak| interest in
form of grains. 'l -' | See:
'tuh-e tuh- (W)'. j| If a traveler has arrived
followed by a spirit of sickness, we
`U t`U ` ykL
say, "A ghost has arrived, that's why I
`| ah-gi 'aga tora sum
'u-zok-la ta-sin. k am unwell."
Ak H| I lent out three y- ul-mih n. (poetic) ,
thousand rupees to get interest in t| traveler.
form of grains. y/
-L ul/ yuhl peh-k gE, U U| put to
y- up- v.i. | fill in; grow
together. ' y-' | See use.
also: 'tehnda up-'. `U LM y/ A`
l J y| 'namdo 'om | 'yih-gi 'kohkpa ul/ 'yuhl-'a
'up-sin. jyL meh-be 'yeh. L
LL |
The ear-hole grew together. gE | We don't use garlic.
U y| maga 'up-sin. YE L j` `U j`U y
| The wound healed. U ML, J ` `
` yL M ! 'mii-'ra j`U y` | tha
'up-ken 'samma 'kyaah 'du! U mih-thu-gen 'mih-la tha-gi ul
lep-si-'ma-na goo 'suh 'kyahp-ke, ooh
tHj! (He) is as round as a ball!
sobe ah tha-gi ul-'ra meh-be
y-/ y-
y- up- (W+E)/ ip- (E) 'yeh. ky S j kyL g U
v.i. AE, y| set (of sun); sink (in ED tEL Tj, L
water=W). ' -' | See also: kyL g U| If a total abstainer
'nuhp- (E)'. consumes whisky he gets a headache,
S j y | 'kho thu-la so I don't touch it.
'up-te 'i-sin. F y | He
died by drowning. y e n. ,
| evil spirit.
[Note: This kind of evil spirit doesn't
y umbu 'y' | See: usually cause a person to talk, but it
'ombo'. makes people sick. It includes 'tiih,
y J`- ul oh- lheni, ini-'ya'.]
AE| spirit of y/ y 'ebu (m.)/ 'emu (f.) n.
sickness which may arrive with a , | evil spirit.
traveler. y M ` M| 'emu

yL y

'kyahp-ti ni 'suh 'kyahp-sin.

guests. 'y M`-' | See:
U t T| Having gotten an evil 'ombo kyo- (E)'.
spirit his insides hurt. y M- 'en 'kyahp-
h`- 'e-sem ta-
y- h`- E| invite s.b. t g | nurture evil for a meal.
intentions. y- 'en-la o-
y y- V k| go to
yL ek (N) n. L| money: coin.
s.b. as a guest.
y lU yL A H| 'ibu 'i-gi
'ek-la 'ana 'ma-en. g L LD yy M- ena (N) kyahp-
A j| A four-paisa coin is called k y UE| fine
'ana'. s.b.
y` e (N) n. y`| furrow; garden yy hU| 'ena tal-gen.
bed. k | pay a fine.

y M- eta kyahp- y ep intens. t, y, tML| g| slip. intensifier for 'kaa-, teh-k'.
` S y M L ` J y LH
J`| ah 'khawa-la 'eta LL| 'yehpa-'ra ooh 'lha 'ep
'kyahp-ti 'bas-ki 'suhr-la rihl oh-sin. 'kaa-e 'samma 'lha 'koh-ken.
E g L jE y U| tML ML AL
Slipping in the snow I fell down gj| And again (we) need a god
beside the bus. which is able to stop the other god
y en n. yy
(Yu E yy
waterpipe (in a mill). [Note: y y y -L ep ep ep
traditionally made of wood] teh-k t |
adhere firmly.
jU y| thuda-gi 'en. YuL yy
the waterpipe of the mill. y y y -L em em em
y- en- v.t. gE (Lt) teh-k AgU |
deliver (out of hell). slouch (sit like a sack of potatoes).
h-kU y ee 'U' | See: 'tam-gi'.
`V- y `U| y`
M- eea kyahp-
'teen-'rehzi-gi 'imbu-la 'yahr E U L j|
sagye-'yuhl-la 'en na-gen. push work on s.b. else. '`` '
L D U | See also: 'yeea'.
Ej| Teen-Rehzi delivers the - 'eea 'tuhr-
spirit of the deceased person (out of U| compete
hell and sends him) up to heaven. with each other.
y -L en peh-k (W) y
-L eepi (N) peh-k S E| attend to
y- y U| resist. ` y-' | See also:

y j 'eepi
j/ y 'yehwa, yohwa o-'. [Gram:
'tshandi/ 'eepi 'thewa A eventive copula for attribution and
| stubborn. identification; often these clauses fall
into a receptive pattern]
y- o- v.i. k| go. [Gram: dest.
takes <-la>; vs.perf. = 'kahl-'; imp. ` L yH| ah-ni uk
= 'so/ su'] 'L`U y-, / meeh-ba o-en. H kj| I
/ y-' | See also: am becoming weak.
'kaba-gi o-, mahr/ yahr/ phar `U S L` `M
o-'. yH? 'tigu 'kha-'ya-la 'kaba
paa-na yokpa mehn-o-en?
T L yl ? 'khya
'meehme kaah-la o-e leh? D Aj Su tM ? If

you step onto the mat, won't it
L k VHL? Where are you
going, my friends? become dirty?
y! o! v.i. , kK! let's go!. k` lUA` wM
yl ( `- o-u
) `- j yH| dzi-si-'ma-na tam
(yaahbu) ta- 'phema-i-gi-'a 'hukpa thimbu
o-en. p Sl L
U| administer (well); run (e.g. a
household). w nUy j| If you really quarrel,
even because of a small matter the
y o-den n. U (U V)
usefulness; use; life style. quarrel may become big.
y ` U| o-den mahbu y` o
then-gen. U U| be useful all 1) w L y| household utensils:
round. drum-like iron container. [Note: used
S` lU y` k for storing water, etc.]
L | lama 'kho-'ra semden-gi 2) w LC| cooking utensils: big iron
o-den-di-'ra 'dze-ti 'phep-ken. 'du lo. pot for frying.
A L kk U 3) k`U L| animals: wild yak; sire
y j | The lama would
of the yak. [Note: This animal is not
wander around practising a very very well known; people say that the
simple life style. domesticated yak is a mixed breed.]
y o-sum n. Sg, | y` omdo n. wEL | place
expenditure; expenses. names: small settlement on the eastern
t`U LU y `| di slope of the Melamchi River valley,
'aga 'koh-rim-ba-gi o-sum peh-to. below Thaalo.
L AM A U U |
Spend this money according to your y/
y/ y/ y ombo/
needs. ombu/ umbu n. (A)
guest; visitor. 'j y' |
y- o- cop. | become. '`
, See also: 'thoo ombo'.
y -

y L-L ombo 'ke-k 'en peh-k (W)'. E| invite s.b. y- ombo sah o-
y y-
for a meal. V k| go to
S` `U y LL M| s.b.'s place as a guest.
khu-la 'yih-gi ombo 'ke-ke
y t l owa rihu
'ma-'kyo. ED S SE semden -A| lamaisms:
E L| We want to invite them souls of dead people and animals.
for a meal.
M`- ombo kyo-
y M`- y- oo- v.i. yH V () D S E| start; run (because of fright). [Usage:
attend to guests. 'y -L' | See: of animals; for people see 'a-']

tee 'nah, 'moh-y tam meh-'ma ta-e-i
ta dem. E:| there (at quite some
distance). [Disc: occurs before the 'zo-w 'du-ba! , E L U
directional locatives: 'mahr, muuh, tj! Just look, she is acting as if
phar, phuu, yahr, yuuh, har, she couldn't speak!
haw'; but it does not collocate with `` ta-na-'ra
'tshur'] [Note: usually accompanied mihn-du LL j|
by pointing with hand or chin] have an ugly face. [Gram: cop.=
receptive possession; evid.: mirative]
, TU U | lama,
khye-gi torma ta yuuh 'gu-la 'yeh. ta-ndo-la n. C, t|
point of view; appear. [Gram: viewer
, DL E: S j| Lama,
your ceremonial statue is up there in takes gen. <-ki>]
that corner. `U | ah-gi tando-la-ni.
t | it appears to me.
- ta- v.t. | look; look after. ' J ` U l `U
L -, -' | See also: L| ooh sobe 'mih-gi tando-la
'mii blok ta-, lahm ta-'. 'darpu 'tho-gen kahl-sin. L
m-/ -L ta-en-i 'zo-/
Hl m- AL C E | Therefore it
peh-k ` | show off with looks good in front of the people.
an action; pretend to to act. [Gram:
` tai n. V, LL|
vs.perf. or vs +] stature; appearance. 'm `'
SC Lh l mE ! | See also: 'zubu tai'.
'kho-y 'kapta ten taan-di 'zo-w S ` j | 'kho tai
'du-ba! E Ly L ` thimbu 'du. F LL j| Oh,
j! He is showing off with his he has a good appearance.
clothes! SU ` j L| 'kho-gi
, C Hl mE ! 'leeh tai thimbu peh-ken. E U

- M

LL L Uj| He does are going along above us!

important work, and he does it well. k g, M
` hA` | 'leeh g| 'rehndza 'suhr 'suhr-ta-ni
tai ti-'a mihn-du. L L 'tsuu-sin, kyil-la-ni maah-'tsu. t
LL j| This work lacks jE jE , g | Along
know-how. the edges I planted soya beens, but
` ` , `! not in the middle.
'rah-la tai meeh-ba, 'mih-la -` S`-` j-` S` `
'phyai! A kE yL
T, ` y , LH|
ALL kE k Tj! (They) look phar-oo 'khaba-da tshur-oo
down on others without having 'khaba nah nah-da o-sa 'yeh-ba,
anything to show for themselves! 'phi-la then meh-'koh-en. Yt
(Proverb) Y t k Lj,
- ta- aux. L U| try to. [Gram: L | These two houses are
vs.perf.+(<-ti>) + aux.] connected inside, you can go from
one into the other without going
`U () , S|
ah-gi 'lu 'priih(-di) ta-sin, 'laa outside.
maah-'khe. U T L U, -
-J` ta-oh-sa n. L|
L| I tried to jot down a song, but place names: Kesare (village north-west
I was not successful. of Sermathang, close to it, just behind
! di 'lu lehn tee leh! the ridge).
U UD ! Please try to sing this Mg taktsa n. L| nape of neck
song! and shoulders.
/- -ta~-da sf. jE jEt Mh takta 'U' | See:
(gL) along a location. [Phon: 'milam-gi'.
For the regular phonological
alternations of suffix initial stops and M takpa n. t, L |
the exception verbs marked with edge of a fold; back edge of a tool.
<-k> see appendix 7, sections 1-3.] Lh gU M h/ L LH|
[Usage: used between or after 'kapta 'tsem-ge-mu takpa taa/ kuu
reduplicated locatives to indicate 'koh-en. Ly E t j|
continuous aspect; does not collocate When sewing clothes, hems have to
with 'phar' and 'tshur'.] be turned up.
S M M L| 'kho L-t MU` ! 'kahp-'ih
'kyahp-ta 'kyahp kahl-sin. F jyt takpa-gi-'ra ter-ti! SL L
U| He went along the back. ! He hit him with the very back
of the dagger!
S` J` yE ! khu
ohra 'thoo-da 'thoo o-w 'du! E takpa tuhbu
M `
t k j! Oh, they nL S (?) trees: bush or tree

M -`

with coffee-coloured blossoms and specific occasion).

soft leaves.
`- ta- aux. P+-C+ | do
M ` j J`U, speedily; decidedly. [Gram: vs
` j J`U| 'lah-la takpa perf.+<-te>+<-'a> + aux.]
tuhbu thimbu oh-ge, roh-la
MU j L | ` h,
'theemu oh-ge. L nL S
`U A` `U! 'kyurpu-gi
w j, j| In the 'tshawa-la 'ne-ke lo. 'ne-'na 'ne-tu,
higher mountains the 'takpa' trees are ah-gi seeh-de-'a ta-ge! A
big, in lower valley they are small.
lD U Uj | U U U,
MU L g`l T`U SCj! They say that it is not
| takpa-gi pako 'yahmbu-la tso-e good to eat lemons when you have a
khyo-ge lo. nL SL L fever. Never mind, I'll just eat some
Lwy h Ej ! They say anyway!
that the bark of the 'takpa' tree is
` H ? `
taken to be sold in Kathmandu.
S` m A` `U! 'ti-le 'ma-e-di-ni
M l taka emba nahm nahm? di 'paalo-'ra 'khaba
(poetic) U UE Lt LtD 'zee-de-'a ta-ge! j L L
U | singer (m.). L? Y Cj! We have
to build our house now or never!
`- ta- v.dt. wE, E| send;
perform. ' `-, `-, j -`/
`/-` 1 -ta~-da sf. PD
`-, g`-/ `-, `-' E A| verb stem
| See also: 'meeh-ba ta-, lahm nominalizer with fairly neutral
ta-, thowa ta-, mee tsah/ meaning. [Phon: For the regular
ta-, lee ta-'. phonological alternations of suffix
` g`- ta 'tsah- initial stops and the exception verbs
wE| send. [Disc: the two verbs are marked with <-k> see appendix 7,
often used together] sections 1-3.] [Gram: vs+sf.]
U h- `U C ` '-`, -' | See also: '-na,
g` | 'mahr-le-gi 'tah-rhil raga -lu'.
'mayda ta 'tsoh loh. S gL l`-` L`
U wC | Please send us a ` U H| 'aa-da-da
cake of tea leaves and some white kar-ta yaahbu 'yeh-na mahbu-ni 'gar
flour from down there. miih-'ti-en. SC kSC j
` tama (W) n. nE | | If things are weighed and
money which needs to be sent. stored properly not much will be lost.
`U ` ` Lh L| `` gM! 'la-da tsokpa! V
'yih-gi tama ta 'koh-te 'yeh-ken. L HL! What an unruly way of
nE wEj| We asking for something!
have to send some money (for a `U l`

-` `-

`| di yohlmu 'luhba-gi 'mihn -` h ` jl !

'aa-da thop-ta. L L 'mih-da 'mih-la ti 'oh 'tsha-e le!
HL| How the Helambu region got jU j LL ! Why
its name. should we be shy among people!
`/-` 2 -ta~-da clit. -` ` h gM
1) conjunctions: | and. [Phon: For the J`l, l` h` !
regular phonological alternations of toh-da toh-'la ti yaahbu tsokpa
suffix initial stops and the exception oh-de, thamdi-'ra tii-'ra 'nahle!
verbs marked with <-k> see appendix `U
`U L ,
7, sections 1-3. This alternation also HEt ! Why talking of differences
applies to clitics.] [Disc: occurs among stones, they obviously are all
mainly between n.phrases; occurrence the same!
between clauses is rare; there /ohle/ ` tae adv. U ()
is preferred.] '`U/ `' | horizontally. ' `' | See
See also: 'raga/ ra'. also: 'phreta'.
S-` L T ! 'khap-ta ` `
'kupa 'khyer- o le! U F ! ` `
Please bring me a needle and some 'yih arpa-di 'mih 'i-si-'ma-na
thread! 'toh-le 'too-le 'yahr tae 'yal-de 'reeh
J l-` | ooh-la karpu-gi 'up-ken. L
'u-da 'da peeh-di 'yeh-ba 'du. U Ej, A
LHj| There a bow and L Mj| If among us
arrow are hidden. Sherpas a person dies, we first lay
J` L ` U-` him down up there horizontally and
` U-` h U k cover him with a white cotton cloth.
J` Lh V `U ( / `) tagu
| ohra kohmba-'ya-la 'dibu (mehndo/ tohbo) U
phul-gen-da 'yendar phul-gen'-da
(-L / S) trees: rhododendron
tahrto phul-gen 'dzati ohra with red flowers. '`, U '
'nahmsa-la phen 'koh-te 'mee-di | See also: 'tamar, beegar'.
phul-'gyo 'yihm-ba. U
LL nyE Ly ` ( / `) tamar
gHL | The donating of
(mehndo/ tohbo) n. U U
the horizontally and vertically hung (-L / S) trees: rhododendron
up cloths in the temples, and the with pink flowers. '`U, U '
donating of the prayerflags should | See also: 'tagu, beegar'.
benefit our clothing. `-
`-` ta-lah
2) | among. [Gram: n.+<-ta> + kL Lt U |
n.+<-la>] intensifier for 'o-'.


- tap- v.t. j| sow. sowing that field.
-U | tam n. L, | talk; language;
'nooh-di-gi-ni 'neeh 'tap-sin 'du lo. C matter.
g U jj | As to the younger J` h- tam oh tuu-
brother, he sowed wheat. L ACV, U |
/- -tap/-tep 'j, , blame s.b.
, ' | See: 'tshur, phar, (U) L tam(-gi) kuu n. LL
mahr, yahr'. A, , L| support; cause;
reason. 'L' | See also: 'kuu'.
()-SL ta(p)-kharka n.
UEL | place names: Ningale (a L j l, ! tam kuu
village on the eastern slope of the thimbu dor-sin, taah! A LL w
Melamchi River valley, the highest A C! Now we have important
one on the ridge south of Sermathang; support for this matter!
below it are: Thaalo, omdong, - tam kor-ti 'ma-
L -
Mehnjya). YE L U (AQ L
U) insinuate; hint at.
h tapta n. Lw (YyL w
M- tam 'kyal-
jE Ug ) rug shaped to fit a L J| gossip.
horse's back or the saddle. [Note:
- tam kyoo-di 'ma-
M -
consists of three sections] L jyL U (AQ L
-`U j` tap-sigi tsho U) say indirectly.
n. wEL | place names: pilgrimage S tam kharpe
place above the Melamchi River near (lamaistic) L| fable; legend.
Naahkote. U S mU| tam-gi kharpe
'zo-gen. L E |
{S -} tabu {kha-la
ehn-} n. {v.i.} Yy {g} {ride on} a illustrate with a fable/ legend.
horse. SM ` l- tam
khokpa nahla 'aa- L
tabyar n. A jC, A j T| hide (abstract); build
| sowing; sowing time. up resentments.
h` | tada 'tabyar TM` tam khyokto
lep-sin. L j | It's time to `U L| crooked statement.
sow the mountain barley. (TM`) TM` ( )
` | nahbar -
- tam ('khyakta) khyokto
'neeh 'tabyar 'yeh-ba. U j j| (peh-ti) 'ma- L `U
Tomorrow we will sow the wheat. U| make deceptive or distorted
` `U J ` statements.
L| nahbar 'yih-gi ooh ih-la - tam yi-tse
`g k -
'tabyar peh-ken. sum-dze 'ma- HL Ct L
E jj| Tomorrow we will work on

U| say briefly. j tam tshombu Y

`l` tam yomdu V L| interesting story; thrilling k L| sweet talk. story.
SU `l` E | 'kho-gi k- tam dzol-
tam yomdu 'ma-w 'du. E w U| make a mistake in speaking.
U j| He talks nicely. k-' | See also: 'leeh
h(L) h(L) - - dzol-'.
tam 'tala(k) 'tolo(k) 'ma- - tam 'dambu
l l - L g g | 'dambu 'ma- L h
talk indiscriminately; babble along. U| use clever talk (to gain one's
h-L tam 'te-k end).
L Lt| interrupt s.b. talking. m- tam 'zo- L
h-L/ h-L tam 'teh-k/ E, E U| make up;
'te-k ALL L Lt| translate (coll.).
gossip (negative connotation). ' `U mH| yohlmu
h-L' | See also: 'mihdam tam-di 'magar tam 'zo-e.
'te-k'. E U| I translate from
h- tam 'too- Helambu Sherpa into Nepali.
Ehg t U| pronounce clearly; tM - tam akpu
speak properly. pehti 'ma- pronounce
SU h S | 'kho-gi tam clearly.
'too miih-khu 'du. F L t U M t-/ t- tam am-/ ahm-
j| He cannot pronounce things non-erg. g U/
clearly. | spread news/ news spread.
U h E | 'moh-gi tam ` L` t yH| 'moh
'too-me 'ma-w 'du. F L At U 'luhba 'kah tam am-di o-en. E
j| She speaks unclearly. UE g U kj| She spreads
jL l tam 'tshika sum the news in the whole region.
'i g | a few words. ` L` t ! di
tam 'tshii
j ` tam 'luhba 'kah ahm-sin 'du!
sum-di-'ra 'yehba S UE j ! This news has
jtL | give a summary. '-, spread throughout the whole region!
' | See also: 'dii-, diiba'. tU -
-/ t-/ tU
[Gram: cop.= specific attribution] - tam 'emga 'or- (E)/ tam
- tam
j -/ j - 'em- (W)/ tam 'em-ge 'lahp- (W)
tshur 'lahp- (W)/ tam tshur 'ma- L At U| speak
(E) k | respond. imperfectly; pronounce indistinctly.
(j/ ) - tam (tshur/ - tam 'heemba 'or-
w -
phar) loo- k | w | mix up
answer; reply. languages.

wM tam hokpu S, tii-le-gi tii-la pap-ken. HEt t

gL L| rough talk. AL A U| translate from
yU -
-/ y - tam
- one language into another.
ee-gi 'ma-/ tam ee peh-ti 'ma- V- tam 'praa 'gyur- L ALL U| speak U| change subject
fluently. of conversation; twist the truth; twist
l- tam tahda 'aa- one's statements. LL U| arrange - tam
h (h) phirta (phirta) 'ma-
- tam 'tahp- L Et U| joke with expressions;
A E| get evidence; proof (by distort a message.
overhearing s.b.).
- tam phededede
- tam
(`) - 'ma- g
'tehmba (-'ra) 'ma- g (U L ) blab out things.
L U| tell the truth. h ` SU

h-L tam thaa 'te-k tam ti 'yeh-'na 'kho-gi phededede L t`VE| agree on a 'mee-di o-en. k L H E
deal. | He goes around
E yj
T`- tam thaa
h T`- blabbing out everything he knows.
'te-ti khyo- L - tam 'phoo-
t`VE E| sum up (a talk). L gt V| get hurt by hurtful
L - tam 'theka 'thee- talk. ' -' | See also: L ( p) 'sem-la phoo-'.
interpret what people say in a - tam phruk pruu-
straightforward way. talk decisively; dispute
- tam 'theka 'ma-
L -; deny L n U ( t U) `- tam ('phree)
() -/ `-
talk straightforwardly. ten-/ 'la- LL U

- tam 'nohr- EwE| broach a subject.
(o.f.) U| make a mistake in - tam 'baaa 'ma-
tt -
speaking. ' k' | See also: L tt U| talk away.
'leeh dzol-'. - tam 'ma- L
- tam pap-
- U| talk.
(lamaistic) A U| translate. - g-U tam
( j) -
`U L| ('har tshur) 'ma-'ma 'tse-g
yohlmu tam 'magar tam-la pap-ken. L ( E) U|
A Uj| I be on speaking terms.
am translating from Yohlmu into h / y tam
Nepali. 'ma-lu tii 'yeh/ yii 'yeh cl.cop.
- hU h L| tam LL HEtA j/ Ct A j| there is

an explanation/ there are two h- tam-gi 'tir-

U h-
explanations. [Gram: cl.cop.= L| interrogate fiercly;
existential] press s.b. hard (fig.).
-/ S J`U U h LH|
- tam
- 'kho-la ohr-gi tam-gi 'tir 'koh-en.
'mahr 'mahr 'muhr 'muhr 'ma-/ ED L hj| We must
'mahr 'mahr 'muhr 'muhr peh-ti subdue him by interrogation.
tam 'ma- L AtU U y tam-gi ee LL
U| speak softly; discuss secretly. C| style of speaking; fluency in
[Phon: some speakers prefer high speaking. [Note: "the way it has to be
register: 'tam 'mar 'mar 'mur 'mur said and to sound"]
'ma-'] - tam-gi pe/
U / -
- tam
` tam-pe LL E| proverb.
meh-yemba 'thee- dr. -` , t` g L
L AL | hear disturbing l L`
news. m` tL, ` t
- tam 'yir- L
- ... tam-pe-'ra mihn-du
m` tL
YE| distort facts. le, "'ohba 'tsuu-di kahl 'yihndu-ni
- tam yo- (W)
- nam-la 'uuh-si-'ma-na-ni 'kaba-la
nt U| falsify a matter; make zu-di 'ih-ken, sa 'tih-la
up 'uuh-si-'ma-na-ni a-la zu-di
l- - tam
l-/ h 'ih-ken!" 'mee-di... LL ES j ,
yohwa dor-/ 'teeh sihn- U UCLj AL Ey A E/ uE| find Su , k
evidence; proof. kLt ! ... Isn't
- tam yoo- (E) there the proverb: "Once you have
L gH U| make up; gossip gone into wedlock, if you try to hide
excessively. in the sky, they pull you back on your
` l- tam sa-di 'aa- legs, if you try to hide in the ground, L U T| be they pull you back on your hair!"
uncommunicative; keep secret. U/ - ` -L tam-gi/
` L | tam -la 'yido (N) peh-k L
mah-sa-ba peh-ti e-ken. L LD U| come to a decision together.
| speak freely. m`- tam-gi/ -la
U/ - M m
- tam 'suhr
M - 'nakpa zu- LL
'kyahp-ti 'ma- jy Sl, Sl| find/ look for
H L U) allude to; hint at.
(L evidence; find/ look for proof.
- tam ('kha) 'or-
(S) - U/ - m`- tam-gi/ -la L SL| let out a yohwa zu- A ,
secret. Sl, Sl| find/ look for
` `

evidence; find/ look for proof; find a tari n. g| work utensils: axe.
pretext for quarreling.
L tarka n. JS| fruits: walnut.
V tam-'gyal adj. Lt| L `/ 'tarka
gossiping. sildo/ pruhpsil A n
V/ V tam-'gyal-ba Pt LL JS| fruits: walnuts
(m.)/ tam-'gyalmu (f.) n. L J which have come out of their outer
O| gossiper. shell.
- tam-pe n. E, ES|
- `C L ` T`V| ah-y
proverb; saying. 'tarka sildo 'tiih khyo-'gyo. A
- tam-bemba n. Lt|
- n Pt LL JS HL|| I
gossiper. brought walnuts which had fallen off
` tama n. `| names: name the tree and had come out of their
of the neighboring ethnicity. outer shells.
` `U ` h g {M-} tartsi {kyahp-} n.
l J`V| 'tama-'ya 'yih-gi {v.t.} , {U} {pile up} a pile.
ih-la 'teh-te 'mee-di 'dul oh-'gyo.
l U V h g
` M | pela-'ya 'aa-sa meeh-ba-gi
AHL j| Some Tamangs came to 'gyaa tii-la 'tartsi 'kyahp 'du. y
ask if they could live on our field.
T wE H HL wE j|
tamas (N) adv. A, | very. Because there is nothing to put things
'tamas yaahbu
in, they are piled up in one place.
A | a beautiful spectacle. `
tartu n. wEL | place
tamra n. | foods: beans. names: settlement on the western slope
L jM` H| tamra of the Melamchi River valley, about
'kosa 'thap-kya-'ra sah-en. opposite of Kayn Kahng.
LU SCj| Beans are eaten with M tahrkye n. OL |
the pods. names: personal name.
tayur (W) n. nL L HEt h/ h {j-
{j-/ -
| divination: ancestory line for tahrto/ tahrtu {thar-/
shamans. phyar-} n. {v.t.} k {tV} cerem.
- tar- 'MU, tM`' | terms: {hoist} prayer flag.
See: 'tohkpagi, ohki'.
` {j-} tahrta {thaa-} n.
{g-} tar {tsii-} n. {v.t.} L, {v.i.} {k} {become} ice.
{UE} {stack up} a stack. ` {g-} tahri {tsuu-} n.
j h | de-la 'thee 'tar {v.t.} kL S {Uy} cerem. terms:
tii 'du. LL L j|/ {erect} pole for prayer flag. [Note: The
EL L j| Here is a stack of pole is made of a young silver fir,
books./ Here is a pile of fodder.

stripped of its branches, except the M tahkpa adj. , |

top ones.] innocent; true.
talab (N) n. | salary M `U M `VU mH|
(monthly pay). 'U ' | See tahkpa raga mah-tahkpa sagye-gi
also: 'leega'. 'zii-en. A D
T`U| 'dawa
- Uj | God will judge who is innocent
reeh-reeh-la 'talab khyo-ge. L and who is not.
L Ej| He brings his pay S M | 'kho tahkpa 'yihn. F
each month. j| He is innocent.

` tai '-' | See: 'ta- M tahkpu n. L| owner.

(v.t.)'. M M-/ - tahkpu
'kyahp-/ 'tuh- k |
tah n. EE| plants: fern. assume responsibility (for one's own
- tah- v.t. E| drive cattle. property or task). 'w M M-'
' -, -' | See | See also: 'hal tahkpu
also: 'yahr tah-, mahr tah-'. kyahp-'.
j- tah thaa- M/
/ M -L tahkar/
YtE, tE| reduce (in fulfilling tahkyar peh-k g
customs and obligations). [Usage: U| ascertain; find out.
mostly in the context of customs and `-` MM
festivals] M L| 'tehmba-'ra-da op
j ` `, 'kyahp-'kyo tahkar peh-ken. nt
j | di 'thepa 'toh-le 'leehmu g jtEj| They find out whether
mah-yoh-ba, tah thaa-sin 'du. it is the truth or a lie.
k H, L L YtCHj| ` tah n.
This festival was not what it used to 1) | melody; tune.
be; it was less elaborate than usual. ` y LH| tah ii 'koh-en.
j tah
j| (When singing or reading
maah-tha-ba peh-ti together) the voices must be in
YtDL| without reducing. unison.
-w j ` U| tah tee-di
LH| 'yuhl-him tah maah-tha-ba lehn-gen. L U UE| try out
peh-ti peh 'koh-en. UEL k a tune.
LD YtD Uj| We have 2) , | row (when sitting).
to fulfill the village customs without
` t ! tah iih-di 'teh!
cutting anything out.
! Sit in a nice row!
- tah pral- `-` tah-ya n. , ,
nE, nE| explain; state clearly. | tune; melody; voice (singing).
' -' | See also: 'pra sal-'. `-` h !
`- l

'moh-ti tah-ya ti yaahbu 'yihm-ba! ` ` `U ! 'rah 'rah

EL UL L L j! She has tahga 'nahle! A-A gC ! Each
such a beautiful singing voice! one can do what he pleases!
U `-` ` tahbu temp. E| formerly.
` J`U| yohlmu 'lu 'mee-di `U U mMU w
'apru 'lu-gi tah-ya 'rihbu oh-ge.
| di tahbu-gi 'mih-'ya-gi
U UEL UL 'zo-'kyo-gi him 'yihm-ba. EL
j| The tunes of the songs of HL | This is a
Syabru are slower than the tunes of custom which has been established by
the songs in Helambu. the former generations.
`- tah- v.i./t. S, EY| be ` ` tahbu tahbu
ajar; open. ' `-, S -' (W) E E| once upon a
| See also: 'ser tah-, kha time.
phee-'. ` `/ `U
S ` h `H? 'kha tah-di tahbu 'tohle/ tahbu-'ga leh (E)
ti-be uh-en? L S S S E E| once upon a time.
j? Why are you crying with your ` tahbu num.ord. (lamaistic)
mouth wide open?
| ordinal numerals: first.
L ` l! 'koh tah-di
maah-'a! L S S! Don't keep ` tahma adj. ML, A|
the door open! genuine (of precious stones and
h S `U | 'tihbi
piihru-'ya 'kha tah-gu 'du. gL `` | di-ni ser
hg S A Uj | Look, the little tahma-'ra 'yihm-ba. A
birds have their beaks wide open! | This is pure gold.
MU S `C ` M| g tahtse 'tt' | See: 'ooe'.
'kyibu-gi 'kha ah-y tah-di ta-'kyo.
k tahze temp. S| at this
LLL S S L| I opened time.
the dog's mouth to look into it.
k L t!
` tahe adj. `` HL, A tahze-ni 'mih-ro nam-la phir-ko
UL| open. 'yeh-o! S EL Su C
S S ` L | 'kho 'kha ! At this time she is probably
tahe peh-ti 'teh-ku 'du. F S A U floating on a cloud!
j| He sits there with his
mouth wide open. l tahi temp. AY| a while
`U tahga n. Chj, gC| wish. S` l` L! khu-'ya
` l `U L! ah-la tahi-'ra kahl-di! E AY UH!
sah-e tahga 'kaa-di! D S h! They went a good while ago!
I don't feel like eating anything!
tahi kuhmu
l L`

temp.+ n. UHL | last night. [Usage: 'g-' | See also: 'tsahr-'.

Some people also use 'da kuhmu'
- tahp- v.t. , E L
for 'last night; but strictly this means
U| measure (with various measures);
the night preceding yesterday.] deliver levies in kind (grains, liquor).
M- tahda kyahp- (W) `U L y j` L| jE| follow s.b. 'yih-gi kohmba-la 'u tha-'ya
[Usage: with literal and abstract 'tahp-ken. U A ky
meaning] '` `-' | See: 'ti j| We deliver grain, whisky and
yaa- (E)'. the like at the temple.
Jk AjA` M L 'tahp-ka n. C| measure.
M L | ohze 'bele '`-' | See also: 'loh-'.
'Atsham-'a tahda 'kyahp-te 'kyahp-te
tahpse temp. A, A| now
kahl 'du lo. S Aj jH (emphatic, expressive).
UHj | At that time Atsham followed AC - J
M ! taah-ni 'ada-y
l- tahda aa- paahma peh-sin - ohle tahpse 'tuhkpu
g , U| promise. ' l-' tee 'nahle! D U, A
| See also: 'tam tahda aa-'. DL S ! Now you have
`U l| married - and now look at the
di 'leeh peh ter-ke 'mee-di ah-gi troubles you have!
tahda 'aa-sin. L Uj g
tahm n. | bondage.
HL j| I promised to do this work -/ l- tahm-la taa-/
for them. 'aa- U/ T,
` M- tahdo kyahp- | bind spiritual powers. 'l
(W) E| invite L-, S- k-L' | See also:
(formally). '`l' | See: 'tahmda kal-, kha-nem dze-k'.
'pahden (E+W)'. U y y
- tah-na n. wEL | place U| pohmbo-gi lheni 'ini-'ya-la
names: Dana (a small settlement on the tahm-la taa-ge. nP - D
eastern slope of the Melamchi River Uj| The shaman binds the evil
valley, below Langgyapsa and ancestor spirits.
asyi-Thang). U lU| lama-gi
'tiih-la tahm-la 'aa-ge. D
tahnda (E) temp. A| now. j| The lama binds the evil spirit.
'' | See: 'nahre (W)'. U - tahm-le-gi then-
` tahnda t L (O
tahnda-'ra | again ) come out of bondage.
and again; repeatedly.
- tahm- v.t./i. | bind (lit.
- tahp- v.i. S| fall down.
-j l

and fig.); tighten. UL j| First he was a monk, but

L L l| now he has changed his vocation and
'pulis-ki 'kumen-la tahm 'aa-sin. got married. So we say, "He has
gD T| The police forsaken his vow!"
bound the thief. k `- tahmdzi yahm-
l , l` L g | vow loses
! 'lu lehn-de 'ma-na, 'diba its merit. [Gram: exp. takes gen.
'phok tahm-de 'i 'teh 'du! U UF <-ki>]
, U j! Just when I want to k ` h- tahmdzi
sing a song my throat becomes yahm tuu- g U|
completely constricted, what a destroy s.b.'s vow.
nuisance! k j- tahmdzi thuu- g | vow,
-j tahm-thee n. OL
resolution deteriorates.
| names: personal name, m.
k j h- tahmdzi thuu
k tahmdzi n. tuu- g U|
1) g, g| vow; resolution. [Usage: destroy s.b.'s resolution/ vow.
Some people use 'tahmda' instead.] k m`- tahmdzi zu-
h L
k m` l g U| take a vow.
j `l `U| 'leeh tii k `- tahmdzi su-
peh-ke 'mee-di tahmdzi zu phando g U| keep a vow.
sem 'har tshur ta-de meh-yoh-gen.
k m` l k ` LH|
L Uj g CLj E tahmdzi zu phando tahmdzi su
YE | If you have made a 'koh-en. g Uj U
j| If you
resolution to do something, you must have taken a vow, you must keep it.
not waver from it.
2) OL | names: personal name, f. l tahmda n. W, L,
k M- tahmdzi 'kyur- | promise; agreement. '`U g y| forsake a l l-' | See also:
vow. 'rah-gi sem-la tahmda aa-'.
[Usage: Some people use 'tahmda'
k V- tahmdzi 'gyur- g E`U U| and 'tahmdzi' interchangeably.]
change vocation. L- tahmda 'kal-
l L-
` L` , S T| bind (spirits). '
-, S- k-L' | See also:
k V lM g| J k
'tahm-la taa-, 'kha-nem dze-k'.
M H! 'toh-le 'kehlo 'uh-sin,
taah-ni 'kho tahmdzi 'gyur-ti 'dikten U l LV|
'tsuu-sin. ohle tahmdzi 'kyur-ti 'ma-en! lama-gi 'tiih-la tahmda 'kal-'gyo.
Q () , A g D SL| The
lama bound the evil spirits.
E`U U U| A g E`U


l - tahmda 'thup- 2) EE| sharpen tools on a stone. L U| promise, L `! di 'karta toh-la
agreement remains valid. 'tahr-to! L `U
l h-L/ j-L tahmda Sharpen this knife on the stone.
'te-k/ 'the-k non-erg.
tahra n. , | buttermilk.
L U/ | break a promise, `U j tA` hU,
agreement/ promise, agreement is
t`A` hU, J
yH| oh 'a-ge-mu thu 'ohmo-'a
SU S` l h| 'kho-gi 'tol-ge, 'ahmu-'a 'tol-ge, ohle
'kho-'ra tahmda 'te-sin. E A tahra landi o-en.
L U| He broke his promise. j, g j, A
l m`- tahmda zu- j| When you churn the L U| keep a curds (to make butter) you add
promise, agreement. sometimes some hot water and
SU S` l m`| 'kho-gi sometimes some cold water, and so
'kho-'ra tahmda zu-sin. E A the buttermilk becomes quite thin.
L U| He kept his promise.
l l- tahmda 'aa- ` ` tahra tohro adj./ W U, L T| make n. `U HL| rocky, uneven
a promise, agreement. (ground).
` ` ` L y LE
-L tahmbu peh-k | tahra tohro nah-le phar-ki o | be careful; take 'koh-w 'du. `U -`U
t k
good care of
j| Oh, we have to go through this
T`, jE! di rocky area.
tahmbu peh-ti 'khyer-to, thaa-w-'wa!
k U kF, t ! Take this
tahlen temp. | this
along carefully, it might break! year.
S`U ` L` `V,
tahmbe n. LwL HL ` LH| khu-gi 'nahni 'kasu
| household utensils: wooden ta-'gyo, tahlen ta meh-'koh-en.
- tahr- v.t. | They
, nE
1) p| scrub (pots with abrasive performed the house spirit placating
material such as ashes or sand); rub ritual last year, so they don't need to
against. do it this year.
` y LH| - tah-loh temp. | this
tohbo-'ya-la 'tahr-ti o 'koh-en. S year.
j| You have to rub
y - t` h, ` `
against the bushes (when you go
h! tah-loh ahmyen 'lop-te,
through thickets).

sabe 'piyo 'lop-te! t` names: Kutumsang (on the western

Mj, AY `U Mj! This year I ridge of the Melamchi valley); also
want to learn to play the shorter the saddle above Syuhnggan-Che.
string instrument, next year the longer
taalu n. wEL | place names:
one! settlement in the western part of
tahlda ' ' | See: Yohlmu, in the upper Tadi Khola
'toohri'. valley, north of Kulu.
taa n. Y| animals: tiger; leopard taah temp. A| now.
(bigger than 'ten'). T ` ! TC h H
- taa- v.t. , UE| fasten. `C l, ` A`
jewelry: wear; put on. ! khye so taah-ni! taah-ni
khye-y ti ma-e-di ah-y sem-la
`U l` l|
ah-gi 'rah piihru-la oba-la taa 'aasin, taah ah nahm-'a 'yi
'aa-sin. SL wD meeh-loh! A kF! L
S| I fastened the little goat to the SL, A L E j!
fodder trough. Go now! I know now what you want,
and I will not go to sleep anymore!
J ` A
LL | ohle 'rel-di 'pahla 'ama - taah- v.i. , S| be
'poh-la taa 'koh-ken 'nahle. A clean (pots); be rinsed thoroughly
g EUDL jE j| And (clothes). 'M -' | See
then you must fasten the rope near also: 'tihkpa taah-'.
the mother cow. ` Lh | ah 'kapta
- taa ter- UC, taah-sin. Ly S| My clothes
C| jewelry: make a gift of are well rinsed.
- taah- v.t. wE , A U
`U Ml L| ah-gi Q T| take up space. [Gram:
'nuhmu-la 'kyehnda taa ter-ken. needs locative specification] reserve.
D U Cj| I gave my [Disc: in some contexts 'taah aa-' is
younger sister some jewelry. more appropriate]
l- taa-la 'aa- `U E | di
A, T| discipline tohbo-gi de-la sa taah-w 'du. S
(humans); make submissive (animals).
wE j| This tree is just
A AU k l taking up space here.
LH| aba 'ama-gi pehza-'ya-la taa-la j yH ` `
'aa 'koh-en. A hgD
LH| thuda-la o-e-mu 'rah 'rah
Tj| The parents have to 'paalo taah 'koh-en. Yu k A
discipline their children.
Q Tj| When you go to
-S taa-khor wEL | place the mill you have to reserve your


turn. treat s.b. well.

J V ` `U ` hU h k LH| tii-gi
tl lM| ooh rihl-'gyo tii-la taahndzen peh 'koh-en. HL
tohbo-di ah-gi i 'uuh-e-la taah ALD A U j| You have to
'aa-'kyo. L Sg EL estimate each other.
U Q SL! I have reserved h ` k L , S` `
this fallen tree for me to get the wood A` k` ! ti teeen
form it. taahndzen peh-ku 'du, khu yii-ni
t lH| 'bas-la 'sii taah nahm-'a mih-n-dzi 'du! E Ck
'aa-en. A t Q Sj| HL-ALD A Uj, L
On the bus one reserves a seat for nUy U ! These two really estimate
oneself. each other highly, they never quarrel
with each other!
S- taah khur- Q
| side up with; be protective (e.g. -
-L/ -
-S/ -
of one's children). ti-kohre/ ti-khore/ ti-khire loc.
T S , TU S `U| all around; surrounding.
Sh ? 'khya-ti 'kho 'su 'yihm-ba 'L-M' | See also:
leh, 'khya-gi 'kho-la taah khur-te-la? 'kor-kyihle'. [Gram: does not take
L F L , EL Q <-la>]
? What is he to you that you S` -L | khu
would take his side? ti-kohre peh-ti 'teh 'du. E U
U `U k l` H j| The are sitting in a circle.
SL ! 'moh-gi-ni 'rah-gi S` -S` g , l
pehza-'ya-la dibu-'ra taah khur-ku `U ! 'khaba ti-khore-'ra 'mehndo
'du! E A hgL HL Q 'tsuu 'du, yaahba-i 'tho-gu 'du! YL
j! Oh, she is very protective `U L j, M S
of her children! j! Oh, they have planted flowers
all around the house, how nice it

` k/
{-L} taahna tahmdzi (E)/
taahnam tahmdzi (W) {peh-k} L` -S` L M {v.t.} A, L {U} {offer} 'kah ti-khire-'ra kahrta 'kyahp-sin.
hospitality. yyL `U UHj| They put a
fence all around the hill.
U ` k
L| yohlmo 'mih-'ya-gi taahna M tikpu adj. k, wML |
tahmdzi yaahbu peh-ken. divination: accurate (quality of
j A L Uj| The shamans giving an accurate forecast).
Yohlmo people are very hospitable. ' M' | See also: 'moh
tikpu'. [Gram: excl.: 'tikpa!']
k -L taahndzen peh-k U| estimate s.b; l` M , SU


M l` E | di sleep on).
pohmbo dibu-'ra 'tikpu 'du, 'kho-gi
`V tigyur n. L HEt
'moh 'kyahp-si-'ma-na 'na thamdi-'ra
LL | cerem. utensils: name of a
'thii-w 'du. nP k j, E religious book.
L kS wML kj|
This shaman is very accurate, all his ` tiba 'L` `' |
forecasts turn out to be true. See: 'kaba tiba'.

-S/ -
-S ti-khire/ `/
`/ ` ti-la/ ti-le temp.
ti-khore '-L' | See: j| later; afterwards.