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Anc Sci Life. 2011 Oct-Dec; 31(2): 6272.

PMCID: PMC3530270

Comparative study on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by two different methods


Dhirajsingh Rajput, 1,* G. S. Tekale, 2 and BJ Patgiri1
1Department of RS & BK, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar-361008, India
2Government Ayurveda College, Nanded-431601, Maharashtra, India
*Corresponding Author

Copyright : Ancient Science of Life

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Abstract
Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations
cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule
which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment
mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's
difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment
for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma
prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to
modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva
(bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma
should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its
metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-
chemical properties.

Keywords: Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra, Traditional Puta, Kasisa Bhasma

Introduction
Bhasmas are calcined preparation of metals and minerals having some superiority over herbal formulations. They are commonly used in the treatment of
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diseases as they have great therapeutic value because of their micro fineness, property to get easily assimilated, small dose and more effect[1]. Preparation of
bhasmas, is an elaborate process involving purification of material, levigation with different herbal juices, pallet formation and incineration (Puta). In all these
processes incineration plays major role to convert metal and mineral into safe and efficacious compound form with micronization, besides this, their natural
properties are enhanced and even new properties also inducted[2]. There are different methods of Puta advised for different metals and minerals according to
their physical and chemical nature. It is mentioned in Rasendra Chudamani that more number of putas makes the metal highly effective[3].

In classics, amount of fuel required for incineration is mentioned in the form of size of pit and number of cow dung cakes, but definite amount of metal and
mineral to be taken for each batch is not specified. This leads to difficulty in pharmaceutical standardization of bhasma, hence there is need to develop and
improve procedure of puta, although the puta procedure is still unchanged. Cow dung cakes are used as fuel is difficult to procure in modern age and also
creates much pollution. The electric furnaces are available for puta but are too expensive, require technical skill to handle, and are not affordable for small scale
manufacturers and individual practitioners. To overcome this problem, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared, which
occupies minimal space, easy to handle, less expensive and works on LPG (Liquid petroleum gas). Kasisa was selected for present work because the
preparative procedure of Kasisa bhasma requires Kukkutaputa i.e. moderate range of temperature, which was very suitable for this study.

Aim and Objectives:


To compare the bhasma prepared by using MPBNY with traditionally prepared bhasma and to assess the utility of MPBNY.

Material and Methods


The preparation of kasisa bhasma was carried out in four steps.

a) Preparation of MPBNY: In MPBNY, LPG is used as fuel and required extent of heat is maintained with the help of LPG burner. Two thick iron
rings were prepared on the stand for Sharava (earthen pot in which metal or mineral to be subjected for incineration is placed) and firebricks made to
cover the outer portion of the instrument. The thick iron rings with crossed thick iron rods, heated during Puta and thus heat will get absorbed in
them, after stopping the heat supply, the iron rod and ring emits the absorbed heat, this helps to keep the inner temperature of the instrument high for
longer time. The fire brick also helps to prevent heat loss. The structure of MPBNY can be divided into three parts viz protective, supportive and
active parts, the protective parts include, metal stand for Yantra (instrument) and fire brick with nut and bolts, the supportive parts which is made up
of metal holder, upper iron cauldron, lower iron cauldron, metal stand for Sharava, aperture for pyrometer and the active parts contains heat
convergent vessel, upper metal rods, lower hollow metal rods, pyrometer, and LPG burner. (Fig No. 1 to 5)
b) Selection of the raw material: There are two types of Kasisa viz Pushpa Kasisa and Valuka Kasisa, Pushpa Kasisa which is crystalline with
bluish green colour; is acceptable type and used for medicinal purpose hence taken for bhasma preparation.
c) Kasisa Shodhana (purification of kasisa): The raw Kasisa of quantity 1500 gm was taken for Shodhana. The Shodhana was carried out by 3 hour
sudation with Bhringaraja Swarasa (extract of Elipta alba Niss.).[4]
d) Preparation of Kasisa bhasma by both traditional method[5] and by using MPBNY: Obtained shodhit kasisa was divided into four equal
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batches; each batch contains 300 gm of kasisa. The batch were named as Batch A, B, C and D, each batch was levigated with Kanji for seven times
followed by preparing small cakes and subjecting to puta, from 2nd Batch A was used to prepare kasisa bhasma by traditional method, i.e. puta for
this batch were given by using cow dung cakes. 20 cow dung cakes were taken for one puta, such two puta were required to obtain kasisa bhasma
(Figure no. 6 and 7). The other three batches were subjected for puta in MPBNY, four puta were required to obtain Kasisa bhasma (Figure no. 8
to 11).

Observation and Results


Comparative Observation of Temperature During Putas: The maximum temperature observed, time required to reach this level and time required to fall
temperature up to 30C in traditional method of Puta were 624C, 23 minutes and 4 hour and 20 minutes respectively. In MPBNY 4 Puta's were required to
prepare Kasisa bhasma. The maximum temperature observed, time required to reach this level and time for fall of temperature up to 30C were 610C, 1
hour and 35 minutes and 6 hour and 15 minutes respectively. Table No. 1

Organoleptic Characters of Kasisa Bhasma: Kasisa bhasma prepared by both methods were dark red, not sour, smooth and with no specific luster and
odour. (Table no. 2)

Testing of Kasisa bhasma by Ayurvedic parameters (bhasma pariksha's):- Prepared Kasisa bhasma was tested for Apunarbhava, Niruttha, (Table
no. 3 and 4) Niswadu, Rekhapurnatva, Varitaratva and Niramla pariksha. All batches satisfactorily passed above mentioned bhasma pariksha's.

Physico-chemical properties:- Percent moisture content:- No any significant difference observed in the percent moisture content of batch A, B, C and D
which were 0.62, 0.68, 0.58 and 0.62 respectively (Table no 5.). Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (A.A.S. ):- In AAS percentage of Fe in batch A, B, C
and D are 65.41, 92.12, 64.60 and 62.49 respectively (Table no 6). The percentage of Fe is significantly high in batch B, while they are nearly same in
remaining batches. Compared to other batches, maximum weight loss (68.33 %) is also observed in batch B. This may also related with high percentage of Fe.

Ash Value: - The ash values were counted in terms of Total Ash, Acid Insoluble Ash, Acid soluble Ash, Water insoluble Ash and Water soluble Ash. There is
no any significant difference found in ash values of four batch of kasisa bhasma (Table no. 7).

XRD studies: - Analysis of four batches of Kasisa bhasma was done by powder crystal method, as shown in the results of XRD graphs. In XRD studies
peaks of many compounds remain unidentified, only sharp peaks denotes crystalline structure. (Graph no. 3 to 6)

Discussion
Bhasma pariksha are the Ayurvedic parameters to access the quality of bhasma, athoughsome tests are specially indicated for some bhasmae.g.
Niramlatva (bitter less) is special test for Kasisa bhasma. Prepared Kasisa bhasma was bitter less and satisfactorily passed common bhasma pariksha
except the Niruttha pariksha, because Kasisa is a mineral and Niruttha pariksha is useful to test bhasma prepared from metals. Some weight gain was
found in silver during Niruttha pariksha, which is due to the adhesive property of Kasisa bhasma. No other significant difference observedin organoleptic and
phyco-chemical properties of all four batches.
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The efficacy of MPBNY is evaluated in terms of minimization of time required for puta procedure, expenditure and temperature changes. Measurement of time
required for puta procedure by traditional method, started from the collection of cow dung cakes to the completion of bhasma preparation. Author required
eight day and much labor to prepare desired size and shape of cow dung cakes. On the other hand, the LPG cylinder required to give puta in MPBNY is
easily available. The cow dung cakes produces extra pollution, while the problem of pollution is completely absent in MPBNY. There is some considerable
difference in the typical pattern of temperature, in traditional method of puta, the temperature increases fast and reaches to maximum level (Graph no. 1), after
that it decreases much faster than the decreasing pattern of temperature in MPBNY (Graph no. 2). The slow decrease of temperature in MPBNY is due to the
fire brick around the heat convergent vessel.

Advantages of MPBNY over traditional method of Puta: The prepared instrument helps to prevent time loss; easy to operate, require fewer places for
puta i.e. puta can be given within 3 to 4 square feet area, not create pollution and easy to regulate temperature and to give required level of heat. This
instrument will be very useful where the availability of cow dung cakes is difficult or where continuous supply of cow dung cakes is not possible.

Advantages of MPBNY over electric furnace: As compared with electric furnace, this instrument is less expensive, require very little technical skill to
handle and have no any danger of shot-circuit.

Conclusion
Kasisa bhasma prepared by traditional method and by MPBNY are nearly same with respect to their organoleptic characters and physico-chemical
properties. The maximum temperature required to prepare Kasisa bhasma by traditional method was 624C and in MPBNY it was 610C. Puta procedure
of bhasma preparation in MPBNY is more convenient than traditional method of puta.

References
1. Vajapeyi Rameshwar Dayal. Resendrachudamani. 333. Vol. 1. Varanasi: Choukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2004.

2. Devanathan R. Concept of Bhasmikarana. Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy. 2011;2(1):22293566.

3. Mishra Siddhinandan., Dr. Rasendra Chudamani, Siddhiprada. Vol. 5. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2004. pp. 145147.

4. Mishra Vd. Gururaj Sharma. Ayurveda Prakash, Suspashtavabodhini. Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharti Acadamy; 2007. p. 275.

5. Shastri Kashinatha., Shri . Rasa Tarangini. Vol. 21. New Delhi: Motilala Banarsidas Publication; 2004. pp. 255258.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1:

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Diagrammatic view of MPBNY

Fig. 2:

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Parts of MPBNY

Fig. 3:

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Prepared Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra

Fig. 4:

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Upper View showing stand for sharava

Fig. 5:

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Upper View showing hollow iron rods

Fig. 6:

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Traditional Puta

Fig. 7:

Kasis Bhasma (Batch A)

Fig. 8:

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Sharava Placed for in Puta MPBNY

Fig. 9:

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Puta in MPBNY

Fig. 10:

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Sharava in MPBNY after puta

Fig. 11:

Kasis Charika after puta in MPBNY

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Table 1

Comparative Observation of Temperature During Putas

Table 2

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Organoleptic Characters of Kasisa Bhasma

Table 3

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Apunarbhava Pariksha of Kasisa Bhasma

Table 4

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Detail of Niruttha Pariksha

Table 5

Percent moisture content of Kasisa Bhasma

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Table 6

AAS for Fe of Kasisa Bhasma

Table 7

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Ash Values of Kasisa Bhasma

Graph 1

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Temperature Pattern during Traditional Puta

Graph 2

Range Of Temperature During puta In MPBNY


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Graph 3

XRD Picks of KasisaBhasma (Batch A)

Graph 4

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XRD Picks of KasisaBhasma (Batch B)

Graph 5

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XRD Picks of KasisaBhasma (Batch C)

Graph 6

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XRD Picks of KasisaBhasma (Batch D)

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