Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 25, NO.

1, FEBRUARY 2015 5200206

Experimental Study of Thrusts of a Cylindrical


Linear Synchronous Motor With One or
More YBCO Bulk Magnets as
the Excitation System
Wanqing Duan, Zhongming Yan, Wenbo Luo, Peixing Zhang, Zhixing Gui, Zhiquan Wang, and Yu Wang

AbstractThe thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor [7] in Japan and Yen et al. [8] in China used HTS windings as
with one or more YBCO bulk magnets as the excitation system the dc excitation system of the linear synchronous motor to im-
were measured for the first time and are presented in this paper. prove performance. Compared with the HTS winding, the same
The YBCO bulk magnets are cylindrical with a diameter of 30 mm
and a height of 18 mm. The armature of the motor is three volume of HTS bulk has a stronger magnetic field; therefore,
phase and made of copper wire coils. The inner diameter of the it is necessary to research linear synchronous motors with an
armature is 40 mm. At the temperature of 77 K and a radial gap excitation system made of HTS bulk magnets. Takahashi et al.
of 5 mm between the armature and the excitation system, with [9] in Japan developed a double-sided linear synchronous ac-
a charging magnetization current of 40 A for one YBCO bulk tuator with two YBCO bulk magnets as the excitation system.
magnet and the RMS value current of 10 A for the armature coils,
a peak thrust of 27.2 N was measured. Effects of armature current, The aforementioned HTS linear motor studied by Pina et al. in
charging magnetization current, running time, and magnetizers Portugal also used a YBCO bulk magnet as the excitation sys-
were also studied. When the excitation system had two or three full tem [6]. In addition, Li et al. in China also studied this field [10].
magnetized YBCO bulk magnets and magnetizers between them, The aforementioned papers are all about flat linear mo-
the thrust was nearly two or three times as strong as the thrust of tor, and there is only a few research about cylindrical lin-
one YBCO bulk magnet under the same conditions.
ear motors. However, a cylindrical linear motor is widely
Index TermsCylindrical linear synchronous motor, thrust, applied under limits, such as oil pumps and machine tools.
YBCO bulk magnet. Therefore, the research about HTS cylindrical linear motor is
meaningful. In the past, only Oswald et al. and Kellers et al.
I. I NTRODUCTION in Germany designed and tested cylindrical linear motors, in-
cluding an HTS wire-wound armature and a conventional mover,
A S the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) technol-
ogy can make motors more efficient and compact, it
has been applied to motor technology quickly. In the field of
respectively [11][14]. In the HTS wire-wound armature, the
problem of ac losses also exists. However, Oswald et al. pro-
posed that we can use HTS materials as the excitation system
rotating motors, the research results have proved their supe-
of the cylindrical linear synchronous motor [11].
riority [1][3]. Linear motors aim at higher efficiency; thus,
Our design is similar to Oswald et al.s ideas. In the design,
HTS technology becomes more important in high-thrust linear
the motor includes a cylindrical three-phase linear armature
motors [4], [5].
made of copper wire coils and an excitation system made
Nowadays, HTS linear motors have a variety of different
of one or more YBCO bulk magnets. In the experiment, we
designs. Kim et al. [4] in Korea and Pina et al. [6] in Portugal
magnetized YBCO bulk magnets and submerged them in an
researched on using BSSCO wire instead of copper wire to
adiabatic container filled with liquid nitrogen. The adiabatic
make the armature of the linear motor. Such designs have
container was placed inside the cylindrical three-phase linear
greatly reduced the volume of the armature, but the problem
armature. When we used only one YBCO bulk magnet, mag-
of ac losses affects the performance of the motor. Kusada et al.
netizers, which are pieces of iron, could be placed on the seed
surface, the nonseed surface, or on both, and we could study
the changes in thrust under different conditions. When we used
more than one YBCO bulk magnets, there were magnetizers
Manuscript received December 22, 2013; revised May 2, 2014 and June 20, between adjacent YBCO bulk magnets, and we can measure
2014; accepted July 10, 2014. Date of publication July 22, 2014; date of current their total thrust. Thrusts were measured when the excitation
version November 26, 2014. This work was supported in part by the Key system is in static state, and from the thrusts, we can determine
Program of the National Natural and Science Foundation of China under Grant
U1234203. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor P. J. Masson. the performance of our motor. This paper will serve as the
The authors are with the School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest foundation of the research on large-scale HTS cylindrical linear
Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China (e-mail: duanwanqing@126.com). motors in the future. Because the armature is made of copper
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. wire coils and the excitation system needs to be cooled down to
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TASC.2014.2341182 77 K only, the costs are relatively low.

1051-8223 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
5200206 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 25, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2015

II. E XPERIMENTAL S ETUP


The excitation system is made of one or more melt-texture
growth YBCO bulk magnets produced by Beijing General
Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals. The diameter and
height of the cylindrical YBCO bulks are about 30 and 18 mm,
respectively, and its critical temperature is 92 K. Due to tech-
nological limitations, the diameter and height of YBCO bulks
may have errors within 1 mm. The YBCO bulk has two sides,
i.e., a seed surface and a nonseed surface, and the magnetic
performances of the two sides are different. After the full mag-
netization at 77 K, the peak trapped magnetic fields of the seed Fig. 1. Main experimental setup of the HTS cylindrical linear synchronous
surface and the nonseed surface were 0.50.6 and 0.20.3 T, motor.
respectively.
Magnetizers are pieces of iron for magnetic flux guidance.
They are also cylindrical, and their diameter is 30 mm. When
the excitation system has only one YBCO bulk magnet, each
side of the YBCO bulk magnet may need a magnetizer whose
thickness is 6 mm. When the excitation system had two or three
YBCO bulk magnets, the thickness of each magnetizer between
adjacent YBCO bulk magnets is 12 mm.
YBCO bulk magnets are magnetized by field cooling. The
magnetization field is generated by a field control system,
including a magnet power supply (Lakeshore Model 647) and
an iron-cored electromagnet series (Lakeshore EM4-CV). The
power supply can output charging currents from 0 to 72 A. The
gap between the two poles of the electromagnet is set to 25 mm
during the magnetization. A container filled with liquid ni-
trogen is placed in the gap. Each YBCO bulk magnet to be
magnetized is fixed in the container. The YBCO bulk magnet
in the container is placed in the magnetization field for about
Fig. 2. Experimental setup of the HTS cylindrical linear synchronous motor.
15 min to complete the magnetization. In another 15 min, the
magnetized YBCO bulk magnet will have a stable magnetic
which are placed in the container center, and the inner surface
field and can be used to make the excitation system.
of the container is 2 mm. In total, the whole radial gap is
The cylindrical three-phase linear armature produced by
5 mm. Thus, the container with the YBCO bulk magnets is
Harbin Tech. Full Electric Company, Ltd., is made of copper
generally allowed to only move along the axial direction. The
wire coils and an iron core. The parameters of the armature are
armature generates the alternating magnetic field to provide the
as follows. The height is 450 mm, and the effective height is
thrust. The thrust is measured by three force sensors mechani-
420 mm. The pole pitch is 30 mm, and the armature has 14
cally connecting the YBCO bulk magnets and then displaced
poles. The outer and inner diameters are 93.5 and 40 mm,
by an oscilloscope. This measurement system is made by
respectively. The maximum RMS current is 16.5 A, when the
Hongxing Electric.
running time is less than 30 s. In the experimental setup, the
The sketch of the main experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1.
armature was placed vertically, and the alternating current at a
The photo of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2. In this
frequency of 20 Hz was supplied by a converter.
figure, the HTS cylindrical linear synchronous motor is on the
After magnetization, each magnetized YBCO bulk magnet
lower left, measuring instruments for the thrusts are at the side
with the container and a glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy-resin
of the motor, and the converter is on the right.
adiabatic container are placed in a big box filled with liquid
nitrogen. In the liquid nitrogen in the box, the YBCO bulk
magnet is transferred from the container used for magnetization III. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION
to the epoxy-resin adiabatic container with a clip. Finally,
A. Trapped Magnetic Fields in a YBCO Bulk
the YBCO bulk magnet is placed and fixed in the epoxy-
resin adiabatic container filled with liquid nitrogen to be the In the experiments, charging magnetization currents Idc were
excitation system. set to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 A, respectively. Table I shows
The height and bottom thickness of the cylindrical con- the center magnetic fields at two poles of the electromagnet Bex
tainer are 210 and 10 mm, respectively. The outer and inner and the peak trapped magnetic fields on the seed surface and the
diameters are 38 and 34 mm, respectively. The radial gap nonseed surface of a magnetized YBCO bulk magnet Bsmtrap
between the container and the armature is only 1 mm. The and Bnmtrap under different Idc . Those data were measured
distance between the outer surface of YBCO bulk magnets, by a Hall probe in the center of the two surfaces at a gap of
DUAN et al.: THRUSTS OF CYLINDRICAL LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH YBCO BULK MAGNETS 5200206

TABLE I
T RAPPED M AGNETIC F IELDS IN A B ULK V ERSUS Idc

Fig. 4. Peak trapped magnetic fields and peak thrust experienced by the
YBCO bulk magnet when the RMS current Iac = 10 A at different charging
magnetization currents Idc .

The sinusoidal variation of the thrust is caused by the


waveform of the traveling magnetic field. The thrust between
the YBCO bulk magnet and the traveling magnetic field is
calculated by the Lorentz force formula, i.e.,

F = JBr dv. (1)

In (1), J is the induced current density after magnetization


plus the induced current density due to the traveling magnetic
field inside the YBCO bulk, Br is the sum of the traveling
magnetic field plus the induced magnetic field produced by
the YBCO bulk in the radius direction, and v is the volume.
Fig. 3. Thrust versus current angle curves with the charging magnetization However, compared with the stable induced current density
current Idc = 40 A of the YBCO bulk magnet and the RMS currents Iac = after the magnetization, the induced current density due to the
416 A through the armature of the HTS cylindrical linear synchronous motor
at 20 Hz. traveling magnetic field inside the magnetized YBCO bulk can
be ignored. The induced magnetic field produced by the YBCO
1 mm. With an increase in Idc , Bex increased almost linearly. bulk can only produce a total thrust of zero. Therefore, the
However, due to the limitation of induced current density inside thrust force F is proportional to Br , and Br is proportional
the YBCO bulk at 77 K, the peak trapped magnetic fields to the ac instantaneous input values. Therefore, the thrust is
Bsmtrap and Bnmtrap increased when Idc was at the lower range sinusoidal, and the peak thrust is proportional to the RMS
and saturated when Idc is at 40 A. When Idc was above 40 A, currents Iac .
the peak trapped magnetic fields Bsmtrap and Bnmtrap barely
changed. Therefore, Idc of 40 A was adopted to produce fully
magnetized YBCO bulk magnets in the experiments. C. Charging Magnetization Current Idc Effect
Fig. 4 shows that, when the RMS current Iac of the arma-
ture was 10 A and the running time was less than 30 s, the
B. Thrusts of Different RMS Currents Iac Versus Time Phase
peak trapped magnetic fields and peak thrusts of the YBCO
In the experiments, the charging magnetization current Idc bulk magnet versus charging magnetization currents Idc set
was set to 40 A to magnetize one YBCO bulk magnet, and to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 A, respectively. In Fig. 4, the
the RMS currents Iac of the armature were set to 4, 6, 8, change in the trend of peak thrusts is similar to the trend
10, 12, 14, and 16 A, respectively. The measured thrusts of of peak trapped magnetic fields Bsmtrap and Bnmtrap of the
the magnetized YBCO bulk magnet versus the time phase in YBCO bulk magnet and is also saturated when Idc is at 40 A.
these cases and when the running time was less than 30 s are The reason why the peak thrusts are almost proportional to
presented in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3, the thrusts are all sinusoidal waves the trapped magnetic fields of the YBCO bulk magnet can be
as a function of time phase. With the increase in the Iac of explained by (1). This is because the thrust force F and the
the armature, the thrust increases linearly. When Iac was 10 A, trapped magnetic fields of the YBCO bulk magnet are all pro-
the peak thrust was 27.2 N. When Iac was 6 A, the peak thrust portional to the induced current density J. J increases with the
decreased to 15.9 N. When Iac was 14 A, the peak thrust increase in Idc until it becomes saturated when Idc is at 40 A;
increased to 37.5 N. therefore, the results in Fig. 4 can be easily explained.
5200206 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 25, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2015

Fig. 6. YBCO bulk magnet with two magnetizers (in millimeters).

Because the pole pitch of armature is 30 mm, the thickness


of the magnetizers is designed to 6 mm. In this way, the total
thickness of the YBCO bulk magnet and the magnetizers of
the two surfaces is the same as the pole pitch. Fig. 6 shows
the structure and the size of the YBCO bulk magnet with
Fig. 5. Peak thrust experienced by the YBCO bulk magnet when the RMS two magnetizers. If one magnetizer is removed in Fig. 6, the
current Iac = 6 A and charging magnetization currents Idc = 40 A at different structure of the YBCO bulk magnet with one magnetizer will
running time. be shown.
After the magnetizers were placed on the surfaces of the
D. Running Time Effect
magnetized YBCO bulk magnet, the magnetic field distribution
Except here, thrusts were all measured when the running of the outer surfaces of the magnetizers and the surfaces of
time was less than 30 s. Thrusts with a long running time are the magnetized YBCO bulk magnet became different. The
studied here. Fig. 5 shows the changes of peak thrust of the strongest magnetic field was no longer at the center; the axial
full magnetized YBCO bulk magnet during the 20-min running magnetic field distribution from the center to the edge of the
time of the motor when the RMS current Iac of armature was surface first increased and then decreased.
6 A. The reasons why we chose Iac = 6 A are as follows. The When the magnetizer was placed on the seed surface of
armature has cooling issues and if we want to ensure that the the fully magnetized YBCO bulk magnet, the axial center
armature continuously work for 20 min, Iac = 6 A should be and maximum magnetic field component perpendicular to the
the maximum current. At this value, Iac can be outputted by outer surface were 0.06 and 0.10 T, respectively. When the
the converter accurately. In Fig. 5, the peak thrust decayed with magnetizer was placed on the nonseed surface, the axial center
time. At the first few minutes, the peak thrust decayed rapidly. and maximum magnetic field components perpendicular to the
A few minutes later, the peak thrusts decayed slowly. outer surface were 0.05 and 0.08 T, respectively. These were
The reason of the peak thrust decay is that, under the also measured at a gap of 1 mm. Even if the magnetizer
traveling wave magnetic field of the armature, there was an was placed on the seed surface or the nonseed surface, the
alternating magnetic field within the YBCO bulk magnet. Then, magnetic field on the other surface did not change. When two
the alternating magnetic field produced electromagnetic force. magnetizers were placed on two surfaces, the magnetic fields
When the electromagnetic force was stronger than the pinning on the outer surfaces of the two magnetizers were the same as
force, the magnetic flux lines did a reciprocating movement the magnetic field at the time when only one magnetizer was
that caused the YBCO bulk magnet to heat up. Due to the placed. Compared with the magnetic field on the surfaces of
increased temperature, the critical current and the pinning the magnetized YBCO bulk magnet, the magnetic field on the
force decreased. The decrease in the pinning force enhanced outer surfaces of the magnetizers decreased.
the movement of the magnetic flux lines and increased the The peak total thrusts when the RMS currents Iac of the
generation of heat. The heat loss would decrease the pinning armature of the were set to 6, 10, and 14 A, and the magnetizers
force once more. Again and again, trapped magnetic field of the were placed only on the seed surface, only on the nonseed
YBCO bulk magnet decreased with time and the thrust decayed. surface, or on the two surfaces of the magnetized YBCO bulk
Until thermal equilibrium was reached between the bulk and magnet, are presented in Fig. 7. When using the magnetizers,
the cryogen, the temperature of YBCO bulk magnet did not the thrust of the excitation system is enhanced. This is similar
rise, and the trapped magnetic field stopped decreasing. At this to a thicker YBCO bulk magnet. Whether one magnetizer was
moment, the thrust would be steady [15]. However, the running placed only on seed surface or nonseed surface, peak thrust
time in our experience is only 20 min; the thrust was not entirely increased less than 10%. However, if two magnetizers were
steady at the last time. placed on two surfaces, peak thrust increased about 15%.
If the magnetizers were placed on both sides of a permanent
magnet of the same shape, compared with the magnetic field
E. Magnetizers Effect
on the surfaces of the permanent magnet, the magnetic field
The magnetizers, which were placed on the seed surface, the on outer surfaces of the magnetizers also decreased. However,
nonseed surface, or both the two surfaces of the magnetized the decrease had a lower proportion than the decrease in the
YBCO bulk magnet, were magnetized, and the attraction made magnetic field on the surfaces of a YBCO bulk magnet under
the YBCO bulk magnet and magnetizers get together firmly. the same condition. While the magnetizer was placed on one
DUAN et al.: THRUSTS OF CYLINDRICAL LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH YBCO BULK MAGNETS 5200206

Fig. 8. Excitation system containing two and three YBCO bulk magnets (in
millimeters).
Fig. 7. Peak thrust experienced by the YBCO bulk magnet when the charging
magnetization current Idc = 40 A at different RMS currents Iac .

side, the magnetic field on the other side increased. Compared


with magnetizers placed on the surfaces of the YBCO bulk
magnet, the peak thrust increased proportionally higher in the
same conditions. This is because the characteristics of the
YBCO bulk magnet and the permanent magnet are different.
When a magnetizer was placed on the permanent magnet, the
magnetized magnetizer would generate a new magnetic field.
The new magnetic field could strengthen the magnetic field of
the permanent magnet. However, in the same case, the YBCO
bulk magnet generated induction current. The induction current
would generate a magnetic field to prevent the magnetic field
of the YBCO bulk magnet from increasing and reduce the mag-
netic field of the magnetizer. The magnetic field distribution of
the magnetizer also changed. Finally, because the YBCO bulk
Fig. 9. Peak thrust experienced by one, two, and three YBCO bulk mag-
trapped magnetic field did not change and the magnetizers were nets when the charging magnetization current Idc = 40 A at different RMS
poorly magnetized, the peak thrust of the YBCO bulk magnet currents Iac .
with one or two magnetizers had a less increase.
the peak thrusts must be less than two or three times the peak
thrust of one YBCO bulk magnet with one or two magnetizers
F. Thrusts of the Excitation System Containing More Than
under the same conditions.
One YBCO Bulk Magnets
The reasons for the performance degradation of the exci-
Fig. 8 shows the view of excitation system containing two tation system were as follows. First, under the influence of
and three YBCO bulk magnets. The step for making the excita- repulsion of adjacent YBCO bulk magnets, the magnetic field
tion system containing more than one YBCO bulk magnets is as of the magnetizers between them weakened, and in the middle
follows. First, the YBCO bulk magnets were magnetized. Sec- of the magnetizers, the magnetic field was reduced to zero.
ond, magnetizers arranged between the YBCO bulk magnets Second, the magnetic performances of the seed surface and
and adjacent YBCO bulk magnets were placed north against the nonseed surface of the YBCO bulk magnets were different.
north and south against south. Finally, they were placed in an The pole pitch of the excitation system might change a little.
epoxy-resin adiabatic container filled with liquid nitrogen. Because of these reasons, the thrusts of the excitation system
The thicknesses of the magnetizers are 12 mm. This ensures decreased.
that the pole pitch of the excitation system is 30 mm. The mea-
sured peak thrusts of two YBCO bulk magnets and three YBCO
IV. C ONCLUSION
bulk magnets, when the RMS currents Iac of the armature were
set to 6, 10, and 14 A, respectively, are presented in Fig. 9. In We measured the thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous
this figure, peak thrusts of two YBCO bulk magnets and three motor with one or more YBCO bulk magnets as the excitation
YBCO bulk magnets are 56 and 83 N at Iac = 10 A. These peak system and studied the effects of RMS currents Iac of armature,
thrusts are nearly two or three times as strong as the peak thrust charging currents Idc , running time, and magnetizers. In the
of 27.2 N of one YBCO bulk magnet under the same conditions. experiments, if the RMS currents Iac for the armature coils was
However, because peak thrusts of one YBCO bulk magnet with 10 A, one fully magnetized YBCO bulk magnet produced a
one or two magnetizers are all stronger than 27.2 N obviously, peak thrust of 27.2 N. When one magnetizer was placed only
5200206 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 25, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2015

on the seed surface or the nonseed surface of the magnetized Wanqing Duan was born in Shaanxi, China, on April 23, 1984. He received
YBCO bulk magnet, peak thrust increased by less than 10%. the B.E. degree in electronic science and technology from Southwest Jiaotong
University, Chengdu, China, in 2006. He is currently working toward the Ph.D.
However, if two magnetizers were placed on the two surfaces, degree in theory of electrical engineering and new technology at the School of
peak thrust increased by about 15%. While the excitation Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University.
system had two or three fully magnetized YBCO bulk magnets, His research interests include superconducting electromotor and numerical
analysis of electromagnetic fields.
the thrusts were also measured. Because only the excitation
system made of YBCO bulk magnet replaced the conventional
one and needed to operate at 77 K, the manufacturing and Zhongming Yan was born in Zhejiang, China, on July 12, 1982. He received
operating costs of the current design of HTS cylindrical linear the Ph.D. degree in theory of electrical engineering and new technology from
Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China, in 2013.
synchronous motor may be low. He is currently with the School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong
University. His research interests include superconducting electromotor and
numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields.
R EFERENCES
[1] C. H. Joshi, C. B. Prum, R. F. Schiferl, and D. I. Driscoll, Demonstra-
tion of two synchronous motors using high temperature superconducting Wenbo Luo was born in Sichuan, China, on October 27, 1987. He received
field coils, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 968971, the B.S. degree in optical information science and technology from Shanghai
Jun. 1995. Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China, in 2010. He is currently working toward
[2] M. Frank et al., Long-term operational experience with first Siemens the M.E. degree in theory of electrical engineering and new technology at
400 kW HTS machine in diverse configurations, IEEE Trans. Appl. Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.
Supercond., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 21202123, Jun. 2003. His research interests include electromagnetic launch technology and elec-
[3] P. W. Eckels and G. Snitchler, 5 MW high temperature superconductor tromagnetic field numerical simulation.
ship propulsion motor design and test results, Nav. Eng. J., vol. 117,
no. 4, pp. 3136, Oct. 2005. Peixing Zhang was born in Shandong, China, on May 1, 1990. He received
[4] W. S. Kim et al., Development of a superconducting linear synchronous the B.E. degree in electrical engineering and automation from Shandong Agri-
motor, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 842845, culture University, Taian, China, in 2012. He is currently working toward the
Mar. 2002. M.E. degree in electrical engineering at the School of Electrical Engineering,
[5] G. Stumberger, M. T. Aydemir, D. Zarko, and T. A. Lipo, Design of a lin- Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.
ear bulk superconductor magnet synchronous motor for electromagnetic His research interests include superconducting pulsed power technology and
aircraft launch systems, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 14, no. 1, numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields.
pp. 5462, Mar. 2004.
[6] J. Pina et al., A test rig for thrust force measurements of an all HTS linear
synchronous motor, J. Phys., Conf. Ser., vol. 97, no. 1, p. 012220, 2008. Zhixing Gui was born in Yunnan, China, on September 14, 1988. He received
[7] S. Kusada et al., The project overview of the HTS magnet for supercon- the B.E. degree in electronic and information engineering from Southwest
ducting Maglev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 2111 Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China, in 2010. He is currently working toward
2116, Jun. 2007. the M.E. degree in theory of electrical engineering and new technology at the
[8] F. Yen et al., A single-sided linear synchronous motor with a high tem- School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University.
perature superconducting coil as the excitation system, Supercond. Sci. His research interests include YBCO thin-film fault-current limiters and
Technol., vol. 23, no. 10, p. 105 015, Oct. 2010. superconducting switches.
[9] A. Takahashi, H. Ueda, and A. Ishiyama, Trial production and exper-
iment of linear synchronous actuator with field-cooled HTS bulk sec-
ondary, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 22512254, Zhiquan Wang was born in Sichuan, China, on December 24, 1990. He
Jun. 2003. received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering and automation from
[10] J. Li et al., Experimental study of the electromagnetic forces of a Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China, in 2013. He is currently
HTS bulk magnet subjected to sinusoidal traveling magnetic field, IEEE working toward the M.E. degree in electrical engineering at the School of
Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 929932, Jun. 2010. Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University.
[11] B. Oswald et al., Design of HTS reluctance motors up to several hundred His research interests include superconductor magnetics energy storage and
kW, Phys. C, Supercond., vol. 372376, pp. 15131516, Aug. 2002. numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields.
[12] B. Oswald, K.-J. Best, T. Maier, M. Soell, and H. C. Freyhardt, Concep-
tual design of a SC HTS linear motor, Supercond. Sci. Technol., vol. 17,
no. 5, pp. S445S449, May 2004. Yu Wang was born in Henan, China, on November 7, 1960. He received
[13] B. Oswald et al., AC application of HTS conductors in highly dynamic the Ph.D. degree in physical electronics from Huazhong University of
electric motors, J. Phys., Conf. Ser., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 800803, 2006. Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, in 2001.
[14] J. Kellers et al., Development of HTS linear motors for industry, IEEE He is currently a Professor with the School of Electrical Engineering and
Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 21212124, Jun. 2007. the Key Laboratory of Magnetic Suspension Technology and Maglev Vehicle,
[15] T. Ohyama, H. Shimizu, M. Tsuda, and A. Ishiyama, IEEE Trans. Appl. Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China. His current research interests
Supercond., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 19881991, Mar. 2001. include superconducting electrotechnics and material technology.