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# N

Q
R ()
|a, b| a b
[a, b] a b
(a, b) a b

:=

AB A B
xA x A
AB A B
AB A B
A\B A B
AB A B
2
-1
-2
-1
-2
-1
-2
-1 ,

-2 ,

.
.
.
2

1

1.1.

## N = {1, 2, . . .}, N0 = N {0}

. -

. -
.
,
0, 27 = 0, 2700 . . . = 0, 27(0),
0, 27 = 0, 2699 . . . = 0, 26(9).
Q0
. -
, -
,
, . -
m/n, m N0 , n N.
-
( ) R0 ,
= a0 , a1 a2 . . . an . . . , a0
N0 , ak {0, 1, . . . , 9}. R0 +,
R. -
.
n N0
= a0 , a1 a2 . . . an . . . ( n ) n =
= a0 , a1 . . . an , ,
n = a0 , a1 . . . an 10n .
= a0 , a1 a2 . . . an . . .
[] .
6 1.

, = , n = n n
N0 ( ). , = ,
n = n n N0 , -
, , .
n  n n N0 , ,  . n  n n N0
= ,
< .
( )
, , < , ,
k N0 ,

k + 2 10k  k . (1.1)

. . < -
i N0 , n < n n  i n = n n < i
( i > 0) . , i + 2 10i  i , k
i. , i + 10i = i , -
i+1 i+1 i + 1 .
i+1 + 2 10(i+1)  i+1 , k = i + 1. , i+1 + 10i1 = i+1 ,
i+2 , i+2 . .
(1.1), . . -
, i,
, , -
, < .
. (1.1) ,
= k  k k
N0 , . . < . 

1.1. -
= 2, 17804 . . . = 2, 17799 . . . . -
5

0 = 3, 0 = 3,
1 = 2, 2, 0 = 2, 2,
2 = 2, 18, 2 = 2, 18,
3 = 2, 179, 3 = 2, 178,
4 = 2, 1781, 4 = 2, 1780,
5 = 2, 17805, 5 = 2, 17800.

, , i
3. 3 + 103 = 3 , 4 + 104 = 4 , 5 +
+ 2 105 < 5 , k 5.
1.2. 7

, , < , -
r, , . . < r < .
. k N0 -
, k +210k  k . k+1 , k+1 -
k +1 . r k +10k +510(k+1) ,
k+1 +2 10(k+1)  r  k+1 2 10(k+1) ,
, , < r < . 

1.2.

(, ) = {x R : < x < }, [, ] = {x R :  x  }.

(, ), [, ], [, ), (, ]
( ), -
|, |.
-
. X,
, max X min X.
,
: max(, ] = , min(, ] .
X ,
, . .
, x X x  .
X
sup X. ,
X, :

x X x  ; (1.2)

## < , x X : x > (1.3)

( , , : , ).
X.
X, x X -
x  .
inf X. , sup(, ) = , inf(, ) = .
8 1.

-
, .
X.
, X,
.
X , ,
p. Y X, -
p. Yn
n N Y. n N
Yn , , n
N Yn . max Yn = n =
= b0 , b1 b2 . . . bn . n+1 = max Yn+1 = b0 , b1 . . . bn1 n bn+1
n = b0 , b1 . . . bn1 bn
(n+1) , p < 0, n ,
b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . , bn1 . n1 = b0 , b1 b2 . . . bn1
, n1 .
y Y yn1  n1 n
N. , y Y y  .
, < ,
l N0 ,
l + 2 10l  l . (1.4)

l y Y,
yl = l . (1.4) < y. , -
(1.2), (1.3), , sup Y = . sup X = sup Y,
X. 

1.1. X , . . -
R x X , x > , -
sup X := + (:= ).
X inf X := .

, -
. ()
() , ,
() .
-
, ,
, .
1.3. 9

+ = sup{n + n },

n n n -
, + ().

= sup{n n }.

, = ()().
,
= 0 x =
().
/.

1.3.
. -
, . . ,
, . :
 , , . A B
, A B , ,
B A, A B
, , B
A. A B , A -
B ,
:
A B,
A , B,
A, B.
P (x), . .
, x
. :
1) P (x) x;
2) x, P (x) .
, ,
:
1) x, P (x);
2) x, P (x).
:

## (x, P (x)) x, P (x); (x, P (x)) x, P (x),

10 1.

: -
x, P (x) (x, P (x)),
( ), P (x) -
P (x). ,

## 0 > 0, > 0, x0 U : |x0 a|  |f (x0 ) A| > 0 .

:
P (n), n N0 , n = m, m N0 ,
P (n) n = k > m n = k + 1,
P (n) n  m.

1.4.

() n
an , , -
( )

a 1 , a 2 , . . . , an , . . . . (1.5)

(1.5) (an ).
(1.5) ,
{an }, ,
. .
M R, n N |an |  M.

(1.5). -
(1.5), , , ,
, -
.
(1.5) ,
a ,

## > 0, () > 0, n N : n  () |an a|  .

1.4. 11

(1.5) .
(1.5) , a, -
,
lim an = a an a.
n n

a (an ) -
, - U (a) = {x : |x a| < } a ,
U (a) (. 1.1).

. 1.1.

(1)n
1.2. , 0. > 0
n2 n

 (1)n 
  1 1
 2   n2  n  , (1.7)
n
, (), -

, () = 1/ . , n  ()
(1.7) |(1)n /n2 |  .

M -

> 0, () > 0, n N : n  () |an a|  M ,
M , n, an a.
n
. M = 0, an = a n  (1) ,
an a. M
= 0,  = /M.
n
( ) > 0, n  ( ) |an a|  M  = M /M = . 
lim an = 0, (an )
n
. , (an ) a -
, an an = a + n , (n )
.
12 1.

1.3. ,
n
1) lim q n = 0, 0 < |q| < 1; 2) lim = 0; 3) lim n
n = 1.
n n 2n n

,
lg lg
1) 0 < < 1, |q n |  n lg |q|  lg n  , () := ;
lg |q| lg |q|

n n n
2) > 0,   
2n (1 + 1) n 1 + n + n(n 1)/2 + . . . + 1
n 2 2 2
 n  + 1, () := + 1;
n(n 1)/2 n1

3) > 0, | n n 1|  n n 1  n  (1 + )n
n(n 1) 2 n(n 1) 2
n  1 + n + + . . . + n n 
2 2
2 2
n  2 + 1, () := 2 + 1.

1.5.
1. .
. : an a, an b, a
= b.
n n
n = an a, n = an b

|a b| = |n n |  |n | + |n |. (1.8)
= |a b|/4.
|a b|
1 > 0, n  1 |n |  ,
4
|a b|
2 > 0, n  2 |n |  .
4

|a b|
|n | + |n |  n  max{1 , 2 }. (1.9)
2
|a b|
(1.8), (1.9)  |ab|.
2

. a = b. 
1.5. 13

2. .
. = 1, > 0, n  |an a|  1
a 1  an  a + 1. (an ), n  , ,
. 

3. an a, bn b, :
n n
) an +bn a+b (
n
);
) an bn ab (
n
);
an a
) , b
= 0, bn
= 0 n ( -
bn n b
,
bn
= 0 n) .
. ), ). > 0,

 () > 0, n   () |an a|  ,

 () > 0, n   () |bn b|  .
2, M , |an |  M n.
n  max{  (),  ()}

## |an bn ab| = |an bn an b + an b ab|  |an ||bn b| + b|an a|  M + b.

M - an + bn a + b, an bn ab.
n n
). 1 = |b|/2 (1 ) ,
n  (1 ) |bn b|  |b|/2.

|b| |b| 3
||bn | |b||  |bn b|   |bn |  |b|.
2 2 2
n  max{  (),  (), (1 )}
a   
 n a   an an an a  |an | 1
 = +  |bn b| + |an a| 
bn b bn b b b |bbn | |b|

M 1  2M 1
 + = + .
|b||b|/2 |b| |b|2 |b|
an a
M -, .
bn n b
14 1.

4. an a, bn b an  bn n N, a  b.
n n
. : a > b. > 0 -
, a > b + . n an  a bn  b + ,
an > bn , . 

5. . bn  an  cn n N,
bn d, cn d, an d.
n n n
.

## > 0,  () > 0, n   () |cn d|  , d  cn  d + .

n  max{  (),  ()}

d  an  d + ,

. . an d. 
n

6.
.
. an 0, |bn |  M const n N.
n

M - an bn 0. 
n

1.6.
(an ) ,

## > 0, () > 0, n N : n  () |an |  .

, , ,
> 0 , () > 0 , -
(), -
(. 1.2).

. 1.2
1.7. 15

(an ) , ,
, lim an = .
n

 1.  (an ) an
= 0,
1/an .
. > 0.  = 1/
1 1
 
( ) > 0, n  ( ) |an |       = . 
an

 2.  (an ) an
= 0,
1/an .
2 1.
(an )

1) > 0, () > 0, n N : n  () an  ;

2) > 0, () > 0, n N : n  () an  .
, (an ) + lim an = +,
n
lim an = .
n

1.7.
(an ) ,
a1 < a2 < . . . < an < . . . . a1  a2  . . .  an  . . . , (an )
.
. -
.

.
.
(. 1.4) sup{an } = a R.
, an  a n N > 0, n N : a < an . ,
,

> 0, () = n , n  () 0  a an  ,

. . lim an = a. 
n
16 1.

1.2. (an ), -
, ,
, , lim an = +, (an )
n
, lim an = .
n

, , -
, , ,
. , -
, R.

1.8.

a1 , . . . , a n , . . . . (1.10)

(1.10) , ,
,

## a n1 , . . . , ank , . . . , n1 < n2 < . . . < nk < . . . .

-
.
.
:
1) ,
2) , -
.
-
. an1 , an2
, n1 + 1,
an3 , n2 +1,
. . an1  an2  an3  . . . , , an1 , an2 , . . .
(1.10).
-
. am , am+1 , . . . .
. an1 =
= am . , n1 , , -
an2 > an1 . ,
1.9. e 17

## n2 , an3 > an2 . . an1 , an2 , . . .

(1.10). 

. (1.10) .
(1.10)
, -
.
. 

1.9. e
 1 n
an = 1 + . -
n

n n1 1 n(n 1) n2 2 n(n 1) (n n + 1) 0 n
(a + b)n = an b0 + a b + a b +...+ a b ,
1! 2! n!
 1 n  1 n+1
1+ 1+
n n+1
 1 n 1 1 1 1  n 1
1+ =1+1+ 1 + ... + 1 1 , (1.11)
n 2! n n! n n

 1 n+1 1 1  1  1   n 
1+ = 1+1+ 1 +. . .+ 1 1 .
n+1 2! n+1 (n + 1)! n+1 n+1

an an+1 (1.11)
, an+1 >
> an . ,

1 1 1 1 1
an < 1 + 1 + + ... + < 2 + + 2 + . . . + n1 < 3.
2! n! 2 2 2

(1 + 1/n)n , -
, .
e.
e e = 2, 7182 . . . .
18 1.

1.10.
, (1.10) ,

## > 0, () > 0, n, m N : n, m  () |an am |  . (1.12)

, ,
.

,
.
. . an a,
n
 
> 0, > 0, n  |an a|  ,
2 2 2

m  |am a|  .
2 2
n, m  (/2)

## |an am | = |an a + a am |  |an a| + |am a|  .

. (1.12) m,

am  an  am + n  (),

. . , , (),
, . -
(1.10) -
ank a. (1.10) -
k
,

## > 0, () > 0, n, nk  () |an ank |  ank  an  ank + . (1.13)

(1.13) k ,

a  an  a + n  (),

an a. 
n
,
:

## > 0, () > 0, n N : n  (), p N |an an+p |  .

1.11. 19

1.4. ,
cos 1 cos n
an = 1 + + ... + n
2 2
, , . ,
 cos(n + 1) cos(n + p) 

, 0 < < 1, |an an+p | =  + . . . + 
2n+1 2n+p
 1 1  1 1 1

 n+1 + . . . + n+p   n + ... + p 
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
n  n  log2 , () := log2 .
2
1.5. ,
1 1
an = 1 + + ... +
2 n
. (. 1.3), -

## 0 > 0, > 0, n0 N : n0  , p0 N |an0 an0 +p0 | > 0 .

, . 0 = 1/4.
> 0 n0 , p0 n0 = [] + 1, p0 =
= 2n0 ,
 1 1 
 1 1
|an0 a2n0 | =  + ... +  n0 = > 0 .
n0 + 1 2n0 2n0 2

1.11.

a1 , . . . , a n , . . . . (1.14)

a ( , ) -
(ank ) (1.14)
(1.14). L -
. ()
L ( ) (1.14)
20 1.

n n
+1, 1, ,

n n

,
-
,
, ,
, + -
, , ,
.

,
,

n n n

. .

## lim an = lim an = a R. (1.15)

n n

, (an ) a. -
(. 1.3), , lim an
= a
n+
- , :

, k N nk  k ,

## |ank a| > 0 . (1.16)

(1.16) , -
(ank ) a, (1.15). -
a = , a = +.
. (an ) a,
a. , -
a , , lim an = a, lim an =
n n
= a. 
2

2.1.
, X -
Y, f, x X -
y Y, f (x). X
. -
f (x), x X, f.
, f , X Y,
:
f
f :X Y; X Y ; y = f (x), x X, y Y.

.
X Y
. X R, Y R,
. .
f f -
0xy (x, f (x)), x X

f = {(x, y) : x X, y = f (x)}

( , 0xy,
,
x, y ).
: y = kx + b, k, b R.
(. 2.1),
0x , tg = k, (0, b).
: y = ax2 + bx + c, a, b, c R, a
= 0.
(. 2.2),
 b 4ac b2 
, , 0y
2a 4a
(0, c).
22 2.

. 2.1. y = x . 2.2. y = x2
( ) y = x/2 1 ( ) y = x2 x+1

n : y = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 , ai R, i=
= 0, 1, . . . , n, an
= 0 (. 2.3).
Pn (x)
: y = , Pn (x), Qm (x)
Qm (x)
n m, m
= 0 (. 2.4).

## . 2.3. y = x3 . 2.4. y = 1/x

y = x4 ( ) y = 1/x2 ( )

: y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tg x, y =
= ctg x (. 2.52.8).

## . 2.5. y = sin x, . 2.6. y = cos x,

y = sin 2x ( ) y = cos 3x ( )
2.1. 23

## . 2.7. y = tg x, . 2.8. y = ctg x,

y = tg(x/2) ( ) y = ctg 2x ( )

f : X Y g : Y T
h(x) = g(f (x)) h : X T,
f g g f.
.
f : X Y :
,

y Y, x X y = f (x);

x1 , x2 X : x1
= x2 f (x1 )
= f (x2 );

, .
f : X Y
Y X, y Y x X
, f (x) = y. g : Y X
f f 1 . ,
(f 1 f )(x) = x x X (f f 1 )(y) = y y Y. -
f 1 Y,
X. (x, y) f -
y = x (y, x) f 1 , -
y = x.
y = arcsin x (. 2.9); y = arccos x (. 2.10); y = arctg x
(. 2.11); y = arcctg x (. 2.12)
y = sin x, x [/2, /2]; y = cos x, x [0, ]; y = tg x, x
(/2, /2); y = ctg x, x (0, ).
24 2.

## /2 < arctg x < /2, 0 < arcctg x < , y =

= arctg x, y = arcctg x .

2.2.
f - U (c) c, . .
2 c

## U (c) = {x R : |x c| < }, > 0,

, , c. U (c) \ {c}
- c.
, f x c,
A ,

f x c, A
lim f (x) = A
xc
2.2. 25

## f (x) A. f (x) x = c lim f (x) = A,

xc xc
A = f (c).
lim f (x) = A , -
xc
y = A ,
x = c , f, -
, , , ,
x = c, (. 2.13).

. 2.13.

M -
.
M -

## > 0, () > 0, x U (c) : 0 < |x c|  () |f (x) A|  M .

M x, , f (x) A.
xc

2.1. , lim x2 = 4.
x2
U1 (2) = {x : |x2| < 1}. > 0.
x U1 (2)

|x2 4|  |x 2||x + 2|  |x 2|  ,
5
, (), -
, () = min{/5; 1}.
26 2.

f (x) A x c,
, xn c, xn
= c,
n
f (xn ) A, . . lim f (xn ) = A.
n
. . > 0
xn c, xn
= c. lim f (x) = A,
n xc

xn c, xn
= c,
n

## () > 0, n  () 0 < |xn c|  (). (2.2)

(2.1), (2.2)

() > 0, n  () |f (xn ) A|  ,

lim f (xn ) = A.
n
. . , lim f (x)
= A. -
xc
(. 1.3), -
:

## 0 > 0, > 0, x0 U (c) : 0 < |x0 c|  |f (x0 ) A| > 0 .

, n = 1/n, n N, xn
,
1
0 < |xn c|  , |f (xn ) A| > 0 .
n
1
0 < |xn c|  , (xn ) -
n
c xn
= c, |f (xn ) A| > 0 , -
(f (xn )) A,
. 

2.3.
f -
V (c) = {x : c  x < c + }, > 0, x = c, , ,
c.
, f x c, -
A ,

## > 0, () > 0, x V (c) : 0 < x c  () |f (x) A|  .

2.3. 27

f x c, A
A = lim f (x) = f (c + 0)
xc+0
f (x) A.
xc+0
lim f (x) = A ,
xc+0
y = A , -
, x = c, , -
f, , , ,
x = c,
(. 2.14).
, f, -
Z (c) = {x : c < x  c}, > 0, c, , ,
c, x c, A ,

## > 0, () > 0, x Z (c) : 0 < c x  () |f (x) A|  .

A = lim f (x) = f (c 0)
xc0
f (x) A (. 2.15).
xc0

. 2.14. . 2.15.

-
.

f f (c + 0),
f (c 0), , x c,

f (c + 0) = lim f (x) = f (c 0).
xc
, f, [a, +), -
x +, A ,
> 0, () > 0, x [a, +) : x  () |f (x) A|  .
28 2.

## A = lim f (x) = f (+) f (x) A.

x+ x+
, A = lim f (x) = f (),
x

, f : U R
x c ( ),

lim f (x) = . ,
xc

lim f (x) = + :
xc

lim f (x) = :
xc

## > 0, () > 0, x U (c) : 0 < |x c|  () f (x)  .

. , ,
lim f (x) = + : f (x) + x
xc0
c 0 , xn c,
n
xn < c, f (xn ) +, . . lim f (xn ) = +.
n
-
.

1. .
. : lim f (x) = A, lim f (x) =
xc xc
= B, A
= B. xn c, xn
= c.
f (xn ) A, f (xn ) B, , -
n n
(f (xn )) (. 1.5). 

2. f (x) A R, g(x) B R,
xc xc
) f (x) + g(x) A + B;
xc
) f (x)g(x) AB;
xc
f (x) A
) , B
= 0 ().
g(x) xc B
2.3. 29

xc xc
x = c, A  B ().

## 4. h(x)  f (x)  g(x) x -

x = c h(x) A, g(x) A, f (x) A ().
xc xc xc

5. x c f (x), . . -
, lim f (x) = 0,
xc
x = c
x c ().

f : U (c) \ {c} R x c
,
> 0, () > 0, x , x U (c) :
0 < |x c|  (), 0 < |x c|  () |f (x ) f (x )|  . (2.3)

. . f (x) A,
xc

## > 0, (/2) > 0, x U (c) : 0 < |x c|  (/2) |f (x) A|  /2.

x , x U (c) : 0 < |x c|  (/2), 0 < |x c|  (/2)
|f (x ) f (x )| = |f (x ) A + A f (x )|  .
. xn c, xn
= c >
> 0. (2.3) (). (()) > 0 ,
n  (()), m  (()) |xn c|  (), |xm c|  ().
(2.3) |f (xn ) f (xm )|  , . . (f (xn ))
. -
A , f (xn ) A.
(2.3)
n  (()), x U (c) : 0 < |x c|  ()
|f (x) f (xn )|  f (xn )  f (x)  f (xn ) + . (2.4)
(2.4) n ,
A  f (x)  A + ,
f (x) A. 
xc
30 2.

2.2. , y = sin x
x +. xn = 2n, xn = /2 + 2n, -
+.
sin xn = 0, sin xn = 1 0 1.
, sin x x +.

2.4.

lim (x) = b, lim f (t) = A,
xc tb

(x)
= b c,

lim f ((x)) = A.
xc

xn c, xn
= c (xn ) b.

tn = (xn )
= b. f (tn )
A f ((xn )) A. , ,
f ((x)) A. 
xc

2.1. ,
, ,
, lim (x) = b, lim f (t) = A, (x) > b -
xc0 tb+0
c, lim f ((x)) = A
xc0
().

sin x
lim = 1.
x0 x

. 0xy -
. , .
2.16, 0 < x < /2.
2.4. 31

. 2.16

S1 , S2 , S3 OAB, OAB
OAD . S1 < S2 < S3 2S1 =
= (OA)2 sin x = sin x, 2S2 = (OA)2 x = x, 2S3 = OA AD = tg x,
:

## sin x < x < tg x, 0 < x < /2.

sin x
cos x < < 1, ,
x
 sin x 

1  < 1 cos x = 2 sin2 (x/2) < 2 sin(x/2) < x.
x
,
   sin x 
 
> 0, () = > 0, x 0, : 0 < x  ()  1  .
2 x
sin x
1.
x x+0
sin x
lim . t = x
x0 x

sin t   sin x
1 = lim = t = x, x 0 = lim .
t+0 t x0 x

sin x
lim = 1 -
x0 x
. 
32 2.

2.5.
f - U (c) x = c.
f x = c, -
x c c, . .

xc

, , f
c.
- (. 2.2), -
: f -
x = c,

## > 0, () > 0, x U (c) : |x c|  () |f (x) f (c)|  .

f x = c ,
y = f (c) ,
x = c , -
f, ,
(. 2.17).

. 2.17. , c

x = x c , y =
= f (c + x) f (c) c.
,

## lim f (x) = f (c) lim y = 0.

xc x0

, f x = c
, y x 0.
2.5. 33

2.3. y = x
y = x, lim y = 0, y = x
x0
x R.
y = sin x, y = cos x x R. -
, y = sin x |y| = | sin(x + x) sin x| =
= |2 cos(x + x/2) sin x/2|  |x| lim y = 0.
x0

f x = c ,
xn c f (xn )
f (c).

2.4.

sin(1/x), x
= 0,
y=
0, x = 0

x = 0. ,
1 1
xn = , xn = , . -
2n /2 + 2n
sin xn = 0, sin xn = 1
0 1. -
x = 0 (. 2.18).

. 2.18
34 2.

f - V (c) =
= {x : c  x < c + }, > 0, c

xc+0

f x = c. -
c. f : (c , c] R
x = c,

## lim f (x) = f (c).

xc0

f : |a, b| R
|a, b|, (a, b),
x = a, a |a, b|, x = b,
b |a, b|.

2.6.
f - U (c)
x = c. f : U (c) R c,
.
1) f (c 0) = f (c + 0),
x = c. x = c
.

2.5.

1, x
= 1,
y=
2, x=1

x = 1 (. 2.19).

2) f (c 0)
= f (c + 0).
x = c .

2.6.

1, x > 0,
y = sign x = 0, x = 0,

1, x < 0

x = 0 (. 2.20).
2.7. 35

. 2.19 . 2.20

3) f (c + 0), f (c 0) -
, R, .
x = c
(. 2.4).
4) f (c + 0),
f (c 0) ( ). , x = c
( 2.4).
1), 2) ,
3), 4) .
f : |a, b| R - -
|a, b|, ,
.

D : [0, 1] R 
1, x ,
D(x) =
0, x .

2.7.
f : |a, b| R : ,

## x1 , x2 |a, b| : x1 < x2 f (x1 ) > f (x2 ).

.
. .
36 2.

2.1

f : |a, b| R , x0 (a, b)
f (x0 0), f (x0 + 0), -

.
x0 (a, b). f ,

. A
L, A  f (x0 ),

## , f (x0 0) = A  f (x0 ). , f (x0 + 0)  f (x0 ). 

f [a, b].
f [a, b] ,
[f (a), f (b)] [f (b), f (a)]
.

, .
A = f (a), B = f (b), A
= B. 2.1

## . y0 ]A, B[. S = {x : f (x) <

< y0 } x0 = sup S. x < x0 , S
x0 , f (x) < y0 ,

f (x0 0)  y0 . (2.5)
2.8. 37

x > x0 , f (x)  y0

f (x0 + 0)  y0 . (2.6)

f x0 (2.5), (2.6)

. . y0 x0 .
. : f x0
a < x0 < b.

## f (x0 0) < f (x0 ), f (x0 + 0) > f (x0 ).

, . ,
f (x0 0) < < f (x0 ).

## x [a, b] : x  x0 f (x)  f (x0 ) > ,

. . f [f (a), f (b)],
. 

2.8.

f : [a, b] R ( -
) , f 1 , -
[f (a), f (b)] ([f (b), f (a)]),
( ).
. -
f 1 f : [a, b]
[f (a), f (b)]. , -
[f (a), f (b)],
[a, b].
[f (a), f (b)]. 

f x0 , g
y0 = f (x0 ), g(f (x)) x0 .
38 2.

. xn x0 .

## f (xn ) y0 , yn y0 , g(yn ) g(y0 ) g(f (xn )) g(f (x0 )).

g(f (x)) x0 . 

2.9.
, -
( )
. , . 2.9, -
,
.
1.
f |a, b| x0 |a, b|.
f (x0 )
= 0, x0 ,
f , f (x0 ).
f (x0 ) > 0 x0 |a, b|.
f (x0 )
= () : 0 < () < min{x0 a, b x0 },
2
f (x0 ) f (x0 )
x [x0 (), x0 + ()] f (x0 )  f (x)  f (x0 ) + .
2 2
f (x)  f (x0 )/2 x [x0 (), x0 + ()]. 
2.
f x0 |a, b|. x0 ,
f .
x0 |a, b|. = 1,
() > 0, x [x0 (), x0 + ()] f (x0 ) 1  f (x)  f (x0 ) + 1. 
3. -

f (x) g(x) x0 , : )
f (x)
f (x) + g(x), ) f (x)g(x), ) ( ,
g(x)
g(x0 )
= 0) x0 .
-
.
2.10. , 39

. 1. f (x) = an xn + . . . + a0
x R .
2. y = tg x, x
= n, y = ctg x, x
= /2 + n,
.
P (x)
3. y = , P (x), Q(x) ,
Q(x)
x R, Q(x).
4. y = arcsin x, y = arccos x, y = arctg x, y = arcctg x

.

2.10. ,

y = x R. y = xn , n N, -
, , R
n = 2k + 1 [0, +) -
n = 2k. ,
y = x1/n , R
n [0, +) n. y =
1
= xn , n N xn = n .
x
r = m/n, m
Z, n N (Z ), xr = xm/n = (x1/n )m ,
(. 2.21, 2.22).

## . 2.21. y = x1/2 . 2.22. y = x3/2

( ) y = x1/3 ( ) y = x8/3

R, n = 2k + 1, m  0; R \ {0}, -
n = 2k + 1, m > 0; [0, +), n = 2k, m  0; (0, +),
40 2.

## n = 2k, m < 0, k N. x1/n

x > 0. tm t > 0,
m > 0 m < 0. y = xr , x > 0, -
,
r > 0 r < 0 .
x > 0
:

## (x1/n )m = (xm )1/n ; (2.7)

xr > 1, x > 1, r Q, r > 0;
xr1 xr2 = xr1 +r2 , r1 , r2 Q;
(xr1 )r2 = xr1 r2 , r1 , r2 Q;
x r1 > x 2 , x > 1, r1 , r2 Q, r1 > r2 .
r

-
: an = bn , n N, a = b. , ,
(2.7)

## ((x1/n )m )n = ((x1/n )n )m = xm , ((xm )1/n )n = xm .

,
a , 0 < a < 1 a >
> 1 y = ax , x Q,
Q. a > 1. 0 < a < 1
.
A y = f (x) x x0
Q, > 0, > 0, x Q : 0 < |x x0 |  |f (x)
A|  , lim f (x) = A.
xx0 , xQ
Q (. 2.3),
().

y = ax , x Q.

1) lim ax = 1.
x0, xQ
, , lim a1/n = 1, lim a1/n = 1,
n n
> 0, > 0, n 1  a1/n  1+, 1  a1/n  1+.
> 0 n  . x ,
1/n  x  1/n , a1/n  ax  a1/n . 1  ax  1 + .
, > 0, = 1/n , x Q : |x|  |ax 1|  .
2.10. , 41

2) r Q, lim ax = a r .
xr, xQ
ax 
, lim ax = lim ar r = ar lim axr = xr = t,
 xr,xQ xr,xQ a xr, xQ
t 0, t Q = ar lim at = ar .
t0, tQ
y = ax , x Q,
R. x R, s = sup ar , p = inf ar . , s, p R
rQ, r<x rQ,r>x
s  p. , p = s. ,
r1 , r2 : r1 < x < r2 , 0  p s  ar1 (ar2 r1 1) <
< s(ar2 r1 1). r2 r1 0,
0  p s  0, . . p = s. x R ax = s = p.

y = ax , x R, a > 1.

1) lim ar = a x .
rx, rQ

, > 0, r Q, r < x s < ar  s = ax , r Q,
  
r > x ax  ar < p+, r Q, r  r  r ar  ar  ar , ax  ar  ax +.

## 2) x1 , x2 R ax1 ax2 = ax1 +x2 .

. rn x1 , n x2 , rn Q, n Q. arn
ax1 , an ax2 , arn +n ax1 +x2 . arn an = arn +n , ,
, ax1 ax2 = ax1 +x2 .

3) y = ax , x R, a > 1, .
. x1 < x2 .
r1 , r2 , x1 < r1 < r2 < x2 . ax
ar Q, ax1 < ar1 < ar2 < ax2 .

4) y = ax , a > 1, R.
. x0 R

## y = ax0 +x ax0 = ax0 (ax 1). (2.8)

, lim ax = 1, (2.8) ,
x0
y 0, . . y = ax x0 .
x0
(xn ) . -
, -
 
rn  xn  rn . , arn  axn  arn .
 
arn 1, arn 1, lim axn = 1. lim ax = 1.
n n n x0
42 2.

## 5) (ax1 )x2 = ax1 x2 x1 , x2 R.

. : x2 = r Q, x1 R. rn -
, rn x1 . (arn )r =
= arn r , rn r x1 r, arn r ax1 r , lim (ar1 )r = arn = tn , tn ax1 =
n n n
limx (tn )r = (ax1 )r (ax1 )r = ax1 r .
tn a 1

: x1 , x2 . n -
,   x2 . (ax1 )n =
= ax1 n , lim ax1 n = ax1 x2 , lim (ax1 )n = ax1 = b = lim bn = bx2 =
n n n
= (ax1 )x2 (ax1 )x2 = ax1 x2 .

6) ax +, ax 0.
x+ x
. x > 0, [x] = m. , -
, ax  am = (1+q)m = 1+qm+. . .+q m  1+qm +.
m+
1
x < 0, ax = (ax )1 = 0.
ax x

7) y = ax (. 2.23).
y = ax -
a. e, ex
exp x.

-
y = ax , x R, a > 1.
y = loga x (. 2.24).

## . 2.23. y = (1/3)x . 2.24. y = log10 x

( ) y = ex ( ) y = log2 x

. -
y = loga x, 0 < a < 1.
2.10. , 43

-
,

## aloga x = x x > 0, loga ax = x x R.

-
:
1) loga a = 1;
2) loga (x1 x2 ) = loga x1 + loga x2 , x1 > 0, x2 > 0;
x1
3) loga = loga x1 loga x2 , x1 > 0, x2 > 0.
x2
, , 2). y1 = loga x1 , y2 = loga x2 .
x1 = ay1 , x2 = ay2 , x1 x2 = ay1 +y2 , loga (x1 x2 ) = loga ay1 +y2 = loga x1 + loga x2 .
x e
ln x.
. 2.2 -
.
x > 0

x = e ln x .

f + g, f g, f g, f /g -
f g f g -
. , , , -

. , -
,
.
. 2.1 2.2 : -
, .

1 1
sh x := (ex ex ), ch x := (ex + ex ),
2 2
shx ch x
th x := , cth x :=
ch x sh x
, -
, -
.
44 2.

## ch2 x sh2 x = 1, ch2 x + sh2 x = ch 2x, sh 2x = 2sh x ch x.

y = sh x, y = ch x . 2.25, 2.26.

. 2.25. y = sh x . 2.26. y = ch x

, y = sh x :
1
y = (ex ex ), ex = y + y 2 + 1, x = ln(y + y 2 + 1).
2

, y = ch x, x  0, x = ln(y + y 2 1), y  1.

arcsh x = ln(x + x2 + 1), x R, (2.9)

arcch x = ln(x + x2 1), x  1, (2.10)

(. 2.27, 2.28).

## . 2.27. y = arcsh x . 2.28. y = arcch x

2.11. -, 45

2.11. -,
,

1
1. - lim (1 + x) x = e.
x0
. . -
xn +0. :
1 1 n
1) xn = , lim 1 + = e (. 1.11);
n n n 
1 1  kn
2) xn = , kn N, lim 1 + = e (. 1.11);
kn n kn
1 1 1
3) kn  < kn + 1, kn N, < xn  ,
xn kn + 1 kn
 1  kn 1
 1 kn +1
1+  (1 + xn ) xn  1 + ,
kn + 1 kn
 1 kn +1  1 1 1
 1 kn  1
1+ 1+  (1 + xn ) xn  1 + 1+ ,
kn + 1 kn + 1 kn kn
1 1
e  lim (1 + xn ) xn  e, lim (1 + x) x = e;
n x+0

1
 1 1
1 t
4) lim (1 + x) x = [x = t, t +0] = lim (1 t) t = lim =
x0 t+0 t+0 1 t
 t  1t  t  1t  t 
t
= lim 1 + = lim 1 + 1+ = e. 
t+0 1t t+0 1t 1t

ln(1 + x)
2. lim = 1.
x0 x
 1  ln(1 + x)
1 = lim ln t = (1 + x) x = t, x 0 = lim .
te x0 x
ex 1
3. lim = 1.
x0 x
t   ex 1
1 = lim = ex 1 = t, x 0 = lim .
t0 ln(1 + t) x0 x

(1 + x) 1
4. lim = .
x0 x
(1 + x) 1 e ln(1+x) 1 e ln(1+x) 1 ln(1 + x)
lim = lim = lim = .
x0 x x0 x x0 ln(1 + x) x
46 2.

2.12.

, f ( )
x c,
f (x) 0 (f (x) ).
xc xc

= 0, x c .
f g x c,
f (x)
lim = 1,
xc g(x)

f (x) g(x).
xc
, f (x) ,
g(x) x c,
f (x)
lim = 0,
xc g(x)

## f (x) = o(g(x)). f (x) = o(1) , f (x) -

xc xc
x c.
f (x) = O(g(x)) , -
xc
x = c
|f (x)|  M |g(x)|,

M .
.
-
x 0 :
sin x x, ln(1 + x) x,
ex 1 x, (1 + x) x.
, ,
.

2.7
ln cos x
lim = sin x2 x2 , ln cos x = ln(1 + (cos x 1))
x0 sin x2

x x2 x2 /2 1
cos x 1 2 sin2 = lim 2
= .
2 2 x0 x 2
2.13. 47

-
o() O() (f (x) 0) :
xc

## ) o(f ) + o(f ) = o(f ), ) o(f ) = O(f ),

) o(f )o(f ) = o(f 2 ), ) o(o(f )) = o(f ),
) o(f ) + O(f ) = O(f ), ) f n (x)o(f ) = o(f n+1 ), n N.
o(f )o(f ) o(f ) o(f )
, , ) lim 2
= lim lim = 0.
xc f xc f xc f
) ) ,
. .

2.13.

,
.
1.
|a, b| f
A B, C.
. f (x1 ) = A, f (x2 ) = B, A < C < B, x1 < x2 .
1) A < 0, C = 0, B > 0. L x,
[x1 , x] f (x) .
x0 = sup L. L f (x0 0)  0.
x0 f (x0 )  0 (,
, , L ).
f , f (x0 0) = f (x0 ).
f (x0 0)  0, f (x0 )  0, f (x0 ) = 0.
2) A, B C .
g(x) = f (x) C, ,
x0 |a, b| g(x0 ) = 0. f (x0 ) = C. 
:
,
(. 2.29).

f : X R -

X. ,
, . ,
.
48 2.

2.
f [a, b],

## x [a, b] : f (x)  f (x) x [a, b],

, [a, b]
.
(2.11). sup f (x) = A. -
x[a,b]
n A. n -
n
xn [a, b] , f (xn )  n . -
xn
xnk x. , x [a, b]. : x -
k
[a, b], . . x < a x > b. x > b.
> 0,
x > b. (x , +) -
xnk , x. , x [a, b].
f (xnk )  nk k -
, f (x)  A. A < +
f (x) = A (. 2.30). 

. 2.29 . 2.30

f [a, b],
.
. x, x
[a, b] , inf f (x) = f (x), sup f (x) = f (x). f (x) 
x[a,b] x[a,b]
f (x)  f (x) x [a, b]. 
2.14. . 49

2.14. .

. 2.5 |a, b| -
f : |a, b| R - -
:

f : |a, b| R ,
(2.12), :

|a, b|.
> 0 (),
x |a, b|,

## |f (x ) f (x )|  x , x |a, b| : |x x |  ().

f |a, b|
. ( 2.8).
(. 1.3), -
|a, b| f : |a, b| R :

0 > 0, > 0, x0 , x0 |a, b| : |x0 x0 |  |f (x0 ) f (x0 )| > 0 . (2.13)

## 2.8. f (x) = 1/x (0, 1), -

(0, 1). ,
4 2 2
 
0 = 1, : 0 <  1, x0 = , x0 = (0, 1) : |x0 x0 |    = > 1,
2 4
. . f (x) (2.13), f (x) -
(0, 1).

f [a, b], -
[a, b].
. , f -
[a, b], . .

0 > 0, > 0, x0 , x0 [a, b] : |x0 x0 |  |f (x0 ) f (x0 )| > 0 . (2.14)
50 2.

n = 1/n (2.14)
xn , xn [a, b] , |xn xn |  1/n, |f (xn ) f (xn )| > 0 . -
xn -
xnk x0 [a, b].
k+
|xn xn |  1/n xnk x0 . f x0 , -
k+
f (xnk ) f (x0 ),
k+
f (xnk ) f (x0 .) |f (xnk ) f (xnk )| > 0
k+
k , |f (x0 ) f (x0 )| > 0 . -
, f
[a, b]. 

2.15.

 
(f, |, |) := sup |f (x ) f (x )|
 
x ,x |,|

f : |, | R |, |.
f, [a, b].
[a, b] n x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ,

{xk } .

## W (f, {xk }) := max (f, [xk1 , xk ])

1kn

f, {xk }, -
:= max (xk xk1 ) .
1kn

2.9. f (x) = x2 , -
[0, 1] n xk = k/n, k =
= 0, 1, . . . , n,
 k 1 k   k 2  k 1 2 2k 1
x2 , , = = ,
n n n n n2

2k 1 2n 1 1
W (x2 , {xk }) = max 2
= , = max (xk xk1 ) = .
1kn n n2 1kn n
2.15. 51

f [a, b] ({xk }m ), m =
= 1, . . . , 0  k  nm , [a, b] -
m 0. , -
m+
,
m +, . .
W (f, ({xk }m )) 0.
m+

m 0,

(2.15) (2.16)

## > 0, () > 0, (()) > 0, m  (()), k = 1, . . . , nm ,

   
x , x [xk1 , xk ] |f (x ) f (x )|  W (f, ({xk }m ))  ,
W (f, ({xk }m )) 0. 
m+
3

3.1. .

y = f (x),
c. x = c x
y = f (c + x) f (c).
f x = c -
y x x 0

y f (c + x) f (c)
lim = lim
x0 x x0 x
f (c + x) f (c)
f  (c). x 0
x
, , c
f (c + x) f (c)
. x 0
x
, , c
. ,
, ,
x = c, x = c.
. M0 (c, f (c)), M1 (c +
+ x, f (c + x)) , f y = f (x).
, M0 M1 ,
f (. 3.1).

y
y= (x c) + f (c).
x
c, x 0

## y = f  (c)(x c) + f (c), (3.1)

3.1. 53

f c. -
f  (c) (3.1)
x = c. ,
c, f  (c) -
(. 3.2).

. 3.1. . 3.2.

. s = s(t) , t
, v(t) , a(t) . s (t) = v(t), v  (t) = a(t).
, -

,
.
. y/x = f  (c)+
+ o(1) x 0. y = f  (c)x + o(1)x , , y
0 x 0. 

f g x,
) (f (x) + g(x)) = f  (x) + g  (x);
) (f (x)g(x)) = f  (x)g(x) + f (x)g  (x);
 f (x)  f  (x)g(x) f (x)g  (x)
) = g(x)
= 0.
g(x) g 2 (x)
. , , ). ,

## 1  f (x + x) f (x)  1  f (x + x)g(x) f (x)g(x + x) 

= =
x g(x + x) g(x) x g(x + x)g(x)

= .
x g(x + x)g(x)
54 3.

## f (x + ) f (x) g(x + x) g(x)

1  f (x + x) f (x)  g(x) x
f (x)
x
= .
x g(x + x) g(x) g(x + x)g(x)
x 0 ,
, , -
g(x + x) g(x), . 
x0
, ,
sin(x + x) sin x
(sin x) = lim =
x0 x
2 sin(x/2) cos(x + x/2)
= lim = cos x, x R;
x0 x
cos(x + x) cos x
(cos x) = lim =
x0 x
2 sin(x/2) sin(x + x/2)
= lim = sin x, x R;
x0 x
sin x  sin x cos x sin x cos x 1
(tg x) = = 2
= 2
, x
= + n;
cos x cos x cos x 2
cos x  cos  x sin x cos x sin x 1
(ctg x) = = = 2 , x
= n.
sin x sin2 x sin x

(x + x) x
(x ) = lim =
x0 x
(1 + x/x) 1
= lim x1 = x1 , x > 0, R;
x0 x/x
(x + x)n xn
(xn ) = lim =
x0 x
xn + nxn1 x + . . . + (x)n xn
= lim = nxn1 , x R, n N.
x0 x

ex+x ex ex (ex 1)
(ex ) = lim = lim = ex , x R.
x0 x x0 x

ln(x + x) ln x ln(1 + x/x) 1
(ln x) = lim = lim = , x > 0.
x0 x x0 x (x/x) x
3.2. 55

3.2.

f (x)
x = c , x = c -
f  (c)
= 0. d = f (c) -
x = g(y), , ,
1
d g  (d) =  .
f (c)
. -
d = f (c) x = g(y), -
. y
= 0 -
x
= 0 , g(d + y) = c + x. g
d, lim x = 0. ,
y0

g(d + y) g(d) x 1 1
g  (d) = lim = lim = lim =  .
y0 y y0 y x0 y f (c)
x
3.1. , -
:

## 1) y(x) = arcsin x, x(y) = sin y, x (y) = cos y,

1 1
y  (x) = (arcsin x) = = , |x| < 1;
cos y 1 x2

## 2) y(x) = arccos x, x(y) = cos y, x (y) = sin y,

1 1
y  (x) = (arccos x) = = , |x| < 1;
sin y 1 x2

1
3) y(x) = arctg x, x(y) = tg y, x (y) = ,
cos2 y
1
y  (x) = (arctg x) = cos2 y = , x R;
1 + x2
1
4) y(x) = arcctg x, x(y) = ctg y, x (y) = ,
sin2 y
1
y  (x) = (arcctg x) = sin2 y = , x R.
1 + x2
56 3.

x = (t) y = f (x) t0 x0 = (t0 )
 (t0 ) f  (x0 ), z = f ((t))
t0 ,
:

.
. f
t0 , x0 ,

## y = f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) = f  (x0 )x + x,

= o(1), = o(1), x 0.
t0 x0 t0

## = f  (x0 ) (t0 )t + f  (x0 )t + ( (t0 )t + t),

f ((t0 + t)) f ((t0 ))
lim = f  (x0 ) (t0 ). 
t0 t

3.2

## 1. (ax ) = (ex ln a ) = ax ln a, x R, a > 0, a

= 1;

2. y = loga x, x = ay , (ay ) = ay ln a,
1 1
y  (x) = = , x > 0, a > 0, a
= 1;
ay ln a x ln a

1 1
3. (sh x) = (ex ex ) = (ex + ex ) = ch x, (ch x) = sh x,
2 2

1 1
4. (th x) = 
2 , (cth x) = 2 , x
= 0.
ch x sh x
(2.9), (2.10) ,

1 1
(arcsh x) = ; (arcch x) = , x > 1.
x2 +1 x2 1
3.3. . 57

1
(x ) = x1 , x > 0, (tgx) = , x
= + n, (sh x) = ch x,
cos2 x 2
1
(ex ) = ex , (ctg x) = 2 , x
= n, (ch x) = sh x,
sin x
1 1 1
(ln x) = , x > 0, (arctg x) = 2 , (th x) = 2
x x +1 ch x
1 1
(sin x) = cos x, (arcsin x) = , |x| < 1, (arcsh x) =
1x 2 2
x +1
1 1
(cos x) = sin x, (arccos x) = , |x| < 1, (arcch x) =
1x 2 2
x 1

3.3. .

f , c.
f x = c, -
A , f = f (c + x) f (c)

f = Ax + o(x).
Ax f
x = c
df = Ax. (3.2)
x (3.2) dx,

f x = c -
, f  (c).

df |x=c = f  (c)dx.

. .
f o(x) f
f = Ax + o(x), =A+ , f  (c) = lim = A.
x x x0 x

f f
. f  (c) = lim , f  (c) = o(1),
x0 x x

## f = f  (c)x + o(1)x = f  (c)x + o(x). 

58 3.

f x = c
f -
(c, f (c)) x = c x = c + x
(. 3.3).

. 3.3

x = c f f
dy x

f (c + x) f (c)
lim = f+ (c),
x+0 x
f (c + x) f (c)
lim = f (c)
x0 x

f x = c.
-
: f
x = c ,
,

## f (c) = f  (c) = f+ (c).

x = c (-
) , () .

3.3. y = |x|
x = 0 :
|x| |x|
f (0) = lim = 1, f+ (0) = lim = 1.
x0 x x+0 x
3.3. . 59

## f (0), f+ (0) , , , |x|

x = 0 (. 3.4).

f : |a, b| R
|a, b|, -
(a, b), x = a,
a |a, b| x = b,
b |a, b|.
f
|a, b|, |a, b|
f  (x) |a, b|.

3.4.

x sin(1/x), x
= 0,
f (x) =
0, x = 0,

R, x = 0,

x sin(1/x) x sin(1/x)
f (0) = lim , f+ (0) = lim
x0 x x+0 x

( 2.2, . 3.5).

. 3.4. , . 3.5.
,
x = 0 x = 0

3.5.
 2
x sin(1/x), x
= 0,
f (x) = (3.3)
0, x = 0,
60 3.

x = 0

(x)2 sin(1/x)
f  (0) = lim = 0.
x0 x

. 3.6. ,

(3.3) R, -
. x = 0 () (. 3.6).

3.4.
.
f  (x) f (x) -
, f  (x)
d2 f
f (x) f  (x) f (2) (x), .
dx2

## f (n+m) (x) = (f (n) (x))(m) .

:
1. y = x , y (n) = ( 1) . . . ( n + 1)xn , , = n N
(xm )(n) = 0, n > m;

2. y = sin x, y (n) = sin(x + n);
2
(n)
3. y = cos x, y = cos(x + n);
2
3.4. 61

4. y = ex , y (n) = ex ;
(1)n1 (n 1)!
5. y = ln x, y (n) = .
xn
f : |a, b| R n
|a, b|, n -
(a, b), -
n x = a, a |a, b|
n x = b, b |a, b|. f
n |a, b|, -
n 1 |a, b|. f n
|a, b|,
n f (n) (x) |a, b|.

3.6. f (x) =
= x|x| x = 0 :
x|x| x|x|
f (0) = lim = 0, f+ (0) = lim = 0.
x0 x x+0 x
(. 3.7), ,
f (x) = x|x| x = 0 f  (0) = 0. -
f (x) = x|x|

2x, x < 0,
(x|x|) = 0, x = 0,

2x, x > 0.
R (. 3.8), , -
R.

. 3.7. - . 3.8.
( f (x) = x|x| ), - y = x|x|

62 3.

f (x) = x|x|
x=0
2x 2x
f (0) = lim = 2, f+ (0) = lim = 2.
x0 x x+0 x

## f (0), f+ (0) , , ,

f (x) = x|x| x = 0.
 3
x sin(1/x), x
= 0,
y=
0, x = 0
R, -
().

## 3.1. C 0 ((a, b)), Dn ((a, b)), C n ((a, b)) -

, n n
(a, b).
, , -
3.33.6

C 0 ((a, b)) D1 ((a, b)) C 1 ((a, b)) . . . Dn ((a, b)) C n ((a, b)),


n
n!
(n)
(uv) = Cnk u(nk) v (k) , Cnk = . (3.4)
k!(n k)!
k=0


0
. n = 0, (uv)(0) = uv, C0k u(nk) v (k) =
k=0
= u(0) v (0) = uv. , (3.4) n = m.
(m + 1) - uv

m 
(m+1) (m)  k (mk) (k)
(uv) = ((uv) ) = Cm u v =
k=0


m
= k
Cm (u(m+1k) v (k) + u(mk) v (m+1) ).
k=0
3.4. 63


m 
m1
(uv)(m+1) = Cm
0 (m+1) (0)
u v + k (m+1k) (k)
Cm u v + k (mk) (k+1)
Cm u v +
k=1 k=0

## m (0) (m+1) m 0 m+1 0

+Cm u v = [Cm = Cm = Cm+1 = Cm+1 = 1] =

m
0
= C(m+1) u(m+1) v (0) + k
(Cm k1 (m+1k) (k)
+ Cm )u v +
k=1


m+1
m+1 (0) (m+1)
+Cm+1 u v k
= [Cm k1
+ Cm k
= Cm+1 ]= k
Cm+1 u(m+1k) v (k) .
k=0

(3.4) n. 

y = f (x)

dy = f  (x)dx = f  (x)x

x x. x -
, dy x. -
d(dy) = d(f  (x)x) , x -
, f -
d2 y d2 f, ,
x , -
. ,

## d2 y = d(f  (x)x) = f  (x)(x)2 = f  (x)dx2 ,

dx2 = (dx)2 . dn y :

## dn y = d(dn1 y), n > 1,

dn y = f (n) (x)dxn . (3.5)
(3.5) ,
dn y
f (n) (x) =
,
dxn
. . n y = f (x) -
n n -
.
64 3.

-
, -
. . y = f ((t))
. yt = fx t .
dy = fx t dt = [t dt = dx] = fx dx,
. . dy = fx dx : x -
x . -
-
.

d2 y = d2 (f ((t)) = (f ((t))) dt2 = (fx t )t dt2 =

= (fx2 t t + fx t2 )dt2 = [(t )2 dt2 = dx2 , t2 dt2 = d2 x] =
= fx2 dx2 + fx d2 x,
d2 y = f  dx2 ,
x .

x = x(t), y = y(t), t T, , -
T. , x = x(t), t T,
t = t(x), x X = {x : x = x(t), t T }.
y = y(t(x)), x X, ,
x = x(t), y = y(t), t T.
(-
, , ,
),
:
 1  y
yx = yt tx = tx =  = t . (3.6)
xt xt

,
yt
y = g(t) = , x = x(t), t T.
xt
(3.6), , -
, ,
   
   (g(t))t yt /xt t yt2 xt yt xt2
yx2 = (yx )x = = = .
xt xt (xt )3
.
3.5. 65

3.5.

, ,
.
.
1.
x0 f : (a, b) R f -
x0 , x0 .
f (x0 ) = sup f (x). x ,
x(a,b)
x0 + x (a, b),

y = f (x0 + x) f (x0 )  0,

y
 0 x > 0,
x
y
 0 x < 0.
x
0  f+ (x0 ) = f  (x0 ) = f (x0 )  0 f  (x0 ) = 0. 
: -
0x
(. 3.9).
2.
f [a, b], -
(a, b) f (a) = f (b),
(a, b) .
. x, x
[a, b] , inf f (x) = f (x), sup f (x) = f (x).
x[a,b] x[a,b]
f (x) = f (x), f [a, b]
(a, b) . f (x) < f (x), f (a) = f (b)
, x, x (a, b),
. 
: f
[a, b], (a, b)
f (a) = f (b),
(a, b) 0x
(. 3.10).
66 3.

. 3.9 . 3.10

3.
f [a, b] -
(a, b), (a, b) x = c,

(x)

## (a) = (b) = 0,  (x) = (f (b) f (a)) (b a)f  (x).

c (a, b) ,  (c) =
= 0 f (b) f (a) = f  (c)(b a). 

f (b) f (a)
ba
,
A(a, f (a)), B(b, f (b)) y = f (x), x [a, b] , -
f  (c)
x = c,
: f [a, b] -
(a, b), ,
,
(. 3.11).
3.5. 67

. 3.11 . 3.12

f [a, b] -
(a, b), x, x+x [a, b], = (x, x),
0 < < 1, ,

## f (x + x) f (x) = f  (x + x)x. (3.8)

x > 0.
cx
c , f (x + x) f (x) = f  (c)x. = ,
x
x + x = c 0 < < 1. (3.8) (3.7)
(. 3.12). 
(3.7), (3.8) ,
.

4.
|a, b| f
, f  (x)
|a, b| .
. .
. f  (x) = 0 x |a, b|. x0 |a, b|. -

x, x0 + x |a, b| f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) = 0 f (x) = f (x0 ) x |a, b|. 

5.

, .
68 3.

## . f  (x) = g  (x) x (a, b), h(x) = f (x) g(x), h (x) =

= 0 x (a, b) h(x) C, f (x) = g(x) + C x (a, b). 

6.
f g [a, b]
(a, b), g  (x)
= 0 x (a, b). (a, b)
c,

## f (b) f (a) f  (c)

=  . (3.9)
g(b) g(a) g (c)

. d (a, b) -
,
g(b) g(a) = g  (d)(b a)
= 0.

c (a, b) ,

g(b) g(a)
= 0 g  (c)
= 0
(3.9). 

3.6.
0
0

X :

## 1) X = (a, b), a  , 2) X = (b, a), a  +, 3) X = (b, a) (a, d), a R.

lim , X ,
xa
, X , X
.
3.6. 69

f (x) g(x) X ,
lim f (x) = 0 = lim g(x) lim f (x) = = lim g(x), g(x)
= 0,
xa xa xa xa
f  (x)
g  (x)
= 0 x X. x a
g  (x)
f  (x)
l, . . lim = l,  l  +,
xa g  (x)
f (x) f (x)
x a l, . . lim = l.
g(x) xa g(x)
(
).
1 . X = (a, b), a R, lim f (x) = 0 = lim g(x).
xa xa
 
f (x), x (a, b), g(x), x (a, b),
F (x) = G(x) =
0, x = a, 0, x = a.

## f (x) F (x) F (x) F (a) F  (c) f  (c)

= = =  =  l.
g(x) G(x) G(x) G(a) G (c) g (c) xa

## 2 . X = (b, +), b > 0, lim f (x) = 0 = lim g(x).

  x+ x+  
(t) = f 1/t , g (t) =
t = 1/x, t
 0, 1/b , f
= g 1/t , f (t) 0, g (t) 0.
t+0 t+0
1 , -

## f (x) f (t) (f (t)) (f (1/t))

lim = lim = lim = lim =
xa g(x) t+0 g (t) t+0 (g (t)) t+0 (g(1/t))

f  (1/t)(1/t2 ) f  (x)
= lim = lim = l.
t+0 g  (1/t)(1/t2 ) x+ g  (x)

## 3 . X = (a, b), a R, l R, lim f (x) = = lim g(x). x, x

xa xa
f (x)
(a, b) : a < x < x < b, l
g(x)

f (x) 
 f (x) f (x)  g(x) g(x) f (x)
l = [g (x)
= 0 g(x)g(x)
= 0] = l +
g(x) g(x) g(x) g(x) g(x)

## g(x)  f  (c)  g(x)  f (x) g(x)

+l = l  1 +l , x < c < x.
g(x) g (c) g(x) g(x) g(x)
70 3.

f  (x)
> 0. lim = l,
xa g  (x)
 f  (x)   f  (c) 
 
x (a, b), x (a, b) : a < x < x l    l    ,
g (x) g (c)
x < c < x.
 f (x)   g(x) 
   
() > 0, x (a, x) : 0 < x a  ()    ,    .
g(x) g(x)
,
 f (x) 

l   (1 + ) + + l x (a, x) : 0 < x a  (),
g(x)
f (x)
lim = l.
xa g(x)
4 . X = (a, b), a R, l = , lim f (x) = = lim g(x).
xa xa
g(x)/f (x) ,
3 . 
3.7. -
, -
ex , ln x :
ln x 1
1) lim
= lim = 0, > 0, ln x = o(x );
x+ x x+ x x+

x ln t
2) lim = [x = ln t, t +] = lim 1 = 0, > 0, x = o(ex );
x+ ex t+ t x+

ln x 1  1 
3) lim x ln x = lim = lim x = 0, > 0, ln x = o ;
x+0 x+0 x x+0 x+0 x
4) lim xx = lim ex ln x = 1.
x+0 x+0

0
, .
0
0 , , 00 , 0 , 1
0
.
0
3.8
 1 1  x 1 ln x x 1 ln x 0 1
lim = [] = lim = lim = = .
x1 ln x x1 x1 (x 1) ln x x1 (x 1)2 0 2
3.7. 71

3.7. .

f,

f (x0 ), . . . , f (n) (x0 ). , x0
n, f (x).

## f  (x0 ) f (n) (x0 )

Tn (x) = f (x0 ) + (x x0 ) + . . . + (x x0 )n .
1! n!
Rn (x) = f (x) Tn (x), f

## f  (x0 ) f (n) (x0 )

f (x) = f (x0 ) + (x x0 ) + . . . + (x x0 )n + Rn (x). (3.10)
1! n!
(3.10) f
x0 , Rn (x) .

Rn (x) = o((x x0 )n )

x x0 , -
f x0 .

f (n + 1)
I = (x0 1 , x0 + 2 ), 1 > 0, 2 > 0; x I; (t)
I  (t)
= 0 I \ {x}. x0
x c, Rn (x)

## (x) (x0 ) f (n+1) (c)

Rn (x) = (x c)n . (3.11)
 (c) n!

x > x0 .

## f  (t) f (n) (t)

(t) = f (x) f (t) (x t) . . . (x t)n ,
1! n!

f (n+1) (t)
 (t) = (x t)n , (x0 ) = Rn (x), (x) = 0.
n!
72 3.

. (x0 , x) c ,

=  .
(x) (x0 ) (c)

## Rn (x) f (n+1) (c) 1

= (x c)n  . 
(x) (x0 ) n! (c)

3.8.
,
f (n + 1)
I = (x0 1 , x0 + 2 ), 1 > 0, 2 > 0; x I. (3.11)
(t) = (x t)n+1 ,

## (x x0 )n+1 f (n+1) (c)

Rn (x) = (x c)n ,
(n + 1)(x c)n n!

f (n+1) (c)
Rn (x) = (x x0 )n+1 ,
(n + 1)!
c x0
:= , c = x0 + (x x0 ), 0 < < 1,
x x0
f (n+1) (x0 + (x x0 ))
Rn (x) = (x x0 )n+1 . (3.12)
(n + 1)!
(3.12) Rn (x).
(3.11) (t) = x t,

(x x0 ) f (n+1) (c)
Rn (x) = (x c)n ,
1 n!

f (n+1) (c) xc n
Rn (x) = (x x0 )n+1 ( ) ,
n! x x0

f (n+1) (x0 + (x x0 ))
Rn (x) = (1 )n (x x0 )n+1 . (3.13)
n!
(3.13) Rn (x).
f, , f -
n I.
3.8. 73

## Rn1 (x) Rn1 (x) =

f (n) (c)
= (x x0 )n
n!

f (n) (x0 )
Rn1 (x) = (x x0 )n + (x x0 )n ,
n!

## f (n) (c) f (n) (x0 )

= , = o(1), (x x0 )n = o((x x0 )n ).
n! xx0 xx0

f (x)

## f  (x0 ) f (n1) (x0 )

f (x) = f (x0 ) + (x x0 ) + + (x x0 )n1 + Rn1 (x) =
1! (n 1)!

## f  (x0 ) f (n) (x0 )

= f (x0 ) + (x x0 ) + + (x x0 )n + o((x x0 )n ).
1! n!
, Rn (x) Rn (x) =
= o((x x0 )n ), .

f (n + 1) I .
x =
= x0 + x, f = f (x0 + x) f (x0 ),

## f  (x0 ) f (n) (x0 ) f (n+1) (x0 + (x))

f = (x) + . . . + (x)n + (x)n+1 =
1! n! (n + 1)!

## f  (x0 ) f (n) (x0 ) n

= [x = dx] = dx + + dx +
1! n!
f (n+1) (x0 + (x)) n+1
+ dx = [f (k) (x0 )dxk = dk f (x0 )] =
(n + 1)!
df (x0 ) dn f (x0 ) dn+1 f (x0 + (x))
= + + + .
1! n! (n + 1)!

df  dn f  dn+1 f 
f =  + +  + 
1! x0 n! x0 (n + 1)! x0 +x

.
74 3.

3.9.

1.

## f (x) = ex , f (n) (x) = ex , f (n) (0) = 1 n N,

x xn  xk n
x
e = 1 + + ... + + Rn (x) = + Rn (x) x R.
1! n! k!
k=0

ex
Rn (x) = xn+1 , 0 < < 1;
(n + 1)!

Rn (x) = o(xn ).
x0

2. (. 3.13)

f (x) = sin x, f (n) (x) = sin(x + n), f (2l) (0) = 0, f 2l+1 (0) = (1)l ,
2

x3 (1)n x2n+1
sin x = x + ... + + R2n+2 (x) =
3! (2n + 1)!

n
(1)k x2k+1
= + R2n+2 (x) x R.
(2k + 1)!
k=0

. 3.13. y = x ;
y = x x3 /6 + x5 /120 ;
y = sin x
3.9. 75

:
 
sin x + (2n + 3)
R2n+2 (x) = 2 x2n+3 , 0 < < 1;
(2n + 3)!

## R2n+2 (x) = o(x2n+2 ).

x0
3.
 
(n)
f (x) = cos x, f (x) = cos x + n , f (2l) (0) = (1)l , f 2l+1 (0) = 0,
2

x2 (1)n x2n
cos x = 1 + ... + + R2n+1 (x) =
2! (2n)!

n
(1)k x2k
= + R2n+1 (x) x R.
(2k)!
k=0
:
 
cos x + (2n + 2)
R2n+1 (x) = 2 x2n+2 , 0 < < 1;
(2n + 2)!

x0
4.

## (1)n1 (n 1)! (n)

f (x) = ln(1 + x), f (n) (x) = , f (0) = (1)n1 (n 1)!,
(x + 1)n

x2 (1)n1 xn
ln(1 + x) = x + ... + + Rn (x) =
2 n

n
(1)k1 xk
= + Rn (x) x (1, +).
k
k=1
:

1 xn+1
Rn (x) = (1)n , 0 < < 1;
n + 1 (1 + x)n+1

(1 )n
Rn (x) = (1)n xn+1 , 0 < < 1;
(1 + x)n+1
Rn (x) = o(xn ).
x0
76 3.

5.
f (x) = (1 + x) , f (n) (x) = ( 1) ( n + 1)(1 + x)n ,
f (n) (0) = ( 1) ( n + 1),
x ( 1) ( n + 1) n
(1 + x) = 1 + + ... + x + Rn (x) =
1! n!

n
( 1) ( k + 1)
= xk + Rn (x) x (1, +).
k!
k=0
:
( n)
Rn (x) = (1 + x)n+1 xn+1 , 0 < < 1;
(n + 1)!
( 1) ( n)
Rn (x) = (1 + x)n+1 (1 )n xn+1 ;
n!
Rn (x) = o(xn ).
x0
,
1
= 1 + x + x2 + . . . + xn + o(xn ).
1x

ex
0  x  0, 1 0, 00001. -

x xn ex
ex = 1 + + ... + + xn+1 , 0 < < 1,
1! n! (n + 1)!
 ex  2|x|n+1 2(0, 1)n+1
 
 xn+1    , 0  x  0, 1.
(n + 1)! (n + 1)! (n + 1)!
2(0, 1)n+1
 0, 00001
(n + 1)!
n, : n = 3. ,
0  x  0, 1
x2 x3
ex 1 + x + +
2 6
, , 0,00001.
-

-
.
3.9. 77

3.9.

esin x 1 x
I = lim .
x0 x2
ex sin x ,
esin x , x2 ,

x3 4)x3
esin x = ex 3! +o(x + o(x4 )+
=1+x
3!
1 x3 2  x3 2 x2
+ x + o(x4 ) + o x + o(x4 ) = 1 + x + + o(x2 ).
2 3! 3! 2

1+x+ x2
+ o(x2 ) 1 x  1 o(x2 )  1
2
I = lim = lim + = .
x0 x2 x0 2 x2 2
4

4.1.
x0 -
, ,
-
0x, , ,
.

f : |a, b| R
, (a, b) -
:
f  (x)  0 x (a, b);
, :

. .
x0 (a, b)

## x (a, b) : x < x0 f (x)  f (x0 ).

,
f (x) f (x0 )
 0, x
= x0 , x (a, b).
x x0
x0 ,
f (x) f (x0 )
lim = f  (x0 )  0.
xx0 x x0
4.1. 79

. x1 , x2 |a, b| : x1 < x2
f : [x1 , x2 ] R

## x1 , x2 |a, b| : x1 < x2 f (x1 )  f (x2 ). 

.

4.1. (. 4.1)

3 2
(x + 1/2) , x  1/2, 3(x + 1/2) , x  1/2,
f (x) = 0, 1/2 < x < 1/2, f  (x) = 0, 1/2 < x < 1/2,

(x 1/2)3 , x  1/2, 3(x 1/2)2 , x  1/2,

(. 4.2), .

. 4.1. . 4.2.

( ) -
f : |a, b| R ,

-
. 

## 4.2. f (x) = x3 (, +),

f  (x) = 3x2  0, f  (x) = 0 x = 0.
80 4.

4.2.
x0 |a, b| :
f : |a, b| R,

f (x0 )  f (x)

x - [x0 , x0 + ], > 0, x0 ;
,

= x0 ;

## f (x0 ) > f (x) x [x0 , x0 + ], x

= x0 .

(. 4.3).

. 4.3. :
x1 ;
x2 ; x3 ;
x4

x0 x0
, x0 .
.
4.2. 81

, , -
,
f  (x) = 0.
(a, b) f. ,
f (a, b), x = c.
c . , -
y = |x| x = 0
.
, ,
, ,
.
, , -
.

f (x)
(x0 , x0 ), (x0 , x0 + ) x0 x0
, , -
. x0 f  (x) -
, x0 ,
, x0 .
x0 f  (x) , x0
.
. (x0 , x0 )
, (x0 , x0 + ) , , x0
. 
-
.

f (x)
x0 . , f  (x0 ) > 0, x0
, f  (x0 ) < 0, x0
.
.

f  (x0 ) f  (x0 + (x x0 ))
f (x) = f (x0 ) + (x x0 ) + (x x0 )2 ,
1! 2!

## f  (x0 ) = 0, f  (x0 ) < 0, 0 < < 1.

82 4.

> 0,
f  (x) < 0 x (x0 , x0 + ), , f  (x0 + (x x0 )) < 0 x
(x0 , x0 + ). ,

f  (x0 + (x x0 ))
f (x) f (x0 ) = (x x0 )2  0
2!
f (x)  f (x0 ) x (x0 , x0 + ). 

f (x) n
x0 f  (x0 ) = f  (x0 ) = . . . = f (n1) (x0 ) = 0,
f (n) (x0 )
= 0. , n f (n) (x0 ) > 0, x0 -
; n f (n) (x0 ) < 0, x0
; n , x0 -
.
.

f (n) (x0 + (x x0 )
f (x) = f (x0 )) + (x x0 )n .
n!
n f (n) (x0 ) > 0,
> 0 , f (n) (x) > 0 x (x0 , x0 + ).
f (n) (x0 + (x x0 )) > 0, , f (x)  f (x0 ) x (x0 , x0 + ),
x0 .
n f (n) (x0 ) < 0, x0
.
n f (n) (x0 )
= 0 ( f (n) (x0 ) >
> 0), > 0 , f (x) < f (x0 ) x (x0 , x0 ), f (x) >
> f (x0 ) x (x0 , x0 + ), , x0
. 

4.3.
f : |a, b| R :
|a, b|, x0 , x1 |a, b|, (0, 1)

## f (x0 + (x1 x0 ))  f (x0 ) + (f (x1 ) f (x0 )); (4.1)

, x0 , x1 |a, b|, x0
= x1 , (0, 1)

4.3. 83

.
f :
,

## f (x0 + (x1 x0 )) > f (x0 ) + (f (x1 ) f (x0 ))

x0 , x1 |a, b|, x0
= x1 , (0, 1).

.
(0, 1), x = x0 + (x1 x0 )
x0 x1 . (x , y ) ,
, (x0 , f (x0 )) (x1 , f (x1 )). -
, f (x )  y x0 , x1 (a, b) (0, 1). ,
,
, (. 4.4).
(4.1) , x0 < x1 ,

x x0 x1 x
= , 1= .
x 1 x0 x1 x0

## f (x ) f (x0 ) f (x1 ) f (x0 )

 , (4.3)
x x0 x1 x0
f (x1 ) f (x ) f (x1 ) f (x0 )
 . (4.4)
x1 x x1 x0
k(M  M  ) ,
M  M  . M1 (x1 , f (x1 )), M2 (x2 , f (x2 )),
M3 (x3 , f (x3 )), f. (4.3), (4.4)
, (. 4.5)

## k(M1 M2 )  k(M1 M3 )  k(M2 M3 ). (4.5)

84 4.

. 4.4. . 4.5.
(4.5)

f |a, b|. f |a, b|
, f  (x)
(a, b).
. . x1 , x2 , x3 (a, b) : x1 < x2 <
< x3 . (4.5) x2 x1 , x2 x3 ,

## f  (x1 )  k(M1 M3 )  f  (x3 ).

. , x0 , x1 : x0 <
< x1 , (0, 1)

## f (x )  f (x0 ) + (f (x1 ) f (x0 )). 

f |a, b|. f |a, b|
,

4.4. 85

. 

f |a, b|. f
|a, b| ,

## f  (x)  0 x (a, b),

f  (x) -
(, ) |a, b| ().
y = f (x) , y = f (x) .

.

f |a, b|. f |a, b|
, f  (x)  0 x (a, b).

4.4.
x0 f : (x0 , x0 + )
R, f x0 (
) f (x0 , x0 ),
(x0 , x0 + ) .

f : (x0 , x0 +) R
x0 , f  (x0 ) = 0.
. f  (x0 )
= 0. -
f  (x0 ) > 0. 1 , 0 < 1  , x
(x0 1 , x0 + 1 ) f  (x) > 0. ,
f (x) (x0 1 , x0 + 1 ), -
. 
, -
f : (a, b) R ,
f  (x) = 0.
f.
f, (x0 , x0 + )
, x0 . -
f  (x0 ) = + f  (x0 ) = , x0
.
86 4.

4.3. y = 1+ 3 x 1 x = 1
, y  (0) = + (. 4.6)

f,
(x0 , x0 + ), x0 .
x0 .

4.4.
 
x2 , x  0,  2, x > 0,
y= y =
x5 , x < 0, 20x3 , x < 0,

x = 0 ,
(. 4.7).

. 4.6. x = 1 , . 4.7. x = 0 ,
f  (x) = +

, , ,
f  (x) = 0; , f  (x) =
= + f  (x) = ; , f ,
.
, ,
.

x0 , -
(x0 , x0 ), (x0 , x0 + ), > 0,
f. x0 f  (x)
, x0 . x0
, x0 .
4.5. 87

-
. 
-
.

f

(x0 , x0 + ), > 0, f  (x0 ) = 0, f (x0 )
= 0,
x0 .

f (x0 ) > 0.

1 : 0 < 1  , x (x0 1 , x0 + 1 ) f (x) > 0.
-
x0 , f  (x)
x0 . x0 . 

f n
(x0 , x0 + ), > 0,

## f  (x0 ) = . . . = f (n1) (x0 ) = 0, f (n) (x0 )

= 0.

n x0 , -
n x0 .
. f  (x)

f (n) (c)
f  (x) = (x x0 )n2 . (4.6)
(n 2)!

n , (4.6) , f  (x)
x0 x0 -
. n , f  (x)
x0 , (x x0 )n2 ,
. 

4.5.

## f : X R. sup f (x) = M, inf f (x) = m,

xX xX
< M  +,  m < +, f -
X. x X , f (x) = M, x
88 4.

M = max f (x). -
xX
x X , f (x) = m, x
m = min f (x).
xX
-
f : 1) X [a, b], 2) X (a, b).
, , -
( ) . -
[a, b], -
. , f -
1 , . . . , l , , -
(a, b).
(. 4.8) f (1 ), . . . , f (l )
f (a) f (b)

## m = min{f (1 ), . . . , f (l ), f (a), f (b)}.

, f
1 , . . . , l , , -
(a, b) ( )
lim f (x) = f (a + 0), lim f (x) = f (b 0).
xa+0 xb0
f (1 ), . . . , f (l ).

## max{f (1 ), . . . , f (l )} = f (i )  max{f (a + 0), f (b 0)},

i , max{f (1 ), . . . , f (l )} <
< max{f (a + 0), f (b 0)}, f (a, b)
sup f (x) = max{f (a + 0), f (b 0)}. -
xX
(. 4.9).

. 4.8. M = f (1 ) - . 4.9. M = f (a + 0) -
, m = f (a) , m = f (3 )
4.6. 89

f () (a, b)
x0 (a, b) , x0
(), . . f (x0 ) = min f (x) (f (x0 ) = max f (x)).
x(a,b) x(a,b)

. -
(. 4.3) f  (x) , -
, f  (x0 ) = 0, , f  (x)  0 (a, x0 )
f  (x)  0 (x0 , b). (. 4.1), f (x)
(a, x0 ) (x0 , b). , x0
. 
. 6 5,
.
. x ,

## V (x) = (6 2x)(5 2x)x, 0  x  5/2, V  (x) = 12x2 44x + 30,

 11 31 11 + 31
V (x) = 0, x1 = , x2 =
/ [0, 5/2],
6 6
 11 31 
V > 0, V (0) = 0, V (5/2) = 0.
6

11 31
: x = .
6

4.6.

## f, (a, d) c (a, d).

lim f (x) = , x = c
xc0
f. lim f (x) =
xc+0
= (. 4.10).
lim f (x) = .
xc
d = + k b ,

## lim (f (x) kx b) = 0, (4.7)

x+

y = kx + b
x + (. 4.11). x
. ,
x + x .
90 4.

. 4.10. . 4.11.

f x + (x )
, k ,
lim (f (x) kx).
x+(x)

f (x)
k= lim , b= lim (f (x) kx).
x+(x) x x+(x)

. . (4.7)
lim (f (x) kx) = b.
x+
. k , lim (f (x) kx) =
x+
= b R. lim (f (x) kx b) = 0 , , y = kx + b
x+
f (x) b
. f (x) kx b = o(1), k =
x+ x x
o(1) f (x)
, k = lim .
x x+ x

k b y = kx + b
.
4.5. x +

x2 x + 1
y= .
x
 x2 x + 1 
x2 x + 1
lim = 1, lim x = 1,
x+ x2 x+ x
y = x 1 -
x + .
4.7. 91

4.7.

.
1) . -
. . -
.
2) f , T -
[0, T ].
.
3) f , -
[0, ).
0y, -
.
4) ,

f (x)
k= lim , b= lim (f (x) kx).
x+() x x+()

5) f  (x). ,
f  (x)  0 f  (x)  0. ,
,
, . 4.2.
6) f  (x).
, f  (x)  0 f  (x)  0. , -
, ,
. 4.4.
7) : -
. .

4.6. f (x) = 3 x3 + x2 .
f (x)
R.
3 3
x +x 2
: lim = 1, b = lim ( 3 x3 + x2 x) = 1/3.
x+() x x+()
y = x + 1/3 x + x .

1 2 1
f  (x) = (x + 1) 3 x 3 (3x + 2), x
= 0, x
= 1,
3


3
(x)3 + (x)2
f+ (0) = lim = +, f (0) = ,
x+0 x
92 4.


3
(1 + x)3 + (1 + x)2
f (1) = lim = +.
x0 x
x = 2/3. -
+ , , x = 23 -

, f (2/3) = 3 4/3. x = 0, x = 1
. -
. x = 0 +,
, x = 0 , f (0) = 0. -
x = 1 , x = 1
.

. 4.12

5 4
f  (x) = 2/9 (x + 1) 3 x 3 , x =

0,
x
= 1. (, 1) f  (x) > 0, .
(1, 0) (0, +) f  (x) < 0, . -
x = 1 . 0x : x = 1, x = 0.
. 4.12.
5

5.1. .

f (x) |a, b|
F (x),

## F  (x) = f (x) x |a, b|.

F (x) f (x) |a, b|, (x)
, (x) = F (x) + C x |a, b|,
C . , F (x) + C, C
, f (x)
|a, b|.

(. 3.5). 
f (x) |a, b| -
 f (x) |a, b|
f (x)dx.
F (x) f (x), , 
, f (x)dx F (x) + C, C
.
-

 
f (x)dx = f (x).

-
,

F  (x)dx = F (x) + C.
94 5.

f (x) g(x) -
|a, b|, , R, || + ||
= 0,
  
(f (x) + g(x))dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx x |a, b|. (5.1)

-
. , , -
, , -

, -
x , ,

, -
x.

,
, :
 x+1  dx
x dx = + C,
= 1, 2
= tg x + C, x
= + n,
+1 cos x 2
 x  1
x
e dx = e + C, dx = ctg x + C, x
= n,
sin2 x
 dx  dx
= ln |x| + C, x
= 0, = arctg x + C,
 x x2 + 1
sin xdx = cos x + C,  ch xdx = sh x + C,
cos xdx = sin x + C, sh xdx = ch x + C,
 dx
= th x + C,
ch2 x
 dx
= arcsin x + C = arccos x + C, |x| < 1,
1 x2
 dx
= arcsh x + C = ln(x + x2 + 1) + C,
x2 + 1
 dx
= arcch x + C = ln(x + x2 1) + C, x > 1.
x2 1

5.2.
1.
, f (x)
f (x) = g(u(x))u (x) G(u) -
g(u). G(u(x)) = g(u(x))u (x) = f (x), ,

f (x)dx = G(u(x)) + C.
5.2. 95

  

f (x)dx = g(u(x))u (x)dx = g(u)du = G(u) + C = G(u(x)) + C.

5.1
 
arctg x arctg2 x
dx = arctg x d(arctg x) = + C.
1 + x2 2
2.
x = (t) ,  (t)
= 0,

 f ((t)) (t) = g(t). t =  (x) x = (t)
g(t)dt = G(t) + C, (G((x))) = g((x)) (x) = f (x), ,

f (x)dx = G((x)) + C.

 
f (x)dx = [x = (t), t = (x)] = f ((t)) (t)dt =

= g(t)dt = G(t) + C = G((x)) + C.

5.2
  
2 2 1
1 x dx = [x = sin t, t = arcsin x] = cos tdt = (1 + cos 2t)dt =
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
= t+ sin 2t+C = arcsin x+ sin(2 arcsin x)+C = arcsin x+ x 1 x2 +C
2 4 2 4 2 2
3.
u(x) v(x).
(uv) = u v + uv  ,
  
(u(x)v(x)) dx = u (x)v(x)dx + u(x)v  (x)dx

, ,
 
u(x)dv(x) = u(x)v(x) v(x)du(x). (5.2)

(5.2)
.
96 5.


g(x)h(x)dx = [u = g(x), du = g  (x)dx, h(x)dx = dv, v = H(x)] =

= g(x)H(x) H(x)g  (x)dx.

5.3
 ln x = u, du = dx/x, x2 ln x  x2 x2 ln x x2
1. x ln xdx = = dx = + C;
xdx = dv, v = x2 /2 2 2x 2 4
 arctg x = u, du = dx/1 + x2 ,
2. xarctg xdx = =
dx = dv, v = x
 
xdx 1 d(1 + x2 ) 1
= xarctg x = xarctg x = xarctg x ln(1 + x2 ) + C;
1 + x2 2 1 + x2 2
 x = u, du = dx, 
3. x
xe dx = = xe ex dx = xex ex + C;
x
ex dx = dv, v = ex

eax = u, du = aeax dx,
4. I = eax sin bxdx = =
sin bxdx = dv, v = cos bx/b

eax cos bx a
= + eax cos bxdx =
b b
eax = u, du = aeax dx, eax cos bx
= = +
cos bxdx = dv, v = sin bx/b b

a  eax sin bx a   a sin bx 1  a2
+ eax sin bxdx = eax cos bx 2 I,
b b b b2 b b
 a b 
I = eax 2 2
sin bx 2 cos bx + C;
a +b a + b2
   
dx (1 + x2 x2 )dx dx x2 dx
5. = = =
(x2 + 1)2 (x2 + 1)2 x2 + 1 (x2 + 1)2
 
x = u, du = dx,
= xdx 1 =
= dv, v =
(x2 + 1)2 2(x2 + 1)

x 1 dx 1 x
= arctg x + = arctg x + + C.
2(x2 + 1) 2 x2 + 1 2 2(x2 + 1)
5.3. 97

5.3.

.
Pn (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 , an
= 0, ai R, i = 0, 1, . . . , n,
n. , -
. -
.
1) ,
.
2) , ,
, , .
3)
Pn (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 ,
Qm (x) = bm xm + bm1 xm1 + . . . + b0 , m < n,
Snm (x) n m -
Rr (x) r < m ,
Pn (x) = Qm (x)Snm (x) + Rr (x).
4) P (x) P (x) = (x)S(x)
, P (x).
5) + i ,
i .
6) Pn (x) ,
, -

Pn (x) = an (x 1 )k1 (x s )ks (x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 (x2 + pt x + qt )lt ,
j , j = 1, . . . , s, , kj ; x2 + pj x +
+ qj = (x j ij )(x j + ij ), j
= 0, x = j + ij , x = j ij , j =
= 1, . . . , t, , lj ; k1 + . . . + kj + 2l1 + . . . +
+ 2lt = n.
Q(x)
, Q(x) P (x) ,
P (x)
. ,
P (x) 1.
A M + Nx
, , p2 4q < 0, A, N, M R, k, l N,
(x )k (x2+ px + q)l
98 5.

. ,
, Q(x) P (x).

.
Q(x)
.
P (x)

P (x) = (x1 )k1 (xs )ks (x2 +p1 x+q1 )l1 (x2 +pt x+qt )lt = (x1 )k1 P (x).

## Q(x) A1 Q(x) A1 A1 Q(x) A1 P (x)

= + = +
P (x) (x 1 ) 1 (x 1 ) 1 P (x) (x 1 ) 1
k k k (x 1 ) 1 (x 1 )k1 P (x)
k

A1 A1 = Q(1 )/P (1 ),
x = 1 Q(x) A1 P (x).

Q(x) A1 Q(x)
Q(x) A1 P (x) = (x 1 )Q(x), = + .
P (x) (x 1 ) k 1 (x 1 )k1 1 P (x)
,
Q(x) A2
, .
(x 1 ) P (x)
k1 (x 1 )k1
, -
.

Q(x)  
1k ks
Ai Bi Q(x)
= + + + ,
P (x) (x 1 ) i (x s ) i
P (x)
i=1 i=1

## P (x) = (x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 (x2 + pt x + qt )lt .

Q(x)

P (x)

Q(x) M1 + N1 x Q(x) M1 + N1 x
= 2 + =
P (x) l
(x + p1 x + q1 ) 1 (x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 P(x) (x + p1 x + q1 )l1
2

## M1 + N 1 x Q(x) (M1 + N1 x)P(x)

= + ,
(x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 (x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 P(x)
P(1 + i1 )
= 0, 1
= 0.
5.4. 99

M1 N1 , T (x) = Q(x)(M1 +
+ N1 x)P(x) 1 + i1 , . . ,
Q(1 + i1 ) Q(1 + i1 )
M1 + N1 (1 + i1 ) = . = c + id. N1 =

P (1 + i1 ) P(1 + i1 )
d d1
= , M1 = c , M1 +N1 (1 +i1 ) = c+id.
1 1
M1 , N1 T (x) x 1 i1 ,

x2 + p1 x + q1 , T (x) = (x2 + p1 x + q1 )Q(x),

Q(x) M1 + N1 x 
Q(x)
= 2 + .
P (x) l
(x + p1 x + q1 ) 1 (x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 1 P (x)


Q(x) M2 + N2 x
. .
(x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 1 P(x) (x2 + p1 x + q1 )l1 1

Q(x)  
k1 ks
Ai Bi
= + . . . + +
P (x) (x 1 ) i (x s )i
i=1 i=1


l1
Mj + Nj x 
lt
K j + Lj x
+ + ... + . (5.3)
(x2 + p1 x + q1 )j (x2 + pt x + qt )j
j=1 j=1

5.4.

. 5.3 -

Q(x)
. (5.3)
P (x)
A1 , . . . , Bks , M1 , N1 , . . . , Klt , Llt .
(5.3) P (x)

## Q(x) = Q (x). (5.4)

Q(x) , -
Q (x), -
A1 , . . . , Bks , M1 , N1 , . . . , Klt , Llt . (5.4),
,
A1 , . . . , Bks , M1 , N1 , . . . , Klt , Llt .
100 5.

Q(x) Q (x) -
x. Q(x) Q (x) -
x,
A1 , . . . , Bks , M1 , N1 , . . . , Klt , Llt . , -
.

5.4

1 1 A B
= = + , 1 = A(x + 2) + B(x + 1),
x2 + 3x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) x+1 x+2

A + B = 0,
(A + B)x + 2A + B = 1, A = 1, B = 1 :
2A + B = 1,

1 1 1
= + .
x2 + 3x + 2 x+1 x+2

Q(x) Q (x)
x, x ,
, P (x),
A1 , . . . , Bks , M1 , N1 , . . . , Klt , Llt .

5.5

x+2 x+2 A B D E
= 2 = 2+ + + ,
x2 (x2 1) x (x + 1)(x 1) x x x1 x+1

## x + 2 = A(x 1)(x + 1) + Bx(x 1)(x + 1) + Dx2 (x + 1) + Ex2 (x 1),

x = 0 2 = A, A = 2, x = 1 3 = 2B, B = 3/2,

## x = 1 1 = 2E, E = 1/2, x = 2 3 = 3A + 6B + 12D + 4E, D = 1/6 :

x+2 2 3/2 1/6 1/2
= 2 + + + .
x2 (x2
1) x x x1 x+1

(5.3) (5.4),
(5.3) (x1 )k1 , . . . , (x2 +plt x+qlt )lt
x = 1 , . . . , x = lt + ilt , lt +
+ ilt x2 + plt x + qlt .
5.5. 101

5.6
x A B D
= + + .
(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) x+1 x+2 x+3
(x + 1), (x + 2), (x + 3)
x = 1, x = 2, x = 3, A = 1/2, B =
= 2, D = 3/2 :
x 1/2 2 3/2
= + + .
(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) x+1 x+2 x+3
5.7
x Mx + N A
= 2 + .
(x2 + 1)(x + 2) x +1 x+2
(x i), (x + 2) x =
= i, x = 2, i/2 + i = M i + N, N = 1/5, M = 2/5, A = 2/5 :
x 2/5x + 1/5 2/5
= + .
(x2 + 1)(x + 2) 2
x +1 x+2

5.5.
.

A A
1) dx = + C, k > 1.
(x ) k (1 k)(x )k1

A
2) dx = A ln |x | + C.
x
  x p/2 = t,
N + Mx N + Mx
3) dx = dx = =
x2 + px + q (x + p/2)2 + q p2 /4 q p2 /4 = a2 ,
  
N t + M + N p/2 M + N p/2 d(t/a) N d(t2 + a2 )
= 2 2
dt = 2
+ =
t +a a (t/a) + 1 2 t2 + a 2
M + N p/2 t N
= arctg + ln(t2 + a2 ) + C =
a a 2
M + N p/2 x + p/2 N
= arctg + ln(x2 + px + q) + C.
a a 2

 
N + Mx N t + M + N p/2
4) 2
dx = dt = [M1 = M + N p/2] =
(x + px + q)l (t2 + a2 )l
102 5.
 
tdt M1 a2 + t2 t2
=N 2 2
+ 2 dt =
(t + a ) l a (t2 + a2 )l
tdt 1 1
= u = t, du = dt, = dv, v = =
(t2 + a2 )l 2(1 l) (t2 + a2 )l1
N M1

2(1 l) 2a2 (1 l)
t
M1  1  dt
= 2 2
+ 2 1+ , l > 1.
(t + a ) l1 a 2(1 l) (t + a2 )l1
2

 dt

(t2 + a2 )l1
 dt
l > 2 . ,
(t2 + a2 )l2
, 3).
-
 Q(x)
dx.
P (x)
Q(x)/P (x) , -
Q(x) Q(x) = P (x)S(x) + R(x), R(x) -
, P (x). Q(x)/P (x) = S(x) +
+ R(x)/P (x), R(x)/P (x) .
, -
. -
,
,
, , ,
.

5.6.

. 5.5 , -
. -
, -
.
u v
Auk v m , k, m N0 , A R.
.
. , -
,
. , -
, R(u, v) .
5.6. 103

   ax + b  n 
m
1. R x, dx, n, m N, |a| + |c|
= 0, |c| +
cx + d
+ |d| =

0.
ax + b dtm b m(ad cb)tm1
= tm , x= , dx = dt,
cx + d a ctm (a ctm )2
  dtm b  m(ad cb)tm1
R , tn dt.
a ctm (a ctm )2


.
2. R(x, ax2 + bx + c)dx, b2 4ac
= 0.

:

I. a > 0, ax2 + bx + c = x a + t ( ax2 + bx + c = x a + t),

t2 c 2t(b 2t a) (t2 c)2 a
x= , dx = dt,
b 2t a (b 2t a)2
  2
t c t2 c  2t(b 2ta) (t2 c)2a
R , a+t dt,
b 2t a b 2t a (b 2t a)2
;

II. c > 0, ax2 + bx + c = c + xt ( ax2 + bx + c = c xt),

b 2t c
x= 2 ;
t a
III. b2 4ac > 0, x2 + bx + c = (x 1 )(x 2 ),
2 1 t
ax2 + bx + c = (x 1 )t, x = .
1t
3.  m xm (a + bxn )p dx.
x (a + bxn )p dx, m, n, p Q, a, b R, |a|
= 0, |b|
= 0,
:
m+1 m+1
) p , ) , ) + p .
n n

) x = tr , r -
m n;
) a + bxn = ts , s p;
) axn + b = ts , s p.
104 5.

5.8

dx 1 m+1

4
= m = 0, n = 4, p = , + p = 0, t = (1 + x4 )1/4 ,
1+x 4 4 n
 t2 dt
x = (t4 1)1/4 , dx = t3 (t4 1)5/4 dt = =
1 t4

1  1 1  1  t + 1  1
= + dt = ln   arctg t + C, t = (1 + x4 )1/4 .
2 t2 1 t2 + 1 4 t1 2

5.7.
-


R(cos x, sin x)dx,

R(u, v) . -

2t 1 t2 x
sin x = , cos x = , t = tg ,
1 + t2 1 + t2 2
, x = 2arctg t, dx = 2dt/1 + t2 . ,
   
1 t2 2t  2dt
R(cos x, sin x)dx = R , = R1 (t)dt,
1 + t2 1 + t2 1 + t2
R1 (t) . , t = tg(x/2)
- R(cos x, sin x).
-
:
) R R(cos x, sin x) =
= R(cos x, sin x), cos x = t;
) R( cos x, sin x) = R(cos x, sin x), sin x = t;
) R( cos x, sin x) = R(cos x, sin x), tg x = t.

5.9

dx  x 2t dt 
1. = tg = t, sin x = 2
, x = 2arctg t, dx = 2 =
sin x 2 1+t 1 + t2
  x
dt  
= = ln tg  + C;
t 2
5.7. - 105


dx 1 t
2. = tg x = t, cos x = , sin x = ,x=
cos4 x + sin4 x 1+t 2 1 + t2
 1
 2  d t
dt 1+t t 1 tg 2x
 = arctg + C.
1 2
= arctg t, dx = = dt =
1 + t2 1 + t4 2 2
t +2
t

, I ,
, , .
.
,
 2
1) ex dx ;
 sin x
2) dx ;
x
 dx
3) ;
ln x
 
4) sin x2 dx cos x2 dx ;
 dx
5) , 0 < k < 1,
(1 x )(1 k 2 x2 )
2
.

.
6

6.1.

f, [a, b].
{xk } [a, b] n xk

## xk = xk xk1 , ({xk }) = max xk . ({xk })

k
. [xk1 , xk ]
k (. 6.1)


n
({xk }, k ) = f (k )xk .
k=1

. 6.1

I ,

6.1. 107

I f [a, b]

b
I= f (x)dx.
a

f [a, b].

## 6.1. y = L const, x [a, b].

[a, b] n k -
L(b a). y = L
b
[a, b] a Ldx = L(b a).

f [a, b], -
({xk }m ), a = x0 < . . . < (xk1 )m < (xk )m < . . . < xnm =
= b, m = 1, 2, . . . , m 0,
m
(k )m [(xk1 )m , (xk )m ] m =

n m b
= f ((k )m )(xk )m m + a f (x)dx, . .
k=1


nm b
lim f ((k )m )(xk )m = f (x)dx. (6.2)
m+
k=1 a

. > 0 () -
(6.1).
m 0, (k )m
m+
[(xk1 )m , (xk )m ] m =

n m
= f ((k )m )(xk )m . > 0, m  m  .
k=1
(6.1)
  b 
 
m  m f (x)dx  ,
a
(6.2). 

f [a, b], f .
. , f [a, b]. -
{xk } [a, b]. [xi1 , xi ]
108 6.

f . 1 , . . . , i1 , i+1 , . . . , n ,
i . i
. (6.1)
I. 
M -
I ,

## > 0, () > 0, {xk } : ({xk })  (), k |({xk }, k ) I|  M ,

b
M const, f [a, b] I = f (x)dx.
a


1, x ,
D(x) =
0, x , 0  x  1,

, [0, 1].
k = 1, = 0.

6.2.
({xk }, k )
({zr }, r ), a = z0 < z1 < . . . < zr1 <
< zr < . . . < zs = b r :

s
({zr }, r ) = f (r )zr , d({zr }) = max{zr }.
r
r=1

f [a, b] -
,

## {zr } : d({zr })  (), r |({xk }, k ) ({zr }, r )|  . (6.3)

.
| |  | I| + | I|.
. , f . -
. {xk }, {zr }.
6.3. 109

[xi1 , xi ] . r , r =
= 1, . . . , s; k , k = 1, . . . , i 1, i + 1, . . . , n, i .
i , , | |
, (6.3).
, |f (x)|  M const x [a, b]. -
n
||  |f (k )|xk  M (b a).
k=1
(m ) -
d({zr }m ) 0. -
m+
(m ) ml I.
l+
> 0. (6.3) () > 0. -
ml , |ml I| 
, (). (6.3)

## |({xk }, k ) I|  |({xk }, k ) ml | + |ml I|  + = 2.

-
f [a, b]. 

6.3.

{xk }, {zr } [a, b] kr -
[xk1 , xk ] [zr1 , zr ].


n 
s
kr = zr , kr = xk ,
k=1 r=1


n 
s 
s 
n
kr = kr = b a.
k=1 r=1 r=1 k=1

## ({xk }, k ) ({zr }, r ) ({xk }, k )

({zr }, r )


n 
s
({xk }, k ) ({zr }, r ) = (f (k ) f (r ))kr . (6.4)
k=1 r=1
110 6.

6.1
d {xk } {zr } [a, b],
({xk }, k ), ({zr }, r )
f (x).

({xk }, k ) ({zr }, r ) = (f (k ) f (r ))kr . (6.5)
k,r,|k r |+d

## . |k r | > +d, [xk1 , xk ] [zr1 , zr ]

, , kr = 0.
(6.4) , -
(6.5). 

f [a, b],
.
. f , . .
> 0, () > 0, x , x [a, b] : |x x |  () |f (x ) f (x )|  .
({xk }, k ), ({zr }, r ), -
, ()/2, 6.1

|({xk }, k ) ({zr }, r )|  |f (k ) f (r )|kr  (b a).
k,r,|k r |()

f
[a, b]. 

6.4.

.
a b a
f (x)dx := f (x)dx, f (x)dx := 0.
b a a

1. . f1 f2 [a, b]
, g = 1 f1 + 2 f2 , 1 , 2 R,

b b b
(1 f1 (x) + 2 f2 (x))dx = 1 f1 (x)dx + 2 f2 (x)dx. (6.6)
a a a
6.4. 111

. g


n 
n 
n
= (1 f1 (k )+2 f2 (k ))xk = 1 f1 (k )xk +2 f2 (k )xk . (6.7)
k=1 k=1 k=1

f1 , f2 [a, b],
> 0, () > 0, {xk } : ({xk })  (), k

n b 
 
 fi (k )xk fi (x)dx  , i = 1, 2.
k=1 a
(6.7)

 b b
  
 1 f 1 (x)dx + 2 f 2 (x)dx   |1 | + |2 |.
a a

- g
(6.6). 
1 ,

b 
m m 

b

fr (x)dx = fr (x)dx.
a r=1 r=1 a

2. . f g
[a, b]
f (x)  g(x) x [a, b]. (6.8)

b b
f (x)dx  g(x)dx. (6.9)
a a
.
m , m f, g, -
({xk }m ) [a, b] m 0
m+
(k )m .

b b
m f (x)dx, m g(x)dx m +.
a a
112 6.

(6.8) m  m .
m +, (6.9). 
3. . f [a, b].
, , [a, b]

  
f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx. (6.10)

.   . -
f
[, ], [, ], [, ]. -
[, ] , ,
m 0.
m+
[, ]
[, ] [, ]

## m,[,] = m,[,] + m,[,] .

m +, -
(6.10). 
4. . f [a, b],
c [a, b] ,

b
f (x)dx = f (c)(b a).
a

## . ) a < b, d = min f (x), D = max f (x).

x[a,b] x[a,b]

n m
m = f ((k )m )(xk )m -
k=1
m 0.
m+


nm 
nm 
nm
d (xk )m  f ((k )m )(xk )m  D (xk )m ,
k=1 k=1 k=1

m +
( ),

b
d(b a)  f (x)dx  D(b a). (6.11)
a
6.5. 113

1 b
= f (x)dx. (6.11) d   D. -
ba a

1 b
c [a, b] , f (c) = . f (x)dx = f (c).
ba a
) a > b,

b a
f (x)dx = f (x)dx = f (c)(a b) = f (c)(b a).
a b

) b = a, 0 = 0. 

6.5.
f [a, b] . x [a, b]

x
f (t)dt = F (x), (6.12)
a

.

-
,

x
d 
f (t)dt = f (x) x [a, b].
dx
a

.
(. 6.5),


x+x x
F (x) 1 1  
= (F (x + x) F (x)) = f (t)dt f (t)dt =
x x x
a a


x+x
1 f (c)
= f (t)dt = x f (x). 
x x x0
x
114 6.

6.1

[a, b] [a, b]
x
f (t)dt = F (x), x [a, b].
a

6.6.
1. .
b

F (x)  = F (b) F (a)
a

. (6.12) x = b,

b b b  b
  
f (t)dt = F (b) = F (b) F (a) = F (x)  , F (x)  = f (x)dx  .
a a a
a

,
b  b

f (t)dt = f (x)dx  (6.13)
a
a
(
). (6.13)
-
, .

6.2
/2 /2 1 1
 dx 
1. sin xdx = ( cos x)  = 1; 2. 2
dx = arctg x  = /4.
0 1+x 0
0 0

2. . f : [a, b] R
, : [, ] [a, b]
, () = a, () = b. :
b 
f (x)dx = f ((t)) (t)dt, (6.14)
a
6.6. 115

-
.
. F (x) f (x) [a, b].

b
f (x)dx = F (b) F (a). (6.15)
a

## (F ((t))) = f ((t)) (t),

 

f ((t)) (t)dt = F ((t))  = F (()) F (()) = F (b) F (a). (6.16)

## (6.15), (6.16) (6.14). 

b 
 
f (x)dx = x = (t), () = a, () = b = f ((t)) (t)dt.
a

6.3
1
 
1 x2 dx = x = sin t, dx = cos tdt, sin 0 = 0, sin /2 = 1 =
0

/2 /2
1 + cos 2t
= cos2 tdt = dt = /4.
2
0 0

3. . u(x), v(x) -
[a, b] .

b b b

u(x)v (x)dx = u(x)v(x)  v(x)u (x)dx.

(6.17)
a
a a

. -

b  b b b
  
u(x)v (x)dx = u(x)v (x)dx  = u(x)v(x)  v(x)u (x)dx. 

a a
a a
116 6.

(6.17)

b b
b
udv = uv a vdu.
a a

6.4

2 2 2
 dx  
ln xdx = u = ln x, dx = dv, du = , v = x = x ln x  dx = 2 ln 2 1.
x 1
1 1

6.1. f : [a, +) R.
A > a f (x) [a, A], -
A
, F (A) = 0 f (x)dx. lim F (A)
A+

 + f (x) [a, +)
a f (x)dx. , -
. (x) f (x) [a, +)
lim (x) = (+).
x+


+ A
f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx = lim (A) (a) = (x) |+
a .
A+ A+
a a

: [, +) |D, B| -
, |D, B| [a, b], f : |D, B| R , () = a,
lim (t) = b,
t+
b 
+

## f (x)dx = f ((t)) (t)dt. (6.18)

a

, A >

(A)
 A
f (x)dx = f ((t)) (t)dt. (6.19)
()

(6.19) A +, ,
lim (t) = b, (6.18).
t+
6.7. 117

6.5
/2
dx dt 2 2 + t2
= tg x = t, x = arctg t, dx = , 1 + cos x = =
1 + cos2 x 1 + t2 1 + t2
0


+
dt 1 t + 2
= = arctg  = .
2 + t2 2 2 0 4
0

6.7.
0xy .
M0 ,
B(M0 , ) > 0 M0 ,
. M1 , B(M1 , ) -
, . -
. ,
,
. 6.7. P =
= {(x, y) : a  x  b, c  y  d}, ,
P . P -
.P = (b a)(d c). ,

(. 6.2).
, .

. 6.2. . 6.3. -

P , P
, . . P P s = sup {.P } -
P
,
118 6.

s = inf

{.P } -
P
(. 6.3). s = s ,
, s = s = s .

, > 0,
, ,
|. . |  . . = sup{. } = inf{. }.
. . > 0. -
P , P , .P
.P  /2, .P .P  /2. .P .P  .
. , ,
. .
s s = q > 0. (6.20)
-
P , P , P , P , .
.  q/4, .P .  q/4, . .P  q/4. |.P
.P | < q, (6.20). 
f : [a, b] R .
T 0xy, y = f (x),
Ox, x = a, x = b,
(. 6.4).
{xk } [a, b]. -
k k f
[xk1 , xk ].

n 
n

= f (k )xk , = f (k )xk
k=1 k=1
, -
, . , -
, . m , m
m 0.

(. 6.3) (. 6.1) -
b
m , m m 0 a f (x)dx.
, T
b
.T = f (x)dx.
a
6.7. 119

6.6. T, :
x2 y 2
+ 2 = 1,
a2 b
a  /2
x2
.T = 4b 1 2 dx = [x = a sin t] = 4ab cos2 tdt = ab.
a
0 0
, R, -
, R2 /2.

(. 6.4): f -
[a, b], [a, b] c
, , f, -
f (c).

0xy P, . . -
, ,
r = r(), [, ], r() -
, = , = , , [0, 2] ( ,
-
, ,
,
0x )(. 6.5).

. 6.4. . 6.5.

{k } [, ] n r(k ) =
n
1 2
= max r(), r(k ) = min r(). = 2 r (k )k
[k1 ,k ] [k1 ,k ] k=1
n
1 2
= 2 r (k )k ,
k=1
n , , -
. , -
, , [, ] 1/2r2 (). -
120 6.

m , m m 0.
m+
 2
1/2 r ()d. -
P

1 2
.P = r ()d.
2

6.8.
x(t), y(t) , [a, b].
M (t) (x(t), y(t)), t [a, b], -
0xy

x = x(t),
t [a, b],
y = y(t),
( , -
, ,
, ).
M0 ,
t1 , t2 [a, b], t1
= t2 , ,
(a, b) M (t1 ) = M (t2 ) = M0 . ,
. x(a) = x(b), y(a) = y(b),
.
,
 
x = sin 3t cos t, x = t cos t,
t [0, ], t [0, 2], (6.21)
y = sin 3t sin t, y = t sin t,

,
. 6.6, 6.7.

. 6.6. , . 6.7.
(0,0)
6.8. 121


x = x(t),
l: t [a, b]. (6.22)
y = y(t),

[a, b] n tk . L = M0 M1 . . . Mn ,
, Mk1 = M (tk1 ) Mk = M (tk ),
k = 1, . . . , n, l M0 , M1 , . . . , Mn ,
, l. L


n
.L = (x(tk ) x(tk1 ))2 + (y(tk ) y(tk1 ))2 .
k=1

l , K -
, , , sup K
l.
x(t), y(t) [a, b]
x(t), y(t) ( -
, t)

## x2 (t) + y 2 (t) > 0 t (a, b),

. . x, y (a, b), -
.

6.2

(6.22) .
. L, -
l. n ,


n
.L = (x(tk ) x(tk1 ))2 + (y(tk ) y(tk1 ))2 =
k=1


n
= x2 (k ) + y 2 (k )tk , k , k [tk1 , tk ]. (6.23)
k=1

(. 2.13)

## M > 0, max |x(t)|  M, max |y(t)|  M.

t[a,b] t[a,b]
122 6.

(6.23)

.L  2M (b a),

,
, -
, 2M (b a).

l 2M (b a). 

(6.22)

b
.l = x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt. (6.24)
a

. 6.2 .
(Lm ) , l, -
{tk }m , 0  k  nm , [a, b] -
m , ,
.Lm .l. (6.25)
m+

, , m 0 ( , -
m+
{tk }m , , -
(Lm ), , -
(6.25), m 0) . (6.23)
m+


n m

## .Lm = x2 ((k )m ) + y 2 ((k )m )(tk )m =

k=1

nm
= x2 ((k )m ) + y 2 ((k )m )(tk )m + Am , (6.26)
k=1


nm
Am = ( x2 ((k )m ) + y 2 ((k )m ) x2 ((k )m ) + y 2 ((k )m ))(tk )m =
k=1


nm
= (y((k )m ) y((k ))m )(Bk )m ,
k=1
y((k )m ) + y((k )m )
(Bk )m = (tk )m .
x2 (( 2
k )m ) + y ((k )m ) + x2 ((k )m ) + y 2 ((k )m )
6.8. 123


n m
|(Bk )m |  b a, |y((k )m ) y((k ))m |  W (y, {tk }m ),
k=1
|Am |  (b a)W (y, {tk }m ),
W (y, {tk }m ) y(t),
{tk }m . (. 2.15)
|Am | 0. (6.27)
m+

x2 (t) + y 2 (t) [a, b], , -
[a, b]. -


nm b
x2 ((k )m ) + y 2 ((k )m )(tk )m x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt. (6.28)
m+
k=1 a
(6.26) m + (6.25),
(6.27), (6.28), (6.24). 
f
 y = f (x), x [a, b]
x = t,
t [a, b]. f (x)
y = f (t),
, , f

b
.f = 1 + (f  (x))2 dx.
a
0xy , -
r = r(), [, ], r()
.

x = r() cos ,
[, ].
y = r() sin ,
,
 
. = ((r() cos ) )2 + ((r() sin ) )2 d = r2 () + (r ())2 d.

## 6.7. (6.21). (6.24)

2
.l = 1 + t2 dt = [t = shx] = 2 1 + 42 + ln(2 + 1 + 42 ).
0
124 6.

6.9.
f (x), [a, b].
(f, {xk }) f, -
{xk } [a, b],

n
(f, {xk }) := k xk ,
k=1

## k = sup |f ()f ()| [xk1 , xk ].

,[xk1 ,xk ]

6.8. f (x) = x2 , -
[0, 1] n xk =
= k/n, k = 0, 1, . . . , n. ,
 k 2  k 1 2 2k 1
k = sup |2 2 | = = ,
,[ k1 , k ] n n n2
n n


n
1 
n
1
(x2 , {xk }) = k xk = 3
(2k 1) = 2 .
n n
k=1 k=1

f [a, b],

## > 0, () > 0, {xk } : ({xk })  () (f, {xk })  .

, f [a, b], -
> 0
.
. > 0.

() > 0, {xk } : ({xk })  (), k , k [xk1 , xk ]
n 
n 
 
 f (k )xk f (k )xk   . (6.29)
2
k=1 k=1
{xk } [a, b]
({xk })  (). [xk1 , xk ] k , k ,

k = sup |f () f ()|  f (k ) f (k ) + . (6.30)
,[xk1 ,xk ] 2(b a)
6.9. 125

(6.29), (6.30),


n
(f, {xk }) = sup |f () f ()|xk 
k=1 ,[xk1 ,xk ]


n
  
n

 f (k ) f (k ) + xk = + f (k ) f (k ) xk  . 
2(b a) 2
k=1 k=1

## f : [a, b] R, |f (x)|  A x [a, b].

{zr }, r = 0, 1, . . . , s, [a, b] s .

s
r , (f, {zr }) = f (r )zr f [zr1 , zr ],
r=1
, -
.

6.3


n
= f (k )xk
k=1
| |  (f, {zr }) + 2As.
. kr
[xk1 , xk ], [zr1 , zr ]. (. 6.3)


n 
s
= (f (k ) f (r ))kr .
k=1 r=1

1 2 . 1 -
k, r , [xk1 , xk ] [zr1 , zr ], 2
. 1 -
k , r [zr1 , zr ] |f (k ) f (r )|  r , ,


n 
s 
s
|1 |  r kr = r zr = (f, {zr }). (6.31)
k=1 r=1 r=1

2 , [xk1 , xk ] [zr1 , zr ]
, kr = 0, , ,
(xk1 , xk ) zr .

s
s. |f (k ) f (r )|  |f (k )| + |f (r )|  2A, kr = xk  ,
r=1

|2 |  s2A. (6.32)
126 6.

(6.31), (6.32)
| |  |1 | + |2 |  (f, {zr }) + 2As. 

> 0 {zr } [a, b], -
(f, {zr }) M , M
, , f [a, b].
. , f [a, b].
, {zr } [a, b]
r , , (f, {zr })
, .
s
> 0. = f (r )zr -
r=1
, {zr }. () = /s. -
6.3  ,  , -
, (),
|  |  | | + | |  2((f, {zr }) + 2As())  (2M + 4A).
, f -
[a, b]. 
6.2. -
:
,
, , -
.
- ,
-

.
6.3. -
f [a, c], [c, b], f [a, b].
, f [a, c] [c, b], -
[a, b]. -
, ,
-

b c b
f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx, a < c < b.
a a c
6.10. , 127

6.10. ,
f, [a, b],
[a, b] :
1) f [a, b] (. -
).
2) f [a, b]. , , ,
f {xk }

## k = f (xk ) f (xk1 ), (f, {xk })  (f (b) f (a)).

, (f, {xk })
.
3) f [a, b] , . . |f (x)|  A x [a, b], -
[, ], a < < < b.
,
> 0, {xk } [a + , b ] ,
(f, {xk }) . -
, [a, b],
[a+, b] a, b,

##  (f, {xk }) + 2A  (1 + 2A),

, ,
f [a, b].
6.4. g , -
[a, b] .
, f : [a, b] R, g
b
(a, b), [a, b] a f (x)dx =
b
= a g(x)dx.
[a, b] f, a b,

.
4) f - [a, b].
2).
5) f .
3).
6) f . -
,

## f (x) = g(x)h(x), |g(x)|  A, |h(x)|  B, a  x  b.

128 6.


|f (x ) f (x )|  |g(x )||h(x ) h(x )| + |h(x )||g(x ) g(x )|

## A|h(x ) h(x )| + B|g(x ) g(x )|.

g h [a, b]
1 2 , f
 A2 + B1 ,
f [a, b].

6.9.

sin(1/x), x
= 0,
y=
0, x = 0

x = 0 (. . 2.18),
[0, 1], [0, 1]
[, ], 0 < < < 1, [, ] .
7

7.1. R2
R2 (x, y) . R2

. R2
0xy -
. R2 . -
A1 = (x1 , y1 ) A2 = (x2 , y2 )
R2
(A1 , A2 ) = (x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2 .
A1 A2 -
R2 , -
A1 , A2 .
B(A0 , ) = {A R2 : (A, A0 ) < }, > 0,
A0 -
A0 ( ). D R2 ,
, . . A D
- , D.
DC D R2 ,
D. D , . L -
D, -
D DC .
D D. D D
D D, , B(A0 , ) B(A0 , )
C(A0 , ) = {A R2 : (A, A0 ) = }. D
, D = D (). A
D, -
D, A. A D,
130 7.

- , D,
A. D , A1 , A2 D
, D, . .
x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b], , (x(a), y(a)) = A1 , (x(b), y(b)) = A2
(x(t), y(t)), t [a, b], D.
, .
D , ,
. . r > 0, A D (A, O)r, O = (0, 0). H H = DD,
D ,
.
.
() n
An R2 , An = (xn , yn ), , R2

## A1 = (x1 , y1 ), A2 = (x2 , y2 ), . . . , An = (xn , yn ), . . . .

(An ) ,
B = (a, b) ,
> 0, () > 0, n N : n  () (An , B) 

( (xn a)2 + (yn b)2  ).
B lim An = B
n
An B. lim An = B ,
n n
- B , , -
, -.
A D ,
(An ) D,
A ().

D , -
, D, ,
.
. An =
= (xn , yn ) D. {An } , , -
(xn ), (yn ), , -
,
xnk a, ynkm b. ,
k m

## Ankm A = (a, b). (7.1)

m
7.2. 131

, A D. A DC . DC -
. - A, DC ,
(An ),
(7.1). , A D. 

7.2.
D R2 . f : D R
(2) z = f (x, y)
z = f (X). 0xyz , -
x, y, z ,
i, j, k , .
z = f (x, y)
0xyz (x, y, f (x, y)), (x, y) D, . .

## f = {(x, y, z) : z = f (x, y), (x, y) D}.

z = ax + by + c, a, b, c R.
(. 7.1), n = ai+bjk
(0, 0, c).
z = a2 x2 + b2 y 2 , a, b R, a
= 0, b
= 0,
(. 7.2).

. 7.1. . 7.2.

z = a2 x2 , a R, a
= 0, -
(. 7.3). z = 1 x2 y 2
(. 7.4).
132 7.

. 7.3. . 7.4.

z = f (X),
- E X0 , . . - X0
X0 .
p f X X0 ,

## lim f (X) = p f (X) p.

XX0 XX0

2
f (X) p Xn E, Xn
= X0 , Xn X0 f (Xn ) p.
XX0 n n

. 
-
.
1) .
2) f (X) p, g(X) q,
XX0 XX0
) f (X) + g(X) p + q;
XX0
) f (X)g(X) pq;
XX0
f (X) p
) , q
= 0.
g(X) XX0 q
3) f (X)  g(X) X0 ,
f (X) p, g(X) q, p  q.
XX0 XX0
4) h(X)  f (X)  g(X)
X0 , h(X) q, g(X) q, f (X) q.
XX0 XX0 XX0
5) f (X), . . ,
f (X) 0,
XX0
7.2. 133

X0 g(X) , . .
f (X)g(X) 0.
XX0
X0 , D.
> 0, () > 0, X D : 0 < (X, X0 )  () |f (X) p|  ,
p f (X) X X0
D lim f (X) = p. ,
XX0 ,XD
lim f (x0 , y), lim f (x, y0 ) z = f (x, y)
yy0 xx0
(x0 , y0 ) x = x0 y = y0 .
, , ,
f (X) + f (X) +,
XX0

## > 0, () > 0, X E : 0 < (X, X0 )  () f (X)  .

: lim f (x, y) =
(x,y)(,)
= p
> 0, () > 0, (x, y) E : |x|  (), |y|  () |f (X) p|  ;
lim f (x, y) =
(x,y)(+,b)

## > 0, 1 () > 0, 2 () > 0, (x, y) E : x  1 (), |y b|  2 () |f (X)|  .

7.1. ,
x+y
lim = 0.
(x,y)(,) x2 + y 2
> 0
 x+y 
  2 2 2
 2 2    |x|  .
x +y |x| + |y| |x|
 x+y 
 
, |x|  () := 2/, |y|  (),  2   .
x + y2
7.2.

xy x2
lim .
(x,y)(+,+) x2 + y 2
 xy x2  1 x2
x2 + y 2  2xy , 0 <  .
x2 + y 2 2
 xy x2
lim = 0.
(x,y)(+,+) x2 + y 2
134 7.

7.3.
z = f (x, y) = f (X),
- E X0 = (x0 , y0 ). f
X0 , X X0 -
X0 , . .

XX0

- -
:

## > 0, () > 0, X E : (X, X0 )  () |f (X) f (X0 )|  .

f X0 , -
z = f (X0 + X) f (X0 ) X,
(0, 0).
X0 , -
D.
lim f (X) = f (X0 ),
XX0 ,XD

f X0 D.
(x0 , y0 ) -
,
x y, . . f (x, y0 ),
f (x0 , y) . f (x0 , y0 ) -
, x, y. ,
, ( 7.3).
X0 D, f : D R
X0 D .
f : D R D,
.
x = (u, v), y = (u, v), -
E. ((u, v), (u, v)) D (u, v) E, D ,
z = f (x, y).
g(u, v) = f ((u, v), (u, v)), (u, v) E.

(u0 , v0 ) E,
f (x0 , y0 ), x0 = (u0 , v0 ), y0 = (u0 , v0 ), -
D, g(u, v) = f ((u, v), (u, v))
(u0 , v0 ) E.
7.3. 135

. f (x, y)
(x0 , y0 ) D,

## |f (x, y) f (x0 , y0 )|  . (7.2)

x(u, v), y(u, v) (u0 , v0 )
E
 ()   () 
> 0, (u, v) E : ((u, v), (u0 , v0 )) 
2 2
() ()
|x(u, v) x(u0 , v0 )|  , |y(u, v) y(u0 , v0 )|  . (7.3)
2 2
(7.2)(7.3)

## |f (x(u, v), y(u, v)) f (x0 , y0 )|  ,

g(u, v) (u0 , v0 ) -
E. 

1. f (X) X0 f (X0 )
= 0, -
X0 , f (X) ,
f (X0 ) ( )().
2. f (X) X0 , X0 ,
f (X) ( )().
3. D f (X) -
p q, c
( ).
. f (X1 ) = p, f (X2 ) = q, p < c < q,

## x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b],

, D X1 X2 . -
f (x(t), y(t)) [a, b] f (x(a), y(a)) = p, f (x(b), y(b)) = q.

f (x(t), y(t)) c t0 . f (X) -
c X0 = (x(t0 ), y(t0 )). 
4. f (X) D,
( ).
136 7.

. sup f (X) = M . -
XD
n M. n Xn D, f (Xn )  n .
n
(Xn ) -
Xnk X0 D.
nk
f (Xnk )  nk , f (X),
f (X0 )  M. , M R f (X0 ) = M. 
. ().
5. f : D R D,

## > 0, () > 0, X2 , X2 D : (X1 , X2 )  () |f (X1 ) f (X2 )|  .

(
)().
6. f (X) g(X) X0 ,
) f (X) + g(X), , R,
) f (X)g(X),
f (X)
) ( g(X0 )
= 0),
g(X)
X0 ().

7.3.
 xy
, x2 + y 2
= 0,
f (x, y) = x2 + y 2
0, x = y = 0.

## xy, x2 + y 2 (x, y) R2 , f (x, y)

(x, y) R2 , (0, 0), -
, . f (x, 0) =
= 0, f (0, y) = 0, f (x, y) x y
(0, 0), (0, 0) . -
, f (1/n, 1/n) = 1/2 1/2; f (1/n, 1/n) = 1/2 1/2.
, lim f (x, y) .
(x,y)(0,0)

7.4.
z = f (x, y) = f (X),
- X0 = (x0 , y0 ).

f = f (x0 + x, y0 + y) f (x0 , y0 ),

x = x x0 , y = y y0 .
7.4. 137

f X0 , -
A B , f

f = Ax + By + o( (x)2 + (y)2 ), (7.4)

o( (x)2 + (y)2 ),
(x, y),

(x, y)
lim = 0.
(x,y)(0,0) (x)2 + (y)2

Ax+By -
df = Ax + By. x = dx, y = dy,

df = Adx + Bdy.

## (7.4) , f 0 (x, y) (0, 0),

(x0 , y0 )
.
f (x, y) y,
(x) = f (x, y)
f
f x. fx .
x
fy . , f (x, y) = x3 y 2 + sin xy, fx = 3x2 y 2 +
+ y cos xy, fy = 2x3 y + x cos xy.
x f = f (x0 + x, y0 ) f (x0 , y0 ), y f =
= f (x0 , y0 + y) f (x0 , y0 ). , f
(x0 , y0 ). (7.4) y = 0, x f = Ax + o(x),
x f o(x)
= A+ , x 0, fx (x0 , y0 ) = A. , x = 0,
x x
y f = By +o(y), fy (x0 , y0 ) = B. ,
df

## df = fx dx + fy dy. (7.5)

-
f , -

( 7.3).
z = z0 + A(x x0 ) + B(y y0 )
z = f (x, y) (x0 , y0 ),

f (x, y)z0 A(xx0 )B(yy0 ) = o( (x)2 + (y)2 ), x = xx0 , y = yy0 .
138 7.

,
f , -

## z = z0 + fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ).

f
(x0 , y0 ) , -
(x0 , y0 ) (x0 +x, y0 +y)
(. 7.5). fx (x0 , y0 ) , -
z = f (x, y), y = y0 , 0x.

. 7.5.

f (x, y) (x0 , y0 ), x = x(u, v), y =
= y(u, v) (u0 , v0 ) x(u0 , v0 ) = x0 , y(u0 , v0 ) = y0 ,
g(u, v) = f (x(u, v), y(u, v)) (u0 , v0 )
, -
:

gu (u0 , v0 ) = fx (x0 , y0 )xu (u0 , v0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )yu (u0 , v0 ),

gv (u0 , v0 ) = fx (x0 , y0 )xv (u0 , v0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )yv (u0 , v0 ). (7.6)

7.4. 139

## u y = y(u0 + u, v0 ) y(u0 , v0 ) = yu u + o(u),

f = fx x + fy y + o( (x)2 + (y)2 ).
u g

u g = g(u0 + u, v0 ) g(u0 , v0 ) =

## = f (x(u0 + u, v0 ), y(u0 + u, v0 )) f (x(u0 , v0 ), y(u0 , v0 )) =

= fx (x0 , y0 )(x(u0 + u, v0 ) x(u0 , v0 )) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y(u0 + u, v0 ) y(u0 , v0 ))+

+o( (u x)2 + (u y)2 ) =

= fx (xu u + o(u)) + fy (yu u + o(u)) + o( (u x)2 + (u y)2 ) =
= (fx xu + fy yu )u + , (7.7)

= o( (u x)2 + (u y)2 )+o(u). , o( (u x)2 + (u y)2 ) =
= o(u). ,

o( (u x)2 + (u y)2 )
lim =
u0 u

o( (u x)2 + (u y)2 )  u x 2  u y) 2
= lim + = 0. (7.8)
u0 ( (u x)2 + (u y)2 ) u u
(7.7), (7.8) (7.6). -
. 
(7.6)

gu = fx xu + fy yu , gv = fx xv + fy yv .

2
f (x, y), =
= {(x, y) : a < x < b, c < y < d}
fx , fy (x, y) . (x0 , y0 ), (x0 +
+ x, y0 + y) , .

## f (x0 + x, y0 + y) f (x0 , y0 ) = f (x0 + x, y0 ) f ((x0 , y0 ))+

+f (x0 + x, y0 + y) f (x0 + x, y0 ) =
= fx (x0 + 1 x, y0 )x + fy (x0 + x, y0 + 2 y)y, 0 < 1 , 2 < 1. (7.9)
(7.9)
2.
140 7.

fx , fy
D, f .
. (x0 , y0 ) D -
- , D. 1 = {(x, y) : x0
a < x < x0 + a, y0 a < y < y0 + a} ,
-. (7.9), f = f (x0 +
+ x, y0 + y) f (x0 , y0 ) x, y , |x| < a, |y| < a,

## = fx (x0 , y0 )x + fy (x0 , y0 )y + ,

  x
= fx (x0 + 1 x, y0 ) fx (x0 , y0 ) +
(x)2 + (y)2
  y 
+ fy (x0 + x, y0 + 2 y) fy (x0 , y0 ) (x)2 + (y)2 .
2
(x) + (y) 2

fx , fy

lim
(x)2 +(y)2 0 (x)2 + (y)2

0, . . = o( (x)2 + (y)2 ). , f = fx (x0 , y0 )x +

+ fy (x0 , y0 )y + o( (x)2 + (y)2 ). 
f : D R,
D R2 . f
D, D.
,
D
D.
f : D R,
D. f, D1 D,
f c D D1 , f (X) = f(X) X D. f -
D,
f f D
D1 D.
z = f (x, y), (x, y) D, D
. dz :
1) x, y ,
7.4. 141

## 2) x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v), x(u, v), y(u, v) -

E , (u, v) E
(x(u, v), y(u, v)) D.

dz = fx dx + fy dy, (7.10)
-
,
f (x(u, v), y(u, v)) E

dz = (fx xu + fy yu )du + (fv vv + fy yv )dv =

= fx (xu du + xv dv) + fy (yu du + yv dv) = fx dx + fy dy. (7.11)
(7.10), (7.11), ,
:
, x, y -
, , x, y . -

.
,
. f (x, y), g(x, y) -
D , f + g; f g; f /g, g(x, y)
= 0,
D
) d(f + g) = df + dg;
) d(f g) = gdf + f dg;
gdf f dg
) d(f /g) = , g(x, y)
= 0.
g2
, , ).
, f (x, y)g(x, y) , -
D d(f g) = (f g)x dx+(f g)y dy = (fx g+f gx )dx+
+ (fy g + f gy )dy = gdf + f dg.
.
f, X0 = (x0 , y0 ).

## l : x = t cos , y = t sin , 0  t < +,

, (0, 0) 0x,
d = i cos + j sin , l. -
f l ( , )
X0

## l f = f (x0 + t cos , y0 + t sin ) f (x0 , y0 ).

142 7.

l f
lim
t0 t
f l
f 
X0 . l f
l X0
t f (x0 + t cos , y0 + t sin ) t = 0,
f (x0 + t cos , y0 +
+ t sin ) t = 0.
f  

 = (f (x0 + t cos , y0 + t sin ))t  =
l X0 t=0

f  f 
=  cos +  sin . (7.12)
x X0 y X0

f f
i+ j
x y
(7.12) ,
f
= (grad f, d) = |grad f | cos ,
l
, grad f d, (grad f, d)
. , -
f /l , grad f d
, , -
f 
, 0, .
l X0
l (x0 , y0 ),
.

7.4.

f (x, y) = 3 x3 + y 3 .

f :
f (x, 0) f (0, 0) x
fx (0, 0) = lim = lim = 1,
x0 x x0 x

f (0, y) f (0, 0) y
fy (0, 0) = lim = lim = 1,
y0 y y0 y
7.5. 143
2
x , (x, y)
= (0, 0),
fx (x, y) = 3
(x3 + y 3 )2

1, (x, y) = (0, 0),
2
y , (x, y)
= (0, 0),

fy (x, y) = 3
(x3 + y 3 )2

1, (x, y) = (0, 0).
R2 \ (0, 0), -
,
R2 \ (0, 0).
(0, 0), -
f (0, 0) f (0, 0) = (x) + (y)3 = x + y +
3 3

## + (x, y), (x, y) = (x)3 + (y)3 x y.

3

3
(1/n, 1/n) 22
lim = ,
n 2
(1/n) + (1/n) 2 2

(x, y)
lim
= 0, , f (0, 0) -
(x,y)(0,0) x2 + y 2
(7.4), f
(0, 0).

7.5.

, z = f (x, y)
D fx (x, y), fy (x, y). -
, -
,
f :

 f  2 f   f  2f 
= = f 2 ; = = fxy ;
x x x2 x
y x yx

 f  2f   f  2 f
= = fyx ; = = fy2 .
x y xy y y y 2

:

 2f  3f   2f  3f 
2
= 3
= f x 3 ; 2
= 2
= fx2 y ;
x x x y x yx
144 7.

 2f  3f 
= = fxyx , . . .
x yx xyx
 , f  , f  
. fxy yx xy 2 , fx2 y , . . . -
.

7.5

## z = sin(x2 + y 3 ); zx = 2x cos(x2 + y 3 ), zy = 3y 2 cos(x2 + y 3 ),


zxy = 6xy 2 sin(x2 + y 3 ), zyx

= 6xy 2 sin(x2 + y 3 ), zxy
 
= zyx .

,
.

, .
. fxy  , f 
yx
   
(x0 , y0 ) , fx , fy , fxy , fyx
(x0 , y0 ).

= 0,

= 0,

(. 3.5),

## = y (y0 + 2 y)y = (fy (x0 + x, y0 + 2 y) fy (x0 , y0 + 2 y))y.

,

= fxy (x0 + 1 x, y0 + 3 y)xy,

= fyx (x0 + 4 x, y0 + 2 y)xy.
7.5. 145

xy
 
fxy (x0 + 1 x, y0 + 3 y) = fyx (x0 + 4 x, y0 + 2 y).

x 0, y 0, ,
fxy  , f  ,
yx
 , f  (x , y ). 
fxy yx 0 0
z = f (x, y) m -
D, -
m D.
, m -
, -
 
x y, . , , fxyx = fx2 y .
g = fx . gxy  =
 
= gyx . g fx ,
(fx )yx = (fx )xy . m -
, k x (m k) -
y,
mf
.
xk y (mk)

## z = f (x, y) df = fx (x, y)x+fy (x, y)y

x, y, x, y. , x, y -
, df x y. df -
, x, y ,
d2 f, ,
x, y ,
. , f
D,

## d2 f = d(fx x + fy y) = fx2 (x)2 + fxy

 
xy + fyx xy + fy2 (y)2 =
 
= x = dx, y = dy = fx2 dx2 + 2fxy

dxdy + fy2 dy 2 . (7.13)
f m -
D,

m
mf
dm f := d(dm1 f ), dm f = k
Cm dxk dy mk . (7.14)
xk y mk
k=0

(7.14) c -
(. 3.4).
146 7.

d := dx +
y dy
x
 m  k
m
m
dm := dx + dy = Cm k mk dxk dy mk .
x y x y
k=0
 m
(7.14) dm f = x
dx + y dy f.
,
, . ,
z = f (x(u, v), y(u, v)), dz = fx dx + fy dy,

## d2 z = dxd(fx ) + fx d2 x + dyd(fy ) + fy d2 y =

= dx(fx2 dx + fxy
 
dy) + dy(fyx dx + fy2 dy) + fx d2 x + fy d2 y =
= fx2 dx2 + 2fxy

dxdy + fy2 dy 2 + fx d2 x + fy d2 y, (7.15)
dx = xu du + xv dv,
dy = yu du + yv dv.
(7.13) (7.15)
fx d2 x + fy d2 y.


, , x, y
u, v, dm f , x, y
x = au + bv + p, dx = adu + bdv, d2 x = 0,
y = cu + lv + q, dy = cdu + ldv, d2 y = 0,
 m
d2 z = fx2 dx2 + 2fxy

dxdy + fy2 dy 2 , . . . , dm z = dx + dy f.
x y

7.6.

, 2 f m+1 -
E, X0 = (x0 , y0 ).
X = (x, y) , , X0 , X0 + X, -
E.
g(t) = f (x0 + tx, y0 + ty),
m+1
(, 1 + ), > 0. g(t) -

(. 3.8)
dg(0) dm g(0) dm+1 g(t)
g(t) g(0) = + ... + + , (7.16)
1! m! (m + 1)!
7.6. 147

## t (, 1 + ), 0 < < 1. x = x0 + tx, y =

= y0 + ty t t ,
dt = t, dx = xdt, dy = ydt
 k  k
dk g = dx + dy f = (t)k x + y f. (7.17)
x y x y

(7.16) t = 1 (7.17),

df (X0 ) dm f (X0 )
f (X0 + X) f (X0 ) = + ... + +
1! m!
dm+1 f (X0 + X)
+ . (7.18)
(m + 1)!
(7.18) 2
. (7.18) x x x0 ,
y y y0 ,
1 
f (x, y) = f (x0 , y0 ) + (x x0 ) + (y y0 ) f (x0 , y0 ) + . . . +
1! x y
1  m
+ (x x0 ) + (y y0 ) f (x0 , y0 )+
m! x y
1  (m+1)
+ (x x0 ) + (y y0 ) f (x0 + x, y0 + y).
(m + 1)! x y
, k!l!Ck+l
k = (k + l)!,

 1 1 k+l f (x0 , y0 )
f (x, y) = (x x0 )k (y y0 )l + Rm (x, y).
k! l! xk y l
0k+lm

7.6

f (x, y) = x2 + xy + y 3 , x0 = 1, y0 = 1,

## df = (2x + y)dx + (x + 3y 2 )dy, d2 f = 2dx2 + 2dxdy + 6ydy 2 ,

d3 f = 6dy 3 , d4 f = 0, f (x, y) = 3 + 3(x 1) + 4(y 1) + (x 1)2 +
+(x 1)(y 1) + 3(y 1)2 + (y 1)3 .
148 7.

7.7.

F (x, y) = 0. (7.19)
(x, y), (7.19),
. . = {(x, y) : F (x, y) = 0}. , , ,
F (x, y) = x2 + y 2 + 1 = 0. , -
0x, , x2 + y 2 2 = 0, (1, 1), (1, 1).
( ) : -
= [a, b] [c, d] , 0x
[a, b] -
, 0x. -
[a, b] y = (x), x [a, b]
y [c, d] , F (x, y) = 0. -
, F (x, (x)) = 0 x [a, b].
, (7.19) . ,
3 5 3 5
x2 + y 2 2 = 0, = (x, y) :  x  ,  y  . (7.20)
4 4 4 4
,
(7.20) , -
2
y = 2 x , 3/4  x  5/4 (. 7.6).

. 7.6

## , , 1 ={(x, y) : 3/4  x  5/4,

5/4  y  3/4}, y = 2 x2 , 3/4  x  5/4.
7.7. 149

## 2 = {(x, y) : 2  x  1, 1/2  y  1/2}

y = (x) ,

x = (y), x= 1 y 2 , 1/2  y  1/2.

F (x, y) :
1) F (x0 , y0 ) = 0;
2) (x0 , y0 );
3) Fy (x0 , y0 )
= 0.

F (x, y) = 0
y = (x),

## Fx (x, (x))

 (x) = x [x0 a, x0 + a].
Fy (x, (x))

## Fy (x0 , y0 ) > 0

.
. .
B(X0 , ) X0 , F -
.
Fy (x, y) > 0 X = (x, y)
B(X0 , 1 ), 0 < 1  , (x0 , y0 ). a b ,
= {(x, y) : x0 a  x  x0 + a, y0 b  y  y0 + b}
B(X0 , 1 ). ,
y F (x0 , y) [y0 b, y0 + b] (. 7.7).
(x0 , y0 b) (x0 , y0 + b)

150 7.

. 7.7

a ( ) ,

## F (x, y0 b) < 0 < F (x, y0 + b) x [x0 a, x0 + a].

,
x [x0 a, x0 + a] y [y0 b, y0 + b] , F (x, y) = 0.
y F (x, y) , y
[y0 b, y0 + b]. ,
y = (x) ((x) = y),

,
(7.19) .
.
.
. (. 7.3)
(x
, y) ,

, y) > 0. (7.21)
(x,y)

(. 7.3)

a, x0 + a], x
= 0. y = (x) ,
7.7. 151

(. 7.4),

## = Fx (x + 1 x, (x))x + Fy (x + x, (x) + 2 )), (7.23)

0 < 1 < 1, 0 < 2 < 1, = (x + x) (x).

F  (x + 1 x, (x))
=  x . (7.24)
x Fy (x + x, (x) + 2 )

(7.21)(7.23) ,

M
||  |x|,
Fy (x
, y)

, 0 x 0, . . y = (x)
x [x0 a, x0 + a].
x 0 (7.24)
Fx , Fy ,

## Fx (x, (x))

 (x) = x [x0 a, x0 + a]. (7.25)
Fy (x, (x))

 (x) (7.25)
. 
.
.
y = (x) ,

## F (x, (x)) = 0 x [x0 a, x0 + a].

x,

Fx (x, (x)) + Fy (x, (x)) (x) = 0 x [x0 a, x0 + a]. (7.26)

, F -
(x0 , y0 ).
, -
, y = (x)
x0 . (7.26) x,

Fx2 + 2Fxy

 + Fy2 ( )2 + Fy  0. (7.27)
152 7.

Fx
, ,  = ,
Fy

1
 = (F 2 (F  )2 2Fxy

Fx Fy + Fy2 (Fx )2 ).
(Fy )3 x y

-
(7.27).

7.7. y + ey1 x 2 = 0 -
(x0 , y0 ) =
= (0, 1). -
y = (x),
x0 = 0.
, -
(x) + e(x)1 x 2 0
  
(1 + e(x)1 ) (x) 1 0, (1 + e(x)1 ) (x) + e(x)1 ( (x))2 0

 1  e(x)1
(x) = , (x) = .
1 + e(x)1 (1 + e(x)1 )3
8

8.1.
D.
diamD = sup (X1 , X2 ).
X1 D,X2 D

, . . ,
, diamD < (). , D
, > 0
P , D , , . P  .

8.1

l .
. . l = A. l
M1 , . . . , Mn n 1 ,  A/n. n
Mi , i = 1, . . . , n, ,
2A/n.
4A2 4A2
P, l, . P  n 2  , n  .
n

x = x(t),
l: t [a, b],
y = y(t),
- , a = 0 < 1 <
< . . . < m = b [a, b] [k1 , k ] ,
x(t), y(t) [k1 , k ] (
)
(x(t))2 + (y(t))2
= 0, t (k1 , k ), k = 1, . . . , m.
154 8.

8.1

- .
, -
().
-
(). ,
- , .
.
{Dk } = {D1 , . . . , Dn }
D, Dk D -
{Dk } . {Dk }
n
D, . D = . Dk . ({Dk }) = max {diamDk }
k=1 1k n
.
, f : D R. {Dk }
D n Xk = (xk , yk )
Dk .

n
= f (Xk ).Dk .
k=1

I ,

## > 0, () > 0, {Dk } : ({Dk })  (), Xk Dk | I|  ,

f D,
I f D (2)

f (x, y)dxdy.
D

f D,
({Dk }m ), k = 1, . . . , nm , m = 1, 2, . . . , m 0,
m+
(Xk )m (Dk )m


nm 
lim f ((Xk )m ).(Dk )m = f (x, y)dxdy.
m+
k=1 D
8.2. 155

f D, f D.
,
, ,
.

f D ,

## > 0, () > 0, {Dk } : ({Dk })  (), Xk Dk ,

{Er }r=s
r=1 : ({Er })  (), Yr Er | |  ,

s
= f (Yr ).Er .
r=1

8.2.

0xyz .

= {(x, y, z) : a  x  b, c  y  d, e  z  k},

,
. (b
a)(d c)(k e).
, -
.
-
, . T . -
, , T , -
T.

V = sup {. } = inf

{. } = V ,
T T

T , V = V = V
.
156 8.

T , > 0
T , T , .T .T  ().
, D -
, H, . T = .D H ().
D
f T, . . ,
z = f (x, y),
0xy, , -
D, , 0z (. 8.1).

. 8.1.

D Dk , k = 1, . . . , n. X k
X k , f
Dk . Z, Dk
f (X k ), T,

n
.Z = f (X k ).Dk = .
k=1

Z, Dk -
f (X k ), T

n
.Z = f (X k ).Dk = .
k=1

m , m
m 0 , , .
8.2. 157

 , m , m
D f (x, y)dxdy. , T -

.T = f (x, y)dxdy.
D

1. . f1 , f2 D ,
, R, 
(f1 (x, y) + f2 (x, y))dxdy =
D
 
= f1 (x, y)dxdy + f2 (x, y)dxdy
D D
().
2. . f g D
f (x, y)  g(x, y) (x, y) D,
 
f (x, y)dxdy  g(x, y)dxdy
D D

().
3. . f (x, y)
D, (, ) D ,

f (x, y)dxdy = f (, ).D. (8.1)
D

## . m = min f (x, y), M = max f (x, y).

(x,y)D (x,y)D
  
m .D = mdxdy  f (x, y)dxdy  M dxdy = M .D.
D D D

. D = 0, Df (x, y)dxdy = 0, . D > 0

1
= f (x, y)dxdy, (8.2)
.D
D

m   M. f D
(, ) D, f (, ) = . (8.2)
(8.1). 
158 8.

8.3.
{X : (X, )  q} = {X : Y , (X, Y )  q}
q- .

8.2

p
= 0. q > 0 ,
q- 2p.
. l , m -
. q -

p + lq + q 2 m. (8.3)

q (8.3) 2p. 

I) f D, > 0,
() > 0 , {Dk } D
({Dk })  (),


n
(f, {Dk }) = k .Dk
k=1

## , k = sup |f (X1 ) f (X2 )| f Dk .

X1 ,X2 Dk
II) > 0, {Dk } D,

## (f, {Dk })  , (8.4)

f D.
, -
, f.
. (8.4) -
f, . . |f (x)|  A const X D, f
D 2A. > 0 {Dk },
(8.4). Dk -

p = .  . (8.5)

8.2 q ,
q- 2p.
8.3. 159

 ,  ,
{Dr }, r = 1, . . . , s, {D }, = 1, . . . , t, D
, q/2. c


s 
t 
  = f (Xr ).Dr f (X ).D = (f (Xr ) f (X ))r, ,
r=1 =1 r,
 
r, = .(Dr D ). 1+ 2 ,
 
1
 r , Dr D Dk
k, 2 .

|f (Xr ) f (X )|  k Xr , X Dk

,
  n
 
  k .Dk  . (8.6)
1
k=1

Dr D -
{Dk }, Dr D ,
q- . ,
 
 
   4Ap. (8.7)
2

(8.5)(8.7) |  |  + 4A.
f D. 
2
{D1 , D2 } D .
, f D f D1 D2 .
({Ek }m ) D
m 0 , D1 D2
{Ek }m .
m f D 1m
2m f D1 D2 . m = 1m +
+ 2m m +
,
  
f (x, y)dxdy = f (x, y)dxdy + f (x, y)dxdy. (8.8)
D D1 D2

2, (8.8),
.
160 8.

, f D1 D2
f D.

f D, |f (X)|  A const X D,
D,
. f D.
. > 0.
, .
.  2A. f D \ , -
, D \ .
 ,
{Ek } D \ , k .Ek  . {Ek }
k
D, D, -
+ 2A. f
D. 

8.4.

2
) f (x, y)
P = {(x, y) : a  x  b, c  y  d}, ) x [a, b]
y f (x, y) [c, d].
d
F (x) = c f (x, y)dy [a, b]

b 
F (x)dx = f (x, y)dxdy.
a P

. > 0.
() > 0, -
P ()
f (x, y)

| f (x, y)dxdy|  . (8.9)
P

{xk } [a, b] n xk -
({xk })  ()/2 s
8.4. 161

F (x) [a, b]

n
s= F (k )xk .
k=1

f (k , y) [c, d] k -
, k [c, d] yki ,
mk , , ()/2,

 
f (k , ki )yki  F (k )  f (k , ki )yki + , (8.10)
1imk 1imk

## yki1  ki  yki (. 8.2).

. 8.2

(8.10) xk k,

(b a)  s  (b a), (8.11)


n 
= f (k , ki )yki xk .
k=1 1imk

f (x, y) P,
P ().
162 8.

(8.9) (8.11)
 
   
s f (x, y)dxdy   |s | +  f (x, y)dxdy   (b a) + .
P P

, F (x) [a, b]

b 
F (x)dx = f (x, y)dxdy. 
a P

D , -
0y, . . D , x =
= a, x = b y = 1 (x), y = 2 (x),
1 (x)  2 (x) x [a, b] (. 8.3). x
f (x, y) [1 (x), 2 (x)], -
 (x)
F (x) = 12(x) f (x, y)dy.

d  1 (x) 
f (x, y)dy dx
c 1 (x)

d 1 (x)

dy f (x, y)dx
c 1 (x)

f D.

. 8.3. ,
0y
8.4. 163

2
D ,
0y, f (x, y) D ,
x f (x, y)
[1 (x), 2 (x)].

 b 1 (x)

## f (x, y)dxdy = dx f (x, y)dy. (8.12)

D a 1 (x)

. D P =
= {(x, y) : a  x  b, c  y  d}, c = min 1 (x), d = max 2 (x).
x[a,b] x[a,b]

f (x, y), (x, y) D,
g(x, y) =
0, (x, y) P \ D.
g P, D
P \ D, 2
   
g(x, y)dxdy = f (x, y)dxdy + 0dxdy = f (x, y)dxdy. (8.13)
P P \D P D

2
 b d
gdxdy = dx gdy =
P a c

## = gdy + gdy + gdy dx = dx f dy. (8.14)

a c 1 (x) 2 (x) a 1 (x)

(8.13)(8.14) (8.12.) 
, D , -
0x, . . , y =
= c, y = d x = 1 (y), x = 2 (y),
1 (y)  2 (y) y [c, d] (. 8.4), f (x, y)
D , y f (x, y)
[1 (y), 2 (y)],
 d 2 (y)

## f (x, y)dxdy = dy f (x, y)dx. (8.15)

D c 1 (y)
164 8.

. 8.4. , . 8.5
0x

8.1. D, : x =
= 2y y 2 , x = 1 y, y = 1/2 (. 8.5). D
, 0x. (8.15)
2
 2  +6y
3y

.D = dxdy = dy dx = 9/4.
D 1/2 2y

8.5.
D E,
0xy, 0uv. , x = (u, v), y =
= (u, v)
E D, D = {(x, y) : x = (u, v), y = (u, v), (u, v)
E} E D.
E D -
D E, . .
u = (x, y), v = (x, y) , E = {(u, v) : u = (x, y), v =
= (x, y), (x, y) D}

((x, y), (x, y)) = x, ((x, y), (x, y)) = y (x, y) D. (8.16)

, D E , -
x = (u, v), y = (u, v) E D
, (u, v), (u, v) E,
(x, y), (x, y), , -
D. x = (u, v),
y = (u, v)
E D.
8.5. 165

 
u v
I(u, v) = det
u v
x = (u, v), y =
= (u, v),
  
x y
J(x, y) = det
x y
. (8.16) u x +
+ y x = 1, u y + y y = 0, u x + y x = 0, u y + y y = 1, (x, y)
D, I((x, y), (x, y))J(x, y) = 1, , I J
, I(u, v)
= 0 (u, v)
E, J(x, y)
= 0 (x, y) D.
l : u = u(t), v = v(t), t [a, b], (u (t))2 + (v  (t))2
= 0, t (a, b),
, E, x = (u, v), y = (u, v)
E D, x =
= (u(t), v(t)) = g(t), y = (u(t), v(t)) = h(t), t [a, b], -
D. , -
g(t), h(t) ,
, (g  (t))2 + (h (t))2 = (u u + v v  )2 + (u u + v v  )2
= 0 t (a, b)
().

8.3

x = (u, v),
(8.17)
y = (u, v),
P D,
(u, v) P , .D = I(u, v)..
, 8.3, -
. 9.4.

8.4
(8.17) -
E D f (x, y) f ((u, v), (u, v))|I(u, v)|
D E.
 
 
f (x, y)dxdy = f (x(u, v), y(u, v))I(u, v)dudv, (8.18)
D E

## |I(u, v)| (8.17).

166 8.

. E -
({Ek }m ), m = 1, 2, . . . , m 0 -
.
({Dk }m ) D. m
({Dk }m ). , m +0.
M1 ((u1 , v1 ), (u1 , v1 )) M2 ((u2 , v2 ), (u2 , v2 )), -
(Ek )m , (. 3.5)

(M1 , M2 ) = ((u2 , v2 ) (u1 , v1 ))2 + ((u2 , v2 ) (u1 , v1 ))2 =
 2
= u (u1 + 1 (u2 u1 ), v1 )(u2 u1 ) + v (u2 , v1 + 2 (v2 v1 )(v2 v1 ) +
 2 1/2
+ u (u1 + 3 (u2 u1 ), v1 )(u2 u1 ) + v (u2 , v1 + 4 (v2 v1 )) 

(u,v)E

## A((u1 , v1 ), (u2 , v2 )), A const, 0 < 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 < 1.

, m  Am , , m 0 m +.
8.3 ((uk )m , (vk )m ) (Ek )m ,

## ((uk )m , (vk )m ) ((xk )m , (yk )m ) (Dk )m , (xk )m =

= ((uk )m , (vk )m ), (yk )m = ((uk )m , (vk )m ).

nm
m = f ((xk )m , (yk )m ).(Dk )m ,
k=1


nm
 
m = f (((uk )m , (vk )m ), ((uk )m , (vk )m ))I((uk )m , (vk )m ).(Ek )m
k=1

f (x, y) f ((u, v), (u, v))|I(u, v)| D E.
m + m = m , -
(. 8.1), (8.18). 

x = (u, v),
(u, v) E, (8.19)
y = (u, v),
E D -
E D, > 0, E , D -
, .E  , .D  , E \E
8.5. 167

(8.19) E \ E
E \ E D \ D .
2
(8.19) - E D
f (x, y) f ((u, v), (u, v))|I(u, v)| -
D E. (8.18),
2.
. > 0. E , D -
- E D. -
f (x, y), f ((u, v), (u, v))|I(u, v)| -
D E, , ,
     
   
 f (x, y)dxdy   M ,  f (x(u, v), y(u, v))|I|dudv   M , (8.20)
D E

M const. 8.4
 
f (x, y)dxdy = f (x(u, v), y(u, v))|I(u, v)|dudv. (8.21)
D\D E\E

2 (8.20)(8.21) ,
   
 
 f (x, y)dxdy f (x(u, v), y(u, v))|I(u, v)|dudv 
D E
     
   
 f (x, y)dxdy  +  f (x(u, v), y(u, v))|I|dudv   2M .
D E

,
(8.18). 
: 0  0   1  2, 0  r
r(), 0r 0xy -
x = r cos , y = r sin , -
 
cos r sin
I = det = r,
sin r cos
- ( ) -
. E -
, , D -
0xy.
168 8.

8.2. D,
(. 8.6)

## (x2 + y 2 )2 = 2(x2 y 2 ) ( ), x2 + y 2 = 1 ().

. 8.6 . 8.7

D 0xy,
, -
.

x = r cos ,
r  0, 0   2,
y = r sin ,
, -
, D, :

(r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 )2 = 2r2 (cos2 sin2 ), r = 2 cos 2;

r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 = 1, r = 1.
(1, /6)
, 0   /2.
0r E, r = 1, r =
= 2 cos 2, = 0, = /6, , -
0r. r = 2 cos 2,
r = 1 0 0   /6
(. 8.7).
,

  /6 2cos 2
3 3
.D = 4 dxdy = 4 rddr = 4 d rdr = .
3
D E 0 1
9

9.1.
[a, b] x(t), y(t). -
,

x = x(t),
t [a, b],
y = y(t),
M (t) 0xy
(x(t), y(t)), t [a, b]. M (t0 ), M (t0 + t),
. .
a1 = (x(t0 + t)
x(t0 ))i + (y(t0 + t) y(t0 ))j ,
x(t0 + t) x(t0 ) y(t0 + t) y(t0 )
a= i+ j. -
t t

x(t0 + t) x(t0 )
x = x(t0 ) + ,
t R.
y = y(t ) + x(t0 + t) x(t0 ) ,

0
t
x(t0 + t) x(t0 )
lim = x(t0 ),
t0 t
y(t0 + t) y(t0 )
lim = y(t0 ) (x(t0 ))2 + (y(t0 ))2
= 0,
t0 t
t 0.

x = x(t0 ) + x(t0 ),
R,
y = y(t0 ) + y(t0 ),
,
M (t0 ). b = x(t0 )i + y(t0 )j
(. 9.1).
170 9.

. 9.1.


x = x(t),
l: t [a, b].
y = y(t),

t [a, b] ,
, , , -
A = (x(t0 ), y(t0 ))
B = (x(b), y(b)). , M (t2 ) M (t1 ),
t2 > t1 .
AM (t), l, ,
M () a t
, . -
,
.
- ( ), -
- () (. 8.1).

9.1. l

x = cos t,
t [, /4].
y = 0,

AB, , 0x,
M (t), t [, 0], A = (1, 0) C = (1, 0),
0x,
M (t), t [0, /4], C B =
= (1/ 2, 0).
9.1. 171

,
 .
x = x(t),
- AB : t [a, b], .AB =
y = y(t),
b
= x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt.
a

x = x(a + b t),
BA : t [a, b],
y = y(a + b t),
, AB : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b], -
BA AB.
BA AB
AB , AB + .
, f : D R, D R2 , -
AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b], D, ,
f (x(t), y(t)) [a, b].
f (x(t), y(t)) x2 (t) + y 2 (t) [a, b],
.

b
f (x(t), y(t)) x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt
a

 f (x, y) -
AB + ( -1) f (x, y)ds. ,
AB +

 b
f (x, y)ds := f (x(t), y(t)) x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt. (9.1)
AB + a

-1
1. . AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b].
a = 0 < 1 < . . . < n = b [a, b].
Ci1 Ci+ , i = 1, . . . , n, ,
x = x(t), y = y(t), t [i1 , i ], , AB +
Ci1 Ci+ .
- AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b],
C0 C1+ , C1 C2+ , . . . , Cn1 Cn+ , f (x, y)ds,
AB +
172 9.

-1 ,
 
n 
f (x, y)ds = f (x, y)ds.
i=1
AB + Ci1 Ci+

## 2. - AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b].

t = (), [, ],
, () = a, () = b = 0 <
< 1 < . . . < k = [, ], t = ()
 () > 0 [j1 , j ]. t =
= () . CD+ : x = () =
= x(()), y = () = y(()), [, ]. -
, M () = (x(), y())
N () = ((), ()), [a, b]
[, ], . , CD+
AB + .
CD+ - +
 AB -
f (x, y)ds,
AB +
 
f (x, y)ds = f (x, y)ds.
AB + CD +

 b
f (x, y)ds = f (x(t), y(t)) x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt =
AB + a

(
 i)

k
= f (x(t), y(t)) x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt = t = () =
i=1
(i1 )

k i

= f (x(()), y(())) (xt (()))2 + (yt (()))2  ()d =
i=1
i1

 
=  2  2
f (x(()), y(())) ((x(())) ) + ((y(())) ) d = f (x, y)ds.
CD +
9.1. 173

3. -1
 
f (x, y)ds = f (x, y)ds
AB + AB

().
4. -1. f (x, y)
-

## [a, b] n a = t0 < t1 < < tn = b,

, j ( j -
(. 8.1)) tk . tk
Mk , AB + . Mk1 Mk+ sk .

tk
sk = x2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt.
tk1

(. 6.5)


sk = x2 (t) + y 2 (t) tk , k [tk1 , tk ].
t=k

## f (x(k ), y(k ))sk Mk1 Mk+ , ,

Mk1 Mk+ f (x(k ), y(k )).


n 
n 

= f (x(k ), y(k ))sk = f (x(k ), y(k )) x2 (t) + y 2 (t) tk
t=k
k=1 k=1

(9.1) ,
n ,  -
. , f (x, y)ds
AB +
AB + .
5. -1. f (x,  y)
+
(x, y) AB , f (x, y)ds
AB +
AB + .

9.2. T AB + , -

x2 + y 2 = 4x,
f (x, y) = x + y 2 .
2
174 9.

: r = 4 cos ,
/2   /2. -

x = 4 cos2 ,
 .
y = 4 cos sin , 2 2
5
(9.1),
 /2
T = 2 2
x + y ds = 16 cos d = 32.
AB + /2

9.2.

## P (x, y), Q(x, y), -

D, AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b],
- , D. ,
P (x(t), y(t)), Q(x(t), y(t)) [a, b].
P (x(t), y(t))x(t), Q(x(t), y(t))y(t) [a, b],
.

b b
P (x(t), y(t))x(t)dt, Q(x(t), y(t))y(t)dt (9.2)
a a

(-2) -
P (x, y), Q(x, y) AB +
 
P (x, y)dx, Q(x, y)dy.
AB + AB +

 b
P (x, y)dx := P (x(t), y(t))x(t)dt,
AB + a

 b
Q(x, y)dy := Q(x(t), y(t))y(t)dt. (9.3)
AB + a
9.2. 175

,

P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy.
AB +

-2
1. . AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t), t
+ + +
 [a, b], C0 C1 , C1 C2 , . . . , Cn1 Cn
AB + P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy, ,
 

n
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy.
i=1
AB + Ci1 Ci+

2. -2
(. 9.1)
 
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy.
AB + AB

,
 b

P dx + Qdy = P (x(b + a t), y(b + a t))(x(b + a t))t +
AB a

+Q(x(b + a t), y(b + a t))(y(b + a t))t dt = = b + a t =

b 
= (P (x(), y())x () + Q(x(), y())y ())d = P dx + Qdy.
a AB +

3. CD+
- AB +

 t = (), [, ] ,
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy,
AB +
 
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy.
AB + CD +

, -2
 b
I= P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = (P (x(t), y(t))x(t) + Q(x(t), y(t))y(t))dt.
AB + a
176 9.

, ,
(
 i)

k
I= (P (x(t), y(t))x(t) + Q(x(t), y(t))y(t))dt = t = () =
i=1
(i1 )

k i
  
= P (x(()), y(()))xt (()) + Q(x(()), y(()))yt  ()d =
i=1
i1

 
  

= P ((), ()) () + Q((), ()) () d = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy.
CD +

9.1. -
, ,
, . -
, , -
, .
, - ,
, , -
.

4. -2. , D -
F = P (x, y) i + Q(x, y) j. AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t),
t [a, b], - , D. [a, b] n -
tk , k = 0, . . . , n, , j -
- tk . tk -
M (tk ), . (tk1 , tk )
k . Mk1 Mk+ . -
Nk1 Nk+ :

x = x(k ) + x(k ),
tk1 k   tk k . (9.4)
y = y(k ) + y(k ),

## Nk1 Nk+ M (k ), Nk1

(9.4), Nk . F Mk1 Mk+
F(x(k ), y(k )) = P (x(k ), y(k ))i + Q(x(k ), y(k ))j,
Mk1 Mk+ Nk1 Nk+ . F(x(k ), y(k )) -
Nk1 Nk+

## Ak = P (x(k ), y(k ))x(k )tk + Q(x(k ), y(k ))y(k )tk .

9.2. 177


n
= (P (x(k ), y(k ))x(k ) + Q(x(k ), y(k ))y(k ))tk
k=1

(9.3)
n 
Ak . , P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy -
k=1 AB +
F AB + .
5. y = f (x), x [a, b], .
,

x = t,
: t [a, b].
y = f (t),
0xy ,
, y = f (x),
x [a, b]. ,
y = f (x), .
AB + -
y = f (x), x [a, b],
 b  b
P (x, y)dx = P (x, f (x))dx, Q(x, y)dy = P (x, f (x))f  (x)dx.
AB + a AB + a

## 6. AB + : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b], ,

0y, x(t) = 0 t [a, b], ,

P (x, y)dx = 0.
AB +

## 9.3. D F = (x + y)i + (x y)j -


+ x = a cos t,
AB : 0  t  2.
y = b sin t,
4
(9.3),
2
 a2 + b2 
D= ab cos 2t sin 2t dt = 0.
2
0
178 9.

9.3.
D , , -
0y, -
, 0y
- ,
0x.

9.1

G , 0y
- ADCBA+ (. 9.2),
P (x, y) G .
 
P
P (x, y)dx = dxdy.
y

. 9.2

. 2 -
5 ,

 b 2 (x)
P P
dxdy = dx dy =
y y
G a 1 (x)

b  
= (P (x, 2 (x)) P (x, 1 (x)))dx = P (x, y)dx P (x, y)dx.
a BA+ DC +
9.3. 179

 
P (x, y)dx, P (x, y)dx
AD + CB +

( AD+ , CB + 0y ),
 
P
P (x, y)dx = dxdy. 
y

-2 2
D , -
- D, P (x, y) Q(x, y)
D .
  
Q P 
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = dxdy, (9.5)
x y
D + D

D+ , D
, ,
(. 9.3).

. 9.3

, D -
(
D ).
{Dj }, j = 1, . . . , k, D
Dj ,
180 9.

0y - . 9.1
2
 k  k 

P P
dxdy = dxdy = P (x, y)dx. (9.6)
y y
j=1 D j=1
D j Dj+

Dj+ , D, , -
, D. -
6 -2 , ,
, ,
k  
P (x, y)dx = P (x, y)dx.
j=1
Dj+ D +

,  
P
P (x, y)dx = dxdy. (9.7)
y
D + D
 
Q
Q(x, y)dy = dxdy. (9.8)
x
D + D
(9.7) (9.8), (9.5). 
9.4. , -

I= x2 ydx xy 2 dy,
C+
C + , K : x2 + y 2  a2 -
,
.

 
2  2 
I= ((xy )x (x y)y )dxdy = (x2 + y 2 )dxdy.
K K

2 a
a4
I = d r3 dr = .
2
0 0
9.4. 181

9.4.

D ,
- D. P Q ,
Q P
= 1 (x, y) D, , , .D =
x y

= D+ P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy. ,

.D = xdy. (9.9)
D +

9.2

E -
E,
x = (u, v), y = (u, v) (9.10)
E D. (u, v) E
,
.D = I(u, v).E, (9.11)
I(u, v) (9.10) (. 8.5).
uv (u, v) = vu (u, v) ( -
, , -
9.2 uv (u, v) = vu (u, v)) .
u = u(t), v = v(t), t [a, b],
E + . 
x = (u(t), v(t)),
L: t [a, b],
y = (u(t), v(t)),
D. L+ , L.
L t D
, D + = L+ , D+ = L .
(9.3), (9.9)

    b 
   
.D = xdy =  xdy  =  (u(t), v(t))(u u (t) + v v  (t))dt =
D + L+ a

  
 
= (u, v)u (u, v)du + (u, v)v (u, v)dv .
E +
182 9.

,
  
 
.D =  ( (v )) (u ))dudv  =
u v
E

   
       
= (u v + vu v u uv )dudv  = |I(u, v)|dudv (9.12)
E E

( , -
).
(. 8.3) (u, v) E ,

|I(u, v)|dudv = I(u, v).E. (9.13)
E

## (9.12), (9.13) (9.11). 

9.5.

D ,
D.
. A B D l : x =
= x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b], , D
A B, . . , t [a, b] (x(t), y(t))
D (x(a), y(a)) = A, (x(b), y(b)) = B. t [a, b] -
T, AM (t), M (t) = (x(t), y(t)),
,
D. t = sup T. (x(t ), y(t )) -
D, t b. ,
, , D. 
P (x, y), Q(x, y) , D.
A = (x0 , y0 ) B = (x, y),
D. - AB + , D,

P dx + Qdy. (9.14)
AB +
9.5. 183

A B, AB + ,
A B.
A, B D (9.14)
- AB + , D, , -2
.
:
(x,y)

P dx + Qdy.
(x0 ,y0 )

D ,
, D, ,
, D (. 9.4).

. 9.4. D1 , D2

-2
P (x, y) Q(x, y) -
D. :
) L+ D

P dx + Qdy
L+

; 
) A, B D AB + P dx + Qdy
, D A B;
) u(x, y) ,

## du(x, y) = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy (x, y) D;

) P (x, y) Q(x, y)

P (x, y) Q(x, y)
= (x, y) D.
y x
184 9.

) ) ) ) ).
) ). (AB + )1 : x = x1 (t), y = y1 (t), t [a1 , b1 ], (AB + )2 : x =
= x2 (t), y = y2 (t), t [a2 , b2 ], , A
B. L+ : x = x3 (t), y = y3 (t), t [a1 , b1 +
+ b2 a2 ],

x1 (t), t [a1 , b1 ],
x3 (t) =
x2 (t + b1 + b2 ), t (b1 , b1 + b2 a2 ],

y1 (t), t [a1 , b1 ],
y3 (t) =
y2 (t + b1 + b2 ), t (b1 , b1 + b2 a2 ],
L+ +
1 = (AB )1 , L+
2 : x = x2 (t + b1 + b2 ), y = y2 (t +
+ -
+b1 + b2 ), t [b1 , b1 + b2 a2 ]. L2
 AB
, , (AB + )2 = L+ . ,
2
-2,
    
0= = = .
L (AB + )1 (AB + )2 (AB + )1 (AB + )2

) ). A = (x0 , y0 )
 , B = (x, y)
D. AB + P dx+Qdy
AB + , ,

u(x, y) = P dx + Qdy,
AB +

AB + , A B
D. x u
u(x, y)
 
x u = u(x + x, y) u(x, y) = P dx + Qdy P dx + Qdy,
AB1+ AB +

## AB1+ , A B1 = ((x + x, y)). -

(x0 , y0 ), (x, y) , (x0 , y0 ), (x+
+ x, y) , ,
(x0 , y0 ), (x, y) , 0x
B = (x, y) B1 = (x + x, y) (. 9.5). ,
-2 (9.3),
 
x+x
1
x u = P dx + Qdy = P (, y)d.
x
BB1+ x
9.5. 185

. 9.5

(. 7.3),
1
x u = P (x + x, y), 0 < < 1.
x
x 0 , ux (x, y) =
= P (x, y). , uy (x, y) = Q(x, y). ,
du = P dx + Qdy.
) ). du(x, y) = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = ux dx + uy dy, P (x, y) =
= ux (x, y), Q(x, y) = uy (x, y). P (x, y) Q(x, y) -
, u(x, y) -
D. (. 7.5)
Py = uxy = uyx = Qx (x, y) D.
) ). , L+
. , L+ , -
E. D , E
D.
  
Q P 
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = dxdy = 0.
x y
L+ E

L+ , L+
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
 . ,
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0. 
L+
186 9.

9.1

, -2
.
. L+ : x = x(t), y = y(t), t [a, b], -
, (x0 , y0 ) (x1 , y1 ).

 b
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = (P (x(t), y(t))x(t) + Q(x(t), y(t))y(t))dt =
L+ a

b
= (ux (x(t), y(t))x(t) + uy (x(t), y(t))y(t))dt =
a

b
= (u(x(t), y(t)))t dt = u(x1 , y1 ) u(x0 , y0 ). 
a

## 9.2. u(x, y) , du(x, y) = P (x, y)dx +

+ Q(x, y)dy (x, y) D,
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy. , -
, , -
-2 ,
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy
(x,y)

u(x, y) = P dx + Qdy,
(x0 ,y0 )

(x0 , y0 ) D.

9.3. D (x0 , y0 ) ,
(x, y) D , (x0 , y0 ), (x, y)
, 0x, 0y,
D,
x y
u(x, y) = P (, y0 )d + Q(x, )d. (9.15)
x0 y0

9.4. D ,
-2 .
9.5. 187

9.5.
 
xdy ydx + x = cos t,
I= ; L : t [0, 2].
x2 + y 2 y = sin t,
L+

(9.3),

2
cos2 t + sin2 t
I= dt = 2
= 0.
cos2 t + sin2 t
0

, R2 \(0, 0)
P (x, y), Q(x, y)

x2 + y 2
Qx = = Py (x, y) R2 \(0, 0).
(x2 + y 2 )2

, R2 \(0, 0) .

R2

## Py = Qx = 12xy 2 ,

, u(x, y) du =
= P dx + Qdy. (9.15)

x y
x5
u(x, y) = 4 d + (6x2 2 54 )d = + 2x2 y 3 y 5 .
5
0 0
10

10.1. Rn

x1
x = . . . , xi R, -
xn
-
R. Rn , -
. Rn -

x1 y1
x = ... ,y = ...
xn yn
(x, y) = x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn , Rn
.
x x = (x, x) =
2
= x1 + + xn 2 , x, y Rn
(x, y) = (x y, x y) = (x1 y1 )2 + . . . + (xn yn )2 . -
R :
n

) (x, y)  0 x, y Rn , (x, y) = 0 x = y;
) (x, y) = (y, x) x, y Rn ;
) (x, y)  (x, z) + (z, y) x, y, z Rn
( );
) x + y  x + y x, y Rn ;
) x = ||x R, x Rn ;
) |(x, y)|  xy x, y Rn .
Rn x0 r

## B(x0 , r) = {x : (x, x0 ) < r}, S(x0 , r) = {x : (x, x0 ) = r}.

10.1. Rn 189

Rn n- -

1 0
0 0 
n
e1 =
. . . , . . . , en = . . .
,
x= x k ek .
k=1
0 1

B(x0 , ), > 0, - x0 ( -
). D Rn ,
x D - ,
D. , R2 , Rn .
: -
, , , -
, , , , ,
, , Rn , -
. R3 -
0xyz .
R3 0xyz .

f : D R, D Rn ,
n
y = f (x1 , . . . , xn ) y = f (x). x0 -
D Rn , f : D R
. , lim f (x) A R,
xx0

## > 0, () > 0, x D : 0 < (x, x0 )  () |f (x) A|  .

x0 , D,
D (. 7.2): lim f (x) = A.
xx0 ,xD
f x0 D, -
lim f (x) = f (x0 ) x0 D
xx0
D, lim f (x) = f (x0 ).
xx0 ,xD
n -
, : ; -
; -
; , , -
; -
(
, )().
190 10.

f,
D Rn x0 . f =
= f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) = f (x01 + x1 , . . . , x0n + xn ) f (x01 , . . . , x0n ).
f x0 , -
q1 , . . . , qn ,

f = q1 x1 + + qn xn + o(x). (10.1)

q1 x1 + + qn xn -
f x0 df = q1 x1 + + qn xn .
x1 = dx1 , . . . , xn = dxn , df = q1 dx1 + . . . + qn dxn .
y = f (x1 , . . . , xn )
x1 , . . . , xi1 , xi+1 , . . . , xn , -
xi f (x1 , . . . , xi1 , xi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ) -
f
f xi fx i .
xi
fx 1 , . . . , fx i1 , fx i+1 , . . . , fx n .
xi f f xi :

## xi f := f (x01 , . . . , x0i + x0i , . . . , x0n ) f (x01 , . . . , x0i , . . . , x0n ),

i = 1, . . . , n. , f x0 .
(10.1) x1 = 0, . . . , xi1 = 0, xi+1 = 0, . . . , xn = 0,
xi f o(|xi |)
xi f = qi xi + o(|xi |), = qi + ,
xi xi

xi 0, fx i (x0 ) = qi , i = 1, . . . , n.
, x0

df x0 = fx 1 (x0 )dx1 + . . . + fx n (x0 )dxn .

f -
D, D.
f
D, , -
n , , ,
x1 , . . . , xn , -

10.2. 191

f
D, .
. x0 D.
(10.2), f

## f = fx 1 (x0 )x1 + + fx n (x0 )xn + ,

x1
= (fx 1 (x01 + 1 x1 , . . . , x0n ) fx 1 (x01 , . . . , x0n )) + +
x x

xn
+(fx 1 (x01 + x1 , . . . , x0n + n xn ) fx n (x01 , . . . , x0n )) .
x

, 0, . .
x x 0
= o(x). 
f : D R,
D Rn . f, D1 D, -
f c D D1 , f (X) = f(X) X D.
f D, -
f f D
D1 D.

10.2.
F : D Rm , D Rn ,
y = F (x)

y1 = f1 (x1 , . . . , xn ),
.....................

ym = fm (x1 , . . . , xn ).

F m
n yi = fi (x1 , . . . , xn ), i = 1, . . . , m.
, x0 D. A -
F (x) x x0 D,

## > 0, () > 0, x D : 0 < (x, x0 )  () (F (x), A)  .

192 10.

F x0
D,
lim F (x) = F (x0 ).
xx0 ,xD

F x0 D
, fi (x), i = 1, . . . , m,
x0 D.
. . fi (x), i =
= 1, . . . , m, x0 ,

## > 0, i () > 0, x D : 0 < (x, x0 )  i () (fi (x), fi (x0 ))  .

(F (x), F (x0 )) = (f1 (x) f1 (x0 ))2 + . . . + (fm (x) fm (x0 ))2  m,

## (x, x0 )  min{1 (), . . . , m ()}, x D, . . lim F (x) = F (x0 ).

xx0 ,xD
. 
F, D Rn
x0 .

f1 f1 (x0 + x) f1 (x0 )
F = F (x0 + x) F (x0 ) = . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
fm fm (x0 + x) fm (x0 )

F x0 , -

q11 . . . q1n
Q = ..............
qm1 . . . qmn
,

F = Qx + o(x), (10.3)

f1 = q11 x1 + . . . + q1n xn + o1 (x),

...........................................
. .
fi = qi1 x1 + . . . + qin xn + oi (x), (10.4)

. . ...........................................

fm = qm1 x1 + . . . + qmn xn + om (x).
10.2. 193

Qx
 F
x0 dF x0 = Qx.
x = dx,

dF |x0 = Qdx.

, F x0 . i -
(10.4) x1 = 0, . . . , xj1 = 0, xj+1 = 0, . . . , xn = 0,

xj fi oi (|xj |)
xj fi = qij xj + oi (|xj |), = qij + ,
xj xj

fi 
xj 0,  = qij , i = 1, . . . , m, j = 1, . . . , n.
xj x0

f1 f1
...
x1 xn
................

fi fi
...
x1 xn

................
fm fm
...
x1 xn
dF
F .
dx
, x0
 dF 
dF x0 =  dx
dx x0

f1  f1 
 . . . 
 x1 x0 x x0 dx1
n
dF x0 = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
f  
fm  dxn
m
 ... 
x1 x0 xn x0
n
 f1  

k=1 xk x0 dxk df1 x0

= ...... .
. n. . . . . . . . . . . . . = 
 fm  dfm x0
 dxk
k=1 xk x0
194 10.

(10.4) .

F (x) x0
fi (x), i = 1, . . . , m,
,
df1 |x0
x0 , dF |x0 = . . . . . . .
dfm |x0
F -
fi
D, , i = 1, . . . , m, j =
xj
= 1, . . . , n, D.

D
F (-
).

10.3.

y = F (x), x D Rn , F (D) = E Rm ,
z = G(y), y E, G(E) Rk .
H(x) = G(F (x)), x D,
.

y = F (x) x0 , z = G(y)
y0 = F (x0 ), G(F (x))) -
x0
G F

## dG(F (x))  dG(y)  dF (x) 

 =   . (10.5)
dx x0 dy y0 dx x0

## . (gi )yj (fi )xj -

dG(y)  dF (x) 
  , yi y. -
dy y0 dx x0

dF (x) 
y = F (x0 + x) F (x0 ) =  x + o(x),
dx x0
10.3. 195

dG(y) 
z = G(y0 + y) G(y0 ) =  y + o(y),
dy y0
dG(y) 
G(F (x0 + x)) G(F (x0 )) =  y + o(y) =
dy y0
dG(y)   dF (x)  
=   x + o(x) + o(y) =
dy y0 dx x0
dG(y)  dF (x) 
=   x + p, (10.6)
dy y0 dx x0
dG(y) 
p=  o(x) + o(y).
dy y0
,
o1 (x)
p = ......... . (10.7)
ok (x)
,

p1 (g1 )y1 ... (g1 )ym o1 (x) o1 (y)
p = . . = .................. .......... + ......... .
pk (gk )y1 ... (gk )ym om (x) ok (y)

(. 10.1),

## |pi |  |(gi )y1 o1 (x) + . . . + (gi )ym om (x)| + |oi (y)|

 
Mi o(x) + |oi (y)|, Mi = ((gi )y1 )2 + . . . + ((gi )ym )2 y0 .

,
Mi o(x) = oi (x).

## |yi |  |(fi )x1 x1 + . . . + (fi )xn xn | + |oi (x)|

 
M i x + |oi (x)|, M i = ((fi )x1 )2 + . . . + ((fi )xn )2 x0 ,

## oi (y) oi (y) y

y 0, = 0,
x 0 x y x x 0
oi (y) = oi (x).
196 10.

, pi = oi (x), i = 1, . . . , k,
(10.7).
(10.6), (10.7)
(10.5)
. 
dz :
1) z = G(y), y ,
2) z = G(y), y = F (x).

dG
dz = dy, (10.8)
dy

dG dF dG
dz = dx = dy. (10.9)
dy dx dy
(10.8), (10.9) ,
.

10.1. ,
y = F (x), z = G(y),

 2  g(y1 , y2 )
x1 + x22
F (x) = , G(y) = h(y1 , y2 ) .
x 1 x2
k(y1 , y2 )

    z1
x1 y1
x= , y= , z = z2 .
x2 y2
z3

  g gy 2
dF 2x1 2x2 dG y 1
= , = hy1 hy2 ,
dx x 2 x1 dy
ky 1 ky 2

2x1 gy 1 + x2 gy 2 2x2 gy 1 + x1 gy 2
dG(F (x)) dG dF
= = 2x1 hy1 + x2 hy2 2x2 hy1 + x1 hy2 .
dx dy dx
2x1 ky 1 + x2 ky 2 2x2 ky 1 + x1 ky 2
10.4. 197

10.4.

, fi (x) y = F (x) :

y1 = f1 (x1 , . . . , xn ),
.....................

ym = fm (x1 , . . . , xn ),
fj
, j = 1, . . . , m; i = 1, . . . , n. -
xi

fj 
, j = 1, . . . , m; k, i = 1, . . . , n,
xk xi
F (x)
2 fj
(fj )xi xk . -
xk xi
.
F l
D,
l fi , i = 1, . . . , m,
F D. F, -
D, l
D, l -
F F D
D1 D.
F (x)
D,
2 fj 2 fj
= , j = 1, . . . , m; k, i = 1, . . . , n.
xk xi xi xk

.
dF (x)
dy = dx x dx.
dx
dx , dy x.

F (x) d2 F (x), , -
x ,
,
2  2
d(df1 ) d f1 (/x1 )dx1 + + (/xn )dxn f1

d2 F = . . . . . . = . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  2
d(dfm ) d 2 fm (/x1 )dx1 + + (/xn )dxn fm
198 10.

## (/x1 ) dx1 + + (/xn ) dxn = d ,

n  n 2
d2 = dxi dxk .
k=1 i=1 xi xk
fi (x1 , . . . , xn )

(fi )x2 (fi )x1 x2 . . . (fi )x1 xn
1

............................... ,
(fi )xn x1 (fi )xn x2 . . . (fi )x2
n

2 fi
.
x2
d2 fi (x)

2 fi
d2 fi = (dx) dx.
x2
,
dfi  df 
dx = (dx)
i
dfi = ,
dx dx
  
i
d df
dx 2 fi
2
d fi = d(dfi ) = (dx) dx = (dx) 2 dx.
dx x
,
 n  n 2 f1

2 f1 dx dx
(dx) x2 dx
i k
k=1 i=1 xi xk

d F = .............. =
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2   fm
n n 2

fm
(dx) dx dx i dx k
x2 k=1 i=1 xi xk

, , -

ds F = d(ds1 F ), s > 1.

. 7.6,
, -
(p + 1)
x0
y = f (x)

df  dp f  dp+1 f 
f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) =  + ... +  +  , 0 < < 1.
1! x0 p! x0 (p + 1)! (x0 +x)
10.5. 199

10.5.
T Rn . Rn

K = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) : ai  xi  bi , i = 1, . . . , n}, ai , bi R,

, K
. (b1 a1 ) . . . (bn an ).
,
.
, . T
. , , T
T.

V = sup {. } = inf

{. } = V ,
T T

T , V = V = V
.
T , > 0
T , T , .T .T  ().
.
{Tk } = {T1 , . . . , Tn } T,
Tk T {Tk } -
n
. {Tk } T, . T = . Tk .
k=1
({Tk }) = max {diamTk }, diamTk = sup (x1 , x2 ), -
1kn x1 ,x2 Tk
.
, f : T R. {Tk }
T n xk Tk .

n
= f (xk ).Tk .
k=1
I ,

## > 0, () > 0, {Tk } : ({Tk })  (), xk Tk | I|  ,

f T,
I n- f T
  
f (x)dx f (x1 , . . . , xn )dx1 . . . dxn .
T T
200 10.

n = 3, .
-
2, .
T = {(x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn ) : (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) D, 1 (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) 
 xn  2 (x1 , . . . , xn1 )}, D Rn1 ,
1 (x1 , . . . , xn1 ), 2 (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) D , -
, 0xn .

T , 0xn ,
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) T .
 
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 . . . dxn =
T

  1 (x1
,...,xn1 )

## = dx1 . . . dxn1 f (x1 , . . . , xn )dxn .

D 1 (x1 ,...,xn1 )

10.2.

J= zdxdydz,
T

T , x + y + z = 1, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0.
T , 0z,

0  z  1 x y, (x, y) D,

D 0xy, x = 0, y = 0, x+
+ y = 1. ,

 
1xy 
J= dxdy zdz = 1/2 (1 x y)2 dxdy =
D 0 D

1 
1x
1
= 1/2 dx (1 x y)2 dy = .
24
0 0
10.5. 201

, D E ,

x = G(t) (10.10)
E D , x = G(t) -
E, t = H(x), ,
T.
(10.10) E D -
E D, > 0, -
E , D , .E  , .D  , E \ E
(10.10) E \ E
E \ E D \ D .

(10.10) - E D,
f (x) f (G(t))|I| D E.

 
f (x)dx = f (G(t))|I|dt,
T E
 dG 

|I| =  det 
dt
G(t).
E 0r T -
0xyz

x = r cos cos ,
y = r sin cos ,

z = r sin ,

cos cos r sin cos r cos sin
I = det sin cos r cos cos r sin sin = r2 cos ,
sin 0 r cos

E : E = (, , r) : /2  1  

 2  /2, 0 a1 ()a2 ()2, 0b1 (, )r b2 (, ) , a1 (), a2 ()
B = { : 1   2 } , b1 (, ), b2 (, ) -
D = {(, ) : 1   2 , a1 ()   a2 ()} ,
- E T.
202 10.

10.3. T,

S1 : z = x 2 + y 2 , S 2 : z = 2 x 2 + y 2 .
S1 , S2 , -
0xy x2 + y 2 = 1. T ,
0z, S1 ,
S2 (. ).

T 0xy K : x2 + y 2  1.

  2 x2 +y 2

.T = dxdydz = dxdy dz =
T K x2 +y 2

= (2 x2 + y 2 x2 y 2 )dxdy.
K
,

x = r cos ,
|I| = r,
y = r sin ,
2 1
17
.T = d (2 r2 r3 )dr = .
6
0 0
10.6. 203

10.4. T,
1
z = 3(x2 + y 2 ), z = x2 + y 2 z = 1, z = .
2

x = r cos cos ,
y = r sin cos , r  0, 0  < 2, /2   /2,

z = r sin ,

,
, T,
:

r sin = r 3 cos , = /3; r sin = r cos , = /4;
1 1/2
r sin = 1, r= ; r sin = 1/2, r= .
sin sin
0r E,
1/2 1
r= ,r= , = 0, = 2, = /3, = /4,
sin sin
, 0r, -
1 1/2
r = , r = ,
sin sin
0 0   2, /4   /3.
,
 
.T = dxdydz = r2 cos dddr =
T E

1
2 /3 
sin
7
= d d r2 cos dddr = .
36
0 /4 1/2
sin

10.6.

F (x1 , . . . , xn , y) = 0. (10.11)

T = {(x1 , . . . , xn , y) : a  xi  b, i = 1, . . . , n, c  y  d}
Rn+1 , P = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) : a  xi  b, i = 1, . . . , n} -
Rn . (x1 , . . . , xn ) P
204 10.

## y [c, d], F (x1 , . . . , xn , y) = 0,

y = (x1 , . . . , xn ), (x1 , . . . , xn ) P, c  y  d, ,
F (x1 , . . . , xn , (x1 , . . . , xn )) = 0 (x1 , . . . , xn ) P. -
,
(10.11) T.

F (x1 , . . . , xn , y) :
1) F (x01 , . . . , x0n , y0 ) = 0;
2)
(x01 , . . . , x0n , y0 );
3) Fy (x01 , . . . , x0n , y0 )
= 0.
T = {(x1 , . . . , xn , y) : x0i a  xi  x0i +
+ a, i = 1, . . . , n, y0 b  y  y0 + b}, a > 0, b > 0,
F (x1 , . . . , xn , y) = 0 -
y = (x1 , . . . , xn ), (x1 , . . . , xn ) P = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) : x0i a  xi  x0i +
+ a, i = 1, . . . , n}, -

Fx (x1 , . . . , xn , (x1 , . . . , xn ))
= i , i = 1, . . . , n.
xi Fy (x1 , . . . , xn , (x1 , . . . , xn ))

. 7.7. 

f1 (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym ) = 0,
.............................. (10.12)

fm (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym ) = 0.

x1 y1
x = ... ,y = ...
xn ym

F fi , (10.12) -

F (x, y) = 0. (10.13)
10.6. 205

f f1
f1 f1 1
... ...
x1 xn y1 ym

................ , ................ ,
f fm f fm
m m
... ...
x1 xn x1 ym
F F
, .
x y
T = {(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym ) : a  xi  b, i = 1, . . . , n, c  yj 
 d, j = 1, . . . , m} Rn+m , P = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) : a  xi  b, i =
= 1, . . . , n} Rn .
x P y {y : c  yj  d, j = 1, . . . , m},
F (x, y) = 0, -
y = (x), x P, , F (x, (x)) = 0 x P.
,
(10.13) T.

F (x, y) :
1) F (x0 , y0 ) = 0;
2) (x0 , y0 );
F 
3) det 
= 0.
y (x0 ,y0 )
T = {(x, y) : x0i a  xi  x0i + a, i =
= 1, . . . , n, y0j b  yj  y0j + b, j = 1, . . . , m}, a > 0, b > 0,
F (x, y) = 0
y = (x), x P = {x : x0i a  xi  x0i + a, i =
= 1, . . . , n}.

(10.12). m = 1,
. ,
, (m 1) , -
, m . -
F 
 .
x (x0 ,y0 )
yj , ,
f
2 f2
... 
y2 ym 

det . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
= 0.
f f 
m m (x0 ,y0 )
...
y2 ym
206 10.

f2 (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym ) = 0,
.............................. (10.14)

fm (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym ) = 0,

(m 1) ,
.
T1 = {(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym ) : x0i a  xi  x0i + a, i = 1, . . . , n, y01
a  y1  y01 +a, y0j b  yj  y0j +b, j = 2, . . . , m},

y2 = 2 (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ),
.........................

ym = m (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ),

(10.14) T1 . (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ) P1 :=
= {(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ) : x0i a  xi  x0i + a, i = 1, . . . , n, y01 a  y1  y01 + a}

## f2 (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , 2 (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ), . . . , m (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 )) = 0,

.................................................................. (10.15)

## f1 (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , 2 (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ), . . . , m (x1 , . . . , xn , y1 )) :=

:= g(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ). (10.16)

(10.16) (10.15) y1
(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ) = (x01 , . . . , x0n , y01 ),

f1 f1 2 f1 m g

+ + + = ,

y1 y2 y1 ym y1 y1

f2 f2 2 f2 m
+ + + = 0, (10.17)
y 1 y 2 y 1 y m y1

........................................

fm fm 2 fm m

+ + + = 0.
y1 y2 y1 ym y1
10.6. 207

(10.17) ,

f1 f1 f1 g

z1 + z2 + + zm = ,

y1 y2 ym y1

f2 f2 f2
z1 + z2 + + zm = 0, (10.18)
y1 y2 ym

.....................................

fm fm fm

z1 + z2 + + zm = 0
y1 y2 ym

2  m 
z1 = 1, z2 =  , . . . , zm =  . (10.19)
y1 (x0 ,y01 ) y1 (x0 ,y01 )
F 
(10.18)  ,
det
y (x0 ,y0 )
. ,
g
(x01 , . . . , x0n , y01 ) = 0, (10.18)
y1
, -
(10.19) (10.18).
g
(x01 , . . . , x0n , y01 )
= 0.
y1
,

## g(x01 , . . . , x0n , y01 ) = f1 (x01 , . . . , x0n , y01 , y02 , . . . , y0m ) = 0.

g(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ) = 0
-
(x01 , . . . , x0n , y01 ). -
T2 = {(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ) : x0i a1  xi  x0i + a1 , i =
= 1, . . . , n, y01 b1  y1  y01 + b1 }, 0 < a1  a, 0 < b1  min{a, b},
g(x1 , . . . , xn , y1 ) = 0 -
P2 = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) : x0i a1  xi  x0i + a1 , i = 1, . . . , n}
y1 = 1 (x1 , . . . , xn ).

y1 = 1 (x1 , . . . , xn ),

y2 = 2 (x1 , . . . , xn , 1 (x1 , . . . , xn )),

. .....................................

ym = m (x1 , . . . , xn , 1 (x1 , . . . , xn )),
208 10.

(x1 , . . . , xn ) P2 , , -
(10.12) T3 = {(x, y) : x0i a1  xi  x0i + a1 , i =
= 1, . . . , n, y0j b1  yj  y0j + b1 , j = 1, . . . , m}.
. 

10.7.

, F (x, y) = 0 -
.
y = (x), x P,

y1 1 (x1 , . . . , xn )
... = ............... ,
ym m (x1 , . . . , xn )

d
F (x, y) = 0.
dx
. w = F (x, (x)) ,
w = F (z)

## z = (x1 . . . xn y1 . . . ym ) = (x1 . . . xn 1 (x1 , . . . , xn ) . . . m (x1 , . . . , xn )) .

(. 10.3)

(f1 )x1 . . . (f1 )xn (f1 )y1 . . . (f1 )ym 
dF (x, (x)) 
= .......................................... 
dx     
(fm )x1 . . . (fm )xn (fm )y1 . . . (fm )ym (x,(x))

1 ... 0
..................... 

0 ... 1 

 =
 
(1 )x1 . . . (1 )xn x
.....................
(m )x1 . . . (m )xn
F  F  d 
=  +   .
x (x,(x)) y (x,(x)) dx x
dF (x, (x))
F (x, (x)) = 0 x P, = 0 x P, , -
dx
,
F  F  d 
 +   = 0.
x (x,(x)) y (x,(x)) dx x
10.7. 209

d   F 1 F 

 =  x P. (10.20)
dx x y x (x,(x))
 F 1
3)
y
.
10.1. w = F (x, y), y = (x). -
(10.20) , w =
= F (x, (x))
dF (x, (x)) F  F  d 
=  +   . (10.21)
dx x (x,(x)) y (x,(x)) dx x
10.5.
 1
x2 + y12 + y22 = 0,
2 (10.22)
x + y1 + y2 2 = 0.
y = (y1 y2 )
1
x2 + y12 + y22
F (x, y) = 2 .
x + y1 + y2 2
(10.22) F (x, y) = 0. x0 =
= 2, y0 = (1 1) . , (10.22)
: F (x0 , y0 ) = 0, -
F (x, y) , , -
;  
 F 
 2y1 2y2 
det  = det  = 4
= 0.
y (x0 ,y0 ) 1 1 (x0 ,y0 )

(10.22)
y = (x) = (1 (x) 2 (x)) ,
x0 = 2, -
y0 .
(10.20)
d   F 1 F 

 =  =
dx x y x (x, (x))
 
1 x 2y2 
=  .
2y1 + 2y2 x + 2y1 (x, (x))
 
d  0
,  = .
dx x=2 1
210 10.

10.8.
x = g(y),
y0 Rn Rn .

g(y) :
1) x0 = g(y0 );
2) y0 ;
dg 
3) det 
= 0.
dy y0
Q = {y : y0i b  yi  y0i + b, i = 1, . . . , n},
b > 0, P = {x : x0i a  xi  x0i + a, i = 1, . . . , n}, a > 0, ,
x = g(y), g : Q P,
y = f (x), f : P Q,

df   dg 1 

 =  x P. (10.23)
dx x dy y=f (x)

. Q P
y = f (x), f : P Q,
, F (x, y) = g(y)
F g F
x = 0. = , = E, E ,
y y x
(10.23) (10.20). 

10.9.

fi : D R, i = 1, . . . , yi = fi (x), D Rn .

D,
. -
, {fi (x)}, i = 1, 2, . . . , ,
fm (x) , , f1 , . . . , fm1

## : G R, G = {(y1 , . . . , ym1 ) : y1 = f1 (x), . . . , ym1 = fm1 (x), x D},

10.9. 211

,
fm (x) = (f1 (x), . . . , fm1 (x)) x D.

{fi (x)}, i = 1, 2, . . . ,
D.
, m :
y1 = a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn ,
........................... x Rn . (10.24)
ym = a1m x1 + . . . + amn xn ,
,
(10.24):
a11 . . . a1n
A = .............. .
a1m . . . amn

(10.24)
, A , m, (A) < m.
. . A ,
n, ,
(10.24)
.
. , , ,

a1m x1 + . . . + amn xn =
= (a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn , . . . , a(m1)1 x1 + . . . + a(m1)n xn ) (10.25)
(A) = m. (A) = m, a R

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = 0,

................................
a(m1)1 x1 + . . . + a(m1)n xn = 0,

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = a

## (x1 (a), . . . , xn (a)). (10.25), -

a = (0, . . . , 0). 
212 10.

10.10.

, m -
yi = fi (x), x D Rn , i = 1, . . . , m.
y = F (x),
fi (x),

f1 f1
...
x1 xn
dF
= ................ .
dx f fm
m
...
x1 xn
dF
,
dx
A, . 10.9.

 dF  

 =m (10.26)
dx x0
x0 D, {fi (x)}, i =
= 1, . . . , m, D.
. (10.26) -
( xk ) ,

f1 f1
... 
x1 xm 

det . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
= 0. (10.27)
f
m fm x0
...
x1 xm
, , . .
,
(f1 (x), . . . , fm1 (x)) fm (x) = 0 x D.
x1 , . . . , xm x =
= x0 , x0
f fm1 fm
1

+ ... + = 0,
y1 x1 ym1 x1 x1
.......................................... (10.28)

f 1
+ ... +
f m1

f m
= 0.
y1 xm ym1 xm xm
10.11. 213

(10.28) ,

f1 fm1 fm

z1 + . . . + zm1 + zm = 0,
x1 x1 x1
......................................... (10.29)

f 1
z1 + . . . +
f m1
zm1 +
f m
zm = 0
xm xm xm
, (10.27),

z1 = , . . . , zm1 = , zm = 1,
y1 ym1

. -
{fi (x)} D. 

10.11.

, m -
yi = fi (x), x D Rn , i = 1, . . . , m.
. 10.10, y = F (x), -
fi (x),

f1 f1
...
x1 xn
dF
= ................ .
dx f fm
m
...
x1 xn
dF 
 = r < m. x0
dx x0
dF
, P = {x : x0i a  xi  x0i +
dx
dF
+ a, i = 1, . . . , n}, a > 0, , = r x P.
dx

dF 
 = r < m x0
dx x0
dF
, {fi (x)} -
dx
x0 .
214 10.

dF 
. r  , -
dx x0
. , ,

(f1 )x1 . . . (f1 )xr
det J(x0 )
= 0, J(x) = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(fr )x1 . . . (fr )xr

,

f1 (x1 , . . . , xr , xr+1 , . . . , xn ) y1 = 0,
.....................................

fr (x1 , . . . , xr , xr+1 , . . . , xn ) yr = 0

## T = {(x, y) : x0i a1  xi  x0i + a1 , i = 1, . . . , r, x0i b 

 xi  x0i +b, i = r+1, . . . , n, y0j b  yj  y0j +b, j = 1, . . . , r}, 0 < a1  a, 0 <
< b  a, y0j = fj (x0 ),

x1 = 1 (xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ),
..................................

xr = r (xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ),
(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1 := {(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) : x0i b  xi 
 x0i + b, i = r + 1, . . . , n, y0j b  yj  y0j + b, j = 1, . . . , r}.
det J(x0 )
= 0, , det J(x)
= 0
x x0 . (
a ), det J(x)
= 0 x P.
k , r + 1  k  m,

g(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) =

## = fk (1 (xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ), . . . , r , xr+1 , . . . , xn ), (10.30)

(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 . . . , yr ) P1 . , g -
(xr+1 , . . . , xn ). ,

g
= 0 (xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1 , j = r + 1, . . . , n.
xj

f1 (1 , . . . , r , xr+1 , . . . , xn ) = y1 ,

...........................................................

fr (1 , . . . , r , xr+1 , . . . , xn ) = yr ,

fk (1 , . . . , r , xr+1 , . . . , xn ) = g(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ),
10.11. 215

(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1 . j , r + 1  j  n, -
xj ,

f1 1 f1 r f1

+ ... + + = 0,

x1 xj xr xj xj

.......................................
fr 1 fr r fr (10.31)

+ ... + + = 0,

x1 xj xr xj xj

fk 1 fk r fk g
+ ... + + = ,
x1 xj xr xj xj xj
(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1 .
(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1 -
t1 , . . . , tr+1

f1 f1 f1

t1 + . . . + tr + tr+1 = u1 ,

x1 xr xj

......................................
fr fr fr (10.32)

t1 + . . . + tr + tr+1 = ur ,
x1
xr xj

fk fk fk
t1 + . . . + tr + tr+1 = ur+1 .
x1 xr xj
dF 
 = r < m x0
dx x0
dF
, (xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1
dx
(10.32) ,
det J(x)
= 0 x P.
r (10.32) ,
, ur+1 -
u1 , . . . , ur
(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1 . (10.31) ,
g
(xr+1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yr ) P1
xj
, , . ,
g xj . g
xr+1 , . . . , xj1 , xj+1 , . . . , xn . (10.30) -
fk (x) = g(f1 (x), . . . , fr (x)) x
x0 . 

10.2. -
, ,
fk , k = 1, . . . , m.
216 10.

10.6. ,

f 1 = x 1 + x 2 + x3 ,
f2 = x 1 x 2 ,
f3 = x21 + x22 2x1 x2 x1 x2 x3

. ,

1 1 1
dF
= 1 1 0 = 2 x R3
dx
2x1 2x2 1 2x2 2x1 1 1

x R3 ,
f1 , f2 , f3 .
, .

x1 + x2 + x3 y1 = 0,
x 1 x 2 y2 = 0

x1 = 1/2(y1 + y2 x3 ),
x2 = 1/2(y1 y2 x3 )
g, x1 , x2 -
f3 ,
1 2 1 2   1 
g= (y1 + y2 x3 ) + (y1 y2 x3 ) y1 + y2 x 3 (y1 y2 x3 )
2 2 2
1 1
(y1 + y2 x3 ) (y1 y2 x3 ) x3 = y22 y1 ,
2 2
, f3 = f22 f1 .
11

11.1.

f : D R,
D Rn . x0 D
f, - B(x0 , )
x0 ,
f (x)  f (x0 ) x B(x0 , ).

,
.
-

f x0 ,
x0 f, . .
f  f 
 = ... =  = 0. (11.1)
x1 x0 xn x0

. (x01 , . . . , x0n ) ,
i = 1, . . . , n x0i
y = f (x01 , . . . , x0(i1) , xi , x0(i+1) , . . . , x0n ). -
(. 4.2) ,

f 
 = 0, i = 1, . . . , n. 
xi x0
218 11.

,
,

f (x1 , . . . , xn )

= 0,
x1
...................

f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = 0
x1
df (x)
= 0.
dx
-
D, , ,
.

h : Rn R

h(t1 , . . . , tn ) = a11 t21 +2a12 t1 t2 +. . .+2a1n t1 tn +a22 t22 +. . .+2a2n t2 tn + +ann t2n

,

a11 a12 . . . a1n
a12 a22 . . . a2n
A=
...................
a1n a2n . . . ann

h(t) = t At, t Rn .

t Rn
h(t) = t At > 0,
; h(t) = t At < 0 t Rn , t
= 0,
; h(t) ,
. : h(t) = t At  0
t Rn h(t) = t At  0 t Rn .
-
,
.
11.2. 219

(-
) , ,
(
, -
).

11.2.

, f : D R, D Rn , -
x0 .

2f 2f
x21
. . . 
2 f 

x1 xn 

 = ......................
x2 x0

x0
2f 2f
...
xn x1 x2n

2 f 
h(t) = t  t.
x2 x0

x0
f.
h(t) , x0
;
h(t) , x0
;
h(t) , x0
.
. -

df (x0 ) d2 f (x0 + x)
f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) = + , (11.2)
1! 2!

2 f (x0 + x)
df (x0 ) = 0, d2 f (x0 + x) = x x, 0 < < 1.
x2
220 11.

2 f (x0 )
-
x2
2 f (x)
. x0
x2
. > 0 ,
w, w  ,
2 f (x0 + w)
.
x2
2 f (x0 + x)
p(x) = x x
x2
x, 0 < x  , .
(11.2)

## f (x0 + x)  f (x0 ) x, x  .

. . x0 .
t+ , t ,

2 f (x0 ) + 2
f (x0 )
(t+ ) (t ) = a > 0, (t ) (t ) = b < 0.
x2 x2

2 f (x0 + w) + 2 f (x0 + w)
g1 (w) = (t+ ) (t ), g2 (w) = (t ) (t )
x2 x2
w = 0.
1 > 0 , g1 (w)  a/2, g2 (w)  b/2 w, w  1 .
(11.2) x = t+ , x = t , , R, 0 <
< ||t+   1 , 0 < ||t   1 ,

d2 f (x0 + t+ )
f (x0 + t+ ) f (x0 ) =  2 a/4 > 0, (11.3)
2!
d2 f (x0 + t )
f (x0 + t+ ) f (x0 ) =  2 b/4 < 0. (11.4)
2!
(11.3)(11.4) , x0
x0 + t+ , x0 + t , f (x0 +
+ t+ ) f (x0 ) > 0, f (x0 + t+ ) f (x0 ) < 0, x0
. 

11.1.

## f (x1 , x2 ) = x31 + x32 3x1 x2 .

11.3. 221

f
= 3x21 3x2 = 0,
x1

f
= 3x22 3x1 = 0,
x2

 
x01 = 1, x11 = 0,
x02 = 1, x12 = 0.

:
 
2f 6x1 3
= ,
x2 3 6x2
 
2 f  6 3
 = , M1 = 6 > 0, M2 = 27 > 0,
x2 (1,1) 3 6
(1, 1) ;
  
2f  0 3
 = , M1 = 0, M2 = 9,
x2 (0,0) 3 0
2 f 
h(t) = t 2  t = 6t1 t2 , h(1, 1) < 0, h(1, 1) > 0,
x (0,0)
h(t) , (0, 0)
.

11.3.
y = f (x), -
E Rn . M E.
x0 f -
M,
f (x)  f (x0 ) x M.
x0
, B(x0 , ) x0 ,
x0 M B(x0 , ), . .
f (x)  f (x0 ) x M B(x0 , ). , y = x21 + x22
, M x1 + x2 = 1, (1/2, 1/2)
(. 11.1).
222 11.

. 11.1

.
M (x1 , . . . , xn ),

F1 (x1 , . . . , xm , . . . , xn ) = 0,
............................. (11.5)

Fm (x1 , . . . , xm , . . . , xn ) = 0.
Fi (x1 , . . . , xm , . . . , xn ) = 0, i = 1, . . . , m, -
.

x1
... x1 xm+1

x=
xm , z =
... ,t = ...
... xm xn
xn

F1 (z, t)
F (x) = F (z, t) = . . . . . . . . ,
Fm (z, t)
y = f (x) (11.5)
:
y = f (z, t),
F (z, t) = 0.
11.3. 223

, -
:
1) f, Fi , i = 1, . . . , m, -
E;
dF (x)
2) = m x M.
dx
, -
Fi (z, t), i = 1, . . . , m, E.
x0 = (z0 , t0 ) , M.
dF (x) 
2), m 
dx x0
. ,

F 
det 
= 0.
z x0

F (z, t) = 0
(z0 , t0 ) -
z = (t),
T t0 .

## g(t) = f ((t), t), t T.

M x0
{((t), t)}, t T, x0 = (z0 , t0 )
f
M = {(z, t) : F (z, t) = 0} , t0
g(t). . 11.2 ,
g(t)
,

dg(t)
= 0. (11.6)
dt

t0 (11.6). -
2 g 
: ) h(v) = v 2  v
t t0
, ((t0 ), t0 ) -
; ) h(v) , ((t0 ), t0 )
; ) h(v) -
, ((t0 ), t0 ) -
.
224 11.

11.2.

u = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + z 2 yz,
(11.7)
x + y = 1.

x + y = 1 y = 1 x
u, W = x2 + (1 x)2 + z 2 (1 x)z = 2x2
2x + z 2 z + xz + 1.

Wx = 4x + z 2 = 0,
x = 3/7, z = 2/7,
Wz = x + 2z 1 = 0,
 
2W 4 1
= , M1 = 4 > 0, M2 = 7 > 0,
x2 1 2
(3/7, 2/7) W, ,
(3/7, 4/7, 2/7) (11.7).

-
-
. -
z = (t). , . 11.4,
.

11.4.

, f, Fi , i = 1, . . . , m, -
1), 2) . 11.3.

L(x1 , . . . , xn , d1 , . . . , dm ) =

## L(x, d) = f (x) + d F (x) = f (z, t) + d F (z, t),

d = (d1 . . . dm ), di , i = 1, . . . , m, ; x, z, t
, . 11.3.
11.4. 225

x0 f -
M, (11.5).
d 0 = (d01 . . . d0m ) ,
(x0 , d0 ) , . .

L  L 
 = 0,  = 0.
x (x0 ,d0 ) d x0

.
L F f
= d +
z z z
d
F  f 
d  +  = 0. (11.8)
z x0 z x0
F 
(11.8) det  , ,
z x0
(11.8) d 0 = (d01 . . . d0m ).

L  F  f 
 = d 0  +  = 0. (11.9)
z (x0 ,d0 ) z x0 z x0
z = (t) , -
F (z, t) = 0 (z0 , t0 ). -
(t) .

F ((t), t) = 0 (11.10)
t t0 .
t0 g(t) =
= f ((t), t) (. . 11.3)
p(t) = f ((t), t) + d
0 F ((t), t)

( (11.10)).
dp 
,  = 0.
dt t0
(10.21),
dp   F d f d
F f 
 = d
0 + + d 0 +  .
dt t0 z dt z dt t t t0
226 11.

(11.9)
L  F  f 
 = d
0  +  = 0.
t x0 t x0 t x0

L 
 = F (x0 ) = 0
d x0
x0 M. 
, -
:
1) L = f + d F ;
2)
L L
= 0, = 0; (11.11)
x d
3) (11.11);
4) -
.
(11.11) ,
. -
2L
. (x0 , d0 ) (11.11).
 x2
2
L
 , ,
x2 (x0 ,d0 )


F  F   u1 vm+1
 u+  v = 0, u = . . . , v = . . . , (11.12)
z x0 t x0
um vn

u v
 F 1 F 

u(v) =  v.
z t x0
v
   
u(v) 2 L  u(v)
 = h(v).
v x2 (x0 ,d0 ) v

, h(v)
2 g 
v 2  v, g(t) = f ((t), t). . 11.3 :
t t0
h(v) , t0
11.4. 227

g(t), , x0
f M ; h(v)
, x0
; h(v) ,
x0 .
11.3. , -

u = xy + yz,
x2 + y 2 = 2, E = {(x, y, z) : x > 0, y > 0, z > 0}. (11.13)

y + z = 2,

L(x, y, z, d1 , d2 ) = xy + yz + d1 (x2 + y 2 2) + d2 (y + z 2)
E , -
:
 = y + 2d x = 0,

L x 1
x0 = 1,



Ly = x + z + 2d1 y + d2 = 0, y0 = 1, x 1
Lz = y + d2 = 0, z0 = 1, x = y , x0 = 1 .

Ld1 = x2 + y 2 2 = 0, d01 = 1/2,
z 1

Ld2 = y + z 1 = 0, d02 = 1,

 1 1 0
2L 
 = 1 1 1
x2 (x0 ,d01 ,d02 )
0 1 0
(11.12),

u1 + u2 = 0,
u2 + v = 0.
u1 = v, u2 = v.
  2   
u(v) L u(v)
 =
v x2 (x0 ,d0 ) v

1 1 0 v
= (v v v) 1 1 1 v = 6v 2 < 0.
0 1 0 v
,
x0 (11.13).
228 11.

11.5.

y = f (x1 , . . . , xn ),
D Rn . M = sup f (x), m = inf f (x)
xD xD
f D. x
D , f (x ) = M, x
M = max f (x), m = min f (x)
xD xD
, x D , f (x ) = m.
.
1) D , D {x : F (x) = 0},
f, F 1), 2) . 11.3.
: a)
f, intD = {x : x D};
) L = f (x) + d F (x); )
f ( -
) ,
max f (x), min f (x).
xD xD
2) D , f D, f (x) + x D
f 1 , . . . , r D. ,
f (x) + x D, R, K D ,
f (x)  x D \ K.
, min f (x) = min{f (1 ), . . . , f (r )}. , -
xD
K , f (x)  1 + max{f (1 , . . . , f (r )} x
D \ K. , inf f (x) = min f (x). min f (x) >
xD xK xK
> max{f (1 ), . . . , f (r )},

## min f (x) = min{f (1 ), . . . , f (r )}.

xD

D Rn ,

x0 , x1 D, : 0   1 x = x0 + (x1 x0 ) D.

f : D R , D -
x0 , x1 D, , 0   1, -

## f (x )  f (x0 ) + (f (x1 ) f (x0 )).

11.5. 229

-

f : D R , -
D. x D
2 f (x)
, f -
x2
.
. , x
2 f (x)
D u u -
x2
. x0 , x1 D.
(t) = f (x0 + t(x1 x0 )), 0  t  1,  (t).
,

## df (x0 + t(x1 x0 ))  df (x + t(x x )) 

0 1 0
 (t) = (x1 x0 ) = (x1 x0 ) ,
dx dx
2 f (x0 + t(x1 x0 ))
 (t) = (x1 x0 ) (x1 x0 ).
x2
,  (t) > 0 t [0, 1].

(t) [0, 1], . . t0 , t1 [0, 1],
, 0   1, (t0 +(t1 t0 ))  (t0 )+((t1 )(t0 )).
t0 = 0, t1 = 1, f (x )  f (x0 ) +
+ (f (x1 ) f (x0 )). 

f : D R , x0 -
. x0 -
f D.
. , x1 D ,

## f (x1 ) < f (x0 ). (11.14)

t = 0 (t) =
= f (x0 +t(x1 x0 )), t [, 1], > 0 , x0 (x1 x0 )
D. , [, 1] ().
(. 4.5),
t = 0 (t), t [, 1]. ,
(1)  (0), f (x1 )  f (x0 ), (11.14). 
12

12.1.
D 0uv, D ,
D D = D D, x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v), z = z(u, v)
, D. M (u, v)
(x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)), (u, v) D, 0xyz -

x = x(u, v),
y = y(u, v), (u, v) D. (12.1)

z = z(u, v),

x(u, v)
r = r(u, v) = y(u, v) , (u, v) D,
z(u, v)
( -
, -
, , ,
). , -
, . .
(u1 , v1 ), (u2 , v2 ) D, D,
r(u1 , v1 )
= r(u2 , v2 ).
m ,
r(u, v) m D.
12.1.

x = u, x = 3 cos cos ,
0   2,
y = v, (u, v) D; y = 3 sin cos ,
/2   /2,
z = c + au + bv, z = 3 sin ,
12.1. 231

(. 12.1) 3
(0,0,0) (. 12.2).

. 12.1. . 12.2.

## x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t) , -

[a, b]. M (t) 0xyz
(x(t), y(t), z(t)), t [a, b],

x = x(t),
y = y(t), t [a, b].

z = z(t),

x(t)
r = r(t) = y(t) , t [a, b],
z(t)
. -
, ,
,
(
). , -
,
b
x2 (t) + y 2 (t) + z 2 (t)dt. (12.2)
a

x = x(t),
AB + : y = y(t), t [a, b], - ,

z = z(t),
f (x, y, z), P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z)
.
232 12.

b 
f (x(t), y(t), z(t)) x2 (t) + y 2 (t) + z 2 (t)dt := f (x, y, z)ds
a AB +

f
AB + .

b 
P (x(t), y(t), z(t))x(t)dt := P (x, y, z)dx, (12.3)
a AB +

b 
Q(x(t), y(t), z(t))x(t)dt := Q(x, y, z)dy,
a AB +
b 
R(x(t), y(t), z(t))x(t)dt := R(x, y, z)dz
a AB +
-
AB + .
S : r = r(u, v), (u, v) D, -
; (u0 , v0 ) , D.

x = x(u0 , t), x = x(t, v0 ),
l: y = y(u0 , t), t [v0 , v0 +], l1 : y = y(t, v0 ), t [u0 , u0 +], > 0,

z = z(u0 , t), z = z(t, v0 ),

S ,

  
rv = xv (u0 , v0 ) i + yv (u0 , v0 ) j + zv (u0 , v0 ) k,
  
ru = xu (u0 , v0 ) i + yu (u0 , v0 ) j + zu (u0 , v0 ) k,
, -
l l1 (u0 , v0 ) .
S : r = r(u, v), (u, v) D
, (u, v) D ru , rv -
. ,
[ru , rv ] .
, ru (u0 , v0 ), rv (u0 , v0 ) -
(x0 , y0 , z0 ) = (x(u0 , v0 ), y(u0 , v0 ), z(u0 , v0 )),
12.1. 233

S (x0 , y0 , z0 ) .

x x0 y y 0 z z 0
det xu yu zu = 0.
xv yv zv
, -
,
(. 12.3).

. 12.3. ( ) ( )

     
yu yv zu zv xu xv
[ru , rv ] = det i + det j + det k
zu zv xu xv yu yv
.

        
yu yv zu zv xu xv
A = det , B = det , C = det .
zu zv xu xv yu yv

x = At + x0 ,
y = Bt + y0 , t R.

z = Ct + z0 ,

## z = f (x, y), (x, y) D, -

.

x = u,
: y = v, (u, v) D.

z = f (u, v),
234 12.

, ,
, z = f (x, y), (x, y) D.
,
z = f (x, y) .
 
rv = j + fv (u0 , v0 ) k, ru = i + fu (u0 , v0 ) k,

= 0,

## fu (u0 , v0 )(x x0 ) + fv (u0 , v0 )(y y0 ) (z z0 ) = 0

,

x = fu (u0 , v0 )t + x0 ,
y = fv (u0 , v0 )t + y0 , t R,

z = t + z0 ,

12.2.

x = x(u, v),
S : r = r(u, v) = y = y(u, v), (u, v) D,

z = z(u, v),
. D , 0u, 0v,
n Dk . ,
D. Dk . Mk = (uk , vk )
, D, Mk = (uk + uk , vk ),
Mk = (uk , vk + vk ) (. 12.4).
Dk r = r(u, v) Sk ,
S (. 12.5).

. 12.4 . 12.5
12.2. 235

Sk Qk , -
: S Pk =
= (xk , yk , zk )), xk = x(uk , vk ), yk = y(uk , vk ), zk = z(uk , vk ),
Qk Pk = (xk , yk , zk )),

Lk = (xk + xu (uk , vk )uk , yk + yu (uk , vk )uk , zk + zu (uk , vk )uk ),

Nk = (xk + xv (uk , vk )vk , yk + yv (uk , vk )vk , zk + zv (uk , vk )vk ).
Qk ru (uk , vk ), rv (uk , vk ),

     
    uk vk 
.Qk = [Pk Lk , Pk Nk ] = [ru , rv ]
(uk ,vk )

( |a| a -
0xyz ). Qk
n 
 
   
=  u v
[r , r ] uk vk .
(uk ,vk )
k=1


   
[ru , rv ]dudv. [ru , rv ]
D
D, D ,
, ({Dk }m ), k =
= 1, . . . , nm , m +0 (uk , vk )m
(Dk )m
 
nm
   
lim  
[ru , rv ] ((u ,v )m ) .(Dk )m = [ru , rv ]dudv.
m k k
k=1
D


 
.S = [ru , rv ]dudv (12.4)
D

S.
S : x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v), z = z(u, v), (u, v) D, -
- , D
-
Di , i = 1, . . . , r, , Di , Dj
Si : r = r(u, v), (u, v)
Di , (. 12.6).
236 12.

. 12.6. -

- S

r
.Si . -
i=1

   ,
S [ru , rv ]dudv.
D  
[ru , rv ] = A2 + B 2 + C 2 , (12.4)

.S = A2 + B 2 + C 2 dudv. (12.5)
D

 
'
[a, b] = |a||b| sin(ab),

## (a, b) = |a||b| cos(ab),'

 
' , [a, b]2
ab
 2
[a, b] = |a|2 |b|2 (a, b)2 . , ,
 
[ru , rv ]2 = |ru |2 |rv |2 (ru , rv )2 .
|ru |2 = (ru , ru ) = E, |rv |2 = (rv , rv ) = G, (ru , rv ) = F.
 
[ru , rv ]2 = EGF 2 (12.4)
:

.S = EG F 2 dudv. (12.6)
D
S z =
= f (x, y), (x, y) D, (12.5) :

.S = 1 + (fx )2 + (fy )2 dxdy.
D
12.3. 237

12.3.
w = f (x, y, z) , E
R3 ,
x = x(u, v),
S: y = y(u, v), (u, v) D,

z = z(u, v),
- , E. , -
f (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)) D.

E((u, v))G((u, v)) F 2 ((u, v)), (u, v) D,
, ,
D. f (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)) EG F 2
D ().


f (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)) EG F 2 dudv
D
f -
S (-1)

f (x, y, z)ds.
S
,
 
f (x, y, z)ds := f (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)) EG F 2 dudv.
S D
-1
1.
S : r = r(u, v), (u, v) D . D1 , . . . , Dk
D -
, . ,
S Si , Si , i = 1, . . . , k,
c r = r(u, v), (u, v) Di .
-  S Si , i =
1, . . . , k, S f (x, y, z)ds, -1
-1, . .
 k 
f (x, y, z)ds = f (x, y, z)ds. (12.7)
S i=1 S
i
238 12.

2. . (x, y, z)  -
S (x, y, z). -1 S (x, y, z)ds -
S.
. -

x = x(u, v),
S: y = y(u, v), (u, v) D. (12.8)

z = z(u, v),

(u0 , v0 ) D. L =
= (x(u0 , v0 ), y(u0 , v0 ), z(u0 , v0 )) S.
.
M (u, v) = (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)), (u, v) D,
.
M (u, v) S

[ru , rv ]
n(u, v) =
|[ru , rv ]|
n(u, v). , n = n(u, v)
D .
n(u, v) n(u, v) q(u, v). (S, q) -
S +
(. 12.7).

. 12.7.

(S, q) , -
S .
.
12.3. 239

S S. ,
- .
S + ,
S, ,
, -
, S .

. S, -
, .
S - ,
S1 , . . . , Sk , Si -
- Si , Sj ,
, - -
. S1+ S1 .
S1 .
, S1+ , , -
, S1+ . .
- S , -
-
Si , i = 1, . . . , k. -
Si+ . -
(S1+ , . . . , Sk+ ) -
S. -
.
E R3
P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) S + = (S, q)
, S E.

 

P (x, y, z) cos(qi)ds, (
P (x, y, z) cos(qi)ds,
S S

 

Q(x, y, z) cos(qj)ds, (
Q(x, y, z) cos(qj)ds,
S S

 
'
R(x, y, z) cos(qk)ds, 
R(x, y, z) cos(qk)ds
S S

(-2)
240 12.

  
P (x, y, z)dydz, P (x, y, z)dydz, Q(x, y, z)dxdz,
S+ S S+
  
Q(x, y, z)dxdz, R(x, y, z)dxdy, R(x, y, z)dxdy.
S S+ S
 
P dzdy + Qdxdz +
 S + S +

+ Rdxdy, :
S+

P dzdy + Qdxdz + Rdxdy.
S+

-2
1. -2 -
.
 
 + (qk)
Rdxdy. (qk)  =
S+
= ,  
' = cos(qk),
cos(qk)  Rdxdy = Rdxdy. 
S+ S

2. -2 .
P (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)), Q(x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)),
R(x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)) D q,
S + = (S, q)
(12.8),

[ru , rv ] A B C
n= = i+ j+ k,
|[ru , rv ]| |[ru , rv ]| |[ru , rv ]| |[ru , rv ]|
 
P (x, y, z)dydz = P (x(u, v)y(u, v), z(u, v))Adudv, (12.9)
S+ D
 
Q(x, y, z)dxdz = Q(x(u, v)y(u, v), z(u, v))Bdudv, (12.10)
S+ D
 
R(x, y, z)dydx = R(x(u, v)y(u, v), z(u, v))Cdudv. (12.11)
S+ D
12.3. 241

q = n, (12.9)(12.11)
. 
Rdydx. ,
S+

' = ([ru , rv ], k) C C
cos(nk) = = ,
|[ru , rv ]| |[ru , rv ]| EG F 2
 
R(x, y, z)dydx = 
R(x, y, z) cos((nk))ds =
S+ S

C
= R(x(u, v)y(u, v), z(u, v)) EG F 2 dudv =
EG F 2
D

= R(x(u, v)y(u, v), z(u, v))Cdudv. 
D

3. S -
z = f (x, y), (x, y) D, (S, n) = S +
,

fx fy 1
n= i+ j+ k.
1 + (fx )2 + (fy )2 1 + (fx )2 + (fy )2 1 + (fx )2 + (fy )2

S + ,
-2 2
 
P (x, y, z)dydz = P (x, y, f (x, y))fx (x, y)dxdy,
S+ D
 
Q(x, y, z)dxdz = Q(x, y, f (x, y))fy (x, y)dxdy,
S+ D
 
R(x, y, z)dxdy = R(x, y, f (x, y))dxdy.
S+ D

S+ = (S, n) ,
 
R(x, y, z)dxdy = R(x, y, f (x, y))dxdy.
S+ D
242 12.

## 4. S : x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v), z =

= z(u, v), (u, v) D,

u = (t, ),
(12.12)
v = (t, )

E = E E D. -
I(t, ) (. 8.5).
(12.12) ,
(t, ) E I(t, ) .
u = (t, ), v = (t, ), (t, ) E, -
. L : x = (t, ) = x((t, ), (t, )), y = (t, ) =
= y((t, ), (t, )), z = (t, ) = z((t, ), (t, )), (t, ) E.
(), 0xyz ,
M (u, v) = (x(u, v), y(u, v), (x(u, v))) N (t, ) = ((t, ), (t, ), (t, )),
(u, v) (t, ) D
E, . , L -
S .
L S -
 u = (t, ), v = (t, ), (t, ) E,
+
P dydz + Qdxdz + Rdxdy, S = (S, q(u, v))
S+
S ,
 
P dydz + Qdxdz + Rdxdy = P dydz + Qdxdz + Rdxdy,
S+ L+

## L+ = (L, q((t, ), (t, ))).

 A
Rdxdy q = n = i+
S+ |[ru , rv ]|
B C
+ j+ k. (12.11)
|[ru , rv ]| |[ru , rv ]|
 
R(x, y, z)dxdy = R(x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v))C(u, v)dudv.
S+ D

u = (t, ),
(t, ) E, -
v = (t, ),
, (. 8.5)
 
Rdxdy = R(x((t, ), (t, )), y, z)C((t, ), (t, ))I(t, )dtd.
S+ E
12.3. 243

 
C((t, ), (t, ))I(t, ) = t  t = C1 (t, ),
  
Rdxdy = R((t, ), (t, ), (t, ))C1 (t, )dtd = R(x, y, z)dxdy. 
S+ E L+

12.1. -
, , -
, -
.
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,
.

5. S , -
' = 0 , ,
0z, cos(nk)

R(x, y, z)dydx = 0.
S+

6. (S1+ , . . . , Sk+ ) - -
S,
 k 
  k 

P dydz := P dydz, Qdxdz := Qdxdz,
i=1 i=1
S+ Si+ S+ Si+

 k 

Rdxdy := Rdxdy.
i=1
S+ Si+

12.2. -2

I= xdydz + ydxdz + zdxdy,
S+

S + (. 12.8):

x2 + y 2 = a2 , h  z  h.
244 12.

. 12.8

S :

x = a cos u, 
0  u  2,
y = a sin u, D :
h  v  h.
z = v,

A, B, C S :
     
yu yv zu zv
A = det = a cos u, B = det = a sin u, C = 0.
zu zv xu xv
 
A B C 
n = i+ j+ k 
|[ru , rv ]| |[ru , rv ]| |[ru , rv ]| (/2,0)
0y, q,
, , ,
q = n. -2 ,

I= a2 dudv = a2 .D = 4a2 h.
D

12.4.
T R3 , T
- . T -
R3 , T,
R3 \ T. T +
T (T, q), . . ,
q,
.
12.4. 245

12.1

G 0z , -
- S (. 12.9),
R(x, y) G .
 
Rdxdy = Rz dxdydz,
S+ G

S + .

. 12.9

. -

  z=2 (x,y)

Rz dxdydz = R(x, y, z)  dxdy =
z=1 (x,y)
G D

= (R(x, y, 2 (x, y)) R(x, y, 2 (x, y)))dxdy. (12.13)
D

-2,
 
R(x, y, 2 (x, y))dxdy = R(x, y, z)dxdy, (12.14)
D S2+
246 12.
 
R(x, y, 1 (x, y))dxdy = R(x, y, z)dxdy, (12.15)
D S1+

R(x, y, z)dxdy = 0, (12.16)
S3+

S1 , S2 S3 .
(12.13)(12.16)
  

Rz dxdydz = R(x, y, z)dxdy + R(x, y, z)dxdy+
G S1+ S2+
 
+ R(x, y, z)dxdy = R(x, y, z)dxdy. 
S3+ S+

T R3 , -
, 0z,
, -
0z - ,
0x
0y.
-2
T T R3 -
- P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z),
R(x, y, z) T . -

 
P dzdy + Qdxdz + Rdxdy = (Px + Qy + Rz )dxdydz,
T + T

T + T.
, T .
{Tj }, j = 1, . . . , k, T Tj ,
0z.
12.1

    
 
Rz dxdydz = Rz dxdydz = R(x, y, z)dxdy.
j j
T Tj Tj+
12.5. 247

Tj Tj , -, ,
T T, , -, ,
T. -
, 0z, 5 -2,
,
 

Rz dxdydz = Rdxdy. (12.17)
T T +

{Ti } T Ti , -
0x 0y,
 

Px dxdydz = P dydz, (12.18)
T T +
 
Qy dxdydz = Qdxdz. (12.19)
T T +
(12.17)(12.19) -
. 

12.5.
S + = (S, q) -

x = x(u, v),
S: y = y(u, v), (u, v) D,

z = z(u, v),
D
 ,
u = u(t),
- l : t [a, b], l+ ,
v = v(t),
, , l+ D
.
x = x(u(t), v(t)),
L: y = y(u(t), v(t)), t [a, b],

z = z(u(t), v(t)),
S. , L+ ,
L, -. , -
L+ ,
, S + = L+ ,
S + = L (. 12.10).
248 12.

. 12.10

-2 -2
S + , S + , -
, P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) -
S .
: 
P dx + Qdy + Rdz =
S +
 
R Q   P R   Q P 
= dydz + dxdz + dxdy. (12.20)
y z z x x y
S+

-
( ,
, ).
, S + = L+ q, -
S + , n =
1
= (Ai + Bj + Ck).
|[ru , rv ]|
,
  b
P dx = P dx = P (x(u(t), v(t)), y(u(t), v(t)), z(u(t), v(t)))
S + L+ a

## (xu (u(t), v(t))u (t) + xv (u(t), v(t))v  (t))dt =


= P (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v))(xu (u, v)du + xv (u, v)dv) =
l+
  

= (P xv ) (P xu ) dudv.
u v
D
12.6. 249

, xvu = xuv zu xv zv xu = B, yu xv yv xu = C,
  
 P  P  P   
P dx = xu + yu + z x +
x y z u v
S + D

 P  P  P    
+P xvu xv + yv + zv xu + P xuv dudv =
x y z
   
P P P P
= B C dudv = dxdz dxdy. (12.21)
z y z y
D S+
 
Q Q
Qdy = dxdy dxdz, (12.22)
x z
S + S+
 
R R
Rdz = dydz dxdz. (12.23)
y x
S + S+
(12.21)(12.23), (12.20).

12.2.

 
 
    dydz dxdz dxdy 
 
P dx + Qdy + Rdz =  .
 x y z 

S + S+  P Q R 

12.3.
 , ,
I = l+ (y + z) dx + (z + x) dy + (x + y) dz, l+ ,
x = cos t, y = 2 sin t, z = 0, 0  t  2, . ,
   
P = y + z, Q = z + x, R = x + y Qx Py = 0, Ry Qz =
 
= 0, Pz Rx = 0 , , I = 0.

12.6.

E R3 - ,
L, E, -
S, E, L
. -2 -
(. 9.5) .
250 12.

-2 -

## P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) -

- E.
:
1) L+ , E,

P dx + Qdy + Rdz = 0;
L+

2) A B E

P dx + Qdy + Rdz
AB +

, ;
3) u(x, y, z) ,

du = P dx + Qdy + Rdz (x, y, z) E;
4) P, Q, R

Q P R Q P R
= , = , = (x, y, z) E.
x y y z z x

12.1. .
-2  -
l+ E P dx + Qdy + Rdz = 0.
l+

## 12.3. u(x, y, z) , du = P dx + Qdy +

+ Rdz (x, y, z) E, P dx + Qdy +
+ Rdz E.
(x,y,z)

u(x, y, z) = P dx + Qdy + Rdz,
(x0 ,y0 ,z0 )

(x0 , y0 , z0 ) E, (x, y, z) -
E, P dx + Qdy +
+ Rdz E.
12.7. 251

12.7.

T R3 . T -
f : T R, , T
f. T
a : T R3 , , T a.
P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) a, . .

P (x, y, z)
a(x, y, z) = Q(x, y, z) .
R(x, y, z)

a(x, y, z) ( f (x, y, z) )
, a(x, y, z) (f (x, y, z)) -
T. -
.

f f f
i+ j+ k
x y z
P Q R
+ +
x y z
a(P, Q, R) div(a).

 R Q   P R   Q P 
i+ j+ k
y z z x x y
a(P, Q, R)
 rot(a).
l+ - . P dx+Qdy+Rdz -
l+

 a(P, Q, R) l+

(a, dr), dr = (dx dy dz) , (a, dr) -
l+
. S + = (S, n) S,

A B C
n= i+ j+ k=
A2 2
+B +C 2 2 2
A +B +C 2 A + B2 + C 2
2

 + cos(nj)j
= cos(ni)i  + cos(nk)k.
'
252 12.

  

P (x, y, z) cos(ni)ds + 
Q(x, y, z) cos(nj)ds + '
R(x, y, z) cos(nk)ds
S S S

a S + S

(a, n)ds.
S
, , ,
:
 
(a, dr) = (rot(a), n)ds,
l+ S

l+ , S , -
-2 -2;
 
(a, n)ds = div(a)dxdydz,
E E

E, E , -
-2 .
a : T R3 , T R3 , -
, T, ,
.
-2 -
:
a(P, Q, R)
- T R3 ,
:
1)  ;
2) (a, dr) ,
AB +
A, B T ;
3) u(x, y, z) , grad(u) = a (x, y, z) T ;
4) , . . rot(a) = 0 (x, y, z) T.
, ,
a.
T R3 - ,
E, T, T.
- . ,
, .
12.7. 253

a ,
, T, .

a(x, y, z) -
T, ,

div(a) = 0 (x, y, z) T.

. . , . . -

 (x0 , y0 , z0 ), div(a)
= 0.
div(a) (x0 ,y0 ,z0 ) > 0. (x, y, z) div(a) T. -
B((x0 , y0 , z0 ), r),
T, , div(a) > 0 (x, y, z) B((x0 , y0 , z0 ), r). S +
S((x0 , y0 , z0 ), r).
 
(a, n)ds = div(a)dxdydz > 0,
S+ B

a.
. D,
T, T
 -,
 D T.
(a, n)ds = div(a)dxdydz = 0.
D + D
D , a -
. 
13

13.1.

a 1 , a 2 , . . . , an , . . . .


a1 + a2 + . . . + an + . . . = ak
k=1
n
, sn = k=1 ak
.
(sn ) , 
, s = lim sn s = k=1 ak .
n
lim sn , ,
n
. , lim sn = , ,
n
.

, ,
. . lim an = 0.
n

. s (sn ). -
(sn+1 ) s. an+1 = sn+1 sn ,
lim an+1 = s s = 0. 
n
an  0, , an > 0,
.
13.1. 255

,
.
. sn
.
, . 

0  an  bn n N, (13.1)
 
n=1 bn n=1 an ,
.
 
.
  An = nk=1 ak , Bn = nk=1 bk -

n=1 an , n=1 bn . (13.1)
0  An  Bn . Bn
An , An -
Bn .

 .  
n=m an , m N, n=1 an . ,
, . -
, .

 
n=1 an , n=1 bn .
an  
1. lim = l, 0 < l < , n=1 an , n=1 bn
n bn
.
an 
2. lim = 0, n=1 bn
 n bn  
n=1 an , n=1 an n=1 bn .
an 
3. lim = , n=1 an -
n bn  
n=1 bn , n=1 an n=1 bn .
. 1. = l/2, (l/2) > 0, n  (l/2)
a  l
 n  l an 3 l 3
 l  ,   l, bn  an  l bn .
bn 2 2 bn 2 2 2

an  3/2 bn n  (l/2)
l  n=1 bn -

 n=1 a n , n=1 an -

 n=1 n b ; l/2b
n  a n n  (l/2)
 -
n=1 an
 n=1 bn , n=1 bn
a
n=1 n .
256 13.

2.
an
= 1, (1) > 0, n  (1) 0   1, 0  an  bn .
bn


 ,
 n=1 bn -
 n=1 an ,
n=1 an
b
n=1 n .
3.
an
= 1, (1) > 0, n  (1)  1, an  bn .
bn
 

 n=1 b n , n=1 an ,

n=1 an n=1 bn . 

13.2.

n=1 q
n1

n
1 qn
sn = q k1 = .
1q
k=1

1
|q| < 1, sn , ,
n 1q
, |q|  1, lim q n1
= 0, .
n
(an  0)


n an q, q < 1 an , q > 1 .
n n=1
. q < 1. r,

q < r < 1. m , n an  r
an  rn n  m.
 -
n=1 r . q > 1, -
n

 m , n a 1 a  1
n n n  m, , ,
a
n=1 n ,
. 

13.1

an > 0, bn > 0
an+1 bn+1
 n N,
an bn
 

 n=1 bn
 n=1 an , -
n=1 an n=1 bn .
13.3. 257

.
a 2 b2 a 3 b3 an+1 bn+1
 ,  , ...,  .
a 1 b1 a2 b2 an bn
,
an+1 bn+1 a1
 , an+1  bn+1 n.
a1 b1 b1
. 
(an > 0)
an+1 
q, q < 1 n=1 an , q > 1 -
an n
.
. q < 1. p,
q < p < 1. m ,
an+1 pn+1
p= n  m.
an pn
 n 
n=1 p .
 13.1 n=m an ,
a
n=1 n .
q > 1, k ,
an+1
 1 n  k,
an
. . an+1  an n  k. an ,
, , ,
 ,
a
n=1 n . 

13.3. .


f (x), x  1, n=1 an ,
f (n) = an n N.
(an  0)

f (x), n=1 an , , -
,

 A
f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx.
A
1 1
258 13.

. f (x) ,


k+1

k


n+1

## sn  f (x)dx  sn+1 a1 . (13.2)

1

A
sn F (A) = f (x)dx -
1
. (13.2) , sn
F (A) , . . -
. 

 1
13.1. , -
n=1 n
. ,

A
dx
= ln A +.
x A
1

 1

,
= 1, > 1 -
n=1 n
< 1,

A 1
dx A1 1 , > 1,
= 1
x 1 A +, < 1.
1

(an  0)
M 
an , M const, 0 < M < +, > 1 n=1 an
n n
,  1 .

-
. 
13.4. 259

13.4.
an+1
lim n -
an , lim
n an n
1, .
.
(an > 0)
 a 
n
lim n 1 = q,
n an+1

q > 1 n=1 an , q < 1 .
. q > 1. p s , 1 <
< s < p < q. m,
 a 
n
n 1  p,
an+1
an p
 + 1 n  m. (13.3)
an+1 n
(. 2.11)
(1 + 1/n)s 1
lim = s.
n 1/n
m1  m ,
(1 + 1/n)s 1 p
 p (1 + 1/n)s  + 1 n  m1 . (13.4)
1/n n
(13.3) (13.4)
an an+1 1 1/(n + 1)s
(1 + 1/n)s   = .
an+1 an (1 + 1/n)s 1/ns



1/ns . 13.1 an .
n=1 n=1
q < 1. m ,
 a 
n
n 1  1 n  m
an+1
an 1 an+1 1 1/(n + 1)
 +1  = .
an+1 n an 1 + 1/n 1/n

. 13.1 n=1 an
. 
260 13.

13.1.
an 1  1 
= 1 + + o 1+ , > 0,
an+1 n n


an ( ).
n=1

13.2.  an  0, n=1 an -
. nk=1 ak = nk=1 (ak ) ,
 -
n=1 (an ).

13.5.

n=1 an , -
-
.



an ,
n=1

 n+p 
  
> 0, () > 0, n N : n  (), p N  ak   .
k=n+1

-
. , sn -
,

## > 0, () > 0, n N : n  (), p N |sn+p sn |  .

 n+p   n+p 
    
n

|sn+p sn | =  ak ak  =  ak   . 
k=1 k=1 k=1+n

13.2




|an | , an .
n=1 n=1
13.6. 261



. |an |
n=1

## > 0, () > 0, n N : n  (), p N


n+p
   n+p
    
n+p
ak    
ak   ak   .
k=1+n k=1+n k=1+n

n=1 an . 

 n=1 a n ,
|a
n=1 n |. 13.2 ,
.
 
n=1 an
 , n=1 |an |
, n=1 an .

13.6.


(1)n1 an , an > 0 n N, (13.5)
n=1
.

an ,
(13.5)

 

 
 (1)k1 ak   an+1 n N0 .
k=1+n

. an -
.
:

## = a1 (a2 a3 ) . . . (a2m2 a2m1 ) a2m .

, s2m
: 0  s2m  s2m+2 , :
s2m  a1 m N. , lim s2m = s, <
m
< s < +.
262 13.

## = (a1 a2 ) + . . . + (a2m1 a2m ) + a2m+1 .

, s2m+1
: s2m1  s2m+1 , : s2m1  0
m N. , lim s2m+1 = s, < s < +.
m
s2m+1 s2m = a2m+1 0, s, s , c-
 m
, n=1 (1)
n1 a = s = s = s.
n
s2m  s  s2m+1

## |s2m s|  s2m+1 s2m = a2m+1 ,

|s2m1 s|  s2m1 s2m = a2m .
 
 k=n+1 (1)
k1 a   a
k n+1 . 

13.7.

13.3

a1 , . . . , ap , b1 , . . . , bp
, s = a1 b1 + + ap bp , p N, Bk = b1 + + bk , |Bk |  M const k =
= 1, . . . , p. |s|  M (|a1 | + 2|ap |).
ai :

## = (a1 a2 )B1 + + (ap1 ap )Bp1 + ap Bp ,

|s|  |a1 a2 ||B1 | + + |ap1 ap ||Bp1 | + |ap ||Bp |
M (|a2 a1 + a3 a2 + + ap ap1 | + |ap |)  M (|a1 | + 2|ap |). 

:
1) am
 ;
2) Bn n=1 bn , . . |Bn |  M
const n N,
n=1 an bn .
. an 0,
n

## > 0, () > 0, n  () |an |  . (13.6)

13.8. 263

n N, p N

 n+p   n+p 
    
n

 bi   b i b i   2M. (13.7)
i=n+1 i=1 i=1

13.3 (13.6)(13.7),

 n+p 
  
 ai bi   2M (|an+1 | + 2|an+p |)  6M n  (), p N.
i=n+1

(. 13.5) n=1 an bn . 

:
1)
 an ;
2)  b
n=1 n ,
n=1 an bn .

. n=1 bn , -
(. 13.5)

 n+p 
  
> 0, () > 0, n  (), p N  bi   . (13.8)
i=n+1

## |an |  M n N, 13.3 (13.8),


 n+p 
 ai bi   (|an+1 | + 2|an+p |)  3M n  (), p N.
i=n+1

n=1 an bn . 

13.8.

1.
 
 n=1 an n=1 bn , , R
n=1 (an + bn )




(an + bn ) = an + bn . (13.9)
n=1 n=1 n=1
264 13.

n n n
, k=1 (ak + bk ) = k=1 ak + k=1 bk .
, (13.9).
2.

n=1 an , -
( ) . -
, -

. , n=1 an -
, ,
.
. , (1 1) +
(11) + . . . , 11+11 + . . . .
. -,
. -,
().
3.


an . bk = 1/2(|ak | + ak ), ck = 1/2(|ak | ak ).
n=1
ak = bk ck , |ak | = bk + ck , bk  0, ck  0 k N.

13.4

n=1 an
 ,
b
n=1 n n=1 n .
c
. .
 |ak |  bk  0, |ak |  ck  0.
n=1 bn , n=1 cn .
 
 . n=1 bn , n=1 cn ,
n=1 an , . 

13.1
  
n=1 an , n=1 bn , n=1 cn
.
 
. n=1 bn , n=1 cn , -

  n=1 an . 

n=1 b n , n=1 c n , , n=1 an
, , . , -



b
n=1 n , n=1 n . 
c
13.8. 265

(mn )
(n), (mn )

. (mn )  (n), n=1 amn

n=1 an .


n=1 an , -
.
 n
. an , k=1 amk 
Q n=1
 k=1 ak , Q = max{m1 , . . . , mn },



a mn  an ,
n=1 n=1

. .
 . n=1 an

 n=1 amn , .

 n=1 a n , n=1 bn
n=1 cn ,







an = bn cn = b mn c mn = am n . 
n=1 n=1 n=1 n=1 n=1 n=1

4.  
n=0 an n=0 bn .

c0 = a0 b0 = ni=0 ai b
, c1 = a0 b1 + a1 b0 , c2 = a0 b2 + a1 b1 + a2 b0 , . . . , cn  ni , . . . .

c
n=0 n a
n=0 n , n=0 bn .

  
n=0 an , n=0 an , n=0 cn

 
 n 
 

cn = ai bni = an bn .
n=0 n=0 i=0 n=0 n=0

.





S= |an |, T = |bn |, A = an , B = bn .
n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0


n n 
 k   n 
k 
n  
n 
 
|ck | =  ai bni   |ai ||bni |  |ak | |bk |  ST,
k=0 k=0 i=0 k=0 i=0 k=0 k=0
266 13.

n
. . k=0 |ck | , , -


 .
( nk=0 |ak |)( nk=0 |bk |)  ST ,

a0 b0 + a0 b1 + a1 b0 + a0 b2 + a1 b1 + a2 b0 + a0 b3 + a1 b2 + a2 b1 + a3 b0 + (13.10)

.
, (13.10)

a0 b0 + a0 b1 + a1 b0 + a1 b1 + a0 b2 + a1 b2 + a2 b2 + a2 b1 + a2 b0 +

+a0 b3 + a1 b3 + a2 b3 + a3 b3 + a3 b2 + a3 b1 + a3 b0 + .
n Ln , Ln2 =
n
= ( k=0 ak ) ( k=0 bk ), , Ln2 AB, Ln AB.
 n+ 
c
n=0 n (13.10) , n=0 cn =
= AB. 

13.9.
n, m
anm , , -
(anm ).
A ,

## > 0, () > 0, n, m  () |anm A|  ,

A= lim anm .
n,m

, A R, -
. (anm ) (bm ), (cn ),
bm = lim anm , cn = lim anm . lim bm = lim ( lim anm ),
n m m m n
lim cn = lim ( lim anm )
n n m
.

(anm ) m N
bm = lim anm ,
n

n,m m n
13.9. 267

## . A = lim anm . > 0, () >

n,m
> 0, n, m  () |anm A|  . n
, |bm A|  . lim bm = A. 
m
(anm )
, n, m N, i  n, j  m -
anm  aij .
-

,
. . |anm |  M const n, m N, .
. A = sup {anm }. > 0 -
n,mN
n(), m() , an()m() > A . -
(anm ) , i, j  max{n(), m()} = ()
A < aij  A. |aij A|  i, j  (), . . lim aij = A. 
i,j


anm . -
n,m=1
n 
m
snm = aki .
k=1 i=1
lim snm = A, -
n,m
, A .
(anm  0) -
, ,
.


anm ,
n,m=1


|anm |.
n,m=1
().

.



anm m
 n,m=1
n=1 anm ,
 
 
anm = anm .
n,m=1 m=1 n=1
268 13.

13.10.
p1 , p2 , . . . , pn , . . . , pi R.
)

p1 p2 pn = pn , -
n=1
)
n
Pn = pk -
k=1
. a
= 0 (Pn ),
. lim Pn
n
, ,
. lim Pn = 0, -
n
.

1. .
)

pn , lim pn = 1.
n=1 n
Pn A
. lim pn = lim = = 1. 
n Pn1n A
)

2. pn , pn > 0, -
 n=1
,  n=1 ln pn .
n
. Sn = k=1 ln pk . Pn = e .
Sn

## lim Sn = S, lim Pn = e . , lim Pn = A, lim Sn =

S
n n n n
= ln A. 
3. pn pn = 1 + n . n > 0 1 < n < 0,
 ,

n=1 n .
. ln(1 + n ) n , -
 n 0
n=1 ln(1 + n ) n=1 n
. 2. 
4. , -


ln pn . -
n=1

 ,
n=1 n .
(mn ) (n).
)
)

pn , pmn
n=1 n=1
)
)

pn = pmn ().
n=1 n=1
14

14.1.

(an (x)),
E. , -
x E lim an (x).
n

n

## (an (x)). a(x) =

= lim an (x), x E, c - :
n

## x E, > 0, (, x) > 0, n N : n  (, x) |an (x) a(x)|  . (14.1)

, (14.1),
E a(x).
(an (x)) , (14.1)

## > 0, () > 0, n N : n  (), x E |an (x) a(x)|  , (14.2)

E -

E
an (x) a(x).
n

> 0 (),
x E, |an (x)
a(x)|  n  ().
270 14.

an (x) E a(x) -
, lim sup |an (x) a(x)| = 0.
n xE

. .

xE n xE
.

## > 0, () > 0, n N : n  () sup |an (x) a(x)|  .

xE

E
x E |an (x) a(x)|  , . . an (x) a(x). 
n

## 14.1. an (x) = xn , x [0, 1), -

a(x) 0 [0, 1), -
. ,
lim sup |an (x) a(x)| = lim sup xn = [ lim xn = 1] = lim 1 = 1
= 0.
n x[0,1) n x[0,1) x10 n

## 14.2. an (x) = xn xn+1 , x

[0, 1). a(x) = lim (xn xn+1 ) = 0
n
. lim sup (xn xn+1 ) = [(xn xn+1 ) =
n x[0,1)
n
= nxn1 (n + 1)xn = 0, x = 0, x = , lim (xn xn+1 ) = 0)] =
 n n  n + 1
n 
x10
= lim 1 = 0,
n n + 1 n+1
[0, 1)
a(x) 0.

(an (x)) E -
,

## |an (x) an+p (x)|  . (14.3)

14.2. 271

.
|an (x) an+p (x)|  |an+p (x) a(x)| + |an (x) a(x)|.
. (14.3) -
-
(an (x)).
lim an (x) = a(x), x E.
n
n  () x E
p an+p (x)  an (x)  an+p (x)+,
E
a(x)  an (x)  a(x) + . , an (x) a(x). 
n

14.2.
, , .

n=1 an (x), an : E R,
E, sn (x)
E, . .
 

 
> 0, () > 0, n N : n  (), x E |sn (x) s(x)| =  ak (x)  .
k=n+1

(. 14.1).

E ,

 

 
lim sup  ak (x) = 0.
n xE
k=n+1

E ,

 n+p 
  
> 0, () > 0, n N : n  (), p N, x E  ak (x)  .
k=n+1
272 14.

14.3. ,

 n
 x xn+1 
, 1 < x < 1.
n n+1
n=1

    xn+1 
    1
lim sup  ak (x) = lim sup   = lim =
n x(1,1) k=n+1 n x(1,1) n + 1 n n + 1
= 0.
(1, 1).

 n=1 bn E -

n=1 an (x),

## |an (x)|  bn x E n N. (14.4)

-

E,
E.
.
 n+p 
  
> 0, () > 0, n  (), p N, x E  bk   .
k=n+1

(14.4)

 n+p   n+p 
     
n  (), p N, x E  ak (x)   bk   .
k=n+1 k=n+1

, n=1 an (x)
E. 
 sin x 
  1
14.4.  2   2 x R,
n n

 sin x
n2
n=1

R .
14.3. 273

14.3.

:
E
1) an (x) 0;
n
2) x E (an (x))
; 
3) Bn (x) n=1 bn (x) , . . |Bn (x)|  M
const x
 E, n N.
n=1 an (x)bn (x) E.

E
. an (x) 0,
n

## > 0, () > 0, n  (), x E |an (x)|  . (14.5)


n=1 bn (x)

 n+p   n+p 
    
n

 bn (x)   bk (x) bk (x)  2M x E, n, p N. (14.6)
k=n+1 k=1 k=1

## 13.3 (14.5), (14.6),

 n+p 
  
 an (x)bn (x)2M (|an+1 (x)|+2|an+p (x)|)6M n(), p N, x E
k=n+1


(. 14.2) n=1 an (x)bn (x) -
E. 

:
1) (an (x)) , . . |an (x)|  M const x
E, n N;
2) x E (an (x))
;

3) 
n=1 bn (x) E.
n=1 an (x)bn (x) E.
274 14.

. -

n=1 bn (x),

 n+p 
  
> 0, () > 0, n  (), p N, x E  bk (x)  .
k=n+1

, 13.3 ,
 n+p 
  
 an (x)bn (x)  (|an+1 (x)| + 2|an+p (x)|)  3M .
k=n+1

(. 14.2) n=1 an (x)bn (x) -
E. 
 sin nx
14.5. , x
n=1 n
[1, 2]. , n
 .
k=1 sin kx n=1 sin nx :
 sin(nx/2) sin((n + 1)x/2) 
  1
| sin x + . . . + sin nx| =   x [1, 2], n N.
sin x/2 sin 1
(1/n) x, -
, -
(1/n) : 1/n >
> 1/(n + 1), lim 1/n = 0.
n
[1, 2].

14.4.

-
(. 2.9). , . .
, , , .

14.6. n=1 (x x ), x [0, 1]. -
n n+1

## sn (x) = nk=1 (xk xk+1 ) = xxn+1 .

,

x, x [0, 1),
s(x) = lim (x x n+1
)=
n 0, x = 1.

## xn xn+1 [0, 1], s(x)

, x = 1.
14.5. 275

,
.


n=1 an (x) [c, d]
[c, d], [c, d].
. s(x) x0 , x0 + x [c, d].
> 0. ,

n  (). s(x)

sn (x) x0 ,

(14.7)(14.9)

## |s(x0 + x) s(x0 )|  3 x : |x|  (),

s(x) x0 . 

14.5.


|c, d| n=1 an (x) -
|c, d|
[, ] |c, d|, . .

  
 



an (x) dx = an (x)dx .
n=1 n=1

.

s(x) = a
n=1 n (x)
276 14.



[, ] |c, d|. An an (x)dx. -
n=1
 
, lim An = s(x)dx. an (x)
n n=1
|c, d|,
 

 
> 0, () > 0, n  (), x |c, d|  ak (x)  .
k=n+1

   
   
n  
 
n  ()  ak (x) dx ak (x) dx  ( ).
k=1 k=1

    n   
   
An s(x)dx =  ak (x)dx s(x)dx =
k=1

   
   
n  
 
= ak (x) dx ak (x) dx  ( ).
k=1 k=1


lim An = s(x)dx. 
n

14.6.

: 
1) n=1 an (x) [c, d];
2) an (x)
  [c, d];
3)  n=1 an (x) [c, d],
n=1 an (x) ,
. .
  
an (x) = an (x) x [c, d].
n=1 n=1
14.7. 277

.  
n=1 an (x)
[c, x] [c, d], . .
x  
 

x

## an (x) dx = an (x)dx =

c n=1 n=1 c




= (an (x) an (c)) = an (x) an (c). (14.10)
n=1 n=1 n=1
 
s(x) =
n=1 an (x)
[c, d] , , (. 6.6),
(14.10)
x 


 
  
  

an (x) dx = an (x) = an (x) + an (c) = an (x)
c n=1 n=1 n=1 n=1 n=1

14.7.

n=1 an (x)
|c, d|, [, ]
|c, d|.
,
.

14.7.


xn , x (1, +1).
n=1

## [, ] (1, +1) |xn |  pn x

[, ], n N, p = max{||, ||}.
 n=1 p
n ,

n=1 x [, ],
n

. . (1, 1).
 
  xn+1 
   
lim sup  xn  = lim 
sup  = .
n x(1,+1) n x(1,+1) 1 x
k=n+1

n=1 x
n
(1, 1).
278 14.


n=1 an (x) |c, d| -
|c, d|, |c, d|.
, |c, d| -
(c, d). x0 (c, d).
[x0 , x0 + ], > 0, (c, d).
[x0 , x0 + ], ,
x0 . x0 (c, d),
(c, d). 

: 
1) n=1 an (x) |c, d|;
2) an (x)
 |c, d|;
3)  n
n=1 a  (x) |c, d|,

n=1 an (x)
|c, d| ().

|c, d|,
[, ] |c, d|.
1. (an (x))
|c, d|
|c, d| a(x), a(x) |c, d|.

. n=1 (an (x) an1 (x)), a0 (x) 0.

sn (x) = (a1 (x) a0 (x)) + (a2 (x) a1 (x)) + . . . + (an (x) an1 (x)) = an (x)

## (an (x)). s(x)

lim an (x) = a(x).
n
s(x) |c, d|, ,
a(x). 
2. :
1) (an (x))
|c, d|;
2) an (x)
|c, d|;
3) (an (x)) -
|c, d|.
14.7. 279

(an (x))
, . .

## ( lim an (x)) = lim an (x) x |c, d|.

n n

. n=1 (an (x)
an1
(x)), a0 (x) 0, (an (x))

n=1 (an (x) an1 (x)) -
,

   

  
lim an (x) = an (x) an1 (x) =
n
n=1


= (an (x) an1 (x)) = lim an (x) x |c, d|.
n
n=1

3. (an (x))
|c, d|
|c, d|, [, ] |c, d|

 
 
lim an (x) dx = lim an (x)dx ().
n n

15

15.1.


an (x x0 )n , an R,
n=0

.
 x x0 x
n . .
a
n=0 n x

n=0 an x x =
= 0, -
n

(||, ||).

. n=0 an
n

lim an = 0. (an )
n n
n
(. 1.5) |an n |  M const n N. [, ],
(||, ||). x [, ]
 n  p n
n x  
|an x | = |an |   M   = M q n ,
n


p = max{||, ||}, q = p/|| < 1.  n=0n|an x | [, ]
n

 n=0 M q . -
n=0 an x
n [, ]. -
[, ]
(. 13.1).  
E  n=0 an x , . . -
n

x = , n=0 an
n
15.1. 281

. E ,
x = 0.
R = sup{||}, 0  R  +,
E
.
, -
(R, R) |x| > R.
x = R, x = R , .
15.1.


 xn n |xn |
, lim = |x|.
n n n
n=0

## |x| < 1 |x| > 1.


x = 1, 1/n, , x = 1,
n=0


(1)n /n, .
n=0
E = [1, 1).

1) .

lim n |an | = q, 0  q  ,
n

R n=0 an x
n 1/q (R = 0 q = ,

R = q = 0). 
. n=0 |an x | :
n

lim n |an xn | = q|x|.
n

## 0 < q < . q|x| < 1, . . |x| < 1/q, ,

q|x| > 1, . . |x| > 1/q, . , R = 1/q.
q = 0, x R = , q = ,
x
= 0 R = 0.   a 
 n 
2) . lim   = p,
n an+1
0  p  , R = p.
. 0 < p < . -

|an xn | :
n=0

|an+1 xn+1 | 1
lim = |x|.
n |an x |
n p
282 15.

## |x|/p < 1, . . |x| < p, , |x|/p > 1, . . |x| > p,

. , R = p.
p = 0, x
= 0 R = 0,
p = , x R = . 
3)

15.1

lim bn = p < , (15.1)
n

) d > p, > 0, n  bn  d;
) r < p, (bni ) ,
lim bni > r.
i
. ) :
d > p, m N, nm  m bnm > d .
p < , (bnm ) . -
(bnmk ) ,
lim bnmk  d > p, (15.1).
k
) -

. 
lim n
|an | = q, 0  q  ,
n
:

1/q, 0 < q < ,
R= 0, q = ,

+, q = 0.
0 < q < . |x| < 1/q. r
, |x| < 1/r < 1/q, . . q < r, r|x| < 1. 15.1

> 0, n  n |an |  r n |an ||x|  r|x| |an ||x|n  rn |x|n .


 n=1 (r|x|)
n ,

|an x |, n  , . , R  1/q.
n

|x| > 1/q, r , |x| > 1/r > 1/q, . . r < q, r|x| >
> 1. 15.1 |anm |1/nm ,
|anm |1/nm > r m. |anm |1/nm |x| > r|x| |anm ||x|nm > 1, . . -
|an xn | n . ,

n=0 |an x | . , R = 1/q. 
n
15.2. 283

15.2.
1)
,  R, R1 R 2 -

a
n=0 n x n b
n=0 n x n , ] Q, Q[, Q =

= min{R1 , R2 },




(an x + bn x ) =
n n
an x +
n
a n xn x, |x| < Q, (15.2)
n=0 n=0 n=0

 n  
 

n
ai bni x = an x n
bn x n x, |x| < Q. (15.3)
n=0 i=0 n=0 n=0
-
]Q, Q[ , (15.2) (15.3)
(. 13.8).
2)

s(x) a
n=0 n x n -

.
. (R, R),
s(x)
(R, R)
(. 14.7).
, ,
x = R. ,
[0, R]. (. 14.3).

  x n
an R n .
R
n=0

n=0 an R , ((x/R) ) -
n n

x [0, R] |(x/R)n |  1 n
N, x [0, R]. (. 14.4) s(x) -
[0, R], , x = R. , -
x = R
. 
3)
x
x  

 an xn+1
an tn dt = (). (15.4)
n+1
0 n=0 n=0
284 15.

15.3.

15.2

## lim n = 1, lim n = 1 lim |an | = p, lim n |an |n = p.

n n n n
. A -
(|an |) B -
(n |an |n ), sup{A} = sup{B} lim |an | = lim n |an |n . 
n n


R
= 0 n=0 an x , s(x)
n

, k N.

(k)

s(k) (x) = an x n = n(n 1) . . . (n k + 1)an xnk x (R, R).
n=0 n=k

. , -
r N Rr


n(n 1) . . . (n r + 1)an xnr (15.5)
n=r

R. , 15.2,

n n

## = lim (|an |n(n 1) . . . (n r + 1))1/nr = Rr .

n

n=1 nan xn1 (R, R).

  

a n xn = nan xn1 x (R, R). (15.6)
n=0 n=1



(15.6) nan xn1 ,
n=1




nan xn1 = n(n 1)an xn2 x (R, R).
n=1 n=2
15.4. 285

,

(k)

an xn = n(n 1) . . . (n k + 1)an xnk x (R, R), k N. 
n=0 n=k

f  (c) f (n) (c)
f (c) + (x c) + . . . + (x c)n + . . .
1! n!
 f (x) x = c.

s(x) n=0 an (x c) , R
= 0,
n

s(c) = a0 , s (c) =
= 1!a1 , . . . , s(n) (c) = n!an , . . . , . .
.

 
n=0 an x
n
n=0 bn x -
n

(R, R) , an = bn n N0 .



. . s(x) = an xn = bn xn ,
n=0 n=0
s(n) (0) s(n) (0)
an = , bn = . an = bn n N0 .
n! n!
. 
. , . 15.2, 15.3, -
: -
, , , -

.

15.4.
R
(. 15.2)

k
    (2) (2)
k
k 2
s(t) = ak t , s (t) = ai aki tk = ak t k , a k = ai aki ,
i=0
k=0 k=0 i=0 k=0

 
k
(2)
 (3) (3)

k
(2)
3 k
s (t) = ai aki t = a k tk , ak = ai aki , . . . ,
k=0 i=0 k=0 i=0

 
k
(m1)
 (m) (m)

k
(m1)
sm (t) = ai aki tk = a k tk , a k = ai aki .
k=0 i=0 k=0 i=0
286 15.

  n

b
n=0 n a
k=0 k t k -
:

n

    (n)   (n)

k k k
bn ak t = bn ak t = bn ak t = d k tk .
n=0 k=0 n=0 k=0 k=0 n=0 k=0

  (n)
tk , dk = 
k=0 dk n=0 bn ak ,

n=0 bn x
n k
k=0 ak t .

y = f (x) x = s(t)


f (x) = bn xn , < x < , (15.7)
n=0


s(t) = an tn , R < t < R, (15.8)
n=0

 |a0 | < . r, 0 < r < R, ,
d t k , (15.7) (15.8), -
k=0 k
(r, r), f (s(t))

 
n

f (s(t)) = bn ak t k
= d k tk t (r, r).
n=0 k=0 k=0


. (t) = n=0 |an |t -
n

R < t < R,
 (0) = |a0 | < .  r, 0 <nr < R, ,
(r) < . |b
n=0 n | n (r) .
n=0 |bn | (r) = A. -


(n)
|bn ||ak ||t|k . (15.9)
n,k=0


i 
j
(n)
sij (t) = |bn ||ak ||t|k (15.9) |sij (t)|
n=0 k=0
A i, j N0 , t, |t| < r, , (15.9) |t| < r -
.
 (n)  (n) k
n=0 |bn ||ak | k N0 , k=0 |ak ||t | n N0 , t, |t| < r. -
 (n) k  (n)
n,k=0 bn ak t , n=0 bn ak k N0 ,
 (n) k
k=0 ak t n N0 , t, |t| < r.
15.5. 287

(. 13.9),

 
n 
 
(n)
f (x(t)) = bn ak t k = b n a k tk =
n=0 k=0 n=0 k=0

 
 

(n) (n)
= bn ak t k = bn a k k
t = d k tk t, r < t < r. 
n,k=0 k=0 n=0 k=0

15.5.

f (x)
I x0 I. f (x) I
(. 3.9)

f  (x0 ) f (n)
f (x) = f (x0 ) + (x x0 ) + . . . + (x x0 )n + Rn (x).
1! n!
I1 x I,
Rn (x) n , Rn (x) 0.
n
x I1 sn (x)

f  (x0 ) f (n)
f (x0 ) + (x x0 ) + . . . + (x x0 )n + . . . (15.10)
1! n!
f (x), . . f (x) (15.10)
I1 . x0 = 0 .
.
) y = ex

x xn
ex = 1 + + ... + + Rn (x).
1! n!
Rn (x)

max{ex , 1} (n+1)
|Rn (x)|  |x| .
(n + 1)!

x (, +) Rn (x) 0.
n

x xn
ex = 1 + + ... + + ..., x (, +).
1! n!
288 15.

) y = sin x, y = cos x

x3 (1)n+1 x2n+1
sin x = x + ... + + R2n+2 (x),
3! (2n + 1)!

x2 (1)n x2n
cos x = 1 + ... + + R2n+1 (x).
2! (2n)!

|x|2n+2 |x|2n+1
|R2n+2 (x)|  , |R2n+1 (x)|  . ,
(2n + 2)! (2n + 1)!

x (, +) R2n+2 (x) 0, R2n+1 (x) 0,
n n

x3 (1)n+1 x2n+1
sin x = x + ... + + ...,
3! (2n + 1)!
x2 (1)n x2n
cos x = 1 + ... + + ..., x (, +).
2! (2n)!
) y = ln(1 + x)

x2 (1)n+1 xn
ln(1 + x) = x + ... + + Rn (x), 1 < x < +.
2 n
Rn (x)

(1 )n
Rn (x) = (1)n xn+1 , 0 < < 1.
(1 + x)n+1

x (1, 1)

(1 )n (1 )n n+1 (1 |x|)
n |x|n+1
|Rn (x)|  |x|n+1  |x| n+1
 |x|  .
(1 + x)n+1 (1 |x|)n+1 (1 |x|)n+1 1 |x|

x (1, 1) Rn (x) 0. ,
n

x2 (1)n+1 xn
ln(1 + x) = x + ... + + . . . , 1 < x < +1. (15.11)
2 n
) y = (1 + x)
(1 < x < +)

( 1) 2 ( 1) ( n + 1)xn
(1 + x) = 1 + x + x + ... + + Rn (x),
2! n!
( 1) ( n) 1
Rn (x) = (1 )n xn+1 .
n! (1 + x)n+1
15.5. 289

x (1, 1).
= 0. -
k , 1/k  || < k. , n > k,

|( 1) ( n)| 1
|Rn (x)|  (1 )n |x|n+1 
n! (1 |x|)n+1

|( 1) ( n)| 1
 (1 |x|)n |x|n+1 
n! (1 |x|)n+1
k(k + 1) (k + n) 1
 |x|n+1 
n! (1 |x|)+1

(n + k)k+1 |x|n+1 (1 + |x|)1 , 1  0,
 (n + k)k+1 |x|n+1
, 1 > 0.
(1 |x|)1

 1  (n + k)k+1
lim (n + k)k+1 |x|n+1 = |x| = , b > 1 = lim ,
n b n bn+1

## (y + k)k+1 (k + 1)(y + k)k

lim = lim = ... =
y+ by+1 y+ by+1 ln b
(k + 1)k 1(y + k)0
= lim = 0.
y+ by+1 lnk+1 b
, 1 < x < 1

( 1) 2 ( 1) ( n + 1)xn
(1 + x) = 1 + x + x + ... + + ... .
2! n!

15.3



f (x) an xn (R, R),
n=0
x = R (x = R), a f (x)
() x = R (x = R),


f (x) = an xn , (15.12)
n=0

290 15.



## an xn . f (x) = s(x) x (R, R). s(x)

n=0
(R, R] (. 15.2).


f (R) = lim f (x) = lim s(x) = s(R) = an R n . 
xR0 xR0
n=0

## 15.3 (15.11), , (15.11)

x (1, 1]. , (15.11) x = 1
1 1
1 + . . . + (1)n+1 + . . . = ln 2.
2 n
15.2. y = arctg x.
1
(arctg x) = = 1 x2 + x4 . . . + (1)n x2n + . . . , x (1, 1),
1 + x2
x (1, 1),
(. 15.2),
x 

x

 x2n+1
arctg x = (arctg t) dt = (1)n t2n dt = (1)n . (15.13)
2n + 1
0 n=0 0 n=0

x2n+1

(1)n x = 1, x = 1, y =
n=0 2n + 1
= arctg x , 15.3 (15.13)
[1, 1].
16

16.1.

y = f (x),
[a, +) [a, A], A > a.

A
(A) = f (x)dx, A [a, ).
a

(A) A
(-1) f (x) -

+
[a, +) f (x)dx. ,
a
 A
f (x)dx := lim (A) = lim f (x)dx.
A A
a a
limA (A) , -
, f (x) (
) [a, +). , -
limA (A) , ,
.
f (x) x  a ,
A
a f (x)dx , 0x,
x = a, x = A y = f (x) (. 6.7).
 +
a f (x)dx -
, 0x, x = a
f (x) (. 16.1).
292 16.

. 16.1

-1 -
.

 +  +
1. . a f (x)dx, a g(x)dx ,


+ 
+ 
+

## (f (x) + g(x))dx = f (x)dx + g(x)dx, , R.

a a a

 +
2. . b f (x)dx, b > a,
 +
a f (x)dx. ,
. , - ,
.


+ b 
+

a a b

## 3. . f (x) g(x) [a, +)

f (x)  g(x) x [a, +),


+ 
+

f (x)dx  g(x)dx.
a a

, ,
, , . .

f (x)dx , f (x) 0.
a x
16.1. 293

2
 16.1. f (x)
2
= 1, x [n 1, n 1 + 1/n
 + ) f (x) = 0,
2 . ,
x n 1 + 1/n , n , n = 1, 2, . . . , 1 f (x)dx = n=1 1/n
, , f (x)
x + (. 16.2).

. 16.2

-1
 +
a f (x)dx, f (x)  0, -
A
, (A) = a f (x)dx, A [a, +), -
.
. f (x) -
, (A), A  a, .
A +
, . 
-1

0  f (x)  g(x) x [a, +), (16.1)
 +
g(x)dx
 + a  +
f (x)dx, a f (x)dx -
a  +
a g(x)dx.
.
A A
F (A) = f (x)dx, G(A) = g(x)dx.
a a

## (16.1) 0  F (A)  G(A).

G(A) F (A), F (A)
G(A). -
-1 . 
294 16.

## -1 (f (x) > 0, g(x) > 0)

f (x)  +  +
1. lim = l, 0 < l < , a f (x)dx a g(x)dx
x+ g(x)
.
f (x)  +
2. lim = 0, a g(x)dx
x+ g(x)
 +  +
a f (x)dx, a f (x)dx -
 +
a g(x)dx.
f (x)  +
3. lim = , a g(x)dx -
x+ g(x)
 +  +
a f (x)dx, a f (x)dx
 +
a g(x)dx.
. 1. = l/2, (l/2) > 0, x  (l/2)
|f (x)/g(x) l|  l/2 l/2  f (x)/g(x)  3l/2

## lg(x)/2  f (x)  3lg(x)/2. (16.2)

(16.2)
-1.
:
2. = 1, (1) > 0, x  (1) f (x)/g(x)  1 f (x)  g(x).
3. = 1, (1) > 0, x  (1) f (x)/g(x)  1 f (x)  g(x). 
-1 (f (x)  0)
M
1. f (x) , M const, 0 < M < , > 1
x+ x
 +
f (x)dx ,  1 .
a  1   +
2. f (x) = o , > 1, a f (x)dx .
x x
 + M
. 1 dx > 1
x
 1,
-1. 
-1
 +
a f (x)dx ,

 A 
     
> 0, () > 0, A , A [a, +) : A  (), A  ()  f (x)dx  .
A
16.1. 295

.
(. 2.3), lim F (A) ,
A+

## > 0, () > 0, A , A  () |F (A ) F (A )|  .

  
 A A   A 
     
|F (A ) F (A )| =  f (x)dx f (x)dx =  f (x)dx 
a a A

. 

16.1
 +  +
a |f (x)|dx , a f (x)dx
.
. -1,

 A 
 
> 0, () > 0, A , A  ()  |f (x)|dx  .
A

##  A   A   A 

     
 f (x)dx   |f (x)|dx,  f (x)dx  A , A  ().
  
A A  + A
-1 a f (x)dx . 
 +
a f (x)dx , -
 +
a |f (x)|dx. 16.1 , -
 +
. a f (x)dx -
 +
, a |f (x)|dx ,
 +
a f (x)dx .


+
sin x
16.2. , 2
dx -
0 1x+x
.
 sin x ,
  
   1 
   x [0, +), -1
1 x + x2 1 x + x2

+ 1
2
dx,
0 1x+x
1 1
.
1 x + x2 x+ x2
296 16.

16.2.

f (x) g(x) a b,
g(x) , x = c
,

b b
f (x)g(x)dx = f (c) g(x)dx. (16.3)
a a

g(x)  0, a  b. g(x) 0,
(16.3) c [a, b]. ,
b
g(x) , , a g(x)dx > 0 (-
). M = max f (x), l = min f (x).
x[a,b] x[a,b]


nm
m = f ((k )m )g((k )m )(xk )m
k=1

m 0.

nm 
nm
l g((k )m )(xk )m  m  M g((k )m )(xk )m ,
k=1 k=1
m ,
b b b
l g(x)dx  f (x)g(x)dx  M g(x)dx.
a a a

 b 1 b
l g(x)dx f (x)g(x)dx  M.
a a
(. 2.13) -
c [a, b] ,

 b 1 b
f (c) = g(x)dx f (x)g(x)dx. 
a a
16.2. 297

16.2

## f (x) [a, b], g(x) -

[a, b]. [a, b]
,

b
f (x)g(x)dx = (F (b) F ())g(b) + (F () F (a))g(a),
a
x
F (x) = a f (t)dt.
. -
,

b
f (x)g(x)dx = [f (x)dx = dv, v = F (x), g(x) = u, g  (x)dx = du] =
a

b b
b
= F (x)g(x)  a

F (x)g (x)dx = F (b)g(b) F (a)g(a) F () g  (x)dx =
a a

## = F (b)g(b) F (a)g(a) F ()(g(b) g(a)) =

= (F (b) F ())g(b) + (F () F (a))g(a),
[a, b]. 
-1
f (x) , g(x)

x [a, ). :
1) F (x) = a f (t)dt [a, ), . . |F (x)|  M
const x  a;
2) g(x) 0,
x+
 +
a f (x)g(x)dx .
. 16.2
, A , A [a, )

 A   
  
 f (x)g(x)dx  = (F (A ) F ())g(A ) + (F () F (A ))g(A )
A

## 2M (|g(A )| + |g(A )|), (16.4)

298 16.

A , A .
g(x) 0, > 0, () > 0, x  () |g(x)|  . -
x+
(16.4)

 A 
 
 f (x)g(x)dx  4M , A , A  ().
A
 +
-1, a f (x)g(x)dx . 
-1
f (x) , g(x)
[a, +). :
 +
1) a f (x)dx ;
2) g(x) [a, +), . . |g(x)|  M const x  a,
 +
a f (x)g(x)dx .
 +
. a f (x)dx

 A2 
 
> 0, () > 0, A1 , A2  ()  f (x)dx  .
A1

A , A  (),
A , A ,
|F () F (A )|  , |F (A ) F ()|  . (16.5)
16.2 (16.5),

 A 
 
 f (x)g(x)dx  |(F (A ) F ())g(A ) + (F () F (A ))g(A )|  2M .
A
 +
-1, a f (x)g(x)dx . 

16.3.
f (x), [a, b). -
, b , [a, b ], 0 < < b a,
, [a, b]. x = b
f. x = b
, , 0 < < b a, f (x)
[b , b) ( f (x)
16.3. 299

[b , b), [a, b]
(. 6.10).


b

## lim f (x)dx (16.6)

+0
a

(-2) f (x) [a, b) (. 16.3)
b
a f (x)dx.

. 16.3

(16.6) , -
, f (
) [a, b). , .
[a +
+ , b], 0 < < b a, [a, b]. ,
x = a .
(a, b]
b b
f (x)dx := lim f (x)dx.
+0
a a+

-2 -1 -
, -2, -
, , x = b .
1. f (x)  0 -
 b
, F () = a f (x)dx
(0, b a] ().
300 16.

b
2. lim f (x)/g(x) = l, 0 < l < , a f (x)dx
xb0
b
a g(x)dx ().
3. .
M
1. f (x) , M const, 0 < M < , < 1
x (b x)
b
a f (x)dx ,  1 .
1 b
2. f (x) = o(
), < 1, a f (x)dx (-
x (b x)
).
b b
4. a |f (x)|dx , a f (x)dx -
().
f (x),
|a, b|, a  , b  +. + ,
b = +, , a = .
|a, b|

(1 , 1 ), (2 , 2 ), . . . , (r , r ), 1 = a, 1 = 2 , . . . , r = b,

, f (x)
b
, . a f (x)dx -

, ii f (x)dx, i = 1, . . . , r,
,
 b .
a f (x)dx

1 r
f (x)dx + + f (x)dx (16.7)
1 r

( , c (16.7)
i , i ) .

16.4.

b
a f (x)dx, , b -
, +, f (x) [a, b) -
.
1.
F (x) f (x) [a, b).
F (x) |b0
a = F (b 0) F (a), F (b 0) = lim F (x) ( b = +,
xb0
F (b 0) := F (+) = lim F (x)) .
x+
16.4. 301

b
a f (x)dx , -
F (b 0), -

b
b0
f (x)dx = F (x) a .
a

## b < +. 0 < < b a.


b
b
f (x)dx = F (x) a .
a

+0,

b 
b
b0
f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx = F (x) a . 
+0
a a

2.
x = (t)
b
[, ), () = a, lim (t) = b. a f (x)dx
t0

, f ((t)) (t)dt

b 
f (x)dx = f ((t)) (t)dt. (16.8)
a

. [, [, () = . () b.
0

 
f (x)dx = f ((t)) (t)dt. (16.9)
a

0, b. 0
(16.9) (16.8). 
302 16.

3.
u(x), v(x) [a, b).

## lim u(x)v(x) = u(b 0)v(b 0) (16.10)

xb0

b b
a v(x)u (x)dx, a u(x)v  (x)dx,
-

b b
b0
u(x)v (x)dx = u(x)v(x) 

a
v(x)u (x)dx.
a a

. [, ). -

 

u(x)v (x)dx = u(x)v(x) 

a
v(x)u (x)dx. (16.11)
a a

(16.11) 0,
. 
17
,

17.1.

f (x, y) , -
[a, b) Y, Y R (b +) . ,
y Y f (x, y) -
[a, b) ( , b ,
b , ).
Y
b
F (y) = f (x, y)dx,
a
, .
F (y).
b
a f (x, y)dx, ,
 1
dx 1 x 1 arctg y
2 2
= arctg  = = F (y), y
= 0,
0 x +y y y 0 y
F (y) 4.
F (y) ,
F (y) . -
-
,
.
(x, y) ,
X Y, X R, Y R y0 Y.
, x X -
lim (x, y). (x) := lim (x, y), x X,
yy0 ,yY yy0 ,yY
304 17. ,

(x, y) y y0 -
Y ( Y ).
, (x, y) -
X (x) y y0 . (x) = lim (x, y), x X,
yy0
- :

, (x, y)
x X y y0 (x)
X
(x, y) (x).
yy0

y0 R, y0 = +
y0 = ,
0 < |y y0 |  ()
y  () y  ().
2
(x, y) x X y y0
(x) ,

yy0 xX

. . (17.1)

xX

## . . lim sup |(x, y) (x)| = 0.

yy0 xX
-
. 
17.1. 305

(x, y) x X y
y0 , >
> 0, () > 0, y  , y  Y : 0 < |y  y0 |  (), 0 < |y  y0 |  (), x
X |(x, y  ) (x, y  )|  ().

## 17.1. (x, y) = yexy , X = [0, ), Y =

= (0, 1), y0 = 0. (x) = lim yexy = 0.
y+0
[0,)
, , yexy 0.
y+0
, sup yexy = [(yexy )x
= 0, yexy |x=0 = y, lim yexy =
x[0,) x+

y+0 x[0,) y+0

## (x, y) [a, b] [c, d] y0

[c, d],
[a,b]
(x, y) (x, y0 ).
yy0

. (. 7.3) (x, y) -
[a, b] [c, d], . .

## y  , y  [c, d] : 0 < |y  y  |  () |(x , y  ) (x , y  )|  .

x = x = x [a, b], y  = y, y  = y0 , 0 < |y y0 |  ().
[a,b]
|(x, y) (x, y0 )|  , . . (x, y) (x, y0 ). 
yy0

y Y (x, y) x
[a,b]
[a, b] (x, y) (x), (x) [a, b].
yy0

. yn y0 , yn Y,
n
yn
= y0 . , (x, yn ) -
x [a, b] (x).
306 17. ,

[a,b]
(x, y) (x) > 0, () > 0,
yy0

yn y0 ,

(17.2)(17.3)

## > 0, (()) > 0, n  (()), x [a, b] |(x, yn ) (x)|  .

[a,b]
. . (x, yn ) (x). 1
yn y0
(. 14.7) , (x) [a, b]. 

17.2. ,

1.
y Y f (x, y) x
[a,b]
[a, b] f (x, y) (x),
yy0

b b b
lim f (x, y)dx = lim f (x, y)dx = (x)dx. (17.4)
yy0 yy0
a a a

. ,
(x) , , [a, b]. -
[a,b]
f (x, y) (x),
yy0

## > 0, () > 0, y Y : 0 < |y y0 |  (), x [a, b] |f (x, y) (x)|  .

0 < |y y0 |  ()

 b b  b
 
 f (x, y)dx (x)dx  |f (x, y) (x)|dx  (b a),
a a a

(17.4). 
17.2. , 307

2. ,
f (x, y) [a, b] [c, d], -
b
F (y) = a f (x, y)dx [c, d].
. y0 [c, d]. -
2 ,
[a,b]
f (x, y) f (x, y0 ). -
yy0
( ),
b b b
lim F (y) = lim f (x, y)dx = lim f (x, y)dx = f (x, y0 )dx = F (y0 ),
yy0 yy0 yy0
a a a

F (y) y0 . 
3. , -

:
1) f (x, y) x y [c, d];
2) fy (x, y) [a, b] [c, d].
:

 b  b
F  (y) = f (x, y)dx = fy (x, y)dx y [c, d].
a a

. y0 [c, d]. y0 +
+ y [c, d].
 F (y0 + y) F (y0 )
F  (y) y0 = lim =
y0 y
b
f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 )
= lim dx. (17.5)
y0 y
a
,
f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 ) [a,b] 
fy (x, y0 ). (17.6)
y yy0

(. 3.5)
f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 )
= fy (x, y0 + y), 0 < < 1, = (x, y). (17.7)
y
308 17. ,

, fy (x, y)
[a, b] [c, d],
> 0, () > 0, x , x [a, b] : 0 < |x x |  (),
y  , y  [c, d] : 0 < |y  y  |  () |fy (x , y  ) fy (x , y  )|  .
x = x = x [a, b], y  = y0 , y  = y0 + y , ,
|y|  () (17.7):
 f (x, y + y) f (x, y ) 
 0 0 
 fy (x, y0 )  ,
y
. . (17.6) . (17.5) -
.
,
b b
 f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 )
F (y) y0 =

lim dx = fy (x, y)dx. 
y0 y
a a

4. -
,
f (x, y) fy (x, y) [a, b]
[c, d], x = (y), x = (y), y [c, d], -
, [a, b] [c, d].

(y)
  (y)

f (x, y)dx = fy (x, y)dx + f ((y), y) (y) f ((y), y) (y), (17.8)
(y) (y)

y [c, d].
 (y)
. y0 [c, d]. (y) f (x, y)dx

(y)
 (y
 0) (y)
 (y)

f (x, y)dx = f (x, y)dx + f (x, y)dx f (x, y)dx. (17.9)
(y) (y0 ) (y0 ) (y0 )

(17.9) -
, ,
(y
 0)  (y
 0)
f (x, y)dx = fy (x, y)dx y [c, d]. (17.10)
(y0 ) (y0 )
17.2. , 309

,
(17.9)
(y)

f (x, y)dx = f (, y)((y) (y0 )),
(y0 )

, (y0 ) (y).
(y)
  


f (x, y)dx  =

(y0 ) y0

1
= lim f (, y)((y) (y0 )) = f ((y0 ), y0 ) (y0 ). (17.11)
yy0 y y0

(y)
  


f (x, y)dx  = f ((y0 ), y0 ) (y0 ). (17.12)

(y0 ) y0

(17.10)(17.12),
(17.8). 
17.2.
1
xb x
F (b) = dx, 1  b  2.
ln x
0

xb x
.
ln x
x = 0, F  (b)
xb x
. lim = 0,
x+0 ln x

xb x
g(x, b) = , x (0, 1],
ln x0, x = 0,

[0, 1] [1, 2]
gb (x, b) = xb . (. 6.10)
1 1
xb x
dx = g(x, b)dx,
ln x
0 0
310 17. ,

1
0 g(x, b)dx.
g(x, b) -
, .

1
 1
F (b) = xb dx = .
b+1
0

## F (b) = ln(b + 1) + C. b = 1 F (b) ,

0 = F (1) = ln 2 + C, C = ln 2.
,
b+1
F (b) = ln .
2

5.
f (x, y) [a, b] [c, d],

d b b d
dy f (x, y)dx = dx f (x, y)dy.
c a a c

-
(. 8.4)

 d b b d
f (x, y)dxdy = dy f (x, y)dx = dx f (x, y)dy. 
[a,b][c,d] c a a c

17.3.
,
f (x, y), -
[a, +) Y, Y R, , y Y
+
a f (x, y)dx .


+

## F (y) = f (x, y)dx

a

, -
(-1).
17.3. 311

, , -
,
.

A
(A, y) = f (x, y)dx.
a
b
a f (x, y)dx Y , -
y Y (A, y) F (y).
A+

Y
(A, y) F (y),
A+
. .
> 0, () > 0, A  (), y Y |(A, y) F (y)|  ,

+

 
> 0, () > 0, A  (), y Y  f (x, y)dx  ,
A

+
f (x, y)dx -
a
y Y.

2 .
-1
 +
a f (x, y)dx y Y
,

+

 
lim sup  f (x, y)dx = 0.
A+ yY
A

-1
 +
a f (x, y)dx y Y
,

 A 
     
> 0, () > 0, A , A : A  (), A  (), y Y  f (x, y)dx  .
A
312 17. ,

-1

|f (x, y)|  g(x) x [a, +), y Y, (17.13)
 +  +
a g(x)dx , -1 a f (x, y)dx
y Y.

 +.
a g(x)dx,

 A 
     
> 0, () > 0, A , A [a, +) : A  (), A  ()  g(x)dx  .
A

(17.13)
 
 A   A 
     
A , A  (), y Y  f (x, y)dx   g(x)dx  .
A A

 + -1,
a f (x, y)dx y Y. 

17.3.

+
dx
, y R.
x2 + y2
1

1 1  + 2
 x [1, ), y R, 1 x dx -
x2 + y 2 x2
,
y R.
 +
17.4. 0 yexy dx, y (0, +) -
. ,
 +
lim sup yexy dx = lim sup eAy = 1
= 0.
A+ y(0,+) A A+ y(0,+)

y (0, +).

16.2 .
17.3. 313

17.1

## y Y f (x, y), g(x, y), gx (x, y)

x [a, b], , gx (x, y)
= 0 (x, y) [a, b]
Y. [a, b], = (y), ,

b
f (x, y)g(x, y)dx = (F (b, y) F (, y))g(b, y) + (F (, y) F (a, y))g(a, y),
a
x
F (x, y) = a f (t, y)dt.

-1
y Y f (x, y), g(x, y), gx (x, y)
x [a, b], gx (x, y)
= 0 (x, y) [a, b]
Y.
: x
1) F (x, y) = a f (t, y)dt [a, +) Y, . . |F (x, y)|
M const (x, y) [a, +) Y ;
Y
2) g(x, y) 0,
x+
 +
a f (x, y)g(x, y)dx
y Y.
. 17.1 , A , A [a, ), y Y,


 A 
 
 f (x, y)g(x, y)dx  |F (A , y) F (, y)||g(A , y)|+
A

A , A .
Y
g(x, y) 0,
x+

## > 0, () > 0, x  (), y Y |g(x, y)|  .

(17.14)

 A 
   
 f (x, y)g(x, y)dx  4M A , A  ().
A
314 17. ,

 + -1,
a f (x, y)g(x, y)dx y Y. 
-1
y Y f (x, y), g(x, y), gx (x, y)
x [a, b], gx (x, y)
= 0 (x, y) [a, b]
Y.
:  +
1) a f (x, y)dx y Y ;
2) g(x, y) [a, +) Y, . . |g(x, y)  M
const (x, y) [a, +) Y,

+
f (x, y)g(x, y)dx y
a
Y.

.
+
-
a f (x, y)dx
 A2 
 
> 0, () > 0, A1 , A2  (), y Y  f (x, y)dx  .
A1
A , A  (),
A , A y Y

## |F (, y) F (A , y)|  , |F (A , y) F (, y)|  . (17.15)

17.1 (17.15),

 A 
 
 f (x, y)g(x, y)dx  |F (A , y) F (, y)||g(A , y)|+
A

## +|F (, y) F (A , y)||g(A , y)|  2M .

 + -1,
a f (x, y)g(x, y)dx y Y. 

17.4.
,

1. -1
(. 17.2), -
, , , -
, .
17.4. 315

17.5.
 n n

3
e 2x2 , x > 0,
fn (x) = x
0, x = 0.

fn (x) x [0, )
n N.
 3n n n n  n 
lim sup fn (x) = (fn (x))x = 4 e 2x2 3 e 2x2 3 = 0, x = n/3,
n+ x[0,) x x x

3 3 3/2  3 3 3/2
fn ( n/3) = e , fn (0) = 0, lim fn (x) = 0 = lim e = 0,
n x+ n+ n
, -
[0,+)
fn (x) 0.
n
,

+ 
+

lim fn (x)dx = 0
= lim fn (x)dx = 1.
n n
0 0

, -
,
-1.
-1.
-1
:
1) f (x, y) x [a, +)
y Y;
[a,A]
2) A > a f (x, y) (x);
yy0
 +
3) a f (x, y) y Y.


+ 
+ 
+

## lim f (x, y)dx = lim f (x, y)dx = (x)dx. (17.16)

yy0 yy0
a a a

.
(x) [a, +), , -
[A , A ] [a, +).
316 17. ,

 +
a f (x, y)dx


 A 
     
> 0, () > 0, A , A : A  (), A  (), y Y  f (x, y)dx  .
A


A
f (x, y)dx
A
(. 17.2),

 A   A


   
 lim f (x, y)dx =  (x)dx  .
yy0
A A


+
-1 (. 16.1) (x)dx
a
.
A > a

+ 
+
  A A 
   
 f (x, y)dx (x)dx  
 f (x, y)dx (x)dx +
a a a a

+
  +

   
+ f (x, y)dx +  (x)dx. (17.17)
A A

## > 0. () > 0 , A  (), y

Y, (17.17) .
A ().
,

 A A 
 
() > 0, y Y : 0 < |y y0 |  ()  f (x, y)dx (x)dx  .
a a

+ 
+

 
() > 0, y Y : 0 < |y y0 |  ()  f (x, y)dx (x)dx  3,
a a

(17.16). 
17.4. 317

2. -1

 + f (x, y) [a, +) [c, d] -
a f (x, y)dx y [c, d].
 +
F (y) = a f (x, y)dx [c, d].
. A > a y0 [c, d]
2 ,
[a,A]
f (x, y) f (x, y0 ). -1
yy0


+ 
+ 
+

lim F (y) = lim f (x, y)dx = lim f (x, y)dx = f (x, y0 )dx = F (y0 ),
yy0 yy0 yy0
a a a

F (y) y0 . 
3.

f (x, y) [a, +) [c, d] -
 +
a f (x, y)dx y [c, d].

d 
+ 
+ d
dy f (x, y)dx = dx f (x, y)dy.
c a a c

. A > a.
(. 17.2),

d 
+ d A d 
+

c a c a c A

A d d 
+

## = dx f (x, y)dy + dy f (x, y)dx. (17.18)

a c c A
 +
a f (x, y)dx

+

 
> 0, () > 0, A  (), y Y  f (x, y)dx  .
A
318 17. ,

 d 
+ 
 
 dy f (x, y)dx  (d c) A  (),
c A

d 
lim dy f (x, y)dx = 0.
A
c A

(17.18)

d 
+ A d 
+ d
dy f (x, y)dx = lim dx f (x, y)dy = dx f (x, y)dy. 
A
c a a c a c

4. -1
:
1) f (x, y) x [a, +)
y [c, d];
2) fy (x, y) [a, +) [c, d];
 +
3) y [c, d] a f (x, y)dx ;
 + 
4) a fy (x, y)dx y [c, d].
-1:


+ 
+
d 
f (x, y)dx = fy (x, y)dx, y |c, d|.
dy
a a

. y [c, d] -

y 
+ 
+ y

dy fy (x, y)dx = dx fy (x, y)dy =
c a a c


+ 
+

a a

-1


+

## L(y) = fy (x, y)dx, y [c, d],

a
17.4. 319

y
(. 6.6) c L(t)dt
y  
+
d
L(t)dt = L(y) = fy (x, y)dx. (17.20)
dy
c a

(17.19) (17.20), -

+  
+
d
f (x, y)dx = fy (x, y)dx. 
dy
a a

5. -1

+
f (x, y)dx
a
y |c, d|,
[, ] |c, d| y [, ].

-1
:
1) f(x, y) [a, +) |c, d|;
+
2) a f (x, y)dx
y |c, d|.  +
F (y) = a f (x, y)dx |c, d| ().

-1
:
1) f (x, y) x [a, +)
y |c, d|;
2) fy (x, y) [a, +) |c, d|;
 +
3) y |c, d| a f (x, y)dx ;
 +
4) a fy (x, y)dx
y |c, d|.
-1:

   
f (x, y)dx = fy (x, y)dx, y |c, d| ().
y
a a
320 17. ,

6.

:
1) f(x, y) [a, +) [c, +);
+
2) a |f (x, y)|dx
y (c, +); 
+
3) a |f (x, y)|dy
x (a, +);

+ 
+ 
+ 
+
4) dy |f (x, y)|dx, dx |f (x, y)|dy .
c a a c
4)


+ 
+ 
+ 
+

## dy f (x, y)dx = dx f (x, y)dy.

c a a c

 +.
 + : f (x, y)  0.
dx c f (x, y)dy = I1 . [c , d ] (c, ).
a  d  +
J(c , d ) = c dy a f (x, y)dx. -
-

 d  +  +  d
 
J(c , d ) = dy f (x, y)dx = dx f (x, y)dy 
c a a c
 +  +
 dx f (x, y)dy = I1 . (17.21)
a c
f (x, y).
c J(c , d ) -
d [c , +), ,
 , d ) = K(c ) =

+ 
+
lim

J(c dy f (x, y)dx  I1 . K(c ) -
d c a
, lim K(c ) =
c c+0

+ 
+
= dy f (x, y)dx = I2 , I2  I1 . ,
c a

+ 
+
dy f (x, y)dx, -
c a
I1  I2 . , I1 = I2 .
: f (x, y) . f f =
f + f , f + = max{f, 0}, f = max{f, 0} .
17.5. 321

f + , f
. f + , f
,
f. 

17.5. ,

## f (x, y) [a, b)Y, Y R, b

b
a f (x, y)dx,
y Y, y Y
.

 b
F (y) = f (x, y)dx
a
(-2),
.

 b
(, y) = f (x, y)dx.
a
b
a f (x, y)dx Y ,
(, y) F (y) y Y.
+0
Y
(, y) F (y), . .
+0

 b 
 
> 0, () > 0, (0, b a] : 0 <  (), y Y  f (x, y)dx  ,
b
b
a f (x, y) dx
y Y.
-2 -1.
-2, -
.
-2

|f (x, y)|  g(x) x [a, b), y Y,
b
a g(x)dx , ,
b
a f (x, y)dx, y Y ().
322 17. ,

-2
:
1) f (x, y) x [a, b)
y Y;
[a,b]
2) : 0 <  b a, f (x, y) (x);
yy0
b
3) a f (x, y) y Y.

b b b
lim f (x, y)dx = lim f (x, y)dx = (x)dx
yy0 yy0
a a a

().
b
a f (x, y)dx
y |c, d|, [, ]
|c, d| y [, ].

-2
f (x, y) [a, b) |c, d|
b
a f (x, y)dx
b
y |c, d|.
F (y) = a f (x, y)dx |c, d| ().

-2
:
1) f (x, y) x [a, b)
y |c, d|;
2) fy (x, y) [a, b) |c, d|;
b
3) y |c, d| f (x, y)dx ;
a
b
4) fy (x, y)dx y
a
|c, d|.
-2:

b b
d 
f (x, y)dx = fy (x, y)dx, y |c, d|
dy
a a

().
17.6. 323

17.6.

, , -
,
.

+
sin x
dx = (17.22)
x 2
0

.


+
sin x
F (a) = eax dx, a  0. (17.23)
x
0

sin x
x = 0, ,
x
1. F (a) ,
sin x
[0, +). ,
x
(17.23)
 sin x
+
-1 (. 17.4): 1) dx -
0 x
(. 16.2); 2) eax [0, +)
[0, +), |eax |  1. (17.23)
a [0, +) . -
-1 (. 17.4) F (a) [0, +).

## lim F (a) = F (0). (17.24)

a+0

(17.23) a > 0
-1 (. 17.4). ,


+
  
ax sin x
e dx = eax sin xdx
x a
0 0

a > 0, . -
(. 17.4), . .
 +
|eax sin x|  ex , a [, ] (0, +), 0 ex dx = 1/.
324 17. ,

-1

+
 1
F (a) = eax sin xdx = , a > 0.
1 + a2
0

1 
F (a) = da = arctg a + C, a > 0, C
1 + a2
. .


+
1
|F (a)|  eax dx = ,
a
0

## lim |F (a)| = 0. arctg a + C 0. C = /2.

a+ a+
, F (a) = arctg a + /2, a > 0. , (17.24)


+
sin x  
F (0) = dx = lim arctg a + /2 = /2.
x a+0
0

 sin ax
+
17.1. , G(a) = sign a. -
dx =
0 x 2
, a = 0, G(0) = 0, a < 0,
 sin y
+
ax = y G(a) = dy = /2. , G(a) = /2,
0 y
a > 0.

17.7.
:


+
cos ax
I(a) = 2
dx = ea , a  0;
1+x 2
0


+
x sin ax
J(a) = 2
dx = ea , a > 0.
1+x 2
0

-
[0, +) [a, +). -
a [0, +) , , ,
17.7. 325

-1 I(a) a  0. -
a (0, +) ().
-1 (. 17.4) a > 0

## I  (a) = J(a). (17.25)

(17.25)

+
sin ax
= dx, a > 0,
2 x
0


+
 
+
 sin ax x sin ax  sin ax
I (a) + = dx = dx.
2 x 1 + x2 x(1 + x2 )
0 0

-1 (-
, ),

+
 cos ax
I (a) = dx = I(a), a > 0. (17.26)
1 + x2
0

, I(a) -
(17.26). (17.26)
C1 ea +C2 ea , C1 , C2 . I(a) -
, ,

I(a) = A1 ea + A2 ea , (17.27)

A1 , A2 . .
I(a)

+
dx
|I(a)|  = ,
1 + x2 2
0

## (17.27) A1 = 0. I(0) = /2 , A2 = /2.

,

+ 
+
cos ax x sin ax
I(a) = 2
dx = ea , a  0; J(a) = 2
dx = ea , a > 0.
1+x 2 1+x 2
0 0
326 17. ,

17.2. -
:

+ 
+
cos ax cos akt
dx = [x = kt, k > 0] = kdt =
k 2 + x2 k 2 + k 2 t2
0 0


+
1 cos akt ka
= 2
dt = e , a  0, k > 0;
k 1+t 2k
0


+
x sin ax
2 2
dx = eka , a > 0, k > 0.
k +x 2
0

17.8. -

-2
1
B(a, b) = xa1 (1 x)b1 dx
0

- .
-
1) - a > 0, b > 0.
, - -
x = 0, x = 1 :

1/2 1
B(a, b) = x (1 x) dx +
a1 b1
xa1 (1 x)b1 dx = I1 + I2 ;
0 1/2

1
I1 : xa1 (1 x)b1 ,
x+0 x1a

1 a < 1, a > 0 , a  0 ;

1
I2 : xa1 (1 x)b1 ,
x10 (1 x)1b

1 b < 1, b > 0 , b  0 . ,
I1 I2 a > 0 b > 0.
17.8. - 327

2) - -1

+
ta1
B(a, b) = dt.
(1 + t)a+b1
0


+
t  t a1  t b1 1
B(a, b) = x = = 1 dt =
1+t 1+t 1+t (1 + t)2
0


+
ta1
= dt.
(1 + t)a+b1
0
aB(a, b)
3) - B(a + 1, b) = .
a+b
1
B(a + 1, b) = xa (1 x)b1 dx = xa = u, du = axa1 dx, dv =
0

a 1
1
= (1 x) b1
dx, v = (1 x)b = xa1 (1 x)b dx =
b b
0
 
= x a1
(1 x) = (1 x)
b b1
(x a1
x ) = (1 x)b1 xa1 (1 x)b1 xa =
a

a a aB(a, b)
B(a, b) B(a + 1, b) B(a + 1, b) =
= .
b b a+b
4) - a b B(a, b) = B(b, a).
, x = 1 t,
 1  1
B(b, a) = x (1 x) dx =
b1 a1
ta1 (1 t)b1 dx = B(a, b).
0 0

5) -

B(a, 1 a) = , 0 < a < 1.
sin a
.

+ 1 
+
xa1 xa1 xa1
B(a, 1 a) = dx = dx + dx = J1 (a) + J2 (a).
(1 + x) (1 + x) (1 + x)
0 0 1
328 17. ,

n N
1  (1)k+1 xn+1 
n
J1 (a) = xa1 (1)k xk + dx =
(1 + x)
0 k=0

n 

1 1
k k+a1 (1)k+1 xn+a
= (1) x dx + dx =
(1 + x)
k=0 0 0


n 1
1 (1)k+1 xn+a
= (1)k + dx.
k+a (1 + x)
k=0 0
 1 (1)k+1 xn+a  1
  1
 dx  xn+a dx = 0,
0 (1 + x) 0 n + a 1 n

 1
J1 (a) = (1)k ,
k+a
k=0

1 1 1
1 1 ta t(1a)+1
J2 (a) = = t, x = , dx = 2 dt = dt = dt =
x t t (1 + t) (1 + t)
0 0



1 1
= J1 (1 a) = (1)k = (1)k ,
ka+1 ak
k=0 k=1


1 1 1
B(a, 1 a) = + (1)k ( + ).
a a+k ak
k=1
1/sin t,
. 18.6,

1 1   1
1 
= + (1)k + , < t < .
sin t t t + k t k
k=1

t = a,

1 1  
1 1 
= + (1)k + .
sin a a a + k a k
k=1

,

B(a, 1 a) = , 0 < a < 1. 
sin a
17.9. - 329

17.9. -
-1

+

xa1 ex dx = (a)
0

- .
-
1) - a > 0.
 +
, 0 xa1 ex dx x =
= 0, x = :
1
1
K1 = xa1 ex dx, xa1 ex 1a
,
x+0 x
0

1 a < 1, a > 0, -2 K1
, a  0, ;
 1
K2 = xa1 ex dx, xa1 ex = o ,
x x2
1

-1 K2 a. -
, a > 0.
2) - .
. (a)

1 
+
a1 x
(a) = x e dx + xa1 ex dx = K1 (a) + K2 (a),
0 1

## f (x, a) = xa1 ex , fa (x, a) = xa1 ex ln x,

1 
+
a1 x
x e ln xdx = K3 (a), xa1 ex ln xdx = K4 (a)
0 1

-2
-1. , -
. [, ] (0, +). -
K1 (a), K3 (a) a
[, ] -2 ( -
x1 , x1 | ln x|).
330 17. ,

K2 (a), K4 (a) a [, ]
-1 ( x1 , x1 ln x -
).


+

(a) = xa1 ex ln xdx a > 0.
0


+ 
+
 a1 x 2 (n)
(a) = x e ln xdx, . . . , (a) = xa1 ex lnn xdx a > 0. 
0 0

3) - (a + 1) = a (a).
,


+

xa x
(a) = xa1 ex dx = xa1 dx = dv, v = , e = u, du = ex dx =
a
0


+
+
1  1
= xa ex dx + xa ex  = (a + 1).
a 0 a
0

4) -.
-
 (a) > 0 a > 0, , .
(1) = (2) = 1, 1 2
-,  (c) = 0, -
, (c) > 0. (0, c) - ,
(c, +)

(a + 1)
lim (a) = lim = +, lim (a) = +
a+0 a+0 a a+

((a)  n! a  n + 1) . - .
17.9. - 331

(a)(b)
5) - - B(a, b) = .
(a + b)
.  +
: a > 1, b > 0. (a) = 0 xa1 ex dx
x = ty, t > 0,


+ 
+
(a)
(a) = ta y a1 ety dy, = y a1 ety dy. (17.28)
ta
0 0

(17.28) t 1 + t, a a + b


+
(a + b)
= y a+b1 e(1+t)y dy. (17.29)
(1 + t)a+b
0

(17.29) ta1 t 0
+


+ 
+ 
+
ta1
(a + b) dt = a1
t dt y a+b1 e(1+t)y dy. (17.30)
(1 + t)a+b
0 0 0

## (17.30) (a + b) B(a, b), ,

332 17. ,


+ 
+ 
+
a+b1 y
(a + b)B(a, b) = y e dy t e dt = (a) y b1 ey dy = (a)(b).
a1 ty

0 0 0

, (17.30) -
, , -

(. 17.4):
) y a+b1 ey ta1 ety = f (t, y)
[0, ) [0, );

) 0 f (t, y)dt
y (0, +). , [, ] (0, +)
 y a+b1 ey ta1 ety  a+b1 e ta1 et ,
+ a1 t
0 t e dt ;

) 0 f (t, y)dy -
t (0, +). , [c, d] (0, +)
y a+b1 ey ta1 ety  da1 ey y a+b1 ecy ,
 + a+b1
0 y ey(c+1) dy ;
 a1 +
+  a+b1 (1+t)y
) t dt y e dy = (a + b)B(a, b),
0 0
.
: 0 < a  1, b > 0. ,

(a + 1)(b) a(a)(b)
B(a + 1, b) = = . (17.31)
(a + b + 1) (a + b)(a + b)

B -
a
B(a + 1, b) = B(a, b)
(a + b)

(a)(b)
(17.31), B(a, b) = .
(a + b)
6) -

(a)(1 a) = , 0 < a < 1.
sin a
,

(a)(1 a)
= B(a)B(1 a) = = (a)(1 a).
sin a (1)
17.9. - 333


+
2
6) ex dx = .
0 2
, x2 = t,

 
+
+
x2 1 1 1
e dx = t1/2 et dt = ,
0 2 2 2
0
1 1 1 1
B , = = 2 , = .
2 2 2 2
17.6. - , -
,

2
 dt 
sina1 x cosb1 xdx = sin x = t, x = arcsin x, dx = =
1 x2
0

1 1
2 b1 2 1/2
= t a1
(1 t ) (1 t ) dt = ta1 (1 t2 )b/21 dt =
0 0

1
 1  1 1 a + 1 b + 1
= t = y, dt = y 1/2 dy =
2
y a/21/2 (1 y)b/21/2 dy = B , .
2 2 2 2 2
0
18

18.1.

## 1 (x), . . . , n (x), . . . (18.1)

[a, b] . , (18.1)
b
[a, b], a n (x)m (x)dx = 0 n, m N, n
= m.
b
, , a 2m (x)dx = 1 m N, (18.1)
[a, b].
.
1)

1
, cos x, sin x, cos 2x, sin 2x, . . .
2
[, ] :

 
1
cos nx cos mxdx = (cos(n + m)x + cos(n m)x)dx = 0, m
= n,
2

 
1
sin nx cos mxdx = (sin(n + m)x + sin(n m)x)dx = 0,
2


sin nx sin mxdx = 0, m
= n.

18.1. 335

 
2 1 cos 2nx
sin nxdx = dx = ,
2

 
1 + cos 2nx
cos2 nxdx = dx = ,
2

.
1 1 1 1 1
, cos x, sin x, cos 2x, sin 2x, . . .
2

[, ].
2)

1 dn 2
Ln (x) = (x 1)n , n N, L0 (x) = 1, (18.2)
2n n! dxn
[1, 1].
(18.2) ,

1
Ln (x)Lm (x)dx = 0, n
= m.
1

n > m. x = 1, x = 1
k (x2 1)k .
(x2 1)n n 1 x = 1, x = 1.
((x2 1)m )(n+m) 0,

1 1
2 n (n) 2 m (m)
((x 1) ) ((x 1) ) dx = ((x2 1)n )(n1) ((x2 1)m )(m+1) dx = . . .
1 1

1
... = ((x2 1))((x2 1)m )(n+m) dx = 0.
1

3)
1
, cos x, cos 2x, . . .
2
[0, ] ().
336 18.

4)
x 2x
sin , sin , ...
l l
[0, l] ().
5)

1 x x 2x 2x
, cos , sin , cos , sin , ...
2 l l l l

[l, l] ().
, f (x) -
1 (x), . . . , n (x), . . . [a, b], -
(an ) ,


f (x) = an n (x) x [a, b]. (18.3)
n=1

b
, 2n (x)dx
= 0 n N.
a

18.1

f (x) [a, b]
(18.3), f (x) [a, b]

b
1
an = n (x)f (x)dx n N. (18.4)
b
2n (x)dx a
a

. f (x)
. -
, -
.
(18.3)
k (x),


f (x)k (x) = an n (x)k (x) x [a, b], (18.5)
n=1
18.1. 337

[a, b] . -
(18.5) a b,

b
 b b
f (x)k (x)dx = an n (x)k (x)dx = ak 2k (x)dx.
a n=1 a a

(. 14.5). 

b
1
an = b n (x)f (x)dx

2
n (x)dx a
a

f (x).
, {n (x)} f (x)
, [, ]

a0 
f (x) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx,
2
n=1

  
1 1 1
a0 = f (x)dx, an = f (x) cos nxdx, bn = f (x) sin nxdx.

## , f (x), x [a, b], - -

[a, b], [a, b] a = x0 < x1 <
< . . . < xn = b , (xi1 , xi ) f (x)
f (x0 + 0), f (xi 0), f (xi +
+ 0), f (xn 0), i = 1, . . . , n 1. f (x), x (, +),
-, - [a, b]
(, +).
(18.4)
- , , -
18.1.

an n (x), an -
n=1
[a, b] f (x) , f (x) -
{n (x)}.
338 18.

f (x) - ,
, -
, f (x). ,
f (x), :


f (x) an n (x).
n=1

, [l, l]

a0  nx nx
f (x) + an cos + bn sin ,
2 l l
n=1

l l l
1 1 nx 1 nx
a0 = f (x)dx, an = f (x) cos dx, bn = f (x) sin dx.
l l l l l
l l l

,
, . 18.2.

18.2.

## f (x) - [a, b].

b b
lim f (x) sin pxdx = 0, lim f (x) cos pxdx = 0.
p p
a a

f (x),
-
-
.
> 0.
(. 6.9) a = x0 < x1 < . . . < xn = b
[a, b] , f (x), -
,


n
= k xk  , k = sup |f (x1 ) f (x2 )|, xk = xk xk1 .
k=1 x1 ,x2 [xk1 xk ]
18.3. 339

## [a, b]. mk = min f (x).

x[xk1 ,xk ]

 b   n xk 
   
 f (x) sin pxdx =  f (x) sin pxdx
a k=1x
k1

## n xk   n xk 

   
 (f (x) mk )dx +  mk sin pxdx
k=1x k=1 xk1
k1

1 
n
2
n
 + |mk || cos pxk cos pxk1 |  + |mk |.
p p
k=1 k=1
2 
n
() > 0, p  () |mk |  . ,
p k=1
 b 
 
() > 0, p  ()  f (x) sin pxdx  2,
a
b
lim a f (x) sin pxdx = 0.
p
b
lim a f (x) cos pxdx = 0 . 
p

18.3.

f (x) ,

0 , x D(f ) ,
T =
T + x, T + x D(f )

f (x T ) = f (x) = f (x + T ). (18.6)

T , (18.6), -
, T - .
, [l, l).
R, [l, l)
0x. 2l -

......................

(x + l), x [3l, l),
f

f (x) = f (x), x [l, l), .

f (x l), x [l, 3l),

......................
340 18.

[l, l) ,
f (l0), (, +),
, f (l 0) = f (l).

18.2

f (x) -, 2l-,
 a+l l
(, +) , a R al f (x)dx = l f (x)dx.
.

a+l l l a+l
f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx + f (x)dx.
al al l l

x = t + 2l

a+l al l
f (x)dx = f (t + 2l)dt = f (t)dt.
l l al

. 
, (18.4) -
2l -
2l.
2 -, -,
R f (x).

a0 
f (x) + an cos nx + bn sin nx, (18.7)
2
n=1

 
1 1
a0 = f (x)dx, an = f (x) cos nxdx,


1
bn = f (x) sin nxdx, n = 1, 2, . . . , (18.8)

, f (x) -
1/2, cos x, sin x, cos 2x, sin 2x, . . . , x [, ]. (18.7)
.
18.3. 341

(18.7).

a0 
n
Sn (x0 ) = + ak cos kx0 + bk sin kx0
2
k=1

x0 . ak , bk
(18.15)
 
1
n
1
Sn (x0 ) = f (x)dx + f (x)(cos kx cos kx0 + sin kx sin kx0 )dx =
2
k=1

 1 
n 
1
= f (x) + cos k(x x0 ) dx. (18.9)
2
k=1

,
1 sin((2n + 1)x/2)
+ cos x + sin x + + cos nx + sin nx = . (18.10)
2 2 sin(x/2)
,
(1/2 + cos x + sin x + + cos nx + sin nx)2 sin(x/2)
=
2 sin(x/2)

## sin(x/2) + sin(3x/2) sin(x/2) + + sin((2n + 1)x/2) sin((2n 1)x/2)

= =
2 sin(x/2)
sin((2n + 1)x/2)
= .
2 sin(x/2)
(18.10) (18.9) 18.2,

1 sin((2n + 1)(x x0 )/2)
Sn (x0 ) = f (x) dx = [x x0 = t] =
2 sin((x x0 )/2)

 0
x 
1 sin((2n + 1)t/2) 1 sin((2n + 1)t/2)
= f (t + x0 ) dt = f (t + x0 ) dt =
2 sin(t/2) 2 sin(t/2)
x0

 0
1 sin((2n + 1)t/2) 1 sin((2n + 1)t/2) 
= f (t + x0 ) dt + f (t + x0 ) dt .
2 sin(t/2) 2 sin(t/2)
0
342 18.

t t

1 sin((2n + 1)t/2)
Sn (x0 ) = (f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)) dt. (18.11)
2 sin(t/2)
0
Sn (x0 ) (18.11)
.
(18.11)

1 sin((2n + 1)t/2)
(f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)) dt =
2 sin(t/2)
0

1 sin((2n + 1)t/2)
= ( (f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)) dt+
2 sin(t/2)


sin((2n + 1)t/2)
+ (f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)) dt)
2 sin(t/2)
0
  1
0 < < . f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t) -
2 sin(t/2)
[, ].
   sin((2n + 1)t/2)
lim f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t) dt = 0.
n 2 sin(t/2)

Sn (x0 )
   sin((2n + 1)t/2)
lim Sn (x0 ) = lim f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t) dt.
n n 2 sin(t/2)
0
f (x)
[x0 , x0 + ], .
.
x0 f (x)
x0  x  x0 + x0 .
18.1. f (x) 1 (18.7)
1, , Sn (x) 1
(18.11)

2 sin((2n + 1)t/2)
1= dt. (18.12)
2 sin(t/2)
0
18.4. 343

18.4.
, f (x), x [a, b], - ,
a = x0 < x1 < . . . < xn = b [a, b],
(xi1 , xi ), i = 1, . . . , n, f (x) -
f (xi + 0), f (xi 0), f (a + 0), f (b
0), i = 1, ..., n 1, ,
f+ (xi ), f (xi ), f+ (a), f (b) ,
(xi1 , xi ) -
. f (x), x (, +), -,
- [a, b] (, +).

f (x) - [, ],
,
R

f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
, x (, ),
S(x) = 2
f ( + 0) + f ( 0) , x = , x = .

2

. f (x) R
f (x), x [, ). x0 [, ]

f (x)

1 sin((2n + 1)t/2)
Sn (x0 ) = (f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)) dt. (18.13)
2 sin(t/2)
0

(18.12)

f (x0 + 0) + f (x0 0)
S(x0 ) =
2
(18.13),

1
Sn (x0 ) S(x0 ) = (f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)

0

sin((2n + 1)t/2)
f (x0 + 0) f (x0 0)) dt. (18.14)
2 sin(t/2)
344 18.

, g(t), t (0, ] -
 f (t + x ) f (x + 0) f (x t) f (x 0)  t/2
0 0 0 0
+ ,
t t sin(t/2)
g(0) = 0 -. , -
  t/2
f (x0 + t) f (x0 + 0)
, t (0, ],
g1 (t) = t sin(t/2)

0, t = 0,
  t/2
f (x0 t) f (x0 0)
, t (0, ],
g2 (t) = t sin(t/2)

0, t = 0.
-. , , g1 (t). g2 (t)
. 0 = t0 < t1 < . . . < tn =
[0, ] , f (x0 + t)
, , . (ti1 , ti ),
i = 1, . . . , n, g1 (t) ,
f (x0 + t), t, sin(t/2) t
= 0, sin(t/2)
= 0. g1 (ti +
+ 0), g1 (ti 0), i = 1, . . . , n, f (x0 + t) -
. , lim g1 (t). -
t+0
x0 , f (x) ,
 f (x + t) f (x + 0)  t/2
0 0
lim g1 (t) = lim = (f ) (x0 ).
t+0 t+0 t sin(t/2)
x0 , f (x) -
, g1 (+0) lim g1 (t) =
t+0
= (f )+ (x0 ). (18.14) -
,

1
lim (Sn (x0 ) S(x0 )) = lim g(t) sin((2n + 1)t/2)dt = 0.
n n
0

,

f (x0 + 0) + f (x0 0) , x0 (, ),

S(x0 ) = 2
f ( + 0) + f ( 0) , x0 = , x0 =

2
2 - ,
. 
18.5. 345

18.1. f (x) -, 2 --
, R , x

f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
f (x) = ,
2
R
f (x)

a0 
f (x) = + an cos nx + bn sin nx x R.
2
n=1

-
, S(x) =
= f (x) x R, S(x) , .

18.2. f (x) , --
, 2 -, R , -
R f (x).

18.5.

- [l, l] f (x). -
f(y) = f (ly/), -
[, ]. f(y)

a0 
f(y) + an cos ny + bn sin ny,
2
n=1

 
1 1
a0 = f(y)dy, an = f(y) cos nydy,


1
bn = f(y) sin nydy, n = 1, 2, . . . . (18.15)

x, y = x/l, -
f (x) :

a0  nx nx
f (x) + an cos + bn sin , (18.16)
2 l l
n=1
346 18.

l  l
1 1 x 1 nx
a0 = f (x)dx, an = f (y) cos nydy = y = = f (x) cos dx,
l l l l
l l

l
1 nx
bn = f (x) sin dx, n = 1, 2, . . . . (18.17)
l l
l

f (x) , , -,
, (18.16), (18.17)
f (x) x (l, l),
f (x) x (l, l), -
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
f (x) = , x = l, f (l) =
2
f (l + 0) + f (l 0) f (l + 0) + f (l 0)
= , x = l, f (l) = .
2 2
f(x), -
[a, b]. f(x), x [a, b), R,
f (x), 2l -, l = (b a)/2.
f (x) (18.16) (18.17).
f(x) -, 18.2 -
. 18.5 , f(x)

a0  2nx 2nx
f(x) + an cos + bn sin
2 ba ba
n=1

b
2 2nx
an = f(x) cos dx, n = 0, 1, . . . ,
ba ba
a

b
2 2nx
bn = f(x) sin dx, n = 1, 2, . . . ,
ba ba
a

f(x) x
(a, b), f(x) , x (a, b),
f(x + 0) + f(x 0)
f(x) = , x = a, f(a) =
2
f(a + 0) + f(b 0) f(a + 0) + f(b 0)
= , x = b, f(b) = .
2 2
18.5. 347

- [, ] .

a0 
f (x) + an cos nx + bn sin nx,
2
n=1
0 
1
an = f (x) cos nxdx + f (x) cos nxdx , n = 0, 1, . . . ,

0
0 
1
bn = f (x) sin nxdx + f (x) sin nxdx , n = 1, 2, . . . ,

0
, f (x) .
x = t ,


2
an = f (x) cos nxdx, bn = 0.

0
,

a0 
f (x) + an cos nx.
2
n=1
f (x) ,

2
an = 0, bn = f (x) sin nxdx.

0


f (x) bn sin nx.
n=1

, f (x) -
[0, ].

f (x), x [0, ],
f (x) =
f (x), x [, 0),
, ,

a0 
f(x) + an cos nx. (18.18)
2
n=1
348 18.

f (x), x (0, ],

f(x) = f (x), x [, 0),

0, x = 0,



f(x) bn sin nx, (18.19)
n=1

. . . -
, f (x) - [0, ].

f (x) = f(x) = f(x) x (0, ], (18.18), (18.19)
f (x) ,

a0 
f (x) = + an cos nx, x [0, ],
2
n=1


f (x) = bn sin nx, x (0, ), S(0) = S() = 0.
n=1

18.1.

y = cos ax, x [, ], a ,

.
f () = f (), , bn = 0,

 
2 2 sin a 2
a0 = cos axdx = , an = cos ax cos nxdx =
a
0 0


1 2a sin a
= (cos(a + n)x + cos(a n)x)dx = (1)n ,
a2 n 2
0

sin a  2a sin a
cos ax = + (1)n 2 cos nx, x [, ].
a a n2
n=1

x = 0


1 1 2a
= + (1)n .
sin a a (a) (n)2
2
n=1
18.6. 349

a = t,
1 1  2t

1   1 1 

= + (1)n 2 = + (1) n
+ , (18.20)
sin t t t (n)2 t t n t + n
n=1 n=1

t
= k, k = 0, 1, +1, . . . . (18.20) . 17.8
-.

18.6.

## f (x) - [a, b] , {n (x)}

[a, b] ,


f (x) an n (x)
n=1

. -

 b b
a2n 2n (x)dx  f 2 (x)dx.
n=1 a a

. {n (x)},
b 
n
0 (f (x) ak k (x))2 dx =
a k=1

b n 

b

n b
2
= f (x)dx 2 f (x)ak k (x)dx + a2k 2k (x)dx =
a k=1 a k=1 a

b b b 
n b
= f (x)k (x)dx = ak 2k (x)dx = f 2 (x)dx a2k 2k (x)dx,
a a a k=1 a


n b b
a2k 2k (x)dx  f 2 (x)dx n N.
k=1 a a


b
2n (x)dx . - a2n
n=1 a
b
, a f 2 (x)dx. 
350 18.

18.3. f (x) - [, ]
.

a20  2 2 1
+ (an + bn )  f 2 (x)dx, (18.21)
2
n=1

an , bn , -
f (x).

. a0 /2 + n=1 an cos nx + bn sin nx -


,
 f (x).
2 2 2
cos nxdx = sin nxdx = , (1/2) dx = /2
(18.21). 

18.7.

f (x) [, ]
f () = f ().

a0 
+ an cos nx + bn sin nx (18.22)
2
n=1

[, ] f (x).
. -
, (18.22) f (x) [, ].
f  (x)

 0 
f (x) + n cos nx + n sin nx.
2
n=1

,
 1  
f (x) f (x), n = f (x) cos nxdx =

= [f  (x)dx = dv, v = f (x), cos nx = u, du = n sin nxdx] =

= f (x) cos nx | +n f (x) sin nxdx = nbn , n = 1, 2, . . . , 0 = 0,


1
n = f (x) sin nxdx = nan , n = 1, 2, . . . .

18.8. 351

,
n n
, an = , n = 1, 2, . . . .
bn = (18.23)
n n
f  (x)

 
1
(2n + 2n )  (f  (x))2 dx. (18.24)

n=1

(18.23),
    1
 n  n 1 1
|an cos nx + bn sin nx|  |an | + |bn | =   +    |n |2 + |n |2 + 2 .
n n 2 2 n


(18.24) ((1/2)|n |2 + (1/2)|n |2 ).
n=1
(. 14.2) (18.22)
[, ]. 

18.8.

f (x) [, ] ,

a0 
f (x) + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2
n=1

. x [, ]
x  an  1 cos nx 
a0
f (t)dt = x + sin nx + bn ,
2 n n
0 n=1

[, ].
.
x
a0 x
(x) = f (t)dt
2
0

[, ]
  
() () = f (t)dt f (t)dt a0 = f (t)dt a0 = 0.
0 0
352 18.

A0 
+ An cos nx + Bn sin nx, (18.25)
2
n=1

(x), [, ]
(x),
 
1 1  sin nx 

 a0   bn
An = (x) cos nxdx = (x) f (x) sin nxdx = ,
n 2 n


1 an
Bn = (x) sin nxdx = , n = 1, 2, . . . .
n

A0 . (18.25) x = 0,

A0   bn
= An = .
2 n
n=1 n=1

,
x
 an  1 cos nx 
a0
f (t)dt = x+ sin nx + bn .
2 n n
0 n=1

18.9.

f (x) [, ] , f () = f (),

a0 
f (x) + an cos nx + bn sin nx
2
n=1

.
, ,
f (x). . 18.9 , , , -
-
[, ] f (x).

a0 
n
S0 (x) + . . . + Sn (x)
Sn (x) = + ak cos kx + bk sin kx, n (x) = .
2 n+1
k=1
18.9. 353

f (x) [, ] f () = f (),
[,]
n (x) f (x).
n

. f (x), x [, ], R,
R f (x).
Sn (x) f (x), . 18.3,

1 sin((2n + 1)t/2)
Sn (x) = f (t + x) dt.
2 sin(t/2)


1
n (x) = f (t + x)Fn (t)dt,

## D0 (x) + . . . + Dn (x) sin((2i + 1)x/2)

Fn (x) = , Di (x) = ,
n+1 2 sin(x/2)
x (n, (n+1)), Di (n) = (2i + 1)/2, n N0 . Fn (x), n = 0, 1, . . . ,
. , -
:
 , 2 - ;
1) Fn (x)
2) 1/ Fn (x)dx = 1 n N0 ;
3) Fn (x)  0;
4) : 0 < < lim max Fn (x) = 0.
n x
1) Di (x).
2) . 18.3

1
1= Dn (x)dx n N0 .

## 3), (n + 1)Fn (x)


n
sin((2k + 1)t/2)
(n + 1)Fn (x) = =
2 sin(t/2)
k=0

1  n
x 2k + 1 1 cos(n + 1)x
= 2 2 sin sin x= . (18.26)
4 sin (x/2) k=0 2 2 4 sin2 (x/2)
354 18.

Fn (x)  0.
4) (18.26). ,
1
max Fn (x)  0.
x[,] 2(n + 1) sin2 (/2) n

. > 0. -
f (x) [2, 2]. -
[2, 2], . .

1), 4) Fn (x)

## () > 0, n  () max Fn (x)  , max Fn (x)  . (18.28)

()x x()

, (18.27), (18.28)
f (x), |f (x)|  M const x R,
 ()

1 1
|n (x)f (x)| |f (t+x)f (x)|Fn (t)dt = |f (t+x)f (x)|Fn (t)dt+

() 
1 1
+ |f (t + x) f (x)|Fn (t)dt + |f (t + x) f (x)|Fn (t)dt

() ()

1
 (2M + + 2M ) n  (), x [, ],

[,]
n (x) f (x) = f (x). 
n

18.10.

A0 
n
+ Ak cos kx + Bk sin kx = Tn (x), Ak , Bk R,
2
k=1

n.
18.10. 355

## f (x) [a, b], > 0 -

P (x) , |f (x) P (x)|  x [a, b].
.
, f (x) [0, ].
f (x) [, ] .
f (x) , f () = f (), f (x) [0, ].
> 0. -
T (x) (
) ,

|f (x) T (x)|  x [, ].

## cos kx, sin kx ,

R. T (x) -
cos kx, sin kx, P (x) ,

|T (x) P (x)|  x [, ].

x [0, ]

## , f (x) [a, b].

 t 
(t) = f a + (b a) , t [0, ]. (t)

[0, ]. , > 0
P (t) , |(t)P (t)|  t [0, ].
(x a)
t = ,
ba
|f (x) P (x)|  x [a, b],
 (x a) 
P (x) = P .
ba

## 18.4. f (x) [a, b],

,
[a, b] f (x) ().
19

19.1.
f (t) -
 +
(, +), . . |f (t)|dt .
(. 16.1)

+ 
+
1 1
a(y) = f (t) cos tydt, b(y) = f (t) sin tydt (19.1)
2 2


+

## a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xydy f (x) (19.2)

f (x).
a(y) b(y) (19.2),

+ 
+
1
f (x) dy f (t)(cos ty cos yx + sin ty sin yx)dt =
2


+ 
+ A 
+
1 1
= dy f (t) cos y(t x)dt = lim dy f (t) cos y(t x)dt. (19.3)
A
0 0

x0 R
A 
+
1
J(A) = dy f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt, A > 0.

0
19.1. 357

(18.11) . B > 0
(. 17.2)

A B B A
dy f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt = dt f (t) cos y(t x0 )dy =
0 B B 0

B
sin A(t x0 )
= f (t) dt. (19.4)
t x0
B

, -
f (t) cos y(tx0 ) -
[B, B] [0, A]. f (t) - [B, B].
B
, B f (t) cos y(t
x0 )dt ,
f (t) ,
[B, B]. -
(19.4) B +.


+
sin A(t x0 )
f (t) dt,
t x0

A B A B
lim dy f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt = dy( lim f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt) =
B+ B+
0 B 0 B

A 
+

## = dy f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt = J(A).

0

-
. , , -
(. 17.2):
, (. 17.2),
B
g(B, y) = B f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt y [0, A] -
B ( f (t) -,

B :
B f (t) cos y(tx0 )dt -
, f (t) ,
358 19.

, y,
y g(B, y) );

[0,A]

+

## g(B, y) f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt,

B+


+
. . f (t) cos y(t x0 )dt y

[0, A], (. 17.3), |f (t) cos y(t
+
x0 )|  |f (t)| t (, ), y [0, A], |f (t)|dt .
, J(A) :

+ 
+
1 sin A(t x0 ) 1 sin Au
J(A) = f (t) dt = f (u + x0 ) du =
t x0 u

0 
+
1 sin Au 1 sin Au 
= f (u + x0 ) du + f (u + x0 ) du =
u u
0

1 sin Au
= (f (u + x0 ) + f (x0 u)) du. (19.5)
u
0
(19.5)
.

19.2.

f (t) - -
[a, +),
 +  +
lim f (t) sin ptdt = 0, lim f (t) cos ptdt = 0.
p+ a p+ a

. > 0. -
f (t) ,

+
+

 
() > 0, A  () |f (t)|dt   f (t) sin ptdt  . (19.6)
A A
19.2. 359

A  (). ,

 A 
 
() > 0, p  ()  f (t) sin ptdt  . (19.7)
a

(19.6) (19.7)

+

 
 f (t) sin ptdt  2 p  (),
a


+
lim f (t) sin ptdt = 0. -
p+ a
. 

f (t) - -
(, +). x (, +)


+
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xydy = ,
2


+ 
+
1 1
a(y) = f (t) cos tydt, b(y) = f (t) sin tydt.
2 2

. x0 (, ).

f (x0 + 0) + f (x0 0)
= S0 .
2
(. 17.7, . 324)

2 sin Ax
dx = 1, A > 0,
x
0

S0 (19.5),
+

1 f (t + x0 ) f (x0 + 0) f (x0 t) f (x0 0) sin At
J(A) S0 = dt.
t t t
0
360 19.

J(A) S0
1
1  f (t + x ) f (x + 0) f (x t) f (x 0)  sin At
0 0 0 0
J(A) S0 = dt +
t t t
0


+
 f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)  sin At
+ dt +
t t
1


+
sin At
+ 2S0 dt = J1 (A) + J2 (A) + J3 (A). (19.8)
t
1

f (x) -,

h(t) =
t t

## t +0, f+ (x0 ) f (x0 ). ,


f -, , h(t) -
[0, 1]. lim J1 (A) .
A+

f (t + x0 ) + f (x0 t)
h1 (t) =
t
- [1, +). -
h1 (t) [1, +)
 f (t + x ) + f (x t) 
 0 0 
   |f (x0 + t)| + |f (x0 t)|,
t

(, +) f -
. lim J2 (A) = 0.
A+
 sin At
+  sin y
+
dt At = y, dy.
1 t A y
 sin y
+
dy lim J3 (A) =
1 y A+
 sin y
+
= lim dy = 0. , (19.8)
A+ A y
lim (J(A) S0 ) = 0. 
A+
19.3. 361

1
19.1. f (x) = .
1 + x2
f (x)
(, +), , .
f (x) b(y) = 0,

+
2 cos xy
a(y) = dx = ey , y  0.
1 + x2
0

,

+
1
= ey cos xydy.
1 + x2
0

19.3.
f (t) , - -
(, +) . -
x R

+ 
+ 
+
1
f (x) = a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xydy = dy f (t) cos y(x t)dt. (19.9)
2


+
f (t) sin y(x t)dt -

y (, ),
-1 (. 17.4)

+

## (y) = f (t) sin y(x t)dt

(, ) , , -
[A, A], , f (t) sin y(x t)
y
A 
+

A
,

+ 
+

## dy f (t) sin y(x t)dt (19.11)

362 19.

.
.

. (t)
[A, A] (, +).
A
lim (t)dt,
A+
A

(t)dt -


v.p. (t)dt.

(t) (, +)
( ), -
.
A  0 ,
lim 0 (t)dt, lim B (t)dt. ,

A+ B+
(t)dt ,
 
v.p. (t)dt = (t)dt.

 ,
 +
+
. , xdx , v.p. xdx =
= 0.
(19.11). (19.10) ,

+ 
+

## (19.12) i/2 (19.9),


+ 
+
1
f (x) = v.p. dy f (t)(cos y(x t) + i sin y(x t))dt =
2


+ 
+
1
= v.p. dy f (t)eiy(xt) dt. (19.13)
2

19.3. 363


+
1
F (y) = v.p. f (t)eiyt dt,
2

(19.13)


+
1
f (x) = v.p. F (y)eiyx dy. (19.14)
2

f (x) g(x),
|a, b|. f (x)+ig(x) = h(x), h : |a, b| C, C -
,
c f (x) g(x).
(), (-
) .

  
  
h (x) = f (x) + ig (x), h(x)dx = f (x)dx + i g(x)dx, , [a, b],

|h(x)| = f 2 (x) + g 2 (x).
,
h(x), R,


+
1
F (y) = v.p. h(x)eiyx dx,
2

h(x) F [h].
,
Q(y), R,


+
1
H(x) = v.p. Q(y)eiyx dy,
2

F 1 [Q].
364 19.

1. R
h(x) R
.
. h(x)
R,

+
 +
1  
|F (y)| =  iyx
h(x)e dx  |h(x)|dx = M const,
2

, F (y) R .
F (y)

+ 
+
1  
F (y) = h(x) cos yxdx i h(x) sin ytdt = F1 (y) iF2 (y).
2

F1 (y) F2 (y) -
-1 (. 17.4, . 319). 
2. f (x) , -
(, +) ,

F 1 [F [f ]] = f, (19.15)

F [F 1 [f ]] = f.
. (19.15)
(19.14).
(19.13)

+ 
+
1
f (x) = v.p. dy f (t)eiy(tx) dt,
2

F [F 1 [f ]] = f. 
2 /2
19.2. F [ex ].

+
x2 /2 1 2
I(y) = F [e ]= ex /2ixy dx =
2


+ 
+
1  x2 /2 2

= e cos xydx i ex /2 sin xydx .
2

19.3. 365

y ( ), -


+ 
+
 1  x2 /2 2

I (y) = xe sin xydx i xex /2 cos xydx =
2

 2 /2 2 /2 
= xex dx = dv, v = ex , sin xy = u, du = y cos xydx =

+
1  x2 /2 + +
sin xy  y ex /2 cos xydx + ex /2 cos xy 
2 2
= e
2


+

2
iy ex /2 sin xydx = yI(y).


+
 y 2 /2 1 2
I (y) = yI(y), I(y) = Ce , I(0) = ex /2 dx = 1,
2

2 /2
C = 1, I(y) = ey . (19.16)

19.3. ,
1 x2
2
F e 4t = ey t , t > 0. (19.17)
2t

, (19.16),

1 2

+
1 x2
x4t
F e = e 4t ixy dx =
2t 2 t


+

1 s2 2
= e 2 is( 2t)y ds = I(y 2t) = ey t .
2

3.
f : R R R -
R f  (x).

## F [f  (x)] = iyF [f (x)].

366 19.

.
x
f (x) = f (0) + f  (t)dt.
0

f  (x) ,

+

## lim f (x) = f (0) + f  (t)dt = A.

x+
0

, A = 0. , , , A > 0,
x
 + |f (x)|  A/2,
0 |f (t)|dt ,
. , lim f (x) = 0. -
x+
, lim f (x) = 0.
x
,

+
 1
F [f (x)] = f  (x)eixy dx =
2


+
1  + 
= f (x)eixy  +iy f (x)eixy dx = iyF [f (x)]. 
2

4.

 + (x) (x) R,
(t)(x t)dt x R.
(x) (x) -


+

## ( )(x) := (t)(x t)dt.

19.1. : R R : R R ,
R,
, R.
. ( )(x) -


+ 
+

tR

19.3. 367

(t)(x t) ,

tR

 +
|(t)|dt
 +
x R |(t)(x
t)|dt,
-1, , ( )(x) R.
. -
-
(. 17.4),


+ 
+ 
+


+ 
+ 
+ 
+

## = dt |(t)||(x t)|dx = |(t)|dx |(s)|ds. (19.19)

, -

 + -
. x R |(t)(x t)|dt
.


+ 0
|(t)(x t)|dx, |(t)(x t)|dx
0

t [, ] R

## |(t)(x t)|  M1 |(x t)|, M1 = sup |(t)|,

tR


+ 
+ 0 ||
|(x t)|dx  |(s)|ds, |(x t)|dx  |(s)|ds
0 ||
 +
|(s)|ds.

+ 
+
dt |((t)||(x t)|dx (19.19). 

368 19.

.
: R R : R R , -
R,

F [ ] = 2F []F [].

. -
, -


+

+

1 ixy
F [ ] = e ((t)(x t)dt dx =
2


+ 
+
1
= (t)dt eixy (x t)dx =
2


+ 
+

1
= eiyt (t)dt eisy (s)ds = 2F [] F [].
2

-
19.1. 

## 19.4. u(t, x),

u(t, x) 2 u(t, x)
= , t > 0, x R, (19.20)
t x2

u(x, +0) = f (x). (19.21)

-
,
, -
, -
.
(19.20) :


+
1
u(t, x) = F [f ]v(t, y)eixy dy, (19.22)
2

19.3. 369

v(t, y) , . u(t, y)
(19.20), (19.21),


+
 v(t, y) 
u 2 u 1 2
2 = F [f ] + y v(t, y) eixy dy 0.
t x 2 t

, , v(t, y)

v(t, y)
+ y 2 v(t, y) = 0
t
v(y, 0) = 1.
2
v = ety . (19.22),


+
1 2
u(t, x) = F [f ]ety eixy dy.
2

, (19.17) 2
4 ,


+
1
1 x2
u(t, x) = F [f (x)]F e 4t eixy dy =
2 2t


+
1 1 x2
= F [f (x) e 4t ]eixy dy =
2 2t

 
+
1 1 x2  1 (xs)2
= F 1 F f (x) e 4t = e 4t f (s)ds. (19.23)
2 2t 2 t

(19.23) . u(t, x) -
(19.20), (19.21).

, . . : .
. / . . , . . , . . . . : . .,
1999.
, . . : 2 . / . . -
. : , 1974, 1978. 2 .
, . . / . . , . . ,
. . . . : -, 2003.
, . . / . . , . . -
, . . . : . ., 1995.
, . . /
. . . . : , 1990.
, . . : 6 ./ . . .
: . ., 20062008. 6 .
, . . : 2 ./ . . . . : , 1981,
1984. 2 .
, . . : 2 . / . . , . . -
. . : , 2002, 2005. 2 .
, . . . / . . , . . -
, . . . . : , 1985.
, . . . / . . ,
. . , . . . . : , 1987.
, . . : 3 . / . . . . :
, 2003 2006. 3 .
, . . / . . . . :
, 2001.
, . . / . . -
. . : , 1972.
-, . . / . . -,
. . . . : , 2001.
, . . :
3 . / . . . . : , 2003. 3 .
, . : 2 . / . . . : , 1972. 2 .

## 112, 159, 171, 175, 237 199

171, 232
89 174, 232
89 105
89 93
89
295
228
141, 251 362
295
291
7 310
7 31

131 319
291
264 291
299
321
106, 154, 199 32
153
251 299
322
57, 137, 190, 193 299
103 237
63, 145 239
n 63, 145 162
107
121 11
171 356
333
129 324
98 7
129 169, 233
199
64, 141, 196
124
154 50
323 130
303 286
372

43 271
43 6
219
337

238 20
120
121 285
120
- 153 253
120
231 255
121 -1
293
129
85
84
84 280

85 160
26 182
2 132 338

33 358
158 121
57
257
118 228
80, 217
108, 155 80, 217
2
305 218
-1 270 193
311 209
271 272
-1 294

18 228
260 80, 217
156 80, 217
78 97
79
335
36
228
67 21
129
27 21
2 7, 130
304 129
-1 311 130
270 M- 108
373

25 10
11 14
224 11
15
266
349 278
188 15
188 10
11
233 15
130 15
249 10
130 269
183 269
249 15
254
155, 199 18
129, 189 252
26
26 62
24 69

10 ,
21 81
23
23 81
23
7 82

93, 186 ,
265 86

137
87

153 87
235
130, 189
118
15
230 19
232 133, 189, 191
239 266
- 235
230 30
16 45
103 19
266
- 45
251 45
252 11
253 27
251 26
354 45
374

19 268
24, 132 268
265
342 52
52
164, 201 60
- 166, 201 58
363
363 64
141

58
n 5
c 144
137, 190
263 n 143, 197
-1 298
7

-1 312 170
273 120
272 170
170
-1 312 171
-2 321
281
260
257 154, 199
262
75
-1 313 75
273 74
-1 297 76
256 75
261 129, 188
213
212 251
259
255 261, 267
-1 293 258
255 258
-1 294 267
258 260
-1 294 261
277
17 254
342 271
10 254
280
254
32 254
32 285
261
268 337
268 340
375

254 190

- 94
14 57
268 43
B - 326 155, 199
- 329 155, 199
157 199
110 246
-1 171

-2 175
113

48
135
49, 136
-1 292
68
-2 299
67
-1 237

-2 240
267
29

132
16
364

283
89, 229
12
8
119 267
43 267
,
334 307
334 -1 318
-2 322

,

308
-1 319
194

122
-1 319
211

278
30
278
2 167
278
201
310
238
238 317

267 320
106, 154, 199 51
130
210 38
211
194

304
304 15
376

90 -2 -2 248
-2 -2 3 246
183, 250 144
112, 157
38 38
192
, 138
307
-1 317 67
-2 322
37
305 160
37 134
, 110
53 155
149 210
93
204
205 71
265
296
306 65
-1 315 275
-2 322 66
353
343
35
284 129
276 238
275 88
351 88
129
359 129
34
355 238
35
53 298
55 85
56 129
47 35
35
350 120
85
98 213
65
286 222
2 222
160 221
221
200
118
-2 2 179

377

0x 163
0y 162 281
115, 302
115, 301
231 2 167
230 67
169, 231 2 139
230
222 281

282
124 67
307
126 114, 300
-2 2 240
-
140, 191, 194 - 331
219 248
71, 147, 198
229 73
2
305 21
18 21
46
225 46
80, 217 326
85 46
191
107, 154 21
83
107, 155 83
254 35
82, 228
117 82
118 329
118 131
178
164 57, 137, 190, 192
n - 61
218
218 291
218 362
218 107, 154, 199
218 363
72 - 343
72 - 35
224
72 42
35
32, 134, 189
246 134, 189, 192
179
378

134
134 43
x y 134
34 39
34 2
35
140, 190 35
m 145, 197 35
59 35
n- 61 43
148
156, 200
204 251
205
23 5
339 5
40 5
49 5
32
97 71
102
98 188
-
104 80
21
189 353
23 165