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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 3, May - June 2016


G.Siva Prasad1 K.Dinesh Achari2 E.Dileep Kumar Goud3 M.Nagaraju4 K.Srikanth5
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr.K.V.S.R.I.T,Dupadu(v),
Kurnool , A.P.
B.tech Student,Department of Mechanical Engineering,Dr.K.V.S.R.I.T,Dupadu(v),Kurnool,A.P.

The modern trend is to develop IC In this study work the analysis of
Engine of increased power capacity. One of the piston consists of mainly design and
the design criteria is the endeavor to reduce analysis. Design the model of the piston in
the structures weight and thus to reduce fuel giving design specification on the modeling
consumption. This has been made possible like PRO-E. Then giving it the constrains
by improved engine design. In the internal which are act on the working condition of
combustion engine there are many the piston after the model of the piston into
reciprocating parts which are responsible for the analysis software ANSYS in IGES
giving the motion to the engine. The piston format. Then the analysis becomes
is Heart of the engine and its working completed on the different parameters
condition is the worst one of the key parts of (temperature, stress, deformation) and easily
engine in the working environment. So it is analysis the result. The different material Al
very important for design and structural alloy 4032, AISI4340 Alloy Steel &
analysis of the piston. Titanium Ti-6A1-4V. After the analysis of
the different material piston it analyzed that
There are lots of research works the Al alloy is suitable for I.C.Engine piston.
proposing, for engine pistons, new
geometries, materials and manufacturing I INTRODUCTION:
techniques, and this evolution has undergone
The piston reciprocates in the
with a continuous improvement over the last
cylinder to complete the cyclic events and
decades and required thorough examination transmit gas pores to the crank shaft through
of the smallest details. Notwithstanding all the connecting rod. Piston is the most
these studies, there are a huge number of important component in an internal
damaged pistons. Damage mechanisms have combustion engine. The working condition
of piston in an internal combustion is so
worst. During the combustion stroke the fuel
get ignited with the help of spark plug. Due
different origins and are mainly wear,
to this combustion of gases in the cylinder
temperature, and fatigue related. the thermal deformation and mechanical

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 3, May - June 2016

deformation causes piston cracks, tortuosity To reciprocate in the cylinder provide

etc. It is very essential to check out or seal in suction, compression, expansion
analyze the stress distribution, temperature and exhaust stroke.
distribution, heat transfer, thermal load,
mechanical load in order to minimize the IV PISTON MATERIALS:
stress, minimize the thermal stress and
different loads on working condition of the Generally pistons are made of Al
piston. The internal combustion engine alloy and cast iron. But the Al alloy is more
piston is made of Al alloy. This creates preferable in comparison of cast iron
difference between the running and design because of its light weight which suitable for
clearances. In this study firstly we draw the
the reciprocating part. There are some
piston model in PRO-E software and finally
the piston is analyzed in ANSYS software. drawbacks of Al alloys in comparison to
The two steps involved in this study are: cast iron that are the Al alloys are less in
strength and in wearing qualities. The heat
1. To design an IC engine piston by using conductivity of Al is about of thrice of the
PRO-E software. cast iron. Al pistons are made thicker which
is necessary for strength in order to give
2. To perform the structural and thermal
analysis of piston by using ANSYS proper cooling.

Piston is a reciprocating component In designing a piston, the following

in an engine which converts the chemical points should be taken into consideration:
1. It should have enormous strength to
energy after the burning of fuel into
withstand the high gas pressure and inertia
mechanical energy. The purpose of the forces.
piston is to transfer the energy to crankshaft 2. It should have minimum mass to 2inimize
via connecting rod. The piston ring is used the inertia forces.
to provide seal between the cylinder and 3. It should form an effective gas and oil
piston. It must able to work with low sealing of the cylinder.
friction, high explosive forces and high 4. It should provide sufficient bearing area
temperature around 2000 to 2800.The to prevent undue wear.
5. It should disperse the heat of combustion
piston is to be strong but its weight should
quickly to the cylinder walls.
be less to prevent inertia forces due to 6. It should have high speed reciprocation
reciprocating motion. without noise.
7. It should be of sufficient rigid
III FUNCTIONS OF PISTON: construction to withstand thermal and
mechanical distortion.
To receive the thrust force generated by
8. It should have sufficient support for the
the chemical reaction of fuel in the
piston pin.
cylinder and transmits to connecting rod.

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 3, May - June 2016

The design procedure of piston consists of t =

the following parameters: . ( )

Thickness of piston head (t )

Heat flows through the piston head (H)
Radial thickness of the ring (t ) H= Heat flow through the piston head.
Axial thickness of the ring (t ) C=Constant heat supplied to
Width of the top land (b )
Width of other ring lands (b )
Maximum Thickness of Barrel (t ) HCV= Higher calorific value of petrol
Piston wall thickness towards the open (HCV=47000 KJ/Kg).
Piston pin M= Mass of fuel used per cycle (M=0.069
Here we are assuming the diameter of the
BP= Brake power (BP=7.5W).
piston according to your requirements.
K= Thermal conductivity of material which
1. Thickness of Piston Head ( ): is 174.15W/mk.
The piston thickness of piston head Tc = Temperature at centre of piston head in
calculated using the following Grashoffs C.
formula. Te = Temperature at edges of piston head in
t =D
3. Radial Thickness of Ring ( ):

Where, t =D
P= maximum pressure in N/mm.
D= cylinder bore/outside diameter of the Where,
piston in mm. D = Cylinder bore.
D = 50mm.
D = 50mm.
P = Pressure of gas on the cylinder wall
= permissible tensile stress for the (nearly taken as 0.025 Mpa to 0.042Mpa).
= Allowable bending tensile stress (84
material of the piston.
Mpa to 112Mpa for cast iron).

2. Heat Flow Through the Piston Head 4. Axial Thickness of Ring ( ):

The thickness of the rings may be taken as
The heat flow through the piston head is
calculated using the formula t = 0.7t to t

H= C HCV M BP 5. Width of the Top Land ( ):

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 3, May - June 2016

The width of the top land varies from .

= 50

b = t to 1.2t
6. Width of other Lands ( ): t = 9.58 mm
Width of other ring lands varies from
2. Heat Flow through the Piston Head
b = 0.75t to 3
7. Maximum Thickness of Barrel ( ): (H):
t = 0.03D + b + 4.5
= 0.05 47000 10 0.069 7.5
= 1216125
b = radial depth of piston ring groove.
t =
b = t + 0.4 . ( )

8. Piston Wall Thickness Towards the

Open End: =
. .

t = 0.25t to 0.35t t = 7.3 mm

9. Piston Pin: 3. Radial Thickness of Ring ( ):
Load on pin due to bearing pressure t =D
=P d t
Where, t = 0.45D .
= 50
Maximum load on piston due to gas
pressure= D P t = 1.63 mm

Inside diameter of piston pin 4. Axial Thickness of Ring ( ):

d = 0.6d t = 0.7t to t

= 0.7 1.63 to 1.63

= 1.14 to 1.63 mm

5. Width of the Top Land ( ):

VII CALCULATIONS: b = t to 1.2t

1. Thickness of Piston Head ( ): = 7.3 to 1.2 7.3

b = 7.3 to 8.76 mm
t =D
6. Width of other Lands ( ):

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 3, May - June 2016

b = 0.75t to 3 Inside diameter of piston pin

d = 0.6d
= 0.75 1.63 to 3 = 0.6 13
= 8mm
b = 1.22 to 3 mm
7. Maximum Thickness of Barrel ( ): The following are the sequence of steps
in which the piston is modeled.
t = 0.03D + b + 4.5
Drawing half portion of piston by using
= 0.03 50 + 2.03 + 4.5 sketcher.
Generating the model by using revolve
t = 8.03mm command.
Removing the inner material by using
b = t + 0.4 extrude command.
= 1.63 + 0.4 Create a piston pin hole.
b = 2.03mm Save this model into IGES format.

8. Piston Wall Thickness Towards the

Open End:

t = 0.25t to 0.35t

= 0.25 8.03 to 0.35 8.03

t = 2.01 to 2.81 mm
Fig 1: Piston design in PRO-E
9. Piston Pin:

Load on pin due to bearing pressure VIII RESULT AND ANALYSIS:

=P d t
= 35 do 0.45 50 Aluminium 4032:
= 787.5d Temperature Distribution:
Here we are applying the temperature on the
Maximum load on piston due to gas pressure piston head and on the walls of the piston.
= D P On the piston head 500 is applied and on
the piston walls 300is applied. The below
= 50 5 figure shows the temperature distribution of
= 9817.44 piston.

Load on pin due to bearing pressure =

maximum load on piston due to gas pressure
787.5d = 9817.44
d = 13mm
Outside diameter of piston pin d = 13mm

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 3, May - June 2016

temperature distribution of AISI 4340


Fig 2: Aluminium temperature deflection

Deformation due to Pressure:

Here we apply the pressure on the top of the

piston of 3Mpa and Applying the All DOF Fig 4: AISI 4340 Temperature Distribution
on the piston pin rings by which we can find
out the deflection in piston. Deformation due to Pressure:

Here we are applying the

pressure on the piston which is made of
AISI 4340, on the piston head 3Mpa of
pressure is applied and Applying the All
DOF on the piston pin rings.

Fig 3: Deformation due to pressure

AISI 4340:
Temperature Distribution:
Same amount of temperature is
applied on the piston which is made of AISI Fig 5: Deformation due to pressure
4340 material. The below figure shows the

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 3, May - June 2016

IX CONCLUSION: Research in Engineering & Science

Vol.1 , January 2013.
It is concluded from the above study
4. Kesarapu Sandeep Reddy, K.R. Senthil
the piston is designed using PRO-E software
and analyzing the piston using the ANSYS Kumar, P R Jeyakrishnam , Study on
software. Only few steps are needed to make Stability of Honeycomb Structured
drawing in three dimensions. The piston Piston, IJERA.
model is imported to ANSYS for analysis. 5. Al-Beiruti, Dr.Basim M. Al Quraishi &
Piston made of two different materials Al Isam Ezzulddinyousif, Thermal effects
alloy 4032 & AISI 4340 Alloy steel are on Diesel Engine Piston and Piston
analyzed. Their structural analysis shows
Compression Rings, Eng. & Tech
that the maximum stress intensity is on the
bottom surface of the piston crown in all the Journal Vol. 27, 2009.
materials, but stress Intensity is close to the 6. Ekeren Buyukkaya, Thermal analysis of
yield strength of Al alloy piston. Maximum functionally graded coating AlSi alloy
temperature is found at the centre of the top and steel pistons, Surface & Coatings
surface of the piston crown. This is equal for Technology 202 (2008).
all materials. Depending on the thermal
conductivity of the materials, heat transfer
rate is found maximum in Al alloy piston.
For the given loading conditions, Al alloy
piston is found most suitable. But when the
loading pattern changes, other materials may
be considered. With the advancement in
material science, very light weight materials
with good thermal and mechanical
properties can be used for fail safe design of
the I.C.Engine. This will reduce the fuel
consumption and protect the environment.


1. Shuoguo Zhao, Design the piston of

Internal Combustion Engine by
2. Isam Jasim Jaber and Ajeet Kumar Rai,
Design and Analysis of IC Engine Piston
and Piston-Ring Using CATIA and
ANSYS Software, IJMET.
3. Ch. Venkata Rajan ,P.V.K. Murthy,
M.V.S. Muraly Krishna, G.M. Prasada
Rao, Design Analysis and Optimization
Of Piston using CATIA and ANSYS,
International Journal of Innovative

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