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www.elsevier.com/locate/arcontrol

Piotr Tatjewski *

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

Received 5 October 2007; accepted 4 March 2008

Available online 16 May 2008

Abstract

The paper demonstrates the place, role and mutual interaction of advanced control algorithms and on-line set-point optimization in process

control structures. First, a multilayer control structure resulting from a functional decomposition is briefly presented. The role and selected

realizations of advanced control algorithms, in particular mostly applied now model predictive control (MPC) ones, at direct control and

supervisory constraint control layers is discussed. Then possible solutions to on-line set-point optimization, depending of disturbance dynamics,

are presented: dynamic set-point optimization including involved structures based on temporal decomposition, and steady-state set-point

optimization for cases with disturbance dynamics both much slower than and comparable with the process dynamics. For the last case, important in

industrial practice, different structures of interaction and even integration of MPC and steady-state optimization are discussed. The topics are

illustrated by briefly presented examples, selected from given references.

# 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Hierarchical systems; Multilayer control; Advanced control; Model predictive control; Set-point optimization; Nonlinear control; Constraints

1. Introduction layers. The reason is to make the control system design easier

by creating technically well-defined and simpler subtasks, thus

The technique of process automation has been based on the leading to improved reliability and ease of monitoring and

hierarchical approach for years, with the main layers of the maintenance of the resulting control system. There are three

hierarchy being the lower layers of feedback (regulatory) basic methods of decomposition, leading to different multilayer

control and the upper layers of optimization. The idea is well or multilayermultilevel structures:

established in industrial practice and discussed in many papers

and monographs, see e.g. (Blevins, McMillan, Wojsznis, & functional decomposition;

Brown, 2003; Brdys & Tatjewski, 2005; Findeisen, 1974, 1997; temporal decomposition;

Findeisen et al., 1980; Findeisen, Brdys, & Malinowski, 1994; spatial decomposition.

Lefkowitz, 1966; Mesarovic, Macko, & Takahara, 1970; Qin &

Badgwell, 2003; Tatjewski, 2007). The well-known reason for

In the following sections, first the functional multilayer

that is that design of a control unit as a single entity with a

control structure will be presented. Temporal decomposition

homogeneous centralized decision mechanism may be reason-

will be given later, when discussing the on-line dynamic set-

able only in situations in which the process and the control

point optimization, while discussion of multiplayermultilevel

objective are relatively simple. The main idea is to decompose

structures, based on spatial decomposition, will be omitted as

the original control task into a sequence of simpler and

beyond the scope of this paper (the reader is referred to

hierarchically structured subtasks, handled by dedicated control

references cited above). Then the role and certain realizations

of model predictive control (MPC) advanced feedback control

algorithms in the multilayer structure will be discussed. Next,

An earlier version of the paper was presented as a plenary one at the 11th on-line set-point optimization will be the subject of presenta-

IFAC/IFORS/IMACS/IFIP Symposium on Large Scale Systems, Gdansk,

Poland, 2325 July 2007.

tion, for different disturbance dynamics, including interaction

* Tel.: +48 22 8250995; fax: +48 22 8253719. and integration of MPC and on-line steady-state set-point

E-mail address: P.Tatjewski@ia.pw.edu.pl. optimization.

1367-5788/$ see front matter # 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

doi:10.1016/j.arcontrol.2008.03.003

72 P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185

2. Functional multilayer structure Technical realization of the tasks of the layer is usually ensured,

for complex industrial plants, by distributed control systems

It is beyond the scope of this paper to present the complex, (DCS). Algorithms of direct control should be robust and

hierarchical procedure of plantwide control system structure relatively easy to tune and supervise, that is why classic PID

design, including such important topics as selection of algorithms (delivering in many cases also acceptable perfor-

manipulated and controlled variables, controller types, etc., mance) are still dominant. However, capabilities of modern

see (Skogestad, 2000, 2004; Zheng, Mahajanam, & Douglas, DCS systems enable more computationally advanced solutions.

1999). We recall only that it leads to a functional decomposition Thus, in places where the classic PID control leads to

of the control problem for the whole plant, which is based on unsatisfactory performance, more advanced control algorithms

assigning a set of functionally different partial control can be employed, in particular modifications of the PID

objectives in a structure of vertical, hierarchical dependence. algorithm and, recently, implementions of MPC algorithms.

To maximize an overall economical objective the following In the literature one can find descriptions of basic feedback

main partial objectives should be met: control, as opposed to advanced feedback control, usually

treated as a supervisory control located at a higher layer.

1. To maintain the process in a safe operation mode, i.e., to However, it should be strongly emphasized that the generic

constrain to an acceptable level the probability of undesir- feature characterizing all direct (basic) controllers is the direct

able, uncontrollable process behaviour (caused by faults, access to the controlled process (process manipulated inputs are

etc.). directly influenced by these controllers) and high frequency of

2. To meet demands on product quality and economical usage intervention (small sampling period), not the kind of the

of technological apparatuses, i.e., to keep certain process algorithm employed, advanced or not. Therefore, we shall not

input and output values within or on prescribed limits. keep to this terminology, describing supervisory feedback

3. To maximize the current production profit. controllers (control algorithms) placed at a higher layer, with

outputs being set-point values for direct controllers located

The order of presentation of the above partial objectives is below, as set-point controllers constituting the dynamic set-

not incidental. Safety of the control system is most important, point control layer, or constraint controllers constituting the

next in importance is to care about the quality of products. Only dynamic constraint control layer. The latter description is often

after ensuring the realization of these two aims, can there be used in the literature, because the task of the upper-layer

room for on-line economic optimization. It is in this order that (supervisory) feedback controllers is usually to keep certain

the layers of the basic functional multilayer control structure slower-varying process variables on or within prescribed

are located, as presented in Fig. 1, see also e.g. (Brdys & constraint limits, see e.g. (Blevins et al., 2003) or an excellent

Tatjewski, 2005; Qin & Badgwell, 2003; Tatjewski, 2007). industrial review paper (Qin & Badgwell, 2003). These slower-

The direct control layer (known also as basic control layer) varying variables decide mainly on product quality parameters,

is responsible for basic safety of dynamic processes in the plant. such as concentrations in reactors or distillation columns.

Only this layer has direct access to the plant, being capable to Therefore, it is required that the set-point control algorithms

influence directly the controlled input variables (the manipu- should operate with high control performance, often in cases of

lated variables) and is also equipped with basic safety logic. multivariable, non-linear processes. Notice that at each layer

the same process is seen in a different way direct controllers

operate on faster part of the process (process modes)

counteracting fast disturbances, while constraint controllers on

slower part of the process such a process decomposition is

shown in Fig. 2 (Brdys & Tatjewski, 2005; Duda, Brdys,

Tatjewski, & Byrski, 1995; Tatjewski, 2007).

The history and significance of the constraint control layer is

directly connected with the development of advanced control

algorithms, in fact almost exclusively the MPC algorithms.

There was no distinction made in any previous literature

between the layers of the direct (basic) control and the

constraint control (advanced control), see e.g. (Findeisen et al.,

1980; Lefkowitz, 1966). It was the development of the

computer technology that enabled the realization of more

computationally demanding advanced control algorithms based

on process models, such as the popular DMC algorithm and

other MPC type algorithms, leading to a separation of a

dedicated supervisory feedback control layer. Since that time

this distinction is commonly met in the papers of leading

vendors of control equipment and software, as well as in review

Fig. 1. The functional multilayer control structure. papers and basic textbooks, especially those devoted to process

P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185 73

of the process operation, under constraints on process variables

and using a process model describing relations between process

inputs and outputs. When more involved algorithms than a

single optimization are used, usually utilizing a feedback

information from the process to cope with significant

uncertainty, then operation of this layer is described as

optimizing control (Brdys & Tatjewski, 2005), which is

understood as an optimization with feedback, i.e., in a

different way than the optimizing control as originally defined

by Morari, Stephanopoulos, and Arkun (1980) and described

more precisely as self-optimizing control by Skogestad (2000)

in the more recent paper.

more advanced than the classical PID algorithm, see e.g.

(Blevins et al., 2003; Maciejowski, 2002). However, the

undoubtedly dominant advanced technology is now the model

predictive control (MPC), developed in the last decades of the

previous century. The main reasons for that are, first, that the

Fig. 2. Process decomposition for design of direct and constraint controllers

MPC technique, as using future predictions of the process

(a case of yd stabilization).

dynamical behaviour based on direct use of its model, is very

efficient for processes with difficult dynamics and in multi-

control, see e.g. (Blevins et al., 2003; Goodwin, Graebe, & variable cases and, second, that the MPC algorithms have the

Salgado, 2001; Marlin, 1995; Qin & Badgwell, 2003; unique ability to take directly into account constraints imposed

Skogestad, 2000, 2004; Tatjewski, 2007). It should also be on process inputs (manipulated variables) and outputs

mentioned that the set-point control layer cannot always occur. (controlled variables) or state variables, which often decide

It is not distinguished in cases when there is no need for the set- on production quality and economic efficiency. That is why at

point control (constraint control) in the sense described above. the constraint control layer almost exclusively the MPC

Moreover, this layer cannot fully separate the direct control algorithms are being applied, see e.g. (Blevins et al., 2003;

layer from the optimization layeras is indicated in the Maciejowski, 2002; Qin & Badgwell, 2003; Rossiter, 2003;

structure of Fig. 1. Tatjewski, 2007)this layer is even sometimes called the

Optimization of set-points for feedback controllers is the MPC layer. Therefore, only MPC algorithms will be

task that is performed at the next layer of the hierarchy, the local considered at the constraint control layer in this paper.

optimization layer, situated directly above the regulatory However, rapid development of computer technology made it

control. It performs economic optimization related to the possible to apply now MPC also for direct control (in simpler

controlled process, which is usually a part of a larger complex versions if necessary), when improved control performance is

plant (under plant-wide optimization, beyond the scope of this required and cannot be achieved with PIDs. In general, MPC

paper). The goal is to calculate the process optimal operating refers to a class of computer control algorithms that at every

point or optimal operating trajectory, i.e., optimal steady-state sampling instant compute a sequence (a trajectory) of

values of set-points for current values of disturbance increments of manipulated variables minimizing the predicted

measurements or estimates, or a trajectory of set-points for control errors over a prediction horizon. A typical formulation

actual dynamic disturbance predictions to be applied for of the MPC dynamic optimization problem (MPC-DO) is as

feedback controllers of directly subordinate layers. These follows (assuming the main and simplest for presentation case

values result generally from optimization of certain economic when dim y = dim u):

( )

X

N NX

u 1

Duk

p1 p0

subject to : umin uk pjk umax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1 (1)

Dumax Duk pjk Dumax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1

ymin yk pjk ymax ; p 1; . . . ; N

74 P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185

T

where Duk DukjkT . . . Duk N u 1jkT is the (such outputs are called constraint outputs (Blevins et al.,

vector of decision variables (controller outputs) of dimension 2003)). The mentioned case will not be tackled further in

nuNu (nu = dim u), y(k + pjk) denotes the process output this paper, as this not alter basic structures and conclusions.

prediction for the future sampling instant k + p calculated at The reader is referred, e.g. to the paper (awrynczuk,

the current sampling instant k, using the process model; N and Nu Marusak, & Tatjewski, 2007c), where also a simulation

denote prediction and control horizons, respectively, and l is a study concerning interacting MPC and LSSO for a MIMO

weighting coefficient (diagonal weighting matrices can be used, plant is given.

in general). The constant set-point trajectory is usually assumed Crucial element in the formulation of the MPC-DO problem

over the prediction horizon (for the stabilization task) and will be is the process model. When it is linear (or affine), then the

further used in the paper, for the simplicity, i.e., ysp(k + pjk) = yss, vector of predictions y(k) = [y(k + 1jk)T . . . y(k + Njk)T]T can

p = 1, . . ., N, where yss is a desired steady-state value. Only the be, due to the superposition principle, written as a sum:

first element of Du(k), Du(k) = Du(kjk) is applied and the whole 2 3

procedure is repeated at the next sample, etc. g1 Duk y0 k 1jk

The formulation of the MPC-DO problem (1) applies for the 6 g Duk y0 k 2jk 7

6 2 7

same number of controlled outputs and manipulated variables yk GDuk y0 k 6 .. 7 (2)

4 . 5

(nu = ny, the case of a square plant). It is not always the case

gN Duk y0 k Njk

in practice. When nu > ny (the case of a fat plant) the

solution of the MPC-DO (1) is not unique, then the controller T

where y0 k y0 k 1jkT . . . y0 k NjkT is the

should use additional degrees of freedom to force economically free trajectory (or free response) vector of the length

better solutions. This can be enforced by nyN (ny = dim y) depending on the past only, whereas G is the

dynamic matrix of dimension nyN nuNu, composed of coeffi-

adding to the cost function the term: cients of process step responses, see e.g. (Maciejowski, 2002;

NX

u 1 Rossiter, 2003; Tatjewski, 2007). The GDu(k) component of

r p jjuk pjk uss jj2 (2), depending only on the future input increments Du(k), is

p0 often called the forced trajectory (or forced response).

The resulting MPC-DO is then

( )

X

N NX

u 1

Duk

p1 p0

X

p

subject to : umin uk 1 Duk ijk umax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1 (3)

i0

Dumax Duk pjk Dumax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1

ymin g p Duk y0 k pjk ymax ; p 1; . . . ; N

where uss is a desired steady-state value for the process inputs and is a QP problem, thus can be easily implemented for on-line

and rp are weighting coefficients, see (Qin & Badgwell, application at constraint control layer, and also at direct control

2003), or layer if sufficient computing power and adequate software is

adding the constraint: available in the controllers of the DCS.

An significant and well known difficulty that may happen and

uk N u 1jk uss

quite often happens in practice is a possible infeasibility of the

to the MPC dynamic optimization problem. But, to avoid MPC optimization problem when defined as (1) or (3), caused by

infeasibility it is better to add to the cost function a penalty conflicting constraints resulting in an empty admissible set. This

term, e.g. in the form: is possible only when the constraints on process outputs are

present (provided constraints on inputs are well defined), and is

r p jjuk N u 1jk uss jj2 caused by shifts of current output values mainly due to changes in

which reduces to the previous case when assuming rp = 0 for disturbances. The commonly used way to cope with this is to treat

p = 0, . . ., Nu 2 there. the constraints on outputs as soft constraints, and the simplest

technique is to release these constraints by adding additional

slack variables, i.e., to convert them to

The case with nu > ny is important when there are both

controlled process outputs y (with desired set-points given) ymin s p yk pjk ymax s p ; s p 0;

and uncontrolled but constrained outputs, with constraints p 1; . . . ; N (4)

that may be active or not, depending on the current situation

P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185 75

and to add to the cost function in (1) linear or quadratic penalty (Tatjewski, 2007), where constraints both on controller output

terms to minimize the slack variables, see e.g. (Qin & Badg- values and rates of change (defined by actuators limitations)

well, 2003). A more involved technique is to prioritize the are taken into account by projection. An alternative to the

(output) constraints into groups of decreasing priority and to presented suboptimal approach, especially for smaller pro-

solve a series of optimization problems assuring that constraints blems without significant uncertainty, can be a design and use

of higher priority are satisfied hardly and only those of lower of an explicit piecewise-affine (constrained) MPC control law

priority are violated (Vada, Slupphaug, Johansen, & Foss, (Bemporad, Morari, Dua, & Pistikopoulos, 2002; Tondell,

2001). We will not address this (important) problem in the Johansen, & Bemporad, 2003).

sequel, as it is not essential for further considerationsall MPC The design and applications of MPC algorithms with linear

optimization problems presented in the following text (and process models for supervisory constraint control in 1970s and

steady-state problems as well) may be modified in the men- 1980s were a breakthrough opening a new era in process

tioned ways to cope with the infeasibility. control. Better control performance at feedback control layers

If the inequality constraints are neglected when solving the made it possible to increase production effectiveness based on

(then unconstrained) MPC-DO problem (3), then its solution on-line process optimization. However, on-line economic set-

can be derived analytically off-line, as a MPC explicit, point optimization means changing (adopting) the set-points to

unconstrained control law, depending on the form of the varying disturbances and production requirementsthus

process model used. For instance: shifting the, usually nonlinear, process to different regions,

corresponding to different linear process models. Therefore,

Duk ke T ysp k yk nonlinear feedback control was needed. This led to develop-

T ment of nonlinear MPC algorithms. Presentation of this broad

Ku T Duk 1T Duk D 1T (5)

area is beyond the scope of this paper, see e.g. (Mayne,

for a (general MIMO) step response process model, where D is Rawlings, Rao, & Scokaert, 2000). Let us only mention that the

the step-response dynamics horizon (i.e., the process step formulation of MPC-DO (1) remains unchanged, only the

responses stabilize after D steps) and ke, Ku are controller predictions y(k + pjk) are now based on a nonlinear model, thus

coefficients (DMC controller). A simple unconstrained MPC leading to a nonlinear MPC-DO. It is often difficult to on-line

control law like (5) can be very easily implemented without any implementation, since nonlinear programming procedures do

augmentations if there is no risk that the generated control not guarantee, in general, finding the true solution and doing it

signal can exceed limits defined by physical possibilities of the in a prescribed time. A practical, suboptimal but in most cases

process actuators, i.e., if constraints on process inputs are very effective approach is to base part of the prediction

always not active, as they have been ignored when constructing depending on the past (free trajectory) on a nonlinear model,

the law. However, this is usually not the case and the constraints and prediction depending on decision variables (forced

must be taken into account in order to get practically applicable trajectory) on a linear model stemming from on-line

controllers. This can be done by projecting the controller output linearization of the nonlinear onethe formula (2) remains

on the constraints, but it is effective only if the following two valid, but with nonlinear y0(k) and G = G(k) stemming from

principles are obeyed: current linearization, see e.g. (Tatjewski, 2007).

past control increment values which are fed back in the 4. On-line set-point optimization

controller structure must be those corresponding to the

process past constrained inputs, not the past values generated 4.1. Introduction

by the unconstrained control law;

an anti-windup scheme should be added, as the standard MPC The formulation of the economic optimization problem at

controllers (DMC, GPC, etc.) incorporate integrating action. the optimization layer of the multilayer control structure

depends, in general, on dynamical properties of disturbances,

Implementation of the explicit unconstrained DMC control i.e., process inputs not controlled at the optimization layer

law (5) according to this requirements is shown in Fig. 3 (coming as true disturbances from the process environment

Fig. 3. Structure of explicit DMC controller taking into account process input constraints by projection, with anti-windup loop (upper feedback loop).

76 P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185

general cases can be distinguished here:

time horizon are available as, e.g. water demands in water

treatment and distribution systems, inflows to wastewater

systems, prescribed dynamic trajectories of certain variables

in batch processes, etc.

Current values of disturbances, estimated or measured, are

only available. Two typical cases can be distinguished here:

Disturbances are slow-varying or changing abruptly but

rare, when compared to the controlled process dynamics,

Disturbance dynamics is comparable with controlled

process dynamics.

second applies mainly to continuous control leading usually to

steady-state set-point optimization.

Fig. 4. Temporal decomposition into three layers.

It should be pointed out that updating the model is a key

issue at the optimization layer. It is a difficult problem for

nonlinear constrained dynamic models, a popular technique is value of the system statecalculated at early intermediate time

the extended Kalman filtering and, recently, MHE (moving- at the higher layer and passed as a target state for calculations at

horizon estimation) (Rao & Rawlings, 2002); Rao and the lower layer (as final state for the shorter horizon, the case

Rawlings (2005) recommend the latter. For steady-state models shown in Fig. 4) or, e.g. as an average value over shorter

the situation is known to be better, for faster changing horizon. The idea is presented in Fig. 4 for a temporal

disturbances the key issue may be the time needed for relevant decomposition into three layers (sub-layers).

model update and re-optimization, as it may limits the

frequency of optimization execution. The issues of model 4.2.1. Example

identification (update) are beyond the scope of this paper. The presented situation takes place, e.g. in a case study

example of a complex integrated wastewater system, located at

4.2. Dynamic set-point optimization and temporal Kartuzy in Poland, presented in (Grochowski, Brdys, &

decomposition Gminski, 2004), see also (Brdys & Tatjewski, 2005). The

optimizing control layer there consists of three sub-layers

The task of the optimization layer is now to calculate a obtained from the temporal decomposition, designed to cope

trajectory of set-point values for actual dynamic disturbance with multiple time scale feature of internal dynamics of the

predictions, solving a dynamic optimization problem (optimal biological treatment process and variability of the disturbance

control problem) with a horizon dependent on the horizon of inputs (inflows to the system). Each sub-layer operates at

disturbance predictions and controlled process dynamics. As different time scale and handles objectives relevant to this time

there is typically uncertainty in process modelling and scale:

disturbance prediction, only initial part of the optimal trajectory

is usually applied as the set-points for the lower-layer The slow control sub-layer (SCL) operates at a slow time

controllers, in the structure of repetitive predictive control, scale with 1-day control step and handles long-term

with receding horizon (control structure analogous as in MPC, objectives over a horizon of a week up to several months.

but with economic performance function). It happens often in This control layer is responsible here for biomass biological

complex systems that the controlled dynamic process is multi- sustainability (sludge mass and sludge retention time are key

scale, i.e., there are significant differences between rates of quantities for achieving sludge parameters that are desired for

change of faster and slower state variables (and/or distur- the biological sustainability of the plant operation), volume

bances). To cope with such complexity, the temporal control of equalization and stormwater tanks and long-term

decomposition may be a sound solution, leading to another economic objectives under as wide as possible range of

multilayer concept, now based on different time horizons and disturbance inputs.

time steps at different layersin fact, being sub-layers of the The medium control sub-layer (MCL) operates at a medium

optimization layer, as at each layer functionally the same task is time scale with 1 h control step and handles medium-term

performed: the dynamic optimization. However, the higher the objectives over a horizon of 1 day. This control layer is

layer the longer the time step and the optimization horizon and responsible for maintaining the effluent quality within

the slower the process model and the disturbance dynamics required limits and optimizing the operating cost subject

(slower modes taken into account). Main information passed to technological and actuator constraints. The target values of

from a higher layer to a direct subordinate one is usually the the manipulated variables prescribed by the SCL must be

P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185 77

reached by the MCL at the end of its time horizon (the targets optimization usually leads to set-points being only sub-

are here: sludge mass, sludge retention time, equalization optimal for the real process, with a degree of suboptimality

tank level and septic tank level). The manipulated variables at dependent on the level of uncertainty.

MCL are: dissolved oxygen concentrations at the aerobic When the uncertainty is significant, one can try to improve

zones, recirculation flow rates, tank pump in/out flow rates the model-optimal set-points performing a number of

and chemical precipitation (PIX). appropriately designed iterations (set-point changes) over

The fast control sub-layer (FCL) operates at the fastest time the controlled process, exploiting additional measurement

scale with 1 min control step and handles short-term information gained in this way to improve the optimality. This

objectives over a horizon of 1 h. The main functionality of leads to steady-state optimizing control, since the iterative

the FCL is to generate set-points for the direct control layer so process of set-point improvement uses feedback information at

that the process is forced to follow the manipulated variable each iteration (in the form of steady-state measurements), to

trajectories that are prescribed by MCL. Therefore, in the cope with the uncertainty. The known technique of iterative

hierarchy of Fig. 1, FCL should be rather considered as a set-point improvement is the integrated system optimization

separate set-point control layer, not a part of the set-point and parameter estimation (ISOPE), proposed by Roberts

optimization layer. (1979) and further developed in next decades. The detailed

presentation of ISOPE is beyond the scope of this paper, its

4.3. Steady-state optimization, for disturbances much general structure is only given here, in Fig. 5. The core idea of

slower than the process the method is to solve, iteratively for a sequence of set-points,

the steady-state optimization problem with the updated

When variability of disturbances is much slower than the process model and suitably modified performance function

controlled process dynamics, or disturbances are changing incorporating differences between the true input-output

abruptly but rare (e.g. when switching to a different source of process mapping and its model, see e.g. (Brdys & Tatjewski,

feed flows or changing the product specifications), then there 2005) for a detailed presentation. In Fig. 6, a sequence of set-

are long-time intervals when disturbance values can be treated point iterations generated by ISOPE is shown, for a distillation

as constant parameters. Then the classical multilayer structure column example (with contours of the performance function in

from Fig. 1 applies, with the optimization layer performing a the background).

steady-state (static) optimization. Assuming linear form of the

economic performance function, the model-based local steady- 4.4. Steady-state optimization cooperating with MPC, for

state optimization problem can be then stated as follows: faster dynamics of disturbances

min fJ E k cTu uss cTy yss g 4.4.1. MPC steady-state target optimization (SSTO)

uss ;yss

subject to : umin uss umax Let (uss, yss) be an optimal solution of the local steady-

(6)

ymin yss ymax state optimization problem LSSO (6). This solution is passed

yss Fuss ; w to the constraint control layer when the MPC controllers

operate, see Fig. 1. To evaluate predicted errors, the MPC

where Fu; w denotes a comprehensive steady-state process

model, usually a nonlinear mapping, often given in an

implicit numerical form, w is the current estimate or mea-

surement of disturbances, cu and cy are prices resulting from

economic considerations, umin, umax, ymin, ymax are constraint

limits imposed on process input and output variables, respec-

tively. Further, nu ; nw ; ny will denote numbers of process

input variables u, slow-varying disturbances w affecting

the plant and output variables y, respectively. To avoid

possible infeasibility, analogous techniques as discussed ear-

lier for MPC-DO can be applied (soft constraints with slack

variables, prioritization of constraints, etc.), which will

therefore be not presented.

Certainly, after sufficiently significant changes in the

disturbance values the optimization should be recalculated,

to correct optimal set-point values. But the set-point

optimization will always result in the set-points close to

their true optimal values only if the process model is

sufficiently accurate, which includes sufficiently low

uncertainty in disturbance measurements or estimates.

Unfortunately, this happens rather rarely in practical cases

of complex industrial plant control. Therefore, a single Fig. 5. General structure of the ISOPE method.

78 P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185

problem is that the LSSO calculates the set-points usually

Fig. 7. Multilayer structure with MPC SSTO added at the constraint control

much less frequent than the MPC executes. But, if layer.

disturbances change in the meantime, the set-points should

be recalculated to the points called target set-points

(Kassmann, Badgwell, & Hawkins, 2000). When the of generality. As usual in a multilayer structure, each control

disturbances vary slowly or rarely and thus the process unit (functional block) calculates its output with a different

can operate at unchanged optimal steady states over longer frequency, the higher the block in the structure the lower the

time periods, the target set-points are set-points coming frequencyMPC SSTO and MPC dynamic optimization

directly from LSSO. The usually nonlinear LSSO problem (MPC-DO) constitute now functionally one control unit as

can then be solved reasonably less frequently than the MPC they operate with the same sampling period.

controllers execute, with overall satisfactory results. In many The steady-states calculated at the local steady-state

cases, however, the dynamics of the disturbances is optimization (LSSO) and transmitted to the lower layer are

comparable with the process dynamics. For example, feed denoted by yss ; uss in Fig. 7. The goal of the SSTO is to

flow rates and feed composition may be varying significantly recalculate these values every time the MPC controller

and not much slower than the dynamics of the controlled executes, denote these recalculated values as yss ; uss (without

process. In such cases operation in the classical hierarchical hats). There are two main approaches possible here:

structure with frequency of the economic optimization much

lower than that of MPC can result in a significant loss of 1. To find steady-state targets yss ; uss as close as possible to the

economic effectivenesskeeping then the set-point constant set-points yss ; uss , despite process limitations and input and

over many sampling periods, waiting for the next calculation output constraints, e.g (Rao & Rawlings, 1999).

of LSSO despite changes in disturbances, could lead to 2. To recalculate the set-points basing on the original economic

economic losses. Certainly, the most obvious and successful performance function (as in LSSO) but using a simple

approach would be to perform the LSSO as often as needed, steady-state model and constraints, e.g. (Blevins et al., 2003;

even as frequent as the MPC controller executes. However, Kassmann et al., 2000).

the LSSO uses a comprehensive, usually nonlinear steady-

state model of the process, performing a nonlinear The first approach leads to the SSTO as a QP problem with

identification (adaptation) and constrained optimization. quadratic penalties in the cost function for deviations of the set-

This may be a difficult and time-consuming task, not point targets from the desired steady-states and linear constraints

realistic to be executed on-line at each or even at every few describing the process model (steady-state version of the

sampling periods. dynamic model used in MPC-DO) and inequality constraints

Therefore, a simpler approach became an industrial practice: for inputs and outputs (as in MPC-DO, the feasibility problem

the use of an additional steady-state target optimization (SSTO) tackled also in an analogous ways as discussed for MPC-DO). In

coupled with the MPC algorithm, see e.g. (Blevins et al., 2003; this approach, the objective is to assure that the MPC-DO

Kassmann et al., 2000; Qin & Badgwell, 2003; Rao & problem is feasible in steady-state. It will not be further

Rawlings, 1999; Tatjewski, 2007). The resulting control discussed, as it is not relevant to further considerations.

structure is depicted in Fig. 7, where direct interconnection The second approach uses, in fact, a simplified version of the

of the optimization unit with the direct control layer is omitted LSSO problem (6), with fairly simplified linear process model.

(compare Fig. 1), as this simplifies the presentation without loss In many cases a steady-state version (i.e., the gains matrix) of

P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185 79

the linear dynamic model used in the MPC-DO (thus the same u(k 1)) leads to the SSTO problem of the following LP form:

model as in the previous approach) is recommended and

reported to be used (Blevins et al., 2003; Kassmann et al., min fJ E k cTu Duss cTy Dyss g

uss ;yss

2000). This results in a linear programming (LP) problem, if the subject to : Dyss HkDuss

economic objective function is linear (as in most cases). Having yss Fuk 1; wk Dyss b (8)

LSSO in the form (6), the SSTO takes then the following LP uss uk 1 Duss

form: umin uss umax

ymin yss ymax

min fJ E k cTu Duss cTy Dyss g

uss ;yss

which is similar to (7), but with Fuk 1; wk b instead

subject to : Dyss Gss Duss

of y0(k + Njk) and with H(k) in place of Gss, where b is the bias

yss y0 k Njk Dyss (7) corresponding to unmeasured disturbances based on a compar-

uss uk 1 Duss

ison of measured and predicted outputs (constant output step

umin uss umax

disturbance model (Kassmann et al., 2000)):

ymin yss ymax

T

where Gss is the gains matrix of the dynamic model used in @Fuk 1; wT @Fuk 1; wT

Hk ...

MPC-DO. With the SSTO (7) applied, the following calcula- @u1 @unu

tions are performed by the MPC controller-optimizer at each 2 3

@ f 1 uk 1; w @ f 1 uk 1; w

...

sampling instant: 6 @u1 @unu 7

6 7

6 .. .. 7

6 . } . 7 (9)

1. Acquisition of the output measurements y(k). 6 7

4 @ f ny uk 1; w @ f ny uk 1; w 5

2. Prediction of the free output trajectory, to calculate ...

y0(k + Njk). @u1 @unu

3. Solution of the LP SSTO problem (7) to get the set-point

targets for the MPC-DO. is usually computed numerically using finite difference

4. Solution of the MPC-DO QP problem (3), to obtain the approach and where w wk is the actual disturbance mea-

current controller output u(k) as the first element of the surement/estimate. The SSTO problem (8) was defined for

calculated optimal trajectory. solving at each sampling instant of MPC, but updating the

nonlinear model F; wk and, moreover, the gains matrix

It should be pointed out that the calculation of the free output H(k) can be not realistic and often not needed so frequent, for a

y0(k + Njk) is an important element of the above strategythis complex nonlinear plant. Updating H(k) is sensible after a

is the only element in the formulations of both the SSTO significant change in the model nonlinearity. But the value

problem (7) and the MPC-DO problem (3) which can undergo Fuk 1; wk depends on u(k 1). Thus, if it is computed

significant changes from one sampling instant to the next, as a from the nonlinear model less frequent, then at an intermediate

result of disturbances influencing the output measurements (the

feedback) or directly affecting the process model, if measure-

ments of certain disturbances are available and explicitly used

in the model.

The LP problem (7) is solved at each sampling instant, but

this may lead to losses in economic optimality, as the constant

linear model may be too different from the nonlinear one used

in the LSSO, for most of the operating points (as mentioned

earlier (7) can be treated as a simplified replacement of LSSO

(6)). The problem has been recognized, e.g. Kassmann et al.

(2000) propose to estimate and take into account uncertainty in

steady-state gain matrix Gss, in the framework of a robust target

steady-state calculation. On the other hand, Qin and Badgwell

(2003) report on using linearizations of the comprehensive

nonlinear model instead of the gain matrix of the dynamic one.

This is reasonable, as the model used in the SSTO should be

consistent with the comprehensive steady-state nonlinear

model used at the LSSO layer, rather than with the dynamic

one applied in the MPC-DO. Using the linearization of the Fig. 8. Multilayer structure with adaptive SSTO based on linearizations of

LSSO model F; wk, at sampling instant k (i.e., at the point LSSO steady-state model.

80 P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185

MPC sampling instant k the value: Notice that the quadratic approximation (11) is used in (12)

only in the objective function, linear approximation must be

Fur 1; wr Hruk 1 ur 1 (10)

used for the output constraintsotherwise it would not be

should be used in (8) instead of Fuk 1; wk, where r is possible to keep all the constraints linear. Nevertheless, the

the last sample of linearization, when Fuk 1; wk and linear-quadratic approximation is expected to be generally

H(k) were calculated. Moreover, if disturbances w (at least more accurate than the linearization only, especially, if non-

some of them) are measured/estimated as often as the MPC linearity of the steady-state model corresponding to actively

executes, the nonlinear steady-state model should also be constrained outputs is not strong or only process inputs are

linearized with respect to these disturbances. constrained.

It is not easy to govern moments of updates according to The possible weakest point of the just discussed linear-

appropriate changes in nonlinearity or disturbances, the quadratic approach to SSTO was the necessity to use a linear

simplest way is to activate the linearization after every process model in the formulation of the output constraints, as

prescribed number of MPC iterations. The steady-state model these constraints are often crucial, being active at the

used by the SSTO (8) is consistent with the nonlinear model optimumit may be then necessary to use a more accurate

used by the LSSO. To the consistency of the full control approximation of the steady-state characteristics of the process

structure, the static properties (the gain matrix) of the dynamic for the constraints than for the objective function JE(k). Thus, a

model used in the MPC-DO should also be consistent with the question arises how to design an efficient, robust SSTO

model used by the SSTOthis can be obtained by adjusting problem, but with a nonlinear approach to process modelling.

appropriately the MPC-DO gains matrix as often as H(k) is Having a linear economic objective function, an answer to this

calculated (a kind of gain-scheduling approach). The discussed question may be a piecewise-linear approximation of the

control structure is depicted in Fig. 8, compare with Fig. 7. nonlinear steady-state process model, performed locally at each

Notice that operations on steady-state (LSSO) nonlinear model sampling instant, after every few sampling instants, or even

are placed in a separate, higher layer block, as they can be once, globallydepending on the dimensionality and non-

performed less frequently than MPC and SSTO execute, as linearity of the problem. Piecewise-linear approximation of a

discussed above. nonlinear function is a well-known concept in mathematical

The use of an on-line linearization discussed above is a kind programming, especially in separable programming, leading to

of an adaptive approach, with the aim to adapt the linear model mixed LP problems, or LP problems if the applied LP solver

used in the linear SSTO problem to nonlinearity of the problem, allows for declaration of SOS (special ordered sets) for

to its linear features at successive operating points. However, additional variables describing the piecewise-linear approx-

one can imagine a representation of nonlinearity in the SSTO imations, see e.g. (Williams, 1995). For a local approach, the

problem itself. Then, the first step in this direction would be to approximation should be performed using a number of values

use the quadratic approximation of the comprehensive non- of the original LSSO model at selected grid points covering a

linear steady-state process model (Tatjewski, 2007; Tatjewski, subset of the feasible domain around the current operating

awrynczuk, & Marusak, 2006). The quadratic model would be point. The stated problem can also be solved by simply

2 3 checking values of the objective function and constrained

Duss T B1 kDuss outputs only at input-feasible grid points of the piecewise-linear

16 .. 7

yss Fuk 1; w HkDuss 4 . 5 approximation. In some cases when the linear approximation

2 ss T ss approach fails the piecewise-linear approximation occurs a

Du Bny kDu

good alternative, such an example is given in (Tatjewski et al.,

(11) 2006).

where Bi(k) is the matrix (of dimension nu nu) containing

second order derivatives of the ith component f i of the nonlinear 5. Integrated dynamic MPC and set-point optimization

input-output mapping F, i = 1, . . ., ny. Requiring that SSTO

problem be at most a linear-quadratic for fast and robust on-line So far, the need to calculate the steady-state targets for MPC-

calculation, i.e., with linear constraints only, it should be DO more frequently than it is done at a higher control layer of

formulated as follows (for linear JE, see (6)): LSSO was realized by introduction of a separate SSTO

problem, performed at every sampling instant of the MPC

min fJ E k cTu Duss cTy Dyss cTu Duss controller. Thus, two optimization problems, MPC-DO and

uss

ny

X MPC-SSTO, were solved sequentially at the MPC constraint

cTy HkDuss 0:5 cyi Duss T Bi kDuss g control layer. The question arises, whether or not it is possible

i1 and reasonable to integrate these two optimization problems

subject to : Dyss HkDuss into one. Moreover, one can even imagine to integrate the LSSO

(12)

yss Fuk 1; w Dyss b and the MPC-DO problems into one optimization problem

uss uk 1 Duss thus avoiding the need to introduce the SSTO (and having one

integrated optimization problem instead of three). Such

umin uss umax

attempts can be met in the literature, usually for processes

ymin yss ymax with specific features (Tvrzska de Gouvea & Odloak, 1998;

P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185 81

Zanin, Tvrzska de Gouvea, & Odloak, 2000; Zanin, Tvrzska de generated by the on-line linearization of the nonlinear steady-

Gouvea, & Odloak, 2002). Certainly, the problem is difficult state model (or QP problem (12)), we have again two

considering its nonlinear nature and requirements of on-line optimization problems: MPC-DO and LP SSTO, both solved

applications. Integrating the MPC-DO problem (3) with the with the same sampling rate. Integrating this two optimization

nonlinear LSSO problem (6) we get: problem into one leads to the following QP problem

( )

X

N

2

NX

u 1

2

min J INT k jjyss g p Duk y0 k pjkjj l jjDuk pjkjj gcTu uss cTy yss

Duk;uss ;yss

p1 p0

X

p

subject to : umin uk 1 Duk ijk umax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1

i0 (13)

Dumax Duk pjk Dumax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1

ymin g p Duk y0 k pjk ymax ; p 1; . . . ; N

umin uss umax

ymin yss ymax

yss Fuss ; w

where g is a suitable weighting coefficient. In reality, the (awrynczuk, Marusak, & Tatjewski, 2007a, 2007b), compare

nonlinear integrated approach (13) has rather limited applic- with the nonlinear one (13):

( )

X

N

2

NX

u 1

2

ss 0

min J INT k jjy g p Duk y k pjkjj l jjDuk pjkjj gcTu uss cTy yss

Duk;uss ;yss

p1 p0

X

p

subject to : umin uk 1 Duk ijk umax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1

i0 (14)

Dumax Duk pjk Dumax ; p 0; . . . ; N u 1

ymin g p Duk y0 k pjk ymax ; p 1; . . . ; N

umin uss umax

ymin yss ymax

yss Fuk 1; w Hkuss uk 1 b

ability, to processes with rather very slow dynamics at the The integrated control-optimization structure corresponding

constraint control layer and not complicated computationally to (14) is depicted in Fig. 9, compare with Fig. 8. Adaptation of

nonlinear steady-state model (or its replacement by computa- the linearized model in (14) may be reasonable when made less

tionally fast neural network representation, see (Tatjewski & frequently than the MPC executes, analogously as it was

awrynczuk, 2006)). Moreover, it is not convincing why one discussed for the case presented in Fig. 8 with adaptive SSTO

more complicated, higher dimensional nonlinear optimization (8) based on on-line linearizations, see there. Further analogy to

problem should be better than a series of two: a simpler (lower that case, instead of a constant dynamic matrix G an adaptive

dimensional) nonlinear problem (LSSO) and a simple QP matrix G(k) changing its gains to be equal to those in the gain

problem. However, the integrated problem (13) may be treated as matrix H(k) should be applied to have steady-state consistency

certain reference in simulation studies concerning integrated of the overall control-optimization structure.

approaches. For certain nonlinear plants a quadratic approximation of the

In the multilayer structure of Fig. 7, with standard LP SSTO, steady-state process mapping introduced to the performance

three optimization problems have to be solved on-line: the function can also bring an improvement, similarly as it was

nonlinear LSSO task (6) much less frequent, the SSTO LP presented for adaptive SSTO, see (11) and (12).

problem (7) and the MPC-DO task (3) with the same sampling

rate. Integration of the linear-quadratic MPC-DO problem with 5.1. Example

a LP SSTO problem leads to an integrated problem of standard

QP form and should be successful if the SSTO taken as a In (awrynczuk et al., 2007b) a simulation study concerning

separate problem is efficacious. Passing to more advanced a detailed comparison of various structures with interacting

structure of Fig. 8, with adaptive LP SSTO problem (8) MPC and steady-state optimization is given. We shall present

82 P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185

performance function can be expressed as (constant volume is

assumed due to applied inventory control, not shown in the

figure):

J E FIss (16)

The manipulated variable is constrained:

F Imin F I ; FIss F Imax (17)

where F I min = 0.0035 m3/h, F I max = 0.033566 m3/h. The pro-

duct should satisfy a purity criterion, i.e., the output variable is

constrained:

NAMWmin NAMW (18)

where NAMWmin = 20000 kg/kmol. Changes in the distur-

bance signal are described by the equation:

Fk F 0 1:6sin 0:008k sin 0:08 (19)

where F 0 = 2 m3/h.

Fig. 9. Control system structure with MPC optimization integrated with Taking into account the constraints imposed on input and

linearization-based SSTO. output variables, the static characteristic is shown in Fig. 11.

Optimal steady-state operating points for different values of

disturbance 0.5 m3/h F 2 m3/h are also shown (the point

here a few selected results from those given there, referring the P1 corresponds to F = 2 m3/h).

reader to there for a detailed description of the process and Let TE denote the intervention period of the economic LSSO

simulation conditions. The control process is a polymerisation layer with nonlinear optimization, defined as a number of MPC

reaction taking place in a jacketed continuous stirred tank sampling periods (i.e., TE = 1 means that LSSO is performed

reactor (Maner, Doyle, Ogunnaike, & Pearson, 1996), see and applied as often as the MPC controller executes). Fig. 12

Fig. 10. The output variable, number average molecular weight compares the economic objective function in both

(NAMW) is controlled by manipulating the inlet initiator flow LSSO + MPC and LSSO + MPC + SSTO structures as the

rate F I. The main disturbance is the feed flow of the monomer function of TE. Introduction of the SSTO into the LSSO + MPC

and solvent stream F. The fundamental nonlinear process structure with nonlinear economic LSSO layer activated

model is as follows: infrequently leads, practically, to the same economic perfor-

p mance as in the reference LSSO + MPC system with TE = 1.

x1 106 x1 2:4568x1 x2 Next, integrated structures based on integrated optimization

x2 80F I 0:10225 10Fx2

p problem (13) MPCEO (with nonlinear steady-state model and

x3 0:0024121x1 x2 0:112191x2 10x3

p (15)

x4 245:978x1 x2 10x4

x4

NAMW

x3

In the MPC layer the GPC algorithm (Clarke, Mohtadi, &

Tuffs, 1987) is used. The horizons are N = 10 and Nu = 3, the

weighting coefficient is l = 0.2, the sampling period is 1.8 min.

Fig. 10. Polymerisation reactor control system. and constraints, Pioptimal operating points for different values of disturbance F.

P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185 83

control error and economic performance

tion and MPC dynamic optimization was proposed by Becerra,

Roberts, & Griffiths (1998), in the framework of adaptive

model predictive control. The algorithm requires an instanta-

neous on-line identification of a process linear state-space

model (after an initial time interval of several sampling periods

needed to start the identification procedure proposed in the

paper). The ARMAX type input-output model is proposed to be

identified using a non-iterative moving data window, and the

model parameters are updated after every few sampling instants

(in the two simulation examples reported it was after every 5

and 20 samples, respectively). Then, a state-space representa-

tion is constructed in a form avoiding the use of an observer (see

also e.g. (Maciejowski, 2002; Tatjewski, 2007)) and the

identified linear state-space model in the incremental form is

Fig. 12. Graphical comparison of the economic objective function values in further used. With this adaptive process model the integrated

LSSO + MPC and LSSO + MPC + SSTO control system structures as the

dynamic optimization problem is formulated integrating the

function of TE.

MPC controller and economic performance functions, both in

the dynamic form (i.e., for every sample within prediction and

nonlinear optimization) and integrated problem (14) control horizons, which are equal). However, for the success of

MPCEOL (with on-line linearization and quadratic program- the technique, the process input signal must have sufficient

ming) are considered. Simulation results are shown in Fig. 13. persistent excitation properties to get acceptable robustness and

For nominal value of the parameter g = 10, the obtained quality of the identification, as usual with adaptive systems

behaviour of three control systems is practically indistinguish- based on current model identification. Therefore, in simulation

able. As g is decreased and less than 1, which corresponds to studies presented in (Becerra et al., 1998), an additional PRBS

reducing the role of the economic steady-state optimization (pseudo-random binary sequence) signal added to the controller

over the MPC dynamic optimization, the results in integrated output was applied. We refer the interesting reader to this

structures differ from those obtained in the control structure reference for detailed presentation of the algorithm, which, in

with separate layers (LSSO + MPC). It is worth emphasizing fact, is a quite fortunate combination of the philosophy of

that for chosen g, the results of the integrated algorithm with integrated system optimization and parameter estimation

nonlinear optimization (MPCEO) and linearization and (ISOPE, see Section 4.2) with the MPC technique.

quadratic programming (MPCEOL) are virtually the same,

as it is shown in Fig. 13. 6. Conclusions

algorithms and on-line set-point optimization in multilayer

process control structures have been presented in the paper.

First, the multilayer structure stemming from functional

decomposition of an overall economic process control task

was briefly reviewed, with direct control, constraint control and

optimization layers. Next, the role of model predictive control

(MPC) algorithms in creation and realizations of the super-

visory constraint control (set-point-control) feedback control

layer was discussed. Basic philosophy of MPC was recalled and

selected realizations were discussed, in particular a simple but

in many cases successful implementation based on an

unconstrained linear MPC control law. A fast, practical

implementation of a nonlinear constrained MPC controller

when based on linearizations of a nonlinear model was

mentioned.

It was indicated that realization of the task of the

optimization layer depends on dynamical properties of

Fig. 13. Simulation results of the LSSO + MPC structure with TE = 1 (solid disturbances, when compared to the controlled process

line) and integrated MPCEO, MPCEOL structures (dashed line). dynamics. Dynamic set-point optimization was discussed,

84 P. Tatjewski / Annual Reviews in Control 32 (2008) 7185

multiple time scale of a complex process. Steady-state

optimization for the case with disturbances varying slow when

compared to process dynamics was briefly reviewed, including

comments on the ISOPE (integrated system optimization and

parameter optimization) approach. Much attention was devoted

to the important practical case when disturbance dynamics is

not much slower than the controlled process dynamics.

Introduction and possible realizations of the steady-state target

optimization, a tool to recompute set-points given by the

optimization layer to improve optimality of the control

structure was presented. Finally, integrated approaches to

set-point optimization and MPC dynamic optimization were

presented, resulting in reduced on-line computational load.

Certain topics discussed in the paper are illustrated by briefly

presented examples, selected from given references.

We have started this paper with the functional multilayer

structure presented in Fig. 1, well established in the last two Fig. 15. The control system structure being now a design alternative.

decades of the previous century. A few years ago, in

(Maciejowski, 2002) a question was raised: are we going identification (including techniques of data mining) for

towards the structure shown in Fig. 14? In the opinion of the control tasks at different layers of the control hierarchy,

author, the direct control layer will not be annihilated by higher development of diagnostic methods for accident prevention

layers, mainly for safety and reliability reasons. However, and fast and reliable fault detection and isolation.

structures and algorithms discussed in this paper prove well that

that the control system structure presented in Fig. 15 becomes a Acknowledgments

sound design alternative.

Finally, it should be noted that impact of new develop- The author is grateful to the referees for indication of topics

ments in information technologies on process automation has needing further or better presentation, which allowed to

not been the subject of this paper. But, as Samad, increase the quality of the paper. The author is also grateful for

McLaughlin, and Lu (2007) indicate these developments the support of the presented research by Polish national budget

are transforming process automation structures. This funds 20052007 for science, as a research project and statutory

should enable also easier, more flexible implementation of research.

structures and techniques discussed in this paper. It should

also be pointed out that the paper focuses on algorithms of References

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Constrained model predictive control: stability and optimality. Automatica, Zanin, A., Tvrzska de Gouvea, M., & Odloak, D. (2002). Integrating real-time

36, 789814. optimization into model predictive controller of the FCC system. Computers

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multilevel systems. New York: Academic Press. Zheng, A., Mahajanam, R. V., & Douglas, J. M. (1999). Hierarchical procedure

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control structures for chemical processes. Part I. Formulation of the problem.

Process decomposition and the classification of the control task. Analysis of Piotr Tatjewski was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1949. He received the M.S. (in

the optimizing control structures. AIChE Journal, 26(20), 220232. electronic engineering), Ph.D. and D.Sc. Degrees (in automatic control) from

Qin, S. J., & Badgwell, T. A. (2003). A survey of industrial model predictive Warsaw University of Technology, in 1972, 1976 and 1998, respectively. Since

control technology. Control Engineering Practice, 11, 733764. 1972 with the Institute of Control and Computation Engineering (till 1994

Rao, Ch. V. , & Rawlings, J. B. (1999). Steady states and constraints in model Institute of Automatic Control) of Warsaw University of Technology, since

predictive control. AICHE Journal, 45(6), 12661278. 1996 director of the Institute, 1993 Professor, 2006 full professor. Author or co-

Rao, Ch. V. , & Rawlings, J. B. (2002). Constrained process monitoring: author of more than 30 journal papers, author of the books Advanced Control

Moving-horizon approach. AIChE Journal, 48(1), 97109. of Industrial Processes. Structures and Algorithms (Springer, 2007) and

Rao, Ch. V. , & Rawlings, J. B. (2005). Critical evaluation of extended Kalman Iterative Algorithms of Multilayer Optimizing Control (Imperial College

filtering and moving-horizon estimation. Industrial and Engineering Chem- Press/World Scientific, 2005, co-author M.A. Brdys). Member of Automatic

istry Research, 44, 24512460. Control and Robotics Committee of Polish Academy of Sciences. His current

Roberts, P. D. (1979). An algorithm for steady-state system optimization and interests involve multilayer control, predictive control of linear and nonlinear

parameter estimation. International Journal of System Science, 10, 719734. processes, set-point optimization, decomposition techniques in optimization

Rossiter, J. A. (2003). Model-based predictive control.. CRC Press. and control, soft computing methods.

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