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STIFFNESS MODULUS AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF CEMENT STABILIZED SAND WITH USE OF A SYNTHETIC MODIFIED-ZEOLITE ADDITIVE

P. Wu

Department of Pavement Engineering, Delft University of Technology Delft 2600GA, the Netherlands Tel :+31 152784014, Fax: +31 152783443, E-mail: P.Wu@tudelft.nl

L.J.M. Houben, Associate professor Department of Pavement Engineering, Delft University of Technology Delft 2600GA, the Netherlands Tel.:+31 152784917, Fax: +31 152783443, E-mail: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

A. Scarpas, Professor

Department of Pavement Engineering, Delft University of Technology Delft 2600GA, the Netherlands Tel.:+31 152784017, Fax: +31 152787313, E-mail: A.Scarpas@tudelft.nl

C.E.G. Egyed PowerCem Technologies B.V.

4782 SK Moerdijk, the Netherlands

Tel: +31 168409440, Fax : +31 168358600, E-mail: christophe@powercem.com

R. de La Roij

PowerCem Technologies B.V.

4782 SK Moerdijk, the Netherlands

Tel: +31 168409440, Fax : +31 168358600, E-mail: robin@powercem.com

2015 Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board

January 11-15, 2015. Washington, D.C. Word count: 4250+ (3 Tables+ 9 Figures) * 250 = 7250 words

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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ABSTRACT

Cement stabilized material, obtained by blending cement, water and soil or aggregate, forms a durable bonded material that can be attractive for pavement construction. However, cement stabilized material is brittle and sensitive to overloading. This study investigates the engineering properties of using a synthetic modified-zeolite additive in cement stabilized sand materials. The concept of applying a non-traditional additive into the cement stabilization may provide potential economic and environmental benefits for the road construction and maintenance. In this paper, stiffness and fatigue properties were evaluated on a variety of mix proportions by varying cement and additive contents. Stiffness and fatigue properties are two important parameters for pavement design. The higher stiffness of the cement stabilized base enables the loads to distribute over a wider area and hence considerably reduces stresses on the subgrade. Better fatigue resistance results in a higher ability to prevent cracks caused by accumulated traffic loads. In this study, a cyclic four-point bending test was conducted which simulates the cement stabilized base layer subjected to the repeated tensile strain and stress. Based on the test results, adding certain amount of this additive in cement stabilized sand mixtures can enable the beam specimen withstand higher strain at failure than the mixture without this additive. The fatigue relations are obtained for all the tested mixtures by plotting the load cycles to failure as a function of the applied stress or initial strain levels.

Wu,

Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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INTRODUCTION

Cement stabilized material is generally defined as a mixture of soil or aggregates with addition of measured amounts of cement and water compacted to a high density (1). As cement reacts with water, the soil or aggregate particles are bonded by cement paste, resulting in a durable hardened material with enhanced strength and stiffness as well as improved durability. Cement stabilized material is

primarily used as a base material underlying asphalt or concrete pavements (1). Traditional cement stabilized materials have been extensively evaluated in literature studies and the specifications and construction techniques are also well documented (2-4). However, the traditional cement stabilized

soil

or aggregate is known as a material that exhibits brittle behavior such as sensitivity to overloading

and

a low resistance to repetitive loading of high strain and stress levels (5; 6). Use of non-traditional

additive can be a potential alternative to reduce or eliminate the disadvantages of a cement stabilized road base. This paper investigates one type of non-traditional additive, referred to as Rc, to evaluate the potential engineering benefits of its application in cement stabilized materials. This additive is a

fine-grained powder, composed of synthetic zeolite, alkali earth metals, oxides complemented with complex activators. Based on the previous academic studies (7-9), adding Rc additive in cement stabilized materials can improve the mechanical properties and increase the flexibility of cement stabilized materials. In construction of road base, Rc additive is typically applied by mixing it with in-

situ soil or crushed existing pavement materials prior to applying cement. In cementitious process, Rc

additive influences the pozzolanic reaction. This additive contains reactive Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 which will react with Ca(OH) 2 (released from the cementitious reaction) and forms into additional cementitious products (C-S-H and C-A-H hydrate gels). Besides, this fine-grained additive exhibits high specific surface area so that adding Rc additive in the cementitious mixtures can increase the contact area of cement with water and thus increases the degree of cement hydration. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of this additive on the stiffness and fatigue properties of cement stabilized sand materials. In the test program, a cyclic four-point bending test

was conducted to evaluate these two properties on 9 variable mix compositions. The stiffness was

investigated at various flexural strain levels (described as strain-sweep test) and thereby the stiffness as a function of the strain level can be determined to indicate how the material resists the applied strain. In fatigue test the beam specimen was subjected to various stress levels and the fatigue relation for each mixture is obtained by means of plotting the number of load cycles to failure against the applied stress level. During these two tests, a bending load with a fixed frequency was applied to a beam specimen, simulating the manner in which a pavement layer is deflected by a wheel-loading (2)

and cyclic loading can simulate the repeated traffic loads.

MATERIALS AND TEST PROGRAM

Material properties and mix design

For the soil type, sand material is selected to be stabilized with cement. In the Netherlands, due to the

lack of natural aggregates, sand is an important material for road construction. This type of sand with

uniform grain size distribution (97% passing 2 mm sieve; 52.2% passing 0.425 mm sieve, 4.3%

passing 0.18 mm sieve) is classified as SP (poorly-graded sand) according to the USCS classification system. Portland blast furnace slag cement (CEM III/B 42.5 N LH, containing 70% blast furnace slag

and 30% Portland Clinker) is chosen as the binder. This type of cement is frequently used in the

Netherlands for its low costs and chemical resistance. The mix design in this study concentrates on the variable factors of cement and Rc additive contents. The central composite design is employed to indicate these two factors. This mix design method is considered as a useful tool to evaluate the correlations between parameters of the mixtures

and the tested properties and is also able to reduce the number of trials to achieve a balance among the

mix variables, which has been used in many studies (10-12). Table 1 shows the mix design and the

coded terms for each level. Trial 1~4 are called star point representing the independent variables (1

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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and +1). Trial 5-8 are called corner points and the application level is denoted as α (set as 2 ). The correlation between each point is based on the equations (1) and (2). The mix proportions are expressed as the absolute values, related to the dry mass of the sand. Rc and C represent Rc additive and cement, respectively.

TABLE 1 Coded terms for mix variables

Trial

Mix

code

Rc additive

Cement

Mixture (Rc, C), kg/m 3

Rc

C

1 Rc -1

C -1

-1

-1

(0.56, 159)

2 -1

Rc

C +1

-1

+1

(0.56, 251)

3 +1 C -1

Rc

+1

-1

(3.2, 159)

4 Rc +1 C +1

+1

+1

(3.2, 251)

5 Rc -a C 0

- α

0

(0, 205)

6 Rc +a C 0

+ α

0

(3.8, 205)

7 Rc 0 C -a

0

- α

(1.9, 140)

8 Rc 0 C +a

0

+ α

(1.9, 270)

9 Rc 0 C 0

0

0

(1.9, 205)

 

2 +1 0 +α α

2 +1 0 +α α

(1)

(2)

Where, +1 0 represents the scaling factor of cement content; +1 0 represents the scaling factor of Rc additive content; +α and α are the maximum and minimum cement content (kg/m 3 ); α and α are the maximum and minimum Rc additive content (kg/m 3 ). As shown in Table 1 the cement content ranges from 140 to 270 kg/m 3 . The cement proportion is in a range from 7.9% to 15.1% of the dry mass of the sand. The amount of cement used in this study is relatively high. That is because an excessive amount of cement may make cementitious material brittle, so that the changes in the properties caused by using Rc additive can be expected to be efficiently observed. The Rc content is in a range of 0 to 3.8 kg/m 3 , which is from 0 to 2.10% of the cement content (by mass). From the standard Proctor test (according to ASTM D698), the optimum moisture content 8% (by mass), obtained from the moisture content-dry density curve, was used in preparing samples for all the mixtures. The constant moisture content chosen for all these mixtures is aimed to concentrate on the factors of cement and Rc contents and compare the contribution of these two factors in the mechanical properties.

Sample preparation and test methods

Prismatic specimens with size of 400 by 50 by 50 mm were prepared. During mixing, Rc additive was added to sand and mixed thoroughly prior to applying cement. After mixing all the components uniformly, the homogeneous mixture was filled in steel moulds and compacted to the maximum proctor density. After compaction and hardening for 24 hours, all the specimens were demoulded and cured in an environmental chamber with a temperature of 20±2 o C and a relative humidity of 90% for 28 days. The stiffness modulus was measured under an increasing strain level from 50, 60 until 400 μm/m at a fixed frequency of 10 Hz, which is described as strain-sweep test. In a strain-controlled mode, 200 load cycles were applied at each strain level. The fatigue test was performed by subjecting

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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prismatic specimen to various stress levels at fixed frequency 10 Hz and at each applied stress level the stress-controlled mode was applied and hence the amplitude of the applied load was held constant during testing. For each mixture, at least three stress levels (less than the flexural strength obtained from the monotonic flexural test which is not included in this paper) were applied and 3 replicate specimens were tested at each stress level. The resulting number of load repetitions till failure of the specimen is determined. A four-point bending fatigue machine was used for these two tests, shown in Figure 1. The fatigue machine was placed in an environmental-controlled chamber and the temperature was constantly 20 ° C, which ensures the consistency of the testing conditions for all the mixtures .

of the testing conditions for all the mixtures . FIGURE 1 Four-point bending test setup ANALYSIS

FIGURE 1 Four-point bending test setup

ANALYSIS OF LABORATORY RESULTS

Stiffness modulus of cement stabilized sand

In the strain-sweep test, at each strain level 200 cyclic loadings were applied and the stiffness modulus was taken as the average value of the last 10 cycles. The stiffness is plotted as a function of the applied flexural strain levels.

Stiffness development under various applied strain levels

Figure 2 presents the plot of stiffness against various applied strain levels, based on the mixtures with variable Rc additive contents. Each curve is the mean value of three tested samples. Figure 2 demonstrates that the stiffness modulus of cement stabilized sand is strongly influenced by the applied strain. When the applied strain increases, the stiffness modulus significantly decreases until failure. For the cement content 205 kg/m 3 , the stiffness modulus of the mixture with Rc 1.9 kg/m 3 steadily decreases with increasing strain level and at the end of the test the material didn’t suddenly break. In contrast, the mixtures without Rc sharply decreases at a rather low strain around 140 μm/m, which indicates that failure cracking occurred. And for the mixture with Rc content 3.8 kg/m 3 , in which the ratio of Rc with cement content is relatively high, the stiffness also sharply decreased. In the second graph it can be clearly seen that as the Rc content increases from 0.56 to 3.2 kg/m 3 , the mixtures show much more flexibility and failed at much higher strain levels. These results imply that adding Rc in cement-sand mixtures enables the specimens to withstand higher strain levels at failure. It might indicate that in the pavement structure, when the high flexural strain is induced in base layer due to the heavy loads, by using Rc additive could potentially reduce the chance of cracking.

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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20000 (0; 205) (1.9; 205) 15000 (3.8; 205) 10000 5000 0 50 100 150 200
20000
(0; 205)
(1.9; 205)
15000
(3.8; 205)
10000
5000
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Stiffness modulus (MPa)

Strain ( μ m/m)

20000 (0.56; 251) (3.2; 251) 15000 (0.56; 159) (3.2; 159) 10000 5000 0 50 100
20000
(0.56; 251)
(3.2; 251)
15000
(0.56; 159)
(3.2; 159)
10000
5000
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Stiffness modulus (MPa)

Strain (µm/m)

FIGURE 2 Influence of Rc contents on the stiffness development.

Regarding the influence of the cement content on the stiffness development, Figure 3 shows the stiffness modulus of three mixtures with different cement contents and the same Rc content 1.9 kg/m 3 . Again, each curve is derived from the average value of three replicate specimens.

20000 (1.9; 140) 16000 (1.9; 205) (1.9; 270) 12000 8000 4000 0 50 100 150
20000
(1.9; 140)
16000
(1.9; 205)
(1.9; 270)
12000
8000
4000
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Stiffness modulus (MPa)

Strain ( μ m/m)

FIGURE 3 Influence of cement content on the stiffness development.

As shown in Figure 3, when the cement content increases to 270 kg/m 3 or decreases to 140 kg/m 3 , the stiffness of these two mixtures both reduce significantly at a relatively low strain around 150 μm/m. That means the mixture with relatively low amount of cement is not able to withstand high flexural strain while the excessive amount of cement may make the materials become rather brittle. This implies that there is an optimum mixture with appropriate amounts of cement and Rc additive which can achieve high flexibility, under the optimum moisture content 8%. Therefore, herein it can be roughly concluded that, to increase the strain at failure, the optimum cement content can be ranging from 205 to 251 kg/m 3 . Meanwhile, based on these cement content levels, the optimum Rc content seems to be at 1±0.2%, related to the mass of cement.

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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Influence of mix variables on the stiffness modulus

As discussed above, the stiffness modulus of sand-cement may decrease under increased strain levels which means micro-cracking will occur as the applied strain exceeds a certain limit or the fatigue damage may happen under repeated loadings. Thus, the initial stiffness which is obtained at the first strain level 50 µm/m, is adopted to evaluate the influence of mix variables on this parameter. Table 2 summarizes the initial stiffness of all the tested mixtures. For each mixture, results of three test repetitions are given.

TABLE 2 Test data of initial stiffness for all the tested mixtures

Sample

Mix design

Density

Stiffness

Sample

Mix design

Density

Stiffness

Rc

Cement

Rc

Cement

code

kg/m 3

kg/m 3

kg/m 3

MPa

 

code

 

kg/m 3

kg/m 3

kg/m 3

MPa

Rc 0 C 0 -1 Rc 0 C 0 -2 Rc 0 C 0 -3

1.9

205

2021

16944

Rc 0 C a -1 Rc 0 C a -2

1.9

270

2055

19939

1.9

205

1999

16271

1.9

270

2046

18936

1.9

205

2030

17513

Rc 0 C a -3

1.9

270

2047

19810

Rc 0 C Rc 0 C Rc 0 C Rc 1 C Rc 1 C Rc 1 C

-a

-1

1.9

140

1924

11938

Rc

-1

C 1 -1 C 1 -2

0.56

251

2014

19627

-a

-2

1.9

140

1954

12600

Rc

-1

0.56

251

2017

19063

-a

-3

1.9

140

--

--

Rc

-1

C

1 -3

0.56

251

1987

17538

-1

-1

3.2

159

1971

12860

Rc -a C 0 -1

0

205

1963

13131

-1

-2

3.2

159

1947

12021

Rc -a C 0 -2 Rc -a C 0 -3

0

205

1978

15414

-1

-3

3.2

159

1929

11816

0

205

1957

14250

Rc a C 0 -1

3.8

205

1945

16540

Rc

-1

C

-1

-1

0.56

159

1940

13400

Rc a C 0 -2 Rc a C 0 -3

3.8

205

1918

14876

Rc

-1

C

-1

-2

0.56

159

1977

14964

3.8

205

1955

17005

Rc

-1

C

-1

-3

0.56

159

1924

12154

Rc 1 C

1 -1

3.2

251

2033

18659

 

Rc 1 C 1 -2 Rc 1 C 1 -3

3.2

251

1990

16906

3.2

251

2014

18581

The initial stiffness modulus values of all the mixtures are compared in Figure 4 which illustrates the average stiffness value together with the standard deviation indicating the variation of test results.

deviation indicating the variation of test results. FIGURE 4 Stiffness of all the tested mixtures. In

FIGURE 4 Stiffness of all the tested mixtures.

In Figure 4 it can be observed that a higher cement content generally yields a higher initial stiffness modulus. On the other hand, the effect of Rc content on the stiffness appears to be influenced by the cement content. For instance, in the mixtures with cement content 159 and 251 kg/m 3 , the lower amount of Rc content contributes to higher stiffness, while for the mixtures with cement content 205

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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Measureed Stiffness (MPa)

Measured stiffness (MPa)

kg/m 3 , the higher Rc content generates higher stiffness. This can be seen in the mixtures with the same cement content and different Rc contents (marked in red). In order to quantify the effect of these two factors on the stiffness, estimation models are developed for the 28-day stiffness modulus of cement stabilized sand materials, shown in Figure 5. Figure 5 illustrates the estimated data derived from statistical models and the real test data, including all the mixtures. Two statistical models are considered, with combined effect of cement and Rc contents as well as density of the specimen. The cement content and density of the specimen are evaluated in a power function which is obtained by observing the results in Table 2. The Rc content is evaluated in two functions: exponential and linear.

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902

y = x R² = 0.902

y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902

5000

10000 15000 20000 25000

Estimated stiffness from eq.3 (MPa)

(a) Exponential function

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902

y = x R² = 0.902

y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902
y = x R² = 0.902

5000 10000

15000 20000 25000

Estimated stiffness from eq.4 (MPa)

(b) Linear function

FIGURE 5 Estimation models of 28-day stiffness.

As can be seen in Figure 5 these two estimation models exhibit the same R 2 and seem to approximate the test data quite well. That means these two models can be used for the laboratory mix design which can aid in obtaining the optimum mixture. These two estimation models (equation 3 and 4) in Figure 5 are described as follows:

125.4 ∙ 0.48 . .

1.3 ∙ 0.48 96.7 .

R 2 =0.902

(3)

R 2 =0.902

(4)

Where, E is the stiffness modulus at 28 days and at applied flexural strain 50 µm/m, MPa; C is the cement content, kg/m 3 ; Rc is the Rc additive content, kg/m 3 ; D is the density of the specimen, kg/m 3 .

Fatigue property of cement stabilized sand

Fatigue test data

Fatigue life under cyclic loading is the appropriate type of failure to predict the structural lifetime of the stabilized layer in the pavement structure (13). Figure 6 gives an example of a fatigue test result at different stress levels which shows a typical plot of stiffness modulus ratio (defined as the ratio of the occurring stiffness modulus to the initial value) versus the number of load repetitions. The initial stiffness modulus is obtained as the average value during the 90 th to 100 th load application. As shown in Figure 6, under repeated loading the stiffness modulus ratio gradually decreases while at the end of the test the stiffness modulus rapidly decreases until fracture occurs. Because during the stress- controlled loading mode a constant stress is applied and the stiffness modulus is decreasing, so in such condition the strain of the specimen is always increasing until failure. As soon as the crack is initiated, it will rapidly propagate through the specimen. The failure point is defined as the moment when the

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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beam gets completely fractured. Besides, it can be seen that the higher the stress level that is applied, the smaller the number of load repetitions the beam can withstand.

100 80 60 40 1500 kPa 1300 kPa 1000 kPa 20 0 1.0E+02 1.0E+03 1.0E+04
100
80
60
40
1500 kPa 1300 kPa
1000 kPa
20
0
1.0E+02
1.0E+03
1.0E+04
1.0E+05
1.0E+06
Load repetitions
Percentage of intial stiffness
(%)

FIGURE 6 Ratio of stiffness versus load cycles for mixture (1.9, 205).

In this paper, the fatigue line is plotted as a function of the applied stress level against the number of load repetitions to failure. According to standard NEN-EN 12697-24, the fatigue life in relation to the initial strain (strain amplitude at 100 th cycle) is suggested. Hereafter, these two types of fatigue models are both evaluated, described as follows:

N k 1 2 or N k 1 2

(5)

Where, N is the number of load cycles at each applied stress level; ε is the initial strain (µm/m); σ is the applied stress (kPa); k 1 and k 2 are experimentally determined coefficients. As an example, Figure 7 shows the fatigue models for mixture (1.9, 205). In Figure 6 the number of load cycles N and applied stress level σ and initial strain ε are all presented in a log-log scale aiming to illustrate the slope k 2 of the fatigue line.

10 log(N) = ‐13.62log( σ) + 47 8 R² = 0.9437 6 4 2 0
10
log(N) = ‐13.62log( σ) + 47
8
R² = 0.9437
6
4
2
0
01234
Log( σ ), applied stress level (kPa)
Log(N), loading clycles
10 log(N) = ‐10.47log( ε)+ 25 8 R² = 0.971 6 4 2 0 Log(N),
10
log(N) = ‐10.47log( ε)+ 25
8
R² = 0.971
6
4
2
0
Log(N), loading cycles

01234

Log( ε), initial strain (µm/m)

FIGURE 7 Fatigue relation of the tested mixture (1.9, 205).

As demonstrated in Figure 7, good correlations between the number of load cycles and the stress level or the initial strain are established and these two types of model show similar R 2 values. The fatigue models for all the sand-cement mixtures are given in Table 3 through the coefficients log(k 1 ) and k In Table 3 it can be seen that the fatigue relation for mixture Rc -1 C -1 (0.56, 159) shows very low R 2 and thus it is excluded in the following analysis. It has to be noted that the R 2 of fatigue model in some mixtures is relatively low. Molenaar (14) attributed the reason of low R 2 to the brittle nature of cemented materials, which means a small change in the applied tensile strain or stress can have a very large effect on the number of load repetitions to failure.

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

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TABLE 3 Parameters for fatigue relations of all the tested mixtures

 

Mix design

 

Fatigue life, log(N)

 

Mix

 

Stress based relation

 

Strain based relation

code

Rc

Cement

log(k 1 )

k 2

R 2

log(k 1 )

k 2

R 2

 

[kg/m 3 ]

[kg/m 3 ]

[-]

[-]

[-]

[-]

Rc 0 C 0

1.9

205

47

13.62

0.94

25

10.47

0.97

Rc 0 C -a

1.9

140

43

12.45

0.93

22

8.92

0.32

Rc

+1

C

-1

3.2

159

45

14.02

0.60

16

6.45

0.67

Rc

+a

C

0

3.8

205

41

11.49

0.81

18

6.85

0.78

Rc

+1

C

+1

3.2

251

55

15.84

0.97

30

13.01

0.86

Rc 0 C +a

1.9

270

53

15.18

0.93

28

12.01

0.89

Rc

-1

C

+1

0.56

251

52

15.04

0.94

26

11.16

0.88

Rc

-a

C

0

0

205

47

13.59

0.98

34

15.07

0.96

Rc

-1

C

-1

0.56

159

10

2.29

0.10

6

1.51

0.11

Figure 8 graphically presents the fatigue relations given in Table 3, expressed by the load cycles to failure as a function of the applied stress (or strain) levels, in log-log scale.

10 (1.9, 140) (3.2, 159) 8 (0, 205) (1.9, 205) (3.8, 205) 6 (0.56, 251)
10
(1.9, 140)
(3.2, 159)
8
(0, 205)
(1.9, 205)
(3.8, 205)
6
(0.56, 251)
(3.2, 251)
4
(1.9, 270)
2
0
0 0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
log(N), loading cycles

log( σ ), applied stress level (kPa)

(a) Stress-based fatigue relations

10 (1.9, 140) (3.2, 159) (0, 205) 8 (1.9, 205) (3.8, 205) 6 (0.56, 251)
10
(1.9, 140)
(3.2, 159)
(0, 205)
8
(1.9, 205)
(3.8, 205)
6
(0.56, 251)
(3.2, 251)
(1.9, 270)
4
2
0
0 0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
log(N), loading cycles

log( ε), initial strain (µm/m)

(b) Strain-based fatigue relations

FIGURE 8 Fatigue lines for the tested mixtures.

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

10

2

2

K

K

In Figure 8 generally it can be seen that the fatigue lines are influenced by the mix compositions and these two types of fatigue relations show different trends. For instance, the stress-based relations are rather parallel between mixtures, in other words the variation of the slope (k 2 -value) of the fatigue lines is relatively small. In contrast, the slope of the strain-based fatigue lines are relatively more variable. However, generally there doesn’t seem to exhibit clear or consistent influence of cement and Rc contents. Moreover, as can be seen for the stress-based relations, the k 2 value ranges from 12 to 16 indicating a large slope and rather brittle behavior of cement stabilized sand material, which can be compared with k 2 obtained for the asphalt concrete mixtures generally ranging from 3 to 6 in literature

(15).

Despite the variation of the k 1 and k 2 values, it is found that these two coefficients are well correlated, shown in Figure 9.

18

15

12

9

6

3

0

are well correlated, shown in Figure 9. 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 y =

y = 0.27x + 0.99

R² = 0.92

0

20

Log (k 1 )

40

60

(a) Stress based fatigue relations

18

15

12

9

6

3

0

y = 0.51x ‐ 2.13 R² = 0.99 0 20 40 60
y = 0.51x ‐ 2.13
R² = 0.99
0
20
40
60

Log (k 1 )

(b) Strainbased fatigue relations

FIGURE 9 Correlation between k 1 and k 2

Figure 9 includes all the k 1 and k 2 values in the fatigue relations of all the mixtures and k 1 is indicated by its log. It can be found that k 1 and k 2 are highly correlated in both types of fatigue models. k 2 is linearly correlated to log(k 1 ) independent of the mix design. Although different mixtures alter the values of k 1 and k 2 , the correlation between k 1 and k 2 is consistent, given in the following equations:

2

0.27 ∙ log 1 0.99

R 2 =0.92

stress-based fatigue relations

(6)

2 0.51 ∙ log 1 2.13

R 2 =0.99

strain-based fatigue relations

(7)

Similarly, research (15) gave the k 1 and k 2 relation for asphalt concrete materials and emphasized that the uniform relationship between k 1 and k 2 doesn’t change in different mixtures which may have a potential use in pavement design.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper investigates the effect of a synthetic modified-zeolite additive on the properties of cement stabilized sand material. Stiffness and fatigue properties are evaluated on a variety of mix proportions by varying the cement and additive contents. The principle findings reported in this paper are concluded as follows:

The stiffness modulus of cement stabilized sand is strongly influenced by the applied strain. As the strain increases, the stiffness modulus significantly decreases until failure. Adding certain amount of Rc additive enables sand-cement material to withstand higher strain before failure under cyclic loading.

Wu, Houben, Scarpas, Egyed, de La Roij

11

Estimation models are developed to predict the stiffness modulus of cement stabilized sand materials, with combined effect of cement content, Rc content (ranging from 0 to 2.0% of cement content, by mass) and density of the specimen. The obtained models show a good fit for the test data.

Fatigue relations are obtained for all the mixtures and these relations are influenced by different mixtures. The k 2 value of the stress-based fatigue models ranges from 12 to 16 indicating a large slope and rather brittle behavior of cement stabilized sand materials.

This paper focuses on the mechanical properties, e.g., stiffness and fatigue properties. Since cement stabilized base is susceptible to shrinkage cracking. Further research will be conducted to evaluate the shrinkage behaviour of cement stabilized materials with Rc additive and develop a simplified method to estimate the transverse cracking performance for cement stabilized sand materials which can be beneficial for the pavement design.

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