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CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION

Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this chapter, readers should be able to apply
integration to find the areas and volumes of revolution.

4.1 AREA AS A LIMIT OF SUM; AREA UNDER THE CURVE

The area under a curve can be determined by using the definite integrals. Consider a
function y f ( x ) that is continuous and nonnegative on a closed interval a, b and we want
to find the area under the curve.

Figure 4.1

The area under the curve can be approximate by using rectangles.

Figure 4.2

Divide the interval [a, b] into n subintervals as shown in the Figure 4.2. Assume that the
width of each subinterval is x. The area of each rectangular subinterval is given by
A = height x width
A f ( x) x

Thus, the area under the curve for n rectangles is given by the summation of areas of all
rectangles.
A A1 A 2 ... A n
n
A f ( x ) x
i 1
i i

1
The approximation using rectangular shape will become better as the number of rectangular
is increase towards infinity.
n
A lim
n
f ( x ) x
i 1
i i

This limit towards infinity can be expressed using definite integral from a to b, with x
becomes dx as the width approaches 0.
b


A f ( x ) dx
a

Therefore, to determine the area of a region bounded by a curve and x-axis:

Figure 4.3


The area, A f ( x ) dx
a

where a : left boundary


b : right boundary
f(x) : the height of rectangular sampling (in terms of x)

2
Also, to determine the area of a region bounded by a curve and y-axis:

Figure 4.4


The area, A f ( y ) dy
c

where c : lower boundary


d : upper boundary
f(y) : the length of rectangular sampling (in terms of y)

Example 1
Find the area bounded by the graphs y x3 2, the x-axis and the lines x = -1 and x = 2.

y
10

y = x3 + 2 x
-2 2
x = -1 x =2

Solution
2

x
3
A= 2 dx
1
2
x4
2x
4 1
24 ( 1) 4
2(2) 2( 1)
4 4

3
1
4 4 2
4
7
8
4
39
unit 2
4

Example 2
A region is bounded by the graphs y 4 x 2 , x-axis, x = -1, x = 1. Find the area of the given
region.

Solution
1

(4 x
2
A= ) dx
1
1
x3
4 x
3
1
1 ( 1)3
4(1) 4( 1)
3 3
11 11

3 3
22
unit 2
3

Example 3
Find the area bounded by the graph x = y2, y = 1, y = 2 and the y-axis.

2
y=2
x = y2
1 y=1
x
1 2 3 4

4
Solution
2
2 y3

2
A = y dy
1 3 1
23 13 7
unit 2
3 3 3

Example 4
A region in quadrant I, is bounded by the graphs y x 2 and y 1. Find the area of the
given region.

Solution
1
1 y3 / 2
A = y 1/ 2
dy
0 3 / 2 0
2 2 2
0 unit
3 3

Example 5
Find the area bounded by the graph y x( x 2)( x 3) and the x-axis.

Solution
y
8
6
4
A1 y = x(x - 2)(x + 3)
2
x
-4 -2 2 4
-2 A2
-4
-6
-8

Find the x-intercepts,


x(x 2)(x + 3) = 0
x = 0, x = 2 and x = -3
x-intercepts: (-3, 0), (0, 0), (2, 0)
y = x(x 2)(x + 3) = x(x2 + x 6)
= x3 + x2 6x

5
A = A1 A 2
0 2

( x 3 x 2 6x ) dx ( x 3 x 2 6 x ) dx
3 0
0
0 x 4 x3
3x 2
3 2
A1 ( x x 6 x ) dx
3 4 3 3
( 3) 4 ( 3)3
0 3( 3)2
4 3

81
9 27
4
63
unit 2
4
2
2 x 4 x3
3x 2
3 2
A 2 ( x x 6 x ) dx
0 4 3 0
2 4 23
3(2)2 0
4 3

8
4 12
3
16

3
2
16 16
(x
3
x 2 6x ) dx unit 2
3 3
0

Therefore,
0 2
A=
( x 3 x 2 6x ) dx ( x 3 x 2 6x ) dx
3 0
63 16 253
unit 2
4 3 12

6
4.2 AREA BETWEEN TWO CURVES

The same approach can be taken for the region between two curves, f(x) and g(x).

Figure 4.5

b
The area, A f ( x) g( x) dx
a

where a : left boundary


b : right boundary
f(x) : the above function (in terms of x)
g(x) : the bottom function (in terms of x)

Steps to determine the area:

(1) Sketch the region and draw a vertical rectangular strip through the region at any
arbitrary point x on the x-axis, such that x [a, b], connecting the upper and lower
boundaries.

(2) The y-coordinate of the top endpoint of the strip sketched in step 1 will be f(x), the
bottom one g(x), and the length of the strip will be f(x) g(x) . This is the integrand.

(3) To determine the limits of integration, imagine moving the strip from left to right. The
leftmost position at which the strip intersects the region is x = a, and the rightmost is
x = b.
b
(4)
The area A = [f ( x ) g( x )] dx
a
width of strip

length of strip

7
Similarly; for the region:

Figure 4.6
d
The area, A f ( y) g( y) dy
c

where c : lower boundary


d : upper boundary
f(y) : the right hand side function (in terms of y)
g(y) : the left hand side function (in terms of y)

Steps to determine the area:

(1) Sketch the region, labelling the right boundary as x f ( y ) and the left boundary
x g( y ) . Draw a horizontal rectangular strip through the region for an arbitrary point
y on the y-axis such that y [c, d].

(2) The x-coordinate of the right endpoint of the strip sketched in step 1 will be f(y), the
left one g(y), and the length of the strip will be f(y) g(y) . This is the integrand.

(3) To determine the limits of integration, imagine moving the strip from bottom to top.
The lowest position at which the strip intersects the region is y = c and the highest
position is y = d.
d
(4)
The area A = [f ( y ) g( y )] dy
c

Example 6
Find the area enclosed by the graphs y = x2 + 2 and the lines y = x, x = -1 and x = 2.

8
Solution
2

(x
2
A= 2) x dx
1 upper boundary: y = x2 + 2
2 lower boundary: y = x

(x
2
x 2) dx
1
2
x3 x2
2x
3 2 1
23 2 2 ( 1)3 ( 1)2
2(2) 2( 1)
3 2 3 2

8 1 1
2 4 2
3 3 2
14 17

3 6
15
unit 2
2

Example 7
3
Find the area bounded by the curves y x 1, y 9, y 0 and the y-axis.

Solution
2

9 (x
3
Area A = 1) dx
0
2


(8 x 3 )dx
0
2
x4
8x
4
0
24
8(2) 0
4
16 4
12 unit 2

9
0

(x
3
Area B = 1) 0 dx
1
0
x4
x
4 1
( 1)4
0 1
4

1
1
4
3

4
3 51
Therefore, area A + area B = 12 unit 2
4 4

Example 8
a) Sketch on the same diagram, the curves y x 2 and y 4 x 2 and find their points
of intersection.

b) Set-up the integral to find the area of the region bounded by these two curves.

Solution
y
a) 6
y = x2
4

2
x
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
-2

-4
y = 4 - x2
-6

x2 = 4 x2
x + x2 = 4
2

2x2 = 4
x2 = 2
x 2
When x 2, y ( 2 )2 2
When x 2, y ( 2 )2 2
The points of intersection between the two curves are ( 2, 2) and ( 2, 2).
2

(4 x
2
b) A= ) x 2 dx
2
upper boundary: y = 4 x2
lower boundary: y = x2

10
2

( 4 2x
2
) dx
2
2
2x 3
4 x
3
2

2( 2 )3 2( 2 )3

4 2 4( 2 )
3 3

4 2 4 2
4 2 4 2
3 3
8 2 24 2 8 2
8 2
3 3
16 2
unit 2
3

Example 9
Find the area enclosed by the curve x 5y y 2 and the line 2y 10 x .

x = 5y - y 2
4

2y = 10 - x
2

x
2 4 6 8 10

Solution
Substitute the equation of the line into the equation of the curve . The equation of the line
becomes x = 10 2y.

10 2y = 5y y2
y2 2y 5y + 10 = 0
y2 - 7y + 10 = 0
(y 5)(y 2) = 0
y = 5 or y = 2
Substitute y = 5 in the equation of the curve
x = 5(5) 52 = 25 25 = 0
x = 5(2) 22 = 10 4 = 6
The points of intersections are (0, 5) and (6, 2)
5


A = (5y y 2 ) (10 2y ) dy
right boundary: x = 5y - y2
2
left boundary: x = 10 - 2y

11
5


(5y y 2 10 2y ) dy
2
5


( y 2 7 y 10 ) dy
2
5
y 3 7y 2
10 y
3 2 2
125 175 8
50 14 20
3 2 3
25 26

6 3
9
unit 2
2

Example 10
The region R is bounded by the curve x y 2 4 and the straight lines y 2, y 1 and x 1.
Find the area of the bounded region.

y
4
x=1

2 x = y2 + 4
y=1
x
2 R 4 6 8 10

y = -2
-2

-4

Solution
1

(y
2
Area R = 4 1) dy
2 right boundary: x = y2 + 4
left boundary: x = 1
1

(y
2
3) dy
2
1
y3
3y
3 2
13 ( 2)3
3(1) 3( 2)
3 3

12
1 8 10 26
3 6
3 3 3 3
2
= 12 unit

Example 11
Sketch on the same diagram, the curves x y3 and y x 2. Find
(a) the points of intersection of the two curves
(b) the area of the region bounded by the two curves

Solution
y
y = x2
3

2 x = y3
1 (1,1)
x
-3 -2 -1 1 2 3
-1

-2

-3

(a) Given y x 2 x y
y3 y
( y 3 )2 ( y )2
y6 y
y6 y 0
y( y 5 1) 0
y = 0 or y = 1
The points of intersection are (0, 0) and (1, 1)
1 1
(b) A ( x 3 x 2 ) dx
0
1
4
3x 3 x 3

4 3
0
3 1
(1)
4 3
5

12
OR

13
1
A= y y 3 dy
0
1 1
(y 2 y 3 ) dy
0
1
3
2y 2 y 4

3 4
0
2 1

3 4
5
unit 2
12

EXERCISE 4.1

1. Set up an integral that can be used to find the area of the region R bounded by the
following graphs.

y y=6
y 6
(a)
x = -2 x=1 (b)
4 4
y = ex
2 2
x
x
-4 -2 2 4
-4 -2 2 4
-2
-2

y = 4 - x2 -4
-4
-6

y
(c) 8
y = x2 + 3
6

4 (1, 4)

2
(7, 0) x
2 4 6 8
-2

14
2. Set up an integral that can be used to find the area of the region R bounded by the
following graphs

y y
y=8
(a) 8 (b)
6 6
y = 5/x
y= -x3 4 y=4
4
2
x
-4 -2 2 4 2
y=2
-2
y = -2 y = 1/x
-4 x
2 4 6
-6
-8 -2

y
(c) y = 4x y=x
2

1
y = -x + 2
x
-2 -1 1 2

-1

-2

(d)
y
y = x3
2
y=x
1

x
-2 -1 1 2

-1

-2

15
3. The diagram shows the region bounded by the graphs
x
y 6 x, y x 3 and y .
2
(a) Set up an integral with respect to x to find the area of the shaded region.
(b) Set up another integral with respect to y to find the same area.

y
8 y=6+x
6
y = -x/2
4
y = x3
2
x
-8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8
-2
-4
-6
-8

4. Sketch the curve y 10 x 2 and the straight line y x 2. Hence, calculate the
area enclosed by the curve and the line.

The diagram shows the curve with equation y x 2 and the straight line
2
5.
y x 4.

y
8
6
4 y = (x - 2)2
y=x+4 2
x
-4 -2 2 4 6
-2
-4
-6
-8

Find
(a) the points of intersection between the curve and the line.
(b) the area of the region bounded by the curve and the straight line.

6. The diagram shows the curve y 4x x 2 , line y x and x 4. Find the area of the
shaded region.

16
y
x =4
5
y = 4x - x 2 y =x
4

1
x
2 4
-1

7. Find the area of the region bounded by the graphs of the equations y 2 9 x and
y 3 x.
y

y2 = 9 - x
2

x
-2 2 4 6 8 10

-2

-4 y =3 -x

8. Sketch the curves x 2y 2 and x 27 y 2.


(a) Find the points of intersection of the two curves.
(b) Find the area of the region between the two curves.

4.3 VOLUME BY SLICING, DISKS AND WASHERS METHOD

4.3.1. Volume by Slicing Method


The volume of solid whose cross section do not vary in size and shape (congruent solid) can
be found by taking summation of volume for the slab from cross-section slicing of the solid.

Consider the solid in the shape of cylinder: for example lemang which we usually have on
Hari Raya.

Figure 4.7

Slicing the solid at cross sections: for example cut the lemang for serving.

17
Figure 4.8

Consider the volume of each slice:


Cross section
area: A r 2

Thickness, x Figure 4.9

The volume of a slice, d V A x r 2 x


n
For n slices, the volume, d V A ixi
i 1
If the number of slices is increases towards infinity, the thickness will be very thin,
approaching 0, then, the thickness, x is replaced by dx, and this volume can be expressed
using integral notation.

n
V lim
x 0
A ixi
i 1
b
V a A(x) dx
where a : left boundary
b : right boundary
A(x) : the cross-sectional area.

Example 12

Consider the solid with a circular base of radius 1. Parallel cross-sections perpendicular to
the base are equilateral triangles. Find the volume of the solid.

18
Solution
y
Step 1: Consider the base: a circle
B(x,y)
The base of the
equilateral triangle

The equation of
circle : x
x2 y2 r 2

when r 1, y 1 x 2 A

Step 2: Consider the cross-section equilateral triangle

2y
3y

A B
y y
1
Step 3: The Area of equilateral triangle, A (base )(height )
2
1
A (2y )( 3 y )
2
1
A (2 1 x 2 )( 3 1 x 2 ) 3 (1 x 2 )
2

1
Step 4: The volume of the congruent solid, V A( x) dx
1
1
V 3 (1 x 2 ) dx
1
1
x3
V 3 x
3
1
4
V 3 unit 3
3

4.3.2(a) Volume by Disk Method: Revolving about the x-axis

When a region in a plane is revolved about a line in the plane, the solid generated is known
as the solid of revolution, the line is called the axis of revolution. For example a rectangular
region R bounded by the lines y = 3, x = 2, x = 6 and the x-axis, as shown in Figure 4.10 is
revolved about the x-axis. The solid generated is a right circular cylinder as shown in Figure
4.11.

19
Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11
Consider a thin vertical strip (sampling) in R being revolved perpendicularly to the x-axis.
When this rectangle is revolved about the x-axis, it generates a disk, which is a thin right
circular cylinder.

a b

a dx b

Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13

The radius of the disk, r f ( x) 0 f ( x)


Thickness of the disk, h = dx
The cross-sectional area of the disk, A( x) r 2
The volume of the disk, V A( x ) dx
V r 2 dx
V f ( x )2 dx

b b
Thus, the volume of the solid of revolution, V r dx f ( x )2 dx

2

a a

*Note that if the disk is perpendicular to the x-axis then the radius should be expressed as a
function of x.

Example 13
Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving in the region bounded by the graphs of
y = x, y = 0, x = 0, and x = 3 about the x-axis

Solution

20
Step 1: Sketch the region R. Draw a typical vertical rectangular strip of width dx
perpendicular to the x-axis i.e. the axis of revolution

y Thickness = dx

y=x y2=x
x=3
R
y1=0
x axis of revolution
dx

Step 2: Determine the radius of the disk in terms of x since the thickness is dx.

radius of disk , r = y2 - y1
=x-0 upper boundary-lower boundary
=x
Thickness of disk = dx

Step 3 :
State the cross- sectional area of the disk.
A(x) = r2
= x2

Step 4:
Set up an integral to find the volume of the solid and evaluate the integral.
3 3


V A( x )dx x 2 dx
0 0
3
x3

3 0
33
0
3
9 unit 3

Note: The volume is the same as the volume obtained by using the formula from geometry .

Example 14
Sketch the curve y x 1.
Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving in the region bounded by the graphs of
y x 1 , y = 0, x = 1, and x = 4 about the x-axis.

Solution

21
y

3 y= x 1

1
r

x
1 2 dx 3 4

radius of the disk, r = x 1


thickness =dx

A(x) = r2 = ( x 1) 2

Volume of the solid form

4 4


A( x )dx ( x 1)2 dx
1 1


x 2 x 1 dx
1
4
3
x2 x2
2 x
2 3
2 1
2 3
4 4 1 4
( 4) 4 1
2
2 3 2 3


3
= 19.833 unit .

22
4.3.2(b) Disk method: Revolving about the y-axis

The above technique can be applied to determine the volume of solid of revolution
when the region is rotated about the y-axis. Consider the region R bounded by the
curve x f ( y), the lines y c, y d and the y-axis (Figure 4.14). When R is revolved
about the y-axis, the solid of revolution formed is as shown in Figure 4.15.

Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15

To determine the solid of revolution, draw a thin horizontal strip and revolve perpendicularly
to the y-axis (the axis of revolution). The solid generated is a disk with radius and height as
follows: y

thickness, dy

x1 = 0 x2 = f(y)
Figure 4.16

Where : radius of the disk, r = x2 - x1


= f(y) - 0
thickness of the disk = dy
cross-sectional area of the disk = A(y) = r2

d d d


Thus the volume of the solid, V A( y )dy r dy [ f ( y )]2 dy
2

c c c
Thus, the volume of solid of revolution obtained by revolving the region R about the
y-axis is given by

d d
V A( y)dy r 2 dy
c c
d
[ f ( y ]2 dy
c

23
Note that if the disk is perpendicular to the y-axis then the radius should be expressed as a
function of y.

Example 15
The diagram below shows the region R bounded by the graphs of
y x 2 2, x 0, y 3 and y 5. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region
R about the y-axis.
y
5

4 R y=x2+2

1
x
1 2 3

Solution

Step 1:
Draw a typical horizontal rectangle of width dy perpendicular to the y-axis i.e. the axis of
revolution
y
6

4 r
dy
3
dy
2 y=x2+2

1
x r
1 2 3

Step 2:
Find the radius of the disk in terms of y since the thickness is dy.
y x2 2
x y 2 ( x 0)

Right boundary left boundary


radius = x2-x1
y2
Thickness = dy

Step 3:
State the formula of the area of cross-sectional area, A(y) of the disk
A(y) = r2dy

= ( y 2 ) 2dy = (y - 2) dy

24
Step 4:
Set up an integral to find the volume of the solid and evaluate the integral
5 5


V A( y )dy ( y 2) dy
3 3
5
y2
2y
2 3

25 9
10 6
2 2

= 4 unit3

Example 16
Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the
2
curve y , x 0, y 1 and y 3 about the y-axis.
x

Solution

y
4
3
2
2 y dy
x
1
x r
1 2

2
y ,
x
2
x
y
radius, r = x2 - x1 Right boundary left boundary

Thickness = dy
2
2 4
A(y) = r2 = =
y y2

4
3 3
V
1 1

A( y )dy 2 dy
y

3
4

y 1

25
4 4

3 1

8
unit 3
3

4.3.3(a) Washer method: revolving about the x-axis

The washer method is a slight generalization of the disk method. The Washer method is
used when the axis of revolution is not at the boundary of the region R. Consider the
region R bounded by the curves y = f(x), y = g(x), the lines x = a, x = b as shown in Figure
4.17. The region R is revolved about the x-axis and the resulting solid is obtained as shown
in Figure 4.18.

Figure 4.17 Figure 4.18

We can determine the volume of solid generated by considering the shaded region which is
revolved perpendicularly to the x-axis (the axis of revolution). The revolution of the sampling
strip will generate a washer (Figure 4.20). The washer is a disk with a smaller disk removed
from the centre. Let R and r are the outer and inner radius respectively. The radius is the
distance between a point on each curve to the axis of revolution. The radius should be
expressed as functions of x.

dx
R
r

R r

Figure 4.19 Figure 4.20

The area of the cross section of the washer, A(x) = R2 - r2


Where: R = f(x), radius of the outer circle ,

26
r = g(x), radius of the inner circle
Volume of the washer, = A(x) dx
=(R2 - r2) dx

Summing up the volumes of all these infinitely number of disks to obtain the volume of the
solid of revolution.


Volume of solid of revolution, V ( R 2 r 2 ) dx
a
b


V {[ f ( x )]2 [g( x )]2 } dx
a
b


V [ f ( x )]2 [g( x )]2 dx
a

Thus, the volume of solid of revolution that is generated by revolving the region about the x-
axis is given by:


V ( R 2 r 2 ) dx
a
b


V { [ f ( x )]2 [g( x )]2 } dx
a

Example 17
The region R is bounded by the parabola y = x2 + 1 and the line y = 2x + 1. Find the volume
of the solid formed by revolving the region R about the x-axis

Solution
Step 1:
Sketch the region R. Draw a typical vertical rectangle of width dx perpendicular to the x-axis
i.e. the axis of revolution. Indicate the outer radius, inner radius and thickness of the washer.

y Thickness =dx
5 y=2x+1
4
y=x2+1 R
3 dx r
2
R
1 r
x
-1 1 2

27
Step 2:
Determine the x- coordinates of the intersection points that is the limits of the integration by
solving simultaneous equations:

y = x2+1.......(1)
y = 2x+1......(2)
Substitute (1) in (2)
x2 + 1 = 2x + 1
x2 - 2x = 0
x(x - 2) = 0
x = 0 or x = 2

Step3:
Determine the outer and inner radii in term of x since the thickness is dx.

outer radius, R = 2x + 1
inner radius, r = x2 + 1
thickness = dx

Step 4:
State the formula of the area of the cross sectional of the washer
A(x) = (R2 - r2 )
= [(2x + 1)2 (x2 + 1)2]
= [(4x2 + 4x + 1) - (x 4 + 2x2 + 1)]
= (-x4 + 2x2 + 4x )

Step 5:
Set up an integral to find the volume of the solid and evaluate the integral.

2 2
V A( x )dx ( x 4 2x 2 4x ) dx
0 0
2
x 5 2x 3 4 x 2

5 3 2
0
32 2(2) 3
2(2)2 0
5 3

104
unit 3
15

Example 18
The diagram below shows the region R which is bounded by the curve y = e2x - 1, the
straight lines y = 2x and x = 1. Find the volume of solid generated by rotating R about the
x-axis.

28
8 y
y=e2x-1
6
4
2 y=2x
x
-1 1 2
Solution

y
8
y=e2x-1
6

4
y=2x
2 R
dx
r x
-1 1 2

Outer radius, R = e2x-1


Inner radius, r = 2x
thickness =dx

The cross-sectional area of the washer


A(x) = (R2 -r2 )
= [(e2x -1)2 (2x)2]
=(e4x - 2e2x + 1 4x2)

Volume of the solid generated, V


1


e 4 x 2e2 x 1 4x 2 dx
0
1
e4x 4x 3
e2x x
4 3 0
e4 4 e0
( e 2 1 ) ( e0 )
4 3 4
e 4
4 1
( e2 1 ) ( 1)
4 3 4
e 4
5
e 2 unit 3
4 12 = 20.99unit3

29
4.3.3(b) Washer method : revolving about the yaxis

Suppose now the axis of revolution is the y-axis instead of the x-axis. By revolving the
shaded region in Figure 4.21 about the y-axis, we obtain the solid as shown in Figure 4.22.

r
dy
R

Figure 4.21 Figure 4.22

When the region is revolved about the y-axis, we consider a horizontal strip which is
perpendicular to the y-axis. As the region revolved about the y-axis, the horizontal strip will
generate a washer with an area of cross section A( y) R2 r 2, and the thickness is dy.
The volume of washer is given by, V(y) = A(y) dy = ( R 2 r 2 ) dy
Where: Outer radius of washer, R = f(y)
Inner radius of washer, r = g(y)

Thus, the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region about the y-axis is

d d
V A( y)dy R 2 r 2 dy
c c
d
V [ f ( y)] [ g( y)]2 dy
2

Example 19
Sketch on the same diagram, the curves y 8x and y x 2 . Find
(a) the points of intersection between the two curves,
(b) the volume generated when the region bounded by the two curves is revolving about
the y-axis.

Solution

30
y y 8x
5
4
3 r
y=x2
dy
2
1 R
x
1 2 3

y 8x .......(1),
y x 2 .......(2)
Point of intersection between the curves:
8x x 2
( 8x )2 (x 2 )2
8x x 4
8x x 4 0
x(8 x 3 ) 0
x 0 or x 3 8
x 0 or x 2

When x = 0, y = 0
x = 2, y = 22 = 4
Thus intersection points are (0,0) and (2,4)
y = x2 x y (x 0)
y2
y 8x x
8

outer radius, R = y
y2
inner radius: r
8
Volume of solid generated
4 4

0
0

A( y )dy ( R 2 r 2 ) dy the y- coordinates of the intersection points are the
limits of integration
2
4
y2

( y ) dy
2

0 8
4
y4
= y dy
0
64
4
y2 y5

2 64(5) 0

31
( 4)2 ( 4)5
0

2 320
24
unit 3
5

Example 20
Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region bounded by the curve x = 5y - y2
and the line x = 4 about the y-axis

y
6
x=4
5

4
x=5y-y2
3
r dy
2

1
R x
1 2 3 4 5 6

Solution
Solution
When x = 4
4 = 5y - y2
y2 - 5y + 4 = 0
(y - 1)(y - 4) = 0
When y = 1, y = 4
outer radius, R = 5y - y2
inner radius: r 4
thickness = dy


V ( R 2 r 2 ) dy
1
4
(5 y y 2 )2 4 dy

2

1
4


(25 y 2 10 y 3 y 4 16 )dy
1

32
4
25 y 3 5 y 4 y 5
16 y
3 2 5 1
25( 4)3 5( 4)4 ( 4)5 25 5 1
16( 4) 16
3 2 5 3 2 5
441
unit 3
10

4.3.4 Disk and Washer Methods: Revolving about lines parallel to x-axis or the
y-axis.

The disk and washer methods can also be used to find the volume of solid of revolution
when the region is revolved about any line parallel to the x axis or the y-axis.

Example 21
The figure below shows the region bounded by the curve y x 3 , the lines y 2 and
x 3. Set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid obtained by
revolving the region about the lines (i) y 2 (ii) x 3.

y
3
x=3
2 y=2
y x3
1
x
2 4 6 8

Solution
(i) Disk method :
Axis of rotation: y = 2, draw the strip perpendicular to y = 2.
y
3
x=3 dx y=2
2

r
1 y x3
x
2 4 6 8

33
when y = 2,
2 x3
4x3
x7
radius of disk, r = 2 - ( x 3 )
thickness of disk = dx

7 7


V A( x )dx r 2 dx
3 3
7


(2 x 3 )2 dx
3

(ii) Disk method:


Axis of rotation: x = 3, draw strip perpendicular to x = 3
y
3

2
dy
r x=y2+3
1 x=3
x
2 4 6 8

y x3
y2 x 3
x y2 3
radius of disk, r = y2 + 3 - 3 = y2
thickness of disk = dy

2 2


V A( y )dy r 2 dy
0 0
2 2


( y ) dy y 4 dy
2 2

0 0

Example 22
Set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the
shaded region about (i) y 1 (ii) x 1.

34
y
15
(2,11)
10
y=4x+3
5
y=x3+3
x
1 2

Solution

(i) Washer method :


Axis of rotation: y = 1, draw a vertical strip perpendicular to y = 1

12
y=4x+3
10

8
dx y=x3+3
6

4
R
2 r

y=1
C x
1 2 3 4

Outer radius, R = (4x + 3) - 1


= 4x + 2
Inner radius, r = (x3 + 3) -1
= (x3 + 2)
Thickness = dx
2 2


V A( x )dx ( R 2 r 2 ) dx
0 0
2


[( 4 x 2)2 ( x 3 2)2 ] dx
0
(ii) Washer method :
Axis of rotation: x = -1, draw a horizontal strip perpendicular to x = -1

35
y

12
y=4x+3
10

8
y=x3+3
r 6
-----------------
----------------------- dy
R
4

2
x
-2 -1 1 2 3 4

y3
4x + 3 x
4
1
y = 2x + 3 x ( y
3
3) 3

1
Outer radius, R = ( y 3) 3
- (-1)
1
= (y 3) 3
+1
Inner radius
y3
( 1)
4
y34

4
y 1

4
Thickness =dx
11 11

A( y)dy ( R
2
V r 2 ) dy
3 3
2 2

11 1
y 1

( y 3) 1 -
3 dy
4
3

Example 23
The region W is bounded by the curve y 1 sin x and the line y 1 as shown in the figure
below.

36
y

y=1+sinx
2

W
1

Find the volume of the solid generated when the region W is revolved about the line y=1

Solution
y

dx
2
y=1+sinx
W
1
r
x

radius of the disk, r = 1 + sin x - 1 = sin x upper boundary-lower boundary


thickness = dx


Volume A( x )dx r 2dx
0 0


sin2 x
0
dx
Use identity:
cos 2x = 1-2sin2x

1 cos 2x 2 sin2x = 1-cos2x

0
2
dx
sin2 x
1 cos 2x
2



20
1 cos 2x dx


x sin 2x sin 2 sin 0
0
2 4 0 2 4 4
2
unit 3
2

37
Example 24
Find the volume of solid generated when the shaded region which is bounded by the curve
x
y2 x 3 and the line y 3 is revolving about the line x 2.
2
y
x
y 3
2
2
(4,1)

x
1 2 3 4 5 6 37 8 9 10 11 12 13

-2 y2=x-3
(12,-3)

Solution
y
3 x
y 3
2
2
(4,1)
1
x
3 5 10
-1

-2 r y2=x-3
(12,-3)
-3
R
Consider the line, y x 3 ,
2
x = 6 - 2y right boundary
x = 2left boundary
Outer radius, R = (6-2y) 2 = 4 - 2y

Consider the curve, y2 = x - 3,


x = y2 + 3 right boundary
x = 2left boundary
inner radius, r = (y2 + 3) 2 = y2 + 1

38
1 1
Volume A( y)dy (R r 2 ) dy
2

3 3


2
( 4 2y )2 y 2 1 dx
3
1


(16 16 y 4 y 2 ) ( y 4 2y 2 1)dy
3
1


4
( y 2y 2 16 y 15 )dy
3
1
y 5 2y 3
8 y 2 15 y
5 3 3
1 2 243 54
8 15 72 45
5 3 5 3
1408
unit 3
15

Example 25
Consider the shaded region which is bounded by the curves y 2x2 3 and y x2 6.
Set-up the integral to find the volume of solid generated by the region when it is revolved
about the line y 2.

y
6 y=2x2+3

3 y=-x2+6

1
x
-3 -2 -1 1 2 3

Solution

39
y
6 y=-x2+6

4
y=2x2+3 R
3 r
2

1
x
-3 -2 -1 1 2 3

Point of intersection between the curves:


2x 2 3 x 2 6
3x 2 3
x2 1
x 1, 1
Outer radius, R = (-x2+6) - (2) = -x2 + 4
Inner radius, r = (2x2+3) - (2) = 2x2+1
Thickness = dx
1 1

A( x) dx ( R
2
Volume r 2 ) dx
1 1


1
2

( x 2 4)2 2x 2 1 dx
1
1
4

(x 8 x 2 16 ) ( 4 x 4 4 x 2 1)dx
1
1
4

( 3 x 12 x 2 15 )dx
1
1
3x 5
4 x 3 15 x
5 1
3 3
4 15 4 15
5 5
104
unit 3 65 .35 unit 3
5

40
4.4 VOLUME BY CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

4.4.1 Cylindrical Shell Method: Revolving about the x-axis or the y-axis

The methods for computing volumes that is discussed so far (disk and washer
methods) depends on our ability to compute the cross-sectional area of the solid and
to integrate that area across the solid.

In this section, we will develop another method to find volumes that may be applicable
when the cross-sectional area cannot be found or the integration is too difficult. For
example, consider the problem of revolving about the x-axis, the region bounded by
the curve x 1 y y 5 and the line x 0 as shown in Figure 4.4(a). Using disk
method to solve this problem is difficult, we need to evaluate the integral with respect
to x that is we have to express y in terms of x which is difficult (or sometimes even
impossible). For this reason, we have another method to compute the volume that is
the cylindrical shell method. In this method the strip is drawn parallel instead of
perpendicular to the axis of revolution.

y
6
x=(1-y)(y-5)

x
1 2 3 4
Figure 4.4(a)

Consider a region R that is bounded by x f ( y) , the lines y c , y d and the y-axis


as shown in 4.23. In order to determine the volume of the solid generated by revolving
R about the x-axis, we draw a thin horizontal strip of width dy parallel to the y-axis at
an arbitrary point y in [c, d]. When the region is revolved about the x-axis, the strip will
sweep out a cylindrical shell as shown in Figure 4.24.

f(y)

thickness, y

radius, y

Figure 4.23

Figure 4.24

41
The cylindrical shell when flattened has the volume of, V 2y f ( y) y as in Figure 4.25.
y
f(y)
2y

Figure 4.25

Height of the rectangle = circumference of a circle


= 2r = 2y
The shell is very thin thus the cross section is assume to be a circle of radius r.
Length of the rectangle = Length of the cylindrical shell
= h = f(y)
Area of the rectangle = 2rh = 2yf(y)
Thus the volume of the cylindrical shell = Area of cross section x thickness
= A(y) dy = 2rh dy = 2yf(y) dy

Summing up the volumes of all these infinitely thin shells, we get the total volume of the solid
of revolution.

Thus, the volume of solid of revolution about the x-axis is,

d d


V A( y ) dy 2rh dy
c c
d


2yf( y ) dy
c

Similarly, if the region bounded by y f ( x) and the x-axis on the interval [a, b], where f is
non- negative and continuous, is revolved about the y-axis, then the volume of a solid
generated is


V 2rh dx
a
b


2xf ( x ) dx
a

Note: The disk method and the shell method can be distinguish as follows:

Disk method: The representative strip is perpendicular to the axis of revolution.


Shell method: The representative strip is parallel to the axis of revolution.

42
Example 26
Set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the
shaded region about y-axis.
(a) (b)
y
y 5
1
x
3 2 x=2 4 y 4x

3
2
y
3 2
y x
1 x 1
1
x x
-1 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5 6

Solution
(a) Draw a typical vertical rectangle strip of width dx parallel to the y-axis i.e. the axis of
revolution and indicate the radius , height and width of the shell

1
x
2 x=2
3

2
dx 3
r y
x 1
1
h

x
-1 1 2 3 4

height of shell, h = length of the strip 3


x 1
radius of shell, r
= distance between the strip and the y-axis
=x

thickness of shell = width of strip


= dx

43
b


V 2rh dx
a
2
3

2x dx
x 1
1
2
2
x
6 x 1dx
1
2

(b)
y

y 4x
4
dx
3
r
-----------------------
h
2 y x

x
1 2 3 4 5 6

height of shell , h f ( x) g( x) 4x x
radius of shell, r = x

thickness of shell = dx


V 2rh dx
a
6


2x( 4 x x ) dx
0
6


2 x(2 x x )dx
0
6


2 x x dx
0
6 3
2
0
x 2 dx

44
Example 27
Using the shell method, set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid
obtained by revolving the shaded region about x- axis.

(a) (b)
y y=x
y

3 1
x=3y-y2 y=x3
2 x
1
1

x -1
1 2 3

Solution

(a)

3
x=3y-y2
2 h
dy

1
r

x
1 2 3

Draw a typical horizontal rectangle strip of width dx parallel to the x-axis i.e. the axis of
revolution

height of shell, h = length of the strip


= 3y - y2

radius of shell, r
= distance between the strip and the x-axis
=y

thickness of shell = width of strip


= dy


V 2rh dy
a
3


2 y(3 y y 2 ) dy
0

45
(b) y y=x

1 (1,1)
y=x3
x
(0,0) 1

-1

Points of intersection between curves,


x = x3
x - x3 = 0
x(1 - x2) = 0
x = 0 or x2 = 1
x = 0,1,-1
when x = 0, y = 0, A(0,1)
when x = 1, y = 1, B(1,1)
1
y=x x=
3
y 3

1
height of shell , h= y 3 y
radius of shell, r = y
thickness of shell=dy


V 2rh dy
a
1 1


2y( y 3 y ) dy
0
1 4
2
0
y 3 y 2 dy

46
4.4.2 Cylindrical Shell Method: Revolving about lines parallel to the x-axis or the
y-axis

Example 28
Set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the
shaded region about the axis indicated.

(a) (b)
y
2
y y
y=2x x
3 2
(1,2)
2
y 5x 1 x2

1 y
x 4
x
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3
-1

Axis of revolution : y = -1 Axis of revolution : x = 4

Solution
(a)
y

3 y=2x

(1,2)
2
y 5x

1 dy

h
x
1 2 3 4 r 5

-1 y=-1

y
y 2x x
2
y 5 x x 5 y2
y
height of shell ,h (5 y 2 )
2
radius of shell, r = y-(-1) =y+1
thickness of shell = dy

47
b


V 2rh dy
a
2
y

2( y 1)(5 y 2 ) dx
2
0

(b)
y
2
y
x
2
r
2
h
1
y
x x=4
4 dx

x
1 2 3 4

x2 2
height of shell, h =
4 x
radius of shell, r = 4 - x
thickness of shell = dx


V 2rh dy
a
3 x2 2
2( 4 x )
dx
4 x
2

Example 29
Use cylindrical shell method to find the volume of the solid generated when the region
bounded by the curve y x2 x 2 and the straight line y 2x is revolved about the line
x = -3.

Solution

Step 1
Sketch the region R. Draw a typical vertical rectangle strip of width dx parallel to the line x=-
3 i.e. the axis of revolution. Indicate the radius, height and thickness of the shell.

48
y=-x2-x+2 y
x=-3
2
dx
y=-2x x
-3 -2 -1 h1 2
---------------------------------------
r

-2

-4

Step 2
Determine the x-coordinates of the intersection points that is the limits of the integrations.
y = -2x..(1) y = -x2 x + 2 (2)
Points of intersection between curves,
-2x = -x2 x + 2
x2 x 2 = 0
(x - 2)(x + 1) = 0
x = 2 or -1

Step 3
Determine the height , radius and thickness of the shell.
height of shell, h = length of the strip
=(-x2 x + 2) - (-2x)
=-x2 + x + 2
radius of shell, r
= distance between the strip and the line y = -3
= x - (-3) = x + 3
thickness of shell = width of strip
= dx

Volume of cylindrical shell = 2rh dx


= 2(x + 3)( -x2 + x + 2)dx

49
b


V 2rh dx
a
2


2 (x + 3)( - x 2 + x + 2)dx
1


2 (-x 3 x 2 2x - 3x 2 3x 6)dx
1


2 (-x 3 - 2x 2 5x 6)dx
1

2
x 4 2x 3 5 x 2
2 6x
4 3 2 1
(2)4 2(2)3 5(2)2 ( 1)4 2( 1)3 5( 1)2
2 6(2) 6( 1)
4 3 2 4 3 2
63
unit 3 98 .96 unit 3
2

Example 30
Use cylindrical shell method to find the volume of the solid generated when the region
bounded by the curve y x 1 and y 2x 3 is revolved about the line y 1.

1
y x 1
y 2x 3
x
1 2

Solution
y

1 y x 1 y 2x 3
dy
h x
1 2
r
--------------
y=-1
-1

50
y x 1 y 2x 3
Pt of intersection between curves,
x 1 2x 3
x 1 = 2x 3
x=2
when x = 2, y = 2 1 1

y2 3
y 2x 3 x right boundary
2
y x 1 x y 2 1 left boundary

y2 3 2
height of shell, h(y) = ( y 2 1) 1 y
2 2

radius of shell, r(y) = y - (-1) = y + 1
thickness of shell = dy
b


V 2r( y )h( y ) dy
a
1
1- y 2
0

2 (y + 1)
2
dy


1


( y 3 y 2 y 1)dy
0

1
y 4 y3 y2
y
4 3 2 0
1 1 1
( 1) 0
4 3 2
11
unit 3
12

51
EXERCISE 4.2

For questions 1-4, set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid
obtained by revolving the shaded region about x-axis.

1. 2.
y y
10 10
8 8
y=9-x2
6 y=x3+2 6
4 4
2 2
x x
1 2 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

3. 4.
y
5
y
4 4
y=-x+4
3 3

2 2
y 2x
1 1 y
2
1 x
x x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3

For questions 5-6, set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid
obtained by revolving the shaded region about y-axis.

5. 6.
y y
5
8
4
6
3 5 y = 4x
y
1 x
2 4

1 2 y = x3
x
x
1 2 3 4 1 2 3

For questions 7-8, set up an integral that can be used to find the volume of the solid
obtained by revolving the shaded region about (a) y=1 (b) x=2

52
7. 8.
y
y
5

4
y=1 y=2x+1
1 3

x=2 2 y=x2+1
y x2
1
x
x
1 2 3 1 2 3

For questions 9-12, using shell method, set up an integral that can be used to find the
volume of the solid obtained by revolving the shaded region about the axis indicated.

9. 10.
y
y
3 2 x= -y2 + y +2

2 y3 x
1
1
x
x
1 2
1 2 3 4 5

axis of revolution : y-axis axis of revolution :x-axis

11. 12.
y
y=3
3
6 y
4 y = -x+4 2
y=x x = 6 - y2
2
x 1
-1 1 2 3 x
x=-1 -2
y=2x-5 1 2 3 4 5 6
-4
-1
-6

axis of revolution : x = -1 axis of revolution : y=3

13. Find the volume generated when the following region bounded by the graphs of the
equations is rotated about the x-axis.

y 2x2 1, x 0, y 0, x 3.

14. Find the volume generated when the following region bounded by the graphs of the
equations is rotated about the y-axis.
y x, y 1, y 2, x0

53
15. Find the volume generated when the following region bounded by the graphs of the
equations are rotated about the indicated line.
y x2 3, y 3, x 1; the line x 3.

16. Using shell method, find the volume generated when the following region bounded by
the graphs of the equations is rotated about the indicated axis.

y x 3, x y2 1, y 0 in the first quadrant: x-axis

17. Consider the region W, enclosed by the curve x y3, the x-axis and the line x 1 as
shown in the figure below
y

x=y3
1
x=1
W
x
1

-1

(a) Use the disk method to find the volume of solid generated by revolving the
region W about the line y 0.

(b) Use the washer method, to find the volume of solid obtained by revolving the
region W about the line x 1.

(c) Use the shell method, to find the volume of solid obtained by revolving the
region W about the line x 2.

54
Summary

Area of a region

Area of a region bounded by curve y = f(x), x-axis and two lines x = a and x = b is
b b
A=
y dx f ( x ) dx. if f ( x ) 0 for all a x b
a a
b b


A = f ( x ) dx or f ( x) dx if f ( x ) 0 for all a x b
a a

Area of a region bounded by curve x = f(y), y-axis and two lines y = c and y = d is

d d
A=
x dy f ( y ) dy. if f ( y ) 0 for all c y d
c c
d d
A = x dy or f ( y) dy if f ( y ) 0 for all c y d
c c

Area between Two Curves

Area A of the region bounded by the graphs of y = f(x), y = g(x) , x = a, and x = b is


b b b
A = f ( x ) dx g( x ) dx [f ( x) g( x )] dx if f(x) g (x) for every x in [a, b],
a a a
Area A of the region bounded on the left by the curves x = v(y), on the right by x =
w(y) below by y = c, and above by y = d is
d d d
A = w( y )dy v( y )dy [ w( y) v( y)] dy if w(y) v(y) for all y in [c, d]
c c c

Volume of Solid of Revolution

Disk and washer method:


The representative strip is perpendicular to the axis of revolution

Disk method : Revolving about the x-axis


The volume of solid of revolution obtained by revolving the region R bounded by the
curve y = f(x), the lines x = a, x = b and the x-axis about the x-axis is given by
b b b


2
V A( x )dx r dx [ f ( x )]2 dx
a a a

Disk method : Revolving about the y-axis


The volume of solid of revolution obtained by revolving the region R bounded by the
curve x = f(y), the lines y = c, y = d and the y-axis is given by
d d d
V A( y )dy r 2 dy [f ( y )]2 dy
c c c

Washer method: revolving about the x-axis

55
b


V ( R 2 r 2 ) dx
a

b
{[f ( x )]2 [g( x )]2 } dx
a

Washer method : revolving about the y axis

d d
V A( y )dy R 2 r 2 dy
c c
d
[ f ( y )]2 [g( y )]2 dy
c

Cylindrical Shell Method


The representative strip is parallel to the axis of revolution

Revolving about the y-axis

b b b


V A( x ) dx 2rh dx 2xf ( x ) dx
a a a
dx
Revolving about the x-axis

d d


V 2rh dy 2yf( y ) dy
c c

56
Selected Exercise 4

1. Find the area of the shaded region bounded by the given curve in the figure below.

x2
2. The curve shown in the figure below represents the graph y ,x 0 .
25
The points A and B on the curve have x-coordinates 5 and 10, respectively. The finite
region R is enclosed by the curve, the y-axis and the lines through A and B parallel to
the x-axis.
a) For points(x,y) on the curve, express x in terms of y.
b) Find the area of R.

3. Find the area of the shaded region as shown in the figure below.

57
4. Find the area of the shaded region shown in the figure below.

16
5. The region W in the figure below is bounded by the curve y , the line
x2
y 2x, y 9, and the y-axis, find the area of the region W.

6. Find the area of the shaded region as shown in the figure below.

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7. Consider the region R enclosed by the curve x y 12 and y2 5 x as shown in
the figure below, find the area of the region R.

8. Find the volume of the solid generated when the region R, bounded by x = 5, the
given curve y x 1 and the x-axis is revolved about y-axis.

9. The shaded region in the figure below is bounded by the curves


y x2 1, y 5 and x 1. Find the volume of the solid generated when the shaded
region is revolved about the line x 3 using shell method.

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10. Refer to the figure given below.

a) Using shell method find the volume of the solid of revolution obtained by the curve
y 9 x 2 and the line y 3 x 9 is revolved about the y axis.

b) Using washer method set up the integral to find the volume of the solid of revolution
obtained when the region bounded by the curve y 9 x 2 and the line y 3 x 9 is
revolved about the line x 0. Do not evaluate the integral.

11. The shaded region below is bounded by the curve y 2x2, the y-axis and the line
y 4 2x.

4 y=4-2x

y=2x2 x
1 2 3

Find
(a) the area of the shaded region.

(b) the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region about the x-axis.

(c) the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region about the line x 3.

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12. The shaded region below is bounded by the curves y e2x , y ex and the line
x 1.

y
3 y=ex

2 x=1
1
y=e-2x x
1 2 3

(a) Find the area of the shaded region.

(b) Using Washer method find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the
region about the line y 2.

(c) Set up the integral to find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the
region about the line x 1.

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