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MANAGEMENT
Assignment

## STUDENT NAME : U.W.N.N Nayanathara

EDHAT REGISTRATION
:
NO.

## Summary of the Learning Outcomes Covered:

1. Investigate Computer Systems
2. Investigate Operating Systems
3. Design a Computer System

DATE :

DUE DATE :

DATE SUBMITTED :

## ASSESSOR : Mr. Ishanka Sajith

INTERNAL VERIFIER :
PLAGIARISM:
While research and discussion are an essential part of an assignment, the deliberate copying of
someone elses work or unacknowledged copying from printed or electronic sources is NOT
permitted. You may be subject to disciplinary procedure if you do this. You should sign this sheet to
show that you comply with these regulations.

## Students Signature: Date: _____/_____/ ___________

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T01 T02 T03 T04 T05 T06 T07 T08 T09 T10

## TOTAL SCORE (Average of the above)

Date:_____/_____/
Assessor: Signature:
___________

Date:_____/_____/
Internal Verifier: Signature:
___________

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Allocated Given

T1.1
Explain & differentiate the two terms called Data & Information. 5

## T1.2 Explain what is a computer system by giving examples. 10

T1.3 Draw the total computer system diagram. 15
Draw a simple structure of a processor & explain the
T1.4 functionalities of the ALU & CU. 10

## T1.5 What can be measured by using the processor clock speed 5

What are the three types of buses that can be identified in a
T1.6 15
motherboard, explain the functionalities.
What is the abbreviation for the MIPS & what can be measured
T1.7 5
by using it?
T1.8 Write short notes about Pipelining & Flops 5
Covert the following binaries in to decimals. (State the steps of
calculations)

T1.9 1. 110011002 15

2. 101011102

3. 111001012
Convert the following Decimals in to Binaries. (State the steps of
calculations)
1. 9710
T1.10 15
2. 11210

3. 12710

Total 100

Allocated Given
Computer system storage devices can be mainly classified in to
T2.1 two, list all the computer system storage devices by briefly 25
explaining the functionalities of those.
By taking examples explain the term called volatility & non
T2.2 12
Volatility
Briefly explain the differences between internal & external 10
T2.3
storage devices by taking examples.
Differentiate the following terms.
1. RAM & ROM
T2.4 15
2. DVD & USB
3. External data bus & Data bus
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Accessing something that has been stored in the hard disk is
T2.5 comparatively time consuming than accessing RAM by 10
taking an example justify the above statement
Clearly explain the following terms
1. Data seek time

T2.6
2. Capacity 16

3. Access latency

4. Data blocks
Explain what data transfer rate (DTR) is & how it relates to
T2.7 12
storage devices.
Total 100

Allocated Given
T3.1 Explain Data Communication with suitable diagram 25
T3.2 Explain Data communication media by giving 3examples each 25

T3.3
Explain the data transmission types 25

## Explain the following terms with a diagram

a. Simplex
T3.4 b. Half-Duplex 25
c. Duplex

Total 100

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Allocated Given
T4.1 25
Computer Networks
T4.2 Clearly explain the devices that used in Networks 25
T4.3 Explain the major types of networks and scope of networks 20
Explain the following Network Topologies with diagram
a. Bus topology
b. Star topology
T4.4 30
c. Ring topology
d. Mesh topology
e. Hybrid topology
Total 100

Allocated Given
Computer operating systems can be classified in to many categories, list
T5.1 down those categories & state appropriate examples for those 50
categories.
Briefly explain the basic functionalities of an operating system (use an
T5.2 50
Total 100

Allocated Given
Do a simple research work about open source operating systems,
(Linux, UNIX & etc) To identify how file structures & functionalities
differ from windows based operating systems.
T6.1 100
Instructions an appropriate comparison work can be allowed &
all the features, limitations needs to be properly illustrated

Total 100

Allocated Given
List down & briefly explain what are the major factors to be concerned
T7.1 20
when buying a computer for yourself.
When implementing a small network (LAN/simple computer system) to a
T7.2 small organization, what are the things that you have to consider in 20
general?
Briefly explain the importance of implementing proper computer
T7.3 20
security masseurs.
Briefly explain the following computer system components
1. Memory
T7.4 40
2. Sound cards

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3. External storages

Total 100

Allocated Given
Clearly explain the objectives of implementing a proper test plan for
T8.1 25
computer system testing
T8.2 Explain the most commonly available software testing methods in ICT 50
T8.3 List down & briefly explain the health & safety issues in ICT 25
Total 100

Allocated Given
Clearly identify all the basic user training needs in general ICT & explain
T9.1 25
the basic user training needs & objectives.
Explain what is help desk support & the benefits of implementing help
T9.2 25
desk service/s within an organization.
Briefly explain what an ICT based training plan is by taking a sample
T9.3 25
training plan as an example.
T9.4 Briefly explain the objective of preparing a training schedule. 25
Total 100

Allocated Given
Explain the purposes of implementing proper security measures in to
T10.1 your personal computer(Use example security measures that you can 25
take)
Within a computer network environment what are the risks/threats
T10.2 that can be commonly identified, & briefly explain the precautions 25
that can be taken to prevent those risks/threats.
T10.3 Brief out the encryption mechanism by using a clear diagram. 25
Briefly explain how computer/network management helps to reduce
T10.4 Hacking & all the other types of computer relative unauthorized 25
activities.
Total 100

END OF ASSIGNMENT

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Acknowledgement

## Without that this assignment would not be possible!

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CONTENTS
T 1.1 .. 10
T 1.2 .. 11
T 1.3 .. 18
T 1.4 .. 19
T 1.5 .. 20
T 1.6 .. 22
T 1.7 .. 24
T 1.8 .. 24
T 1.9 .. 26
T 1.10 .. 27
T 2.1 .. 29
T 2.2 .. 34
T 2.3 .. 34
T 2.4 .. 35
T 2.5 .. 37
T 2.6 .. 38
T 2.7 .. 41
T 3.1 .. 43
T 3.2 .. 44
T 3.3 .. 50
T 3.4 .. 54
T 4.1 .. 57
T 4.2 .. 59
T 4.3 .. 63
T 4.4 .. 67
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T 5.1 .. 74
T 5.2 .. 76
T 6.1 .. 80
T 7.1 .. 87
T 7.2 .. 92
T 7.3 .. 95
T 7.4 .. 97
T 8.1 .. 103
T 8.2 .. 104
T 8.3 .. 107
T 1.1 .. 112
T 1.2 .. 113
T 1.3 .. 114
T 1.4 .. 115
T 10.1 .. 116
T 10.2 .. 119
T 10.3 .. 120
T 10.4 .. 122

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T 1.1: Explain & differentiate the two terms called Data and information.

Data: Raw facts and figures are data. Data dont give a meaningful value directly and cant
be used to make decisions.

Information: Information means processed data. They are meaningful. Therefore we can
make decisions by using data.

Data Information

## Cant be used to Can be used to

make decisions make decisions

Figure 1.1.1

Data Information
1. Data means the facts which are to be 1. Information means processed data.
processed.
2. Meaningless. 2. Meaningful.
3. Can be used to make decisions. 3. Cant be used to make decisions.

Example;
Data: Information:
2. Biology -75 Total marks :229
3. Physics 78 Average :76.33
4. Chemistry-76

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T1.2 Explain what a computer system is by giving examples.

## The total computer system consists of three components. They are,

1. Hardware
2. Software
3. Live ware

Hardware

Figure 1.2.1

The term computer hardware refers to all the devices that form the computer or are
connected to the computer that you can physically touch.
The hardware can basically be divided into the following categories:
1. Input devices
2. Output devices
3. Storage devices
4. Central processing unit

Input devices
Most of the data comes in hand written forms that cannot be directly input into the
computer. These documents need special data preparation devices that translate the source
document into a medium that the computer can read. Input devices are used to input or
capture data into a computer system. The ideal input device would be able to get data into a
system as accurate as possible in the least amount of time.

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Examples for input devices:
Mouse, Keyboard, Scanner, Joysticks, Trackball, Touch screen, Light pen

## Figure 1.2.2 Figure 1.2.3

Mouse Key board

Figure 1.2.4
Scanners

Figure 1.2.5
Joysticks

Output devices

Output devices provide the results after processing, in a suitable form. In many cases this
will be in the form of hard copy such as printouts, or soft copy such as on screen. With the
widespread use of electronic mail, output could be in the form of an electronic message to
another computer.

## Examples for output devices:

Visual Display Unit (VDU/ Monitor), Printer, Plotter, Speakers
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Figure 1.2.6 Figure 1.2.7
Monitor Speakers

## Figure 1.2.8 Figure 1.2.9

Printer Plotter

Storage devices

Storage devices are used to share data or information temporarily or permanently. Storage
devices can be divided as followings.
1. Internal storage
2. External storage

1. Internal Storage:

## This is also known as,

Primary storage
Immediate Access Storage (IAS)
Main memory
RAM & ROM
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2. External Storage:

## External storage is also known as,

Backing storage
Auxiliary storage
Secondary storage

The main memory can be used only temporarily because it is volatile. But we need device to
store data for late use. Thus we need a permanent backing storage to keep our programs
and data, from which they can be retrieved when needed. Therefore the backing storage is
necessary.
The benefits of secondary storage can be summarized as follows;
Space: - Avery large amount of data can be stored.
Reliability: - Data in secondary storage is safe since it can be physically taken
and kept in a safe place and therefore it is more difficult for authorized
people to tamper with data on disk than data stored on paper in a filing
cabinet.
Convenience: - With the help of a computer, authorized people can locate
and access data faster.
Economy: - Considering the three previous benefits significant savings in
storage costs are there in backing stores. It is less expensive to store data in
secondary storage than storing in filing cabinets.

## Examples for secondary storage:

Floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, Pen drives, Portable hard disks

## Central Processing unit

The CPU has a highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored
program instructions. CPU is the brain of the computer, consists of two parts.

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1. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
2. Control Unit (CU)

Software

All the programs that help the computer hardware to work are known as software. All the
hardware will be useless without proper software to run on. These are intangible. Software
refers to a set of instructions, which are used by the computer to perform various tasks.
Computer software is developed with various Programming languages.
Software can be classified as;
1. System software
2. Application software

System software

## System software is a collection of complex programs, which controls, integrates and

manages the individual computer hardware components. Main functions of the system
software are listed below:
Controls the hardware to get the maximum use of them.
Handles the common job such as copying files, saving data, program language
translations etc.
Works as the interface between the user and the computer hardware.
System software can further be classified as:
1. Operating Systems
2. Utility and Service Programs

## 1. Operating Systems (OS)

The operating system manages the resources and controls the basic operations of the
computer. Without an operating system a computer would not work. The operating system
or a part of it is loaded into the main memory when the computer is switched on and
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handles many tasks, which we are unaware of when we use the computer. A part of the
operating system remains in main memory until the computer is switched off. Different
operating systems are designed for different hardware platforms or for different functions.

Examples for OS s:
Windows, Linux, UNIX, UBUNTU, Mac OS

## 2. Utilities and Service Programs

Another category of software is utility software, which is a collection of useful programs that
enhance the capabilities of the OS s.
Some examples for utility software are:

Application software

## Application software is designed to perform useful general-purpose tasks.

These are further classified as:
2. User written programs

## These software cant be modified by the user.

Examples:
Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel etc

## User can write the programs by using related languages.

Examples:
JAVA, Visual Basic, C, C+, C++
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Live ware

## Human involvement for the computer is known as live ware.

Examples:
Data entry operator, Administrator, Programmer, Back-up operator

Figure 1.2.10

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T 1.3
Draw the total computer system diagram.

## Hardware Software Live ware

Input devices
E.g.: mouse,
System software Application software
keyboard, scanner

## Operating User written

Output devices
systems programs
E.g.: VDU,
E.g.: Windows, E.g.: JAVA,
speakers, printer
Linux, Ubuntu VB.net, C, C+,
C++
Storage devices
E.g.: RAM & ROM,
service programs packages
pen drive, CDs,
E.g.: Program E.g.: Ms Word,
Hard disk
translator, Ms Excel, Ms
Norton utilities Power point
Central Processing
Unit
Accelerator

Figure 1.3.1

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T 1.4
Draw a simple structure of a processor & explain the functionalities of the
ALU & CU.

ALU

CU

Central
processing Unit

Data flow

Figure 1.4.1

## The Central Processing Unit consists of two parts.

1. Arithmetic Logic Unit
2. Control Unit

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1. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU):

This unit contains the electronic circuitry that executes all arithmetic and logic operations.
The arithmetic operations or mathematical calculations are;
Subtraction -
Multiplication *
Division /
Remind of

## Logical Operations are comparisons.

Equal =
Less than x<
Greater than x>
Less than or equal x
Greater than or equal x
Not equal

## 2. Control Unit (CU):

The control unit contains the circuitry that uses many electrical signals to direct the entire
computer system to execute all the program instructions stored in it. The control unit
communicates with the arithmetic and logic unit, registers and memory.

T 1.5
What can be measured by using the processor clock speed?

Alternatively referred to as clock rate and processor speed, clock speed is the speed that
the microprocessor executes each instruction or each vibration of the clock. The CPU
requires a fixed number of clock ticks, or cycles, to execute each instruction. The faster the
clocks rate, the faster the CPU, or the faster it can execute instructions. Clock Speeds are

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usually determined in MHz, 1 MHz representing 1 million cycles per second, or in GHz, 1 GHz
representing 1 thousand million cycles per second. The higher the CPU speed, the better a
computer will perform, in a general sense. Other components can improve a computer's
performance as well, like memory (RAM) and the motherboard, as well as the number of
cores that a processor has, like dual core or quad core.

The CPU speed determines how many calculations it can perform in one second of time. The
higher the speed, the more calculations it can perform, thus making the computer faster.
While there are several brands of computer processors available, including Intel and AMD,
they all use the same CPU speed standard, to determine what speed each of their
processors run. Adding to the speed of a processor, if a processor has more than one core,
like a dual core (2 cores) or a quad core (4 cores), it can be possible to increase the
performance of a computer despite the CPU speed not increasing. For example, a dual core
3.0 GHz processor would be capable of running faster than a single core 3.0 GHz processor.
Both have the same CPU speed, but the dual core processor can perform more calculations
than the single core processor because it has two processing cores instead of just one. Both
cores process information at the same time.

Figure 1.5.1

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T 1.6
What are the three types of buses that can be identified in a motherboard,
explain the functionalities.
As is so often the case, the computer term bus is borrowed from its common meaning,
which is a mode of transportation. The bus is a set of parallel electrical paths that internally
data from one place to another or place to place. The amount of data that can be carried at
one time is called the bus width- the number of electrical paths. The greater the width, the
more data can be carried at once.
A bus is a set of parallel wires connecting two or more components of a computer. A key
characteristic of a bus is that it is a shared transmission medium, so that only the
component can successfully transmit at once.

The bus that connects together processor, main memory and Input/ Output controllers is
called the system bus. Atypical system bus contains between 50 and 100 separate lines.
Each line is a pathway for conveying a single bit. The number of lines is referred to as the
width of the bus.
Bus lines are classified into three groups:
Control Bus
Data Bus

Figure 1.6.1

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Control Bus
The control bus (or command bus) transports orders and synchronization signals coming
from the control unit and travelling to all other hardware components. It is a bidirectional
bus, as it also transmits response signals from the hardware. The data and address buses are
shared by all the components of the system. Control lines must therefore be provided to
ensure that access to and use of data and address buses by the different components of the
system does not lead to conflict. The purpose of the control bus is to transmit command,
timing and specific status information between system components.

Data Bus
A typical data bus consists of 8, 16 or 32 separate lines. It provides a bi-directional path for
moving data and instruction between system components. It is the width of the data bus
that is key factor in determining overall system performance. The data bus transfers
instructions coming from or going to the processor.

The address bus (sometimes called the memory bus) transports memory addresses which
the processor wants to access in order to read or write data. It is a unidirectional bus. When
a processor wishes to read a word from memory, it first puts the address of the required
word on the address bus. The width of the address bus determines the maximum possible
memory capacity of the system. The address bus is the set of wires that carry the addressing
information used to describe the memory location to which the data is being sent or from
which the data is being retrieved. As with the data bus, each wire in an address bus carries a
single bit of information. This single bit is a single digit in the address. The more wires
(digits) used in calculating these addresses, the greater the total number of address
locations. The size (or width) of the address bus indicates the maximum amount of RAM a

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T 1.7
What is the abbreviation for the MIPS & what can be measured by using it?

MIPS stands for Million Instructions Per Second." It is a method of measuring the raw
speed of a computer's processor. Since the MIPS measurement doesn't take into account
other factors such as the computer's I/O (input output) speed or processor architecture, it
isn't always a fair way to measure the performance of a computer. For example, a computer
rated at 100 MIPS may be able to compute certain functions faster than another computer
rated at 120 MIPS.

The MIPS measurement has been used by computer manufacturers like IBM to measure the
"cost of computing." The value of computers is determined in MIPS per dollar. Interestingly,
the value of computers in MIPS per dollar has steadily doubled on an annual basis for the

T 1.8
Write short notes about Pipelining & Flops.

Pipelining
A pipeline is a set of data processing elements connected in series, so that the output of one
element is the input of the next one. In most of the cases we create a pipeline by dividing a
complex operation into simpler operations. We can also say that instead of taking a bulk
thing and processing it at once, we break it into smaller pieces and process it one after
another.
In microprocessors for executing an instruction there are many intermediate stages like
getting instruction from memory, decode the instruction, get any other required data from
memory, process the data and finally write the result back to memory. Without a pipeline a
single instruction has to fully go through all these stages before the next instruction is
fetched from the memory. But if we apply the concept of pipelining in this case, when an
instruction is fetched from memory, the previous instruction must have already decoded.
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The term pipeline is an analogy to the fact that there is fluid in each link of a pipeline, as
each part of the processor is occupied with work.

Flops
FLOPS (for FLoating-point Operations Per Second) is a measure of computer performance,
useful in fields of scientific calculations that make heavy use of floating-point calculations.
For such cases it is a more accurate measure than the generic instructions per second.
Floating-point operations include any operations that involve fractional numbers. Such
operations, which take much longer to compute than integer operations, occur often in
some applications. The computation of floating-point numbers is often required in scientific
or real-time processing applications.
Most modern microprocessors include a floating-point unit (FPU), which is a specialized part
of the microprocessor responsible for executing floating-point operations. The FLOPS
measurement, therefore, actually measures the speed of the FPU.
A megaflops (MFLOPS) is equal to one million floating-point operations per second, and a
gigaflops (GFLOPS) is equal to one billion floating-point operations per second. A teraflops
(TFLOPS) is equal to one trillion floating-point operations per seconds.

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T 1.9
Convert the following binaries to decimals (States the steps of calculations)
1. 110011002
2. 101011102
3. 111001012

1. 110011002

20 - 1 * 0 = 0
21 - 2 * 0 = 0
22 - 4 * 1 = 4
23 - 8 * 1 = 8
24 - 16 * 0 = 0
25 - 32 * 0 = 0
26 - 64 * 1 = 64
27 - 128 * 1 = 128
194

110011002 = 19410

2. 101011102
20 - 1 * 0 = 0
21 - 2 * 1 = 2
22 - 4 * 1 = 4
23 - 8 * 1 = 8
24 - 16 * 0 = 0
25 - 32 * 1 = 32
26 - 64 * 0 = 0
27 - 128 * 1 = 128
174

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101011102 = 17410

3. 111001012
20 - 1 * 1 = 1
21 - 2 * 0 = 0
22 - 4 * 1 = 4
23 - 8 * 0 = 0
24 - 16 * 0 = 0
25 - 32 * 1 = 32
26 - 64 * 1 = 64
27 - 128 * 1 = 128
229

111001012 = 22910

T 1.10
Convert the following decimals to binaries (States the steps of calculations)
1. 9710
2. 11210
3. 12710

1. 9710

2 97
2 48 - 1
2 24 - 0
2 12 - 0
2 6 - 0
2 3 - 0

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1 - 1

9710 = 11000012
2. 11210

2 112
2 56 - 0
2 28 - 0
2 14 - 0
2 7 - 0
2 3 - 1
1 - 1

11210 = 11100002
3. 12710

2 127
2 63 - 1
2 31 - 1
2 15 - 1
2 7 - 1
2 3 - 1
1 - 1

12710 = 11111112

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T 2.1
Computer system storage devices can be mainly classified into two, list all
the computer system storage devices by briefly explaining the functionalities
of those.

Storage Devices

## Internal storage External storage

(Primary storage, (Backing storage,
Immediate access Auxiliary storage,
storage, Main secondary storage)
memory)

## Random Access Memory (RAM)

Figure 2.1.1

Storage devices are used to share data or information temporarily or permanently. Storage
devices can be divided as followings.
1. Internal storage
2. External storage

1. Internal Storage:

Internal storage is a location for sorting data and programs temporarily while processing
them.
This is also known as,
Primary storage

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Immediate Access Storage (IAS)
Main memory

## Internal storage consists of:

1. Random Access Memory

## Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM is the short term memory available for temporary stored applications and data while
we are working with a word processed document or spreadsheet workbooks. If we close
down an application or document, it will be removed from the RAM and then will then be
free to allow another program to run. User programs can both read from and write into it.
RAM is volatile. When the power turned off, the information is lost. RAM is a part of the
computer that holds data and instruction for processing. Information is processed in RAM
quicker than in ROM.

Figure 2.1.2

ROM is the computers long-term memory where information is stored permanently. The
basic code required to run the computer is recorded here when the computer is built. The
information in ROM never changes and is not lost when the computer is turned off.
Although information processed in ROM is slower than RAM it is still processed much
quicker than to magnetic disk (hard or floppy).

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Figure 2.1.3

2. External Storage:

## External storage is also known as,

Backing storage
Auxiliary storage
Secondary storage

The main memory can be used only temporarily because it is volatile. But we need device to
store data for late use. Thus we need a permanent backing storage to keep our programs
and data, from which they can be retrieved when needed. Therefore the backing storage is
necessary.
The benefits of secondary storage can be summarized as follows;
Space: - Avery large amount of data can be stored.
Reliability: - Data in secondary storage is safe since it can be physically taken
and kept in a safe place and therefore it is more difficult for authorized
people to tamper with data on disk than data stored on paper in a filing
cabinet.
Convenience: - With the help of a computer, authorized people can locate
and access data faster.
Economy: - Considering the three previous benefits significant savings in
storage costs are there in backing stores. It is less expensive to store data in
secondary storage than storing in filing cabinets.

## Examples for secondary storage:

Floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, Pen drives, Portable hard disk
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Hard disk

Hard disks are the primary form of data storage media in that they sit permanently inside
the computer and are used to store both data files and the operating system and application
software files. Hard disks can also sit out side the main computer and are referred to as
external hard disks/ portable hard disks. External hard disks have higher capacities such as
60GB, 80GB and above.

Figure 2.1.4

Floppy disk

The 3 floppy disk is also a form of magnetic disk as the hard disk. Floppy disks are
capable of storing up to 1.44MB.

Figure 2.1.5

## CDs & DVDs

The Compact Disk (CD) and Digital Versatile Disk(DVD) are examples for optical technology
that is commonly used. Both use storage techniques based on light. The CD is generally used

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to record high quality music, while due to its increased capacity DVD is generally used to
record high quality video. CD and DVD both have the same size.
CD can store data from 650MB- 1GB of data on one side of a CD.DVD can store data up to
4.7GB.

Figure 2.1.6

Figure 2.1.7

## Pen/ Flash drive

This storage device uses the semiconductor technology (integrated circuits) to store data
and can have capacities from 64MB- 64GB consists with high performance memory stick.

Figure 2.1.8

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T 2.2
By taking explain the term called volatility & non volatility.

Volatility:
Loosing all the information it contains, when the electrical power supply is lost is termed as
volatility.
The best example for volatility is the Random Access Memory. . RAM is a part of the
computer that holds data and instruction for processing and it stores data or program
instruction only as long as the program is on operation. And also if the electrical power
supply is lost all the memory it contains will be removed.

Non-Volatility:
If the information it contains is not removed when the electrical power supply is lost it is
termed as Non volatility.
Read Only Memory is an example for non volatility. When the electrical power is removed
from the computer the information stored in ROM is not lost. ROM is the computers long-
term memory where information is stored permanently. The basic code required to run the
computer is recorded here when the computer is built. The information in ROM never
changes and is not lost.

T 2.3
Briefly explain the differences between internal & external storage devices
by taking examples.

Internal storage is a location for sorting data and programs temporarily while processing
them. This is also known as,
Primary storage
Immediate Access Storage (IAS)
Main memory

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External Storage is the permanent storage of the computer. External storage is also known
as,
Backing storage
Auxiliary storage
Secondary storage
The differences between internal & external storage can be given as follows:

## Usually known as a temporarily Known as the permanent storage of

memory. the computer.
Sits inside the system unit. Sits out side the system unit.
They are not portable. Portable.
Has lower capacity. Has higher capacity.
Examples: RAM & ROM Examples: CDs, DVDs, pen drives

T 2.4
Differentiate the following terms.
1. RAM & ROM
2. DVD & USB
3. External data bus & Data bus

## Random Access Memory (RAM) Read Only Memory (ROM)

I. Volatile. I. Non volatile.
III. RAM is the short term memory III. ROM is the computers long-term
memory
IV. Available for temporary stored IV. Information is stored permanently in

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applications and data while we are ROM. The basic code required to run
working on the computer. the computer is recorded here when
the computer is built.
V. Comparatively fast. V. Comparatively slow.

## 3. External data bus & Data bus

The internal bus, also known as internal data bus, memory bus, system bus or Front-Side-
Bus, connects all the internal components of a computer, such as CPU and memory, to the
motherboard. Internal data buses are also referred to as a local bus, because they are
intended to connect to local devices. This bus is typically rather quick and is independent of
the rest of the computer operations

The external bus, or expansion bus, is made up of the electronic pathways that connect the
different external devices, such as printer etc., to the computer. The external data bus is a
row of wires that interconnect every device on the motherboard. The external data bus has
come in various sizes including 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit. The higher the number of bits
in the external data bus, the more data can be moved at one time. The different families of
processors have had different sizes of external data busses. An external bus primarily
enables connecting peripherals and all external devices to a computer. These devices can
include storage, monitors, keyboard, mouse and more. Typically, an external bus is
composed of electrical circuits that connect and transmit data between the computer and
the external device. Being external to the computer, external buses are much slower than
internal buses. Moreover, an external bus can be both serial and parallel. Universal Serial
Bus (USB), PCI bus and IEEE 1294 are common examples of external buses.

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T 2.5
Accessing something that has been stored in the hard disk is comparatively
time-consuming than accessing RAM by taking an example justify the above
statement.
The hard disk, sometimes called the "hard drive" (which is actually the mechanism that
holds the hard disk), is a spindle of magnetic discs that can hold several gigabytes of data.
Therefore, disk space refers to how much space you have available on your hard disk for
storing files.
The random access memory (RAM), on the other hand, is not the same as disk space. RAM
consists of small chips also known as memory modules. Computer uses memory (RAM) to
store actively running programs on the computer, including the operating system which is
stored in the hard disk. For example, the operating system's interface and other processes
get loaded into memory when the computer boots up. When we open a program like
Microsoft Word, it gets loaded into the computer's memory as well. When we quit the
program, the memory is freed up for use by other programs.

## Figure 2.5.1 Figure 2.5.2

With rotating drives, like hard disk, the seek time measures the time it takes the head
assembly on the actuator arm to travel to the track of the disk where the data will be read
or written. The data on the media is stored in sectors which are arranged in parallel circular
tracks and there is an actuator with an arm that suspends a head that can transfer data with
that media. When the drive needs to read or write a certain sector it determines in which
track the sector is located. It then uses the actuator to move the head to that particular
track. If the initial location of the head was the desired track then the seek time would be

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zero. If the initial track was the outermost edge of the media and the desired track was at
the innermost edge then the seek time would be the maximum for that drive.
This access latency of the hard disk makes RAM can be accessed hundreds of times faster
than a hard drive, which is why active programs are loaded into RAM.

T 2.6
Clearly explain the following terms
3. Data seek time
4. Capacity
5. Access latency
6. Data blocks

## Data seek time

Seek time is the time taken for a hard disk controller to locate a specific piece of stored
data.

When anything is read or written to a disc drive, the read/write head of the disc needs to
move to the right position. The data on the rotating devices is stored in sectors which are
arranged in parallel circular tracks.
The actual physical positioning of the read/write head of the disc is called seeking. The
amount of time that it takes the read/write head of the disc to move from on part for the
disk to another is called the seek time. When the drive needs to read or write a certain
sector it determines in which track the sector is located. It then uses the actuator to move
the head to that particular track.
The seek time can differ for a given disc due to the varying distance from the start point to
where the read/write head has been instructed to go. If the initial location of the head was
the desired track then the seek time would be zero. If the initial track was the outermost
edge of the media and the desired track was at the innermost edge then the seek time
would be the maximum for that drive. Because of these variables, seek time is generally
measured as an average seek time.

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The total amount of time required for information on a disk drive to be found. The lower this value is
the faster the hard drive will be able to find or read data. Examples of common hard drive
seeks times are 8ms and 10ms.

Capacity

## The capacity is the maximum or minimum amount of memory a computer or hardware

device is capable of having or the required amount of memory required for a program to
run.
Storage capacity refers to how much disk space one or more storage devices provides. It
measures how much data a computer system may contain. For an example, a computer
with a 500GB hard drive has a storage capacity of 500 gigabytes. Storage capacity is often
used similar with "disk space." However, it refers to overall disk space, rather than free disk
space.

Device Capacity

## Hard disk 60GB- 2TB

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Access latency

The total time it takes the computer to read data from a storage device such as computer
memory, hard drive, CD-ROM or other device.
Hard drive latency is the time that it takes a hard drive to load information from a sector.

While the seek time is measured defines the amount of time it takes a hard drives
read/write head to find the physical location of a piece of data on the disk, rotational
latency is defined as the average time for the sector being accessed to rotate into position
under a head, after a completed seek.
A drives average access latency is the interval between the time a request for data is made
by the system and the time the data is available from the drive. Access time includes the
actual seek time, rotational latency, and command processing overhead time. Usually
measured in milliseconds. The lower the hard drive latency, the faster the hard drive.

## Figure 2.6.4 Figure 2.6.5

Data blocks
A data block is the unit of transfer between main memory and auxiliary storage and usually
consists of several records.
Physical unit of data that can be conveniently stored by a computer on an input or output
device. The block is normally composed of one or more logical records or a portion of a
logical record. Similar to physical record and a physical record, is a sequence of bytes or bits,
having a fixed length. Data thus structured are said to be blocked. The process of putting
data into blocks is called blocking.

Index records and table records are organized in data blocks. A data block shows the level of
detail in which data is written to the hard disk or read from the hard disk. Data blocks may

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contain multiple data records, but a single data record may be spread across several data
blocks.

As a block is a related set of bits or bytes that forms an identifiable unit of data, the term is
used in database management, word processing, and network communication.

1) In some databases, a block is the smallest amount of data that a program can request. It
is a multiple of an operating system block, which is the smallest amount of data that can be

## 2) In word processing, a block is a related set of characters. Often it consists of a phrase, a

sentence, a paragraph, or a set of paragraphs that is selected by the user for
copying/pasting, cutting, or moving. But a block can consist of any related set of characters,
whether or not it forms a logical unit of text.

## 3) In network communication, a block is a group of data bits or bytes that is transferred as a

standard unit. The size (or length) of such a block depends on the communications protocol.

T 2.7

Explain what data transfer rate (DTR) is & how it relates to storage devices.

The data transfer rate (DTR) is the amount of digital data that is moved from one place to another in
a given time. The data transfer rate can be viewed as the speed of travel of a given amount of data
from one place to another. Also it can be defined as the speed with which data can be transmitted
from one device to another. Data rates are often measured in megabits (million bits) or megabites
(million bytes) per second. These are usually abbreviated as Mbps and MBps, respectively.
In telecommunications, data transfer is usually measured in bits per second. For example, a typical
low-speed connection to the Internet may be 33.6 kilobits per second (Kbps). On local area
networks, data transfer can be as fast as 10 megabits per second. Network switches are planned that
will transfer data in the terabit range. In earlier telecommunication systems, data transfer was
sometimes measured in characters or blocks (of a certain size) per second. Data transfer time
between the microprocessor or RAM and devices such as the hard disk and CD-ROM player is usually
measured in milliseconds.
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Speed at which data can be moved between two devices such as from a disk drive to a
computers main memory. Modern DVD drivers can transfer data at rate of 1.2 gigabytes
per second (GB/sec). Between, DTR is measured in bits per seconds, and between a
computer and a printer in characters per second (cps). Also called access rate.

Figure 2.7.1

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T 3.1
Explain data communication with suitable diagram.

Data communication is the process of moving data or information from one place to
another through a transmission media. It can be also defined as sharing information, data
and emotions among at least two people.

Message

Feedback

Figure 3.1.1

Figure 3.1.2

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A computer related communication media should consist of:
Sender:
The person who send the message.

The person who receive the message and feeds back.

## Computer or related device for data processing

Communication hardware:
Mainly a modem or a router.

Communication software:
Software that manages and controls the activities of a network system.

Communication media:
The media through which data is transmitted.

T 3.2
Explain Data communication media by giving 3examples each

The communication media is the matter or substance that carries data. Different types of
transmission media are currently in use. All these types can be grouped in to two categories
as:
Wired media (Guided media)

## Wired media (Guided media)

Guided media (wired media) are those in which the data flows through physical media
Examples:
i. Twisted pair cables
ii. Coaxial cables
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iii. Fiber optic cables

## Twisted pair cables

A twisted pair cable consists of two insulated copper wires, twisted around. The twisting
reduces the sensitivity of the cable to electro magnetic interference. Twisted pair are used
in telephone wire.
Twisted pair cables can be categorized in to two:
Shielded twisted pair cables
Unshielded twisted pair cables

## Shielded twisted pair cables

Shielded twisted pair cable consists of one or more twisted paired cables enclosed together
in a foil wrapped and woven copper shielding. The shield further reduces the tendency of
the cable radiate electro magnetic interference and thus reduces the cables sensitivity to
outside interferences.

Figure 3.2.1
Unshielded twisted pair cables

Unshielded twisted pair cable does not incorporate a braided into its structure.

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Figure 3.2.2

Coaxial cables

A coaxial cable consists of insulated copper wire wrapped in a metal shield, which is then
wrapped in an outer external cover. Often many coaxial cables are bundled together.
Coaxial cables were the first cable types used in LANs. Get its name because two conductors
shore a common axis, the cable is more frequency referred to as coax.
Coaxial cables are used antenna wires.

Figure 3.2.3
Fiber optical cables
Fiber optical cable consists of hundreds of thin glass wires that transmit pulsation beams of
light. A strand of fiber-optic cable reflects the light that passes through it back into the fiber,
so light cannot escape the strand. Fiber-optic cables carry more information, suffer less
interference, and require fewer signal repeaters over long distances than wires.

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Figure 3.2.4

## Use of fiber optics in communications is growing. Fiber-optic communications systems have

key advantages over older types of communication. They offer vastly increased bandwidths,
allowing tremendous amounts of information to be carried quickly from place to place. They
also allow signals to travel for long distances without repeaters, which are needed to
compensate for reductions in signal strength.
Where fiber optics are used:
Many long-distance fiber-optic communications networks for both transcontinental
connections and undersea fiber cables for international connections are in
operation.

Figure 3.2.5

Local telephone service providers use fiber-optic cables between central office
switches and sometimes extend it into neighborhoods and even individual homes.

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Local area networks (LANs) are another growing application for fiber optics. Unlike
long-distance communications, LANs connect many local computers to shared
equipment such as printers and servers. LANs readily expand to accommodate
Optical fibers are used in some medical instruments to transmit images of the inside
of the human body. Physicians use an instrument called an endoscope to view these
inaccessible regions.
Optical fibers are used in a wide variety of sensing devices, ranging from
thermometers to gyroscopes
Optical fibers are used in a wide variety of sensing devices, ranging from
thermometers to gyroscopes.

The Radiated media are those in which the data is broadcast through the air.
Examples:
ii. Infra Red Transmission
iii. Microwave Transmission
iv. Satellite Transmission

The transmitters have very low power and are designed typically to transmit a signal to a
very short distance, typically up to 500 feet.

## Infra Red Transmission

Infra red transmission uses Low frequency light waves, below the visible spectrum, to
transmit data through air. Used in TV remote controls.

## Micro Wave Transmission

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Microwave is a high frequency beam with short wave length. Microwave can be transmitted
over a direct line-of-sight path between any two points. This transmission medium is
typically used for long distance data/ voice transmission.
Microwave transmission can be described as microwave radio or microwave telegraphy
The use of microwave radio transmission for long-distance telegraphic communication all
over the world grew to be of major importance after World War II ended in 1945
Microwave telegraphy is capable of carrying vocal, printed, graphic, photographic, and video
communication almost instant and in large quantities.

Satellite Transmission
In satellite transmission, signals are transmitted to a satellite 500 to 22 000miles in space.
One disadvantage of satellite transmission is the delay that occurs in transmission, which is
known as the propagation delay.
Communications satellites receive television signals from a ground station, amplify them,
and relay them back to the earth over an antenna that covers a specified terrestrial area.
The satellites circle the earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they stay above the
same place on the earth at all times. Instead of a normal aerial antenna, receiving dishes are
used to receive the signal and deliver it to the television set or station. The dishes can be
fairly small for home use, or large and powerful, such as those used by cable and network
television stations.

Figure 3.2.6

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T 3.3
Explain the data transmission types.

## Data transmission types can be categorized as:

Simplex mode
Half duplex mode
Full duplex mode

Simplex mode
Simplex is a data transmission mode in which only one signal is transmitted, and it always
goes in the same direction. The transmitter and the receiver operate on the same
frequency. In this mode, a sender can only send data and cannot receive it. Similarly, a
This mode is commonly used in broadcasting (Radio & television) and in data/ instruction
transmissions such as from computer to the printer.

Figure 3.3.1

## Half duplex mode

Half duplex means transmission of data in just one direction at a time. When two stations
exist and they alternately send signals to each other on the same frequency, the mode is
technically known as half duplex. Walkie-talkie communication and internet browsing are
examples for half duplex transmission

Figure 3.3.2

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Full duplex mode
In full duplex-mode, data can flow in both directions at the same time. It is the fastest
directional mode of data transmission. The telephone communication system is an example
of full-duplex transmission.

Figure 3.3.3

## Data transmission types can also categorized as:

Serial transmission
Parallel transmission

Figure 3.3.4

Serial Transmission

When transferring data between two physically separate devices, especially if the
separation is more than a few kilometers, for reasons of cost, it is more economical to use a
single pair of lines. Data is transmitted as a single bit at a time using a fixed time interval for
each bit. This mode of transmission is known as bit-serial transmission.

In serial transmission, the various bits of data are transmitted serially one after the other. It
requires only one communication line rather than lines to transmit data from sender to
receiver. Therefore all the bits of data are transmitted on single line in serial type. In serial
transmission, only single bit is sent with each clock pulse.

The internal circuitry of computer transmits data in parallel fashion. So in order to change
this parallel data into serial data, conversion devices are used. These conversion devices
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convert the parallel data into serial data at the sender side so that it can be transmitted over
single line. On receiver side, serial data received is again converted to parallel form so that
the interval circuitry of computer can accept it. Serial transmission is used for long distance
communication.

Figure 3.3.5

## Advantage of Serial transmission: Use of single communication line reduces the

transmission line cost compared to parallel transmission.

1. Use of conversion devices at source and destination end may lead to increase in overall
transmission cost.

2. This method is slower compared to parallel transmission as bits are transmitted serially
one after the other.

Parallel transmission

Within a computing or communication device, the distances between different subunits are
too short. Therefore, it is normal practice to transfer data between subunits using a
separate wire to carry each bit of data. There are multiple wires connecting each sub-unit
and data is exchanged using a parallel transfer mode. This mode of operation results in
minimal delays in transferring each word.

In parallel transmission, all the bits of data are transmitted at the same time on separate
communication lines. In order to transmit numbers of bits, numbers of wires or lines are
used. Therefore each bit has its own line. All numbers of bits of one group are transmitted

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with each clock pulse from one device to another, multiple bits are sent with each clock
pulse.

## Parallel transmission is used for short distance communication.

As shown in the figure 4 separate wires are used to transmit 4 bit data from sender to

Figure 3.3.6

## Advantage of parallel transmission: It is speedy way of transmitting data as multiple bits

are transmitted simultaneously with a single clock pulse.

## Disadvantage of parallel transmission: It is costly method of data transmission as it requires

numbers of lines to transmit numbers of bits at the same time.

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T 3.4
Explain the following terms with a diagram
a) Simplex
b) Half duplex
c) Duplex

Simplex
Alternatively referred to as simplex communication or simplex transmission, simplex is a
one-way only communication standard. Simplex is a communications mode in which only
one signal is transmitted, and it always goes in the same direction. The transmitter and the
receiver operate on the same frequency. In this mode, a sender can only send data and
Broadcast information, or data, can only travel in one direction, unlike duplex which allows
for two-way broadcasting. In simplex mode, it is not possible to confirm successful
transmission of data. It is also not possible to request the sender to re-transmit information.
This mode is not widely used.
printer communication, and keyboard to computer connections, in business field at
certain point-of-sale terminals

Figure 3.4.1

Half duplex
Half duplex refers to the transmission of data in just one direction at a time. When two
stations exist and they alternately send signals to each other on the same frequency, the
mode is technically known as half duplex. Each device in a half-duplex system can send and

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receive data, but only one device can transmit at a time. It is like a one-lane bridge where two-way
traffic must give way in order to cross the other. And some computer networks can be set to half-
duplex mode to limit bandwidth.
Examples for half duplex:
A walkie-talkie:
This is used by police officers, allows users to communicate back and forth on a
specific radio frequency. However, since the walkie-talkie only supports half-duplex
communication, only person can speak at a time. This is why people communicating
over two-way radios often say "over" at the end of each statement. It is a simple way
of telling the recipient he or she can respond if necessary.

Figure 3.4.2

## The Internet browsing:

The user sends a request to a Web server for a web page. It means that information
flows from user's computer to the web server. Web server receives the request and
sends data of the requested page. The data flows the Web server to the user's
computer. At a time a user can a request or receive the data of web page.

Full duplex
In full duplex-mode, data can flow in both directions at the same time. It is the fastest
directional mode of data communication. An example of fully-duplex mode in daily life is
automobile traffic on a two-lane road. The traffic can move in both directions at the same
time.

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Examples for full duplex mode:
The telephone communication system is an example of full-duplex communication
mode. Two persons can talk at the same time.

Figure 3.4.3
Most communication protocols are designed to be full-duplex, rather than half
duplex. Full-duplex communication allows computers and other devices to
communicate back and forth at the same. In the computer world, most network
protocols are duplex, enabling hardware devices to send data back and forth
simultaneously. For example, two computers connected via an Ethernet cable can
send and receive data at the same time. Wireless networks also support full-duplex
communication. Additionally, modern input and output standards, such as USB, are
full-duplex.

Figure 3.4.4

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T 4.1
computer Networks?

## A computer network is a system of interconnected computers, and communication devices

that can communicate with one another and share resources. It is also known as a group of
computer systems and other computing hardware devices that are linked together through
communication channels to simplify the communication and resource-sharing among a wide
range of users. At the almost elementary level, a computer network consists of two
computers connected with each other by a cable to allow them to share data. A device
connected to a network is called node. A node may be a device such as a computer, a
printer, a workstation etc.
Networks are commonly categorized based on their characteristics.
When networks are categorized according to the physical layout, they are called topologies.
Examples: Star topology, bus topology, ring topology etc.
The most common types of network depending on scale are normally described as LAN
(Local Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), WAN (Wide Area Network).

There are a considerable number of advantages of networks over stand-alone systems.
Easy communication: Networks can be used to establish communication such as e
mail.
Sharing of peripheral devices: Expensive resources can be shared by connecting
them to the network. E.g.: A network printer serves many computers in a networked
environment.
Sharing Programs and data: Some programs may be expensive, and it may not be
possible to purchase multiple copies. Such programs can be shared over network.
available on the network.
More efficient
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## Initial cost of network components: The cost of installing the equipment is

greater; cabling can be expensive to buy and to install.
Threats of security:
Virus can be spread more easily; if a virus get into one computer, it is
As data is shared there is a great need for security; users of the
network must have user IDs and passwords to prevent unauthorized
access.
System failures:
If the server fails all the workstations will be affected; work shared on
shared hard disk drivers will not be accessible and it will not be
possible to use the network printers either.
Damage to cables can be isolate computers; some sections of the
network can become isolated and will not be able to communicate
with the rest of the network.
Difficult to maintain: Because network can be complicated to maintain, a
network manager may need to be employed to mange the network.

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T 4.2
Clearly explain the devices that used in Networks.

## Network Interface Cards

Network Interface Card is the card that physically makes the connection between the
computer and the network cable. These cards typically use an Ethernet connection and the
cards come in ISA and PCI versions. A network card commonly found in most desktop
computers today that do not already have an onboard network on their motherboard. Some
Network Interface Cards work with wired connections while others are wireless. Most
Network Interface Cards support either wired Ethernet or Wi-Fi wireless standards. Ethernet
Network Interface Cards plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for network
cables, while Wi-Fi Network Interface Cards contain built-in transmitters / receivers
(transceivers). In new computers, many Network Interface Cards are now pre-installed by
the manufacturer. All Network Interface Cards feature a speed rating such as 11 Mbps, 54
Mbps or 100 Mbps that suggest the general performance of the unit.

Figure 4.2.1

Network Hub

A hub can be thought as a junction box, permitting new computers to be connected to the
network as easily as plugging a power cord in to an electric socket. Hubs are commonly
available 4, 8, 16 port sizes, enabling anywhere from 4 to 24 devices to be plugged into a
network. There is no need to connect all the ports of a hub to network devices
simultaneously. When no cables are plugged in, the signals bypass the unused ports. Some

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hubs have an additional interface port that connects to another hub, increasing the size of
the network.

Figure 4.2.2

Network Switch

An enhanced version of the hub. Typically a switch can distribute communication load so all
computers connected to the switch can communicate effectively.

## A network switch (sometimes known as a switching hub) is a computer networking device

that is used to connect devices together on a computer network. A switch is considered
more advanced than a hub because a switch will only send a message to the device that
needs or requests it, rather than broadcasting the same message out of each of its ports.

Ethernet switch devices were commonly used on home networks before home routers
became popular; broadband routers integrate Ethernet switches directly into the unit as
one of their many functions. High-performance network switches are still widely used in
corporate networks and data centers.
While switching capabilities exist for several types of networks, Ethernet switches are the
most common type. Mainstream Ethernet switches like those inside broadband routers
support Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbps) speeds, but high-performance switches like those in data
centers generally support 10 Gbps.

## Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices.

Consumer-grade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet
devices, while corporate switches typically support between 32 or 128 connections.
Switches can additionally be connected to each other.
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Figure 4.2.3

Router

A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an
overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different
networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address
information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in
its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. A
data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that
constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node.

The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data,
such as web pages, email and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An
example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL modem, which connects to the
Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect
large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high
speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically
dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly
common.
Very little filtering of data is done through routers.

Figure 4.2.4

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Bridge
A network bridge is software or hardware that connects two or more networks so that they
can communicate. Bridges serve a similar function as switches. Traditional bridges, though,
support one network boundary, whereas switches usually offer four or more hardware ports

Figure 4.2.5

Gateway

## In computer networking, a gateway is a node (a router) on a TCP/IP network that serves as

an access point to another network. A default gateway is the node on the computer
network that the network software uses when an IP address does not match any other
routes in the routing table. It is usually the IP address of the router to which your PC
network is connected.

In home computing configurations, an ISP often provides a physical device which both
connects local hardware to the Internet and serves as a gateway. Such devices include DSL
routers and cable routers.

In organizational systems a gateway is a node that routes the traffic from a workstation to
another network segment. The default gateway commonly connects the internal networks
and the outside network (Internet). In such a situation, the gateway node could also act as a
proxy server and a firewall. The gateway is also associated with both a router, which uses
headers and forwarding tables to determine where packets are sent, and a switch, which
provides the actual path for the packet in and out of the gateway.

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In other words, a default gateway provides an entry point and an exit point in a network.

Figure 4.2.6

T 4.3
Explain the major types of networks and scope of networks.

## Networks are commonly categorized based on their characteristics.

When networks are categorized according to the physical layout, they are called topologies.
Examples:
Star topology
Bus topology
Ring topology
Mesh topology

The most common types of network depending on the scale (scope) are normally described
as:
LAN (Local Area Network)
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
WAN (Wide Area Network)

## LAN (Local Area Network)

Communication networks that serve users with in a confined geographical area are known
as LANs. It is made up of servers, workstations, a network operating system and
communication link. LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates, much faster
than data can be transmitted over a telephone line; but the distances are limited, and there
is also a limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LANs.
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Types of Local Area Network
Wired LANs
Wireless LANs
Wired LANs
Early LAN cabling had been based on various grades of coaxial cable. Shielded twisted pair
was used in IBM's Token Ring LAN implementation. In 1984, StarLAN showed the potential
of simple unshielded twisted pair, the simple cable used for telephone systems. In addition,
fiber-optic cabling is increasingly used in commercial applications.

Figure 4.3.1

Wireless LANs
As cabling is not always possible, Wi-Fi is now very common in residential premises, and
elsewhere where support for laptops and smart phones is important.
Wireless LANs or WLANs are the equivalent of wired LANs (usually Ethernet) without the
wires. They are meant for office environment and even home use.
Examples for the Wireless LANs:
Wi-Fi enabled airports, office rooms, schools etc
Bluetooth enabled devices in a network
Infra red enabled devices in a network

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MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more
computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in
same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN.
Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations.
A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several blocks of
buildings to entire cities but smaller than wide-area networks (WANs). MANs can also
depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates. A MAN might be
owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals
and organizations. They will often provide means for inter networking of local networks.
MAN links between local area networks have been built without cables using microwave,
radio, or infra-red laser links. Most companies rent or lease circuits from common carriers
because laying long stretches of cable can be expensive. Large universities also sometimes
use the term to describe their networks. A recent trend is the installation of wireless MANs.

Figure 4.3.2

## WAN (Wide Area Network)

Communication networks that cover wide geographic areas, such as states and countries are
known as WANs. A wide are network is used to connect remote computers via telephone
lines ad satellite links. Typically a WAN consists of two or more LANs.
Devices connected to the WAN
Routers
Switches

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Modems
Communication servers
WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users and
computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations.
Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. Others, built by
Internet service providers, provide connections from an organization's LAN to the Internet.
WANs are often built using leased lines. At each end of the leased line, a router connects the
LAN on one side with a second router within the LAN on the other. Leased lines can be very
expensive. Instead of using leased lines, WANs can also be built using less costly circuit
switching or packet switching methods. WANs are also used to deliver the link for ATM
protocols. Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through
public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased
lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

Figure 4.3.3

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T 4.4
Explain the following Network Topologies with diagram:
a. Bus topology
b. Star topology
c. Ring topology
d. Mesh topology
e. Hybrid topology

a. Bus topology
Bus Topology is the simplest of network topologies. In this type of topology, all the nodes
(computers as well as servers) are connected to the single cable (called bus) by a linear
sequence of buses. by the help of interface connectors. This central cable is the backbone of
the network and is known as Bus. Every workstation communicates with the other device
through this Bus. The bus is the data link in a bus network. The bus can only transmit data in
one direction, and if any network segment is severed, all network transmission stops.
A signal from the source is broadcasted and it travels to all workstations connected to bus
cable. Although the message is broadcasted but only the intended recipient, whose IP
address matches, accepts it. If the IP address of machine doesnt match with the intended
A terminator is added at ends of the central cable, to prevent bouncing of signals. A barrel
connector can be used to extend it.
It is mostly used in Local Area Networks.
A bus network is simple and reliable. If one node fails to operate, all the rest can still
communicate with each other. For a major disruption to take place, the bus itself must
be broken somewhere.
It is easy to set-up bus network. Cable length required for this topology is the least
compared to other networks.
It is easy to extend bus network. Additional nodes can be added anywhere along the
bus.

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Bus topology costs very less.

There is a limit on central cable length and number of nodes that can be connected.
Dependency on central cable in this topology has its disadvantages. If the main cable
(the bus) encounters a problem, whole network breaks down.
Proper termination is required to dump signals. Use of terminators is must.
It is difficult to detect and troubleshoot fault at individual station.
Maintenance costs can get higher with time.
Efficiency of Bus network reduces, as the number of devices connected to it increases.
It is not suitable for networks with heavy traffic.
Security is very low because all the computers receive the sent signal from the source.

Figure 4.4.1

b. Star topology
Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. In its simplest
form, a star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a
conduit to transmit messages. This consists of a central node, to which all other nodes are
connected; this central node provides a common connection point for all nodes through a
hub.
All the data on the star topology passes through the central device before reaching the
intended destination. Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or
concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages
and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. This
configuration is common with twisted pair cable. However, it can also be used with coaxial
cable or optical fibre cable.
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The star topology reduces the damage caused by line failure by connecting all of the
systems to a central node. All peripheral nodes may thus communicate with all others by
transmitting to, and receiving from, the central node only. The failure of a transmission line
linking any peripheral node to the central node will result in the isolation of that peripheral
node from all others, but the rest of the systems will be unaffected.
As compared to Bus topology it gives far much better performance, signals dont
necessarily get transmitted to all the workstations. A sent signal reaches the intended
destination after passing through no more than 3-4 devices and 2-3 links. Performance
of the network is dependent on the capacity of central hub.
Easy to connect new nodes or devices. In star topology new nodes can be added easily
without affecting rest of the network. Similarly components can also be removed easily.
Centralized management. It helps in monitoring the network.
Failure of one node or link doesnt affect the rest of network. At the same time its easy
to detect the failure and troubleshoot it.

High dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub. Failure of the
central hub renders the network inoperable
There is central server dependency. Performance and as well number of nodes which
can be added in such topology is depended on capacity of central device
Expensive to purchase. The use of hub, a router or a switch as central device increases
the overall cost of the network
Requires a large amount of cable to be connected

Figure 4.4.2

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c. Ring topology
In Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected to each-other in such a way that they make a
closed loop. Each workstation is connected to two other components on either side, and it
communicates with these two adjacent neighbours. Data travels around the network, in one
direction. Messages travel around the ring, with each node reading those messages
addressed to it. Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes, ring
networks may be disrupted by the failure of a single link.This network is usually found in offices,
schools and small buildings.
This type of network topology is very organized. Also in ring topology all the traffic flows
in only one direction at very high speed.
Even when the load on the network increases, its performance is better than that of Bus
topology.
There is no need for network server to control the connectivity between workstations.
Additional components do not affect the performance of network.

Each packet of data must pass through all the computers between source and
destination. This makes it slower than Star topology. Communication delay is directly
proportional to number of nodes in the network.
If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected.
Network is highly dependent on the wire which connects different components.
Moving, adding and changing the devices can affect the network.

Figure 4.4.3
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d. Mesh topology
In a mesh network topology, each of the network node, computer and other devices, are
interconnected with one another. Every node not only sends its own signals but also relays
data from other nodes. In fact a true mesh topology is the one where every node is
connected to every other node in the network. All nodes cooperate in the distribution of
data in the network. The self-healing capability enables a routing based network to operate
when one node breaks down or a connection goes bad. As a result, the network is typically
quite reliable, as there is often more than one path between a source and a destination in
the network. Although mostly used in wireless situations, this concept is also applicable to
wired networks and software interaction. Wireless mesh networks were originally
developed for military applications. Mesh networks are typically wireless.
Types of Mesh Network topologies:-
I. Full Mesh Topology:-
In this, like a true mesh, each component is connected to every other component.
Even after considering the redundancy factor and cost of this network, its main
advantage is that the network traffic can be redirected to other nodes if one of the
nodes goes down.
II. Partial Mesh Topology:-
This is far more practical as compared to full mesh topology. Here, some of the
systems are connected in similar fashion as in mesh topology while rests of the
systems are only connected to 1 or 2 devices. It can be said that in partial mesh, the
workstations are indirectly connected to other devices. This one is less costly and
also reduces redundancy.
Point-to-point line configuration makes identification and isolation of faults easy.
Messages travel through a dedicated line, directly to the intended recipient; privacy
and security are thus enhanced.
Should a fault occur in a given link, only those communications between that specific
pair of devices sharing the link will be affected.
Expansion and modification in topology can be done without disrupting other nodes.

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There are high chances of redundancy in many of the network connections.
Overall cost of this network is way too high as compared to other network
topologies.
Set-up and maintenance of this topology is very difficult. Even administration of the
network is tough.

Figure 4.4.4
e. Hybrid topology

## Hybrid topology is an integration of two or more different topologies to form a resultant

topology. This combination of topologies is done according to the requirements of the
organization. Flexibility is a major advantage to hybrid network topology, and it is
considered to be reliable. It is possible to combine any topologies, creating a hybrid
topology, without changing either topology.
These are two examples of hybrid:
I. Star-Bus: The star bus topology is combined with the linear bus in large networks. In
such cases the linear bus provides a backbone that connects multiple stars.
II. Star-Ring: The Star Ring is a combination of ring and star topologies. The hubs in a
star ring are connected in a star pattern by the main hub.

## Advantages of Hybrid Network Topology

Reliable: Unlike other networks, fault detection and troubleshooting is easy in this type
of topology. The part in which fault is detected can be isolated from the rest of network
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and required corrective measures can be taken, without affecting the functioning of rest
of the network.
Scalable: Its easy to increase the size of network by adding new components, without
disturbing existing architecture.
Flexible: Hybrid Network can be designed according to the requirements of the
organization and by optimizing the available resources. Special care can be given to
nodes where traffic is high as well as where chances of fault are high.
Effective: Hybrid topology is the combination of two or more topologies, so we can
design it in such a way that strengths of constituent topologies are maximized while
there weaknesses are neutralized. For example we saw Ring Topology has good data
reliability (achieved by use of tokens) and Star topology has high tolerance capability (as
each node is not directly connected to other but through central device), so these two
can be used effectively in hybrid star-ring topology.

Complexity of Design: One of the biggest drawbacks of hybrid topology is its design. It is
not easy to design this type of architecture and it is a tough job for designers.
Configuration and installation process needs to be very efficient.
Costly Hub: The hubs used to connect two distinct networks, are very expensive. These
hubs are different from usual hubs, as they need to be intelligent enough to work with
different architectures and should be function even if a part of network is down.
Costly Infrastructure: As hybrid architectures are usually larger in scale, they require a
lot of cables; cooling systems, and sophisticate network devices.

Figure 4.4.5
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T 5.1
Computer operating systems can be classified in to many categories, list
down those categories & state appropriate examples for those categories.

## An operating system is system software. It provides us an interface which could translate

the instructions we give into a format that the hardware understands.
Operating systems can be categorized based on the number of users and tasks as given
below:
Single User Single Tasking (E.G.: MS DOS)
Single User Multi Tasking (E.G.: MS Windows, Windows NT)
Multi User Multi Tasking (E.G.: UNIX)
Real-time
Network Operating System (E.G.: Novell Netware, Banyan Vines)
Virtual Memory (E.G.: VM- Virtual Machine; Operating System of IBM Mainframe)

As the name implies, this operating system is designed to manage the computer so that one
user can effectively do one thing at a time. The Palm OS for Palm handheld computers is a
good example of a modern single-user, single-task operating system.

This is the type of operating system most people use on their desktop and laptop computers
today. Microsoft's Windows and Apple's MacOS platforms are both examples of operating
systems that will let a single user have several programs in operation at the same time. For
example, it's entirely possible for a Windows user to be writing a note in a word processor

A multi-user operating system allows many different users to take advantage of the
computer's resources simultaneously. The operating system must make sure that the
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requirements of the various users are balanced, and that each of the programs they are
using has sufficient and separate resources so that a problem with one user doesn't affect
the entire community of users. Unix, VMS and mainframe operating systems, such as MVS,
are examples of multi-user operating systems.

Real-time
A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-
time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms
so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main objective of real-time
operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They have an event-
driven or time-sharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches
between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating
systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.

## Network Operating System

Network Operating System runs on a server and provides server the capability to manage
data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary
purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among
multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or
to other networks. Examples of network operating systems are Microsoft Windows Server
2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD.
The advantages of network operating systems are following:
Centralized servers are highly stable.
Security is server managed.
Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily integrated into the
system.
Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and types of systems.
The disadvantages of network operating systems are following.
High cost of buying and running a server.
Dependency on a central location for most operations.
Regular maintenance and updates are required.

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T 5.2
Briefly explain the basic functionalities of an operating system (use an

## Providing a user interface

The user interfaces provides means for the user to communicate with the computer
system. A user interacts with software through the user interface. The two main
types of user interfaces are: command line and a graphical user interface (GUI). With
a command line interface, the user interacts with the operating system by typing
commands to perform specific tasks. An example of a command line interface is DOS
(disk operating system). With a graphical user interface, the user interacts with the
operating system by using a mouse to access windows, icons, and menus. An
example of a graphical user interface is Windows Vista or Windows 7.

## Figure 5.2.1 Figure 5.2.2

The operating system is responsible for providing a consistent application program
interface (API) which is important as it allows a software developer to write an
application on one computer and know that it will run on another computer of the
same type even if the amount of memory or amount of storage is different on the
two machines.

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Job control
Loads programs into the memory. Example: the bootstrap program.
The process of starting or restarting the computer is known as booting. A cold boot is
when you turn on a computer that has been turned off completely. A warm boot is
the process of using the operating system to restart the computer.

Figure 5.2.3
Provides continuous process of programs.
Provides the job queuing facility with a priority system. Example: in printing

Memory management
Stores, retrieves, erase and copies data files ad programs.

figure 5.2.4
Supports different file organization methods. (Provides file management)
The operating system also handles the organization and tracking of files and
directories (folders) saved or retrieved from a computer disk. The file management
system allows the user to perform such tasks as creating files and directories,
renaming files, coping and moving files, and deleting files. The operating system

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keeps track of where files are located on the hard drive through the type of file
system. The type two main types of file system are File Allocation table (FAT) or New
Technology File system (NTFS).

Figure 5.2.5

## Keeping track of the resources used

The number of files and where they are kept.
How much storage space is available.
Audit trail of who logged in to a network.
If a new hardware device is connected the OS will detect this.
The operating system performs basic computer tasks, such as managing the various
peripheral devices such as the mouse, keyboard and printers. For example, most
operating systems now are plug and play which means a device such as a printer will
automatically be detected and configured without any user intervention.

## Provide system error messages

Notify the user when an illegal operation is performed.
Notify the user when there is not enough memory space.

## Maintains security checks

Maintaining user IDs and passwords in a network.

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Handles multi-programming
Allows the CPU to process any programs at the same time.

## Controls the input output devices efficiently

This means transferring data to and from the various peripherals. The operating
system also handles system resources such as the computer's memory and sharing
of the central processing unit (CPU) time by various applications or peripheral
devices. Programs and input methods are constantly competing for the attention of
the CPU and demand memory, storage and input/output bandwidth. The operating
system ensures that each application gets the necessary resources it needs in order
to maximize the functionality of the overall system.

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T 6.1
Do a simple research work about open source operating systems, (Linux,
UNIX & etc) to identify how file structures & functionalities differ from
windows based operating systems.
Instructions an appropriate comparison work can be allowed & all the
features, limitations needs to be properly illustrated

## Linux based operating system

Linux is a computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source
software. It was first released on 5th October 1991 by Linus Torvalds.

## Kubuntu Operating system

Kubuntu 9.04 meaning towards humanity is an OS consisting of free and open source
software. Open source are free and offers us the chance to edit the source code and
maintain.
With kubuntu we can surf the web, read email, and create documents, spreadsheets and
more. Kubuntu is mostly used for business purposes but it can also be used for education
and home use.
Kubuntu is easy to install, free of viruses and perfect for laptops, desktops and servers.

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This OS can be installed directly to our computers or we can use the duel boot option which
offers us the chance to another OS.

## Microsoft Windows is a series of Graphical User Interface OS developed, marked and

sold by Microsoft Cooperation.
They introduced an operating environment named Windows in 1985. Then they
gradually developed OS such as Window 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista,
Windows 7 and etc.

## We chose Windows 7 which is a windows based operating system to compare with

Kubuntu (Linux based OS).

## Windows 7 Operating System

Windows 7 is a closed source software. Closed source software are not free and they
do not offer us the opportunity to edit their source code and maintain it.
Windows 7 became more popular as it is very user friendly. With windows 7 we can
surf the web, read email, create document, spreadsheet and many more but you have to
install the genuine versions of software packages to perform the above mentioned tasks.
Windows 7 comes in two versions.
II. Home version :- for home and educational use

Figure 6.1.1
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The dual boot option is not available in windows 7 OS. This is produced by Microsoft
for the use on personal computers including home and business desktops, laptops,
notebooks and tablets etc.

Differences of functionalities

## 1. Dual boot option

This option is only available in Linux based operating systems such as kubuntu.
Through this option we can work with 2 operating systems in same PC but from them one
should be a Linux based OS and the other should be a windows based operating system.
Unfortunately we cannot get this option in windows based OS s such as windows 7.

## 2. Run without installation

This is also an option which can be seen in Linux based OS such as kubuntu.
By this option we can run the OS with out installing it into our PC. Therefore it helps us to
get some sample idea about the operating system. But this option cannot be seen in
windows based operating systems.

## 3. Location of operating system files

In a Linux based OS such as kubuntu we can see OS files in a file called media. We
can go to media file through this path.
I. Click on Kick off application launcher.
II. Then click on the computer tab.
III. Next click on root tab and there you can see some files. There will be a media file
among them.
But the location of the operating system files in windows based OS such as Windows 7 is
completely different. We can see OS files in a file called Windows. The path to windows
file can be given as follows.
I. Click on my computer. Then select local disk C.
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II. There you can see a file named as Windows.

Start menu consists of all programs and softwares and also it helps us to find files,
programs etc in our PC.
There is no start menu in kubuntu desktop and there is an button called Kick off
application launcher instead of the start menu. By clicking on that button we can see all
the programs, files and softwares in our PC.
We all know there is a start menu in windows7. By clicking on the button called start
button we can get the start menu. If we want to find a program or file, click on all programs
then select the file.

## Figure 6.1.2 Figure 6.1.3

5. Recycle bin

We all know recycle bin is the place where all the deleted data is collected in. If we
Delete a file or data it goes to the recycle bin.
In kubuntu there is a location called trash to do this task instead of the recycle bin.
We can go to trash through this path.
I. Click on the Kick off application launcher and select computer tab.
II. Then there will be an icon called trash.

We can see a location called recycle bin on the desktop if we are using windows 7.

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6. Control panel

In kubuntu there is no option called control panel and there is an option called KDE
k.control module in kubuntu to control the settings in our computer such as date and time,
mouse keyboard options etc.
But the option called the control panel is available in windows 7 and we can open it by
clicking on the start button.

Figure 6.1.4

7. Local versions

## As a result of being an open source operating system, kubuntu can be developed if

we have the knowledge to do it. Therefore we can see the local versions of Linux based OS s
such as Hanthana Linux. But we cannot see local versions in windows based operating
systems because they are closed source soft wares.

Figure 6.1.5

8. User friendliness

## We know windows 7 is so popular because of its user friendliness for an example we

can connect any kind of hardware devices such as pen drives, dongles, digital cameras etc.

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But in kubuntu we cannot directly connect these hardware devices without installing
special softwares called drivers.

## 9. Shut down process

In Linux based OS such as kubuntus shut down process is completely different from
windows shut down process. Shut down process in kubuntu.
I. Click on Kick off application launcher button and there will be a tab called leave.
II. By clicking on it you can see a menu.
Logout
Lock
Switch user
Sleep
Hibernate
Restart
Shut down
III. Then click on shut down

The only thing we have to do in shutting down windows 7 is clicking on start button
and selecting shut down.

## Differences in file structure

In Linux file structure files are grouped according to purpose.
Example: commands, data files, documentations
Parts of a directory tree are given below. All directories are grouped under the root entry
/.
root The home directory for the root user
home Contains the users home directories along with the directories for services
ftp
HTTP
samba
George
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bin Commands needed during boot up that might be needed by normal users
sbin Like bin but commands are not intended for normal users.
proc This file system is not on a dis. It is a virtual file system that exists in the
kernels imagination which is memory.
Usr Contains all the commands, libraries, man pages, games and static files for
normal operation.
boot Files used by the bootstrap loader, LILO. Kernel images are often kept here.
lib Shared libraries needed by the programs on the root file system.
dev Device files.
etc configuration files specific to the machine.
var Contains files that change for mail, news, printers log files, man pages, temp
files.
mnt Mount points for temporary files by the system administrator.
tmp Temporary files.

In Linux file structure the path which we go through to reach a file (directory) is shown as

## 1. Microsoft Windows 7 uses an arrow head ( ) as delimiter between directory names.

2. Microsoft Windows storage devices such as hard disks, floppy disks and CDROMs
that contain file systems have a driver letter prefix. Examples: Floppy drives are
typically A: drives, hard disks typically C: etc.

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T 7.1
List down & briefly explain what are the major factors to be concerned when

1. Budget:
A main thing that most of us are constrained to is budget so this is the first thing I
should consider. We always want the best but we need to be grounded on what we
can afford. So I should get a budget and stick to it.
2. Laptop or desktop
The next thing I should be looking at is my requirements. I should consider that
whether I need a laptop or desktop and what the machine is going to be used for?
Once I have done this I should go back to number one (budget) and see if these are
compatible often they are not first time round. I either need to adjust my budget or
adjust my goals to make them more compatible with each other.

Figure 7.1.1

3. The Processor
The Processor is the most important factor when choosing a computer nowadays
and there are many factors in processor that I should consider.
Range of the processor
Processor ranges can be given as Pentium I, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium
IV, Core 2, Core I1, Core I3, Core 15, Core I7 from the older to newest. When I
a going to buy a computer I should try hard to buy a new one because its
technology is the best of the generation.
Processor speed
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The speed that the processor can run at is a function of many different
factors. Some of these are related to design of the processor itself, which
dictates the internal timing requirements that limit the maximum speed the
processor can handle. Manufacturing factors relate to the process technology
used, circuit size, die size and process quality. Therefore I should select a
processor that has a higher processor speed like 3.0GHz.

Figure 7.1.2

4. Mother board
The main circuit board of a computer. The motherboard contains the connectors for
attaching additional boards. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS,
memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all
the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display
screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the
motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset. When buying a motherboard
I should be careful that especially the processor and all other components should
suit the motherboard. With an Intel processor I must buy an Intel motherboard.

Figure 7.1.3

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5. RAM
RAM is a part of the computer that holds data and instruction for processing. It is a
volatile memory. RAM comes in the range of SD, DDR1, DDR2 and the newest is DD3.
RAM consists of a memory which ranges from 256MB to above 64GB.
Considering on to RAM, this is simple for most just go for as much as possible and I
should remember if I go above 2 GB then I must make sure you get windows 64bit as
my operating system.

Figure 7.1.4

## 6. Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD) is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital
information using rapidly rotating disks coated with magnetic material. Hard disks
are the primary form of data storage media in that they sit permanently inside the
computer and are used to store both data files and the operating system and
application software files. Hard disks can also sit out side the main computer and are
referred to as external hard disks/ portable hard disks. External hard disks have
higher capacities such as 60GB, 80GB and above.
Normally when buying a hard disk it should be just a case of bigger is better. Hard
disk capacity ranges up to Tera bytes.

Figure 7.1.5

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7. Display
If I am going to buy a desktop computer, I'll need a monitor. When buying a monitor
I should consider the screen size, and the model of the monitor. I should select the
screen size according to my requirements. If I am going to see HD movies and work
with graphics I should buy a big screen like 36 or 42. For normal use 15 or 24 are
enough.
And the other important thing I should consider is model, whether it is CRT, LCD or
LED. The latest is LED and it is the best in the technology, quality and power saving.

Figure 7.1.6

## 8. Sound card & Video card

A video card is an expansion card whose function is to generate output images to a
display. Many video cards offer added functions, such as accelerated rending of 3D
scenes and 2D graphics, video capture, TV-tuner adapter, light pen, TV output, or the
ability to connect multiple monitors (multi-monitors). Other modern high
performance video cards are used for more graphically demanding purposes, such as
PC games.
A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that
facilities the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control
of computer programs. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio
component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or
audio, presentation, education, and entertainment (games).

9. DVD writer
A DVD writer is a device that encodes information onto a blank and writable DVD.
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The devices may be stand alone components or installable drives for computers.
Most DVD writers use optical disc recording technologies.

## 10. Mouse & keyboard

Mouse and key board are essentials and I should select them as my requirements: If I
work with graphics I should buy a multimedia keyboard. Mouse comes in mechanical
mouse type which contains a metal ball, optical mouse and Bluetooth mouse.

## Figure 7.1.7 Figure 7.1.8

When buying all these components I must consider hard about the warranty period and
should by the one which has the maximum period of warranty.

## If I imagine that I am going to buy a computer to myself.

I have only Rs 50 000 of budget.
Therefore I am going to buy a desktop computer.

## Item Brand Price (Rs) Capacity/Type Warranty

period
Monitor Samsung 12500 LED 3 Yrs
Casing Megabox 1200 1Yr
Motherboard Intel 8200 3Yrs
Keyboard Genius 800 USB 1Yr
Mouse A4 Tech 400 USB/Optical 6months
Hard disk Samsung 6750 500GB 1Yr
Processor Intel duel core 7200 2.6GHz 3Yrs
RAM Kingston 3200 DDR3/2GB 3Yrs

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Power supply Cooler master 1500 350W 1Yr
DVD writer Samsung 2550 1Yr
UPS Must 4150 2Yrs
Sound system Creative 1150 6months
Total Rs 49600

## Finally I should consider about the soft wares.

Operating system
Virus guard
Office package
As I have only Rs 50000 of budget, Im going to use open source software which are free.
Operating system : Ubuntu
Virus guard : Avast Anti Virus
Office package : Open Office

T 7.2
When implementing a small network (LAN/simple computer system) to a
small organization, what are the things that you have to consider in general?

## Deciding wired LAN or Wireless LAN

When implementing a LAN first we have to decide whether it is going to be a Wired LAN or
Wireless LAN. Both Wired LAN and Wireless LAN has advantages and disadvantages.
If we decide to implement a wired LAN:
Less cost:
As the price of cabling, even at the lengths needed to cover an average office is pretty
cheap.
Control and security:
One great advantage of having a wired infrastructure, which seems particularly relevant in
todays mobile world, is the control it provides. If a physical connection is needed to access
the corporate network, the business is in full control of whom and what gets online. While
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this has obvious security benefits of keeping unauthorized visitors out of our network, it also
Speed and reliability.

Having all those wires running throughout a building can awkward to maintain.
Connections that will need to be manually set up. Any breakages in the wired
connection will also have to be manually fixed as there is no software solution.

Figure 7.2.1

## If we decide to implement a wireless LAN:

Because there are no wires building could be easy to maintain.
Provides the easy access of new components.
Neatness.
Less security:
The threat of malware getting onto the corporate network via a compromised device is one
particular issue.
Less control:
While enabling workers to use their own devices at work connect up with the corporate
network and move around the building brings obvious productivity benefits, it also causes
Elements such as authentication, intrusion detection, prevention, reporting and security

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event management (SEM) must be included in the security set-up of a wireless
infrastructure.

## Deciding the space and size of the network

Have a clear idea of your network's expected size, considering its number of users and their
intensity of use. Be sure to plan for future growth by building in lots of extra capacity from
the beginning. Calculate what capacity you might need in two or three years. Consider the
number of new users as well as dramatic increases in data storage needs per user. Your
network should be designed to grow easily with incremental additions of existing
technologies.

## Planning the electrical supply

Here we should consider about the voltage division and breakers. If not the network would
be unsafe.

## Network cabling and Switch

A major part of implementing a network involves the installation of a cabling system. A solid
cabling system is a good investment that will not only meet our current networking needs,
but will last through our next-generation network as well.
In the current environment copper wire and fiber optics are used to connect computers.
A network switch (sometimes known as a switching hub) is a computer networking device
that is used to connect devices together on a computer network. A switch is considered
more advanced than a hub because a switch will only send a message to the device that
needs or requests it, rather than broadcasting the same message out of each of its ports.

Location of the router and the wire of the Internet service provider
Router must have the easy connectivity with the ISP line and also we must consider reducing
the heating of the router as it provides connectivity to many computers.

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Figure 7.2.2

## Selecting a Network Operating System

One of the most important design issues for an organization is the selection of a network
operating system (NOS). This choice will affect the low-level network protocols that you will
use, the way that the servers are administered and the way that users interact with network
services. The NOS shapes the entire look and feel of the network environment. The NOS
marketplace is very mature. The choices available, while relatively few, offer sophisticated
features, high reliability, and relatively easy setup and administration

Figure 7.2.3

T 7.3
Briefly explain the importance of implementing proper computer security
masseurs.

Computer security is the process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of our
computer. Computer security involves safeguarding computing resources, ensuring data

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Prevention measures help us to stop unauthorized users (also known as "intruders") from
accessing any part of our computer system. Detection helps us to determine whether or not
someone attempted to break into our system, if they were successful, and what they may
have done.
Implementing proper security measures is important to:
Prevent unauthorized access to our personal computer or network: It is a must to
have physical security measures and logical measures to prevent the access of
hackers; who obtain unauthorized online access via the Internet.
Prevent data lost and changing
Some times loss of data or theft of data would cause huge a business loss.
Maintain the privacy:
We use computers for everything from banking and investing to shopping and
communicating with others through email or chat programs. Although you may not
consider your communications "top secret," you probably do not want strangers
email from your computer, or examining personal information stored on your
computer (such as financial statements). We use computers for everything from
banking and investing to shopping and communicating with others through email or
chat programs. Although we may not consider our communications "top secret," we
probably do not want strangers reading your email, using our computer to attack
other systems, sending forged email from our computer, or examining personal
information stored on our computer (such as financial statements).
Prevent the threats of malware.
Malware, short for malicious software, is software used to disrupt computer
It can appear in the form of code, scripts, active content, and other software.
'Malware' is a general term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive
software. Malware includes computer viruses, ransom ware, worms, Trojan horses,
root kits, key loggers, dialers, spyware, adware, malicious BHOs, rogue security
software, and other malicious programs; the majority of active malware threats are
usually worms or Trojans rather than viruses. These all would cause data lost and
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jam our system.
Prevent threats for national security

T 7.4
Briefly explain the following computer system components
1. Memory
2. Sound cards
3. External storages

Memory

Memory is the name given to the group of chips inside the system unit. The computer could
directly access the data held in the memory. Accessing data stored in the main memory is
the fastest compared to accessing from other storages.
There are two types of memory:
1. Random Access Memory

## Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM is the short term memory available for temporary stored applications and data while
we are working with a word processed document or spreadsheet workbooks. If we close
down an application or document, it will be removed from the RAM and then will then be
free to allow another program to run. User programs can both read from and write into it.
RAM is volatile. When the power turned off, the information is lost. RAM is a part of the
computer that holds data and instruction for processing. Information is processed in RAM
quicker than in ROM.

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Figure 7.4.1

ROM is the computers long-term memory where information is stored permanently. The
basic code required to run the computer is recorded here when the computer is built. The
information in ROM never changes and is not lost when the computer is turned off.
Although information processed in ROM is slower than RAM it is still processed much
quicker than to magnetic disk (hard or floppy).

Figure 7.4.2
We need a method of naming the locations where Main memory stores data, just like
houses in a town need a unique street address; each location in the main memory needs a
unique name. Rather than a street name and a house number, memory addresses are just
binary numbers. A memory address holds 1 byte of data.

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Sound cards

Figure 7.4.3

A sound card (also referred to as an audio card) is a peripheral device that attaches to the
ISA or PCI slot on a motherboard to enable the computer to input, process, and deliver
sound. Sound card can be an expansion card or integrated circuit that provides a computer
the ability to produce sounds that can be heard by the user either over speakers or
headphones. The sound card's main functions are:
generating sounds
analog-to-digital conversion (for example, in recording sound from a microphone)
digital-to-analog conversion ( for example, to reproduce sound for a speaker)

Some sound cards have 3-D capabilities enabled by processors on the card that use
mathematical formulas to create greater depth, complexity, and realism of sound. High
quality audio can be produced through a system that uses the Universal Serial Bus (USB) and
does not require a sound card. Processing is left to the CPU, and digital-to-audio conversion
to the speakers.

External Storage

## External storage is also known as,

Backing storage
Auxiliary storage
Secondary storage

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The main memory can be used only temporarily because it is volatile. But we need device to
store data for late use. Thus we need a permanent backing storage to keep our programs
and data, from which they can be retrieved when needed. Therefore the backing storage is
necessary.
The benefits of secondary storage can be summarized as follows;
Space: - Avery large amount of data can be stored.
Reliability: - Data in secondary storage is safe since it can be physically taken
and kept in a safe place and therefore it is more difficult for authorized
people to tamper with data on disk than data stored on paper in a filing
cabinet.
Convenience: - With the help of a computer, authorized people can locate
and access data faster.
Economy: - Considering the three previous benefits significant savings in
storage costs are there in backing stores. It is less expensive to store data in
secondary storage than storing in filing cabinets.

## Examples for secondary storage:

Floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, Pen drives, Portable hard disks

Hard disk

Hard disks are the primary form of data storage media in that they sit permanently inside
the computer and are used to store both data files and the operating system and application
software files. Hard disks can also sit out side the main computer and are referred to as
external hard disks/ portable hard disks. External hard disks have higher capacities such as
60GB, 80GB and above.

Floppy disk

The 3 floppy disk is also a form of magnetic disk as the hard disk. Floppy disks are
capable of storing up to 1.44MB.
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CDs & DVDs

The Compact Disk (CD) and Digital Versatile Disk(DVD) are examples for optical technology
that is commonly used. Both use storage techniques based on light. The CD is generally used
to record high quality music, while due to its increased capacity DVD is generally used to
record high quality video. CD and DVD both have the same size.
CD can store data from 650MB- 1GB of data on one side of a CD.DVD can store data up to
4.7GB.

## Pen/ Flash drive

This storage device uses the semiconductor technology (integrated circuits) to store data
and can have capacities from 64MB- 64GB consists with high performance memory stick.

Figure 7.4.4

The video graphic adopter (video card) is an expansion card that allows the computer to
send graphical information to a video display device such as a monitor, TV, or projector.
VGA card brings the display in the computer.

VGA is rectangular in shape with numerous contacts on the bottom of the card and one or
more ports on the side for connection to video displays and other devices.

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The VGA installs in an expansion slot on the motherboard. While most VGAs are of the PCI
format, VGAs come in other formats as well. Earlier we had ISE, PCI VGA cards. Then
manufacturers produced AGP VGA cards. Today we have VGA card types called PCI Express.
The additional formats don't communicate with the CPU and other components as quickly
as PCI.

The VGA card should fit with the motherboard and case because each motherboard
supports only a limited range of VGA card. The side of the VGA card fits just outside the back
of the case when installed, making its ports available for use. Some video cards have only
one port for connection to a standard monitor or projector while more advanced cards may
have ports for connections to multiple output sources including additional monitors and
televisions. Still other cards may have inputs for video editing and other advanced tasks.

Many modern computers do not have VGA cards but instead have VGAs integrated directly
onto the motherboard called on-board VGAs. This allows for a less expensive computer but
also for a less powerful graphics system. This option is wise for the average business and
home user not interested in advanced graphics capabilities or the latest games.

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T 8.1
Clearly explain the objectives of implementing a proper test plan for
computer system testing

Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide with information about the quality
of the product or service under test.

Test plan is a document which includes introduction, assumptions, list of test cases, list of
features to be tested, approach, deliverable s, resources, risks and scheduling. The contents
of a software system test plan may vary from organization to organization or project to
project. It depends how we have created the software test strategy, project plan and master
test plan of the project.

In regulated environments, it is a must to have a written test plan. And also a general testing
process would not be completed without a test plan. Software testing methodology is a
three step process, and one of the steps is the creation of a test plan.
Preparing a test plan helps us to think through the efforts needed to validate the
acceptability of a software product and it will help people outside the test group to
understand the why and how of product validation.
A test plan stands as the document that describes the objectives, scope, approach and focus
of the software testing effort.
We create a test plan because it includes test cases, conditions and the test environment, a
list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria, and risk assessment. And also it accomplishes the need
of the outputs for creating a test strategy is an approved and signed off test plan document.
A test plan is needed because we want an opportunity to review the test plan with the
project team.
Another objective of the test plan document is because test plans are documented, so that
they are repeatable.

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Figure 8.1.1

T 8.2
Explain the most commonly available software testing methods in ICT
Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide information about the quality of
the product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective,
independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the
risks of software implementation. Test techniques include, but are not limited to the
process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs
(errors or other defects).
Software testing methods are traditionally divided into white- and black-box testing. These
two approaches are used to describe the point of view that a test engineer takes when
designing test cases.
Black box testing
White box testing

## Black box testing

The technique of testing without having any knowledge of the interior workings of the
application is Black Box testing. It is also known as functional testing.
The tester is oblivious to the system architecture and does not have access to the source
code. Typically, when performing a black box test, a tester will interact with the system's
user interface by providing inputs and examining outputs without knowing how and where

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the inputs are worked upon. The tester does not ever examine the programming code and
does not need any further knowledge of the program other than its specifications.

## Well suited and efficient for large code segments.

Code Access not required.
Clearly separates user's perspective from the developer's perspective through visibly
defined roles.
Large numbers of moderately skilled testers can test the application with no
knowledge of implementation, programming language or operating systems.

Limited Coverage since only a selected number of test scenarios are actually
performed.
Inefficient testing, due to the fact that the tester only has limited knowledge about
an application.
Blind Coverage, since the tester cannot target specific code segments or error prone
areas.
The test cases are difficult to design.

Figure 8.2.1

## White Box Testing

White box testing is the detailed investigation of internal logic and structure of the code.
White box testing is also called glass testing or open box testing. In order to perform white
box testing on an application, the tester needs to possess knowledge of the internal working
of the code.
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The tester needs to have a look inside the source code and find out which unit/chunk of the
code is behaving inappropriately.

As the tester has knowledge of the source code, it becomes very easy to find out
which type of data can help in testing the application effectively.
It helps in optimizing the code.
Extra lines of code can be removed which can bring in hidden defects.
Due to the tester's knowledge about the code, maximum coverage is attained during
test description writing.

Due to the fact that a skilled tester is needed to perform white box testing, the costs
are increased.
Sometimes it is impossible to look into every nook and corner to find out hidden
errors that may create problems as many paths will go untested.
It is difficult to maintain white box testing as the use of specialized tools like code
analyzers and debugging tools are required.

Figure 8.2.2

## Grey Box Testing

Grey Box testing is a technique to test the application with limited knowledge of the internal
workings of an application. Mastering the domain of a system always gives the tester an
edge over someone with limited domain knowledge. Unlike black box testing, where the
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tester only tests the application's user interface, in grey box testing, the tester has access to
design documents and the database. Having this knowledge, the tester is able to better
prepare test data and test scenarios when making the test plan.

T 8.3
List down & briefly explain the health & safety issues in ICT

Figure 8.3.1
With the increase in computer use, a number of health and safety concerns related to vision
and body aches and pains have arisen. Many problems with computer use are temporary
and can be resolved by adopting simple corrective action. Most problems related to
computer use are completely preventable. However it is important to seek prompt medical
attention some one experience symptoms including:

## Continual or recurring discomfort

Aches and pains
Throbbing
Tingling
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Numbness
Burning sensation
Stiffness

(Should consider even if symptoms occur when someone is not working at the computer.)
Laptop computers can present particular problems due to small screens, keyboards and
inbuilt pointing devices (e.g. a small portable mouse or touchpad). Prolonged use of laptops
should be avoided. If using a laptop as a main computer (i.e. use as a normal desktop
computer in addition to use as a portable), it is advisable to use the laptop with a docking
station. This allows an ordinary mouse, keyboard and monitor to be used with the laptop.
The main risks associated with using computers include:

## Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)

Musculoskeletal problems
Eye strain and a greater awareness of existing eye problems

Rashes and other skin complaints have also been reported, although it is thought these are
caused by the dry atmosphere and static electricity associated with display units rather then
by the display units themselves. There are potential risks from radiation though this is a
contentious area.

## Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)

This is caused by repetitive finger movements over long periods of time and can cause
serious pain in the finger joints.

Figure 8.3.2

## Solutions - to reduce the risk of RSI we should:

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have our keyboard positioned correctly
use a keyboard with a good ergonomic design
develop a good typing technique
try using wrist supports placed in front of the keyboard
take regular breaks from using the keyboard

Special, ergonomically-designed keyboards where the keys are split and contoured for the
hands can be purchased.

Musculoskeletal problems

Sitting at the computer for long periods of time is never comfortable. Leaning back in the
chair reduces the pressure on the spine but then the arms have to reach forward to the
keyboard creating muscle tension which leads to aches and pains in the neck, shoulders,
back and arms.

These can range from general aches and pains to more serious problems and include:

Upper limb disorders such as repetitive strain injury (RSI) tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel
syndrome - by far the most important as it can quickly lead to permanent incapacity
Back and neck pain and discomfort
Tension stress headaches and related ailments

## Maintaining an unnatural or unhealthy posture while using the computer

Sitting in the same position for an extended period of time
An ergonomically poor workstation set up

Solutions

While working at the keyboard, the correct seating position is sitting upright with the
feet flat and the lower arms and thighs in a roughly horizontal position. Adjustable chairs
that give the maximum support for the back are also best.
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Sufficient room is needed for the monitor to be moved back and forward. Ideally, the
top of the monitor should be at eye level.
Worktops should have a fixed height of between 660-730mm (720mm is
recommended). A worktop depth of 760-840 mm is required to give the user sufficient
distance from the screen while working.
Even with a comfortable working environment, it is still good to stand up, stretch and
move around at regular intervals.

Eye strain

Eye strain is quite common among people using monitors over extended periods of time. It
can result in irritated eyes and blurred vision. Computer users can experience a number of
symptoms related to vision including:

## Visual fatigue (Inability to response to visual stimulus)

Blurred or double vision
Burning and watering eyes
Headaches and frequent changes in prescription glasses

Figure 8.3.3

Computer work hasn't been proven to cause permanent eye damage, but the temporary
discomfort that may occur can reduce productivity, cause lost work time and reduce job
satisfaction. Eye problems are usually the result of visual fatigue or glare from bright

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windows or strong light sources, light reflecting off the display screen or poor display screen
contrast.

Solutions - to reduce eye strain, users should look away from the monitor and focus on a
distant object from time to time to relax their eye muscles. An anti-glare screen can help
some users.

All new monitors must comply with EU standards which ensure that radiation emission is as
low as possible and all new screens must be fitted with adjustable and rotatable stands.

## Windows should be fitted with non-reflective blinds.

Computers should be positioned so that sunlight does not reflect off the screen.
The optimum position is at right angles to the source of natural light.
Worktops should have a matt surface in order to reduce glare.
Computer monitors should ideally be placed at right-angles to any bright light sources. If
the monitor faces such a light source then there will be too much reflected glare and if
the monitor faces away from such a light source then the user may end up squinting to
see the screen.

Figure 8.3.4

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T 9.1
Clearly identify all the basic user training needs in general ICT & explain the
basic user training needs & objectives.

Training can be described as the acquisition of skills, concepts or attitudes that result in
improved performance within the job environment. Training analysis looks at each aspect
of an operational domain so that the initial skills, concepts and attitudes of the human
elements of a system can be effectively identified and appropriate training can be specified.
The role of training analysis is to build a formal bridge between the available design data
and the training media and training objectives, in order to facilitate the transfer of training
elements into the operational environment.
Objectives of training can be defined as follows:
It helps us achieve the target efficiency and provide a constructive base for
enhancing performance. Increasing and upgrading the efficiency is a main target of
introducing a new system to a workstation. If training is not taken place the
efficiency will be reduced as the system is new to the employees.
Ensuring that resources reach the right priorities is also an objective of training.
Training is an effective way of identifying any gap between skills a business need and
those employees have. It involves in gathering information where the areas the
employees could improve their performance. Training is important to help
individuals and groups perform better, making positive contribution to job
satisfaction, morale and motivation.
Also training improves the employees professionalism. It makes the employees
satisfy and eager to work for the benefit of the company.
And training is a must if we think about the customer satisfaction. Training heals the
quality of the service provided to the customer.
An appropriate process of analyzing training needs enhances the progress of
organization towards investors in people. Over all training is a major aspect which
helps to achieve the business goals of the company.

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T 9.2
Explain what is help desk support & the benefits of implementing help desk
service/s within an organization.

A help desk is a department inside an organization that is responsible for answering the
technical questions of its users. A help desk is a resource intended to provide the customer
or end user with information and support related to a company's or institution's products
and services. The purpose of a help desk is usually to troubleshoot problems or provide
guidance about products such as computers, electronic equipment, food, apparel, or
software. Corporations usually provide help desk support to their customers through
various channels such as toll-free numbers, websites, instant messaging, or email. There are
also in-house help desks designed to provide assistance to employees.
Implementing a help desk within an organization has many advantages:
It gives us immediate solutions to the problems so that the efficiency of the
organization could be maintained.
Inheritance is a benefit of maintaining a helpdesk inside the organization. There the
help desk would understand the limitations, resources and the procedure of the
organization and would adopt the situations.
Reliability is also a benefit of implementing a help desk within the organization. Due
to the helpdesk is maintained within the organization we can take the support any
time.
If a help desk is maintained with in the organization it is easy to communicate and
share the information and it could help the development of the literacy of the other
employees too.

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T 9.3 Briefly explain what an ICT based training plan is by taking a sample
training plan as an example.
We have design a software for a leading grocery store in our area, Ranjan Lanka (PVT) Ltd. It
sells goods like cosmetics, food items, clothes, and various types of ornaments, electrical
equipments and various other stuffs. Since their billing system is not much efficient we were
asked to design a software to make billing efficient including some other advanced options
like allowing discounts and a parallel system to accept loyalty cards.
Within a month we were able to design the said software with demanded requirements and
including another option, that is displaying the amount of loyalty points gained by the
customer on the screen.
Although we designed the software with advanced options it will be no use if the employees
do not know how to operate this system and adjust simple errors during billing.
Therefore we decided to conduct a simple training campaign to them. To conduct that it
was essential for us to have a training plan.
Time Allocation
The most critical point was we couldnt conduct the training during day time and it couldnt
be done for several hours. Reason for that was, we couldnt allow the sales to come down
and their customers to switch to other shops. So we decided to have the training for two
hours after the store is closed.
Selecting a place
To give them the training we had to find a proper place with adequate facilities. The place
we selected was the school computer laboratory of Bandaranayake College. There we had
enough number of computers and a lot of free space to train them. But there was a problem
we could take the lab only once in a week.
Training Schedule
Because we got laboratory only once a week, we had to conduct the programme for three
weeks.
First Week
Introducing the software to the employees
Describing the functions that can be done through this software as they have
requested. Those functions are billing the item the customer has bought, displaying

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the discounts allowed and how to accept loyalty cards and how the loyalty points are
displayed.
Second Week
Presenting a trail and doing practical training to them
In the second week we planned to show them how the software is working after
installing it to the computer and allow them to practise the billing system. Though
we planned to finish it within the second week because of the employees getting
absent. Apart from that we planned to inform them about the errors that can be
arise during the process.
Third Week
Further practical and giving them a practical exam to them
During the third week also we decided to continue the practical because the
participation and knowledge of the employees were at a low level.
We planned to have a small practical test to ensure whether they have gain the
knowledge. After doing the exam we could understand what were the problems with
the employees about the software. And we gave them necessary instructions and
improved them to level.
Though the employees attendance were not at a satisfactory level. They were quite
interesting about software and came out with problems. We were able to give them
appropriate solutions.
Submitting the software to the company
After completing our training programme we submitted our software for relevant
authorities with a knowledgeable staff.
Because we pre planed our training we were able to complete designing at the given time
and help our client with their business.

Figure 9.3.1

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T 9.4
Briefly explain the objective of preparing a training schedule.

The purpose of a training schedule is to identify the work to be carried out to achieve the
agreed objectives.
Objectives of a training schedule can be given as follows:
The main objective of a training schedule is the time management. It helps us to
finish the work before the deadlines and make the arrangements to complete the
work successfully.
And also a training schedule guides us to understand the boundaries and get the
maximum use of the resources we have.
Training schedule helps to make the peak performance safely without any loss.
If we have a training schedule it is easy to achieve the goals of the project and
provide the customer a quality service.
Training schedule allow the normal routine to be maintained even in the training
period, so that the company does not need to be stopped and wait for the new
trained employees. Training schedules can be implemented as long term plans or
short term plans.

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T 10.1
Explain the purposes of implementing proper security measures in to your
personal computer (Use example security measures that you can take)

## Computer security involves safeguarding computing resources, ensuring data integrity,

measures help us to stop unauthorized users (also known as "intruders") from accessing any
part of our computer system
Here are some of the security measures which I can take into action.
Implementing strong passwords is the easiest thing you can do to strengthen your security.
We should craft a hard-to-crack password: use a combination of capital and lower-case
letters, numbers and symbols and make it 8 to 12 characters long.
2. Put up a strong firewall
3. Install antivirus protection
Antivirus and anti-malware software are essentials in the arsenal of online security
weapons, as well. They're the last line of defense for an unwanted attack get through to a
network.
4. Update the programs regularly
Making sure the computer is properly patched and updated is a necessary step towards
being fully protected; there's little point in installing all this great software if you're not
going to maintain it right. The security applications are only as good as their most recent
update. While applications are not 100 percent fool-proof, it is important to regularly
update these tools to help keep the users safe.
Frequently updating the programs keeps them up-to-date on any recent issues or holes that
programmers have fixed.
5. Secure the laptops
Because of their portable nature, laptops are at a higher risk of being lost or stolen than
average company desktops. It's important to take some extra steps to make certain the
sensitive data is protected. Encrypt the laptop. It's the easiest thing to do.

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Encryption software changes the way information looks on the hard drive so that, without
the correct password, it can't be read. Also we must stress the importance of never, ever
leaving your laptop in your car, where it's an easy target for thieves. We must, lock it in the
trunk.

6. Backup regularly
Scheduling regular backups to an external hard drive, or in the cloud, is a painless way to
ensure that all data is stored safely. The general rule of thumb for backups: servers should
have a complete backup weekly, and incremental backups every night; personal computers
should also be backed up completely every week. Getting our data compromised is a painful
experience: having it all backed up so you don't completely lose it will make it much less so.
7. Maintain physical security.
Locking the premises and using secure hardware like fingerprint mouse.

Figure 10.1.1

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T 10.2
Within a computer network environment what are the risks/threats that can
be commonly identified, & briefly explain the precautions that can be taken
to prevent those risks/threats.

When setting up a network, every administrator must put in consideration the threats that
face every network security, wired or wireless. Listed below are the classes of threats to a
network security:
Hacking
I. Structured Threats
II. Unstructured Threats
III. Internal Threats
IV. External Threats
Viruses

Figure 10.2.1

Structured Threats:
These are threats that can be caused by individuals or groups that are technically competent
on the use of computer language (experienced hackers). These individuals are quite aware
of system weaknesses and use sophisticated hacking techniques to get into unsuspecting
networks.
They break into business and government computers to extract information, to commit
fraud, destroy or alter records. These people (hackers) use complex and highly improved
methods to wreck havocs to networks.

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Unstructured Threats:
These are cause by mostly inexperienced individuals using easily available hacking tools,
such as shell scripts and password crackers. But, these types of hackers are not to be
underestimated because they could cause serious disruption to networks. Most businesses
online are not trusted lately due to the hacking of legitimate businesses websites by
unscrupulous individuals who uses it with the intent committing fraud.

Internal Threats:
Internal threats occur when someone has authorized access to the network with either an
account or physical access. Just as for external threats, the severity of an internal threat
depends on the expertise of the attacker

External Threats:
These types of threats are caused by from individuals working outside of a company who do
not have authorized access to the computer systems or network. They break into an
organisations network mainly from the Internet or dial up access servers. External threats
can be caused either by inexperienced or an experienced hacker.

To prevent or reduce these threats followings are the precautions we should take:
Using recommended virus guards.
Maintaining firewalls:
Firewalls are essential. Software firewalls are sufficient for small networks, but if a
network is large or spread out, it may want to run a hardware firewall in
conjunction with the server. A hardware firewall will control access to the
network's computers from a single point, making it easier to monitor, and
theoretically, more secure. But at the bare minimum, the server needs a software
firewall.
Maintaining a good server
Using recommended and quality software
Using quality network operating systems

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Placing a network administrator in charge to monitor the network.

T 10.3
Brief out the encryption mechanism by using a clear diagram.

Figure 10.3.1

Encryption is the conversion of data into a form, called a cipher text that cannot be easily
understood by unauthorized people. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data
back into its original form, so it can be understood.

## The use of encryption/decryption is as old as the art of communication. In wartime, a cipher,

often incorrectly called a code, can be employed to keep the enemy from obtaining the
contents of transmissions. (Technically, a code is a means of representing a signal without
the intent of keeping it secret; examples are Morse code and ASCII.) Simple ciphers include
the substitution of letters for numbers, the rotation of letters in the alphabet, and the
"scrambling" of voice signals by inverting the sideband frequencies. More complex ciphers
work according to sophisticated computer algorithms that rearrange the data bits in digital
signals.

In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal, the correct decryption key is
required. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm.
Alternatively, a computer can be used in an attempt to break the cipher. The more complex
the encryption algorithm, the more difficult it becomes to eavesdrop on the

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Encryption/decryption is especially important in wireless communications. This is because
wireless circuits are easier to tap than their hard-wired counterparts. Nevertheless,
encryption/decryption is a good idea when carrying out any kind of sensitive transaction,
such as a credit-card purchase online, or the discussion of a company secret between
different departments in the organization. The stronger the cipher -- that is, the harder it is
for unauthorized people to break it -- the better, in general. However, as the strength of
encryption/decryption increases, so does the cost.

Figure 10.3.2

T 10.4
Briefly explain how computer/network management helps to reduce Hacking
& all the other types of computer relative unauthorized activities.

Network management refers to the broad subject of managing computer networks. There
exists a wide variety of software and hardware products that help network system
administrators manage a network. Network management covers a wide area, including:

## Security: Ensuring that the network is protected from unauthorized users.

Performance: Eliminating the traffic and slow down in the network.

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Reliability: Making sure the network is available to users and responding to hardware
and software malfunctions.

The network management does a great job in reducing hacking and unauthorized access to
the network.
A network security tests require the right tools like port scanners, protocol analyzers, and
vulnerability assessment tools. A network manager involves hard on these.
Also network manager is responsible in maintaining good servers which ensure the security
of the network.
The network manager handles the logical security too. He manages the passwords and
prevents unauthorized access.
The network management concerns in using genuine quality software and recommended
and advanced virus guards. And also in using a quality network operating system.
All these safety measures and monitoring guidance of a network manager ensures
preventing hacking and unauthorized access.

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FIGURE LIST

## Figure 1.1.1 Data and information 10

Figure 1.2.1 Computer hardware 11
Figure 1.2.2 Mouse 12
Figure 1.2.3 Keyboard 12
Figure 1.2.4 Scanners 12
Figure 1.2.5 Joysticks 12
Figure 1.2.6 Monitor 13
Figure 1.2.7 Speakers 13
Figure 1.2.8 Printer 13
Figure 1.2.9 Plotter 13
Figure 1.2.10 Live ware 17
Figure 1.3.1 Total computer system 18
Figure 1.4.1 Structure of the processor 19
Figure 1.5.1 Processor 21
Figure 1.6.1 Buses of the mother board 22
Figure 2.1.1 Storage devices 29
Figure 2.1.2 RAMs 30
Figure 2.1.3 ROM 31
Figure 2.1.4 Hard disk 32
Figure 2.1.5 Floppy disk 32
Figure 2.1.6 CDs 33
Figure 2.1.7 DVDs 33
Figure 2.1.8 Pen drive 33
Figure 2.5.1 RAM 37
Figure 2.6.1 Inner view of the hard disk 39
Figure 2.6.2 Seek time 39
Figure 2.6.3 Inner view of the hard disk 40
Figure 2.6.4 Inner view of the hard disk 40

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Figure 2.7.1 Data transmission rate 42
Figure 3.1.1 Data transmission 43
Figure 3.1.2 Data transmission 43
Figure 3.2.1 Shielded twisted pair 45
Figure 3.2.2 Shielded twisted pair 46
Figure 3.2.3 Coaxial cables 46
Figure 3.2.4 Fiber-optic strands 47
Figure 3.2.5 Fiber-optic cable 47
Figure 3.2.6 Communication satellite 49
Figure 3.3.1 Simplex 50
Figure 3.3.2 Half duplex 50
Figure 3.3.3 Full duplex 51
Figure 3.3.4 Data transmission types 51
Figure 3.3.5 Serial transmission 52
Figure 3.3.6 Parallel transmission 53
Figure 3.4.1 Simplex 54
Figure 3.4.2 Half duplex 55
Figure 3.4.3 Telephone conversation 56
Figure 3.4.4 Duplex 56
Figure 4.2.1 Network Interface Card 59
Figure 4.2.2 Hub 60
Figure 4.2.3 Switch 61
Figure 4.2.4 Routers 61
Figure 4.2.5 Bridge 62
Figure 4.2.6 Gateway 63
Figure 4.3.1 LAN 64
Figure 4.3.2 MAN 65
Figure 4.3.3 WAN 66
Figure 4.4.1 Bus topology 68
Figure 4.4.2 Star topology 69
Figure 4.4.3 Ring topology 70

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Figure 4.4.4 Mesh topology 72
Figure 4.4.5 Hybrid topology 73
Figure 5.2.1 Graphical user interface 76
Figure 5.2.2 Command Line Interface 76
Figure 5.2.3 Booting 77
Figure 5.2.4 Storage 77
Figure 5.2.5 File Manager 78
Figure 6.1.1 Windows 7 81
Figure 6.1.3 Kick off button 83
Figure 6.1.4 Control panel 84
Figure 6.1.5 Hanthana Linux 84
Figure 7.1.1 Laptop & desktop 87
Figure 7.1.2 Processor series 88
Figure 7.1.3 Motherboard 88
Figure 7.1.4 RAM 89
Figure 7.1.5 Hard disk 89
Figure 7.1.6 Monitor 90
Figure 7.1.7 Mouse 91
Figure 7.1.8 Key board 91
Figure 7.2.1 LAN 93
Figure 7.2.2 Network OS 95
Figure 7.2.3 Router 95
Figure 8.2.1 Black box testing 105
Figure 8.2.2 White box testing 106
Figure 8.3.1 Correct postures of using computers 107
Figure 8.3.2 RSI 108
Figure 8.3.3 Eye strains 110
Figure 8.3.4 Postures of using computers 111
Figure 9.3.1 Cashier 115
Figure 10.1.1 Security 117
Figure 10.2.1 LAN 118
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Figure 10.3.1 Encryption 121
Figure 10.3.2 Encryption 121

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REFERENCES
T 1.2
http://openbookproject.net/courses/intro2ict/hardware/internal.html
17/02/2014 5.20pm
17/02/2014 5.25pm
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/software.html
17/02/2014 5.32pm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software
17/02/2014 5.45pm

T 1.5
http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/c/clockspe.htm
19/02/2014 2.25pm
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/clock_speed.html
19/02/2014 2.25pm

T 1.6
2.html
25/02/2014 6.20pm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Databus
25/02/2014 6.37pm

T 1.7
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/MIPS.html
03/03/2014 10.30 am
http://www.mrc.uidaho.edu/mrc/people/jff/digital/MIPSir.html
03/03/2014 10.35 am

T 1.8
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http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/FLOPS-floating-point-operations-per-second
03/03/2014 10.44 am
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_pipeline
03/03/2014 10.45 am

T 2.1
http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/s/stordevi.htm
06/03/2014 4.15pm
http://www.dineshbakshi.com/igcse-gcse-ict/storage-devices-and-media
06/03/2014 4.18pm
http://www.escotal.com/storage.html
06/03/2014 4.20pm

T 2.2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random-access_memory
06/03/2014 4.25pm
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/R/RAM.html
06/03/2014 4.28pm
06/03/2014 4.32pm

T 2.3
http://www.dineshbakshi.com/igcse-gcse-ict/storage-devices-and-media
06/03/2014 4.40pm
http://www.escotal.com/storage.html
06/03/2014 4.43pm

T 2.4
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/R/RAM.html
06/03/2014 4.50pm
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2.html
06/03/2014 4.54pm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Databus
06/03/2014 4.58pm
06/03/2014 5.02pm

T 2.5
06/03/2014 5.15pm
06/03/2014 5.20pm

T 2.6
http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/s/seektime.htm
06/03/2014 5.15pm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk_drive_performance_characteristics
06/03/2014 5.18pm
www.webopedia.com/TERM/L/latency.html
06/03/2014 5.25pm
http://searchstorage.techtarget.com/definition/access-time
06/03/2014 5.35pm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_(data_storage)
06/03/2014 5.35pm

T 2.7
http://www.techterms.com/definition/datatransferrate
06/03/2014 5.42pm
06/03/2014 5.45pm
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T 3.2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twisted_pair
08/03/2014 11.15 am
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/fiber-optic.htm
08/03/2014 11.18 am

T 3.3
http://greatinformer.blogspot.com/2012/11/data-transmission-modes-types-of-data.html
08/03/2014 11.30 am

T 3.4
http://www.techterms.com/definition/half-duplex
08/03/2014 11.35 am
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/full_duplex.html
08/03/2014 11.35 am

T 4.1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network
12/03/2014 10.05 am

T 4.2
12/03/2014 10.15 am
12/03/2014 10.20 am

T 4.3
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/L/local_area_network_LAN.html
12/03/2014 10.40 am

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http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/wide_area_network_WAN.html
12/03/2014 10.42 am

T 4.4
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/bus-network
12/03/2014 10.55 am
12/03/2014 10.56 am
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ringtopology
12/03/2014 11.05 am
12/03/2014 11.08 am

T 5.1
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/operating_system/os_types.htm
18/03/2014 8.35 pm

T 5.2
http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/info_tech/compulsory/os/4014/basic_functions.htm
18/03/2014 8.50 pm

http://www.kubuntu.org/news/9.04-release
20/03/2014 7.15 pm
http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows7/products/system-requirements
20/03/2014 8.20 pm

T7.1
21/03/2014 6.28 pm
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T7.2
http://www.chambers.com.au/glossary/software_testing.php
21/03/2014 6.35 pm

T 7.3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_security
21/03/2014 6.48 pm
http://www.nyu.edu/its/policies/sec_datasys.html
21/03/2014 6.55 pm

T 7.4
http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/sound-card
21/03/2014 7.15 pm
http://www.deliciouspchardware.com/what-is-hardware/vga-card.html
21/03/2014 7.27 pm

T8.1
http://munnaprawin.wordpress.com/2012/02/24/116/
24/03/2014. 8.45 pm

T 8.2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_testing
24/03/2014. 8.56 pm

T 8.3
24/03/2014. 9.45 pm

T 9.1
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http://www.chambers.com.au/glossary/software_testing.php
28/03/2014 9.30 pm
T 9.2
http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/definition/help-desk
02/04/2014 4.16 pm
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/help_desk.html
02/04/2014 4.20 pm

T 10.1
http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/217484
03/04/2014 9.21 pm

T 10.2
http://www.orbit-computer-solutions.com/Threats-to-Physical-and-Network-
Infrastructure.php#sthash.ft27QwbV.dpuf
04/04/2014 9.50 pm

T 10.3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption
05/04/2014 10.22 am

T 10.4
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network_management.html
06/04/2014 8.45 pm

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