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PUMPS

Definition :

A hydraulic pump is a mechanical device which converts mechanical


energy in to hydraulic energy.
Here the hydraulic energy refers to the potential and kinetic energy of a liquid.

USES OF PUMP:

The two broad application of pump are given below:

1. Pump is used to transport liquid in fluid transport systems


Transport of water from water reservoir (well or river)to house/industries
using pipe lines
Transport of petroleum oil/gas from one country to another through oil/gas
pipe lines.
2. Pump is used to develop pressure in fluid power system
Manufacturing industry(hydraulic operated m/cs)
Automobile industry( hydraulic breaks, power steering etc)
Agricultural industry(hydraulic driven farm equipments)
Naval industries(cargo handling ,winches etc)
Aviation and aerospace industry(landing gears,missilelauncing)
Mechatronics field(spindle drives , feed drives,auto tool clamping and
work clamping)
Material handling field(lift trucks,elevators,trucks& rams)
Construction field(earth moving equipments)
And many more industrial applications

CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS:
According to the design and principle of operation ,pumps can be broadly classified in to

i. Positive displacement pump, and


ii. Non-positive displacement pumps.

Hydraulic pumps
Positive displacement Non-positive displacement
pumps pumps

Rotary pumps Reciprocating Centrifugal Axial flow Radial flow


pumps pumps pump pumps

1.axial piston pump


2.radial piston pump
Gear pumps Vane pumps 3.duplex pumps
1.external gear 1.balanced vane 4.triplex pumps
pump pumps
2.internal gear 2.unbalanced
pumps vane pumps
3.lope pumps
4.screw pumps

The above given are the broad classifications of pumps. However in our portion we are going
to deal about piston type reciprocating pumps and centrifugal pumps.

i. Positive displacement pumps :


Positive displacement pumps are those which uses the reciprocating
motion exerted on the fluid and move the fluid from lower pressure to
higher pressure.
The main principle involved in these types of pump is conversion of
mechanical energy in to pressure energy by exerting thrust on the fluui
through reciprocating motion.

(eg : reciprocating pumps)

ii. Non-positive displacement pumps:


It is other wise called as roto dynamic pumps.
Roto dynamic pumps are those which uses centrifugal force acting on the
fluid and move the fluid from lower pressure to higher pressure
The main principle involved in this type of pumps are conversion of
mechanical energy in to pressure energyby the application of centrifugal
force of the fluid.

Eg : centrifugal pump

SPECIFACTION OF PUMP:

Horse power
Flow rate
Outlet pressure head
Inlet suction head

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP:
Centrifugal pump are the devices which convert the mechanical energy in to
hydraulic energy by means of centrifugal force acting on the fluid acting on the liquid

The basic working principle of centrifugal pump is,

When a certain mass of liquid is made to rotate by an externalforce


It throws away from the centre axis of rotation
So due to this a centrifugal pressure is developed which rises the liquid to higher
level
So thus centrifugal pressure helps to lift the liquid from lower level to higher level

Classification of centrifugal pump:

I. Based on the shape and type of casing


a. Volute or spiral
b. Vortex or whirl pool
c. Volute casing with guide blades
II. Based on the working head
a. Low head(upto 15m)
b. Medium head (15m to 40m)
c. High head (over 40m)
III. Based on the relative direction of flow through impellers
a. Radial flow
b. Axial flow
c. Mixed flow
IV. Based on number of stages
a. Single stage
b. Multistage

COMPONENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP :

A centrifugal pump has following main parts

1. Impeller
2. Casing
3. Suction pipe with a foot-valve and strainer
4. Delivery pipe

The application of various components are explained below

1) IMPELLER:
It is the rotating part of a centrifugal pump
It consist of series back ward curved vanes are blades
It is mounted on a shaft which is coupled with a motor shaft
The impeller types are
Open type
Closed type
Semi-open type
2) CASING:
Casing is an airtight chamber surrounding the pump impeller.
It is designed in such a way that the kinetic energy of the liquid is
converted in to pressure energy before the liquid leaves the casing.
There are different types of casing and they are
Volute casing
Vortex casing
Volute casing with guide blades
Volute casing :
The impeller is surrounded by a spiral casing.
The area of flow gradually increases from impeller outlet to delivery pipe
This to reduce the velocity of the flow. As velocity reduces pressure
gradually increases.
Hence it has greater eddy losses its overall efficiency is less.

Vortex casing:
It is an improved type of volute casing.
In which the spiral casing is combined with circular chamber.
This circular chamber is known as vortex or whirl pool chamber.
Due to the circular chamber the eddies are reduced and the over all
efficiency is increased.
Volute casing with guide blades:
In this type, fixed blades are provided around the impeller periphery.
These guide blades are mounted on a ring
Also these guide blades are placed at an angle ,so that the water enters the
guide blades with out shock.
The water coming out of the impeller flows through the guide vanes.
As flow area increases the velocity decreases ,so that the pressure
increases.
The water coming out of the diffuser flows to the deliver pipe with high
pressure .
This type of casing is more efficient and mostly used for multistage
centrifugal pumps.

3) Suction pipe with a foot-valve and a strainer:


Suction pipe connects the centre of the impeller to the sump from which
water is lifted.
As the pipe is connected air tight , so there is no possibility of air pockets
or air gaps.
The foot valve is a one way valve or non-return valve , which is fitted at
the bottom of the suction pipe that in the sump side.
This foot-valve helps to fill water before pump is started and also prevent
back flow of water from the suction pipe ,when the pump is stopped.
A strainer is also fitted at the lower end of the suction pipe that is in the
sump side of the suction pipe just below foot valve.
It is used to prevent any solid particles, debries etc entering in to the
suction pipe.
4) Delivery pipe:
It is the pipe which is connected in outlet portion of the pump.
This pipe is used to deliver the liquid to the required height.
A regulating valve is fitted at the delivery pipe to regulate the supply of
water.

WORKING OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP:

The working principle of a centrifugal pump is explained step by step below

Step 1:

At first the regulating valve is kept closed and the pump casing is filled with liquid.so
that no air pocket is left. This process of filling liquid to release air pocket is called as priming
process.

Step 2:

After completing priming process the electric motor is switched on to rotate the impeller.
Till this time the regulating valve is kept closed.as the impeller starts to rotate a strong vaccum is
caused at the centre of the casing.

Step 3:

The speed of the impellers is gradually increased till the impeller reaches the normal
speed and develops normal hydraulic energy required for pumping the liquid.

Step 4:

In this step , after the impeller reaches its normal speed the regulating valve is opened
gradually. Now the liquid is sucked continuously from the sump through suction pipe and passes
to the centre of the casing. In the casing the liquid is impelled out by the rotating vanes. During
this process the pressure head and the velocity head of the liquid is increased.

Step 5:

Then the liquid reaches the volute or vortex chamber of the casing and here some of the
velocity head is converted in to the pressure head in the casing.
Step 6:

From the casing the liquid passes into the delivery pipe at this time the regulating valve is
opened gradually and so the liquid is lifted to the required height.

Step 7:

When the pump is stopped the regulating valve should be kept closed. This is to avoid the
back flow of water from the reservoir. If the foot-valve is fitted in the suction pipe there is no
need to close the regulating valve because the foot valve itself will arrest the back flow of liquid
from reservoir.

This is the working of a centrifugal pump.

MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS:


Multistage pumps are used where a very high head is required. These type of pump
contains more than one impeller attached in a single shaft to discharge the liquid.

These pumps are classified based on their application , they are

1. Multistage pump for high head


2. Multistage pump for larger delivery

1.Multistage pump for high head:

For developing high heads number of impellers are mounted in a same shaft.
The liquid from the suction pipe enters the first impeller and delivery with boost
in pressure value.
The delivered liquid from the first impeller is then enters the inlet of the second
impeller and in this impeller again some pressure value is gained with addition to
the previous pressure value.
So thus by mounting more number of impeller on the same shaft the pressure
values will be increased and the total head produced will be very high.

Total head can be calculated as follows

HTotal = n * H
Where,

HTotal = Total head developed


n = number of impellers
H = head developed by pump
2.Multistage pump for larger deliveries :

This type are used when the discharge required is very high.
In this type two are more pumps are arranged in parallel.
As it is not possible for a single pump to deliver the required high
discharge at a low head.
The impeller is mounted on each individual pump shaft and delivers the
liquid to a common delivery pipe line.
Here in this the head produced by each impeller is same but the discharge
varies with the number of pumps.

Total discharge can be calculated as follows


Qtotal = Q1 +Q2 + + Qn
Where,

Qtotal = total discharge

Q1 = Discharge from the first pump

Q2 = Discharge from the second pump

n = Number of pumps

RECIPROCATING PUMPS :
The reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump, as it delivers a definite
quantity of liquid during the displacement of its piston or plunger.

In fact the amount of liquid pumped is equal to the volume displaced by the piston.

There are two types of reciprocating pumps

1. Single acting reciprocating pump.


2. Double acting reciprocating pump.

1. SINGLE ACTING RECIPROCATING PUMP :


The various components of a single acting reciprocating pumps are
1. Cylinder
2. Piston or plunger
3. Suction valve
4. Delivery valve
5. Suction pipe
6. Delivery pipe
7. Crank and connecting rod mechanism.

the piston or plunger reciprocates in a cylinder.


The movement of the piston is obtained by the crank and connecting rod
mechanism.
The suction pipe connects the liquid source(sump) and the cylinder.
The delivery pipes connects the cylinder and the pump outlet.
The suction valve admits the flow from the suction pipe into the cylinder.
The delivery valve admits the flow from the cylinder in to the delivery pipe.

WORKING OF SINGLE ACTING RECIPROCATING PUMP:

In a single acting reciprocating pump, liquid acts on one side of the piston only.

Which consist of one suction pipe and one delivery pipe . it is usually placed above the liquid
level in the sump.

1. SUCTION STROKE :
In this stroke consider the crank is at 0 ,now the piston in the cylinder will
be at the extreme left end of the cylinder and in this stage the delivery
valve will be in opened condition.and suction valve will be in closed
condition.
As the crank rotates clock wise the piston starts moving towards the right
side. During this movement of piston the delivery valve starts closing and
the suction valve starts to open.
As suction valve opens the liquid is lifted from the sump and it occupies
the space left by the piston in the cylinder .
When the crank reaches 180 the piston will be at extreme right end of the
cylinder and the cylinder free space of the cylinder will be filled with
liquid. This stroke is called suction stroke.
2. DELIVERY STROKE :
At the starting of this stroke the crank will be at180 that is the piston will
be at the extreme right end of the cylinder.
In this stage the suction valve is fully opened and the delivery valve is
fully closed.
Now the crank when starts to rotate from 180 the piston starts to move
from the extreme right end towards the left side of the cylinder.
As already said the liquid is filled in the space is now gets compressed by
the piston movement, so pressure increases in side the cylinder.
This increased pressure tempts the delivery valve to open and makes
suction valve to close.
Finally when the crank reaches 0 or 360 the delivery valve is fully
opened and the suction valve is fully closed.
As delivery valve is fully opened the liquid is delivered to the required
area.
This stroke is called as delivery stroke.

In the same way, the suction and delivery strokes are carried out alternatively and thus the liquid
is pumped from the sump to the discharge tank.

This the working of single acting reciprocating pump.