You are on page 1of 39

http://www.allonlinefree.

com/

XI BIOLOGY
Chapter 1
The Biology
Short Answers:

Q1: What is five kingdom classification system?


Ans: Biologist today have classified and divided all
living things into five groups according to their
similarities and dissimilarities they call these groups
kingdoms.

Q2: What is biological method?


Ans: Biological method is a systemized way to solve
biological problems.

Q3: What is an antibiotic?


Ans: An antibiotic is a substance that kills or slows
the growth of micro-organisms.

Q4: What do you understand by hydroponics?


Ans: It is the practice of growing plants without soil.

Q5: What is immunization?


Ans: Immunization helps the protection against a
particular disease, so that if body comes in a contact

http://www.allonlinefree.com/
2

with that particular disease, it will be able to fight


against it.

Q6: What do you mean by hypothesis?


Ans: An explanation derived by scientists from
careful observation and supported by results from
experiments and other evidences is called hypothesis.

Q7: How does law differ from theory?


Ans: law is a constant fact of nature which is
virtually irrefutable theory while the theory can be
disprove by scientists after greater efforts.

Q8: What is deductive reasoning?


Ans: It is the drawing of specific conclusions from
some general assumptions.
3

Chapter 2

Biological Molecules

Short Answers:

Q1: Define amino acid?


Ans: These are small building block molecules that
make up protein.

Q2: Define triglycerides?


Ans: It is a lipid compound formed from one glycerol
molecule and three fatty acid molecules.

Q3: Define oligosaccharides?


Ans: It is carbohydrate molecule which yields from 2
to 10 monosaccharide molecules on hydrolysis.

Q4: Define nucleotides?


Ans: It is the building block of nucleic acid made up
of a nitrogen containing base, a five carbon sugar and
phosphate group.

Q5: Define secondary proteins?


Ans: Spirally coiled polypeptide chain of amino acids
is called secondary proteins.
4

Q6: Define terpenoids?


Ans: Larger lipids compounds which are made up of
simple repeating isoprenoid units are called
terpenoids.

Q7: Name the carbohydrates suitable as food for


man?
Ans: Glucose, fructose and galactose.

Q8: What is the percentage of water in brain cells of


man?
Ans: Brain cells of man contain 85 percent water.

Q9: What is the function of mRNA?


Ans: The messenger RNA takes the genetic message
from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm to
form a particular protein.

Q10: What is meant by saturated acyglycerol?


Ans: They do not contain any double bond between
carbon atom and they are solid at ordinary
temperature mostly found in animals.

Q11: What is dextrin?


Ans: The oligosaccharides which contain 3 to 10
monosaccharide are commonly known as dextrin.
5

Q12: Name the four main types of biological


molecules?
Ans: (1) carbohydrates (2) Lipids (3) Protein (4)
Nucleic acid

Q13: What are biochemicals?


Ans: The chemical compounds of living organisms
are called biochemicals and these are mainly
composed of six elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur these substances
form the 98% of the biochemicals.

Q14: Define buffer?


And: It is a substance that binds hydrogen ion when
concentration of H+ are higher and releases hydrogen
ions when concentration of H+ are low.

Q15: How many structures of protein are found?


And: There are four basic structures of protein are
found i-e primary, secondary, tertiary, and
quaternary.

Q16: What is condensation?


Ans: The joining of two monomers is called
condensation.

Q17: What is meant by organic molecules?


6

Ans: Molecules which contains carbon as basic


element and bounded hydrogen covalently are known
as organic molecules.

Q18: What is hydrolysis?


Ans: The process in which macromolecules are
broken down into smaller subunits by the addition of
water is known as hydrolysis.

Reasons:

Q1: Why butter solidifies at room temperature but


not mustered oil?
Ans: Butter solidifies at room temperature because
butter is saturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acids
are solid at room temperature and mustered oil is
unsaturated fatty acid this is why it usually liquid at
room temperature.

Q2: How DNA is different from RNA in nucleotides?


Ans: Nucleotides of DNA contains Adenine,
Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine where nucleotides
of RNA contain Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and
Uricil.

Q3: Why lipids are used to store energy?


Ans: lipids are used to store energy because of higher
proportion of C-H bonds and very low proportion of
7

oxygen and they store double amount of energy as


compared to any carbohydrate.

Q4: Why DNA is considered as heredity material?

Ans: DNA considered as genetic material because it


contains genes and genes contains heredity characters
which are transferred into new generation.

Q5: Why proteins are called nitrogenous compounds?


Ans: Proteins are called nitrogenous compounds
because they contain nitrogen.

Q6: Why carbohydrates are called as hydrated


carbons?
Ans: Carbohydrates are called as hydrated carbons
because they contain the ratio of hydrogen and
oxygen is the same as in water.

Q7: How conjugated molecules are formed?


Ans: When two different groups of biomolecules are
combined together, conjugated molecules are formed.

Q8: Why glycolipids are also called as cerebrosides?


Ans: Glycolipids are also called as cerebrosides
because these are found in brain.
8

Q9: Why monosaccharides are also called as simple


sugars?
Ans: These are also called as simple sugars because
they can not further hydrolysed into simple sugars.

Q10: Why phospholipids are most important class are


most important class of lipids?
Ans: Phospholipids are most important class of lipids
because these are present in all living cells and are
associated with membranes and related with vital
functions of cell.

Q11: Why water requires higher amount of energy to


change into vapours or ice?
Ans: Water requires higher amount of energy to
change into vapours or ice because water contains
hydrogen bonding which holds the water molecules
together and gives stability to water molecules also.

Q12: Why water molecules are considered as


amphoteric molecules?
Ans: Water molecules are considered as amphoteric
molecules because water acts both an acid and a base.

Q13: How many essential amino acids are found in


the body of living organisms?
Ans: There twenty essential amino acids are found in
the body of living organisms.
9

Q14: Do mononucleotides work independently as


heredity material? Why?
Ans: Mononucleotides do not work independently as
genetic material because they are not associated with
RNA or DNA and they are found singly in the cell or
as a part of other molecules.

Q15: Many birds must store large amounts of energy


to power flight during migration which type of
organic molecules would be the most advantageous
for energy storage why?

Ans: Lipids would be most advantageous organic


molecules for energy storage because lipids have
higher proportion of C-H bonds and very low
proportion of oxygen; lipids store double the amount
of amount of energy as compared to carbohydrates.
10
11

Chapter- 4

The Cell

Short Answers:

Q1: What is nucleoid?


Ans: In prokaryotic cell nucleic material is usually
coiled and concentrated in a region of the cell is
called nucleoid.

Q2: What is active transport?


Ans: It is the process in which movement of
molecules from lower concentration to the higher
concentration by energy.

Q3: What is pinocytosis?


Ans: It is the process of taking fluid in large amount.
When the living cells take up fluid vesicles and it is
also called as cell drinking.

Q4: What is meant by nucleoplasm?


12

Ans: The nucleus is filled with protein rich


substances called nucleoplasm.

Q5: Define chromatides?


Ans: Each chromosome consists of two threads like
structures called chromatides.

Q6: What is cytosol?


Ans: Cytoplasm consists of a fluid matrix called
cytosol in which the organells are found.

Q7: What is fluid mosaic model of DNA?


Ans: Singer and Nicholson proposed working model
of plasma membrane called fluid mosaic model.

Q8: What are the main functions of cell membrane?


Ans: The main functions of plasma membrane are
protection of protoplasm, regulation of flow of
solutes and material across it due to its selective
permeability.

Q9: Define vacules?


Ans: Vacules are non protoplasmic liquid filled
cavities surrounded by tonoplast.

Q10: How many components are of plasma


membrane?
13

Ans: There are two components of plasma


membrane, phospholipids and protein.

Q11: What is cyclosis?


Ans: Cytoplam shows a movement in circular manner
called cyclosis.

Q12: What is cytoskeleton?


Ans: The network of fibrous proteins give three
dimensional structure to cell called cytoskeleton.
Q13: Define microfilaments?
Ans: Cytoplasm consists of a mass of tiny filaments
are called microfilaments.

Q14: Define osmosis?


Ans: Movement of solvent molecules from the region
higher concentration to the region of lower
concentration in the presence of a semi permeable
membrane is called osmosis.

Q15: What is chromatin network?


Ans: A network of fine loosely connected threads in
the nucleoplasm is called chromatin network.

Q16: What is fractionation?


Ans: It is the isolation of cellular component by
breaking and spinning the cell.
14

Q17: What are proplastides?


Ans: Proplastides are colorless, immature plastids
found in meristematic tissues, where division of cells
takes place.

Q18: What is the function of microtubules?


Ans: Microtubules help in the storage of cellulose,
movement of chromosomes during cell division,
movement of organelles within cytoplasm and
movement of cilia and flagella.

Q19: What are plastids?


Ans: Plastids are found in plant cells as a chemical
synthesizers and storage bodies.

Q20: What is the function of microfilaments?


Ans: They help in the internal motion of Cells.

Reasons:

Q1: Why cell membrane referred as selective


permeable membrane or differential permeable
membrane?
Ans: Cell membrane referred as selective permeable
membrane or differential permeable membrane
because it offers a barrier between the cell contents
and their environment; allow only selective
substances to pass through it.
15

Q2: Why phagocytosis referred as cell eating


process?
Ans: Because plasma membrane absorbs solid
particles in this process.

Q3: Why mitochondria are known as power house of


the cell?
Ans: Mitochondria are known as power house of the
cell because they are the main centers of the
intercellular energy production.

Q4: Why ribosomes are called as protein factories?


Ans: Ribosomes are called as protein factories
because they are composed of RNA and protein and
they take part in the protein synthesis.

Q5: Why nucleus is considered as a brain of cell?


Ans: Nucleus is considered as a brain of a cell
because it controls all the vital activities of a cell.

Q6: What will happen if the function of lysosomes


would disturb in cell?
Ans: It may cause the abnormal conditions or
diseases.

Q7: Why did it take nearly 200 years from the time of
Robert Hooke for the cell theory to develop?
16

Ans: Because scientists had to wait for the


technology to develop.

Q8: Say for instance you are looking a single cell that
is green in colour. How do you it is a plant cell?
Ans: Animal cells do not have the chloroplast which
makes plant cells look green, so it is a plant cell.

Q9: Which organelle act as a lysosome in plant cell


and why?
And: Vacules sometime act as a lysosome in plant
cell because they contain hydrolytic enzyme and after
the death of cell the enzymes of vacule cause the
break down of cell.

Q10: How prokaryotes are different from eukaryotes?


Ans: Prokaryotes are distinguished from eukaryotes
on the basis of nuclear organization specifically they
lack nuclear membrane and they also lack any
intracellular organelle which is double
membranacious.

Q11: What will happen if chromosome loses its


centromere?
Ans: It will be unable to pair with any other
chromosome and will result the cell death.

Q12: Why lysosomes are referred as suicide sacs?


17

Ans: Lysosomes contain power digestive enzymes


and they have capacity of total cell destruction
because of this they are referred as suicide sacs.

Q13: What would happen to a plant cell that suddenly


lost its chloroplast?
Ans: If the chloroplast die or disappear then the plant
would die of hunger.

Q14: Why organelles are important in cells?


Ans: Organelles are important in cells because
without organelles a cell would not be able to
anything and it would be dead.

Q15: How rough endoplasmic reticulum is differs


from smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Ans: Rough endoplasmic reticulum contains
ribosomes on their outer surface while smooth
endoplasmic reticulum does not contain ribosomes on
their surface.
Q16: Which organelle of a cell is transferred from
mother only to new generation? and why?
Ans: Mitochondria are transferred from mother to
new generation because these are present only in
eggs not in sperms.

Q17: Which organelles of a cell have its own DNA


except nucleus?
18

Ans: Mitochondria and plastids have their own DNA.


19

Chapter 5

Variety of life

Short Answers:

Q1: What is the basic unit of classification?


Ans: Species is the basic unit of classification.

Q2: Previously organisms were divided in how many


kingdoms?
Ans: Previously organisms were divided in to two
kingdoms. The plant kingdom and The animal
kingdom.
20

Q3: Define species?


Ans: Species is the group of organisms which are
capable of interbreeding and are producing fertile
offspring.

Q4: What is capsid?


Ans: Protein coat that encloses the viral genome is
called capsid.

Q5: Name the different parts of viruses?


Ans: Viral genome, capsid, envelops, and tail fiber.

Q6: What modifications were proposed by Margulis


and Schwarts in Whittaker`s scheme?
Ans: They suggested that multicellular algae should
be removed from plant kingdom and placed along
with all unicellular organisms in a new kingdom
called the protoctist which would replace Whittaker`s
protist kingdom.

Q7: What was the major snag in Whittaker`s scheme?


Ans: The major snag of his scheme was placing of
unicellular algae in protist and multicellular algae in
plant kingdom.

Q8: What are two criteria used by Whittaker in his


scheme of classification?
And: He based his classification on two main criteria
21

1)Level of organization and 2) Methods of


nutrition.

Q9: What are virods?


Ans: These are pathogens without capsid consists of
tiny molecules of naked RNA and they infect only
plants.

Q10: Define bacteriophage?


Ans: Viruses that infect bacteria are called
bacteriophage.

Q11: What diseases are caused by Rhinoviruses?


Ans: Rhinoviruses caused the diseases of nose and
throat.

Q12: What is meant by taxon?


Ans: Grouping of organisms within the hierarchy is
called taxon and each taxon has a rank and a name.

Q13: binomial nomenclature?


Ans: Linnaceus`s system of giving each species a
scientific name comprising of two words is known as
binomial nomenclature.

Q14: Define kingdom monera?


Ans: It is the kingdom of prokaryotes which take
their food by different methods.
22

Q15: On what basis previously organisms were


divided into two kingdoms?
Ans: Previously organisms were divided into two
kingdoms on the basis of presence or absence of cell
wall.

Q16: Which virus causes the AIDS?


Ans: AIDS is caused by Human Immuno deficiency
Virus (HIV) a retrovirus.

Q17: What are two major routs by which a plant viral


diseases can spread?
Ans: A plant viral disease can spread by horizontal
transmission or vertical transmission.

Reasons:

Q1: Why bacteria and fungi previously placed to the


plant kingdom?
Ans: Previously bacteria and fungi placed to the plant
kingdom because they were like plants and possessed
a cell wall.

Q2: Why protoctista considered a something of Rag-


bag?
Ans: Protoctista considered as something of Rag-
bag because it contains all multicellular and
23

unicellular organisms which can not be fitted to any


of the other kingdom.

Q3: Why scientists suggested that multicellular algae


should be removed from plant kingdom?
Ans: They suggested that multicellular algae should
be removed from plant kingdom because
multicellular algae is more close to unicellular algae
than plants and this is why they placed in new
kingdom called protoctista.

Q4: How fungi are different from green plants?


Ans: Fungi lack chlorophyll, they feed
heterotrophically through absorption and their
cellular structures are also different from plants.

Q5: Why viruses are not included in five kingdoms?


Ans: Viruses are not included in five kingdoms
because they are on the borderline between the living
and nonliving due to its noncellular nature, presence
of only nucleic acid surrounded by protein coat and it
is parasite.
24

Q6: Why Tobacco Mosaic disease is called as Mosaic


disease?
Ans: Because it causes the leaves to wrinkle and
become mottled and mottled effect has the
appearance of Mosaic.

Q7: Why virus which attacks on bacteria is known as


bacteriophage virus?
Ans: They are so called because they attack bacteria
and destroy it.

Q8: Why a virus that reproduces only by lytic cycle


is known as virulent?
Ans: A virus that reproduces only by lytic cycle is
known as virulent because it causes death of bacterial
cell.

Q9: How viruses are classified?


And: Viruses are classified on the basis of
morphology and nucleic acid they contain.

Q10: Why lysogenic phase of virus is known as


temperate phase?
Ans: Because it replicates the viral genome without
destroying it.

Q11: Why some viruses are referred as arboviruses?


25

Ans: Some viruses are referred as arboviruses


because they are transmitted by insects and other
arthropods.

Q12: How chemical constitution can be helpful in the


classification of living organisms?
Ans: When morphological characters are failed to
classify living organisms because of their similar
cellular structures then their chemical constituents are
used to classify and identify them.

Q13: Why bacteriophage is known as tadpole virus?


Ans: Bacteriophage is known as tadpole because of
its tadpole shape with its head and tail regions.

Q14: Why viruses are harmful for other living


organisms?
Ans: Viruses are harmful for other living organisms
because they cause many widespread diseases in
living organisms.

Q15: How living organisms are classified?


Ans: Living organisms are classified on the basis of
homology, comparative biochemistry, cytology and
genetics.
26

Q16: How plus strand RNA viruses are different


from minus strand RNA viruses?
Ans: Plus strand RNA act directly as mRNA after
infecting the host cell, attacking to the host`s
ribosomes and being transmitted where minus strand
RNA carry the RNA strand complementary to the
mRNA that carries the genetic information of the
mRNA, which then function in the cell.
27

Chapter 6

The Kingdom Prokaryotae


(Monera)
Short Answers:

Q1: What are cynobacteria?


28

Ans: Cynobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria which


were previously known as blue green algae and they
true prokaryotes.

Q2: What are photosynthetic bacteria?


Ans: Bacteria which synthesize organic compounds
by using light energy are called as photosynthetic
bacteria.

Q3: What are parasitic bacteria?


Ans: Bacteria which grow inside the tissues of other
living organisms and obtain food by harming their
host are called parasitic bacteria.

Q4: What are saprophytic bacteria?


Ans: Bacteria which get their food from dead organic
matter are known as saprophytic bacteria.

Q5: What is plasmid?


Ans: It is the small circular, double stranded DNA
molecule and self replicating present in many
bacteria.

Q6: What are akinets?


Ans: Akinets are non motile asexual spores formed
during unfavourable conditions.

Q7: what are pili?


29

Ans: Pili are fine, hollow, filament like structures and


not used for the locomotion but help in the
conjugation of bacteria.

Q8: What are mesosomes?


Ans: The plasma membrane of bacterial cell is folded
inward to form a special structure called mesosomes.

Q9: What does Atrichous mean?


Ans: Atricous means bacteria without flagella.

Q10: What is meant by binary fission?


Ans: It is the process of asexual reproduction present
bacteria.

Q11: What are obligate aerobes?


Ans: Bacteria which only can survive in the presence
of oxygen are known as obligate aerobes.

Q12: What are heterocysts?


Ans: In the filament of Nostoc some larger,
yellowish, thick walled cells are present called
heterocysts which are also take part in the
reproduction and nitrogen fixation.

Q13: What is coenobium?


30

Ans: In Nostoc when filaments are intermixed in a


gelatinous mass forming a ball like structure called
coenobium.

Q14: What is transduction?


Ans:It is the type of genetic recombination in which
one bacterial genetic material is transferred into cell
through bacteriophage.

Q15: What are hormogonia?


Ans: The filament of Nostoc breaks up into many
pieces called hormogonia and each hormogonium
grows into a new filament.

Q16: What is genetic recombination?


Ans: The combination of genetic material from two
different sources is called genetic recombination.

Q17: What are antibiotics?


Ans: These are the chemical substances which are
used to kill micro-organisms that
cause infection diseases.

Q18: What is immunity?


Ans: The resistance against the infection by
pathogenic organisms is called immunity.

Q19: What are chemosynthetic bacteria?


31

Ans: Bacteria which get energy by the oxidaticen and


reduction process of various
inorganic compounds such as nitrates, sulphur,
ammonia etc are known as
chemosynthetic bacteria.

Q20: How many shapes of bacteria?


Ans: There are four shapes of bacteria.

Reasons:

Q1: Do any other microbial groups besides bacteria


have prokaryotic cell?
Ans: Cynobacteria or blue green algae are also
having prokaryotic cell.

Q2: How bacteria are classified as gram positive and


gram negative?

Ans: Certain bacteria are stained with a violet or


bluish colour are said to gram positive where other
bacteria do not stained with violet dye are known
gram negative bacteria.

Q3: How conjugation takes place in bacteria?


Ans: The genetic material of one bacterial cell is
transferred into another bacterial cell through a tube
32

known as conjugating tube, the process is known as


conjugation.

Q4: Why bacteria are called symbiotic?


Ans: Some bacteria are called as symbiotic because
they form an association with other living organism
and they get their food without harming them.

Q5: Why obligate anaerobic bacteria die in the


presence of oxygen?
Ans: Obligate anaerobic bacteria die in the presence
of oxygen because they respire without oxygen.

Q6: Bacteria are prokaryotes therefore chloroplast


must not be present in their cell then how
photosynthetic bacteria synthesize there food?
Ans: These bacteria have same pigments similar to
chlorophyll and their pigments dispersed in the
cytoplasm. Through these pigments photosynthetic
bacteria synthesize their food.

Q7: How elementary canal bacteria are useful?


Ans: These bacteria are present in intestine of living
organism and help in the digestion of cellulose, by an
enzyme cellulase.

Q8: How Nostoc and Anabana are useful in the field


of agriculture?
33

Ans: They are used as nitrogen fertilizer in


agriculture to improve soil fertility.

Q9: If conditions are not favourable than how Nostoc


would reproduce?
Ans: They would produce non motile spores from
vegetative cells are known as akinets.

Q10: How bacteria are helpful to clean the world?


Ans: Some bacteria decompose the dead organisms
into simpler compounds in this way they help to
clean the world.

Q11: How cell walls of archaeobacteria are different


from other groups?
Ans: Most groups of bacteria contain peptidoglycan
in their cell walls where peptidoglycan is absent in
the cell walls of archaeobacteria.

Q12: How bacteria would reproduce in unfavourable


conditions?
Ans: Bacteria would reproduce through endospore
formation in unfavourable conditions.

Q13: how pili are different from flagella?


Ans: Pili are fine, thin, and smaller then flagella and
they do not help in the locomotion.
34

Q14: Mitochondria are absent in bacterial cell then


how respiration takes place?
Ans: Plasma membrane of bacteria contains enzymes
for respiration process and it acts as mitochondria.

Q15: Why centroplasm is called as central body in


Nostoc?
Ans: Centroplasm is called as central body because
heredity material is present in it due to the absence of
nuclear material in it.
35

Chapter-7

The Kingdom Proctoctista

Reasons

Q1: Why we say that Ulva has isomorphic alternation


of generation?
Ans: Because Ulva has the sporophyte and
gametophyte in similar morphology.

Q2: Why Euglena is considered as an animal as well


as plant like protoctist?
Ans: It is considered as animal as well as plant like
protoctist because it has chlorophyll which is the
characteristic of plants and it has no cell wall and
motile these are the characteristics of animals.
36

Q3: How Slime molds form a special group of


organisms?
Ans: Slime molds form a special group of organisms
because these are animal like in their body and plant
like in their reproduction.

Q4: Why Chlorella is used in physiological


experiments?
Ans: Chlorella is used in physiological experiments
because it is easily cultured and used in the research
on photosynthesis and respiration.

Q5: Why class Mastigophora is known as Flagellata?


Ans: The class Mastigophora is known as Flagellata
because they possess flagella on their outer surface of
body.

Q6: How colonial protozoan can be distinguished


from a multicellular animal?
Ans: Colonial protozoan can be distinguished from
multicellular organisms due to their cell size and their
cells are not specialized for any function.

Q7: On what basis protozoa are classified into five


classes?
Ans: They are divided into five classes on the basis
of their mode of locomotion.
37

Q8: Why female mosquito bite causes the malaria not


male mosquito?
Ans: Only female mosquito bite causes the malaria
because it contains malarial parasite in its salivary
glands while male mosquito does not contain it.

Q9: What causes the shivering in malaria?


Ans: The simultaneous bursting of millions of red
blood cells causes shivering in malaria.

Q10: Why biologists regarded proctist kingdom as a


prophylactic group of organisms?
Ans: Because they are found in great diversity and
these organisms do not have their common ancestor.

Chapter-7

The Kingdom Proctoctista

Reasons

Q1: Why we say that Ulva has isomorphic alternation


of generation?
38

Ans: Because Ulva has the sporophyte and


gametophyte in similar morphology.

Q2: Why Euglena is considered as an animal as well


as plant like protoctist?
Ans: It is considered as animal as well as plant like
protoctist because it has chlorophyll which is the
characteristic of plants and it has no cell wall and
motile these are the characteristics of animals.

Q3: How Slime molds form a special group of


organisms?
Ans: Slime molds form a special group of organisms
because these are animal like in their body and plant
like in their reproduction.

Q4: Why Chlorella is used in physiological


experiments?
Ans: Chlorella is used in physiological experiments
because it is easily cultured and used in the research
on photosynthesis and respiration.

Q5: Why class Mastigophora is known as Flagellata?


Ans: The class Mastigophora is known as Flagellata
because they possess flagella on their outer surface of
body.
39

Q6: How colonial protozoan can be distinguished


from a multicellular animal?
Ans: Colonial protozoan can be distinguished from
multicellular organisms due to their cell size and their
cells are not specialized for any function.

Q7: On what basis protozoa are classified into five


classes?
Ans: They are divided into five classes on the basis
of their mode of locomotion.

Q8: Why female mosquito bite causes the malaria not


male mosquito?
Ans: Only female mosquito bite causes the malaria
because it contains malarial parasite in its salivary
glands while male mosquito does not contain it.

Q9: What causes the shivering in malaria?


Ans: The simultaneous bursting of millions of red
blood cells causes shivering in malaria.

Q10: Why biologists regarded proctist kingdom as a


prophylactic group of organisms?
Ans: Because they are found in great diversity and
these organisms do not have their common ancestor.