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Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

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1.Draw the constellation diagram for the following cases. Find the peak
amplitude value for each case and define the type of modulation (ASK, FSK, PSK,
or QAM). The numbers in parentheses define the values of I and Q respectively.

Ans a. This is ASK. There are two peak amplitudes both with the same phase (0
degrees). The values of the peak amplitudes are A1 = 2 (the distance between the
first dot and the origin) and A2= 3 (the distance between the second dot and
the origin).

b. This is BPSK, There is only one peak amplitude (3). The distance between each
dot and the origin is 3. However, we have two phases, 0 and 180 degrees.

c. This can be either QPSK (one amplitude, four phases) or 4-QAM (one amplitude
and four phases). The amplitude is the distance between a point and the
origin, which is (22 + 22)1/2 = 2.83.
Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

d. This is also BPSK. The peak amplitude is 2, but this time the phases are 90 and
270 degrees.

2. The telephone line has 4KHz of bandwidth. What is the maximum number of bits
we can send using these following technique.

Ans We use the formula N = [1/(1 + d)] r B, but first we need to calculate the
value of r for each case.
a. r = log22 = 1 N= [1/(1 + 0)] 1 (4 KHz) = 4 kbps
b. r = log24=2 N = [1/(1 + 0)] 2 (4 KHz) = 8 kbps
c. r = log216= 4 N = [1/(1 + 0)] 4 (4 KHz) = 16 kbps
d. r = log264= 6 N = [1/(1 + 0)] 6 (4 KHz) = 24 kbps

3. A corporation has a medium with 1MHz bandwidth. The corporation need to create
10 separate independent channel each capable of sending at least 1 Mbps. The
company decides to use the QAM technique. What is the minimum number of bit per
baud for each channel? What is the number of point in the constellation diagram of
each channel? Let d = 0.

Ans
First, we calculate the bandwidth for each channel = (1 MHz) / 10 = 100 KHz.
We then find the value of r for each channel:
B = (1 + d) (1/r) (N) r = N / B r = (1 Mbps/100 KHz) = 10
We can then calculate the number of levels: L = 2r = 210 = 1024. This means that
that we need a 1024-QAM technique to achieve this data rate.
Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

4. A corporation has a medium with 1MHz bandwidth. The corporation need to create
10 separate independent channel each capable of sending at least 1 Mbps. The
company decides to use the FSK technique. What is the minimum number of bit per
baud for each channel? Let d = 0.

Ans 1MHz 10 bitrate 1Mbps


= 100KHz

B = (1+d)s+2

s*2

B = (1+d)s+s

= s(d+2)

B = (d+2)

r= =

= 30

r = log2L

L = 2r = 230 bits/baud
Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

5. Giving the mobile phone system as the following figure

Each phone occupies 5MHz bandwidth. All phones communicate with the base station at
the same time using the parameters given in the table 1. Assuming that noise is distributed
uniformly over the network, where the energy of noise is measured as 0.025. Determine the
best data rate to be obtained in the downlink channel of each mobile phone. (Assuming that
only 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM approaches are available for the system and d
= 0.25)
Table 1: Energy loss when transmit from the station in row to the station in column

Giving 100 for transmission energy of the base station and 50 for transmission energy of
each phone.

Ans Noise = 0.025 , d = 0.25 ,. Bw = 5 MHz , PTx = 50

N = 5*nb

nb = (1+d) * log2 (1+SNR )

s=

N = Bw * log2 ( 1 + SNR )
Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

SNR = 10 log10

PRx = PG * PTx

Phone 1 Base Station

G = -4.0455dB = 10log10PG

PG = 10 ^ = 0.393

PRx = 0.393*50 = 19.65

SNR = 10log10 = 28.96

N = 5 MHz * log2 (1+28.96)

N = 24.52 Mbps

Phone 1 Phone 2

G = -22.9876 dB = log10PG

PG = 10-22.9876/10 = 5*10-3

PRx = 5*10-3*50 = 0.25

SNR = 10log10 ( ) = 10

N = 5 MHz * log2 ( 1+10 ) = 17.29 Mbps

Phone 1 Phone 3

G = -20.1557 dB = 10log10 PG

PG = 10 ^ = 9.6A*10-3

PRx = 9.6A * 10-3 *50 = 0.482

SNR = 10log10 = 12.85

N = 5 Mhz * log2 (1+12.85)

= 18.95 Mbps
Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

Phone 2 Base Station

G = -4.9462 dB

PG = 10 ^ = 0.32

PRx = 50*0.32 = 16

SNR = 10log10( ) =28.06

N = 5 MHz * log2 (1+28.06)

= 24.30 Mbps

Phone2 Phone1

G = -19.7341 dB = 10log10PG

PG = 10^ = 0.01

PRx = 0.01 * 50 = 0.53

SNR = 10log10 = 13.26

N = 5MHz * log2 (1+13.26)

= 19 Mbps

Phone 2 Phone 3

G = -24.8489 dB =10log10 PG

PG = 10 ^ = 3.27*10-3

PRx = 3.27*10-3 *50 = 0.163

SNR = 10log10 ( )

= 8.16

N = 5 MHz * log2 (1+8.16)

N = 16 Mbps

Phone 3 Base Station


Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

G = -3.5314 dB = 10log10 PG

PG = 40 ^ = 0.44

PRx = 0.44*50 = 22

SNR = 10log10 ( )

N = 5 MHz * log2 (1+29.44)

= 24.63 Mbps

Phone 3 Phone 1

G = -21.3424 dB = 10log10 PG

PG = 10 ^ = 7.34 * 10-3

PRx =7.34 * 10-3 * 50 = 0.367

SNR = 10log10 = 11.66

N = 5 MHz * log2 (1+11.66)

= 18.13 Mbps

Phone 3 Phone 2

G = -23.2238 dB = 10log10 PG

PG = 10 ^ = 0.238

SNR = 10log10 = 9.786

N = 5 MHz * log2 (1 +9.786)

N = 17.155 Mbps
Nujjarin Jaidee 5703051619544 EnET(B)-R22s

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