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Faisalabad district actually began as Lyallpur district in 1904 and prior to that,
was a tehsil of Jhang district.[17] During the British Raj, the city Lyallpur was
named in honour of the then Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Sir James Broadwood
Lyall, for his services in the colonisation of the lower Chenab Valley.[18] His
surname Lyall was joined with "pur" which in old Sanskrit language means city.
[19] In the late 1970s, the Government of Pakistan changed the name of the city
from Lyallpur to Faisalabad(meaning City of Faisal), in honour of King Faisal of
Saudi Arabia, who made several financial contributions to Pakistan.[20]

Early settlementsEdit

According to the University of Faisalabad, the city of Faisalabad traces its


origins to the 18th century when the land was inhabited by a number of forest-
dwelling tribes. It is believed these early settlements belonged to the ancient
districts of Jhang and Sandalbar, which included the area between Shahdara to
Shorekot and Sangla Hill to Toba Tek Singh.[21]

Colonial ruleEdit

Map of Punjab, circa 1909

Partition of India, circa 1947

By the mid-18th century, the economic and administrative collapse of provinces


within the Mughal Empire, from Punjab to Bengal, led to its dissolution.
[22] Internal unrest resulted in multiple battles for independence and further
deterioration of the region, which then led to formal colonialisation as
established by the Government of India Act 1858, with direct control under
the British Raj from 1858 to 1947.[23][24] In 1880, Poham Young CIE, a British
colonial officer, proposed construction of a new strategic town within the area.
[25] His proposal was supported by Sir James Broadwood Lyall and the city of Lyall
was developed.[25]Historically, Faisalabad, (Lyallpur until 1979), became one of
the first planned cities within British India.[13]

Young designed the city centre to replicate the design in the Union Jack with eight
roads extending from a large clock towerat its epicentre;[26] a design
geometrically symbolic of the Cross of Saint Andrew counterchanged with the Cross
of Saint Patrick, and Saint George's Cross over all.[27] The eight roads developed
into eight separate bazaars (markets) leading to different regions of the Punjab.
[18][28] In 1892, the newly constructed town with its growing agricultural surplus
was added to the British rail network.[29] Construction of the rail link
between Wazirabad and Lyallpur was completed in 1895.[26] In
1896, Gujranwala, Jhang and Sahiwal comprising the Tehsils of Lyallpur were under
the administrative control of the Jhang District.[17]

In 1904, the new district of Lyallpur was formed to include the tehsils
of Samundri and Toba Tek Singh with a sub-tehsil at Jaranwala, which later became a
full tehsil in itself.[30] The University of Agriculture, originally the Punjab
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Lyallpur, was established in 1906.
[16] The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909. Lyallpur
grew into an established agricultural tool and grain centre.[31] The 1930s brought
industrial growth and market expansion to the textile industry as well as to food
processing, grain crushing and chemicals.[18]

IndependenceEdit

Lady Mountbatten, Vicereine of India, among the Hindu evacuees at the Punjab Scouts
Camp, Layallpur during partition of India

In August 1947, following three decades of nationalist


struggles, India and Pakistan achieved independence. The British agreed
to partition colonial India into two sovereign states Pakistan with
a Muslim majority, and India with a Hindu majority; however, more Muslims remained
in India than what governing authorities believed would assimilate into Pakistan.
[32] The partitioning led to a mass migration of an estimated 10 million people
which made it the largest mass migration in human history.
[32] India's Bengal province was divided into East Pakistan and West
Bengal (India), and the Punjab Province was divided into Punjab (West
Pakistan) and Punjab, India. There were also respective divisions of the British
Indian Army, the Indian Civil Service, various administrative services, the central
treasury, and the railways.[33] Riots and local fighting followed the expeditious
withdrawal of the British, resulting in an estimated one million civilians deaths,
particularly in the western region of Punjab.[32] Lyallpur, which was located in
the region of the Punjab Province that became West Pakistan, was populated by a
number of Hindus and Sikhs who migrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India
settled in the district.[33]

In 1977, Pakistani authorities changed the name of the city to "Faisalabad" to


honour the close relationship of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia with Pakistan.
[34] During the eighties, the city realised an increase in foreign investment.
[35] More Faisalabadis began working abroad as bilateral ties improved within the
new dominion. This led to more monetary funds returning to the city that aided the
development of the region.[20] In 1985, the city was upgraded as a division with
the districts of Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh.[21]

Government and public servicesEdit

Faisalabad, a city district with eight subdivisions:


1. Lyallpur Town
2. Madina Town
3. Jinnah Town
4. Iqbal Town
5. Chak Jhumra Town
6. Jaranwala Town
7. Samundri Town
8. Tandlianwala Town

Civic administrationEdit

Faisalabad was restructured into city district status; a devolution promulgated by


the 2001 local government ordinance (LGO).[36] It is governed by the city
district's seven departments: Agriculture, Community Development, Education,
Finance and Planning, Health, Municipal Services, and Works and Services.
[37] The district coordination officer of Faisalabad (DCO) is head of the city
district government and responsible for co-ordinating and supervising the
administrative units.[37] Each of the seven departments has its own Executive
District Officer who is charged with co-ordinating and overseeing the activities of
their respective departments.

The aim of the city district government is to empower politics by improving


governance which basically involved decentralising administrative authority with
the establishment of different departments and respective department heads, all
working under one platform. The stated vision and mission of the city district
government of Faisalabad is to "establish an efficient, effective and accountable
city district government, which is committed to respecting and upholding women, men
and children's basic human rights, responsive towards people's needs, committed to
poverty reduction and capable of meeting the challenges of the 21st century. Our
actions will be driven by the concerns of local people."[37]

Tehsil municipal administrationEdit

In 2005, Faisalabad was reorganised as a city district composed of eight Tehsil


municipal administrations (TMAs).[38] The functions of the TMA include preparation
of the spatial and land use plans, management of these development plans and
exercise of control over land use, land sub-division, land development and zoning
by public and private sectors, enforcement of municipal laws, rules and by-laws,
provision and management of water, drainage waste and sanitation along with allied
municipal services.[39]

There are 118 union councils in Faisalabad. Their role is to collect and maintain
statistical information for socio-economic surveys. They consolidate ward
neighbourhood development needs and prioritise these into union-wide development
proposals. The council identifies any deficiencies in the delivery of these
services and makes recommendations for improvement to the TMA.[40]

Faisalabad Development AuthorityEdit

The Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA) was validly established in October 1976
under The Punjab Development of Cities Act (1976) to regulate, supervise and
implement development activities in its jurisdiction area.[41][42] The FDA acts as
a policy-making body for the development of the city and is in charge of arranging
and supervising major developments within the city. It is responsible for the
administration of building regulations, management of parks and gardens and subsoil
water management. The FDA works with the Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) to
control and maintain the water supply, sewerage and drainage.[43] The FDA works to
improve conditions in the slums.[44]

HealthcareEdit

Healthcare services are provided to the citizens by both public and private sector
hospitals. The governmentrun hospitals are Allied Hospital, District HQ Hospital,
Institute of Child Care,[45] PINUM Cancer Hospital, Faisalabad Institute of
Cardiology (FIC) and General Hospitals in Ghulam Muhammadabad and Samanabad.
[46] There are a number of private hospitals, clinics and laboratories in the city,
notably Al-Rahmat labs, Mujahid Hospital lab, National Hospital lab & Agha Khan
lab.[47][48]

Law enforcementEdit

Law enforcement in Faisalabad is carried out by the city police, under the command
of the city police officer (CPO), an appointment by the provincial government.
[49] The office of the CPO is located in the District Courts, Faisalabad.
[50] Various police formations include district police, elite police, traffic
police, Punjab highway patrolling, investigation branch, and special branch.[51]

Water supply and sanitationEdit


The Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA), is a subsidiary of Faisalabad Development
Authority (FDA), established 23 April 1978 under the Development of Cities Act
1976.[52] 2015 estimates indicate that WASA provides about 72% of the city's
sewerage services and about 60% of their water services.[53] The existing
production capacity of WASA is 65 million imperial gallons per day (300 million
litres per day), almost all of which is drawn from wells located in the old beds of
the Chenab River. From the wells, water is pumped to a terminal reservoir located
on Sargodha Road.[54] Water is normally supplied for a total of about 8 hours per
day to the majority of the city.[54] The Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA) has provided financial and hardware equipment to help improve the water and
sanitation conditions in the city.[55]

GeographyEdit

LocationEdit

Faisalabad lies in the rolling flat plains of northeast Punjab, at 184 metres
(604 ft) above sea level. The city proper comprises approximately 1,230 square
kilometres (470 sq mi) while the district encompasses more than 16,000 square
kilometres (6,200 sq mi). The Chenab River flows about 30 kilometres (19 mi), and
the Ravi River meanders 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the southeast. The lower Chenab
canal provides water to 80% of cultivated lands making it the main source of
irrigation. Faisalabad is bound on the north by Chiniot and Sheikhupura, on the
east by Sheikhupura and Sahiwal, on the south by Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh and on
the west by Jhang.[56]

GeologyEdit

The district of Faisalabad is part of the alluvial plains between the Himalayan
foothills and the central core of the Indian subcontinent.[57] The alluvial
deposits are typically over a thousand feet thick.[58] The interfluves are believed
to have been formed during the Late Pleistocene and feature river terraces.
[59] These were later identified as old and young floodplains of the Ravi River on
the Kamalia and Chenab Plains. The old floodplains consist of Holocene deposits
from the Ravi and Chenab rivers.[60]

The soil consists of young stratified silt loam or very fine sand loam which makes
the subsoil weak in structure with common kankers at only five feet. The course of
the rivers within Faisalabad are winding and often subject to frequent
alternations. In the rainy season, the currents are very strong. This leads to high
floods in certain areas which do last for a number of days.
The Rakh and Gogera canals have encouraged the water levels in the district however
the belt on the Ravi River has remained narrow. The river bed does include the
river channels which have shifted the sand bars and low sandy levees leading to
river erosion.[58]

Faisalabad is situated at the centre of the lower Rechna Doab, the area is located
between the Chenab and Ravi rivers. There is a mild slope from the northeast to the
southwest with an average fall of 0.20.3 metres per kilometre (1.11.6 feet per
mile). The city is situated at an elevation of about 183 metres (600 ft). The
topography is marked by valleys, local depression and high ground.[61]

ClimateEdit

Main article: Climate of Faisalabad

The weather in the city is monitored by the Pakistan Meteorological Department.


[62] The Pakistan Meteorological Department regularly provides forecasts, public
warnings and rainfall information to farmers with the assistance of the National
Agromet Centre.[63][64] Faisalabad has been classified as a hot desert
climate (BWh) by the Kppen-Geiger climate classification system.[65]

Average annual rainfall is approximately 375 millimetres (14.8 in) and highly
seasonal. It is usually at its highest in July and August during monsoon season.
[61] Record-breaking rainfall of 264.2 millimetres (10.40 in) was recorded on 5
September 1961 by the Pakistan Meteorological Department.[66] Observations from the
Meteorological Observatory at the University of Agriculture indicate that overall
rainfall levels in the city have increased by 90.4 millimetres (3.56 in) over the
course of thirty years.[67]

Climate data for FaisalabadMonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYearRecord high


C (F)26.6
(79.9)30.8
(87.4)37
(99)44
(111)47.5
(117.5)48
(118)46.1
(115)42
(108)41.1
(106)40
(104)36.1
(97)29.2
(84.6)48
(118)Average high C (F)19.4
(66.9)22.2
(72)27.4
(81.3)34.2
(93.6)39.7
(103.5)41.0
(105.8)37.7
(99.9)36.5
(97.7)36.6
(97.9)33.9
(93)28.2
(82.8)22.1
(71.8)31.6
(88.9)Average low C (F)4.8
(40.6)7.6
(45.7)12.6
(54.7)18.3
(64.9)24.1
(75.4)27.6
(81.7)27.9
(82.2)27.2
(81)24.5
(76.1)17.7
(63.9)10.4
(50.7)6.1
(43)17.4
(63.3)Record low C (F)4
(25)2
(28)1
(34)7
(45)13
(55)17
(63)19
(66)18.6
(65.5)15.6
(60.1)9
(48)2
(36)1.3
(29.7)4
(25)Average precipitation mm (inches)16
(0.63)18
(0.71)23
(0.91)14
(0.55)9
(0.35)29
(1.14)96
(3.78)97
(3.82)20
(0.79)5
(0.2)2
(0.08)8
(0.31)346
(13.62)Source: [68]

DemographicsEdit

Population growthCensusPop. %194169,930


1951179,000156.0%1961425,240137.6%1972823,34493.6%19811,104,20934.1%19982,008,86181
.9%Figures based on the 2004 Baseline Survey
conducted by the Asian Urban Information Centre of Kobe[61]

Faisalabad was established as one of the first planned towns of British India
covering an area of 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi).[69] It was initially designed
to accommodate 20,000 people. The city's population increased from 69,930 in 1941
to 179,000 in 1951 (152.2% increase).[70] Much of the increase is attributed to the
settlement of Muslim refugees from East Punjab and Haryana, India. In 1961, the
population rose to 425,248, an increase of 137.4%. Faisalabad set a record in the
demographic history of Pakistan by registering an overall population increase of
508.1% between 1941 and 1961. The industrial revolution of the 1960s contributed to
population growth.[70] In 1961, the population was 425,248. A 1972 census ranked
Faisalabad as the 3rd largest city of Pakistan with a population of 864,000. In a
1981 census, the population was 1,092,000; however, the Faisalabad Development
Authority estimated the number to be 1,232,000.[70] A 2014 demographic profile
shows the population count at 3.038 million.[71]

Religion and ethnic groupsEdit

A Mughal inspired mosque in the old city. The majority of the population are
Muslim.[72]

Gurudawar Layallpur, a SikhGurdwara constructed during the reign of the British


Empire in 1911

The province of Punjab, in which Faisalabad is the second largest city, has
prevalent sociocultural distinctions.[73] Population sizes vary by district but
some distinguishing factors include a young age structure, high age dependency
ratio, a higher percentage of males, a higher proportion of married population,
and heterogeneity in castes and languages.[73]:387
Islam is the common heritage in the region with a 97.22% Muslim majority according
to the 1998 Pakistan census report and 2001 population data sheet.[73] Islamic
influences are evident in the fundamental values of various inhabitants including
cultural traditions, marriage, education, diet, ceremonies and policies with may
reflect stark differences in rural villages as compared to urban areas.[74] People
live in tight-knit joint families, although a nuclear family system is emerging due
to changing socio-economic conditions.[73] Ancient Pakistani culture prevails in
most marriage practices in the region, as do certain restrictions related to
ethnicity and caste. However, the influences of more modern societies have effected
some change, particularly in the area of the dowry system. As of 2016, monogamous
and polygamous unions remain an acceptable marriage practice.[75] In following
ancient culture, marriages are customarily arranged by the parents or matchmakers.
In some instances, the husband must buy his wife from her parents.[75] Marriage
ceremonies, which can be more or less formal, include rituals which are universal
in nature and hold sociological importance.[74] Studies conducted in 2007 and 2013,
the latter in an outlying rural village in Faisalabad District, acknowledged the
existence of gender bias and discrimination against females, stating that "Gender
discrimination is not a new phenomenon", and that it still exists in the modern
world.[73][74] It was further noted that situations may be worse in villages
because "whenever a girl is born, nobody celebrates her birth, whereas when a boy
is born, it means great joy and celebration."[74]

Social change in the region has been a slow process but there are indications that
change has occurred as more villages are exposed to various forms of media and
modernized urban communities. It is further noted that there has been a "conscious
and persistent effort" to educate rural and urban societies about gender bias and
equality.[74] In early 2014, there was a march known as the "White Ribbon Campaign"
which took place in front of the Faisalabad Press Club. Protestors appealed to the
government to adopt new laws "to protect women who are discriminated against in the
family and workplace."[76]

Prevalent minorities, particularly Hindu and Christian, feel a sense of

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