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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

In a rapidly moving world, time has been a key element on how people manage
their daily lives.

Time is a free force, it does not want for anyone. The time flies and never returns,
so if you waste time, it wastes you.

For most people, they simply define time as powerful, that it conquers all. Such as
students, who always say that time is valuable but sometimes being observed to have a
hard time managing it wisely. Same with employees who keep saying that time is money
because their earnings depend on how they make use of the time fruitfully.

There are such factors that affect the mechanism of this happening. Such like
tardiness, time irregularities and mismanagement of time. Moreover, Filipinos are known
to have that bad habit of doing the so-called Filipino Time which sets a specific time
(doing the said things) for said occasions but then appears to happen hours later. Without
proper implementation of regulations for being on time, doing the said things could
eventually impact the work of such employees.

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For so many years before, Cagayan State University was using Mechanical Bundy
Clock Time Card which is a manual system but has found to be prone to time theft and
human error when entering their information regarding their time in second time-out.
However, last November 2013, a new system for time attendance was introduced and was
officially implemented in all national and local government offices a month after, this
system is called the Biometric Fingerprint. This is to conform with the new Republic Act
No. 10535 known as The Philippine Standard Time (PST) Act of 2013, which has been
signed by President Benigno Aquino III and was approved last May 15, 2013 and
published in the Official Gazette on May 23 of the same year.

So these brought up to the attention of the researchers. Whether applying the said
act for the standardization of the time in the Philippines would improve or not the work
environment especially in Cagayan State University.

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Theoretical Framework

There are key concepts that can be the locus of the study. RA 10535 is an Act to
set the Philippine Standard Time (PST) in all official sources throughout the country, to
provide funds for the installation, operation and maintenance of synchronized time
devices to be displayed in key public places and to declare the First Week of Every Year
as National Time Consciousness Week.

Time management is essential for everyone when you understand its importance
and its relation to the said Republic Act. A conscious control when imposed over the
amount of time spent in doing day-to-day activities would enable you to divide your
priorities and set a deadline for them. There are different time management theories that
would help you to organize, plan, and schedule your responsibilities, activities and the
most coveted goals of your life in the right manner, and then you can channelize your
energy towards that specific direction to increase productivity.

Time Management identifies tasks and recognizes demands on our time, uses
calendars and appointment books to schedule and plan for the future, plans ahead and
prioritizing activities which applies personal values to the process of prioritization and
lastly, it focuses on activities that are not urgent but are important. (Stephen R Covey,
Seven Habits of Highly Successful People(Simon & Schuster, 1999)).

Coveys Time Management Quadrant recognises that we often have different


roles and needs within our lives, such as family, work, community, time for ourselves,
and recreation or other activities. Coveys time management model is based on the
assumption that we should manage time around what is important, not what is urgent, and
that this should be carried out and planned across the different roles.

Covey believes that the key to success is concentrating on highly important, but
non-urgent issues, across all the identified roles. These, he argues, are the most important
in terms of self-development, but are also the ones that are most commonly ignored. By

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looking at the whole picture you have the opportunity to balance work and other priorities
in your life. These tasks include writing a personal mission statement, long-range
planning and preparation. If you succeed in doing this, you can expect the following
benefits: coherence -in your planner include values and personal mission; balance- the
planner should include, and help you to focus on, how to establish a healthy worklife
balance; focus- the planner should encourage focus on important life as well as work
issues; flexibility- the planning tool is your servant not your master; and people
dimension- this tool, Covey argues, will help to improve your relationships with others).
(Stephen R Covey, Seven Habits of Highly Successful People(Simon & Schuster, 1999)).

Urgency is time related, importance is value related, but most people respond to
urgency rather than importance. Whilst they can coincide, they are not the same and a
key point with time management is to deal with important tasks before they become
urgent, as it is easier to do the important tasks well when they are not urgent.( Stephen R
Covey, Seven Habits of Highly Successful People(Simon & Schuster, 1999)).

The new Republic Act 10535 which directs the government offices to synchronize
all their time pieces to follow a standard time and be determined by PAGASA, in
coordination with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), to monitor,
maintain and disseminate the Philippine Standard Time throughout the country.
(LBG/KBK/GMA News, March 2013).

Implementation of the new law took effect June 1, 2013. All national and local
government offices are mandated to display the Philippine Standard Time (PST) on their
official time devices, including Bundy clocks, in accordance with the official time being
provided by the PAGASA using its network time protocol. All of these offices shall
coordinate, at least once a month, with the PAGASA to synchronize their official
timepieces and devices. (GMAS News, May 23, 2013), (Andreo Calonzo)

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Cagayan State University, in all campuses, in order to comply with the said act, they
required their employees to start using the new system which is the Biometric Fingerprint
System.

The primary purpose of the Biometric Fingerprint system is to provide non-


repudiable authentication. Authentication implies that (a) only legitimate or authorized
users are able to access the physical or logical resources protected by the biometric
system and (b) impostors are prevented from acceorssing the protected resources. (To
Appear in Security and Privacy in Biometrics, P. Campisi (ed.), Springer, 2012

Biometric system can be useful for the study and in analyzing the input. The
system will serve as a basis for determining the effects of the legalization of the
Philippine Standard Time in Cagayan State University. As well as the above-mentioned
theories, which serve as important factors in time management among employees of the
said government institution.

Punctuality is essential in industry, business and the school is rather generally


accepted; but this acceptance gives no assurance that the majority of people are punctual
in these situations or that their behavior is consistent with their attitudes toward
punctuality. It is this problem of consistencythe essential harmony between attitudes
and behaviorwhich has been called into question by certain critics of socio-
psychological studies. They query: Do attitudes reveal behavior? Are beliefs a true index
to action? Can we rely on the subjective estimates which observers make of their own
behavior? Because of these doubts in the minds of some investigators there has been a
definite trend in the direction of objectivity in social research. This is most fortunate. The
need for such objectivity in social research cannot be over- emphasized. Certainly the
most reliable data are obtained when observations are made in actual life- situations on
individuals who are not aware of being observed. Quite naturally, such methods are far
more time-consuming, and much more difficult to administer than the much simpler
pencil-and-paper procedures, but we are rapidly coming to appreciate that the objective

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methods are much more rewarding. (The Journal of Social Psychology,9,207-217,
George J. Dudycha).

Punctuality goes hand in hand with time management. Being late once or twice because
of an unavoidable incident is all right but habitual latecomers need to do something about
their lack of punctuality for their own good.

People who are constantly late are more stressed at work because they are always
rushing tasks. They either need to stay later than the others to finish a task or their work
spills over to the next day until it piles up. Hence, it becomes impossible to manage time
well for those who often start their day late.

Punctuality is crucial in the workplace. Time is a valuable resource and for


latecomers who do not see its value, it could mean losing a sale, a perspective client or a
career opportunity. The reason for this is obvious tardiness creates the impression of
poor time management and unreliability.

If you fail to do something as simple as showing up on time for work or for an


appointment, then how can you convince you boss or a client that you can manage a
project schedule and meet a deadline?

Tardiness can also be contagious, in a sense, because when other people expect you
to be late for a meeting, for example, it increases the likelihood that they will not show up
on time either to avoid waiting up for you. Your lack of punctuality can also negatively
affect other people's time management plan. If you are late for a meeting, your co-
workers would either delay the start of the meeting or spend five to ten minutes telling
you what you missed when you finally arrive. Either way, your tardiness will cost other
people's time.

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On the other hand punctuality reflects that you value your time and the time of
others. It says that you are serious about your work and that people can rely on you
because when you show up on time as promised then that means you can keep your word,
and that trait will get you a long way in whatever profession.

Improving how you manage your time is the only way to improve punctuality. If
you keep doing things at the last minute then there will always be something to hold you
up. One useful tip to help you avoid being late is to schedule your meeting throughout the
day with enough time, maybe fifteen to twenty minutes, in between each appointment.
(http://www.solchemar.com/time-management-maintaining-punctuality.php,
TimeManagement maintaining Punctuality).

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Statement of the Problem

This study was aimed to ascertain the level of awareness of the employees of

Cagayan State University Andrews Campus on RA 10535 and its possible effects on their

punctuality.

The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of worker classification and from

what department they belong?

2. What is the level of awareness of the employees of CSU Andrews on RA 10535?

3. What is the relationship between the awareness and punctuality based on the
perceptions on the implementation of RA 10535?

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study hoped to become of great significance and to be beneficial to

the following:

The Employees of CSU Andrews Campus

The results of this research would provide feedbacks to the employees regarding

the issue on their punctuality towards work and that it would help for the proper

regulation and observation of the said act in accordance with the extent of their

awareness. The results of this research would become an initial step for them to give

importance to their working time at their respective workplace.

The Institution

This study would contribute on the institutions further development on research

and extension. This would also help them observe and properly regulate timeliness of

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their employees on their work areas. Having acquired prior knowledge on their workers

characteristics towards punctuality, they would be able to come up with ideas that could

make them improve their time management skills and implementation of such which

would be of help to the latter. Proper utilization of the findings of this research would be

an advantage towards the development and improvement of the institutions productivity.

The Future Researchers

This research work should serve as a resource material in acquiring necessary

information that can be used to their researches. Taking advantage of the data that can be

gathered through this material may serve as a tool to improve society in the aim of

developing a culture of punctuality. Findings of this study should serve as a data bank

which they may freely avail of.

The Researchers

This study would serve as a tool for them to earn their degree and compliance to

the subject. The making of such material would be able to help them to know more of

how to prepare it in order that this may be of use to them for future purposes. Through

the participation and support of the respondents, this research may qualify as a good

source material regarding the development of a culture of punctuality.

Scope and Delimitation

This research study was an analysis of the correlation between the level of the

awareness of the employees of CSU Andrews Campus on RA 10535 and their

punctuality based on the respondents perception on the implementation of the said

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Republic Act. The respondents were then categorized into four (4) worker classifications

namely Faculty (plain), Faculty Official (designated), Staff & Personnel, and Utility.

These four came from five (5) departments/colleges of the institution which included the

College of Business Entrepreneurship and Accountancy (CBEA), College of Allied

Health Sciences (CAHS), College of Hospitality and Industry Management (CHIM),

College of Teachers Education (CTED) and the Administrative Department.

From each of the aforementioned departments, employees were chosen at random

so as to gather a total of one hundred (100) respondents which was limited only to none

other than the workers of CSU Andrews Campus.

The study was conducted at Cagayan State University Andrews Campus from

November 2013 to October 2014.

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Research Paradigm

PHILIPPINE STANDARD
TIME (R.A. 10535)

TIME MANAGEMENT

BIOMETRIC
FINGERPRINT SYSTEM

CAGAYAN STATE
UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES

PUNCTUALITY

Fig.1. This figure shows the relationship between the independent variable (Philippine
Standard Time) and the dependent variables (Time Management, Biometric Fingerprint
System, Cagayan State University Employees and Punctuality).

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Definition of Terms

Implications a biological relation between two propositions that fails to hold only if the
first is true and the second is false.

Philippine Standard Time abbreviated as PhST; and informally Juan Time, is the
official name for the time in the Philippines. The country uses only one time zone (UTC+
8:00), and for a short period also used daylight saving time as an emergency measure.

Biometrics refers to automatic identification of a person based on her physiological or


behavioural characteristics on something which she is or she does to make a personal
identification.

Fingerprint pattern of ridges and furrows on the surface of a fingertip.

Punctuality- is the characteristic of being able to complete a required task or fulfill an


obligation before or at a previously designated time

Awareness- the state or condition of being aware; having knowledge; consciousness

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

"Lateness is really a commonly misunderstood problem," says Diana De


Lonzor(2013), author of Never Be Late Again, who has conducted her own research on
the perpetually tardy. "Yes, it's a rude act, but I've interviewed hundreds of people and
the vast majority of late people really dislike being late, they try to be on time, but this is
something that has plagued them throughout their lives. Telling a chronic late person to
be on time is like telling a dieter, 'Don't eat so much.'"

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/07/psychology-lateness_n_4229057.html

Attendance is critical in many customer facing jobs. Poor attendance saps employee
morale, costs employers overtime expenses, and reduces employee engagement. Poor
attendance takes supervisory time and attention and often results in disciplinary action.
You can manage employee attendance to reduce attendance problems. Here's how to
manage and encourage attendance. Use these steps to encourage employee attendance at
work. (Susan M. Heathfield, 2013)

http://humanresources.about.com/od/workschedule1/a/How-To-Encourage-Attendance-
At-Work.htm

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(Aaron Tadeo, 2009) Attendance is usually the top priority when it comes to an
employee's performance. It usually has a higher weight compared to other metrics such as
productivity and quality. But some may not understand the importance of having a good
attendance record and what implications it could have if an employee is always out of
work.

The best trait an employee could probably have in any company is their dependability
and the main factor in being dependable is attendance. It's pretty simple as the question,
"How can a company depend on someone who isn't at work?" A lot of managers would
probably say that they'd rather have someone who is performing average and who is
always present at work than someone who really excels at what he/she does but is absent
every week.

Another important thing to remember about attendance is the importance of learning.


There could be lots of updates that are going on especially if your line of business is fast-
paced. If an employee isn't constantly at work, he/she may not be able to catch up with
updates and it could very well affect the quality of his/her work. It's always a continuous
learning process and you could have encountered lots of different scenarios in the process
where you could have learned some tricks or something really valuable.

http://voices.yahoo.com/what-importance-having-good-attendance-2467748.html

(Susan Cullen, 2011) In today's fast-paced world, time management has never been more
challenging. Technology, for all its glory, has made it easy to constantly stay
connected. The downside is that this same technology has made everything urgent in the
form of phone calls, text messages and emails. And because everything is urgent, it has
pushed the really important things to the back burner. We have more and more

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information constantly streaming to us. What kind of impact do you think this is having
on you and the people around you? Below are several symptoms you may recognize:

Lack of focus
When everything is an urgent fire to put out, it's very easy to lose sight of your really
important priorities. You may not have thought about your most important priorities for
this month, this week and today. When this occurs, you will focus on the urgent, not
important, activities. No time is spent planning how to prevent crises in the future. As a
result, the crises just continue and may get even bigger.

Missing deadlines
It can be hard to keep up with important deadlines when you're constantly putting out
fires. But when you notice you're missing deadlines consistently, you may want to ask
yourself if you planned well enough to accomplish this task by the deadline? Are you
procrastinating until the last minute? Do you feel everything is equally important and so
have not really prioritized the ability to get this done?

More disorganized
When you don't feel in control of your time, your desk can pile up with paperwork. Your
to-do list expands. It's harder to find things when you need them. Not finding time to get
organized is kind of like not finding time to fill the gas tank in your car. If you just think
you're too busy to do it, you will definitely pay the price.

Overlooking details
When you're moving too fast, and feeling stressed to get it all done, it's easy to overlook
the details that are important. In some instances, this can lead to significant errors. It's a
bad reflection on your professional ability. It's definitely not the impression you want to
make with the co-workers who depend on you.

Strained relationships
Other people can feel frustrated with you if you are missing deadlines, disorganized or

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overlooking important details. But as your work load is piling up, you can also become
more frustrated with them. You may find yourself being more irritable than you
normally would or more likely to express your frustration. This can place a strain on
relationships if it's not addressed.

These are just some of the symptoms of poor time management at work. What other
symptoms do you think could occur? How is it impacting you or other people around
you?

http://www.quantumlearn.com/blog/bid/49053/5-Symptoms-of-Poor-Time-Management-
at-Work

Definition of Time Management and How it Could Affect Work

(Ward, 2010) Generally, time management refers to the development of processes


and tools that increase efficiency and productivity.

In business, time management has morphed into everything from methodologies such as
Enterprise Resource Planning through consultant services such as Professional
Organizers.

When we think of time management, however, we tend to think of personal time


management, loosely defined as managing our time to waste less time on doing the things
we have to do so we have more time to do the things we want to do.

Therefore, time management is often thought of or presented as a set of time management


skills; the theory is that once we master the time management skills, we'll be more
organized, efficient, and happier.

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- http://sbinfocanada.about.com/od/timemanagement/g/timemanagement.htm

Importance of Time Management

(Jo-ann Downey, 2010) To manifest what you want, especially in the physical world,
knowing where you want to go and being organized is important. This is especially true
in the workplace. It is important for you to be on time for work, to be on time for
meetings and to deliver your promises on time. Period.

Consistently meeting your commitments, on time, is self-honoring and builds trust within
yourself and with others. And since trust is the foundation to successful personal and
professional relationships, to be true to your word and to fulfill your commitments is
essential.

http://verysmartgirls.com/manifesting/time-management-time-consciousness/

Time Management and Performance

Several studies demonstrate that time management predicts job performance. For

example, car salesmen with better time management skills have higher sales (Barling et
al.,

1996). College students with better time management skills report higher grade point
averages

(Britton & Tesser, 1991; Macan et al., 1990). County extension directors with better time

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management skills are rated higher by their superiors (assistant regional directors)

(Radhakrishna, Yoder, & Baggett, 1991).

To understand the association between time management and job performance,

researchers have investigated a series of possible linkages e. Most clearly, time


management

helps improve job efficiency by enabling professionals to allocate adequate time to their
jobs

most important tasks (Hall & Hursch, 1982; Orpen, 1994; Schuler, 1979). This greater
attention

to high-priority work areas improves worker outcomes. The expectation that increased
time

management will increase worker productivity by enabling employees to work smarter


has

driven widespread investment in time management training in the private sector (Green &

Skinner, 2005).

http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/time%20management.pdf.pdf

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Time Management Systems as a part of implementing Standard Time

Time management systems often include a time clock or web based application
used to track an employees work hours. Time management systems give employers
insights into their workforce, allowing them to see, plan and manage employees' time.
Doing so allows employers to control labor costs and increase productivity. A time
management system automates processes, which eliminates paper work and tedious tasks.
(Wikipedia)

Standard Time

Standard Time, the time of a region or country that is established by law or general
usage as civil time.

The concept was adopted in the late 19th century in an attempt to end the confusion that
was caused by each communitys use of its own solar time. Some such standard became
increasingly necessary with the development of rapid railway transportation and the
consequent confusion of schedules that used scores of different local times kept in
separate communities. (Local time varies continuously with change in longitude.) The
need for a standard time was felt most particularly in the United States andCanada, where
long-distance railway routes passed through places that differed by several hours in local
time. Sir Sandford Fleming, a Canadian railway planner and engineer, outlined a plan for
worldwide standard time in the late 1870s. Following this initiative, in 1884 delegates
from 27 countries met in Washington, D.C., .

- http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/563012/Standard-Time

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The main importance of standard time is that it helps in organising a uniform
schedule for transport like railways and airways. It cuts down on costs that would be
otherwise incurred on adjusting to different time schedules and the subsequent loss of
time. It also enhances economic productivity across the country by helping to coordinate
economic activities. (Saurav Ghosh 2012)

RA 10535 (Philippine Standard Time)

Psst! Its now PST, not Filipino time

(Michael Lim Ubac, 2013) Will a new law scheduled to take effect on June 1 finally put
an end to the Filipino habit of tardiness?

To encourage punctuality and stamp out the habit among many Filipinos of following
their own so-called Filipino time, President Aquino has signed Republic Act No. 10535
requiring all government offices and the broadcast media to follow Philippine Standard
Time (PST).

While the law requires obedience from the entire government bureaucracynational and
localit also seeks to encourage punctuality among those notorious for being late.

The law requires the public school system and the governmentlocal and nationalto
conduct a continuing information campaign about the value of time and the need to
respect the time of others, in order that the people may realize the imperative of
synchronizing the official time.

Official timekeeper

The law designates the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration (Pagasa) as the official timekeeper.

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All government offices, agencies, instrumentalities (and) bureaus shall now coordinate
with Pagasa once a month to synchronize official timepieces and devices, said deputy
presidential spokesperson Abigail Valte.

The law empowers Pagasa to acquire equipment necessary for the automatic
dissemination of time with the global positioning system.

PST is eight hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+8).

All agencies of government, including the local government units, are mandated to follow
the PST starting June 1, or upon publication of the law.

Time discrepancies

The public can check the official time at http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph.

Pagasa, however, has put a notice on its website: Internet is one of the main modes by
which Pagasa disseminates the Philippine Standard Time (PST). Obviously, there may be
discrepancies with the PST displayed here as compared to the Pagasa clock.

The major causes of the discrepancy are Internet transmission delay and the computer
workload of the computer you are using. If you need a more precise clock
synchronization, we would suggest that you call (+632) 9291237.

The law authorizes Congress to provide funds for the installation, operation and
maintenance of synchronized time devices to be displayed in key public places.

The law was designed to also compel the mediaparticularly TV and radio stations
across the archipelagoto synchronize their time devices.

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Penalties prescribed

The National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) shall require the participation of


all government and private television and radio stations in order to ensure the
synchronization of timekeeping devices, the law says.

The NTC can enforce obedience, including penalizing owners of private television and
radio stations who shall fail to calibrate and synchronize their time devices with the PST
during their broadcast.

The penalty ranges from P30,000 to P50,000 for the first offense, and in case of a second
offense, revocation and cancellation of their franchises to operate.

However, no penalty will be enforced on individual Filipinos who failor refuseto


observe the PST.

Time zones

The adoption of the PST placing the entire country under a single time for any given day
is nothing new.

Presidential Decree No. 1149 has assigned Pagasa as the official agency to handle the
dissemination of the PST.

RA 10535, however, requires both public and private institutions to adhere to Pagasas
timekeeping system, enjoining compulsory obedience through the imposition of fines for
erring broadcast entities.

While the country is observing a single time zone, other countries have as many as 11.

In 2010, Russia cut the number of its time zones from 11 to nine to lessen confusion.

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- http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/414319/psst-its-now-pst-not-filipino-time#ixzz2t7wQx6ZQ

(Andreo Calonzo, 2013)) "Filipino time" may become a thing of the past for government
offices in the country after President Benigno Aquino III signed a law setting the
Philippine standard time.

Under Republic Act 10535 signed by the President last May 15, government offices are
directed to synchronize all their timepieces to follow a standard time, which will be
determined by PAGASA.
"Lahat po ng ahensya ng pamahalaan ay minamandatuhan na sundan na po ang
Philippine Standard Time," deputy presidential spokesperson Abigail Valte said at a press
briefing Thursday.
The new law also directs PAGASA's Time Service Unit, in coordination with the
Department of Science and Technology (DOST), to "monitor, maintain and disseminate"
the Philippine Standard Time throughout the country.

R.A. 10535 likewise gives the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) the
power to require government and private television and radio stations to help in the
dissemination of the Philippine Standard Time even in remote parts of the country.

The law also imposes a fine of up to P50,000 on owners of private television and radio
stations who "shall fail to calibrate and synchronize their time devices" with the
Philippine Standard Time.

The legislation also sets every first week of the year as the "National Time Consciousness
Week."

- http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/309697/news/nation/pnoy-signs-law-
setting-phl-standard-time

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From Juan Tamad to Juan Time.

(Tarra Quismundo, 2011) The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), in


partnership with the Philippine representative of the Discovery Channel, is launching a
campaign to redefine Filipino time, the notorious national habit of always being late.

In these fast-paced times, a few seconds difference in time reference counts a lot.
Through this campaign, I hope we can remind everyone about the importance of
observing a common time reference that is the Philippine Standard Time (PST) and, of
course, being on time in everything that we do, said Science and Technology Secretary
Mario Montejo.

The Juan Time project (a play on one time) seeks to encourage Filipinos to synchronize
all their clocks and watches, and quit making excuses for missing their call times
whether in school, at the office or in social gatherings.

Jacque Ruby, Discovery Channels representative in Manila who initiated the project,
said the Juan Time campaign hopes to underscore the importance of time management.

We want to standardize our time again, to synchronize our time. Juan Time is not just
about standardizing our time, its time management, [for people to] be aware of the
passage of time. Otherwise, you will miss the important things, said Ruby.

Ruby noted that Filipinos typically defined time in vague terms: An appointment is made
in the morning instead of committing to 9 a.m. or a meeting is after lunch instead of
agreeing to 1:30 p.m.

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Its about time. Its a social ill. It is no different from gambling, from eating disorders,
because it affects relationships, it even affects your career. The problem is Filipinos have
gotten used to it, Ruby told the Inquirer in an interview.

A personal tragedy inspired Rubys inception of the initiative earlier this year. On Feb.
15, he had missed his father Joses final moments as he decided to go home first to rest
and freshen up.

My dad was really sick and we knew that he was going to die. But I decided to come
home first to take a shower because I projected that he still had a few hours, recalled
Ruby.

His father, 79, had been in the hospital suffering from diabetes complications.

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/64613/%E2%80%98juan-time%E2%80%99-hopes-to-end-
habits-of-being-late-making-excuses

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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the procedures and methods used in gathering data needed

for the present study. It focused on the selection of respondents and sampling technique,

used of its research design, research instrument, the collection of data and the analysis of

the collected data.

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study made use of the survey method and the 3-point likert scale. It was a

descriptive research because it characterized the phenomenon being studied. This study

described the level of awareness and its implications on worker punctuality and such

other related behaviours on Cagayan State University Andrews Campus employees.

Information gathered were used to justify the phenomenon in order to formulate plans to

improve the workers attitude towards timeliness.

It has a correlational approach since this also further correlate the awareness of

the workers to their being punctual to work by using the Statistical Correlation as our

statistical tool. This also made use of a survey questionnaire as the main instrument in the

collection of data.

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LOCALE OF THE STUDY

The locale of the study was in the different colleges/ departments of Cagayan

State University- Andrews Campus, Caritan, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan.

RESPONDENTS AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The studys respondents were the employees of Cagayan State University

Andrews Campus. The employees were classified into four (4) which include faculty

(plain), faculty official (designated), staff and personnel, and utility to which have come

from the different departments/colleges of the said institution. The said

departments/colleges consist of the CBEA, CAHS, CHIM, CTED and Admin. There are

(40) Staff and Personnel coming from the Admin and there are (60) plain Faculty from

the different colleges; (19) from CTEd, (18) from CBEA, (14) from CHIM and (9) from

CAHS which comprise a total of one hundred (100) respondents.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

This study made use of a survey questionnaire to ascertain the level of awareness

of the respondents on RA 10535 and its relationship on their punctuality on work. The

questionnaire consists of questions which include salient provisions of the said Republic

Act and other probable factors that likely affect the research per se.

27
The research instrument has been prepared by the researchers themselves in

school library and was validated by their thesis adviser, Atty. Christine Saquing-

Genoveza.

COLLECTION OF DATA

The researchers secured permission to float questionnaires from their College

Dean. After the permit was granted, the researchers distributed their questionnaires to the

respondents involved in the study by reaching their specific departments to have personal

contacts with them.

The questionnaires were distributed individually to the employees. The employee-

respondents were instructed on how to answer the questions given.

The questionnaires were retrieved personally by the researchers. A one hundred

percent retrieval was attained.

ANALYSIS OF DATA

To analyze the data gathered on the employees-respondents profile in terms of

worker classification, their level of awareness and level of agreement on the

implementation of RA 10535, the Mean and Descriptive interpretation were used.

To obtain the relationship between the awareness and punctuality based on the

perceptions of the respondents, Statistical Correlation was utilized as a statistical tool.

28
Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Overview

In this chapter, the data gathered from the employees of CSU-Andrews in relation
to the research objectives. This chapter discussed the result of the survey questionnaire
responded by 100 participants. Before the initiation of the research study the significance,
rationale and purpose of the study were provided to the respondents. Furthermore, the
respondents have also been given the assurance that all the data they will give are used
for the purpose of the study and the identities of the respondents will be confidential. The
object is to determine the Level of Awareness of RA 10535 and its Implication on
Worker Punctuality. This is the manner unto which the study accounts the factors and the
perception on the criteria themselves.

The conduct of this study entailed a detailed account of the worker profile of the
respondents. It is assumed that the attributes of the respondents influence their behavior
and answers on the survey questions. Of particular significance to the achievement of the
goals and objectives of the study which is to be an instrument of analysis of the
institution to gauge where it is now and where it is heading, thus what changes are to be
made is to be able to answer the research questions.

Part 1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents

The profile of the respondents is looked upon in terms of worker classification and from
which department of CSU- Andrews they belong.

29
Part 2. To understand better the meaning of the means in the study, the following scale
was used:

a. Level of Awareness

Scale Descriptive Interpretation


2.34- 3.00 Very Much Aware
1.67- 2.33 Aware
1.00-1.66 Not Aware

b. Level of Agreement

Scale Descriptive Interpretation


2.34-3.00 Strongly Agree
1.67-2.33 Agree
1.00-1.66 Strongly Disagree

Part 3. To understand better the strength of relationship between awareness and


punctuality, the following scale was used:

c. Statistical Correlation

Value of r Interpretation
Between .80 to .99 High correlation
Between .60 to .79 Moderately high correlation
Between .40 to .59 Moderate correlation
Between .20 to .34 Low correlation
Between .01 to .19 Negligible correlation

30
TABLE 1. PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS

TABLE 1.1

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO WORKER


CLASSIFICATION

Classification Frequency
Faculty (plain) 60
Staff and Personnel 40
Total Respondents 100

Table 1.1 shows the worker classification of the respondents. There are 60 out of 100
respondents who are plain Faculty which is equivalent to 60%. There are 40 or 40% out
of the total number of respondents who belongs to the staff and personnel.

TABLE 1.2
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO COLLEGE/
DEPARTMENT THEY BELONG

Department Frequency
CBEA 18
CAHS 9
CHIM 14
CTEd 19
ADMIN 40
Total No. of Respondents 100

Table 1.2 shows that 40 out of 100 respondents which is equivalent to 40% are from
Admin, 19 or 19% are from CTEd, 18 or 18% are from CBEA, 14 or 14% are from
CHIM and 9 or 9% are from CAHS department.

31
TABLE 2

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THEIR AWARENESS ON RA 10535

Frequency
R.A. 10535 Very Much Mean
Not Aware Aware Aware Descriptive Interpretation

Section 1 - The
Philippine Standard 17 60 23 2.06 Aware
Time (PST) Act of
2013
Section 2 - Display of
the Philippine 24 61 15 1.91 Aware
Standard Time
Section 3 -
Monitoring,
Maintenance and 40 48 12 1.72 Aware
Dissemination of the
PST
Section 6 - Role of the
National 38 49 13 1.75 Aware
Telecommunications
Commission (NTC)
Section 7 Violations 49 43 8 1.59 Not Aware
Section 8 - 24 64 12 1.88 Aware
Information Campaign
Section 9 -
Institutionalization of 51 37 12 1.61 Not Aware
the National Time
Consciousness Week
1.79 Aware
Overall Mean
Table 2 shows the distribution of respondents on their awareness on the salient provisions of RA 10535. In
Section 1, a mean of 2.06 was computed basing from the frequency of each level of awareness, 1.91 in Section
2, 1.72 in Section 3, 1.75 in Section 6, 1.59 in Section 7, 1.88 in Section 8, and 1.61 in Section 9. With an
overall mean of 1.79. The respondents were Aware on the provisions of RA 10535.

32
TABLE 3

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR PERCEPTION ON THE


IMPLEMENTATION OF R.A. 10535

Frequency
Mean Descriptive Interpretation
Strongly
Agree Strongly Agree
Disagree
1.The implementation
of Philippine Standard
Strongly Agree
Time (RA 10535) will 9 36 55 2.46
develop a culture of
punctuality
2.It allows the practice
Strongly Agree
of wise time 8 34 58 2.50
management.
3. It will be a great
help for task 7 42 51 2.44 Strongly Agree
productivity
4.The Biometric
Fingerprint System is
an easier way to Strongly Agree
6 31 63 2.57
access your time
records. (Time
in/Time out).
5.In synchronizing the
clock of CSU with the
official Philippine Agree
16 47 37 2.21
Standard Time, it can
eradicate the
Filipino-time notion.
6. The anti-tardiness
objective of the said
Republic Act will 11 34 55 2.44 Strongly Agree
increase the efficiency
of every employee
7. Republic Act 10535
will make employees Strongly Agree
12 29 59 2.47
be more conscious
with their time.

33
8. Constituents will be
greatly benefited by
RA 10535 by 12 30 58 2.46 Strongly Agree
maximizing
class/lecture hours.
9. The awareness of
RA 10535 shall give a Strongly Agree
8 34 58 2.50
positive effect on the
worker punctuality.
10.Worker Punctuality
is an important factor Strongly Agree
15 30 55 2.40
in determining their
efficiency.

Strongly Agree
Overall Mean 2.45

Table 3 shows the distribution of respondents according to their perception on the


implementation of RA 10535. Indicator 1 has a mean of 2.46, Indicator 2 has a mean of
2.50, 2.44 in Indicator 3, 2.57 in Indicator 4, 2.21 in Indicator 5, 2.44 in Indicator 6, 2.47
in Indicator 7, 2.46 in Indicator 8, 2.50 in Indicator 9 and 2.40 in Indicator 10. All
computed Means were described to have Strongly Agreed by the respondents.

TABLE 4

CORRELATION OF AWARENESS AND PUNCTUALITY BASED ON THE


PERCEPTIONS OF THE RESPONDENTS

DEPARTMENT AWARENESS PUNCTUALITY


Admin 2.34 0.88
CTEd 2.27 2.0
CBEA 2.28 1.5
CHIM 1.75 3.41
CAHS 2.2 5.1
STATISTICALCORRELATION -0.46

34
Table 4 shows the correlation of awareness and punctuality based on the perceptions of

the respondents, the mean of the awareness include those who answered aware and very

much aware. A mean of 2.34 resulted from the admin, 2.27 from CTED, 2.28 from

CBEA, 1.75 from CHIM and 2.2 from CAHS.

The mean of the punctuality include the respondents who answered strongly

agree, agree and strongly disagree based from their perceptions. A mean of 0.88 resulted

from the admin, 2.0 from CTED, 1.5 from CBEA, 3.41 from CHIM and 5.1 from CAHS.

A correlation of -0.46 was computed from the 2 variables namely Awareness and

Punctuality. It can be inferred that the relationship of the 2 variables is moderate

correlation. This implies that awareness and punctuality based on the perceptions on the

implementation of RA 10535 may have a relationship but found to be a moderate

negative.

35
Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter summarizes the findings of the study. It also drafts conclusions and
recommendations based on the findings.

FINDINGS

The findings are summed up as follows:

A. The profile of the employees in CSU Andrews Campus in terms of worker


classification and from what department they belong.

Majority of the employees are Faculty. Others are Staff and Personnel.
Respondents were distributed to the Administration, CTEd, CBEA, CHIM and
CAHS.

B. The level of awareness on the salient provisions of RA 10535 in terms of


frequency, mean/overall mean and their corresponding descriptive interpretation.

Overall the respondents have a moderately high level of awareness on RA 10535.

C. The level of agreement on punctuality based from their perceptions in terms of


frequency, mean/overall mean and their corresponding descriptive interpretation.

Overall the respondents have a high level of agreement on the implementation of


RA 10535.

D. The relationship between awareness and punctuality based on the perceptions on


the implementation of RA 10535.

36
The Statistical Correlation indicates a moderate negative relationship between
awareness and punctuality. The r-value is between -0.4 to -0.59 which means that
the awareness on RA 10535 is not significantly related to punctuality based from
the perceptions of the respondents on the implementation of RA 10535.

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that even though the
employees of CSU Andrews are Aware of the salient provisions of RA 10535 and they
have Strongly Agreed on punctuality based on their perceptions on the implementation of
RA 10535, there may be a relationship between the 2 variables which are the awareness
and punctuality, however, was found to be in a moderate negative correlation which
basically implies that their awareness does not have much to do with their punctuality.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the researchers have arrived to
the following recommendations:

For Further Study

Given the changing nature of people and the environment, a series of studies, based
on the subject of this research, would document the effects of the implementation of RA
10535, and thereby increase the potential that the said law would be for the better.

1. While it was resulted to have a negative relationship between the respondents


awareness on RA 10535 and their perception regarding punctuality, it may be
advantageous to conduct research which considers the records of Time-in and
Time-out of respondents during the Bundy clock system to have a deeper
knowledge and analysis to the comparison of the old system to the new one when
RA 10535 was already implemented.

37
2. To access records and information which can be a reliable source for further
improvement of this study.
3. Given that this study provides a basis for concluding the level of awareness on
RA 10535 and its implications on worker punctuality, describing the perceptions
of the respondents and proving the relationship of the variables. Such an effort
would enable the people to know whether theres an improvement on worker
efficiency or otherwise.
4. Research related to this field that provides means of describing the level of
awareness to newly implemented laws, defining the discipline when it comes to
compliance that can possibly contribute value to the field of legal management.

38
Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
Metro Manila
Fifteenth Congress
Third Regular Session

Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-third day of July, two thousand
twelve.

[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10535]

AN ACT TO SET THE PHILIPPINE STANDARD TIME (PST) IN ALL


OFFICIAL SOURCES THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, TO PROVIDE FUNDS
FOR THE INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF
SYNCHRONIZED TIME DEVICES TO BE DISPLAYED IN KEY PUBLIC
PLACES AND TO DECLARE THE FIRST WEEK OF EVERY YEAR AS
NATIONAL TIME CONSCIOUSNESS WEEK

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress


assembled:

SECTION 1. Short Title. This Act shall be known as The Philippine Standard Time
(PST) Act of 2013.

SEC. 2. Display of the Philippine Standard Time. All national and local government
offices shall display the Philippine Standard Time (PST) on their official time devices,
including bundy clocks, in accordance with the official time being provided by the
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
(PAGASA) using its network time protocol. All of these offices shall coordinate, at least
once a month, with the PAGASA to synchronize their official timepieces and devices.

39
SEC. 3. Monitoring, Maintenance and Dissemination of the PST. The PAGASAs Time
Service Unit, in coordination with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST),
shall be tasked to monitor, maintain and disseminate the PST throughout the country. The
PAGASA shall operate and maintain a timekeeping system to perform these functions
and shall endeavor to install and maintain sufficiently large and prominently displayed
synchronized time devices in all their field stations and in key public places.

SEC. 4. Procurement of Equipment for the Automatic Dissemination of Time. The


procurement of equipment necessary for the automatic dissemination of time with global
positioning system (GPS) shall be in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act No.
9184 (Government Procurement Reform Act). The DOST shall be the procurement
overseer of said equipment.

SEC. 5. General Appropriations. The amount necessary for the implementation of this
Act shall be included in the appropriation of the PAGASA under the DOST in the
General Appropriations Act. Thereafter, such amount as may be necessary for the
upgrading and/or maintenance of the timekeeping system shall be included in the annual
budget of the DOST and the PAGASA.

SEC. 6. Role of the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC). The NTC shall
require the participation of all government and private television and radio stations in
order to ensure the synchronization of timekeeping devices can be undertaken even in the
most remote parts of the country.

SEC. 7. Violations. The NTC shall have jurisdiction to enforce obedience to the
provisions of this Act by writ of injunction or by other process, mandatory or otherwise,
restraining further violations of this Act and enjoining obedience thereto.

Owners of private television and radio stations who shall fail to calibrate and synchronize
their time devices with the PST during their broadcast shall, upon hearing and due
proceedings, be penalized with a fine of not less than Thirty thousand pesos (P30,000.00)

40
but not more than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) and in case of second offense,
revocation and cancellation of their franchises to operate.

The fine to be collected as penalty for the violation of this Act shall be deposited in the
general fund of the National Treasury.

SEC. 8. Information Campaign. All national and local government offices, including all
schools, public or private, shall conduct a continuing information campaign about the
value of time and the need to respect the time of others, in order that the people may
realize the imperative of synchronizing the official time.

SEC. 9. Institutionalization of the National Time Consciousness Week. The


National Time Consciousness Week shall be institutionalized and celebrated every first
week of the year.

SEC. 10. Implementing Guidelines. The PAGASA, in coordination with the DOST, the
NTC, the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC), the Department
of the Interior and Local Government (DILG), the Department of National Defense
(DND), the Department of Health (DOH), the Department of Education (DepED) and the
Commission on Higher Education (CHED), shall promulgate the necessary guidelines for
the effective implementation of the calibration and synchronization of the timekeeping
devices and implementation of this Act within ninety (90) days from the effectivity of
this Act.

SEC. 11. Separability Clause. If any provision of this Act is declared invalid or
unconstitutional, the remaining parts or provisions not affected shall remain in full force
and effect.

SEC. 12. Repealing Clause. All laws, decrees, executive orders, proclamations, rules
and regulations, and issuances, or parts thereof, which are inconsistent with the
provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or amended accordingly.

41
SEC. 13. Effectivity. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in
the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation.

Approved,

(Sgd.) FELICIANO (Sgd.) JUAN PONCE


BELMONTE JR. ENRILE
Speaker of the House President of the Senate
of Representatives

This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 3284 and House Bill No. 164 was
finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 4, 2013.

(Sgd.) MARILYN B. (Sgd.) EDWIN B.


BARUA-YAP BELLEN
Secretary General Acting Senate
House of Representatives Secretary

Approved: MAY 15 2013

(Sgd.) BENIGNO S. AQUINO III


President of the Philippines

42
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY
College of Business, Entrepreneurship and Accountancy
Andrews Campus
Caritan Highway, Tuguegarao City

October 3, 2014

The Dean/ Head of this Department/Office


Cagayan State University Andrews Campus
Caritan Centro, Tuguegarao City
Cagayan 3500

Dear Sir/ Madam,

Greetings!

We are fourth year students from the program Bachelor of Science in Legal Management
of the College of Business, Entrepreneurship and Accountancy. We are presently
conducting a study on the Level of Awareness on the Republic Act 10535 (Philippine
Standard Time) and Its Implications on Worker Punctuality as our thesis project.

Knowing your utmost interest in the value of research as a tool for development, we
would like to request that we be allowed to distribute questionnaires to the faculty
members of the different colleges of Cagayan State University Andrews Campus,
personnel and utility men in relation to our research. Gathering information through such
method would likely contribute to the progress and development of our thesis.

Thank you very much in anticipation of your favourable action and continued support.

Very Truly Yours,

Calanoga, Ma. Joy Mae, Calimag, Kristine Kaye P., Domingo, Jenicar S., Taguinod,
Harlene Kaye D. Taguinod, May Ann Joy O., Talattad, Joseanne M.

Approved:

___________________________
Emerita P. Geron, CPA, Ph. D
Dean CBEA

43
Cagayan State University
Andrews Campus
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Greetings!

Please be informed that the researchers are conducting a study on Level of Awareness of RA
10535 and its Implications on Worker Punctuality. In connection with this, the authors
constructed a questionnaire to gather information for the study. Your participation in the study by
way of answering this is very vital. Without it, the study will not be complete as it should be.
Kindly fill up the questionnaire with honesty. Please feel assured that your anonymity and the
information you will give will be treated with the strictest confidentiality. Thank you very much
for your very kind response to our request and if you are interested, we will supply you with the
results of our study.

Very sincerely yours,

The Researchers

Name: ______________________________________________

I. Answer the following questions by putting a check mark on the blank before the
given choices.

1) Worker classification
_____ Faculty (plain)
_____ Faculty Official (designated)
_____ Staff and Personnel
_____ Utility
2) From what department/college are you?
_____ CBEA
_____ CAS
_____ CHIM
_____ COE
_____ Admin
_____ Others (please specify)

44
II.A. Please shade the circle within the scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree.

1.) Section 1. The Philippine Standard Time (PST) Act of 10535

Not Aware Aware Very much Aware


2.) Section 2. Display of the Philippine Standard Time. All national and local government
offices shall display the Philippine Standard Time (PST) on their official time devices,
including bundy clocks, in accordance with the official time being provided by the
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
(PAGASA) using its network time protocol. All of these offices shall coordinate, at least
once a month, with the PAGASA to synchronize their official timepieces and devices.

Not Aware Aware Very much Aware

3.) Section 3. Monitoring, Maintenance and Dissemination of the PST. The PAGASAs
Time Service Unit, in coordination with the Department of Science and Technology
(DOST), shall be tasked to monitor, maintain and disseminate the PST throughout the
country. The PAGASA shall operate and maintain a timekeeping system to perform these
functions and shall endeavor to install and maintain sufficiently large and prominently
displayed synchronized time devices in all their field stations and in key public places.

Not Aware Aware Very much Aware

4.) Section 6. Role of the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC).- The NTC shall
require the participation of all government and private television and radio stations in
order to ensure the synchronization of timekeeping devices can be undertaken even in the
most remote parts of the country.

Not Aware Aware Very much Aware

5.) Section 7. Violations. The NTC shall have jurisdiction to enforce obedience to the
provisions of this Act by writ of injunction or by other process, mandatory or otherwise,
restraining further violations of this Act and enjoining obedience thereto.

Owners of private television and radio stations who shall fail to calibrate and synchronize
their time devices with the PST during their broadcast shall, upon hearing and due
proceedings, be penalized with a fine of not less than Thirty thousand pesos (P30,000.00)
but not more than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) and in case of second offense,
revocation and cancellation of their franchises to operate.

The fine to be collected as penalty for the violation of this Act shall be deposited in the
general fund of the National Treasury.

45
Not Aware Aware Very much Aware
6.) Section 8. Information Campaign. All national and local government offices, including
all schools, public or private, shall conduct a continuing information campaign about the
value of time and the need to respect the time of others, in order that the people may
realize the imperative of synchronizing the official time.

Not Aware Aware Very much Aware

7.) Section 9. Institutionalization of the National Time Consciousness Week. The


National Time Consciousness Week shall be institutionalized and celebrated every first
week of the year.

Not Aware Aware Very much Aware

II.B.

1) The implementation of Philippine Standard Time (RA 10535) will develop a culture of
punctuality.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree


2) It allows the practice of wise time management.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

3) It will be a great help for task productivity.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree


4) The Biometric Fingerprint System is an easier way to access your time records. (Time
in/Time out).

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

5.) In synchronizing the clock of CSU with the official Philippine Standard Time, it can
eradicate the Filipino-time notion.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

46
6.) The anti-tardiness objective of the said Republic Act will increase the efficiency of every
employee.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

7.) Republic Act 10535 will make employees be more conscious with their time?

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

8.) Constituents will be greatly benefited by RA 10535 by maximizing class/lecture hours.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

9.) The awareness of RA 10535 shall give a positive effect on the worker punctuality.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

10.) Worker Punctuality is an important factor in determining their efficiency.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree

II. If you have opinions regarding the legalization of Philippine Standard Time (RA
10535), write on the space provided below. (optional)

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
________________________

******************************************************************************
****

47
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Acelajado, Belecina & Blay. Mathematics for the New Millenium Statistics,

(Philippines: DIWA SCHOLASTIC PRESS INC., 1990).

Basu & Weibull; Punctuality : A Cultural Trait as Equilibrium (Massachusetts Institute

of Technology. Department of Economics. Cambridge, MA : Massachusetts Institute of

Technology, Dept. of Economics, 2002).

Covey, Stephen R. THE 7 HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PEOPLE (New York:

Free Press, 1989).

Gannon, Martin J. MANAGEMENT: Managing for Results, (Prentice Hall College

Division, January 1988).

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http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/time%20management.pdf.pdf

http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/563012/Standard-Time

http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/309697/news/nation/pnoy-signs-law-setting-

phl-standard-time

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/64613/%E2%80%98juan-time%E2%80%99-hopes-to-end-

habits-of-being-late-making-excuses

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/07/psychology-lateness_n_4229057.html

http://humanresources.about.com/od/workschedule1/a/How-To-Encourage-Attendance-

At-Work.htm

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/414319/psst-its-now-pst-not-filipino-time#ixzz2t7wQx6ZQ

48
http://www.quantumlearn.com/blog/bid/49053/5-Symptoms-of-Poor-Time-Management-

at-Work

http://sbinfocanada.about.com/od/timemanagement/g/timemanagement.htm

http://verysmartgirls.com/manifesting/time-management-time-consciousness/

http://voices.yahoo.com/what-importance-having-good-attendance-2467748.html

https://explorable.com/statistics-tutorial

(Barling et al., 1996)

(Britton & Tesser, 1991; Macan et al., 1990)

(Cullen, 2011)

(Green & Skinner, 2005)

(Hall & Hursch, 1982; Orpen, 1994; Schuler, 1979)

(Jo-ann Downey, 2010)

(Radhakrishna, Yoder, & Baggett, 1991)

(Saurav Ghosh 2012)

(Tadeo, 2009)

(Ward, 2010)

49