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CFD for Wastewater Case Studies: Sedimentation, Mixing and Disinfection Randal Samstag Civil and Sanitary Engineer
CFD for Wastewater Case
Studies: Sedimentation, Mixing
and Disinfection
Randal Samstag
Civil and Sanitary Engineer
Ed Wicklein
Carollo Engineers
Joel Ducoste
North Carolina State University
Stephen Saunders
Ibis Group CFD
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier • Radial flow clarifier • Questions: – Optimum Depth? –
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier
• Radial flow clarifier
• Questions:
– Optimum Depth?
– Optimum Inlet ?
– Optimum Feedwell?
– Optimum Effluent Zone?
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier Existing Condition CFD
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier
Existing Condition CFD
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier Alternative Inlet Configurations
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier
Alternative Inlet Configurations
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier Alternative Velocity Vector Plans
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier
Alternative Velocity Vector Plans
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier Alternative Velocity Plans
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier
Alternative Velocity Plans
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier Alternative Velocity Profiles
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier
Alternative Velocity Profiles
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier Comparison Solids Profiles
Case Study: Activated Sludge Clarifier
Comparison Solids Profiles
Case Study: Mixing Jet mixing and aeration in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) * 415,350
Case Study: Mixing
Jet mixing and aeration in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) *
415,350 mixed tetrahedral
cells
2,108,308 nodes
Inlet flow into jet nozzles
Outlet flow to pump suction
Air added as second phase
Solids transport, settling, and
density impact modeled by
UDF
Mesh projected onto model
surfaces.
* Samstag, Wicklein, et al. (2012)
Case Study: Mixing Velocity profiles for pumped mixing and aeration Simulated Pumped Mixing Profile Simulated
Case Study: Mixing
Velocity profiles for pumped mixing and aeration
Simulated Pumped Mixing Profile
Simulated Aeration Profile
Case Study: Mixing Comparison of pumped mix velocity profiles for increasing jet velocities Existing (2.5
Case Study: Mixing
Comparison of pumped mix velocity profiles for increasing jet velocities
Existing
(2.5
3.0
m/sec
m/sec
Jet)
Jet
3.5
4.0
m/sec
m/sec
Jet
Jet
Case Study: Mixing Comparison of solids profiles for increasing jet velocities Existing (2.5 3.0 m/sec
Case Study: Mixing
Comparison of solids profiles for increasing jet velocities
Existing
(2.5
3.0
m/sec
m/sec
Jet)
Jet
3.5
4.0
m/sec
m/sec
Jet
Jet
Case Study: Mixing Comparison of power levels for different mixing devices. CoV Equivalent 10% CoV
Case Study: Mixing
Comparison of power levels for different mixing devices.
CoV
Equivalent 10%
CoV Power Level
Type of Mixer
Reference
Basis of Test
(W/m3)
Samstag et al.
2.5
m/sec jet CFD
23.00%
17.71
Jet Aeration
(2012)
Samstag et al.
3.25 m/sec jet CFD
19.00%
24.7
Jet Aeration
(2012)
Samstag et al.
3.5
m/sec jet CFD
7.00%
14.49
Jet Aeration
(2012)
Samstag et al.
4.0
m/sec jet CFD
5.00%
15.4
Jet Aeration
(2012)
Vertical Hydrofoil II
Samstag and
Wicklein (2014)
Field test
3.31%
0.5
Vertical
Hyperboloid I
Samstag and
Wicklein (2014)
Field test
3.39%
1.8
Horizontal
Wicklein et al.
CFD Simulation
5.40%
4.5
propeller
(2013)
Randall and Randall
Submersible Mixer
Field test
8.32%
5.3
(2010)
Horizontal
Wicklein et al.
CFD Simulation
13.80%
7.6
propeller
(2014)
Case Study: Mixing Comparison of density-coupled and neutral density simulations Density-coupled Solids transport model
Case Study: Mixing
Comparison of density-coupled and neutral density simulations
Density-coupled
Solids transport model
calculates the local solids
concentration based on
flow regime.
The influence of the local
solids concentration on the
local density is then
iteratively calculated.
This approach was verified by
the field solids profile test
data.
Case Study: Mixing Comparison of density-coupled and neutral density simulations Neutral Density Solids transport model
Case Study: Mixing
Comparison of density-coupled and neutral density simulations
Neutral Density
Solids transport model
calculates the local solids
concentration based on
flow regime.
Influence of the local solids
concentration on the local
density was turned off.
This approach over-predicted
measured solids mixing.
Case Studies: Disinfection • Dye, disinfectant, and microorganism transport in a chemical disinfection system •
Case Studies: Disinfection
• Dye, disinfectant, and
microorganism
transport in a chemical
disinfection system
• Validation of
disinfection in a
ultraviolet disinfection
system
System Hydraulic Efficiency The hydraulic efficiency of a contact tank system is measured in CFD
System Hydraulic Efficiency
The hydraulic efficiency of a contact tank system
is
measured in CFD simulations with a tracer.
Using a time dependent CFD model, tracer is
introduced at the point of disinfectant injection and
its concentration is monitored at the model outlet.
Data gathered at the model outlet are used to plot
a
residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The
slope and inflection points of the RTD curve are
indicative of the hydraulic performance of the
contact system. Data points T 10 , T TDT and T 90 are
inputs used for accepted evaluation protocol.
Streaklines colored by elapsed time
normalized against T TDT
T 10 : time at which tracer concentration has
reached 10% of the target value
Residence Time Dstribution
T TDT : Theoretical Detention time ( Vol tank /Q effluent )
1
0.9
T
T 90 : time at which tracer concentration has
reached 90 % of the target value
90
0.8
0.7
0.6
BF: Baffle Factor – T 10 /T TDT
Values near 1.0
T
0.5
TDT
indicate good plug flow. Values lower than 0.3
indicate some short circuiting is taking place.
0.4
0.3
MI: Morrill Index - T 90 /T 10
Values greater than
0.2
5.0 indicate some flow is getting hung up in
recirculation zones.
0.1
T
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
t/T TDT
normalized concentration
Disinfectant Decay The efficacy of the contact system is dependent on the time the active
Disinfectant Decay
The efficacy of the contact system is dependent
on the time the active microorganisms in the
effluent are exposed to disinfectant at sufficient
concentration to neutralize them.
Disinfectants currently in use like sodium
hypochlorite or peracetic acid begin to decay
immediately upon introduction to the effluent
stream.
Their levels of concentration are
modeled by UDF based on published data.
Contours of disinfectant concentration normalized against target
concentration level.
concentration.
Contour level 1.0 denotes the target
Neutralization of Microorganisms The rates at which microorganisms are neutralized are specific to the disinfectant
Neutralization of
Microorganisms
The rates at which microorganisms are
neutralized are specific to the disinfectant in use
and the target microorganism. For example,
different coliforms will have differing sensitivities
to the disinfectant in use. Their neutralization is
simulated using UDF’s based on published data.
Log(N/N 0 ) (bio. organisms)
Contours of microorganism population. N is the local
population and N 0 is the population in the effluent prior to
exposure to the disinfectant.
UV Reactor Validation and the use of CFD • In an effort to quantify the
UV Reactor Validation and the use of CFD
• In an effort to quantify the UV reactor
performance, UV reactors must be validated at
different flow rates, water quality conditions, and
lamp power settings
– Reason:
• to determine if the target reduction equivalent dose (RED) is
being met
• To ensure that the performance can be monitored with a UV
sensor.
• Validation tests are the only means of confirming
UV reactor performance since UV does not leave
a measurable disinfectant residual
Validation • Validation tests can be performed: – Onsite at the WTP • May not
Validation
• Validation tests can be performed:
– Onsite at the WTP
• May not be practical or can be cost prohibitive for large
WTPs.
– Offsite at designated validation facilities
• Tests are performed under conditions that mimic the range
of possible conditions seen at the intended WTP
• Tests are performed assuming a worst case hydraulic
condition, which is assumed by placing an elbow upstream
from the reactor inlet
Validation Objectives • Investigate the impact of an upstream elbow in a pilot- scale UV
Validation Objectives
• Investigate the impact of an upstream elbow in a pilot-
scale UV reactor using biodosimetry measurements.
• Perform numerical simulations of the pilot-scale
reactor to evaluate model performance.
• Perform simulations of a full-scale reactor with
alternative upstream elbow configurations using a
validated model.
Validation Objectives • Investigate the impact of an upstream elbow in a pilot- scale UV
Validation Objectives
• Investigate the impact of an upstream elbow in a pilot-
scale UV reactor using biodosimetry measurements.
• Perform numerical simulations of the pilot-scale
reactor to evaluate model performance.
• Perform simulations of a full-scale reactor with
alternative upstream elbow configurations using a
validated model.
Methods: Microbial UV Response Kinetics • The first order UV response kinetics was used to
Methods: Microbial UV Response Kinetics
The first order UV response kinetics was used to represent
MS2 and B. subtilis.
-1
Y=-0.065x-0.583
0
R^2 = 0.99
1
B. subtilis
2
3
4
5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
Fluence, mJ/cm2
-0.5
-1
MS2 sample
Linear (MS2 sample)
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
MS2
-3.5
-4
y = -0.0549x - 0.1192
R 2 = 0.9934
-4.5
-5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Fluence (mJ/cm2)
Log Inactivation (N/No)
log(N0/Nd)
Methods: Reactors Investigated Reactor A Without Upstream Elbow With Upstream Elbow
Methods: Reactors Investigated
Reactor A
Without Upstream Elbow
With Upstream Elbow
Results: Impact of Influent Elbow on Microbial Log Inactivation Reactor A, 1 lamp LP without
Results: Impact of Influent Elbow on Microbial Log Inactivation
Reactor A, 1 lamp LP without elbow
UVT (%)
Flow
CFD Model
Experimental
B
subtilis
MS2
(gpm)
B
subtilis
MS2
B
subtilis
MS2
92
84
7.6
2.61
1.88
2.95 0.26
2.060.28
Reactor A, 1 lamp LP with elbow
UVT (%)
Flow
CFD Model
Experimental
B
subtilis
MS2
(gpm)
B
subtilis
MS2
B
subtilis
MS2
92
84
7.6
2.06
1.43
2.130.10
1.160.38
 The experimental and numerical results showed that the
presence of an upstream elbow led to the reduction in the log
inactivation of MS2 and B. subtilis
 The reduction in log inactivation was caused by a shift in the
low fluence peak of the fluence distribution due to the
presence of the elbow
 CFD numerical modeling results displayed reasonable
agreement with the experimental biodosimetry data.
Results: Impact of Influent Elbow on Fluence Distribution for pilot-scale reactor 0.14 No Elbow Elbow
Results: Impact of Influent Elbow on Fluence Distribution for
pilot-scale reactor
0.14
No Elbow
Elbow
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
Fluence (mJ/sq cm)
Particle number fraction
Methods: Reactors Investigated Reactor B Straight pipe Alt Elbow A Alt Elbow B
Methods: Reactors Investigated
Reactor B
Straight pipe
Alt Elbow A
Alt Elbow B
Results: Impact of Alternative Influent Piping Configuration on Full-Scale reactor performance Reactor B: 4 lamps,
Results: Impact of Alternative Influent Piping
Configuration on Full-Scale reactor performance
Reactor B: 4 lamps, MP
UVT
Flow rate
(MGD)
Original
Straight
(%)
Design
pipe
Alternative A
elbow
Alternative B
elbow
86.5
3
1.03
1.20
1.16
1.40
l
The straight pipe configuration provides a 17 % improvement to the
original elbow and 3.5 % improvement over alternative A elbow
configuration.
l
Alternative B elbow configuration was found to improve the log
inactivation by almost 40 % compared to the original configuration.
l
Alternative B elbow configuration further displayed a 17 %
improvement over the straight pipe configuration
Results: Eulerian representation of microbial transport in Reactor B Original configuration Straight pipe configuration
Results: Eulerian representation of microbial transport in Reactor B
Original
configuration
Straight pipe
configuration
Results: Eulerian representation of microbial transport in Reactor B Alternative A elbow configuration Alternative B
Results: Eulerian representation of microbial transport in Reactor B
Alternative A elbow
configuration
Alternative B elbow
configuration
Results: Velocity vector profile in Reactor B Straight pipe configuration Alternative A elbow configuration
Results: Velocity vector profile in Reactor B
Straight pipe
configuration
Alternative A elbow
configuration
Results: Velocity vector profile in Reactor B Alternative B elbow configuration: Side View Alternative B
Results: Velocity vector profile in Reactor B
Alternative B elbow
configuration: Side View
Alternative B elbow
configuration: End View
Results: Impact of Alternative Influent Piping Configuration on Full-Scale reactor performance • The Microbial
Results: Impact of Alternative Influent Piping
Configuration on Full-Scale reactor performance
• The Microbial transport and velocity vector analyses for
Reactor B revealed:
– There may be more reactor short circuiting with the initial elbow, the
straight pipe, and alternative A elbow configurations than with
alternative B elbow configuration
– The improved performance with alternative B elbow was due to the
change in direction of the core fluid in the elbow away from the
outlet.
– The combined impact of a recirculation zone with the centrifugal and
pressure forces acting on the fluid in the initial and alternative A
elbow configurations causes a greater fraction of the microorganisms
to move towards the outlet
Results: Impact of Alternative Influent Piping Configuration on Full-Scale reactor performance • The Microbial
Results: Impact of Alternative Influent Piping
Configuration on Full-Scale reactor performance
• The Microbial transport and velocity vector analyses for
Reactor B revealed:
– There may be more reactor short circuiting with the initial elbow, the
straight pipe, and alternative A elbow configurations than with
alternative B elbow configuration
– The improved performance with alternative B elbow was due to the
change in direction of the core fluid in the elbow away from the
outlet.
– The combined impact of a recirculation zone with the centrifugal and
pressure forces acting on the fluid in the initial and alternative A
elbow configurations causes a greater fraction of the microorganisms
to move towards the outlet
Thank you! Questions? Randal Samstag randal.samstag@rsamstag.com Joel Ducoste jducoste@ncsu.edu Stephen Saunders
Thank you!
Questions?
Randal Samstag
randal.samstag@rsamstag.com
Joel Ducoste
jducoste@ncsu.edu
Stephen Saunders
ibisgroup@bellsouth.net