You are on page 1of 586

Training Manual

3rd Edition

ANSYS Workbench -
Simulation Introduction
Training Manual
ANSYS Workbench Simulation Introduction

Inventory Number: 002215


3rd Edition
ANSYS Release: 9.0
Published Date: March 29, 2005

Registered Trademarks:
ANSYS is a registered trademark of SAS IP Inc.
All other product names mentioned in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
manufacturers.

Disclaimer Notice:
This document has been reviewed and approved in accordance with the ANSYS, Inc. Documentation Review
and Approval Procedures. This ANSYS Inc. software product (the Program) and program documentation
(Documentation) are furnished by ANSYS, Inc. under an ANSYS Software License Agreement that contains
provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, warranties, disclaimers and
remedies, and other provisions. The Program and Documentation may be used or copied only in accordance
with the terms of that License Agreement.

Copyright 2005 SAS IP, Inc.

Proprietary data. Unauthorized use, distribution, or duplication is prohibited.

All Rights Reserved.


ANSYS Workbench Simulation Introduction
Table of Contents Training Manual

1. Introduction 1-1 6. Thermal Analysis 6-1

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A. About ANSYS, Inc. 1-5 A. Geometry 6-6
B. ANSYS Workbench Overview 1-10 B. Assemblies Solid Body Contact 6-9
C. Starting Simulation 1-20 C. Loads 6-21
D. Workbench Projects 1-24 D. Solution Options 6-30
E. Results and Postprocessing 6-34
2. Simulation Basics 2-1 F. Workshop 6 Thermal Analysis 6-39
A. Launching Simulation 2-3
B. Startup Panel 2-13
7. Linear Buckling Analysis 7-1
C. Basic Procedure 2-17 A. Background on Buckling 7-3
D. Workshop 2 Simulation Basics 2-42 B. Buckling Analysis Procedure 7-8
C. Workshop 7 Linear Buckling 7-21
3. General Preprocessing 3-1
A. Geometry Branch 3-5
8. Results Postprocessing 8-1
B. Contact 3-14 A. Viewing Results 8-3
C. Meshing 3-33 B. Scoping Results 8-19
D. Named Selections 3-63 C. Exporting Results 8-24
E. Coordinate Systems 3-68 D. Coordinates Systems & Directional Results 8-27
F. Workshop 3 Mesh Control 3-71 E. Solutions Combinations 8-29
F. Stress Singularities 8-33
4. Static Structural Analysis 4-1 G. Error Estimation 8-36
A. Geometry 4-4 H. Convergence 8-38
B. Assemblies Solid Body Contact 4-9 I. Workshop 8 Advanced Results Processing 8-48
C. Loads and Supports 4-18
D. Workshop 4.1 Linear Structural Analysis 4-36 9. CAD & Parameters 9-1
E. Solution Options 4-37 A. CAD Interoperability 9-3
F. Results and Postprocessing 4-41 B. Multiple Design Studies 9-31
G. Workshop 4.2 2D vs 3D Analysis 4-54 C. Parameter Manager 9-42
D. Workshop 9 Parameter Manager 9-49
5. Free Vibration Analysis 5-1
A. Free Vibration Analysis Procedure 5-4
B. Workshop 5.1 Free Vibration 5-16
C. Free Vibration with Pre-Stress Analysis 5-17
D. Workshop 5.2 Prestressed Modal 5-23
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
TOC-3
ANSYS Workbench Simulation Introduction
Table of Contents Training Manual

10. Harmonic Analysis 10-1

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A. Harmonic Analysis Procedure 10-7
Appendix A12 - Fatigue Module A12-1
B. Solving Harmonic Analyses 10-15
A. Fatigue Overview A12-3
C. Damping Input 10-24
B. Constant Amplitude Loading A12-4
D. Request Harmonic Tool Results 10-30
C. Proportional Loading A12-5
E. Workshop 10 Harmonic Analysis 10-39
D. Stress Definitions A12-6
E. Stress Life Curves A12-7
11. Asynchronous Solution 11-1 F. Fatigue Procedure (Basic Case) A12-11
A. Asynchronous Solution Overview 11-3
G. Variable Amplitude Fatigue A12-36
B. UNIX Server 11-11
H. Non-Proportional Fatigue A12-49
C. LSF Cluster 11-14
I. Workshop A12 Fatigue Analysis A12-58
D. Workbench Cluster 11-17
E. ANSYS Product Table 11-20
Appendix A13 - Shape Finder A13-1
Appendix A3 - General Preprocessing A3-1 A. Shape Optimization Procedure A13-5
B. Workshop A13 Shape Finder A13-18
Appendix A4 - Static Structural Analysis A4-1
Appendix A5 - Modal Analysis A5-1
Appendix A6 - Thermal Analysis A6-1
Appendix A7 - Linear Buckling Analysis A7-1
Appendix A10 Harmonic Analysis A10-1

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
TOC-4
Chapter One

Introduction
Introduction
Welcome! Training Manual

Welcome to the ANSYS Workbench Simulation introductory

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


training course!
This training course covers the basics of using Simulation
in performing structural and thermal analyses.
It is intended for all new or occasional Simulation users,
regardless of the CAD software used.
Although some aspects of interfacing with ANSYS will be
covered, this course is not intended for users wishing to work
primarily in the traditional ANSYS environment. Those users
should consider taking Introduction to ANSYS Parts 1 and 2
Training courses.
This course covers the Simulation module of ANSYS
Workbench. DesignModeler, DesignXplorer, FE Modeler, and
CFX-Mesh modules of ANSYS Workbench are covered in
separate classes.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-2
Introduction
Course Objectives Training Manual

To teach the basics of using Simulation in the following

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


areas:
General understanding of the user interface, as related to
geometry import, meshing, application of loads and supports,
and postprocessing
Procedure for performing FEA simulations, including linear
static, modal, and harmonic structural analyses and nonlinear
steady-state thermal analyses
Utilizing parameters for what-if scenarios
Interfacing with the ANSYS solver for more advanced
functionality

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-3
Introduction
Course Materials Training Manual

The Training Manual you have is an exact copy of the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


slides.
Workshop descriptions and instructions are included in the
Workshop Supplement.
Copies of the workshop files are available (upon request)
from the instructor.
Several advanced training courses are available on specific
topics. See the training course schedule on the ANSYS
homepage http://www.ansys.com/ under Training
Services.
DesignModeler and DesignXplorer Training Courses are also
available, which cover usage of these other Workbench
modules.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-4
Introduction
A. About ANSYS, Inc. Training Manual

ANSYS, Inc.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Developer of ANSYS family of products
Global Headquarters in Canonsburg, PA - USA (south of
Pittsburgh)
Development and sales offices in U.S. and around the world
Publicly traded on NASDAQ stock exchange under ANSS

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-5
Introduction
ANSYS Family of Products Training Manual

ANSYS, Inc. Family of Products include the following:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS Advanced nonlinear mechanical
and multiphysics FEA solution capabilities
ANSYS Workbench Complete environment
for geometry modeling, mesh manipulation,
structural/thermal analysis, and optimization,
which is tightly integrated with CAD packages
CFX State-of-the-art CFD solvers,
including the coupled, parallel CFX-5 solver
ICEM CFD Powerful meshing tools with
general pre- and post-processing features,
including ICEM CFD for generating complex
CFD grids and AI*Environment for creating
with sophisticated structural FEA meshes March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-6
Introduction
ANSYS Support Distributors Training Manual

ANSYS Support Distributors (ASDs)

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Sales and support network for ANSYS
Over 75 offices worldwide
Local expertise for ANSYS consulting and training

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-7
Introduction
ANSYS Support Coordinators Training Manual

ANSYS Support Coordinator (ASC)

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contact for ANSYS at your company site
Focal point for ANSYS correspondence; software updates,
error notices, newsletter and other mailings, etc.

For more information about ANSYS and the company:


www.ansys.com
Where youll find the Customer Portal, providing Service Pack
updates, New Features training material, etc.

On-line documentation
Training manuals from other ANSYS courses
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-8
Introduction
Technical Support Training Manual

ANSYS, Inc. and ASDs provide a wide range of technical

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


support, training, and consulting services.

Technical support, software updates, and access to the


Customer Portal webpage are provided to companies who
are under TECS (Technical Enhancements and Customer
Support) maintenance

Your Support Provider (ASD): ________________________


Technical Support Phone: ______________________________
Technical Support Email: ______________________________

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-9
Introduction
B. ANSYS Workbench Overview Training Manual

What is ANSYS Workbench?

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS Workbench is a new-generation solution from ANSYS
that provides powerful methods for interacting with the ANSYS
solver functionality. This environment provides a unique
integration with CAD systems, and your design process,
enabling the best CAE results.

ANSYS Workbench is comprised of five modules:


Simulation for performing structural and thermal analyses
using the ANSYS solver
CFX-Mesh for generating a CFX-Pre mesh for the CFX-5 solver
DesignModeler for creating and modifying CAD geometry to
prepare the solid model for use in Simulation or CFX-Mesh
DesignXplorer and DesignXplorer VT for investigating the
effect of variations input to the response of the system
FE Modeler for translating a Nastran mesh for use in ANSYS
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-10
Introduction
ANSYS Workbench Overview Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS Workbench

Simulation DesignXplorer (VT)

DesignModeler FE Modeler

March 29, 2005


CFX-Mesh
Inventory #002215
1-11
Introduction
Simulation Overview Training Manual

Analysis types available in Simulation:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Linear Stress:
Determines deflections, stresses, factors of safety, etc. based on
standard strength of materials concepts under static loading
Modal:
Determines natural frequencies of a
system (free vibration), including
the effects of loading on a pre-
stressed structure.
Heat Transfer:
Steady-state thermal analyses to
solve for temperature field and heat
flux. Temperature-dependent
conductivity and convection
allowed. Thermal-stress analysis
supported as well.

Thelist here reflects analysis capabilities possible within the Simulation GUI. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Note, however, that the ANSYS license used dictates what functionality is available to the user. 1-12
Introduction
Simulation Overview Training Manual

Analysis types supported by Simulation (contd):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Harmonic:
Determines structural response of system under sinusoidal
excitation as a function of frequency.
Linear Buckling:
Determines failure load or safety factor for buckling and its
buckling mode shapes.
Shape Optimization:
Indicates areas of possible volume reduction based on load paths
through the part using Topological Optimization technology.
Nonlinear Structural:
Calculates deflections and stresses of system under static loading,
accounting for large deflection effects, plasticity, and contact
nonlinearities.

Thelist here reflects analysis capabilities possible within the Simulation GUI. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Note, however, that the ANSYS license used dictates what functionality is available to the user. 1-13
Introduction
Simulation Overview Training Manual

Although the Simulation GUI will be discussed in detail in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Chapters 2 & 3, it is useful to note that it is Tree-Driven:

Depending on what is
highlighted on the Outline
Tree, the available options
in the Context Toolbar and
Details View will change.
The Graphics Window will
also update to reflect the
part of the branch selected.

The Tree represents the


different aspects of the
simulation.

All Workbench modules are


Tree-Driven, so navigation
through the GUI is done
through selecting different
branches of the Tree.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample SolidWorks assembly. 1-14
Introduction
Simulation Overview Training Manual

The user can also access regular

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS functionality not otherwise
directly accessible from within
Simulation
Command objects allow users to stay
in the Simulation environment but
access advanced features via ANSYS
APDL. The information, stored in a
branch, can be parameterized and is
reused for each analysis.
The mesh and loads can also be
transferred to regular ANSYS easily
for further modeling, useful for users
comfortable in the regular ANSYS
environment
Both of the above topics are addressed in
the Simulation Advanced Training Notes March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-15
Introduction
Product Configuration Training Manual

Types of licenses available for Simulation:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS DesignSpace Entra
All DesignSpace capabilities but for parts only.
ANSYS DesignSpace
Structural capabilities are linear static, modal, and buckling
analyses of assemblies. Thermal and shape optimization included.
ANSYS Professional
Linear structural (including harmonic) and thermal analyses
ANSYS Structural
All structural capabilities, including linear and nonlinear
ANSYS Mechanical (including ANSYS Multiphysics)
All structural and thermal capabilities
(Other ANSYS licenses are supported for meshing only)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-16
Introduction
Product Configuration Training Manual

Add-on licenses for Simulation:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Fatigue Module
Advanced Structural Meshing Module

Supported Operating Systems:


32-bit MS Windows 2000, XP Home, XP Professional
64-bit SUN Solaris 8
64-bit HP HP-UX B.11.0

FlexLM network licensing used for all ANSYS and ANSYS


Workbench products

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-17
Introduction
Product Configuration Training Manual

Because each product has different capabilities, when

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


applicable, features discussed will have a table showing
supported licenses in the lower-left corner of the page:
x means full support ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
Availability
x
DesignSpace x
/ means partial support Professional x
Structural x
blank means no support Mechanical/Multiphysics x

For ANSYS users, the details of underlying ANSYS


commands used by Simulation are placed in an appendix.
These pages are labeled with:
Advanced ANSYS Details

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-18
Introduction
CAD System Support Training Manual

Simulation Geometry Interface support is below:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


CAD Source Version Windows Solaris HP-UX Associative
DesignModeler 9 x x x x
Pro/ENGINEER 2001, Wildfire (1 and 2) x x x x
Unigraphics NX 1.0, 2.0 x x x x
SolidWorks 2003 (sp4), 2004 x x
Inventor R8, R9 x x
Solid Edge 15, 16 x x
Mechanical Desktop 2004 DX, 2005 x x
CATIA V4 2.x x x x
CATIA V5 R2-R13 x
ACIS (SAT) 13 x x x
Parasolid 16.0 x x x
IGES 4.0, 5.2, 5.3 x x x

The Geometry Interface license can be run in reader mode for all
licenses. The Geometry Interface can be run in plug-in mode for the
CAD software listed under Associative
Detailed CAD support listing in Simulation online help
IGES Geometry Interface reader is free
On UNIX (Solaris, HP-UX), UG NX 1.0 is supported
For SolidWorks 2004, Service Pack 4 is required

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-19
Introduction
C. Starting Simulation Training Manual

There are two methods of launching Simulation:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Directly from CAD system
Launch Simulation from supported CAD systems under ANSYS
9.0 > Simulation

From within ANSYS Workbench


Launch Workbench in Windows via Start Menu > Programs >
ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS Workbench

Launch Workbench from supported CAD systems under ANSYS


9.0 > Workbench
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-20
Introduction
Option 1: Directly from CAD Training Manual

If Simulation is launched directly from a supported CAD

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


system, the active part/assembly will be brought into
Simulation automatically upon invoking Simulation from
the ANSYS 9.0 pull-down menu, as illustrated below:

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-21
Introduction
Option 2: From Workbench Training Manual

Otherwise, a user may launch Workbench first:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


From the main Start page, select Simulation icon to bring
up a blank Simulation session
From the Context toolbar, select the active part/assembly
under the Geometry branch to bring in the CAD geometry

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-22
Introduction
Launching Simulation Training Manual

For supported CAD systems, either method shown on the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


previous slides may be used to start Simulation.
Supported CAD systems were listed in the Table on Slide 1-18
under Associative
The second option should be used if the CAD system has not
been started yet. The part/assembly file can be referenced
inside a blank Simulation session via the Context Toolbar,
Geometry > From File

For static files (e.g., CATIA, IGES, SAT (ACIS), or Parasolid),


the user must implement Option 2 and launch Workbench
first. After a blank Simulation database is opened, the
static file can be referenced via the Context Toolbar, under
Geometry > From File

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-23
Introduction
D. Workbench Projects Training Manual

Because it is very useful for most users to understand that

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation is a module within ANSYS Workbench, the
basics of Workbench and project management will be
discussed in this section.
When ANSYS Workbench is launched, a Start page will be
displayed, similar to the one shown below

New sessions can be started by selecting the


appropriate icons here

Existing databases can be opened by selecting


the type of database first, then selecting
previously-opened databases in the window or
specifying a different database via the
Browse button

Options for Workbench modules can be defined


via the Options button, including the ANSYS
license used for Simulation (see next slide)
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-24
Introduction
Options Page Training Manual

Before entering Simulation, the current and default licenses

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


may be chosen through the Options button
This is useful for organizations with multiple types of ANSYS
licenses (e.g., DesignSpace, Structural, Mechanical, etc.)
Preferences for all Workbench modules can also be controlled
through this dialog box

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-25
Introduction
Workbench Databases Training Manual

There are various types of files used by Workbench, each

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


differentiated by the file extension:
.wbdb: Workbench Project database, which keeps track of all
of the different types of Workbench databases in a Project
.dsdb: Simulation database, which has all the information
necessary to perform a structural or thermal analysis in
Simulation
.agdb: DesignModeler database, containing geometry data for
use with Simulation or CFX-Mesh
.dxdb: DesignXplorer/DesignXplorer VT database, which
investigate relationships between input and output parameters
.cmdb: CFX-Mesh database, containing a mesh prepared for
import to CFX-Pre and to be solved with CFX-5
.fedb: FE Modeler database, which has mesh information from
a Nastran or Simulation model, used to convert to ANSYS
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1-26
Introduction
Workbench and Simulation Training Manual

The Workbench database is simply a directory of a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Project. A Project can be thought of as a collection of
different CAD or Workbench files, which are associated
together.
Whenever a Simulation database (.dsdb) is created, there
will be an associated Workbench database (.wbdb)
generated as well.
Saving the Workbench database is not required, but it is
helpful in keeping track of various analyses, especially if
multiple geometries are analyzed or if further analysis is
performed with DesignXplorer.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-27
Introduction
Workbench and Simulation Training Manual

If the Workbench Project tab is selected, the various

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Workbench databases and CAD geometries will be listed
The menu on right is context-sensitive. Depending on the file
selected, options available will differ
If the Workbench project database
(topmost) is selected, CAD
geometries may be added.
If a CAD geometry branch is
selected, it can be brought into
Simulation.
If a Simulation database is
selected, a DesignXplorer study
can be started, or the mesh can be
brought into FE Modeler or ANSYS.
From the Project page, Simulation
(and other) databases may be
deleted.

The right menu options


differ, depending on
what Project branch is
March 29, 2005
selected. Inventory #002215
1-28
Introduction
DesignModeler Overview Training Manual

DesignModeler (DM) is a component of ANSYS Workbench.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A CAD-like parametric modeler with analysis modeling goals:
2D, 3D ,line and surface modeling capability
Performs unique geometry modification capabilities for simulation:
Feature Simplification
Spot Welds
Split Surfaces
Surface Model Extraction
Planar Body Extraction
Beam Modeling
Enclosure Operation

DesignModeler

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-29
Introduction
. . . DesignModeler Overview Training Manual

Much of the DM GUI is functionally the same as that of Simulation.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A complete DesignModeler Training course is available.

Display
Triad

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-30
Introduction
Navigating Between Modules Training Manual

The topmost tabs allow users to navigate between opened

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Workbench modules

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-31
Introduction
Exiting Workbench Training Manual

When exiting Workbench, the user will be prompted to save

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


any files that have changed since the last save

In this example on the left, the highlighted


Workbench database, DesignXplorer study,
and DesignModeler geometry have changed
since the last save, so the user is prompted
to save all or none of the highlighted items.
If individual files are to be saved, this can be
done within the appropriate Workbench
module.
Changes to CAD geometry are not controlled
within Workbench but through the CAD
software.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
1-32
Chapter Two

Simulation Basics
Simulation Basics
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, the basics of using Simulation to perform

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


analyses will be covered, which include:
The Simulation GUI and Operation
Introduction to the Simulation Wizard
Basic Analysis Procedure

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to the ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and
above, unless explicitly noted with the lower-left hand table.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 2-2
Simulation Basics
A. Launching Simulation Training Manual

Recall that there are two ways of running Simulation:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Configured from within ANSYS Workbench

or directly from a supported CAD system

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Solid Edge assembly. 2-3
Simulation Basics
Simulation Interface Training Manual

The components of the user interface are shown below:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Workbench Tabs
Menus
Toolbars

Tree Outline

Simulation
Details View Graphics Window Wizard

Short descriptions of each component are covered next March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-4
Simulation Basics
GUI Menus Training Manual

The menus provide much of the functionality present in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation. Covering each menu item may be tedious, so
only the more commonly used menu items are covered
below:
The titlebar lists the currently active ANSYS license
File > Save to save the .dsdb Simulation database
File > Clean to delete mesh and/or results from database
Edit > Select All to select all current entities in the window
Units to change units on-the-fly
Tools > Options to customize settings and options
Help > ANSYS Simulation Help to invoke documentation

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-5
Simulation Basics
GUI Toolbars Training Manual

There are four sets of toolbars to provide users quick

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


access to functionality also found in the menus.

Standard Toolbar
Graphics Toolbar
Named Selection Toolbar
Context Toolbar

The toolbars can be repositioned anywhere on the top of the


Simulation window
The Context toolbar, as will be illustrated later, will change,
depending on what branch is active in the Outline tree.
Tooltips appear if the cursor is placed over the toolbar button
A Unit Conversion toolbar is also available (not shown) March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-6
Simulation Basics
GUI Toolbars Training Manual

The Standard toolbar is shown below:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


New or Open .dsdb Save .dsdb Bring up Simulation Wizard Solve Model Capture Snapshot

The Graphics toolbar is used very often:

Select mode Select entities Select Adjacent Graphics Manipulation Fit All Wireframe Viewports

The left mouse button can be either in selection mode or


graphics manipulation mode. The above toolbar buttons
grouped as select entities and graphics manipulation
control the left-mouse button behavior.
The selection of entities of the CAD geometry can be done
either by individual selection or by box-selection. This is
controlled by the Select Mode icon
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-7
Simulation Basics
GUI Outline Tree Training Manual

The Outline Tree provides an easy way of organizing the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


model, materials, mesh, loads, and results for the analysis
The Outline Tree is analogous to the tree
found in many CAD software. However,
instead of sketches and features, this
tree contains analysis-related items
The Model branch contains the input
data required for the analysis whereas the
Engineering Data branch holds generic
material and convection data
The four main sections of the Model
branch include Geometry, Contact
(if present), Mesh, and Environment.
The Environment branch contains the
loads as well as the Solution branch,
which holds results for postprocessing.
Other branches (not covered here) are also available. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-8
Simulation Basics
GUI Outline Tree Training Manual

The Outline Tree shows icons for each branch, along with a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


status symbol. Examples of the status symbols are below:
Checkmark indicates branch is fully defined/OK
Question mark indicates item has incomplete data (need input)
Lightning bolt indicates solving is required
Exclamation mark means problem exists1
X means that item is suppressed (will not be solved)
Transparent checkmark means body or part is hidden
Green lightning bolt indicates item is currently being evaluated
Minus sign means that mapped face meshing failed
1 Example is opening a Simulation database which contains a capability not available with
the current ANSYS license used.

The user should become familiar with the basic status


symbols shown here, so he/she can easily determine if the
model is OK. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-9
Simulation Basics
GUI Details View Training Manual

The Details View provides a means of inputting data. The

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


contents will change, depending on branch selected.
White field: shows current input data
Data in white text field can easily be changed by
clicking on it, then entering data, as needed
Some white fields require the user to select
geometric entities on the screen, then click on
Apply. Others require text data input from
keyboard or selecting item from pull-down menu.
Gray (or Red) field: shows informative data
Data in gray fields cannot be modified. These
fields usually provide information or results
data, such as the maximum stress or number
of nodes generated by the mesher.
Yellow field: incomplete input data
Data in yellow fields indicate that not enough
information has been supplied. Users need to
fill in data completely in order to solve model. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-10
Simulation Basics
GUI Graphics Window Training Manual

The Graphics Window shows the geometry and results. It

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


can also provide worksheet (tabular) listings, the HTML
report, and a Print Preview option.

The Job Status tab provides


information on jobs being
solved remotely.
The remote solve capability
will be discussed in the
Simulation Advanced
Geometry Tab Worksheet Tab Training Course

Job Status Tab

Print Preview Tab Report Preview Tab


March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-11
Simulation Basics
GUI Simulation Wizard Training Manual

The Simulation Wizard is an optional component, a useful

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


aid to remind users steps required to complete an analysis
The Simulation Wizard provides a list of required
steps and the status of them
Green checkmark indicates the item is complete
Green i shows an item to verify
A greyed symbol shows that the item cannot be
performed yet until the previous step is completed
A red question mark means that there is an
incomplete branch related to this item, analogous
to the ? status symbol on the Outline Tree
An x means that the item is not performed yet
A lightning bolt means that the item is ready to be
solved by selecting on the Standard Toolbar

The Simulation Wizard can be toggled on/off by


March 29, 2005
selecting the button on the Standard Toolbar Inventory #002215
2-12
Simulation Basics
B. Startup Panel Training Manual

When first attaching a model to Simulation, the Startup

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Panel is shown, allowing the user to select a Simulation
Template

This startup panel can be turned off in Tools > Options > Simulation: Startup March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-13
Simulation Basics
Startup Panel Training Manual

The benefit of the Startup Panel is that the appropriate

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


results and Simulation Wizard will appear
Templates and Wizards are only available for analyses
supported in DesignSpace licenses
Stress Branch is selected in the example below. Note that
results and the Stress Wizard are automatically chosen

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-14
Simulation Basics
Simulation Wizard Training Manual

By selecting an item on the Required Steps checklist, a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


callout appears, illustrating how that function is performed.
In the example below, Verify Materials was selected, and the
callout shows the user where this item can be changed.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-15
Simulation Basics
Simulation Wizard Training Manual

The Simulation Wizard is very useful

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


to analysts or other engineers who do
not use Simulation every day
Reduces learning curve, as callouts
show user where the item is in GUI
Besides basic functionality, callouts
for more advanced items are also
available as shown on right

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-16
Simulation Basics
C. Basic Procedure Training Manual

The purpose of simulation is usually to determine the response of

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the system based on some type of excitation or loading.
It is crucial to remember that a mathematical model is used:
CAD geometry is an idealization of the physical model
The mesh is a mathematical representation of the CAD model
The accuracy of answers is determined by various factors:
How well the physical model is represented depends on the assumptions
Numerical accuracy is determined by the mesh density

March 29, 2005


CAD Model Finite Element Mesh Inventory #002215
2-17
Simulation Basics
Basic Procedure Training Manual

Every analysis involves four main steps:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Preliminary
Preliminary Decisions
Decisions
What type of analysis: Static, modal, etc.?
What to model: Part or Assembly?
Which elements: Surface or Solid Bodies?
Preprocessing Preprocessing
Attach the model geometry
Define and assign material properties to parts
Mesh the geometry
Apply loads and supports Solution
Request results
Solve the Model
Postprocessing
Postprocessing
Review results
Check the validity of the solution
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-18
Simulation Basics
Basic Procedure Training Manual

A sample analysis using the Stress Wizard will be shown in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


this section.
The Wizards in Simulation aid the user in following the
basic analysis template discussed previously, and these
steps below will be covered in the next slides:
Attach/import geometry
Assign material properties
(Mesh geometry)
A default mesh will be supplied by Simulation if this step is not
performed manually by the user
Apply loads and supports
Request results
Solve model
Review results/postprocessing
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-19
Simulation Basics
Attach Geometry Training Manual

Earlier, it was shown that geometry can be attached to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation in two ways
Direct from CAD system
For supported CAD packages only using plug-in mode
From within a blank Simulation session
For all supported formats, using plug-in or reader mode

Directly launches Attaches active CAD model


Simulation and attaches (plug-in mode)
geometry (plug-in mode)
Browse for CAD file
(reader mode)

March 29, 2005


Method 1 Method 2 Inventory #002215
2-20
Simulation Basics
Assign Material Properties Training Manual

After importing a model, the Stress Branch template was

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


chosen, and the Stress Wizard appears
Verify Materials is selected, and the callout shows how to
change material properties in the pull-down menu

After Verify Materials is


selected, all of the parts
from the Geometry
branch are highlighted,
and the Details view shows
how to change the
material.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-21
Simulation Basics
Assign Material Properties Training Manual

Notice that the Details View allows the user to select a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


material from a pull-down menu
The default material property is Structural Steel but can be
changed
By selecting Import the user can select a material
property file (XML format)

Although a few material properties are supplied with


Simulation, as with any other input data, the user should use
his/her own material data values. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-22
Simulation Basics
Assign Material Properties Training Manual

Materials may be individually selected for each part

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Note that the part name is obtained from the CAD model
Multiple instances of the same part are differentiated by number
Multiple parts can be highlighted and changed at once
Use Shift-Left mouse button to highlight all items in range
Use Ctrl-Left mouse button to individually add/remove selection

By using a combination of Shift-


Left mouse button and Ctrl-Left
mouse button, twelve parts are
highlighted on the Outline Tree
The user can then change all
materials at once in the Details
View by selecting the material
pull-down menu.
Note that DesignSpace Entra is
limited to analysis of single
parts.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 2-23
Simulation Basics
Assign Material Properties Training Manual

Material properties are listed, modified, imported or

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


exported by accessing the Data tab

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-24
Simulation Basics
Assign Material Properties Training Manual

Default settings for material properties can be changed in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the Tools menu > Options > Simulation: Engineering
Data
The default material can be changed from Structural Steel
Items to be always available in drop-down menu can be added
New materials can be added from various locations

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-25
Simulation Basics
Insert Loads & Supports Training Manual

After verifying and assigning materials, the Insert Loads

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


item is selected from the Stress Wizard
Structural (and thermal) loads are applied from the pull-down
icon in the Context toolbar.

After Insert Loads is


selected, notice that the
Environment branch is
highlighted.
By highlighting the
Environment branch, the
Context toolbar and Details
view change.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-26
Simulation Basics
Insert Loads & Supports Training Manual

Loads and supports are applied on geometric entities

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


There are two ways to accomplish this:
Select geometry entity in Graphics Window first,
then select load or support from Context Toolbar

Select load or support from Context Toolbar first, select


geometry entities in Graphics Window, then click on Apply
in Details View.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-27
Simulation Basics
Insert Loads & Supports Training Manual

After assigning the load on geometric entities, the user can

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


enter additional data in the Details view, if necessary.
Notice that, in the Outline Tree, the associated load branch
symbol status will also change to completed (checkmark)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-28
Simulation Basics
Insert Loads & Supports Training Manual

For some structural loads, direction is often needed:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Selection is done in Details View of load
If Components is chosen, enter X, Y, or Z
Components of loading
If Vector is chosen, select geometry and
enter magnitude of loading
Defaults can be set in Tools > Options
> Simulation: Miscellaneous
> Load Orientation Type
The World Coordinate System can be referenced
Direction is shown with triad in Graphics Window
World Coordinate System orientation and
origin from CAD system
For this situation, use Define By:
Components in Details view. Then enter
x, y, and/or z components for load
(User-Defined Cartesian Coordinate Systems
may also be used, as will be discussed later) March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-29
Simulation Basics
Insert Loads & Supports Training Manual

On the other hand, existing geometry can be referenced:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In the Details view, select Define By: Vector to use existing
geometry for vector orientation
Three types of existing geometry can be used
Normal to planar face or along axis of cylindrical face
Along straight edge or normal to cylindrical edge
Two vertices defining vector
Click on Direction and select geometry used for
vector orientation. If vector is pointing in opposite
direction, use the arrows in the Graphics window to
toggle the direction. Click on Apply when done.
Enter magnitude for loading in Magnitude.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-30
Simulation Basics
Mouse Controls Training Manual

At this point, it will be useful to review mouse controls in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the Graphics Window:
The left mouse button is used to select geometric entities OR
to manipulate the graphics display

Left mouse button behavior is controlled by Graphics Toolbar


User can select items (vertex, edge, surface, body) or manipulate
the view (rotate, pan, zoom in/out, box zoom)
Select mode can be single-select or box-select
In single-select mode, click-drag with left mouse
button to paint select multiple items
Use Ctrl-Left mouse button in single-select mode to select or
unselect multiple entities
In box-select mode, click-drag from left to right selects entities
fully enclosed in bounding box
In box-select mode, click-drag from right to left selects any
entity partially enclosed in bounding box March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-31
Simulation Basics
Mouse Controls Training Manual

In select mode, the middle mouse button changes view

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Click-drag middle mouse button to dynamically rotate model
Shift-Middle mouse button pans model
If present, the wheel can be used to zoom in/out
(This way, user does not always have to toggle left mouse button
between select mode and graphics manipulation mode)
The right mouse button provides context-sensitive pop-up
menu if clicked once in Graphics Window
Click-drag right mouse button to box zoom in area of interest
Click right mouse button once and select Fit to fit model in view
Click-drag right mouse
button allows user to
box-zoom in region

Single-click right mouse


button provides context-
March 29, 2005
sensitive pop-up menu Inventory #002215
2-32
Simulation Basics
Applying Loads and Supports Training Manual

By taking advantage of the mouse controls, it can be

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


relatively easy to apply a load (or support) to multiple faces
In example below, user can use Ctrl-left mouse button to
single-select surfaces (highlighted in green)
Use of middle mouse button allows user to rotate model to
more easily select certain surfaces in back of model

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-33
Simulation Basics
Insert Results Training Manual

By selecting the Stress Branch template in the beginning,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


some results are already requested. However, the user can
request other results, if needed.
By selecting Insert Results in the Stress Wizard, the callout
shows how to add results

Note that the Solution


branch is now highlighted.
Because the Solution
branch is selected, the
Context toolbar and Details
view changes.
Results, such as stress,
strain, and deformation can
be requested from the pull-
down icons on the Context
toolbar. New result items
will then appear under the
Solution branch. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
2-34
Simulation Basics
Solving the Model Training Manual

After verifying materials, applying loads and supports, and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


inserting results, the model is ready to be solved.
Selection of Solve in the Stress Wizard produces a callout
showing the user that the lightning bolt icon is used to initiate
a solution

Starting the solution will include


automatically meshing the model if it
has not been done so previously.
The solution may take a few minutes to
a few hours, depending on how large
the model is and the hardware used. A
progress bar will be shown to indicate
roughly how long the solution will
take. The solution can also be
stopped via the progress bar.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-35
Simulation Basics
Solving the Model (ANSYS Details) Training Manual

For regular ANSYS users, it may be useful to note that the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


solution is performed in batch mode.
An ANSYS input file is generated, and the details of the Output
File can be viewed if a Solution Information result branch
has been requested under the Solution branch

In Worksheet view of the


Solution Information branch,
the contents of the Output File
will be updated with a frequency
as specified in the Details view.
The location of the input file
ds.dat, output file solve.out,
and scratch files are located in
the system TEMP directory by
default.
This solver directory can be
changed under Tools >
Options > Simulation: Solution
> Solver Working Directory

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details 2-36
Simulation Basics
View Results Training Manual

After the solution is complete, the user can View Results

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The type of results is dependent on the analysis performed
Contour, vector plots, and animations can be viewed

To view results, as the callout


shows, the appropriate
branch needs to be selected.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-37
Simulation Basics
View Report Training Manual

In preparation for generating the HTML report, one can add

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


figures and comments from the Standard Toolbar
Select a branch first, such as Equivalent Stress
Then select the appropriate Standard Toolbar button:

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-38
Simulation Basics
View Report Training Manual

After adding any figures or comments, select View Report

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Preliminary information can be entered, such as author name
Select Generate Report to create HTML report

The HTML Report can be


selected under the
Solution branch via
Report Preview tab, as
the callout indicates.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-39
Simulation Basics
View Report Training Manual

The HTML report will be displayed in Simulation

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Comments and figures added will appear in the report

The HTML report generator includes


all input and results associated with
the simulation, providing complete
documentation of the analysis.
This provides time-saving yet
customizable report that can easily be
March 29, 2005
generated by the user. Inventory #002215
2-40
Simulation Basics
View Report Training Manual

Reports are always dynamically generated, so the user

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


needs to save the report, otherwise it will be overwritten
The report can be published as HTML files in a different
directory or an internal web server, emailed, or sent to
Microsoft Word or PowerPoint

The Appendix at the


end of the HTML
Report will show the
location of the
various files used to
created the report.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-41
Simulation Basics
D. Workshop 2 Training Manual

Workshop 2 Simulation Basics

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Using the Stress Wizard, set up and solve a structural model
for stress, deflection and safety factor.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
2-42
Chapter Three

General Preprocessing
General Preprocessing Procedure
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, performing analyses without the use of the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Wizards will be covered:
Geometry
Contact
Meshing
Named Selections
Coordinate Systems

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to the ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and
above and are noted in the lower-left hand tables.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-2
General Preprocessing Procedure
Introduction Training Manual

In the previous chapter, the Simulation GUI was introduced

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


by the use of the Simulation Wizards
In this chapter, navigating through the GUI without the
Wizards will be covered.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Mechanical Desktop assembly. 3-3
General Preprocessing Procedure
Introduction Training Manual

The Outline Tree is the main way of setting up the analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Context Toolbar, Details View, and Graphics Window
update, depending on which Outline Tree branch is selected
Use of the Outline Tree will be emphasized in this chapter

Use of the Outline Tree is


the means by which
users navigate through
the Simulation GUI.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
3-4
General Preprocessing Procedure
A. Geometry Branch Training Manual

After importing a model either (a) directly

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


from a supported CAD system or (b) from
the Context Toolbar in a blank database, the
Geometry branch lists available parts.
In Simulation, there are three types of bodies
which can be analyzed.
Solid bodies are general 3D or 2D
volumes/areas/parts.
Surface bodies are only areas.
Line bodies are only curves.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-5
General Preprocessing Procedure
Types of Bodies Training Manual

Solid bodies are geometrically and spatially 3D or 2D:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


3D solids are meshed with higher-order tetrahedral or
hexahedral solid elements with quadratic shape functions
2D solids are meshed with higher order triangle or
quadrilateral solid elements with quadratic shape functions
Currently 2D geometry can be obtained from:
DesignModeler, ProEngineer, Solid Edge, SolidWorks and
Unigraphics
Each node has three translational degrees of freedom (DOF)
for structural or one temperature DOF for thermal
Good for general representation of CAD models

Geometry Interface Availability


DesignModeler x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigraphics x
SolidW orks x
Inventor x
Solid Edge x
Mechanical Desktop x
CATIA V4 x
CATIA V5 x March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) x Inventory #002215
Parasolid x
IGES x 3-6
General Preprocessing Procedure
Types of Bodies Training Manual

Considerations for 2D Geometry:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Geometry must consist of surface models lying on the XY
plane
The 2D switch must be set on the Project page prior to
import
Geometry type cannot be changed from 2D to 3D (or vice
versa) after import
Plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric behaviors are
supported
Certain load types are unavailable with 2D geometry
Be sure to consult the Simulation documentation for all details
regarding 2D analysis

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
3-7
General Preprocessing Procedure
Types of Bodies Training Manual

Surface bodies are geometrically 2D but spatially 3D:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Surface bodies are meant to represent structures which are
thin in one dimension (through-thickness), so that thickness is
not explicitly modeled but supplied as an input value. For
example, mid-surfaces extracted in the CAD software could be
used, but the sheet metal or shelled parts are still 3D and
are not considered surface bodies. Consequently, if a sheet
metal or shelled part is to be analyzed as a surface body,
the midsurface needs to be extracted first in the CAD system.
Surface bodies are meshed with linear shell elements
Each node has three translational and three rotational DOF for
structural applications but one temperature DOF for thermal
Efficient for representation of thin sheet-like parts
Geometry Interface Availability
DesignModeler x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigraphics x
SolidW orks x
Inventor
Solid Edge x
Mechanical Desktop
CATIA V4 x
CATIA V5 x March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) x Inventory #002215
Parasolid x
IGES x 3-8
General Preprocessing Procedure
Types of Bodies Training Manual

Line bodies are geometrically 1D but spatially 3D:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Line bodies are meant to represent structures which are thin in
two dimensions compared to the length, so the cross-section
is not explicitly modeled.
Currently, only DesignModeler supports creation of line bodies
since it can define cross-sections and orientations of lines.
Line bodies are modeled with linear beam elements
Each node has three translational and three rotational DOF for
structural analysis and one temperature DOF for thermal
Good for representation of beam-like structures

Geometry Interface Availability


DesignModeler x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigraphics
SolidW orks
Inventor
Solid Edge
Mechanical Desktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Parasolid
IGES 3-9
General Preprocessing Procedure
Multibody Parts Training Manual

For many applications, bodies and parts are the same. In

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


DesignModeler, however, multibody parts are possible.
In some CAD systems, multiple bodies in a single part is
supported for import. However, these do not import as a
single multibody part. The difference is that each body will be
independently meshed.
Support of mixed surface and solid bodies in the same part is not
supported for most CAD systems. An assembly may contain
surfaces and solids, but a single part cannot.
In DesignModeler, multiple bodies can be joined together to
form a multibody part. This means that if the parts share
common boundaries, the nodes are shared at that interface.
No contact is needed in these situations if the nodes are shared.
Geometry Interface Availability
For surface bodies, Surface Extension and Joint
DesignModeler
Pro/ENGINEER
x
operations are also available in DesignModeler to ensure
Unigraphics
SolidW orks
Inventor
congruent mesh at intersecting surfaces.
Solid Edge
Mechanical Desktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Parasolid
IGES 3-10
General Preprocessing Procedure
Multibody Parts Training Manual

Multibody parts allows the user to define more complex

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


bodies with common nodes, as shown below:

Multibody parts made of


surface and line bodies
share nodes at common
boundaries.
This allows modeling of
shells with stiffeners.

Multibody parts made of


solid bodies share nodes
at common boundaries.
Material properties can be
different for each body.
Geometry Interface Availability
DesignModeler x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigraphics
SolidW orks
Inventor
Solid Edge
Mechanical Desktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Parasolid
IGES 3-11
General Preprocessing Procedure
Material Properties Training Manual

To assign material properties to a body,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


select that body from the tree and select a
Material from the pull-down menu
Materials can be selected from external XML
files
New material data can be added or imported
in the Engineering Data application. The
new material will then be available from the
pull-down menu.
For surface bodies, as noted earlier, a
thickness needs to be supplied as well
Thicknesses will import directly
from DesignModeler, if defined.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-12
General Preprocessing Procedure
Geometry Worksheet Training Manual

A summary of bodies and assigned materials is available

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Select Geometry branch and then the Worksheet tab

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-13
General Preprocessing Procedure
B. Contact Training Manual

When multiple parts are present, a means of defining the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


relationship between parts is needed.
Contact regions define how solid and/or shell parts interact
with each other.
Spot welds provide a means of defining shell assemblies.

Without contact or spot welds, parts will not interact with


each other
In structural analyses, contact and spot welds prevent parts
from penetrating through each other and provide a means of
load transfer between parts.
In thermal analyses, contact and spot welds allow for heat
transfer across parts.

Contact will be introduced first, then spot welds.


ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-14
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solid Body Contact Training Manual

When an assembly is imported, contact surfaces are

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


automatically detected and created
The mating relationships are not used from the CAD software.
Proximity of surfaces is used instead to define contact.
Tolerance for contact detection is available under the
Contact branch as a slider bar in Tolerance Slider

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
Model shown is from a sample SolidWorks assembly. 3-15
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Proven ANSYS Contact Technology allows the user to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


model without shared nodes between parts
Contact elements, which act as a skin on the surface of the
contacting regions, provides the relationship between parts.
This means that one small part will not drive mesh density of
the entire assembly. The user can make parts of interest have
a finer mesh than other parts

Note the non-matching mesh at the


interface between parts.
Mix of hexahedral elements
contacting tetrahedral elements is
possible.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-16
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solid Body Contact Training Manual

When a contact region is highlighted in the Contact

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


branch, parts are made translucent for easier viewing
Selecting a contact pair makes the other bodies not involved
in that contact region translucent
Amount of translucency is controlled via Tools > Options >
Simulation: Contact: Transparency. Transparency can be
turned off in the Details view of the Contact branch

The contacting bodies are partially


transparent.
Bodies not in the contact region are
more fully transparent.
The contacting surfaces which are
oriented with surface normals
pointing towards the view are opaque
for easier viewing.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-17
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solid Body Contact Training Manual

If a geometric entity is highlighted, use right-mouse button

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


in the Graphics window to quickly select associated contact
The right-mouse pop-up menu allows the user to select the
corresponding body in the Geometry branch or highlight all
associated contact regions under the Contact branch

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-18
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Defining a contact pair involves selecting contact and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


target surfaces.
In ANSYS DesignSpace, the distinction between contact and
target is unimportant. Select surfaces for one body as
contact and choose the surfaces for the other as target.
Using Contact from the Context Toolbar allows manual
definition of contact regions

Selection of contact and target


surfaces is performed in the
Details view.
The contact bodies associated
with selected surfaces will be
listed below. Ensure that unique
bodies are for each Contact and
Target body.
The Contact surfaces will be
shown in red while Target
surfaces will be displayed in blue.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-19
General Preprocessing Procedure
Selection Planes Training Manual

Selection planes allow for users to easily select surfaces

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


which are hidden from view by other surfaces.
User selects a plane; if more planes lie directly underneath the
cursor, selection planes appear. Selection planes are color-
coded with the same color as its parent part and are ordered
by depth from the cursor.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-20
General Preprocessing Procedure
Selection Planes Training Manual

Through the use of selection planes, users can define

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


contact regions more easily
Example below shows two surfaces selected from two parts.
A contact region can be defined manually with these surfaces

When moving the cursor over


selection planes, those surfaces will
get highlighted.
Use of wireframe mode may make
visualization easier.
One can select a particular surface
or even use Ctrl-select to select
multiple surfaces.
In this example, two surfaces
highlighted on the screen are
selected to define a contact pair
manually. Without selection planes,
the selection of the specific surfaces
would be tedious.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra /
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-21
General Preprocessing Procedure
Renaming Contact Regions Training Manual

Select the Contact branch and right-click and select

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Rename Based on Geometry to rename all contact pairs,
based on their constituent parts, for easier readability.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-22
General Preprocessing Procedure
Verifying Contact Regions Training Manual

Although Simulation automatically detects contact, one

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


should review each contact pair to ensure that contact is
properly defined.

In this example, because of the tolerance used by


automatic contact detection, some fillets shown here are
included in the contact definition. The user may wish to
remove the fillets from the contact region definition,
ANSYS License Availability
especially in the case of bonded contact, in order to
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x
prevent spurious behavior. March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-23
General Preprocessing Procedure
Advanced Solid Body Contact Training Manual

For ANSYS Professional licenses and above,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


advanced contact options are available.
Auto detection of contact surfaces supports
entering value rather than just using a slider
Specification of asymmetric contact possible
Postprocessing contact results possible
For each contact region, changing contact
formulations, etc. possible, including entering
& visualizing pinball radius (discussed next).

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-24
General Preprocessing Procedure
Advanced Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Example of the use of the pinball region:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The pinball radius may be entered to ensure that bonded
contact is established for a large clearance or gap
In the example below, the visualization of the pinball region
enables the user to verify that the pinball region covers the
gap between the hole and shaft.

The pinball region enables


the user to verify that
contact is detected for a
large gap.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-25
General Preprocessing Procedure
. . . 2D Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Surface contact for solids composed of 2D plane geometry

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


is defined on edges rather than faces

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
3-26
General Preprocessing Procedure
Surface Body Contact Training Manual

For ANSYS Professional licenses and above, mixed

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


assemblies of shells and solids are also supported
Allows for more complex modeling of assemblies, taking
advantage of the benefits of shells, when applicable
More contact options are exposed to the user
Contact postprocessing is also available

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-27
General Preprocessing Procedure
Surface Body Contact Training Manual

Shell contact includes edge-to-face or edge-to-edge contact

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Shell contact is not turned on by default.
However, default behavior can be changed
under Tools menu > Options > Simulation:
Contact: Auto Detection
Activate automatic shell contact detection
under the Contact branch
Tolerance controls include ability to input
absolute search distance to detect contact,
very important for shell assemblies with gaps.
User can turn on detection of face-to-edge
or edge-to-edge contact
Priority can be set to prevent multiple contact
regions from being formed in a given region
by setting priority.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-28
General Preprocessing Procedure
Surface Body Contact Training Manual

Another example of the use of the pinball region is below:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Surfaces represent midplanes of thin structure. At the T
intersection of two shells, a gap is present
If the pinball region is large enough, bonded contact can be
established between the shells despite the gap. Too large of a
value makes the solution inefficient, however.
If Pinball Region: Radius is input under the Details view, the
pinball region is shown graphically as a sphere. For bonded
regions, the radius should be large enough to fill any gap.
Pinball region, by default, is based on the size of the
underlying mesh (solid body) or thickness (surface body).

If needed, use the Label button on the


Graphical Toolbar to move the Contact
Region label & pinball sphere to a
location which may be more convenient.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-29
General Preprocessing Procedure
Spot Weld Training Manual

Spot welds provide a means of connecting shell assemblies

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


at discrete points
For ANSYS DesignSpace licenses, shell contact is not
supported, so spotwelds are the only way to define a shell
assembly.
Spotweld definition is done in the CAD software. Currently,
only DesignModeler and Unigraphics define spotwelds in a
manner that Simulation supports.
Spotwelds can also be created in
Simulation manually, but only at
discrete vertices.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x
Professional x
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
DesignModeler x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigraphics x
SolidW orks
Inventor
Solid Edge
Mechanical Desktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Parasolid
IGES 3-30
General Preprocessing Procedure
Contact Options Training Manual

The different contact options will be covered in detail in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


later chapters:
In structural analysis, contact elements allow for various
interactions between parts
In thermal analysis, contact elements allow for heat transfer
and thermal contact resistance between parts

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
3-31
General Preprocessing Procedure
Contact Worksheet Training Manual

The Worksheet tab of the Contact branch provides a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


summary of various contact and spot weld definitions:

Right-click on the spreadsheet to


hide/show specific columns.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-32
General Preprocessing Procedure
C. Meshing Training Manual

The nodes and elements of the mesh participate in the finite

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


element solution
The solid model geometry is meshed, and the resulting mesh
is solved in the matrix equation.
A default mesh is automatically generated during initiation
of the solution
The user can preview the mesh to check whether it is
adequate or not for his/her needs.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
Model shown is from a sample Inventor assembly. 3-33
General Preprocessing Procedure
Meshing Training Manual

The user needs to balance the computational cost with the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


numerical accuracy of the mesh
A finer mesh produces more precise answers but also
increases CPU time and memory requirements
Ideally, having a solution not dependent on the mesh density
is what users want (i.e., answers do not change appreciably as
mesh is refined)
Convergence controls (discussed later) aid in this
A finer mesh does not compensate for incorrect assumptions
and inputs, however!

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
3-34
General Preprocessing Procedure
Global Meshing Controls Training Manual

Basic meshing controls are available under the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Mesh branch
With Global Controls as Basic (default), user
has control with a single slider bar
Relevance setting between 100 and +100
Default Relevance is set to 0 but can be changed in
Tools > Control Panel > Meshing: Relevance

Relevance = -100 Relevance = 0 Relevance = +100


Nodes: 9968 Nodes: 19040 Nodes: 40764
Elements: 5808 Elements: 10909 Elements: 24687

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-35
General Preprocessing Procedure
Global Meshing Controls Training Manual

User can change to Advanced global controls

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Five options are available to user:
Element Size defines average element edge size
One way to determine this is to use the edge selection filter and
select a representative edge (like thickness of a rib) to use
Curv/Proximity tells Simulation to put more elements near
curvature or proximity of edges to each other
Set slider bar from 100 to +100. If Element Size left to Default,
Curv/Proximity behaves the same as Relevance
The Proximity of lines to each other is accounted for sweepable
bodies or if Part Proximity branches are added (discussed later)
Shape Checking defines element shape quality tests used
For linear analysis, Standard is suitable. For nonlinear analysis
or field analyses, stricter tests may be needed (Aggressive)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-36
General Preprocessing Procedure
Global Meshing Controls Training Manual

Five options are available to user (contd):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Solid Element Order allows users to toggle
between lower- or higher-order solid elements.
Higher-order solid elements are default
Lower-order tetrahedral elements should not be used for structural
analyses, as these result in constant strain tets (stiff behavior).
Lower-order solid elements should not be requested with Hex-
Dominant meshing (discussed later) for structural and thermal
analyses since lower-order pyramids are not supported.
This option not supported for Shape Optimization analyses
Initial Size Seed controls what the mesh seeding is based on
Assembly-Based Mesh Seeding Part-Based Mesh Seeding
Nodes: 13,001 Nodes: 52,484
Elements: 5,666 Elements: 19,816
(Mesh seeding is more uniform (Mesh seeding is based
between parts) on parts, so less uniform
between parts)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-37
General Preprocessing Procedure
Local Mesh Controls Training Manual

Part Relevance allows controlling mesh by parts

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Part Relevance is similar to the Basic global
mesh control except it is for selected parts
Control is given with a slider (-100 to +100)

Part Relevance=+100

Part Relevance=-100

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-38
General Preprocessing Procedure
Local Mesh Controls Training Manual

Sizing allows for local element size specification

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


An average element size, sphere of influence, or
number of divisions per edge can be specified

Element Size produces elements with specified average edge length


Number of Divisions puts specified number of elements on edge(s)
Sphere of Influence allows specification of a sphere, where
elements lying in sphere have a given average element size

Sizing enables users to specify local mesh densities which are


finer or coarser than global average element size
Available options above depend on which entities are scoped:
Entity Element Size # of Elem. Division Sphere of Influence
Bodies x x
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x Faces x x
DesignSpace x Edges x x x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x Vertices x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-39
General Preprocessing Procedure
Local Mesh Controls Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In the adjacent example, a
Sphere of Influence
(shown in red) has been
defined. Elements lying in
that sphere for that scoped
entity will have a given
average element size.
A surface (purple) has the
sizing, so elements on the
surface in the sphere of
influence will have the
average element size.

For the example on right, the


left side has initial Element
Size whereas the right size is
left with default mesh settings.
Note that the left side with
sizing controls has a relatively
uniform mesh density of the
specified edge length.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-40
General Preprocessing Procedure
Local Mesh Controls Training Manual

Contact Sizing provides a way of generating

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


similar-sized elements on contact faces
Because contact regions define the interaction
between parts, it may be preferred to have similar
mesh densities between contact region surfaces
An Element Size or Relevance can be specified for a given
contact region

In this example, the contact


region between the two parts
has a Contact Sizing specified
(by Element Size). Note that
the mesh is now consistent at
ANSYS License Availability
the contact region.
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-41
General Preprocessing Procedure
Local Mesh Controls Training Manual

Element refinement divides existing mesh

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Although transparent to the user, an initial mesh
is created with global and local size controls first,
then element refinement is performed on the
specified vertices, edges, or surfaces.
Refinement level of 1 is recommended. This breaks up the
edges of the elements in the initial mesh in half.
Refinement is an easy way to get a finer mesh in areas of interest
after generating a coarse mesh.
For example shown, the left side has
refinement level of 1 whereas the right
side is left untouched with default
mesh settings.
Note that the refined mesh is not
uniform since the original mesh is not
uniform. The refined mesh breaks
element edges in half.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-42
General Preprocessing Procedure
Local Mesh Controls Training Manual

There is considerable difference between using sizing and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


refinement
Sizing puts constraints on the mesh on the average element
edge length prior to meshing. Generally speaking, this
produces a uniform mesh on specified geometric entities, and
the mesh transition is smoother.
Refinement breaks elements after an initial mesh. If the
original mesh is non-uniform, the refined mesh will be non-
uniform, also. Refinement also leads to less smooth
transitions, although a smoothing algorithm is used.
Sizing and refinement controls can be specified on the same
surface. Sizing will occur first during the initial mesh, then it
will be refined in the second pass during meshing (all
transparent to the user).

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
3-43
General Preprocessing Procedure
Mapped Face Meshing Training Manual

Mapped Face Meshing allows for the generation

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


of structured meshes on surfaces:
In example below, mapped face meshing on the
internal cylindrical face provides a more uniform
mesh pattern. This may be useful to provide better
resolution

If surface cannot be mapped mesh for any reason, meshing


will continue and this will be shown in Outline Tree with icon:
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-44
General Preprocessing Procedure
Mapped Face Meshing Training Manual

Mapped quad or tri mesh also available for surface bodies

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A surface can be mapped meshed with quadrilateral or
triangular elements. (It is not recommended to use triangular
shell elements whenever possible due to accuracy reasons.)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-45
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solid Element Shape Training Manual

By default, Simulation determines how to mesh solid

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


bodies:
Sweep-meshable volumes will have hex (and
possible wedge) elements. Other volumes will
be meshed with tet elements.
Sweep-meshing is done in cases where a volume has the
same topology in one direction.
Right-click on Mesh branch gives user ability to see what
volumes may be swept with Preview Sweep. Sweepable
solid bodies will be selected.

For model shown on right, the solid body


in middle is swept-meshed with
hexahedral (and pentahedral) elements,
whereas other volumes are meshed with
tetrahedral elements.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-46
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solid Element Shape Training Manual

The Element Shape branch provide the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


user with control over how selected solid
bodies are meshed:
Auto Sweep if Possible lets Simulation
mesh sweepable volumes with hexahedra
(and possibly also pentahedra)
All Tetrahedrons lets Simulation
mesh all volumes with tetrahedras
Hex Dominant only appears with ANSYS
Structural licenses and above

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-47
General Preprocessing Procedure
. . . Match Face Meshing Training Manual

Matches mesh pattern on symmetry faces to facilitate

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


cyclic symmetry analyses typical of rotating machinery
Because cyclic symmetry employs constraint equations
linking each cut boundary the nodal locations on each
face must be identical except for the offset (see below)

Cut Boundaries
Matched Faces

March 29, 2005


Full Model Cyclic Symmetry Model Inventory #002215
3-48
General Preprocessing Procedure
. . . Match Face Meshing Training Manual

Procedure:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Insert Match Face Meshing control under Mesh branch
Identify faces of symmetry boundary
Identify the coordinate system (Z axis is rotation axis)

Rotation CS
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
3-49
General Preprocessing Procedure
Hex-Dominant Meshing Training Manual

Advanced Structural Meshing introduction:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The hex-dominant meshing algorithm creates a quad-dominant
surface mesh first, then extrudes those bricks/wedges inward.
Pyramid and tetrahedral elements are then filled in. This
generally results in hexahedral elements on the outside and
tetrahedral elements on the inside, which is preferred
As noted in the previous slide, the Hex Dominant option for the
Element Shape branch is only available with the ANSYS
Structural license and above
Control Messages will appear to warn user if volume may not be
suitable for hex-dominant meshing

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-50
General Preprocessing Procedure
Hex-Dominant Meshing Training Manual

Example of hex-dominant mesh shown below:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


10,918 brick (39%)
6,289 tetra (23%)
907 wedges (3%)
9,631 pyramids (35%)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-51
General Preprocessing Procedure
Hex-Dominant Meshing Training Manual

In some cases, such as for hex-dominant meshing, it may

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


be useful to use FE Modeler to determine the number of
degenerate elements which may be present

Select the top-most


[Project] tab. Open
an Environment in FE
Modeler

Selecting Element Types on the left


menu provides a listing of the number
of tetra, penta, hexa, and wedge
elements present in the model.
ANSYS License Availability The user can also see where these
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace
elements are in the mesh. March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-52
General Preprocessing Procedure
Part Proximity Training Manual

Part Proximity specifies that the proximity of

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


small lines to each other will affect mesh density
Useful for thin parts or for parts where features of
interest are close to each other
Sweepable volumes always have proximity on
Degree controlled by global Relevance or Curv/Proximity
Default Mesh Default Mesh w/ Part Proximity

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-53
General Preprocessing Procedure
Meshing Failures Training Manual

If the mesher is not able to generate well-shaped elements,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


an error message will be returned:

The problematic geometry will be highlighted on the screen,


and a named selection group Problematic Geometry will be
created, so the user may review the model.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-54
General Preprocessing Procedure
Meshing Failures Training Manual

In the Tools menu > Options > Simulation: Meshing,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


some default options can be set
Changing Unmeshable Areas to Show All Failed allows
users to change the meshing behavior such that, if
problematic geometry exists (previous slide), the mesher will
continue to find all problematic geometry that failed to mesh
instead of stopping after the first problematic geometry it may
encounter.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-55
General Preprocessing Procedure
Meshing Failures Training Manual

Meshing failures can be caused by a number of things:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Inconsistent sizing controls specified on surfaces, which
would result in the creation of poorly-shaped elements
Difficult CAD geometry, such as small slivers or twisted
surfaces
Stricter shape checking (Aggressive setting in Mesh branch)

Some ways to avoid meshing failures:


Specify more reasonable sizing controls on geometry
Specify smaller sizing controls to allow the mesher to create
better-shaped elements
In the CAD system, use hidden line removal plots to see sliver
or unwanted geometry and remove them
Use virtual cells to combine sliver or very small surfaces
This option will be discussed next
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-56
General Preprocessing Procedure
Virtual Topology Training Manual

Virtual Topology allows users to combine surfaces for the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


purposes of meshing
Virtual Topology branch not added by default. Can add the
branch from Context Toolbar under Model branch
A Virtual Cell is a surface defined by multiple adjacent
surfaces. Select surfaces first, then add Virtual Cell
Virtual cells enable users to combine sliver surfaces to larger
surfaces for the purposes of meshing. Small sliver surfaces
will not drive mesh density or possibly cause meshing failures
Interior lines of original surfaces belonging to a virtual cell will
no longer be honored by meshing process. Because of this,
topology of mesh may differ slightly from original geometry.
For other operations (such as applying Loads and Supports),
individual surfaces are no longer recognized, and virtual cell is
referenced instead.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-57
General Preprocessing Procedure
Virtual Topology Training Manual

When creating virtual cells, select surfaces first, then add a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


virtual cell:
One cannot add a blank Virtual Cell branch because the
surfaces to be joined need to be evaluated beforehand.
Only after Simulation determines that surfaces can be joined will a
new Virtual Cell branch be created.
When a virtual cell is added, the entities cannot be changed
Details View will show the Geometry
field as grey (unmodifiable)
Since surfaces need to be evaluated
before the virtual cell is defined, the
surfaces cannot be changed afterwards
If a virtual cell needs to be changed, delete the existing branch,
select the new surfaces, then add a new Virtual Cell branch.
A Model branch containing a Virtual Topology branch cannot
be duplicated or copied
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-58
General Preprocessing Procedure
Virtual Topology Example Training Manual

Consider the example below:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Original model contains a The small chamfer
small cylindrical surface, causes a finer
which forms the chamfer elements near
cylindrical area.

Virtual cell (red) of two Resulting mesh is


surfaces (top surface not driven by
and chamfer surface) small features
created anymore.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-59
General Preprocessing Procedure
Virtual Topology Example Training Manual

Keep in mind that topology changes slightly, however!

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Because chamfer is added to top surface in virtual cell, the
interior lines are not recognized anymore.
Because of this, the position of the mesh is slightly lower than
originally expected, and the topology changes slightly.

On the right, the higher-order


elements edge is shown as a solid
yellow line. The contour of the
original chamfer and top surface is
shown as a dotted blue line.
The midside node of the element is
projected onto the top surface, but
the chamfer representation is no
longer present because no nodes
lie on the boundary between the
chamfer and top surface.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-60
General Preprocessing Procedure
Virtual Topology Training Manual

Typical error messages which may be encountered:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Surface normals differ
significantly, preventing
creation of virtual cell:
More than one surface needs to be selected:

Adjacent surfaces need to be selected:

Virtual cells containing other virtual cells


cannot be created:

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-61
General Preprocessing Procedure
Virtual Topology Training Manual

Virtual cells provide the user with another set of tools to aid

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


in controlling the mesh
Use of virtual cells is useful in the following cases:
Reducing mesh density in certain areas by eliminating small
features
Avoiding mesh failure problems by eliminating problematic
geometry such as slivers or very tiny surfaces

However, care should be taken when using virtual cells


since virtual cells change the original topology:
Internal features cannot be referenced anymore for such items
as loads, supports, or results scoping
Some problems may be encountered with meshing because of
the new topology

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-62
General Preprocessing Procedure
D. Named Selections Training Manual

The Named Selection Toolbar provides functionality for

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


grouping together geometric entities:

Create Defined Names Manipulate Show/Hide Supress/Unsuppress

Named Selections allow users to group together vertices,


edges, surfaces, or bodies together
Named Selections can be used to select items for certain
branches that require geometry selection in Details view:
Defining mesh controls
Applying loads and supports
Use of Named Selections makes it easy for the user to reselect
groups that are referenced often for other tasks as well
Defining contact regions
Scoping results
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-63
General Preprocessing Procedure
Defining Named Selections Training Manual

To create Named Selections:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simply select the vertices, edges, surfaces, or bodies of
interest, then click on the Create Selection Group icon.
A dialog box will appear, and a name can be
given to the newly created Named Selection.
The newly created Named Selection will appear
in the Named Selection Toolbar as well as in
the Outline Tree

Please note the following:


Only one type of entity can be in a particular
Named Selection. For example, vertices and
edges cannot exist in the same Named Selection.
Named Selection groups can be imported from
some CAD systems (see Chapter 10)
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-64
General Preprocessing Procedure
Using Named Selections (1) Training Manual

Specifically for mesh controls and loads/supports, Named

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Selections can be referenced directly:
First, make sure the applicable types of bodies are created in a
Named Selection
In the Details view, change Method from Geometry
Selection to Named Selection
Select the Named Selection from the pull-down menu
Simulation will filter non-applicable types of Named Selections.
For example, if the mesh control or load/support can only be
applied on surfaces, only Named Selections containing surfaces
will appear in the pull-down menu.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-65
General Preprocessing Procedure
Using Named Selections (2) Training Manual

Named Selections can also be used in other situations

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


where geometry must be picked in the Details view:
Select Geometry from the Details view to enter picking mode
Toggle the Named Selection to select from the Toolbar
From the Selection icon, select the applicable choice
Select Items in Group selects the current Named Selection
Add to Current Selection adds the current Named Selection to
any entities already selected
Remove from Current Selection removes any currently selected
entity which belongs to the referenced Named Selection
Then, click on Apply in the Details view
2
1

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-66
General Preprocessing Procedure
Named Selections and Bodies Training Manual

The associated bodies of a Named Selection group can be

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


hidden or suppressed:
This functionality makes it easier to hide or show certain
groups of bodies rather than needing to select the bodies from
the Geometry branch to change their visibility status
If surface Named Selections are hidden, the associated bodies
will be hidden graphically. Show/hide and
Suppress/Unsuppress functionality work on bodies, not
individual lines or surfaces.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-67
General Preprocessing Procedure
E. Coordinate Systems Training Manual

The Coordinate Systems branch is usually not displayed by

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


default, but it can be added from the Model tree

Coordinate systems are currently used for Sphere of


Influence mesh controls, Point Mass (discussed later),
direction loads, and results postprocessing.
Coordinate systems allow users
to specify directions or origins
other than global Cartesian.
After adding Coordinate Systems
branch, the Global Coordinate
System will be added, based on
the origin of the CAD model.
Coordinate Systems can be
imported from some CAD systems
(see Chapter 10)
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-68
General Preprocessing Procedure
Coordinate Systems Training Manual

New Coordinate Systems can be defined

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


by selecting Coordinate System icon
from the Context toolbar
By changing Type in the Details view, a
coordinate system can be cartesian or
cylindrical.
Local coordinate systems can be defined by
selecting a vertex for the origin or by
selecting a cylinder.
The orientation can then be changed by
selecting X/Y/Z Direction and selecting an
appropriate surface to define the direction
Recall that flipping the direction can be done
in the Graphics window after selecting a
surface.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-69
General Preprocessing Procedure
Coordinate Systems Training Manual

If the Coordinate Systems branch is present, the defined

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


coordinate systems will be available from the applicable
pull-down menu in the Details view
Sizing w/ Sphere of Point Mass
Influence Option

Force Load Directional Results


(Directional Load)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 3-70
General Preprocessing Procedure
F. Workshop 3 Training Manual

Workshop 3 Mesh Control

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Use the various DS mesh controls to
enhance the mesh for the crankshaft
model.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
3-71
Chapter Four

Static Structural Analysis


Linear Static Structural Analysis
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, performing linear static structural analyses

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


in Simulation will be covered:
Geometry and Elements
Contact and Types of Supported Assemblies
Environment, including Loads and Supports
Solving Models
Results and Postprocessing

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and
above.
Some options discussed in this chapter may require more
advanced licenses, but these are noted accordingly.
Free vibration, harmonic, and nonlinear structural analyses are
not discussed here but in their respective chapters. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
4-2
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Basics of Linear Static Analysis Training Manual

For a linear static structural analysis, the displacements {x}

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are solved for in the matrix equation below:

K x F
This results in certain assumptions related to the analysis:
[K] is essentially constant
Linear elastic material behavior is assumed
Small deflection theory is used
Some nonlinear boundary conditions may be included
{F} is statically applied
No time-varying forces are considered
No inertial effects (mass, damping) are included

It is important to remember these assumptions related to


linear static analysis. Nonlinear static and dynamic
analyses are covered in later chapters. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
4-3
Linear Static Structural Analysis
A. Geometry Training Manual

In structural analyses, all types of bodies supported by

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation may be used.

For surface bodies, thickness must be


supplied in the Details view of the
Geometry branch.

The cross-section and orientation of line bodies are defined


within DesignModeler and are imported into Simulation
automatically.
For line bodies, only displacement results are available.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-4
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Point Mass Training Manual

A Point Mass is available under the Geometry branch to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


mimic weight not explicitly modeled
A point mass is associated with surface(s) only
The location can be defined by either:
(x, y, z) coordinates in any user-defined Coordinate System
Selecting vertices/edges/surfaces to define location
The weight/mass is supplied under Magnitude
In a structural static analysis, the point mass is affected by
Acceleration, Standard Earth Gravity, and Rotational
Velocity. No other loads affect a point mass.
The mass is connected to selected surfaces
assuming no stiffness between them. This is
not a rigid-region assumption but similar to a
distributed mass assumption.
No rotational inertial terms are present.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-5
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Point Mass Training Manual

A point mass will be displayed as a round, grey sphere

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


As noted previously, only inertial loads affect the point mass.
This means that the only reason to use a point mass in a linear
static analysis is to account for additional weight of a
structure not modeled. Inertial loads must be present.
No results are obtained for the Point Mass itself.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-6
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Material Properties Training Manual

The required structural material properties are Youngs

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Modulus and Poissons Ratio for linear static structural
analyses
Material input is under the Engineering Data branch, and
material assignment is per part under the Geometry branch
Mass density is required if any inertial loads are present
Thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity are
required if any thermal loads are present
Thermal loading not available with an ANSYS Structural license
Negative thermal expansion coefficient may be input (shrinkage)
Stress Limits are needed if a Stress Tool result is present
Fatigue Properties are needed if Fatigue Tool result is present
Requires Fatigue Module add-on license
Specific loading and result tools will be discussed later
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural /
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-7
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Material Properties Training Manual

Engineering Data view of sample material shown below:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-8
Linear Static Structural Analysis
B. Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

When importing assemblies of solid parts, contact regions

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are automatically created between the solid bodies.
Surface-to-surface contact allows non-matching meshes at
boundaries between solid parts
Tolerance controls under Contact branch allows the user to
specify distance of auto contact detection via slider bar

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-9
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

In Simulation, the concept of contact and target surfaces

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are used for each contact region.
One side of the contact region is comprised of contact
face(s), the other side of the region is made of target face(s).
The integration points of the contact surfaces are restricted
from penetrating through the target surfaces (within a given
tolerance). The opposite is not true, however.
When one side is the contact and the other side is the target, this
is called asymmetric contact. On the other hand, if both sides are
made to be contact & target, this is called symmetric contact since
neither side can penetrate the other.
By default, Simulation uses symmetric
contact for solid assemblies.
For ANSYS Professional licenses and
above, the user may change to
asymmetric contact, as desired.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace / March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-10
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Four contact types are available:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contact Type Iterations Normal Behavior (Separation) Tangential Behavior (Sliding)
Bonded 1 Closed Closed
No Separation 1 Closed Open
Frictionless Multiple Open Open
Rough Multiple Open Closed

Bonded and No Separation contact are basically


linear behavior and require only 1 iteration
Frictionless and Rough contact are nonlinear
and require multiple iterations. However, note
that small deflection theory is still assumed.
When using these options, an interface treatment
option is available, set either as Actual Geometry
(and Specified Offset) or Adjusted to Touch.
The latter allows the user to have ANSYS close the
gap to just touching position. This is available
for ANSYS Professional and above.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace / March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-11
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

For the advanced user, some of the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


contact options can be modified
Formulation can be changed from Pure
Penalty to Augmented Lagrange, MPC, or
Normal Lagrange.
MPC is applicable to bonded contact only
Augmented Lagrange is used in regular ANSYS
The pure Penalty method can be thought of as
adding very high stiffness between interface of
parts, resulting in negligible relative movement
between parts at the contact interface.
MPC formulation writes constraint equations
relating movement of parts at interface, so no
relative movement occurs. This can be an
attractive alternative to penalty method for
bonded contact.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-12
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Advanced options (continued):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


As explained in Chapter 3, the pinball
region can be input and visualized
The pinball region defines location of near-
field open contact. Outside of the pinball
region is far-field open contact.
Originally, the pinball region was meant to
more efficiently process contact searching,
but this is also used for other purposes,
such as bonded contact
For bonded or no separation contact, if gap
or penetration is smaller than pinball region,
the gap/penetration is automatically
excluded
Other advanced contact options will be
discussed in Chapter 11.
In this case, the gap between
the two parts is bigger than the
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra pinball region, so no automatic
DesignSpace gap closure will be performed. March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-13
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Surface Body Contact Training Manual

For ANSYS Professional licenses and above, mixed

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


assemblies of shells and solids are supported
Allows for more complex modeling of assemblies, taking
advantage of the benefits of shells, when applicable
More contact options are exposed to the user
Contact postprocessing is also available (discussed later)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-14
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Surface Body Contact Training Manual

Edge contact is a subset of general contact

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


For contact including shell faces or solid
edges, only bonded or no separation
behavior is allowed.
For contact involving shell edges, only
bonded behavior using MPC formulation is
allowed.
For MPC-based bonded contact, user can set
the search direction (the way in which the
multi-point constraints are written) as either
the target normal or pinball region.
If a gap exists (as is often the case with
shell assemblies), the pinball region can be
used for the search direction to detect
contact beyond a gap.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-15
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Contact Summary Training Manual

A summary of contact types and options available in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation is presented in the table below:
Contact Geometry Solid Body Face Solid Body Edge Surface Body Face Surface Body Edge
Solid Body Face All types Bonded, No Separation Bonded, No Separation Bonded only
All formulations All formulations All formulations MPC formulation
Symmetry respected Asymmetric only Symmetry respected Asymmetric only
Solid Body Edge Bonded, No Separation Bonded, No Separation Bonded only
All formulations All formulations MPC formulation
Asymmetric only Asymmetric only Asymmetric only
Surface Body Face Bonded, No Separation Bonded only
All formulations MPC formulation
Symmetry respected Asymmetric only
Surface Body Edge Bonded only
MPC formulation
Asymmetric only

This table is also in the Simulation online help. Please refer to


this table to determine what options are available.
Note that surface body faces can only participate in bonded or no
separation contact. Surface body edges allow MPC-based bonded
contact only.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace / March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-16
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Assemblies Spot Weld Training Manual

Spot welds provide a means of connecting shell assemblies

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


at discrete points
For ANSYS DesignSpace licenses, shell contact is not
supported, so spotwelds are the only way to define a shell
assembly.
Spotweld definition is done in the CAD software. Currently,
only DesignModeler and Unigraphics define spotwelds in a
manner that Simulation supports.
Spotwelds can also be created in
Simulation manually, but only at
discrete vertices.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x
Professional x
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
DesignModeler x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigraphics x
SolidW orks
Inventor
Solid Edge
Mechanical Desktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Parasolid
IGES 4-17
Linear Static Structural Analysis
C. Loads and Supports Training Manual

There are four types of structural loads available:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Inertial loads
These loads act on the entire system
Density is required for mass calculations
These are only loads which act on defined Point Masses
Structural Loads
These are forces or moments acting on parts of the system
Structural Supports
These are constraints that prevent movement on certain regions
Thermal Loads
Structurally speaking, the thermal loads result in a temperature
field, which causes thermal expansion on the model.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural /
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-18
Linear Static Structural Analysis
. . . Time Type Training Manual

A time type option is available at certain license levels.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The default time type for loading is static
Sequence and harmonic time types are available as
options (harmonic analysis is covered in the Advanced WB
training)
Sequence loading allows a series of static time steps to be
set up in advance and solved at once
Sequenced results can be reviewed step by step

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-19
Linear Static Structural Analysis
. . . Time Type Training Manual

Specify the desired number of sequence

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


steps in the details of the Environment.
Enter the value of the load for each step by
first highlighting the desired step in the
graphics window.

The chart in the graphics window displays the


variation of the load.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
4-20
Linear Static Structural Analysis
. . . Time Type Training Manual

The worksheet view provides a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


graphical representation of each
loads sequence.

Results of a sequenced simulation


can be reviewed by highlighting the
quantity of interest and picking the
desired sequence from the graphics
window.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
4-21
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Directional Loads Training Manual

For most loads/supports which have an

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


orientation, the direction can be defined by
components in any Coordinate System
The Coordinate System (CS) has to be
defined prior to specifying the loading. Only
Cartesian coordinate systems may be used
for loading/support orientation.
In the Details view, change Define By to
Components. Then, select the appropriate
Cartesian CS from the pull-down menu.
Specify x, y, and/or z components, which are
relative to the selected Coordinate System
Not all loads/supports support use of CS:
Load Supports Coordinate Systems
Acceleration No Loads/Supports not
Standard Earth Gravity No listed in the table do not
Rotational Velocity No
Force Yes
have direction
ANSYS License Availability Remote Force Location of Origin Only associated with it, so
DesignSpace Entra x Bearing Load Yes Coordinate Systems are
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x
Moment Yes not applicable.
Given Displacement Yes Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-22
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Acceleration & Gravity Training Manual

An acceleration can be defined on the system

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Acceleration acts on entire model in length/time2 units.
Users sometimes have confusion over notation of direction. If
acceleration is applied to system suddenly, the inertia resists
the change in acceleration, so the inertial forces are in the
opposite direction to applied acceleration
Acceleration can be defined by Components or Vector

Standard Earth Gravity can also be applied as a load


Value applied is 9.80665 m/s2 (in SI units)
Standard Earth Gravity direction can only be defined along
one of three World Coordinate System axes.
Since Standard Earth Gravity is defined as an acceleration,
define the direction as opposite to gravitational force, as noted
above.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-23
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Rotational Velocity Training Manual

Rotational velocity is another inertial load available

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Entire model spins about an axis at a given rate
Can be defined as a vector, using geometry for axis and
magnitude of rotational velocity
Can be defined by components, supplying origin and
components in World Coordinate System
Note that location of axis is very important since model spins
around that axis.
Default is to input rotational velocity in radians per second.
Can be changed in Tools > Control Panel > Miscellaneous >
Angular Velocity to revolutions per minute (RPM) instead.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-24
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Forces and Pressures Training Manual

Pressure loading:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Pressures can only be applied to surfaces and always act
normal to the surface
Positive value acts into surface (i.e., compressive)
negative value acts outward from surface (i.e., suction)
Units of pressure are in force per area

Force loading:
Forces can be applied on vertices, edges, or surfaces.
The force will be distributed on all entities. This
means that if a force is applied to two identical
surfaces, each surface will have half of the force
applied. Units are mass*length/time2
A force is defined via vector and magnitude or by
components (in user-defined Coordinate System)
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-25
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Bearing Load Training Manual

Bearing Load (was called Bolt Load in prior releases):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Bearing Loads are for cylindrical surfaces only. Radial
component will be distributed on compressive side using
projected area. Example of radial distribution shown below.
Axial component is distributed evenly on cylinder.
Use only one bearing load per cylindrical surface. If the
cylindrical surface is split in two, however, be sure to select
both halves of cylindrical surface when applying this load.
Load is in units of force
Bearing load can be defined
via vector and magnitude or
by components (in any
user Coordinate System).

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-26
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Moment Load Training Manual

Moment Load:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


For solid bodies, a moment can be applied on any
surface
If multiple surfaces are selected, the moment load
gets apportioned about those selected surfaces
A vector and magnitude or components (in user-defined
Coordinate System) can define the moment. The moment acts
about the vector using the right-hand rule
For surface bodies, a moment can also be applied to a vertex
or edge with similar definition via vector or components as
with a surface-based moment
Units of moment are in Force*length.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-27
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Remote Load Training Manual

Remote Load:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Allows the user to apply an offset force on a surface or edge of
a surface body
The user supplies the origin of the force (using vertices, a
cylinder, or typing in (x, y, z) coordinates). A user-defined
Coordinate System may be used to reference the location.
The force can then be defined by vector and magnitude or by
components (components for direction is in Global CS)
This results in an equivalent force on
the surface plus a moment caused by
the moment arm of the offset force
The force is distributed on the surface
but includes the effect of the moment
arm due to the offset of the force
Units are in force (mass*length/time2)
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-28
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Supports (General) Training Manual

Fixed Support:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Constraints all degrees of freedom on vertex, edge, or surface
For solid bodies, prevents translations in x, y, and z
For surface and line bodies, prevents translations and
rotations in x, y, and z

Given Displacement:
Applies known displacement on vertex, edge, or surface
Allows for imposed translational displacement in x, y, and z (in
user-defined Coordinate System)
Entering 0 means that the direction is constrained.
Leaving the direction blank means that the entity is free to
move in that direction

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-29
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Supports (Solid Bodies) Training Manual

Frictionless Support:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Applies constraint in normal direction on surfaces
For solid bodies, this support can be used to apply a
symmetry plane boundary condition since symmetry plane
is same as normal constraint

Cylindrical Constraint:
Applied on cylindrical surfaces
User can specify whether axial, radial, or tangential
components are constrained
Suitable for small-deflection (linear) analysis only

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-30
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Supports (Solid Bodies) Training Manual

Compression Only Support:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Applies a compression-only constraint normal to any given
surface. This prevents the surface to move in the positive
normal direction only.
A way to think of this support is to imagine a rigid structure
which has the same shape of the selected surface. Note that
the contacting (compressive) areas are not known beforehand.
Can be used on a cylindrical surface to model a
(referred to as Pinned Cylinder 7.1)
Notice the example on the right,
where the outline of the undeformed cylinder
is shown. The compressive side retains the shape
of the original cylinder, but the tensile side is free to deform.
This requires an iterative (nonlinear) solution.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-31
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Supports (Line/Surface Bodies) Training Manual

Simply Supported:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Can be applied on edge or vertex of surface or line bodies
Prevents all translations but all rotations are free

Fixed Rotation:
Can be applied on surface, edge, or vertex of surface or line
bodies
Constrains rotations but translations are free

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-32
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Summary of Supports Training Manual

Supports and Contact Regions may both be thought of as

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


being boundary conditions.
Contact Regions provides a flexible boundary condition
between two existing parts explicitly modeled
Supports provide a rigid boundary condition between the
modeled part an a rigid, immovable part not explicitly modeled
Type of Support Equivalent Contact Condition at Surfaces of Part
Fixed Support Bonded contact with a rigid, immovable part
Frictionless Support No Separation contact with a rigid, immovable part
Compression Only Support Frictionless contact with a rigid, immovable part

If Part A, which is of interest, is connected to Part B,


consider whether both parts need to be analyzed (with
contact) or whether supports will suffice in providing the
effect Part B has on Part A.
In other words, is Part B rigid compared to Part A? If so, a
support can be used and only Part A modeled. If not, one may
need to model both Parts A and B with contact. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
4-33
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Thermal Loading Training Manual

Temperature causes thermal expansion in the model

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Thermal strains are calculated as follows:
thx thy thz T Tref
where is the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE), Tref is the
reference temperature at which thermal strains are zero, T is
the applied temperature, and th is the thermal strain.
Thermal strains do not cause stress by themselves. It is the
constraint, temperature gradient, or CTE mismatch that
produce stress.
CTE is defined in Engineering Data
and has units of strain per temperature
The reference temperature is defined in the
Environment branch

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-34
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Thermal Loading Training Manual

Thermal loads can be applied on the model

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Any temperature loading can be applied (see Chapter 6 on
Thermal Analysis for details)
Simulation will always perform a thermal solution first, then
use the calculated temperature field as input when solving the
structural solution.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-35
Linear Static Structural Analysis
D. Workshop 4.1 Training Manual

Workshop 4.1 Linear Structural Analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
A 5 part assembly representing an impeller type pump is
analyzed with a 100N preload on the belt.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
4-36
Linear Static Structural Analysis
E. Solution Options Training Manual

Solution options can be set under the Solution branch

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The ANSYS database can be saved if Save
ANSYS db is set
Useful if you want to open a database in ANSYS
Two solvers are available in Simulation
The solver is automatically chosen, although some
informative messages may appear after solution
letting the user know what solver was used. Set
default behavior under Tools > Options >
Simulation: Solution > Solver Type
The Direct solver is useful for models containing
thin surface and line bodies. It is a robust solver
and handles any situation.
The Iterative solver is most efficient when solving
large, bulky solid bodies. It can handle large models
well, although it is less efficient for beam/shells.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-37
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Solution Options Training Manual

Weak springs can be added to stabilize model

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


If Program Controlled is set, Simulation tries to
anticipate under-constrained models. If no
Fixed Support is present, it may add weak springs
and provide an informative message letting the user
know that it has done so
This can be set to On or Off. To set the default
behavior, go to Tools > Options > Simulation:
Solution > Use Weak Springs.
In some cases, the user expects the model to be in
equilibrium and does not want to constrain all
possible rigid-body modes. Weak springs will help
by preventing matrix singularity.
It is good practice to constrain all possible rigid-body
motion, however.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-38
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Solution Options Training Manual

Informative messages are also present:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The type of analysis is shown, such as Static
Structural for the cases described in this section.
If a nonlinear solution is required, it will be indicated
as such. Recall that for some contact behavior and
compression-only support, the solution becomes
nonlinear. These type of solutions require multiple
iterations and take longer than linear solutions.
The solver working directory is where scratch files
are saved during the solution of the matrix equation.
By default, the TEMP directory of your Windows
system environment variable is used, although this
can be changed in Tools > Options > Simulation:
Solution > Solver Working Directory. Sufficient free
space must be on that partition.
Any solver messages which appear after solution can
be checked afterwards under Solver Messages

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-39
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Solving the Model Training Manual

To solve the model, request results first (covered next) and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


click on the Solve button on the Standard Toolbar
By default, two processors (if present) will be used for parallel
processing. To set the number, use Tools > Options >
Simulation: Solution > Number of Processors to Use
Recall that if a Solution Information branch is requested, the
contents of the Solution Output can be displayed.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-40
Linear Static Structural Analysis
F. Results and Postprocessing Training Manual

Various results are available for postprocessing:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Directional and total deformation
Components, principal, or invariants of stresses and strains
Contact output
Requires ANSYS Professional and above
Reaction forces

In Simulation, results are usually requested before solving,


but they can be requested afterwards, too.
If you solve a model then request results afterwards, click on
the Solve button , and the results will be retrieved. A
new solution is not required if that type of result has been
requested previously (i.e., total deformation was requested
previously but now direction deformation is added).
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
4-41
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Plotting Results Training Manual

All of the contour and vector plots are usually shown on the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


deformed geometry. Use the Context Toolbar to change the
scaling or display of results to desired settings.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-42
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Deformation Training Manual

The deformation of the model can be plotted:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Total deformation is a scalar quantity:
U total U x2 U y2 U z2
The x, y, and z components of deformation can be
requested under Directional. Because there is
direction associated with the components, if a
Coordinate System branch is present, users can
request deformation in a given coordinate system.
For example, it may be easier to interpret displacement for a
cylindrical geometry in a radial direction by using a cylindrical
coordinate system to display the result.
Vector plots of deformation are available.
Recall that wireframe mode is the easiest
to view vector plots.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-43
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Deformation Training Manual

Deformation results are available for line, surface, and solid

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


bodies
Note that deformation results are associated with
translational DOF only. Rotations associated with the DOF of
line and surface bodies are not directly viewable
Because deformation (displacements) are DOF which
Simulation solves for, the convergence behavior is well-
behaved when using the Convergence tool
Vector deformation plots cannot useAlert or Convergence
tools because they are vector quantities (x, y, z) rather than a
unique quantity (x or y or z). Use Alert or Convergence tools
on Total or Directional quantities instead.
Total deformation is an invariant, so Coordinate Systems
cannot be used on this result quantity. Also, Vector
deformation is always shown in the world coordinate system.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-44
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Stresses and Strains Training Manual

Stresses and strains can be viewed:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Strains are actually elastic strains
Stresses and (elastic) strains are
tensors and have six components
(x, y, z, xy, yz, xz) while thermal
strains can be considered a vector
with three components (x, y, z)
For stresses and strains, components can be
requested under Normal (x, y, z) and Shear
(xy, yz, xz). For thermal strains, (x, y, z) components are under
Thermal.
Can request in different results coordinate systems
Thermal strains not available with an ANSYS Structural license
Only available for shell and solid bodies. Line bodies currently do
not report any results except for deformation.
ANSYS License Availability
Equivalent Plastic strain output is covered in Chapter 11
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural /
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-45
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Stress Tools Training Manual

Safety Factors can be calculated

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


based on any of 4 failure theories:
Ductile Theories:
Maximum Equivalent Stress
Maximum Shear Stress
Brittle Theories:
Mohr-Coulomb Stress
Maximum Tensile Stress
Within each stress tool safety factor,
safety margin and stress ratio can be
plotted

Note: see appendix 4 and the


Simulation documentation for more
details
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-46
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Contact Results Training Manual

Contact Results:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contact results can be requested for selected
bodies or surfaces which have contact elements.
Contact elements in ANSYS use the concept of
contact and target surfaces. Only contact surfaces
report contact results. MPC-based contact, the
target surfaces of any contact, and edge-based contact do not
report results. Line bodies do not support contact.
If asymmetric or auto-asymmetric contact is used, then contact
results will be reported on the contact surfaces only. The target
surfaces will report zero values, if requested.
If symmetric contact is used, then contact results will be reported
on both surfaces. For values such as contact pressure, the actual
contact pressure will be an average of both surfaces in contact.
Contact results are first requested via a Contact Tool under
the Solution branch.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-47
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Contact Results Training Manual

The user can specify contact output under Contact Tool

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Worksheet view easily allows users to select which
contact regions will be associated with the Contact Tool
Results on contact or target sides (or both) can be selected
from the spreadsheet (symmetric vs. asymmetric contact)
Specific contact results chosen from Context Toolbar

Select contact regions you want to


review (add more Contact Tool
branches to look at contact region
output separately).
Right-click on the worksheet to see
other available options.
For the Contact Tool, then
request contact output results, and
those results will correspond to
selected contact regions.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-48
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Contact Results Training Manual

Types of Contact Results available:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contact Pressure shows distribution of normal contact
pressure
Contact Penetration shows the resulting amount of
penetration whereas contact Gap shows any gap
(within pinball radius).
Sliding Distance is the amount one surface has slid with
respect to the other. Frictional Stress is tangential contact
traction due to frictional effects.
Contact Status provides information on
whether the contact is established (closed
state) or not touching (open state).
For the open state, near-field means that it is
within pinball region, far-field means that it is
outside of pinball region.
Contour results are plotted with the
ANSYS License Availability rest of the model being translucent
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace
for easier viewing. March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-49
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Contact Forces Training Manual

If Reactions are requested for Contact Tool, forces and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


moments are reported for the requested contact regions
Under the Worksheet tab, contact forces for all requested
contact regions will be tabulated
Under the Geometry tab, symbols will show direction of
contact forces and moments.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-50
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Reaction Forces at Supports Training Manual

Reaction forces and moments are output for each support

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


For each support, look under the Details view
after solution. Reaction forces and moments are
printed. X, y, and z components are with respect
to the world coordinate system. Moments are
reported at the centroid of the support.
The reaction force for weak springs, if used, is
under the Environment branch Details view
after solution. The weak spring reaction forces
should be small to ensure that the effect of weak
springs is negligible.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-51
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Reaction Forces at Supports Training Manual

The Worksheet tab for Environment branch has a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


summary of reaction forces and moments
If a support shares a vertex, edge, or surface with another
support, contact pair, or load, the reported reaction forces may
be incorrect. This is due to the fact that the underlying mesh
will have multiple supports and/or loads applied to the same
nodes. The solution will still be valid, but the reported values
may not be accurate because of this.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 4-52
Linear Static Structural Analysis
Fatigue Training Manual

If the Fatigue Module add-on license is available, additional

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


post-processing involving fatigue calculations is possible
The Fatigue Tool provides stress-based fatigue calculations
to aid the design engineer with evaluating the life of
components in the system
Constant or variable amplitude loading, proportional or non-
proportional loading is possible

Damage Matrix at Critical Location Contour of Safety Factor


March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
ANSYS License Availability
Fatigue Module x 4-53
Linear Static Structural Analysis
G. Workshop 4.2 2D vs 3D Analysis Training Manual

Workshop 4.2 Comparing 2D and 3D Structural Analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Comparing 2D and 3D structural analyses.
Shown here are the 3D sector model and the 2D axisymmetric
model.
Pressure Cap

Retaining Ring
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
4-54
Chapter Five

Vibration Analysis
Vibration Analysis
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, performing free vibration analyses in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation will be covered. In Simulation, performing a free
vibration analysis is similar to a linear static analysis.
It is assumed that the user has already covered Chapter 4
Linear Static Structural Analysis prior to this section.

The following will be covered:


Free Vibration Analysis Procedure
Free Vibration with Pre-Stress Analysis Procedure

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and
above.
Some options discussed in this chapter may require more
advanced licenses, but these are noted accordingly.
Harmonic and nonlinear static structural analyses are not
discussed here but in their respective chapters. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
5-2
Vibration Analysis
Basics of Free Vibration Analysis Training Manual

For a free vibration analysis, the natural circular

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


frequencies i and mode shapes i are calculated from:

K M 0
i
2
i
This results in certain assumptions related to the analysis:
[K] and [M] are constant:
Linear elastic material behavior is assumed
Small deflection theory is used, and no nonlinearities included
[C] is not present, so damping is not included
{F} is not present, so no excitation of the structure is assumed
The structure can be unconstrained (rigid-body modes present) or
partially/fully constrained, depending on the physical structure
Mode shapes {} are relative values, not absolute

It is important to remember these assumptions related to


performing free vibration analyses in Simulation. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
5-3
Vibration Analysis
A. Free Vibration Analysis Procedure Training Manual

The free vibration analysis procedure is very similar to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


performing a linear static analysis, so not all steps will be
covered in detail. The steps in yellow italics are specific to
free vibration analyses.
Attach Geometry
Assign Material Properties
Define Contact Regions (if applicable)
Define Mesh Controls (optional)
Include Supports (if applicable)
Request Frequency Finder Results
Set Frequency Finder Options
Solve the Model
Review Results

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
5-4
Vibration Analysis
Geometry and Point Mass Training Manual

Similar to linear static analyses, any type of geometry

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


supported by Simulation may be used:
Solid bodies
Surface bodies (with appropriate thickness defined)
Line bodies (with appropriate cross-sections defined)
For line bodies, only mode shapes and displacement results are
available.

The Point Mass feature can be used:


Input for the Point Mass was described earlier in Chapter 4.
The Point Mass adds mass only in a free vibration analysis. It is
connected to selected surfaces as if no stiffness is present, so the
effect is to add only mass (not stiffness) to a structure.
Useful for including the effect of distributed weight on selected
surfaces. Because of this, the Point Mass will decrease the natural
frequency in free vibration analyses.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-5
Vibration Analysis
Material Properties Training Manual

For material properties, Youngs Modulus, Poissons Ratio,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


and Mass Density are required
Since no loading is assumed, no other material properties will
be used, if defined

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-6
Vibration Analysis
Contact Regions Training Manual

Contact regions are available in free vibration analyses.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


However, since this is a purely linear analysis, contact
behavior will differ for the nonlinear contact types:
Modal Analysis
Contact Type Static Analysis
Initially Touching Inside Pinball Region Outside Pinball Region
Bonded Bonded Bonded Bonded Free
No Separation No Separation No Separation No Separation Free
Rough Rough Bonded Free Free
Frictionless Frictionless No Separation Free Free

There are two important things to remember when using


contact in a free vibration analysis:
The two nonlinear contact behaviors rough and frictionless
will behave in a linear fashion, so they will internally behave as
bonded or no separation instead.
If a gap is present, the nonlinear contact behaviors will be free
(i.e., as if no contact is present). Bonded and no separation
contact will depend on the pinball region size.
ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
Availability The pinball region is automatically determined by default
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-7
Vibration Analysis
Contact Regions Training Manual

For ANSYS Professional licenses and above, additional

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


contact options can be used in free vibration analyses:
For rough and frictionless contact, the Interface Treatment
can be changed to Adjusted to Touch, which will make the
contact surfaces behave as bonded and no separation,
respectively. (Even if a gap is present, the parts will behave as
if they are initially touching if this option is set.)
The size of the Pinball Region may be changed as well as
viewed to ensure that bonded and no separation contact is
established, even if a gap is present.
Please refer to Chapters 3 and 4 for discussions on the pinball
region and how to define its size

For ANSYS Structural licenses and above, frictional contact


will behave similar to bonded contact if surfaces are
touching but act as free (no contact) if contact is open.
ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
Availability
It is not recommended to use frictional contact in a free
DesignSpace
Professional / vibration analysis since it is nonlinear. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-8
Vibration Analysis
Loads and Supports Training Manual

Structural and thermal loads not used in free vibration

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


See Section B later in this chapter for a discussion on free
vibration with pre-stress analysis. In this situation, loads are
considered but only for their pre-stress effects.

Supports can be used in free vibration analyses:


If no or partial supports are present, rigid-body modes can be
detected and evaluated. These modes will be at 0 or near 0 Hz.
Unlike static structural analyses, free vibration analyses do
not require that rigid-body motion be prevented.
The boundary conditions are important, as they affect the
mode shapes and frequencies of the part. Carefully consider
how the model is constrained.
The compression only support is a nonlinear support and
should not be used in the analysis.
If present, the compression only support will generally
ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
Availability
x behave similar to a frictionless support.
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-9
Vibration Analysis
Requesting Results Training Manual

Most of the options for free vibration analyses

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are similar to that of static analysis. However,
Simulation knows to perform a free vibration
analysis when the Frequency Finder tool is
selected under the Solutions Branch
The Frequency Finder tool adds another branch
to the Solutions branch
The Details View of the Frequency Finder allows
the user to specify the Max Modes to Find. The
default is 6 modes (max is 200). Increasing the The minimum and
number of modes to retrieve will increase the maximum range (in Hz)
can be specified if Limit
solution time. Search to Range is
enabled. Note that this
The search may be limited to a specific frequency works in conjunction
with Max Modes to
range of interest by selecting Yes on Limit Find. If not enough
modes are requested, not
Search to Range. all modes in the
frequency range may be
ANSYS License Availability
By default, frequencies beginning from 0 Hz found.
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace
x
x (rigid-body modes) will be calculated if a March 29, 2005
Professional x
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics
x
x
search range is not set. Inventory #002215
5-10
Vibration Analysis
Requesting Results Training Manual

Under the Frequency Finder branch are

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the requests requested
When toggling Max Modes to Find under
the Frequency Finder branch, more mode
shapes will automatically be added. The
user does not need to request mode
shapes from the Context toolbar.
If stress, strain, or directional
displacements are to be requested, this
can be done by adding the result from the
Context toolbar.
For each stress, strain, or displacement
result added, the user can specify which
mode this corresponds to from the Details
view, under Mode. If relative stress or strain results are needed,
be sure to add results under the Frequency
Finder branch, not the Solution branch.
ANSYS License Availability Recall that mode shapes are relative values
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x
since no excitation is present. Hence, March 29, 2005
Professional x stresses and strains are also relative. Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-11
Vibration Analysis
Solution Options Training Manual

The solution branch provides details on the type of analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


being performed
For a free vibration analysis, none of the options in the Details
view of the Solution branch usually need to be changed.
In the majority of cases, Solver Type should be left on the default
option of Program Controlled.
If the model is a very large one of solid elements, and only a few
modes are to be requested, the Solver Type, when changed to
Iterative, may be more efficient.
The Analysis Type will display
Free Vibration.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-12
Vibration Analysis
Solving the Model Training Manual

After setting up the model, one can solve the free vibration

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


analysis just like any other analysis by selecting the Solve
button.
A free vibration analysis is generally more computationally
expensive than a static analysis on the same model because
of the equations solved.
If a Solution Information branch
is requested under the Solution
branch, detailed solution output,
including the amount of memory
used and solution progress, will
be available in the Worksheet tab.
If stress or strain results or more
frequencies/modes are requested
after a solution is performed, a new
solution is required.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-13
Vibration Analysis
Reviewing Results Training Manual

After solution, mode shapes can be reviewed

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Because there is no excitation applied to the structure, the
mode shapes are relative values associated with free vibration
Mode shapes (displacements), stresses, and strains represent
relative, not absolute quantities
The frequency is listed in the
Details view of any result
being viewed.
The animation button on the
Results Context toolbar can be
used to help visualize the mode
shapes better.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-14
Vibration Analysis
Reviewing Results Training Manual

The Worksheet tab of the Frequency Finder branch

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


summarizes all frequencies in tabular form
By reviewing the frequencies and mode shapes, one can get
a better understanding of the possible dynamic response of
the structure under different excitation directions

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-15
Vibration Analysis
B. Workshop 5.1 Free Vibration Training Manual

Workshop 5.1 Free Vibration Analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Investigate the vibration characteristics of two motor cover
designs manufactured from 18 gauge steel.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
5-16
Vibration Analysis
C. Free Vibration with Pre-Stress Training Manual

In some cases, one may want to consider prestress effects

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


when performing a free vibration analysis.
The stress state of a structure under constant (static) loads
may affect its natural frequencies. This can be important,
especially for structures thin in one or two dimensions.
Consider a guitar string being tuned as the axial load is
increased (from tightening), the lateral frequencies increase.
This is an example of the stress stiffening effect.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-17
Vibration Analysis
Free Vibration with Pre-Stress Training Manual

In free vibration with pre-stress analyses, internally, two

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


iterations are automatically performed:
A linear static analysis is initially performed:

K xo F
Based on the stress state from the static analysis, a stress
stiffness matrix [S] is calculated:

o S
The free vibration with pre-stress analysis is then solved, including
the [S] term

K S i M i 0
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
5-18
Vibration Analysis
Procedure w/ Pre-Stress Effects Training Manual

To perform a free vibration with pre-stress analysis (a.k.a.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


prestressed modal analysis), it is the same as running a
regular free vibration analysis with the following
exceptions:
A load (structural and/or thermal) must be applied to
determine what the initial stress state of the structure is.
Results for the linear static structural analysis may also be
requested under the Solution branch, not the Frequency
Finder branch
A stress or strain result requested under the Frequency Finder
branch will be relative stress/strain values for a particular mode
A stress or strain (or displacement) result requested under the
Solution branch will be absolute stress/strain/displacement values
for the statically applied load

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-19
Vibration Analysis
Example w/ Pre-Stress Effects Training Manual

Consider a simple comparison of a thin plate fixed at one

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


end
Two analyses will be run free vibration and free vibration
with pre-stress effects to compare the differences between
the two.
Free Vibration Free Vibration with Pre-Stress

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-20
Vibration Analysis
Example w/ Pre-Stress Effects Training Manual

Notice that the only difference of running

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


a free vibration analysis with or without
pre-stress is the existence of a load
If a Frequency Finder tool is present and a
load is present, Simulation knows that a
Free Vibration with Pre-Stress analysis
will be performed.
If results such as displacement, stress, or
strains are requested directly underneath
the Solution branch, the results from the
linear static analysis can be reported.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-21
Vibration Analysis
Example w/ Pre-Stress Effects Training Manual

In this example, with the applied force, a tensile stress state

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


is produced, thus increasing the natural frequencies, as
illustrated below

Free Vibration Free Vibration with Pre-Stress


1st mode frequency: 141 Hz 1st mode frequency: 184 Hz

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 5-22
Vibration Analysis
D. Workshop 5.2 Prestressed Modal Training Manual

Workshop 5.2 Prestressed Modal Analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal: simulate the modal response of the tension link
(shown below) in both a stressed and unstressed state.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
5-23
Chapter Six

Thermal Analysis
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, performing steady-state thermal analyses in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation will be covered:
Geometry and Elements
Contact and Types of Supported Assemblies
Environment, including Loads and Supports
Solving Models
Results and Postprocessing

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and
above, except for an ANSYS Structural license.
Some options discussed in this chapter may require more
advanced licenses, but these are noted accordingly.
It is assumed that the user has reviewed Chapters 1-3 prior to
this chapter. (Chapters 4-5 are optional)
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
6-2
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Basics of Steady-State Heat Transfer Training Manual

For a steady-state (static) thermal analysis in Simulation,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the temperatures {T} are solved for in the matrix below:

K T T QT
This results in the following assumptions:
No transient effects are considered in a steady-state analysis
[K] can be constant or a function of temperature
Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity can be input for each
material property
{Q} can be constant or a function of temperature
Temperature-dependent film coefficients can be input for
convective boundary conditions

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
6-3
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Basics of Steady-State Heat Transfer Training Manual

Fouriers Law provides the basis of the previous equation:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


This means that the thermal analysis Simulation solves for is a
conduction-based equation.
Heat flow within a solid (Fouriers Law) is the basis of [K]
Heat flux, heat flow rate, and convection are treated as boundary
conditions on the system {Q}
No radiation is currently considered
No time-dependent effects are currently considered
Heat transfer analysis is different from CFD (Computational
Fluid Dynamics)
Convection is treated as a simple boundary condition, although
temperature-dependent film coefficients are possible.
If a conjugate heat transfer/fluid problem needs to be analyzed,
one must use ANSYS CFD tools instead.

It is important to remember these assumptions related to


performing thermal analyses in Simulation. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
6-4
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Physics Filters Training Manual

Before proceeding to a detailed discussion on performing

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


thermal analyses in Simulation, it is useful to point out that
if a thermal-only solution is to be performed, the Physics
Filter can be useful to filter the GUI.
Under View menu > Physics Filter, unselect the Structural
option. Now, the available options in the Simulation GUI will
only reflect thermal analyses.
This applies to options in the
Environment and Solution
levels only.
If a thermal-stress simulation is to
be performed, do not turn off any
physics filters since both structural
and thermal options may be required.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-5
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
A. Geometry Training Manual

In thermal analyses, all types of bodies supported by

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation may be used.
Solid, surface, and line bodies are supported by all products
which support thermal analyses.
For surface bodies, thickness must be input in the Details view of
the Geometry branch
The cross-section and orientation of line bodies is defined within
DesignModeler and is imported into Simulation automatically.
Although the cross-section and orientation is defined, this
information is meant for structural analyses, and the actual
thermal link element will have an effective cross-section based on
the input properties.
No heat flux or vector heat flux output is available with line bodies.
Only temperature results are available for line bodies.
The Point Mass feature is not applicable in thermal analyses
Point Mass is described in Chapter 4, Linear Structural Analysis.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-6
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Geometry Training Manual

It is important to understand assumptions related to using

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


shell and line bodies:
For shell bodies, through-thickness temperature gradients are
not considered. A shell body should be used for thin
structures when it can be safe to assume temperatures on top
and bottom of surface are the same.
Temperature variation will still be considered across the surface,
just not through the thickness, which is not explicitly modeled.
For line bodies, thickness variation in the cross-section is not
considered. A line body should be used for beam- or truss-like
structures, where the temperature can be assumed to be
constant across the cross-section.
Temperature variation will still be considered along the line body,
just not through the cross-section, which is not explicitly modeled.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-7
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Material Properties Training Manual

The only required material property is thermal conductivity.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Material input is under the Engineering Data tab, and material
assignment is per part under the Geometry branch
Thermal Conductivity is
input under the Engineering
Data tab.
Temperature-dependent
thermal conductivity can
be input as a table.
Other material input
is not used in thermal.

If any temperature-dependent material properties exist, this will


result in a nonlinear solution. This is because the temperatures are
solved for, but the materials are dependent on the temperatures, so
ANSYS License Availability it is not linear.
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-8
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
B. Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

When importing assemblies of solid parts, contact regions

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are automatically created between the solid bodies.
Surface-to-surface contact allows non-matching meshes at
boundaries between solid parts
Contact enables heat transfer between parts in an assembly

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
Model shown is from a sample Inventor assembly. 6-9
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Contact Region Training Manual

In Simulation, the concept of contact and target surfaces

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are used for each contact region.
One side of the contact region is comprised of contact
face(s), the other side of the region is made of target face(s).
Heat flow is allowed between contact and target faces (based
on the contact normal direction)
When one side is the contact and the other side is the target, this
is called asymmetric contact. On the other hand, if both sides are
made to be contact & target, this is called symmetric contact.
However, the designation of which side is contact or target is
unimportant in thermal analysis.
By default, Simulation uses symmetric
contact for solid assemblies.
For ANSYS Professional licenses
and above, the user may change to
asymmetric contact, as desired.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-10
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Contact Region Training Manual

As noted in the previous slide, heat flows within a contact

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


region in the contact normal direction
No heat spreading is considered in the contact/target interface
Heat spreading is considered within shell or solid elements at the
contact or target surfaces because of Fouriers Law
Heat flow within the contact region is in the contact normal
direction only
This means that, regardless of the definition of the contact region,
heat flows only if a target element is present in the normal
direction
In the figure on the left, the solid
green double-arrows indicate
heat flow within the contact
region. Heat flow only occurs if a
target surface is normal to a
contact surface.
The light, dotted green arrows
indicate that no heat transfer will
occur between parts.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-11
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Contact Region Training Manual

In Simulation, various contact behaviors exist

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The contact Type is meant for structural applications
If the parts are initially in contact, heat transfer will occur
between the parts. If the parts are initially out of contact, the
parts will not transfer heat between each other.
Based on the contact type, whether heat will be transferred
between contact and target surfaces is outlined below:
Heat Transfer Betw een Parts in Contact Region?
Contact Type
Initially Touching Inside Pinball Region Outside Pinball Region
Bonded Yes Yes No
No Separation Yes Yes No
Rough Yes No No
Frictionless Yes No No

The pinball region is automatically defined and set to a


relatively small value to accommodate small gaps which may
present in the model. The pinball region will be discussed
next.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-12
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Contact Region Training Manual

The pinball region may be input and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


visualized in ANSYS Professional
licenses and above.
If the target nodes lie within the pinball region
and the contact is bonded or no separation,
then heat transfer will occur (solid green lines)
Otherwise, no heat transfer will occur between
nodes (dotted green lines)

Pinball Radius

In this figure on the right, the


gap between the two parts is
ANSYS License Availability bigger than the pinball region,
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace
so no heat transfer will occur March 29, 2005
Professional x between the parts Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-13
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Thermal Conductance Training Manual

By default, a high thermal contact conductance (TCC) is

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


defined between parts of an assembly
The amount of heat flow between two parts is defined by the
contact heat flux q:
q TCC Ttarget Tcontact
where Tcontact is the temperature of a contact node and Ttarget
is the temperature of the corresponding target node located
in the contact normal direction.
By default, TCC is set to a relatively high value, based on the
largest material conductivity defined in the model KXX and the
diagonal of the overall geometry bounding box ASMDIAG.

TCC KXX 10,000 / ASMDIAG


This essentially provides perfect conductance between parts.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-14
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Thermal Conductance Training Manual

Perfect thermal contact conductance between parts means

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


that no temperature drop is assumed at the interface.
One may want to include finite thermal conductance instead
Two surfaces (at different temperatures) in contact experience
a temperature drop across the interface. The drop is due to
imperfect contact between the two surfaces. The imperfect
contact, and hence the finite contact conductance, can be
influenced by many factors such as:
surface flatness
surface finish
oxides
entrapped fluids T
contact pressure
surface temperature
T
use of conductive grease
x March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
6-15
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Thermal Conductance Training Manual

In ANSYS Professional licenses and above, the user may

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


define a finite thermal contact conductance (TCC) if the
Pure Penalty or Augmented Lagrange Formulation is used.
The thermal contact conductance per unit area is input for
each contact region in the Details view, as shown below.
If thermal contact resistance is known, invert this value and
divide by the contacting area to obtain TCC value.
When this is done, there will now be a temperature drop
between the contact and target surfaces for a contact region.

If Thermal Conductance is left


at Program Chosen, near-
perfect thermal contact
conductance will be defined.
The user can change this to
Manual to input finite thermal
contact conductance instead,
which is the same as including
ANSYS License Availability thermal contact resistance at a
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace contact interface. March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-16
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Thermal Conductance Training Manual

If using symmetric contact, the user does

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


not need to account for a double
thermal contact resistance.
Input values as normal

MPC bonded contact allows for perfect


thermal contact conductance.
In this case, no thermal contact
conductance is used nor defined because
contact is related via constraint
equations.
The contact node and corresponding
target node will have the same
temperature because of perfect contact
conductance.
Do not use Normal Lagrange
formulation for thermal analyses. If
ANSYS License Availability selected, the ANSYS solver will actually
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace use Augmented Lagrange with a March 29, 2005
Professional x
Structural perfect thermal contact conductance. Inventory #002215
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-17
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Surface Body Contact Training Manual

For ANSYS Professional licenses and above, mixed

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


assemblies of shells and solids are supported
Allows for more complex modeling of assemblies, taking
advantage of the benefits of shells, when applicable

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-18
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Surface Body Contact Training Manual

Edge contact is a subset of general contact

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


For contact including shell faces or solid
edges, only bonded or no separation
behavior is allowed.
For contact involving shell edges, only
bonded behavior using MPC formulation is
allowed.
For MPC-based bonded contact, user can set
the search direction (the way in which the
multi-point constraints are written) as either
the target normal or pinball region.
If a gap exists (as is often the case with
shell assemblies), the pinball region can be
used for the search direction to detect
contact beyond a gap.
MPC results in perfect contact conductance
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-19
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Assemblies Spot Weld Training Manual

Spot welds provide a means of connecting shell assemblies

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


at discrete points for heat transfer
Spotweld definition is done in the CAD software. Currently,
only DesignModeler and Unigraphics define spotwelds in a
manner that Simulation supports.
Spotwelds can also be created in Simulation manually, but
only at discrete vertices.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x
Professional x
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
DesignModeler x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigraphics x
SolidW orks
Inventor
Solid Edge
Mechanical Desktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Parasolid
IGES 6-20
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
C. Loads Training Manual

There are three types of loads in thermal analyses:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Heat Loads:
These loads pump heat into the system.
Heat loads can be input as a known heat flow rate or heat flow rate
per unit area or unit volume.
Adiabatic Condition:
This is the naturally-occurring boundary condition, where there is
not heat flow through the surface.
Thermal Boundary Conditions:
These boundary conditions act as heat sources or heat sinks with
a known temperature condition.
These can be either a prescribed temperature or a convection
boundary condition with a known bulk temperature.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-21
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Heat Loads Training Manual

Heat Flow:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A heat flow rate can be applied to a vertex, edge, or surface.
The load gets distributed for multiple selections.
Heat flow has units of energy/time (i.e., power).

Heat Flux:
A heat flux can be applied to surfaces only.
Heat flux has units of energy/time/area (i.e., power/area)

Internal Heat Generation:


An internal heat generation rate can be applied to bodies only.
Heat generation has units of energy/time/volume

A positive value for heat load will add energy to the system.
Also, if multiple loads are present, the effect is cumulative.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-22
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Adiabatic Conditions Training Manual

Perfectly Insulated:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Perfectly insulated condition is applied to surfaces
Can be thought of as a zero heat flow rate loading
This is actually the naturally-occurring condition in thermal
analyses, when no load is applied.
Usually, one does not need to apply a perfectly insulated condition
on surfaces since that is the natural behavior for a regular surface.
Hence, this loading is meant to be used as a way to remove
loading on specified surfaces. For example, it may be easier for a
user to apply heat flux or convection on all surfaces, then use the
perfectly insulated condition to selectively remove the loading on
some surfaces (such as those in contact with other parts).

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-23
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Thermal boundary conditions present a known local or
remote temperature condition.
At least one type of thermal boundary condition must be present.
Otherwise, the steady-state temperature will be infinite if only heat
is pumped into a system!
Also, Given Temperature or Convection load should not be applied
on surfaces that already have another heat load or thermal
boundary condition applied to it.
If applied on an entity which also has a heat load, the
temperature boundary condition will override.
Perfect insulation will override thermal boundary conditions.

Given Temperature:
This imposes a temperature on vertices, edges, or surfaces.
Temperature is the degree of freedom solved for, but this fixes
the temperature on selected entities to a given value.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-24
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

Convection:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Applied to surfaces only.
Convection relates a ambient temperature with the surface

q hATsurface Tambient
temperature:

where the convective heat flux q is related to a film coefficient


h, the surface area A, and the difference in the surface
temperature Tsurface & ambient temperature Tbulk.
Meant to provide a simplified way of accounting for heat
transport from a fluid. h and Tbulk are user-input values.
The film coefficient h can be constant or input from a file (next)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-25
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

Temperature-Dependent Convection (continued):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


If film coefficient h is input from a file, this can be a constant
or temperature-dependent value h(T).
Define a convection boundary condition under the Environment
branch and define the Type to be Temperature-Dependent. Next,
select New Convection for the Correlation. The Engineering
Data tab will open and the Coefficient Type can then be defined
for the new convection load.
Determine what temperature is used for h(T) first, for temperature-
dependent film coefficients. Temperature can be:
Average film temperature
T=(Tsurface+Tbulk)/2
Surface temperature
T= Tsurface
Bulk temperature
T= Tbulk
Difference of surface and
ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
Availability
x
bulk temperatures Select the temperature-
DesignSpace x
T=(Tsurface-Tbulk) dependency from the March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural pull-down menu 6-26
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

Temperature-Dependent Convection (continued):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


After the type of temperature-dependency is selected, the user
may input the film coefficients and temperatures in a table. The
values are plotted on a graph, as shown below.

If any temperature-dependent
convection load is applied, this
will result in a nonlinear solution
since the surface temperature is
solved for, but the film coefficient
h is based on a function of the
surface temperature.
The only exception is if the film
coefficient h is based on a
function of the bulk temperature
only. In Simulation, the bulk
Right mouse click on the table temperature is constant and input
to add or delete values. by the user, so this load will not
be nonlinear.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-27
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

Temperature-Dependent Convection (continued):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The convection data can also be imported from a file.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-28
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Thermal Loads Summary Training Manual

For some structural users, it may be useful to provide an

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


analogy of structural and thermal analyses:
Structural Thermal
Natural Condition No external force Perfectly Insulated
(No heat flow rate)
Boundary Direct Given Displacement Given Temperature
Conditions Indirect Convection
Load Direct Force Heat Flow
Per Area Pressure Heat Flux
Per Volume Thermal Expansion Internal Heat Generation
Inertial Loa ds Acceleration

There are some types of loads that do not have any analogy
There is no thermal equivalent for inertial loads such as rotational
velocity or acceleration
The analogy of convective boundary condition is a foundation
stiffness support in structural terms, similar to a grounded spring

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
6-29
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
D. Solution Options Training Manual

Solution options can be set under the Solutions branch:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The ANSYS database can be saved if Save
ANSYS db is set
Useful if you want to open a database in ANSYS
Two solvers are available in Simulation
The default solver is automatically chosen and
does not usually need to be changed.
The Iterative solver can be efficient for solving
large models whereas the Direct solver is a
robust solver and handles any situation.
The ability to change the default solver is under
Tools > Options > Simulation: Solution
> Solver Type
The Weak Springs and Large Deflection
options are meant for structural analyses only,
so they can be ignored for a thermal analysis.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-30
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Solution Options Training Manual

Informative settings show the user the status of the analysis:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


For a regular thermal analysis, the Analysis Type
will be set to Static Thermal. If structural
supports and results are present, then the
analysis type will be Thermal Stress.
A nonlinear solution will be required if
temperature-dependent (a) material properties or
(b) convection film coefficients are present. This
means that several internal iterations will be run
to achieve heat equilibrium.
The solver working directory is where scratch files
are saved during the solution of the equations.
By default, the TEMP directory of your Windows
system environment variable is used, although this
can be changed in Tools > Options >
Simulation: Solution > Solver Working Directory.
Any solver messages which appear after
solution can be checked afterwards under
ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
Availability
x Solver Messages
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-31
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Solving the Model Training Manual

To solve the model, request results first (covered next) and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


click on the Solve button on the Standard Toolbar
By default, two processors (if present) will be used for parallel
processing. To change this, use Tools > Options >
Simulation: Solution > Number of Processors to Use
Recall that if a Solution Information branch is requested, the
details of the solution output can be examined.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-32
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Solving the Model Training Manual

To perform a thermal-stress solution, simply add structural

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


support(s) and request structural results, then solve the
model.
Structural loads are optional but can also be added.
Simulation will know that a thermal-stress analysis is to be
performed (under Details view of the Solution branch). The
following will be performed automatically:
A steady-state thermal analysis will be performed
The temperature field will be mapped back onto the structural
model
A structural analysis will be performed
See Chapter 4 for details on Structural Analyses
Simulation automates this type of coupled-field solution, so
the user does not have to worry about the above details.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-33
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
E. Results and Postprocessing Training Manual

Various results are available for postprocessing:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Temperature
Heat Flux
Reaction Heat Flow Rate

In Simulation, results are usually requested before solving,


but they can be requested afterwards, too.
If you solve a model then request results afterwards, click on
the Solve button , and the results will be retrieved. A
new solution is not required for retrieving output of a solved
model.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
6-34
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Temperature Training Manual

Temperature contour plots can be requested:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Temperature is the degree of freedom solved for,
and it is the most basic output request.
Temperature is a scalar quantity and, therefore,
has no direction associated with it.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-35
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Heat Flux Training Manual

Heat flux contour or vector plots are available:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Heat flux q is defined as
q KXX T
and is related to the thermal gradient T. The heat flux output
has three components and can aid the user in seeing how the
heat is flowing.
The magnitude plotted as contours: Total Heat Flux
The magnitude & direction as vectors: Vector Heat Flux
Recall that wireframe is best for viewing vectors
Components of heat flux
can be requested with
Directional Heat Flux
and can be mapped on
any coordinate system.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-36
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Reaction Heat Flow Rate Training Manual

Reaction heat flow rates is available for any Given

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Temperature or Convection boundary condition
Recall that both given temperature and convection supply a
known temperature, either directly or indirectly. Hence, this
acts as a heat source/sink, and the amount of heat flowing in
(positive) or out (negative) of the support can be output.
For each individual Given Temperature or
Convection load, the Reaction heat flow rate
is printed in the Details view after a solution.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-37
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
Reaction Heat Flow Rate Training Manual

The Worksheet tab for Environment branch has a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


tabular summary of reaction heat flow rates.
If a thermal support shares a vertex, edge, or surface with
another thermal support or load, the reported reaction heat
flow rate may be incorrect. This is due to the fact that the
underlying mesh will have multiple supports applied to the
same nodes. The solution will still be valid, but the reported
values may not be accurate because of this.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 6-38
Steady-State Thermal Analysis
F. Workshop 6 Training Manual

Workshop 6 Thermal Analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Analyze the pump housing shown below for its heat transfer
characteristics.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
6-39
Chapter Seven

Linear Buckling Analysis


Linear Buckling Analysis
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, performing linear buckling analyses in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation will be covered.
In Simulation, performing a linear buckling analysis is similar
to a stress analysis.
It is assumed that the user has already covered Chapter 4
Linear Static Structural Analysis prior to this section.

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and
above.
Some options discussed in this chapter may require more
advanced licenses, but these are noted accordingly.
Harmonic and nonlinear static structural analyses are not
discussed here but in their respective chapters.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
7-2
Linear Buckling Analysis
A. Background on Buckling Training Manual

Many structures require an evaluation of their structural

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


stability. Thin columns, compression members, and
vacuum tanks are all examples of structures where stability
considerations are important.
At the onset of instability (buckling) a structure will have a
very large change in displacement {x} under essentially no
change in the load (beyond a small load perturbation).

F F

Stable Unstable

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-3
Linear Buckling Analysis
Background on Buckling Training Manual

Eigenvalue or linear buckling analysis predicts the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


theoretical buckling strength (the bifurcation point) of an
ideal linear elastic structure.
The eigenvalue formulation determines the bifurcation
points of a structure. This method corresponds to the
textbook approach of linear elastic buckling analysis.
The eigenvalue buckling solution of a Euler column will match
the classical Euler solution.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-4
Linear Buckling Analysis
Background on Buckling Training Manual

However, imperfections and nonlinear behavior prevent

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


most real world structures from achieving their theoretical
elastic buckling strength. Linear buckling generally yields
unconservative results, and should be used with caution.
Consider the buckling of a soda can:
Material response is inelastic. Geometrically nonlinear effects
need to be considered. Contact is also required. Hence, these
type of nonlinear behavior are not considered.
There may be slight imperfections in the soda can, such as a small
dent, which would influence the response and not make the model
symmetric. However, these small imperfections are also not
usually considered in a linear buckling analysis.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-5
Linear Buckling Analysis
Background on Buckling Training Manual

Although unconservative, linear buckling has various

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


advantages:
It is computationally cheaper than a nonlinear buckling
analysis, and should be run as a first step to estimate the
critical load (load at the onset of buckling).
Relative comparisons can be made of the effect of differences in
design to buckling
Linear buckling can be used as a design tool to determine
what the possible buckling mode shapes may be.
The way in which a structure may buckle can be used as a
possible guide in design

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-6
Linear Buckling Analysis
Basics of Linear Buckling Training Manual

For a linear buckling analysis, the eigenvalue problem

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


below is solved to get the buckling load multiplier i and
buckling modes i:

K i S i 0
This results in certain assumptions related to the analysis:
[K] and [S] are constant:
Linear elastic material behavior is assumed
Small deflection theory is used, and no nonlinearities included
The response based on loading {F} is a linear function of i
Some additional restrictions:
Nonzero displacement supports or thermal loads are not allowed

It is important to remember these assumptions related to


performing linear buckling analyses in Simulation.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
7-7
Linear Buckling Analysis
B. Buckling Analysis Procedure Training Manual

The linear buckling analysis procedure is very similar to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


performing a linear static analysis, so not all steps will be
covered in detail. The steps in yellow italics are specific to
buckling analyses.
Attach Geometry
Assign Material Properties
Define Contact Regions (if applicable)
Define Mesh Controls (optional)
Include Loads and Supports
Request Buckling Results
Solve the Model
Review Results

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-8
Linear Buckling Analysis
Geometry and Material Properties Training Manual

Similar to linear static analyses, any type of geometry

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


supported by Simulation may be used in buckling analyses:
Solid bodies
Surface bodies (with appropriate thickness defined)
Line bodies (with appropriate cross-sections defined)
Only buckling modes and displacement results are available for
line bodies.
Although Point Masses may be included in the model, only
inertial loads affect point masses, so the applicability of this
feature may be limited in buckling analyses

For material properties, Youngs Modulus and Poissons


Ratio are required as a minimum
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-9
Linear Buckling Analysis
Contact Regions Training Manual

Contact regions are available in buckling analyses.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


However, since this is a purely linear analysis, contact
behavior will differ for the nonlinear contact types:
Linear Buckling Analysis
Contact Type
Initially Touching Inside Pinball Region Outside Pinball Region
Bonded Bonded Bonded Free
No Separation No Separation No Separation Free
Rough Bonded Free Free
Frictionless No Separation Free Free

It is important to note the following:


The pinball region will influence some types of contact
All nonlinear contact types are reduced to either Bonded or
No Separation contact.
No Separation contact should be used with caution in buckling
analyses, as it provides no stiffness in the tangential direction.
This may produce some superfluous buckling modes. Consider
using bonded contact instead, if appropriate.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-10
Linear Buckling Analysis
Loads and Supports Training Manual

At least one structural load, which causes buckling, should

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


be applied to the model:
All structural loads will be multiplied by the load factor to
determine the buckling load. Hence, non-proportional or
constant loading is not directly supported (see next slide)
No Given Displacement supports are allowed
No Thermal loading is allowed
Compression-only supports are nonlinear, so they are not
recommended for use in buckling analyses

The structure should also be fully constrained


No rigid-body motion should be present in the model. Be sure
to constrain the model appropriately.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-11
Linear Buckling Analysis
Loads and Supports Training Manual

Special considerations must be given if constant and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


proportional loads are present.
The user may iterate on the buckling solution, adjusting the
variable loads until the load multiplier becomes 1.0 or nearly
1.0.
Consider the example of a pole with self weight WO and an
externally applied force A. You can iterate, adjusting the value
of A until = 1.0.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-12
Linear Buckling Analysis
Requesting Results Training Manual

Most of the options for buckling analyses are

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


similar to that of static analysis. However,
Simulation knows to perform a buckling
analysis when the Buckling tool is selected
under the Solutions Branch:
The Buckling tool adds another branch to the
Solutions branch
The Details view of the Buckling branch allows
the user to specify the number of buckling modes
to find. The default is to find the first buckling Although most users are
only concerned with the
mode. Increasing the number of modes to first buckling mode, it is
generally a good idea to
calculate will increase the solution time. request the first 2 or 3
However, usually only a few buckling modes are buckling modes. There
may be closely-space
usually desired. buckling modes, so this
would tell the user if the
model may be susceptible
to more than one failure
mode.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-13
Linear Buckling Analysis
Requesting Results Training Manual

Requested results are located under the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Buckling branch:
The buckling modes are controlled by the
number of modes to find under the Details
view of the Buckling branch
Stress, strain, or directional displacement
results can be requested additionally under
the Buckling branch
The buckling mode is specified for each stress,
strain, or displacement result requested
If stresses or strains are requested for a model
already solved, another solution is required.
No result may be requested directly under
the Solution branch.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-14
Linear Buckling Analysis
Solution Options Training Manual

The solution branch provides details on the type of analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


being performed
For a buckling analysis, none of the options in the Details view
of the Solution branch usually need to be changed.
In the majority of cases, Solver Type should be left on the default
option of Program Controlled. It only controls the solver used in
the initial static analysis but not the buckling solution method.
Weak springs is also meant for the
initial static analysis.
Large Deflection is not supported for
a buckling analysis.
The Analysis Type will display
Buckling for the case of a
linear buckling analysis.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-15
Linear Buckling Analysis
Solving the Model Training Manual

After setting up the model, one can solve the buckling

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


analysis just like any other analysis by selecting the Solve
button.
A linear buckling analysis is more computationally expensive
than a static analysis on the same model. This is because a
static analysis and a buckling analysis are both performed.
If a Solution Information branch
was requested, detailed solution
output is available in the Worksheet
tab of that branch, including the
amount of memory used and no. of
modes have already been extracted
If stress or strain results or more
buckling modes are requested after
a solution is performed, a new
solution is required.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-16
Linear Buckling Analysis
Reviewing Results Training Manual

After the solution, the buckling modes can be reviewed

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Load Multiplier for each buckling mode is shown in the
Details view. The load multiplier times the actual loads
represent the critical load.
The buckling modes do not represent actual, realistic
magnitudes. However, these can be used to determine what
the failure modes may look like.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
Model shown is from a sample Inventor part. 7-17
Linear Buckling Analysis
Reviewing Results Training Manual

Interpreting the Load Multiplier ():

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The tower model below has been solved twice. In the first
case a unit load is applied. In the second an expected load
applied (see next page)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-18
Linear Buckling Analysis
Reviewing Results Training Manual

Interpreting the Load Multiplier ():

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


BucklingLo ad *Unit _ Load

Actual _ Load
BucklingLo ad

In the first case the load Multiplier is simply interpreted as the
buckling load.
In the second case the Load Multiplier is interpreted as a safety
factor.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-19
Linear Buckling Analysis
Reviewing Results Training Manual

The buckling load multipliers can be reviewed in the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Worksheet tab of the Bucking branch.
All requested modes will be summarized in the table below
As mentioned earlier, it may be advisable to request more than
just the first buckling mode. This allows the user to see if the
structure may be able to buckle in more than one way under a
given applied load.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 7-20
Linear Buckling Analysis
C. Workshop 7 Training Manual

Workshop 7 Linear Buckling

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Verify linear buckling results in Simulation for the pipe model
shown below. Results will be compared to closed form
calculations from a handbook.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
7-21
Chapter Eight

Results Postprocessing
Results Postprocessing
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, aspects of reviewing results will be covered:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Viewing Results
Scoping Results
Exporting Results
Coordinate Systems & Directional Results
Solution Combinations
Stress Singularities
Error Estimation
Convergence

The capabilities described in this section are applicable to


all ANSYS licenses, except when noted otherwise
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-2
Results Postprocessing
A. Viewing Results Training Manual

When selecting a results branch, the Context toolbar

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


displays ways of viewing results:

Displacement Scaling Display Method Contour Settings Outline Display Slice Planes

Min/Max Probe Tool Animation Controls Export AVI Convergence Alerts

All of these options except for Convergence will be


discussed next. Convergence is covered in Section C.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-3
Results Postprocessing
Displacement Scaling Training Manual

For structural analyses (static, modal, buckling),

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the deformed shape can be changed
By default, the scaling is automatically exaggerated
to visualize the structural response more clearly
The user can change to undeformed or actual deformation

No Displacement Scaling Automatic Displacement Scaling


March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Pro/ENGINEER assembly. 8-4
Results Postprocessing
Display Method Training Manual

The Geometry button controls the contour

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


display method. Four choices are possible:
Exterior IsoSurfaces

Exterior is the default


display option and is
most commonly used.
IsoSurfaces is useful
to display regions with
the same contour value.
Capped IsoSurfaces
will remove regions of
the model where the
Capped IsoSurfaces Slice Planes contour values are
above (or below) a
specified value.
Slice Planes allow a
user to cut through the
model visually. A
capped slice plane is
also available, as shown
on the left.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Inventor assembly. 8-5
Results Postprocessing
Contour Settings Training Manual

The Contours button controls the way in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


which contours are shown on the model
Smooth Contours Contour Bands

Isolines Solid Fill

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-6
Results Postprocessing
Outline Display Training Manual

The Edges button allows the user show the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


undeformed geometry or mesh

No Wireframe Show Undeformed Wireframe

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Show Undeformed Model Show Elements 8-7
Results Postprocessing
Slice Planes Training Manual

When in Slice Plane viewing mode, slice planes

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


can be added and edited
To add a slice plane, simply select the Draw Slice Plane icon,
then click-drag with the left mouse across the Graphics
window. The path created will define the slice plane.
To edit a slice plane, select the Edit Planes icon. The
defined planes will have a handle in the Graphics window.
Drag the handle to move the slice plane
Click on one side of the bar to show capped slice display
Select the handle, then hit the Delete key to remove plane

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Handles of 3 defined slice planes Move a slice plane by dragging handle Click on one side of bar to cap view 8-8
Results Postprocessing
Min/Max and Probe Tool Training Manual

The min/max symbols can be removed by selecting

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the Maximum and Minimum buttons
Results can be queried on the model by selecting the
Probe button
Left-mouse click to add an annotation of the value being
queried on the model.
Use the Label button to select and delete unwanted
annotations

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-9
Results Postprocessing
Animation Controls Training Manual

The animation toolbar allows user to play,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


pause, and stop animations
The slider bar allows users to go through frame-by-frame
The Export Animation File enables saving animation as AVI
Animations will generally range from min to max value in a
linear fashion. On the other hand, for free vibration and
harmonic analysis, the full range will be correctly animated (+/-
max value).
Animation speed can be
controlled via View >
Animation Speed

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-10
Results Postprocessing
Alerts Training Manual

Alerts are simple ways of check to see if a scalar

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


result quantity satisfies a criterion
Alerts can be used on most contour results except for vector
results, Contact Tool results, and Shape Finder
Simply select that result branch and add an Alert
In the Details view, specify the criterion
A minimum or maximum value of that result branch can be used
Input the value which is used for the threshold

In the Outline tree, a green checkmark indicates


that the criterion is satisfied. A red exclamation
mark indicates that the criterion was not satisfied.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-11
Results Postprocessing
Manipulating the Legend Training Manual

For exterior contour plots, the legend can be manipulated

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


to show result distributions more clearly.
Select the legend with the left mouse
Drag white bars to change overall min/max values
Out-of-range values are purple (high) and brown (low)
Drag yellow bars to rescale legend
Drag grey bars to change intermediate ranges

March 29, 2005


Original Contour Legend Modified Contour Legend Inventory #002215
8-12
Results Postprocessing
Manipulating the Legend Training Manual

For Capped IsoSurface plots, the legend has additional

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


features to manipulate the display
The middle long grey bar controls where the cutoff
value is for capped plots
The striped areas show what values will not be
displayed. To toggle, simple click on the colored
areas on either side of the long grey bar

March 29, 2005


Default Capped IsoSurface Modified Capped IsoSurface Inventory #002215
8-13
Results Postprocessing
Manipulating the Legend Training Manual

The legend may also be changed by selecting the values

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


and directly inputting a numerical value
Select the contour value, type in a new value, and [Enter]
To rescale internal bands, select white bars and move them.
Internal bands automatically get rescaled evenly
For example, when comparing two results, one may want to
change the legend to be the same for both

March 29, 2005


Same legend values used for both results make comparison easier Inventory #002215
8-14
Results Postprocessing
Vector Plots Training Manual

Vector plots involve any vector result quantity with

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


direction, such as deformation, principal stresses/strains,
and heat flux
Activate vectors for appropriate quantities using the vector
graphics icon

Once the vectors are visible their appearance can be modified


using the vector display controls (see next slide for examples)

Vector Length Control Vector Length Control

Proportional Vectors Equal Length Vectors Grid Aligned Element Aligned Line Form Solid Form

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-15
Results Postprocessing
Vector Plots Training Manual

Examples

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Solid Form, Grid Aligned Line Form, Grid Aligned

Proportional Length Equal Length

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-16
Results Postprocessing
Multiple Viewports Training Manual

Using multiple viewports is especially useful for

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


postprocessing, where more than one result
can be viewed at the same time
Useful to compare multiple results, such as results from
different environments or multiple mode shapes

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-17
Results Postprocessing
Default Settings Training Manual

Under Tools > Options > Simulation: Graphics, the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


default graphics settings can be changed.
This way, each user can make all results for new simulations
be displayed to his/her preference

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-18
Results Postprocessing
B. Scoping Results Training Manual

Sometimes, limiting the display of results is useful when

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


postprocessing
Although one can rescale the legend to get a better idea of the
result distribution on a certain part or surface, results scoping
automatically scales the legend and only shows the applicable
surface(s) or part(s), making result viewing easier.
Scoping results on edges produces a path plot, allowing users
to see detailed results along selected edges
Results scoping is very useful for convergence controls
(discussed later in this chapter)
When using Contact Tool, Simulation automatically scopes
contact results to contact regions.

Results scoping can be performed on any result item in the


Solution branch for any type of geometric quantity.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-19
Results Postprocessing
Scoping Surface/Part Results Training Manual

To scope contour results, simply do either of the following:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Select part(s) or surface(s), then request the result of interest
Select the result item, then click on Geometry in the Details
view. Select the part(s) or surface(s), then click on Apply

When this is performed, the Details view of the result item


will indicate that results will be shown only for the selected
items.
The displayed values will show non-selected surfaces/parts as
translucent.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-20
Results Postprocessing
Scoping Surface/Part Results Training Manual

Some examples of scoping results on surfaces/parts:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Scoping results on a single part Stress results on selected surfaces

Vector Principal Stresses on single part

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-21
Results Postprocessing
Scoping Edge & Vertex Results Training Manual

Results can be scoped to a single edge

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Select a single edge for results scoping

A path plot of the result mapped on the edge will be displayed

In a similar manner, results can also be scoped to a single


vertex. No contour results will be displayed since only a
vertex is present, but the value will reported in the Details
view for the selected vertex

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-22
Results Postprocessing
Renaming Scoped Results Training Manual

For scoped results, it is often useful to automatically

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


rename the result branch
Right-click on the result branch and select Rename Based on
Definition. The name will become more descriptive.

The result branch name is now more


descriptive, indicating it is a scoped
result on a given edge.
Renaming result branches is also
useful for directional results, as it will
change the name to the direction of the
stress or deformation or heat flux.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-23
Results Postprocessing
C. Exporting Results Training Manual

Tabular data from Simulation can be exported to Excel for

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


further data manipulation
To export Worksheet tab information, do the following:
Select the branch and click on the Worksheet tab
Right-click the same branch and select Export
This can be used for Geometry, Contact, Environment,
Frequency Finder, Buckling, and Harmonic Worksheets

To export Contour Results


Right-click on the result branch of interest and select Export
This can be used for any result item of interest
Node numbers and result quantities will be exported
Exporting large amounts of data can take some CPU time

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-24
Results Postprocessing
Exporting Results Training Manual

Usually, for result items, the internal ANSYS node number

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


and result quantity will be output as shown below.
To include node locations, change this option under Tools
menu > Options > Simulation: Export

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-25
Results Postprocessing
Exporting Results Training Manual

For principal stresses and strains, additional information of

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the orientation needs to be included when export to .XLS:
The generated Excel file will have 6 fields:
The first three correspond to the maximum, middle and minimum
principal quantities (stresses or strains).
The last three correspond to the ANSYS Euler angle sequence
(CLOCAL command in ANSYS) required to produce a coordinate
system whose X, Y and Z-axis are the directions of maximum,
middle and minimum principal quantities, respectively. This Euler
angle sequence is ThetaXY, ThetaYZ and ThetaZX and orients the
principal coordinate system relative to the global system.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-26
Results Postprocessing
D. Coordinate Systems Training Manual

If coordinate systems are defined, a new item will be

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


displayed in the Details view of directional results:
As shown below, one can select from defined coordinate
systems. The selected coordinate system will define x-, y-,
and z-axes
Direction Deformation, Normal/Shear Stress/Strain, and
Directional Heat Flux can use coordinate systems
Principal stress/strain have their own angles associated with them
Other result items are scalars, so there are no directions
associated with it.
Vector plots show the direction, so they cannot use coordinate
systems.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-27
Results Postprocessing
Coordinate Systems Training Manual

For the model shown below, one local

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


cylindrical coordinate system is defined
Note that displaying Deformation in the x-
direction in the global and local coordinate
systems will show different results.
If the user wants to see what is the radial
displacement at the larger hole, a local cylindrical coordinate
system allows to visualize this type of displacement.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Deformation in Global X-Direction Deformation in Local Cylindrical X-Direction 8-28
Results Postprocessing
E. Solution Combinations Training Manual

For ANSYS Professional licenses and above, the Solution

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Combination branch can be added to the Model branch to
provide combinations of existing Environment branches

Solution combinations are only valid for linear static structural


analyses.
Linear combinations are only valid if the analyses are linear
(Chapter 4). Nonlinear results should not be added together in a
linear fashion, although Contact Tool results can be added.
Thermal-stress and other types of analyses are not supported
The supports must be the same between Environments for the
results to be valid. Only the loading can change to allow for
solution combinations.
Solution combination calculations are very quick and does not
require a re-solve.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 8-29
Results Postprocessing
Solution Combinations Training Manual

To perform solution combinations, do the following:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Add a Solution Combination branch. The Worksheet view will
appear
In the Worksheet view, add Environments and a coefficient
(multiplier). The solution combination will be the sum of the
multiples of the various Environments selected.
Request results from the
Context toolbar. These
results will reflect the sum
of the products of the
selected Environments

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 8-30
Results Postprocessing
Solution Combinations Training Manual

For example, consider the case below of a sample model

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


with two environments
Environment Environment 3

Solution Combination Results

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 8-31
Results Postprocessing
Solution Combinations Training Manual

Use of solution combinations allows the user to solve

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


different environments, thereby considering the effect of
different loads separately.
By using the Solution Combination branch, a linear
combination of solutions can be solved for very quickly
without having to perform another separate solution.
Multiple Solution Combination branches may be added, as
needed.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 8-32
Results Postprocessing
F. Stress Singularities Training Manual

In any finite-element analysis, one seeks to balance

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


accuracy and computational cost. As the mesh is refined,
one expects to get mathematically more precise results.
Quantities directly solved for (degrees of freedom) such as
displacements and temperatures, converge without problems
Derived quantities, such as stresses, strains, and heat flux,
should also converge as the mesh is refined, but not as fast or
smooth as DOF since these are derived from the DOF solution
In some cases, however, derived quantities such as stresses
and heat flux will not converge as the mesh is refined. These
are situations where these values are artificially high. This
section will discuss situations where derived solution
quantities are artificially high.
In thermal analyses, since temperature is the main quantity of
interest, the discussion in this section will focus on stresses
instead, not heat flux.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-33
Results Postprocessing
Stress Singularities Training Manual

In a linear static structural analysis, there are several

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


sources which may cause artificially high stresses, two
common ones which are listed below:
Stress singularities
Geometry discontinuities, such as reentrant
corners (shown on right)
Point/edge loads and constraints
Overconstraints
Fixed supports and other constraints which prevent Poissons
effect
Fixed supports and other constraints which prevent thermal
expansion

In the above situations, refining the mesh at the artificially


high stress area will keep increasing the stresses

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Mechanical Desktop assembly. 8-34
Results Postprocessing
Stress Singularities Training Manual

If the area of artificially high stresses is not an area of interest,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


one can usually scope results only on part(s) or surface(s) of
interest instead
If the area of artificially high stresses is of interest, there are
several ways to obtain more accurate stress results:
Stress singularities
Model geometry with fillets or other details which do not cause geometric
discontinuities since some form of these (albeit small) would exist in the
actual system
Point loads and constraints should only be used on line bodies. For solid
bodies, every load/constraint has a finite area on which it is applied, so these
should be applied on areas rather than vertices
Overconstraints
A Fixed Support is an idealization, and modeling the constraint properly may
be required (possibly including the geometry on which the part is connected)
Although the above are some suggestions, these usually involve
additional effort or more nodes/elements, so it is up to the user to
review the results and understand if and why stresses may be
artificially high. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-35
Results Postprocessing
G. Error Estimation Training Manual

You can insert an Error result based on stresses

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


(structural), or heat flux (thermal) to help identify regions of
high error (see example next page).
These regions show where the model would benefit from a
more refined mesh in order to get a more accurate answer.
Regions of high error also indicate where refinement will
take place if convergence is used.
More information on error
estimation is available in section
19.7 of the ANSYS Theory
Reference.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-36
Results Postprocessing
. . . Error Estimation Training Manual

Error plot shows region where element mesh refinement

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


may be necessary.
Error is plotted in terms of energy.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-37
Results Postprocessing
H. Convergence Training Manual

As noted earlier, as the mesh is refined, the mathematical

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


model becomes more accurate. However, there is
computational cost associated with a finer mesh.
Obtaining an optimal mesh requires the following:
Having criteria to determine if a mesh is adequate
Investing more elements only where needed

Performing these tasks manually is cumbersome and


inexact
The user would have to manually refine the mesh, resolve, and
compare results with previous solutions.

Simulation has convergence controls to automate adaptive


mesh refinement to a user-specified level of accuracy

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-38
Results Postprocessing
Convergence Training Manual

To use this feature, simply select a result branch

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


and select the Convergence button on the
Context toolbar
A Convergence branch will appear below the result branch
In the Details view of the Convergence branch, select whether
the max or min value will be converged upon and input the
allowable change (as a percentage)
For Type, Minimum is available since some result
quantities (e.g., directional deformation or minimum
principal stress) may have negative values
For allowable change, default is 20%. However, 5% for
displacement and temperatures and 10% for other
quantities is a good starting point.
In the Details view of the Solution branch, input the
max number of refinement loops per solve
Input a reasonable value, such as 1 to 4, so that
Simulation will not try to refine the mesh indefinitely.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-39
Results Postprocessing
Convergence Training Manual

After this is completed, when solving, Simulation will

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


automatically refine the mesh and resolve
At least two iterations are required (initial solution and first
refinement loop)
The Max Refinement Loops in the Solution branch details allows
the user to set the max number of loops per solve to prevent
Simulation from excessive refinement. Usually, 2 to 4 max loops
should be more than enough. Default is 1 loop per solve.
The mesh will automatically be refined only in areas deemed
necessary, based on error approximation techniques
The convergence results will be stored for review in
the Convergence branch
If not converged within the specified percentage, a red
exclamation mark will appear.
If converged within the limits, a green checkmark will be shown
The result branches will display only the last solution
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-40
Results Postprocessing
Convergence Training Manual

After the solution is complete, one can view the results and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the last mesh
Note that the mesh is refined only where needed, as shown in
the example below
The Convergence branch shows the trend for each refinement
loop as well as the values and number of nodes and elements
in the mesh

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-41
Results Postprocessing
Convergence & Stress Singularities Training Manual

As noted in the previous chapter, there are some causes for

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


artificially high stresses
Stress singularities are theoretically infinite stress, so
Simulations adaptive mesh refinement will indicate this
By specifying a reasonable value for the Max Refinement
Loops, this will allow the user to know quickly whether a
stress singularity or other type of artificially high stress
source is present

In this case, it is clear that the stresses


will increase without bound.
By examining the model, it was clear
that a stress singularity existed, which
explains why the stresses do not
converge as it normally would.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-42
Results Postprocessing
Convergence & Scoping Training Manual

Besides adding details to get rid of stress singularities, one

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


can also converge on scoped results.
If the artificially high stress region is not of interest, one can
scope results on selected part(s) or surface(s) and add
convergence controls to those results only.
This provides the user with control on where to perform mesh
refinement
This also allows the user to ignore areas of artificially high
stresses which are not of interest

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-43
Results Postprocessing
Convergence & Scoping Example Training Manual

For example, consider the simple part below.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The part below has some geometric discontinuities, where
smoothers were not modeled to reduce model complexity
For a given set of loading conditions, if the user knew that the
bottom of the part was failing, this may be a region of interest
the user would focus on.

Possible stress singularity

Region of interest
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Mechanical Desktop assembly. 8-44
Results Postprocessing
Convergence & Scoping Example Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


If convergence controls
were simply added to
the entire model, the
geometric discontinuity
would cause a stress
singularity which
increases without
bounds.
The solution becomes
very costly by including
the stress singularity.

On the other hand,


convergence controls
on scoped results
allows for adaptive
refinement only in user-
specified locations,
providing the user with
more control over the
mesh and the adaptive
solution.
In this way, the user can
get accurate stresses
on the bottom surface
of the part. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-45
Results Postprocessing
Results Not Used with Convergence Training Manual

Convergence cannot be used on the following result

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


quantities:
Any type of vector result
Contact Tool results
Frequency Finder stress/strain results
Buckling stress/strain results
Harmonic analysis results
Shape Finder results
Fatigue Tool graph results

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-46
Results Postprocessing
Convergence Summary Training Manual

Using convergence controls helps to achieve a given level

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


of accuracy.
Note that the percent change is related to the previous
solution. This is not percent error since Simulation does not
know beforehand what the actual answer is.
Convergence controls provides a way to get an accurate
answer based on the mathematical model. It does not
compensate for inaccurate assumptions, however! Hence, if
loads, supports, material properties, etc. are wrong, the
solution will still be inaccurate.
Because use of convergence controls results in adaptive mesh
refinement, each new iteration will take longer than the
previous solution
Although adaptive meshing will put more nodes and elements only
where needed, the mesh density will still increase
Scoping results helps to minimize mesh density by explicitly
indicating to Simulation the areas of interest March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
8-47
Results Postprocessing
I. Workshop 8 Training Manual

Workshop 8 Advanced Results Processing

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Analyze the high pressure vent assembly shown below and
then use some of the advanced postprocessing features to
review the stress and deflection results.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
8-48
Chapter Nine

CAD & Parameters


CAD & Parameters
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, interoperability with CAD software as well

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


as parameters will be discussed.
The following will be covered:
CAD Interoperability
Multiple Design Studies
Parameter Manager

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to all ANSYS licenses. However, some CAD
functionality are specific to certain CAD software, so these
will be designated accordingly.
Not all CAD software have the same features, so there are
some differences in CAD-related functionality which is
supported in Simulation
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
9-2
CAD & Parameters
A. CAD Interoperability Training Manual

As noted in Chapter 1, the following Geometry Interfaces

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are supported in Simulation:
CAD Source Version Windows Solaris HP-UX Associative
DesignModeler 9 x x x x
Pro/ENGINEER 2001, Wildfire (1 and 2) x x x x
Unigraphics NX 1.0, 2.0 x x x x
SolidWorks 2003 (sp4), 2004 x x
Inventor R8, R9 x x
Solid Edge 15, 16 x x
Mechanical Desktop 2004 DX, 2005 x x
CATIA V4 2.x x x x
CATIA V5 R2-R13 x
ACIS (SAT) 13 x x x
Parasolid 16.0 x x x
IGES 4.0, 5.2, 5.3 x x x

The Geometry Interface license can be run in reader mode for all
licenses. The Geometry Interface can be run in plug-in mode for the
CAD software listed under Associative
Detailed CAD support listing in Simulation online help
IGES Geometry Interface reader is free

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-3
CAD & Parameters
DesignModeler & CAD Training Manual

DesignModeler is a Workbench module allowing users to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


create or prepare models for use in Simulation

DesignModeler has a similar


look and feel to Simulation
DesignModeler can be used to
create geometry in lieu of other
CAD software
DesignModeler can also read in
parts and assemblies from the
same CAD sources as
Simulation. These models can
be prepared and modified for
analysis, then attached in March 29, 2005
Simulation Inventory #002215
9-4
CAD & Parameters
CAD Interoperability Training Manual

There are various items which can be brought in from

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


supported CAD systems when models are attached:
Geometry import
Spot weld import
Parameter import
Material property import
Coordinate system import
Named selection import
Motion loads import
CAD attribute processing

There are three ways of setting import preferences when


attaching CAD geometry.
Three methods one through the Workbench Projects page, another
in Simulation Geometry branch, the third in Options box will be
discussed next. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
9-5
CAD & Parameters
Controlling CAD Settings Training Manual

When importing models in Workbench Project page, the left

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


side controls various CAD-related settings
These settings only affect the existing model

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-6
CAD & Parameters
Controlling CAD Settings Training Manual

On the other hand, after a model is already imported into

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation, CAD-related settings can be changed under the
Geometry branch
These settings only affect the existing model

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Inventor assembly. 9-7
CAD & Parameters
Controlling CAD Settings Training Manual

To change default behavior, go to Tools menu > Common

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Settings: Geometry Import to change default behavior
Options dialog box also accessible from Workbench Start
page in lower-left corner.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-8
CAD & Parameters
Geometry Import Training Manual

For CAD-related settings, importing solid,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


surface, or line bodies is available
One cannot import a part with mixed solids
and surfaces.
Assemblies with mixed solids and surfaces
are OK.
In other situations, users may wish only to
import a particular entity type to ignore
unnecessary or construction geometry present in the model
Hence, toggling import of solids, surfaces, and/or line bodies
is possible

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-9
CAD & Parameters
Geometry Import (Solid Bodies) Training Manual

Import of solid bodies is supported for all CAD systems

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contact regions will automatically be detected between parts
in an assembly.
Note that the CAD mating relationship information is not used
Slider controls contact detection tolerance (in ANSYS Professional
licenses and above, user can specify value in length units)

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4 x
CATIA V5 x March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) x Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid x
IGES x
Model shown is from a sample SolidWorks assembly. 9-10
CAD & Parameters
Geometry Import (Solid Bodies) Training Manual

DesignModeler has concept of multi-body parts

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A multi-body part is a group of solid bodies. Instead of using
different mesh and contact regions between solid bodies, the
bodies within a part will share nodes at common interfaces

Individual Bodies (non-matching mesh) Single Part (matching mesh)

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-11
CAD & Parameters
Geometry Import (2D Solid Bodies) Training Manual

Before importing 2D geometry you must specify Analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Type is 2D in the Advanced Geometry options

Once imported, the 2D details


can be specified from the Part
branch. Plane stress, plane
strain or axisymmetric

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-12
CAD & Parameters
Geometry Import (Surface Bodies) Training Manual

Simulation also supports import of surface bodies from

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


most CAD systems
For ANSYS Professional licenses and above, surface body
contact is available from the Contact branch
Spot weld definitions can also be used for surface assemblies

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4 x
CATIA V5 x March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) x Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid x
IGES x 9-13
CAD & Parameters
Geometry Import (Surface Bodies) Training Manual

In DesignModeler, joints can be used to merge surface

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


bodies together to a part
Instead of using spot welds or edge contact, joints in
DesignModeler can ensure that surface bodies share nodes
Surfaces that share edges can also form a part to share nodes
Individual Bodies (non-matching mesh) Part of Surface Bodies (matching mesh)

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-14
CAD & Parameters
Geometry Import (Line Bodies) Training Manual

Line bodies can be imported from DesignModeler only

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Line bodies require cross-section definition and orientation,
which only DesignModeler supplies
Line bodies are meshed with beam/link elements
Line bodies can be used in conjunction with surface bodies

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-15
CAD & Parameters
CAD Associativity Training Manual

CAD associativity allows updating the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


CAD geometry in Simulation without
needing to redefine material properties,
loads, supports, and results
Slide 3 showed CAD systems which are
associative in Simulation
In some cases, for very large models,
the processing time may take a while, so the user can turn off
the CAD associativity feature to allow for faster attaching
Turning this feature off will make import faster but will not allow
updating of the CAD geometry if changes to the CAD model are
made
It is generally not recommended to turn this off unless the user
Geometry Interface
does not need associativity
Availability
De signMode le r
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics x
Although the toggle is not available for DM and ProE, this does
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
x
x not mean that these systems do not support associativity. DM
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
x and ProE support associativity, just not the ability to toggle
CATIA V5
ACIS (SAT) associativity off. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-16
CAD & Parameters
Save Updated Model (Reader Mode) Training Manual

Reader mode is when a model is attached

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


in Simulation without the CAD system
being started up first
For Unigraphics, if the part is updated in
reader mode, the updated file can be saved
This is used in conjunction with parameters
to update the UG model with new dimensions

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-17
CAD & Parameters
Do Smart Update Training Manual

Smart Update is a method by which the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


updating of assemblies is sped up if the
assembly contains unmodified components.
Currently, only Inventor and Unigraphics
support Smart Update feature

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-18
CAD & Parameters
Attach File via Temp File Training Manual

For large models, it may be advisable to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


turn this feature on.
When attaching large models, a temporary
file to facilitate import can be created/deleted
by Simulation if this option is set
If set to Yes, a location for the temporary
directory can be specified by the user

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4 x
CATIA V5 x March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) x Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid x
IGES x 9-19
CAD & Parameters
Spot Weld Import Training Manual

Spot welds can be used for surface assemblies

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Although Simulation has some limited spot weld definition
capabilities (at vertices only), spot welds can be defined more
easily in DesignModeler and Unigraphics and then imported
into Simulation.

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x Not all CAD software
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics x support spot weld
SolidW orks definitions in a manner
Inve ntor
Solid Edge usable by Simulation
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-20
CAD & Parameters
Parameter Import Training Manual

Dimensions of CAD features can be

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


imported into Simulation
By turning on this feature (default), any
dimension with the user-defined prefix or
suffix (default is DS) will be imported into
Simulation as a parameter
Only dimensions for features will be imported
Once imported, the parameters of various
dimensions will appear in the Details view
for that particular part.
The use of parameters to change the
CAD model or to set up parametric studies
will be covered in detail in the next section
Geometry Interface Availability
De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-21
CAD & Parameters
Parameter Import Training Manual

Each CAD software has different ways to change the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


dimension name, so please refer to the CAD documentation
DesignModeler: checkmark the dimension, provide Parameter name
Pro/ENGINEER: select dimension, right-click Properties
Unigraphics: select dimension and Edit
SolidWorks: select dimension, right-click Properties
Inventor: select dimension, right-click Dimension Properties
Solid Edge: select dimension, right-click Edit Formula, change name
Mechanical Desktop: Part > Design Variables and define parameter
name. Then change dimension to parameter via Edit Dimensions

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid Sample dialog boxes to change dimension name in CAD software 9-22
IGES
CAD & Parameters
Material Property Import Training Manual

If Material Properties Transfer is enabled,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


material properties, if defined, will be
imported from supported CAD systems
The following properties will be imported:
Material Property Pro/ENGINEER Unigraphcis Inventor
Young's Modulus x x x
Poisson's Ratio x x x
Mass Density x x x
Coeff Therm Exp x x x Not all CAD software support all
material property definition which
Specific Heat x x
Simulation supports.
Thermal Conductivity x x x
Tensile Yield x Materials imported from CAD will
Compressive Yield appear in Engineering Data
Tensile Ultimate x branch and will be assigned
Compressive Ultimate correctly to parts.

Note that Simulation will not import UG properties in table form


(such as temperature-dependent data)
Geometry Interface
De signMode le r
Availability
/
If the material type is changed in CAD, this will be reflected in
Pro/ENGINEER
Unigra phics
x
x an update. However, if the values of the material property
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
x change in CAD, this will not update to prevent overwriting of
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4 user-defined values in Simulation.
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-23
CAD & Parameters
Material Property Import Training Manual

Each CAD system has different ways to define and assign

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


materials, so please refer to the CAD documentation
DesignModeler: will import materials from ProE, UG, Inventor, but user
cannot define material properties inside of DM directly
Pro/ENGINEER: Edit > Setup: Material > Define/Assign
Unigraphics: Tools > Material Properties
Inventor (to define materials): Format > Materials
Inventor (to assign): right-click part Properties: Physical tab

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r /
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid Sample dialog boxes to assign/define material properties in CAD software 9-24
IGES
CAD & Parameters
Coordinate System Import Training Manual

Coordinate systems are used in Simulation to apply

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


directional loads or results postprocessing
Coordinate systems allow users to define the orientation for
direction-dependent loads or contour results

Simulation supports importing of local coordinate systems


from some CAD systems
User-defined CS on part or assembly level
will be imported
In DM and SW, names come through as-is.
In ProE, name comes through as part name,
followed by CS name in square brackets
Modified/added CS are updated with model
Geometry Interface Availability
De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-25
CAD & Parameters
Coordinate System Import Training Manual

Each CAD system has different ways to define coordinate

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


systems, so please refer to the CAD documentation
DesignModeler: create Plane, Details view: Export CS
Pro/ENGINEER: Insert > Model Datum > Coordinate System
SolidWorks: Insert > Reference Geometry > Coordinate
System

Sample dialog boxes to define coordinate systems in CAD software


Geometry Interface Availability
De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-26
CAD & Parameters
Named Selections Import Training Manual

If groups are defined in the CAD package,

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


these can be brought into Simulation as
Named Selections for supported systems.
This makes it easier to assign mesh
controls or apply loads to entities.
Named selections import can be enabled,
as shown on the right
If the group in the CAD software has the specified prefix
(default is NS), then it is imported in the Named Selection
branch of Simulation
CAD System Vertex Edge Face Body
DesignModeler x x x x
Pro/ENGINEER x x
Unigraphics x x x x
Geometry Interface Availability SolidW orks x x x
De signMode le r x Inventor x x x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x Solid Edge x x x
SolidW orks x Mechanical Desktop x x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-27
CAD & Parameters
Named Selections Import Training Manual

However, note that this Named Selection processing feature

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


is related to CAD API functionality.
Unless the CAD system allows direct manipulation of the
entities, simply providing names for geometric entities will
not be imported into Simulation.
Interfacing with CAD API via VB or similar scripting languages may
be required
Currently, only Pro/ENGINEER and Unigraphics (and
DesignModeler) allow users to rename geometric entities
such as surfaces.
Pro/ENGINEER only allows one entity per named selection (limited
usefulness)
Unigraphics allows for multiple names per named selection, so
Geometry Interface
true groups can be created
Availability
De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-28
CAD & Parameters
Named Selections Import Training Manual

Each CAD system has different ways to rename geometric

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


entities, so please refer to the CAD documentation
DesignModeler: Tools > Named Selections
Pro/ENGINEER: Edit > Setup: Name > Other
Unigraphics: select entities, right-click Properties

Sample dialog boxes to create named selections in CAD software


Geometry Interface Availability
De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-29
CAD & Parameters
CAD Attribute Import Training Manual

The CAD Attribute Import capability can

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


be used to import attribute information
from CAD software, including motion loads
For example, if a CAD system uses a
supported kinematics program, the motion
loads can be imported into Simulation for
subsequent stress analyses
If this feature is turned on, the prefix can be specified. Only
attributes with the given prefix (default is SDFEA or DDM)
will be imported into Simulation.

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-30
CAD & Parameters
B. Multiple Design Studies Training Manual

In many situations, users may wish to perform comparisons

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


of different load cases or even different types of analyses
Copying branches in the Outline Tree allow users to easily
compare different Environments or even different Models

One may wish to compare the results of two different load cases, as shown here March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
9-31
CAD & Parameters
Multiple Design Studies Training Manual

To solve different cases, simply duplicate the parent branch

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Duplicate the Environment branch when the user is:
Solving multiple load cases
Solving different types of analyses (static, modal, etc.)
Duplicate the Model branch when the user is:
Comparing different material properties
Comparing different geometry configurations
Comparing different contact conditions
Comparing different mesh densities

After duplicating the appropriate branch,


simply make the necessary changes and
then resolve the model.
Usually, it is a good idea to rename the
branches in the Outline tree to distinguish
between the duplicated branches
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
9-32
CAD & Parameters
Multiple Design Studies Training Manual

After duplicating the branch and resolving, the HTML

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Report will also contain all the cases solved

Select which branches you


want to include in the
HTML Report prior to
generating it.
All input, results, and
figures will be included for
each branch and labeled
appropriately.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-33
CAD & Parameters
Updating Geometry Training Manual

For the aforementioned cases, changing the duplicate

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


branch is straightforward
For example, to compare two different loading conditions,
duplicate the Environment branch, then redefine or add/delete
any loads or supports, as needed.

However, when dealing with multiple geometry


configurations, additional steps are required
Make changes to geometry in the CAD system
Duplicate the Model branch
Select the Geometry branch, then choose
Geometry > Update: Use Geometry Parameter
Values from the Context toolbar
Geometry Interface
De signMode le r
Availability
x This will work only for CAD systems which
are associative. After performing the above
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor
Solid Edge
x
x
steps, the geometry for the selected branch
Me cha nica l De sktop
CATIA V4
x
will be updated, and so will all materials,
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT)
Pa ra solid
contact regions, and loads. Inventory #002215
IGES 9-34
CAD & Parameters
Updating Geometry Example Training Manual

For example, in the model below, geometry changes were

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


made in the CAD software.
The Model branch was duplicated to Model 2
Model 2 was selected and the new geometry was updated
All material assignment, mesh controls, (contact regions), and
loads and supports were updated without manual intervention

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-35
CAD & Parameters
Sending Parameters and Updating Training Manual

The method just described is an easy way to perform

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


comparisons of different geometry configurations
Another way of updating the geometry is to do this from
within Simulation
Recall from Section A Parameter Import of this chapter that
dimensions with a user-defined prefix or suffix (default is
DS) will import to Simulation as a parameter
If this is performed, each part will have its parameters (i.e.,
dimensions) shown in the Details view

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-36
CAD & Parameters
Sending Parameters and Updating Training Manual

The CAD parameters may be changed in the Details view.

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Then, select Update > Update: Use Simulation Parameter
Values from the Context toolbar, and Simulation will update
the CAD geometry for that Model branch
Simulation actually sends the
parameters to the CAD software, which
regenerates the new model and sends
it back to Simulation automatically
Note that the changes in dimensions
must be such that a valid geometry
can be created in the CAD software.
If not, the update will not succeed.

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-37
CAD & Parameters
Updating Geometry Notes Training Manual

It is important to note the following when updating

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


geometry from the CAD system
Only supported CAD systems (noted in the table below) have
this feature. The CAD software must be installed locally on the
same machine since Simulation uses the CAD API.
If the topology changes, some entity assignments (e.g.,
loading on a surface) may need to be redefined since the
original item (such as a surface) is redefined.
If the topology changes, this results in the associativity being
broken for that topology. This will be indicated with a ? in the
Outline Tree after an update.

Geometry Interface Availability


De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-38
CAD & Parameters
Updating Geometry Notes Training Manual

Important points to keep in mind (continued):

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


All loads will have the same values as before, even if volumes,
surfaces, or edges change in volume, area, or length:
The magnitude of all loads will remain constant. For example:
If force was applied on a surface and the surface area
increased, the force magnitude remains the same but results in
the force per unit area decreasing
If pressure was applied on a surface and the surface area
increased, the pressure value remains the same, but this
results in more force overall being applied on the surface
The orientation of loads will not change, either
For structural loads, if a direction is specified using existing
geometry, the direction of the load will not change even though
the geometry used for load orientation has changed
Geometry Interface Availability
De signMode le r x
Pro/ENGINEER x
Unigra phics x
SolidW orks x
Inve ntor x
Solid Edge x
Me cha nica l De sktop x
CATIA V4
CATIA V5 March 29, 2005
ACIS (SAT) Inventory #002215
Pa ra solid
IGES 9-39
CAD & Parameters
Multiple Design Studies Training Manual

Performing multiple design studies does not require that

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the Environment or Model branch be duplicated.
It is possible to insert a blank, new Environment branch from
the Model branch
After inserting a new Environment branch, this branch will be
blank.
Apply loads and request results, as desired
It is also possible to insert a completely different model in the
same Simulation database
Go to the Workbench Project page.
Select the topmost project, the link to the Active CAD Geometry
or to a Geometry File.
Use Create a new Simulation to bring in the model into the
current Simulation database.
Set up analysis as usual

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-40
CAD & Parameters
Multiple Design Studies Training Manual

To solve multiple branches at once, go to the parent branch

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


and click on the Solve button
For example, if a user wants to only solve a single
Environment, select that Environment branch from the Outline
Tree and click on the Solve button
To solve all Environment or Model branches, select the parent
branch and click on the Solve button. All child branches will
then be solved sequentially.
To solve multiple Environment or Model branches, Ctrl-select
the branches of interest, then click on the Solve button.
The active branch currently being solved will be indicated with
a green lightning bolt.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-41
CAD & Parameters
C. Parameter Manager Training Manual

Performing multiple design studies by duplicating the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Model or Environment branch is an easy way to compare
results
In the case of multiple Model branches, the Simulation
database will become large because the mesh and results for
each Model branch will be stored
For many cases, this may be a tedious, manual method

In some situations where many cases are being examined,


the use of the Parameter Manager may be warranted
The Parameter Manager is useful to see the effect changes of
input values have on certain output quantities. This is done in
tabular form.
The Parameter Manager is not useful if the user needs to keep
contour results, such as mode shapes of different geometries

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-42
CAD & Parameters
Understanding Parameters Training Manual

In Simulation, input and output parameters are used with

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the Parameter Manager
If a white input text entry in the Details view has a square next
to it, it can be used as an input parameter
If a grey informative text entry in the Details view has a square
next to it, it can be used as an output parameter
Simply select the square. A blue P will appear, indicating
that this will be used with the Parameter Manager
Any items without a square cannot be used as a parameter.
Moreover, any items not selected with a blue P will also not be
used by the Parameter Manager

Example of input parameters Example of output parameters

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-43
CAD & Parameters
Using the Parameter Manager Training Manual

To activate the Parameter Manager:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Browse through the Outline tree and activate any input
parameters which will be used (add blue P)
Browse through the Solution branch with results and activate
any output parameters to be used (add blue P)
Use of Results Scoping (covered in Chapter 9) allows the user to
query the local results. For example, by scoping results on
selected surfaces, the max equivalent stress on the surfaces can
be used as an output parameter
Select the Solution branch of the Environment of interest and
select the Parameter Manager button
The Parameter Manager worksheet will appear (see next slide)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-44
CAD & Parameters
Using the Parameter Manager Training Manual

The Parameter Manager worksheet tab shows the defined

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


input and output parameters under Definitions
The Scenarios is a table of cases which will be run

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-45
CAD & Parameters
Using the Parameter Manager Training Manual

Each Scenario is a simulation which will be run

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Under Scenarios, simply right-click to add rows
Each row represents a simulation
White input values can be changed to desired values
The grey output parameters reflect the result values
The last column indicates whether the solution has been performed. The
types of status indicators are Done, Ready, and Obsolete
The row in bold is what is reflected in the Outline tree
Unlike the Multiple Studies method, the Parameter Manager does not store
all results for all cases. The Outline tree will only reflect the last case (bold).
Check items which you want Parameter Manager to solve

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-46
CAD & Parameters
Using the Parameter Manager Training Manual

After setting up the scenarios and clicking on the Solve

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


button, the Parameter Manager will sequentially solve each
check-marked case
If CAD parameters are present, ensure that the dimensions
result in valid geometry
If any errors are encountered, the Parameter Manager will skip
that scenario

After completed, the results for each scenario can be


compared easily in the table.
The results can be exported to Excel (right-click on Parameter
Manager branch in Outline tree to export)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-47
CAD & Parameters
DesignXplorer and Parameters Training Manual

DesignXplorer and DesignXplorer VT are Workbench

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


modules allowing users to obtain a full understanding of
the relationship between input and output parameters

DesignXplorer and
DesignXplorer VT can be used
to examine the effect input
parameters have on output
parameters.
After running the analysis,
through XY graphs, response
surface plots, sensitivity pie
charts, and spider plots, the
user can get a better
understanding of which
parameters affect certain
output and by what degree.
This extends the use of
parameters far beyond what is
possible with the Parameter
Manager.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-48
CAD & Parameters
D. Workshop 9 Training Manual

Workshop 9 Parameter Manager

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Use the Parameter Manager to specify changes to the load
magnitude and material properties of the model shown below
and solve all scenarios at one time.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
9-49
Chapter Ten

Harmonic Analysis
Harmonic Analysis
Chapter Overview Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In this chapter, performing harmonic analyses in Simulation
will be covered:
It is assumed that the user has already covered Chapter 4
Linear Static Structural Analysis and Chapter 5 Free Vibration
Analysis prior to this chapter.

The following will be covered in this chapter:


Setting Up Harmonic Analyses
Harmonic Solution Methods
Damping
Reviewing Results

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to ANSYS Professional licenses and above.
Exceptions will be noted accordingly March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
10-2
Harmonic Analysis
Background on Harmonic Analysis Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A harmonic analysis is used to determine the response of
the structure under a steady-state sinusoidal (harmonic)
loading at a given frequency.
A harmonic, or frequency-response, analysis considers
loading at one frequency only. Loads may be out-of-phase
with one another, but the excitation is at a known frequency.
This procedure is not used for an arbitrary transient load.
One should always run a free vibration analysis (Ch. 5) prior to
a harmonic analysis to obtain an understanding of the
dynamic characteristics of the model.

To better understand a harmonic analysis, the general


equation of motion is provided first:

M x C x K x F March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
10-3
Harmonic Analysis
Background on Harmonic Analysis Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In a harmonic analysis, the loading and response of the
structure is assumed to be harmonic (cyclic):

F Fmax e ej jt

x xmax e j e jt
The use of complex notation is an efficient representation of
the response. Since ejA is simply (cos(A)+jsin(A)), this
represents sinusoidal motion with a phase shift, which is
present because of the imaginary (j=-1) term.
The excitation frequency is the frequency at which the
loading occurs. A force phase shift may be present if
different loads are excited at different phases, and a
displacement phase shift may exist if damping or a force
phase shift is present.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
10-4
Harmonic Analysis
Background on Harmonic Analysis Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


1

For example, consider the case on 0.75

right where two forces are acting on 0.5

the structure 0.25

Both forces are excited at the same

Force Value
Force 1
0
Force 2

frequency , but Force 2 lags -0.25

Force 1 by 45 degrees. This is a -0.5

force phase shift of 45 degrees. -0.75

The way in which this is represented -1


0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720

is via complex notation. This,


Angle (Degrees)

however, can be rewritten as:

F Fmax e j e jt
Fmax cos jFmax sin e jt
F1 jF2 e jt
In this way, a real component F1 and
an imaginary component F2 are used.
The response {x} is analogous to {F}
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample SolidWorks assembly. 10-5
Harmonic Analysis
Basics of Harmonic Analysis Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


For a harmonic analysis, the complex response {x1} and
{x2} are solved for from the matrix equation:

M jC K x jx F jF
2
1 2 1 2
This results in the following assumptions:
[M], [C], and [K] are constant:
Linear elastic material behavior is assumed
Small deflection theory is used, and no nonlinearities included
Damping [C] should be included. Otherwise, if the excitation
frequency is the same as the natural frequency of the
structure, the response is infinite at resonance.
The loading {F} (and response {x}) is sinusoidal at a given
frequency , although a phase shift may be present

It is important to remember these assumptions related to


performing harmonic analyses in Simulation. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
10-6
Harmonic Analysis
A. Harmonic Analysis Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The harmonic analysis procedure is very similar to
performing a linear static analysis, so not all steps will be
covered in detail. The steps in yellow italics are specific to
harmonic analyses.
Attach Geometry
Assign Material Properties
Define Contact Regions (if applicable)
Define Mesh Controls (optional)
Include Loads and Supports
Request Harmonic Tool Results
Set Harmonic Analysis Options
Solve the Model
Review Results

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
10-7
Harmonic Analysis
Geometry Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Any type of geometry may be present in a harmonic
analysis
Solid bodies, surface bodies, line bodies, and any combination
thereof may be used
Recall that, for line bodies, stresses and strains are not
available as output
A Point Mass may be present, although only acceleration
loads affect a Point Mass

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-8
Harmonic Analysis
Material Properties Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In a harmonic analysis, Youngs Modulus, Poissons Ratio,
and Mass Density are required input
All other material properties can be specified but are not used
in a harmonic analysis
As will be shown later, damping is not specified as a material
property but as a global property

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-9
Harmonic Analysis
Contact Regions Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contact regions are available in modal analysis. However,
since this is a purely linear analysis, contact behavior will
differ for the nonlinear contact types, as shown below:
Harmonic Analysis
Contact Type Static Analysis
Initially Touching Inside Pinball Region Outside Pinball Region
Bonded Bonded Bonded Bonded Free
No Separation No Separation No Separation No Separation Free
Rough Rough Bonded Free Free
Frictionless Frictionless No Separation Free Free

The contact behavior is similar to free vibration analyses


(Ch. 5), where nonlinear contact behavior will reduce to its
linear counterparts since harmonic simulations are linear.
It is generally recommended, however, not to use a nonlinear
contact type in a harmonic analysis

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-10
Harmonic Analysis
Loads and Supports Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Structural loads and supports may also be used in
harmonic analyses with the following exceptions:
Thermal loads are not supported
Rotational Velocity is not supported
The Remote Force Load is not supported
The Pretension Bolt Load is nonlinear and cannot be used
The Compression Only Support is nonlinear and should not be
used. If present, it behaves similar to a Frictionless Support

Remember that all structural loads will vary sinusoidally at


the same excitation frequency

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-11
Harmonic Analysis
Loads and Supports Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A list of supported loads are shown below:
Type of Load Phase Input Solution Method
Acceleration Load No Full or Mode Superposition
Standard Earth Gravity Load No Full or Mode Superposition
Pressure Load Yes Full or Mode Superposition
Force Load Yes Full or Mode Superposition
Bearing Load No Full or Mode Superposition
Moment Load No Full or Mode Superposition
Given Displacement Support Yes Full Only

The Solution Method will be discussed in the next section.


It is useful to note at this point that ANSYS Professional does not
support Full solution method, so it does not support a Given
Displacement Support in a harmonic analysis.
Not all available loads support phase input. Accelerations,
Bearing Load, and Moment Load will have a phase angle of 0.
If other loads are present, shift the phase angle of other loads,
such that the Acceleration, Bearing, and Moment Loads will remain
at a phase angle of 0.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional / Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-12
Harmonic Analysis
Loads and Supports Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


To add a harmonic load:
Add any of the supported loads as usual.
Under Time Type, change it from
Static to Harmonic
Enter the magnitude (or components,
if available)
Phase input, if available, can be input

If only real F1 and imaginary F2 components of the load are


known, the magnitude and phase can be calculated as
follows:
magnitude F12 F22
F2
tan
1
ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace
Availability
F1 March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-13
Harmonic Analysis
Loads and Supports Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The loading for two cycles may be visualized by selecting
the load, then clicking on the Worksheet tab
The magnitude and phase angle will be accounted for in this
visual representation of the loading

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-14
Harmonic Analysis
B. Solving Harmonic Analyses Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Prior to solving, request the Harmonic Tool:
Select the Solution branch and insert a Harmonic
Tool from the Context toolbar
In the Details view of the Harmonic Tool, one
can enter the Minimum and Maximum excitation
frequency range and Solution Intervals
The frequency range fmax-fmin and number of
intervals n determine the freq interval

f max f min
2
n
Simulation will solve n frequencies,
starting from .
In the example above, with a
frequency range of 0 10,000 Hz
at 10 intervals, this means that
Simulation will solve for 10
excitation frequencies of 1000,
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000,
DesignSpace
Professional x
8000, 9000, and 10000 Hz. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-15
Harmonic Analysis
Solution Methods Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


There are two solution methods available in ANSYS
Structural and above. Both methods have their advantages
and shortcomings, so these will be discussed next:
The Mode Superposition method is the default solution option
and is available for ANSYS Professional and above
The Full method is available for ANSYS Structural and above

Under the Details view of the Harmonic


Tool, the Solution Method can be toggled
between the two options (if available).
The Details view of the Solution branch
should not be used, as it has no effect
on the analysis.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional / Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-16
Harmonic Analysis
Mode Superposition Method Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Mode Superposition method solves the harmonic
equation in modal coordinates
Recall that the equation for harmonic analysis is as follows:

M jC K x jx F jF
2
1 2 1 2
For linear systems, one can express the displacements x as a
linear combination of mode shapes i :
n
x yi i
i 1
where yi are modal coordinates (coefficient) for this relation.
For example, one can perform a modal analysis to determine the
natural frequencies i and corresponding mode shapes i.
One can see that as more modes n are included, the approximation
for {x} becomes more accurate.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-17
Harmonic Analysis
Mode Superposition Method Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The preceding discussion is meant to provide background
information about the Mode Superposition method. From
this, there are three important points to remember:
1. Because of the fact that modal coordinates are used, a
harmonic solution using the Mode Superposition method
will automatically perform a modal analysis first
Simulation will automatically determine the number of modes
n necessary for an accurate solution
Although a free vibration analysis is performed first, the
harmonic analysis portion is very quick and efficient. Hence,
the Mode Superposition method is usually much faster overall
than the Full method.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-18
Harmonic Analysis
Mode Superposition Method Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


2. Since a free vibration analysis is performed, Simulation will
know what the natural frequencies of the structure are
In a harmonic analysis, the peak response will correspond
with the natural frequencies of the structure. Since the
natural frequencies are known, Simulation can cluster the
results near the natural frequencies instead of using evenly
spaced results.
In this example, the cluster option
captures the peak response better
than evenly-spaced intervals
(4.51e-3 vs. 4.30e-3)
The Cluster Number determines
how many results on either side of
a natural frequency is solved.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-19
Harmonic Analysis
Mode Superposition Method Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


3. Due to the nature of the Mode Superposition method, Given
Displacement Supports are not allowed
Nonzero prescribed displacements are not possible because
the solution is done with modal coordinates
This was mentioned earlier during the discussion on loads and
supports

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-20
Harmonic Analysis
Full Method Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Full method is an alternate way of solving harmonic
analyses
Recall the harmonic analysis equation:

M jC K x jx F jF
2
1 2 1 2
In the Full method, this matrix equation is solved for directly in
nodal coordinates, analogous to a linear static analysis except
that complex numbers are used:

K C M jC K
2

xC x1 jx2
FC F1 jF2
ANSYS License
DesignSpace Entra
Availability
K C xC FC
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-21
Harmonic Analysis
Full Method Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


This results in several differences compared with the Mode
Superposition method:
1. For each frequency, the Full method must factorize [Kc].
In the Mode Superposition method, a simpler set of uncoupled
equations is solved for. In the Full method, a more complex,
coupled matrix [KC] must be factorized.
Because of this, the Full method tends to be more
computationally expensive than the Mode Superposition
method

2. Given Displacement Support is available


Because {x} is solved for directly, imposed displacements are
permitted. This allows for the use of Given Displacement
Supports.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-22
Harmonic Analysis
Full Method Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


3. The Full method does not use modal information
Unlike the Mode Superposition method, the Full method does
not rely on mode shapes and natural frequencies
No free vibration analysis is internally performed
The solution of {xC} is exact
No approximation of the response {x} to mode shapes is used
However, because modal information is not present to
Simulation during a solution, no clustering of results is
possible. Only evenly-spaced intervals is permitted.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-23
Harmonic Analysis
C. Damping Input Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The harmonic equation has a damping matrix [C]
It was noted earlier that damping is specified as a global
property
For ANSYS Professional license, only a constant damping
ratio is available for input
For ANSYS Structural licenses and above, either a constant
damping ratio or beta damping value can be input
Note that if both constant damping and
beta damping are input, the effects will
be cumulative
Either damping option can be used with
either solution method (full or mode
superposition)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional / Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-24
Harmonic Analysis
Background on Damping Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Damping results in energy loss in a dynamic system.
The effect damping has on the response is to shift the natural
frequencies and to lower the peak response
Damping is present in many forms in any structural system

Damping is a complex phenomena due to various effects.


The mathematical representation of damping, however, is
quite simple. Viscous damping will be considered here:
The viscous damping force Fdamp is proportional to velocity
Fdamp cx
where c is the damping constant
There is a value of c called critical damping ccr where no
oscillations will take place
The damping ratio is the ratio of actual damping c over
critical damping ccr. c
March 29, 2005
ccr Inventory #002215
10-25
Harmonic Analysis
Constant Damping Ratio Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The constant damping ratio input in Simulation means that
the value of will be constant over the entire frequency
range.
The value of will be used directly in Mode Superposition
method
The constant damping ratio is unitless
In the Full method, the damping ratio is not directly used.
This will be converted internally to an appropriate value for [C]

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-26
Harmonic Analysis
Beta Damping Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Another way to model damping is to assume that damping
value c is proportional to the stiffness k by a constant :
c k
This is related back to the damping ratio :
c k 2 i
i i
ccr 2 i m 2 i 2
One can see from this equation that, with beta damping, the
effect of damping increases linearly with frequency
Unlike the constant damping ratio, beta damping increases
with increasing frequency
Beta damping tends to damp out the effect of higher
frequencies
Beta damping is in units of time
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-27
Harmonic Analysis
Beta Damping Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


There are two methods of input of beta damping:
Beta damping value can be directly input
A damping ratio and frequency can be input, and the
corresponding beta damping value will be calculated by
Simulation, per the equation on the previous slide
Although a frequency and
damping ratio is input in this
second case, remember that beta
damping will linearly increase
with frequency. This means that
lower frequencies will have less
damping and higher frequencies
will experience more damping.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-28
Harmonic Analysis
Damping Relationships Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


There are some other measures of damping commonly
used. Note that these are usually for single degree of
freedom systems, so extrapolating it for use in multi-DOF
systems (such as FEA) should be done with caution!
The quality factor Qi is 1/(2i)
The loss factor i is the inverse of Q or 2i
The logarithmic decrement i can be approximated for light
damping cases as 2i
The half-power bandwidth i can be approximated for lightly
damped structures as 2ii

Remember that these measures of damping are simplified


and for single DOF systems.
If the user understands the physical structures response over
a frequency range as well as the difference between constant
damping ratio and beta damping, then damping can be
modeled appropriately in Simulation March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
10-29
Harmonic Analysis
D. Request Harmonic Tool Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Results can then be requested from Harmonic Tool branch:

Three types of results are available:


Contour results of components of stresses, strains, or
displacements for surfaces, parts, and/or assemblies at a specified
frequency and phase angle
Frequency response plots of minimum, maximum, or average
components of stresses, strains, displacements, or acceleration at
selected vertices, edges, or surfaces.
Phase response plots of minimum, maximum, or average
components of stresses, strains, or displacements at a specified
frequency
Unlike a linear static analysis, results must be requested
before initiating a solution. Otherwise, if other results are
requested after a solution is completed, another solution must
be re-run.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-30
Harmonic Analysis
Request Harmonic Tool Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Request any of the available results under the Harmonic
Tool branch
Be sure to scope results on entities of
interest
For edges and surfaces, specify whether
average, minimum, or maximum value
will be reported
Enter any other applicable input

If results are requested between solved-for frequency


ranges, linear interpolation will be used to calculate the
response
For example, if Simulation solves frequencies from 100 to 1000
Hz at 100 Hz intervals, and the user requests a result for 333
Hz, this will be linearly interpolated from results at 300 and 400
ANSYS License
Hz. Availability
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-31
Harmonic Analysis
Request Harmonic Tool Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation assumes that the response is harmonic
(sinusoidal).
Derived quantities such as equivalent/principal stresses or
total deformation may not be harmonic if the components are
not in-phase, so these results are not available.

No Convergence is available on Harmonic results


Perform a modal analysis and perform convergence on mode
shapes which will reflect response. This will help to ensure
that the mesh is fine enough to capture the dynamic response
in a subsequent harmonic analysis.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-32
Harmonic Analysis
Solving the Model Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Details view of the Solution branch is
not used in a Harmonic analysis.
Only informative status of the type of
analysis to be solved will be displayed

After Harmonic Analysis options have been set and results


have been requested, the solution can be solved as usual
with the Solve button

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-33
Harmonic Analysis
Contour Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contour results of components of stress, strain, or
displacement are available at a given frequency and phase
angle

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-34
Harmonic Analysis
Contour Animations Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


These results can be animated. Animations will use the
actual harmonic response (real and imaginary results)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-35
Harmonic Analysis
Frequency Response Plots Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


XY Plots of components of stress, strain, displacement, or
acceleration can be requested
For scoped results, average,
minimum, or maximum values can be
requested.
Bode plots (shown on right) is the
default display method. However,
real and imaginary results can also
be plotted.

The Ctrl-left mouse button allows the


user to query results on the graph.
Results can also be exported to
Excel by right-clicking on the branch

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
March 29, 2005
DesignSpace
Professional x
Left-click on the graphics window
Inventory #002215
Structural x
x
to change the Graph Properties 10-36
Mechanical/Multiphysics
Harmonic Analysis
Phase Response Plots Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Comparison of phase of components of stress, strain, or
displacement with input forces can be plotted at a given
frequency

The average, minimum, or maximum


value of the scoped results can be
used to track the phase relationship
with all of the input forces.
In this example, the response is
lagging the input forces, as expected,
and the user can visually examine this
phase difference.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
March 29, 2005
DesignSpace
Professional x
Left-click on the graphics window
Inventory #002215
Structural x
x
to change the Graph Properties 10-37
Mechanical/Multiphysics
Harmonic Analysis
Requesting Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A harmonic solution usually requires multiple solutions:
A free vibration analysis using the Frequency Finder should
always be performed first to determine the natural frequencies
and mode shapes
Although a free vibration analysis is internally performed with the
Mode Superposition method, the mode shapes are not available to
the user to review. Hence, a separate Environment branch must be
inserted or duplicated to add the Frequency Finder tool.
Oftentimes, two harmonic solutions may need to be run:
A harmonic sweep of the frequency range can be performed
initially, where displacements, stresses, etc. can be requested.
This allows the user to see the results over the entire frequency
range of interest.
After the frequencies and phases at which the peak response(s)
occur are determined, contour results can be requested to see the
overall response of the structure at these frequencies.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x 10-38
Harmonic Analysis
E. Workshop 10 Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Workshop 10 Harmonic Analysis
Goal:
Explore the harmonic response of the machine frame (Frame.x_t)
shown here. The frequency response as well as stress and
deformation at a specific frequency will be determined.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
10-39
Chapter Eleven

Asynchronous Solution
Asynchronous Solution
Chapter Overview Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In this chapter, the use of Simulations asynchronous
solution capability will be covered:
Asynchronous Solution Overview
UNIX Server
LSF Cluster
Workbench Cluster
ANSYS Product Table

The capabilities described in this section are applicable if


an additional license of ANSYS Professional licenses and
above is available.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-2
Asynchronous Solution
A. Asynchronous Solution Overview Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


By default, when a user solves a model, Simulation starts
the ANSYS batch solver on the same machine

In some cases, especially with very large models, it may be


preferable to perform the solution on a separate machine.
Simulations asynchronous solution capability makes this
possible.
In this situation, the model is setup on a client machine, but
the numerical solution is performed on a server or cluster.

Send input and solve Server machine


where numerical
Users machine, calculations are
where model is performed.
set-up and results
are reviewed.
Client Retrieve results Server

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-3
Asynchronous Solution
Details on Async. Solve Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


There are two methods (discussed shortly) where solving
can be performed on a different machine (server):
UNIX Server: a UNIX machine (e.g., SUN, IBM, HP, SGI) is used
to perform the solution
LSF Cluster: an LSF cluster1 is used to perform the solution

For asynchronous solution, the following is performed:


The model is set up on the users client PC as normal.
Attaching geometry, defining contact regions, apply loads, etc.
When asynchronous solution is initiated, the necessary
information is sent to the server which runs the ANSYS solver.
This is performed automatically. Simulation provides a means of
monitoring the status of the job(s) submitted.
When the solution is complete, the user can retrieve the
results back to the client PC for postprocessing.
Reviewing all results is done as normal on the client PC.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
1 LSF is a product of Platform Computing (http://www.platform.com) 11-4
Asynchronous Solution
Requirements for Async. Solve Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


To take advantage of asynchronous solution, the following
requirements must be met:
1. The client (users) machine must be running Windows
UNIX versions of Simulation currently do not support asynchronous solution
2. An additional license of ANSYS Professional or above
The client may be running any supported license, such as ANSYS
DesignSpace, but to use asynchronous solution, an additional license
(ANSYS Professional or above) is required for solution done on the server.
3. No Postprocessing Commands or Parameter Manager branch
may be present in the Simulation model
Postprocessing Commands branch or Parameter Manager branch require
the solution to be performed locally
4. A UNIX server (with a valid user account) or an LSF cluster
must be present
For example, asynchronous solution cannot take advantage of another
Windows machine not on an LSF cluster

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-5
Asynchronous Solution
Procedure for Using Async. Solve Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


To use asynchronous solution, simply set up the model as
normal, then go to the Details view of the Solution branch:
Change Run Solver Process on to either
UNIX Server or LSF Cluster, whichever
may be appropriate
Click on the Solve button on the toolbar to
initiate asynchronous solution
The Solution Status page will be displayed,
allowing users to monitor the progress of
the submitted job(s).
After solution is complete, as indicated
on the Solution Status page, the results
can be retrieved.
Review results in Simulation as normal.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-6
Asynchronous Solution
Procedure for Using Async. Solve Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Note that the number of processors to use, as specified
under Tools menu > Options > Simulation: Solution will
be taken into account on the server machine.
For example, if multiple processors on a UNIX server are to be
used, set the Number of Processors to Use accordingly

For users familiar with ANSYS solver memory management,


the workspace (-m) can be specified via Tools menu >
Variable Manager.
Add a variable AMK MEMORY and specify the value (in MB)
to be used. The ANSYS solver will be run with this setting
The database space (-db) is specified in a similar manner with
an undocumented variable, AMK DBMEMORY

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-7
Asynchronous Solution
Solution Status Page Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


When asynchronous solution is specified under the
Solution branch Details view, the Job Status tab becomes
available to display under the Graphics Window

A list of all submitted jobs


will be provided in the
Solution Status page.
Select a job with the
leftmost radio button, and
the progress bar for the
selected job will be
displayed.
If a job is complete, it will
be displayed in green with
a Progress of 100%.
The Outline Tree will also
reflect this status.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-8
Asynchronous Solution
Outline Tree Status Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Asynchronous solution provides a few slightly different
status icons on the Outline Tree:
A green lightning bolt means that solution is running or is
pending
A red lightning bolt indicates that an error occurred during
solution
A green down-arrow signifies that the results are ready to be
retrieved
A red down-arrow means that there was a problem during
asynchronous solution, such as communication with server

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-9
Asynchronous Solution
Retrieving Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


After solution is completed successfully
(green down-arrow icon), right-click on the
branch to Get Results. Then, results
can be reviewed as usual.

Note that even if a solution failed (red down-arrow icon),


right-click and select Get Results to get further
information on why the solution was not successful

Another common error message is result file


corrupt or no results, which may indicate that
either a) communication or configuration
problem exists or b) the solution didnt complete
gracefully enough to give meaningful errors. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
11-10
Asynchronous Solution
B. UNIX Server Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


If a UNIX machine is available, it can be used for
asynchronous solution
Must have the same version of ANSYS installed and be a
supported UNIX platform
User must have a login account

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-11
Asynchronous Solution
Specifying UNIX Server Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


To specify the UNIX Server in Simulation, specify login
information in the Solution branch Details view:

Change Run Solver Process on


to UNIX Server
Specify the additional ANSYS
license to use when solving on
the UNIX Server. This should be
the product code, as described in
Section D of this chapter.
Specify the hostname of the UNIX
machine.
Enter login information
Specify the ANSYS executable
name (full path can be provided)
Specify the location of the
directory used for solution
(absolute path can be specified)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-12
Asynchronous Solution
UNIX Server Troubleshooting Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Consult the Simulation online help
Simulation Help > Troubleshooting > Problem Situations
> Problems Unique to Asynchronous Solutions

Other troubleshooting tips:


Log into the UNIX server (via telnet, ssh, etc.) when asynchronous
solution is initiated to interactively monitor processes & files:
An ftpd process should be running prior and after solution is done on UNIX. This
process transfers the input and output between the client and server.
A directory with a long name, beginning and ending with x, should be generated in the
working directory. ds.dat is the input file transferred to UNIX, and filexx.xml should
be generated after solution is done. This directory will be cleaned up upon successful
completion of solution.
Check to see if ftp and rexec from client to server is possible.
Check to see if ANSYS can be run successfully from UNIX (ansys81).

On the Windows client:


During solution, JMService.exe and CEExeServer.exe processes should be running.
Check the Windows Task Manager for these processes during async solve
In the Solver Working directory, an ansys_solve subdirectory should be generated.
When results are retreived, .xml files and solve.out will be copied to this directory first.
This directory will be cleaned up upon successful completion of solution.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
11-13
Asynchronous Solution
C. LSF Cluster Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


LSF is a third-party software by Platform Computing which
is used to queue and manage loads over a cluster.
Website: http://www.platform.com/
ANSYS must be installed on the LSF machines

The users client PC must be part of the LSF cluster in order


to take advantage of LSF. Please refer to Platform
Computings LSF documentation for details on setting up
an LSF cluster.
Although an LSF cluster is used, solution is done on a single
machine in the cluster

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-14
Asynchronous Solution
Specifying LSF Cluster Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


After configuring LSF and a Queue, to perform
asynchronous solution on an LSF cluster, simply specify
the Queue Name in the Details view of the Solution branch

For the Details view of the Solution


branch, change Run Solver
Process on to LSF Cluster
Specify the additional ANSYS
license to use when solving on the
LSF cluster. This should be the
product code, as described in
Section D of this chapter.
Select the available Queue Name
from the pull-down menu.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-15
Asynchronous Solution
LSF Cluster Troubleshooting Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Consult the Simulation online help
Simulation Help > Troubleshooting > Problem Situations
> Problems Unique to Asynchronous Solutions

Other troubleshooting tips:


The information transferred back and forth from the LSF Cluster is in a
binary file with a file extension .fadb in the Solver Working directory.
If problems occur, check to see if this file is created when solution is sent,
and check to see if this file is updated when solution is retrieved from LSF
cluster. This file will be cleaned up upon successful retrieval of solution.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-16
Asynchronous Solution
D. Workbench Cluster Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


WB Cluster: Solution will be submitted to a Remote
Solution Manager web service. This requires that you have
a Remote Solution Manager network configured according
to the ANSYS Workbench Products Remote Solution
Manager Configuration Guide.
Must specify:
License to Use: Specifies the name of a valid ANSYS product
license (ANSYS Professional or higher) for the Remote Solution
Manager server.
Machine Name: Specifies the name of the Web Service machine
that is accessible on your Remote Solution Manager network.
Queue Name: Specifies the name of a particular queue on the
Remote Solution Manager network (note: this option appears only
if you entered a Machine Name other than localhost).

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-17
Asynchronous Solution
. . . Specifying Workbench Cluster Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The web service machine name may be localhost or
remote machine name.
Localhost specifies the client machine as the web service
and server.
If machine name is not localhost a queue name must be
provided.
Number of processors may be from 1 to 8 (default = 2).

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-18
Asynchronous Solution
. . . Remote Solution Manager Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Remote Solution Manager is primarily a Web Service (i.e.
web site with a URL such as
<http://web_service_machine/CE>).
The Remote Solution Manager administrator configures
queues and compute servers that will be available to
Workbench clients.
Workbench clients submit solutions to the Remote Solution
Manager Web Service which then distributes them to the
compute servers.
Solutions are queued up and wait for a server to become
available.

See the ANSYS Workbench Products Remote Solution


Manager Configuration Guide for details.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-19
Asynchronous Solution
E. ANSYS Product Table Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


When specifying the License to Use, the product code
must be input. This can be found in the ANSYS online help
(not ANSYS Workbench online help)
Licensing Guide > Chapter 3. License Files > 3.4. Product
Variable Table

Some typical product codes are below:


ANSYS License Product Code
ANSYS Professional prf
ANSYS Structural struct
ANSYS Mechanical ansys
ANSYS Mechanical/Emag ane3
ANSYS Multiphysics ane3fl
ANSYS Multiphysics/LS-DYNA ane3flds

In this example, a UNIX Server is


used for asynchronous solution,
and an ANSYS Professional
license (product code is prf)
will be used to solve on the UNIX
machine.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
11-20
Asynchronous Solution
Default Settings Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Default settings for asynchronous solution can be specified
in Tools menu > Options > Simulation: Solution

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
11-21
Appendix Three

General Preprocessing
General Preprocessing Procedure
Global Mesh Controls (ANSYS) Training Manual

Comparisons of meshing in Simulation and ANSYS:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Global Element Size is similar to ESIZE
The Curv/Proximity setting in Simulation is somewhat
similar to SMRTSIZE meshing in ANSYS
Both consider curvature and proximity of curves
Meshing behavior produces different results, however, so these
two settings are not exactly the same
The Shape Checking toggle is SHPP,LSTET,ON
Use of Jacobian tests at integration points is the Standard or
SHPP,LSTET,ON method, suitable for linear analyses
Use of Jacobian tests at corner nodes is the Aggressive or
SHPP,LSTET,OFF method. This is generally a more conservative
approach and may be preferred for nonlinear analyses. This is
because elements which undergo distortion during solution
should have a good quality shape to begin with.
Because Simulation uses its own criteria for shape tests,
SHPP,OFF is set when exporting a mesh to ANSYS.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A3-2
General Preprocessing Procedure
Local Mesh Controls (ANSYS) Training Manual

Internally, the following is used:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Part Relevance is similar to changing SMRTSIZE settings
prior to meshing specific volumes (bodies)
Sizing with Element Size or Number of Element
Divisions is similar to LESIZE and AESIZE. The Sphere of
Influence option is not present in ANSYS.
Contact Sizing is not directly available in ANSYS but is
analogous to setting AESIZE on surfaces which comprise
contact regions prior to meshing
Refinement is similar to KREFINE, LREFINE, AREFINE

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A3-3
General Preprocessing Procedure
Element Shape Options (ANSYS) Training Manual

Internally, the following is used:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Mapped Face Meshing is similar to MSHKEY,1 with
appropriate MSHAPE setting
Element Shape is similar to using VMESH (free) or VSWEEP.
Part Proximity is somewhat similar to SMRTSIZE
Hex-dominant meshing capabilities are not present in ANSYS.
Note that some lower-order element types (e.g., SOLID45) do not
support pyramid shape. If hex-to-tet transitions (multibody parts)
or the hex-dominant meshing (Adv. Struct. Meshing Module) is
used, do not set to lower-order elements in Meshing branch
Workbench users can import the Simulation mesh to FE Modeler to
see the number of degenerate elements present before importing
to ANSYS.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A3-4
Appendix Four

Static Structural Analysis


General Preprocessing Procedure
Basics of Linear Static Analysis Training Manual

A linear static structural analysis is performed to obtain the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


response of a structure under applied static loads
Displacements, reaction forces, stresses, and strains are
usually items of interest that the user wants to review

The general equation of motion is as follows:

M x C x K x F t
where [M] is the mass matrix, [C] is the damping matrix, [K]
is the stiffness matrix, {x} is displacements, and {F} is force
Because this is a static analysis, all time-dependent terms
are removed, leaving the following subset:

K x F
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A4-2
General Preprocessing Procedure
Elements Used Training Manual

In Simulation, the following elements are used:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Solid bodies are meshed with 10-node tetrahedral or 20-node
hexahedral elements
SOLID187 and SOLID186
Surface bodies are meshed with 4-node quad shell elements
SHELL181 using real constants
Section definition (and offsets) are not used
Line bodies are meshed with 2-node beam elements
BEAM188 (with 3rd orientation node)
Section definition and offsets are supported

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-3
General Preprocessing Procedure
Point Mass (ANSYS Details) Training Manual

Internally, the Point Mass is modeled as a concentrated

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


mass connected to surfaces with RBE3 constraints
A translational-only MASS21 (KEYOPT(3)=2) has given mass
RBE3-type of surface constraint is enabled with CONTA174,
which are generated on associated surfaces
KEYOPT(2)=2 for MPC algorithm
KEYOPT(4)=1 for nodal detection (contact)
KEYOPT(12)=5 for bonded contact
A pilot node TARGE170 is generated at the
same node as the MASS21.
KEYOPT(2)=1 for user-supplied constraints
KEYOPT(4)=111111 for all DOF active
Note that RBE3 has 6 DOF but MASS21 only has 3 DOF and no
rotary inertia. Also, since RBE3-type of surface constraint
used (rather than CERIG-type of surface constraint), there is
no stiffness between point mass and rest of structure. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-4
General Preprocessing Procedure
Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Internally, the solid face contact regions are modeled in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS as CONTA174 and TARGE170 elements
Contact Type KEYOPT(2) KEYOPT(5) KEYOPT(9) KEYOPT(12)
Bonded 1 0 1 5
No Separation 1 0 1 4
Frictionless, Actual Geometry 1 0 2 0
Frictionless, Adjusted to Touch 1 1 1 0
Rough, Actual Geometry 1 0 2 1
Rough, Adjusted to Touch 1 1 1 1

By default, pure penalty method is used with relative contact


stiffness of 10 with symmetric contact pairs being generated
For bonded and no separation contact, any geometric
penetration or gap is ignored if within the pinball region.
For frictionless and rough contact, considering actual
geometry makes any initial gap or penetration ramped
whereas adjust to touch closes gap with auto CNOF
NEQIT is set to 1 for if only bonded or no separation contact
exist; it is set higher otherwise (20-40, depending on model).
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-5
General Preprocessing Procedure
Assemblies Surface Body Contact Training Manual

Internally, any contact including an edge (solid body edge

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


or surface edge) results in asymmetric contact with
CONTA175 for the edge and TARGE170 for the edge/face
Contact involving solid edges default to pure penalty method
Contact involving surface edges use MPC formulation.
Instead of target normal, if search direction is pinball
region, KEYOPT(5)=4 set on companion TARGE170 element.
For bonded contact (default), both use KEYOPT(12)=5 and
KEYOPT(9)=1.

For surface faces in contact with other


faces, standard surface-to-surface
contact is used, namely CONTA174
and TARGE170
Example of Simulation-
generated edge-to-edge
contact, which results in
CONTA175 on one edge and
March 29, 2005
TARGE170 on the other. Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-6
General Preprocessing Procedure
Assemblies Spot Weld Training Manual

Internally, spot welds are defined as a set of BEAM188

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


elements. The spot weld is defined with one beam element,
and the top and bottom of the spot weld is connected to the
shell or solid elements with a spider web of multiple
beams.
The BEAM188 elements use
same material properties as
underlying materials but
with an appropriate circular
cross-section with radius=
5*thickness of underlying
shells
Figure on right shows spot-
welds between two sets of
shell elements, which are
made translucent for clarity.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-7
General Preprocessing Procedure
Inertial Loads in ANSYS Training Manual

Inertial loads are modeled in ANSYS as follows:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Acceleration and Standard Earth Gravity are represented via
ACEL command
Rotational velocity is defined via CGLOC (defines origin) and
CGOMGA (defines rotational velocity about CGLOC)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-8
General Preprocessing Procedure
Structural Loads in ANSYS Training Manual

Structural loads are modeled in ANSYS as follows:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Pressures are applied directly on surfaces via SF,,PRES
Forces on vertices and edges are applied as nodal loads via
F,,FX/FY/FZ
Forces on surfaces are applied as pressures on face 5 of
surface effect elements SURF154 with KEYOPT(11)=2
KEYOPT(11)=2 to use full area, including tangential component
Bearing loads are applied as pressures on face 5 of surface
effect elements SURF154. Two sets are created for axial and
radial components of bearing load:
Axial component uses KEYOPT(11)=2 for pressure on full area
Radial component uses KEYOPT(11)=0 for pressure (which is
applied on compressive part of cylinder only) on projected area w/
tangential component
Moments on vertices or edges of shells are applied as nodal
loads via F,,MX/MY/MZ
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-9
General Preprocessing Procedure
Structural Loads in ANSYS Training Manual

Moment load on surface is defined by surface constraint

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Surface constraint is RBE3-type of distributed loading
Pilot node at surface CG defined by TARGE170 with
KEYOPT(2)=1 and KEYOPT(4)=xxx000
Surface is defined by CONTA174 with KEYOPT(2)=2,
KEYOPT(4)=1, KEYOPT(12)=5
Moment applied as nodal load on pilot node

Remote force load is defined by surface constraint


Surface constraint is RBE3-type of distributed force
Pilot node at force origin defined by TARGE170 with
KEYOPT(2)=1 and KEYOPT(4)=000xxx
Surface is defined by CONTA174 or CONTA175 with
KEYOPT(2)=2, KEYOPT(4)=1, KEYOPT(12)=5
Force applied as nodal load on pilot node
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-10
General Preprocessing Procedure
Structural Supports in ANSYS Training Manual

The following are applied internally in ANSYS:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Fixed support constraints result in D,,ALL for given entity
Given displacement is D,,UX/UY/UZ for specified direction (if
CS is supplied, nodes are rotated in that local CS)
Frictionless surface involves nodal rotation such that UX is in
normal direction, and D,,UX is applied
Cylindrical constraint rotates nodal coordinates in cylindrical
CS and constrains appropriate direction with D,,UX/UY/UZ
Simply supported constraints apply D on UX, UY, and UZ on
shells or beams
Fixed rotation constraints apply D on ROTX, ROTY, and ROTZ
on shells or beams
For compression-only supports, the surface mesh is copied to
form a rigid target surface (TARGE170) on top of the original
surface (CONTA174). Standard contact behavior is used to
model this support, and that is why it is a nonlinear solution. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-11
General Preprocessing Procedure
Thermal Loading in ANSYS Training Manual

In ANSYS, for any thermal loads present in the model:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


ANSYS will always solve a thermal solution first
Even if a uniform temperature field is applied, a thermal solution
will be performed. This is why temperature body loads in a
structural analysis is not possible with an ANSYS Structural
license.
Reference temperature is defined with TREF (not MP,REFT)
TREF and TUNIF commands are set to the same value, as specified
under Reference Temp of the Environment branch Details view
Coefficient of thermal expansion per material is supplied with
MP,ALPX (not MP,CTEX or MP,THSX)
Temperature loading is input via BF commands after thermal
solution

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-12
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options in ANSYS Training Manual

The solver selection for direct vs. iterative:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The solvers used are either the direct sparse solver
(EQSLV,SPARSE) or the PCG solver (EQSLV,PCG)
A simplified discussion between the two solvers:
If given the linear static case of [K]{x} = {F}, Direct solvers factorize [K] to solve for [K]-1.
Then, {x} = [K]-1{F}.
This factorization is computationally expensive but is done once.
Iterative solvers use a preconditioner [Q] to solve the equation [Q][K]{x} = [Q]{F}. Assume
that [Q] = [K]-1. In this trivial case, [I]{x} = [K]-1{F}. However, the preconditioner is not
usually [K]-1. The closer [Q] is to [K]-1, the better the preconditioning is, and this process
is repeated - hence the name, iterative solver.
For iterative solvers, matrix multiplication (not factorization) is
performed. This is much faster than matrix inversion if done entirely in
RAM, so, as long as the number of iterations is not very high (which
happens for well-conditioned matrices), iterative solvers can be more
efficient than sparse solvers.
The main difference between the iterative solvers in ANSYS PCG,
JCG, ICCG is the type of pre-conditioner used.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-13
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options in ANSYS Training Manual

Weak spring option:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


If used, weak springs are added to the mesh. These are
modeled with COMBIN14 with small stiffness and added to the
extreme dimensions of the part.

Solver working directory:


The ANSYS input file is written as ds.dat in the solver
directory. The output file is solve.out and can be viewed in
the Solution Information branch of the Solution branch.
ANSYS is executed in batch mode (-b) as a separate process.
During solution, the results file .rst is written. The results are
also read in and XML results files are generated in batch
mode. The XML files are then read into Simulation.
All associated ANSYS files have default jobname of file and
are deleted after solution, unless changed in Tools > Options
> Simulation: Solution > Save Ansys Files.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-14
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options in ANSYS Training Manual

Various defaults in ANSYS are turned off when solving in

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Simulation:
Solution control (SOLCON,OFF) is turned off
Multiframe restart is turned off (RESCON,,NONE)
ANSYS shape checking is turned off (SHPP,OFF)
Number of equilibrium iterations (NEQIT) is set to 1 if contact
is not present or if all contact is bonded or no separation.
Otherwise, it is automatically determined, such as NEQIT,20
(frictionless contact) or NEQIT,40 (rough contact). NSUBST,1,10,1
is also set in these cases.
Only requested results is output with OUTRES, not everything
by default
Results are later written to XML files in /POST1, which are then
read back into Simulation. Hence, Simulation does not directly
read the results from the .rst file

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-15
General Preprocessing Procedure
Stresses and Strains Training Manual

Safety Factors can be used to evaluate designs:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Because stress is a tensor, it is hard to evaluate
the response of the system by looking solely at
stress components
The Stress Tool allows the user to
have Simulation calculate scalar
results related to factors of safety
In the next slides, stress results will
be discussed, along with different
criteria of evaluating material response,
as available from the Stress Tool.
The Stress Tool branch controls
what theory will be used and what
type of stress limit will be used.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-16
General Preprocessing Procedure
Principal Stresses Training Manual

Principal Stresses and Strains:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


From basic mechanics review, the stress tensor can
be rotated such that only normal stresses appear.
These are the three principal stresses 1 < 2 < 3.
Principal values of stress and strain results can be requested.
The three principal values also have direction associated with
them, and a Vector Principal output can be selected.
Principal values can be exported to Excel with Euler angles
In the example shown on the right, one
can easily see the three principal
stresses (white=max, blue=min). From
this, one can see that the part is under-
going bending with one side in tension
and the other in compression.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-17
General Preprocessing Procedure
Principal Stresses Training Manual

Maximum Tensile Stress Theory:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The maximum tensile stress theory can be used for the
Stress Tool. It utilizes the maximum principal stress and is
generally suitable for brittle materials.
The criterion can be thought of as the following: t
Fsafety
where t is the ultimate (or yield) tensile strength 1
If plotted in two-dimensional principal stress space, the failure
surface results in a square as shown below. A stress state
lying inside the square is assumed to be fine but any stress
state lying on the edges of the square will fail. 2

The max tensile stress criterion, as its


t
name implies, only considers the tensile
behavior. For many brittle materials, the
compressive strength is much greater, 1
so this assumption may be valid. t

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-18
General Preprocessing Procedure
Principal Stresses Training Manual

Mohr-Coulomb Theory:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Mohr-Coulomb theory can be used for the Stress Tool.
It utilizes the maximum and minimum principal stresses and is
suitable for brittle materials.
1
The criterion is as follows: 1 3
where t and c are the ultimate (or yield) Fsafety
tensile and compressive strengths. t c
The failure surface is plotted in two-dimensional principal
stress space below. Unlike the maximum tensile stress theory,
the Mohr-Coulomb theory considers the 2
effects of the compressive strength.
t

c
1
t

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x c Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-19
General Preprocessing Procedure
Equivalent Stress Training Manual

Equivalent Stress:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The von Mises or equivalent stress e is defined as:

e
1
2

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2
This criterion is commonly used for ductile metals.
When uniaxial tensile tests of specimens are performed to
determine the yield strength and stress-strain relationships,
the engineer needs a way to relate the uniaxial data to the
stress state (tensor). Hence, the equivalent stress is a
commonly used scalar invariant for this purpose.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-20
General Preprocessing Procedure
Equivalent Stress Training Manual

Maximum Equivalent Stress Theory:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Maximum Equivalent Stress Theory can be used for the
Stress Tool. It compares the equivalent stress with the yield
(or ultimate) strength and is suitable for ductile materials.
The criterion is as follows: y
Fsafety
where y is the tensile yield (or ultimate) strength. e
The failure surface is plotted in two-dimensional principal
stress space below.
A stress state can be separated into hydrostatic and
2
distortional terms. The hydrostatic term
contributes to volume change but the
distortional term is associated with y
yielding. Hence, the maximum equivalent
stress criterion is also known as the y
1
distortion energy criterion. y

ANSYS License Availability y


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-21
General Preprocessing Procedure
Maximum Shear Stress Training Manual

Maximum Shear Stress:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The maximum shear stress max is defined as
1 3
max
2
which results in the largest principal shear stress
This value can be compared to the yield strength to predict
yielding for ductile materials

Stress Intensity:
The stress intensity is twice the value of the maximum shear
stress.
The stress intensity provides the value of the largest
difference between principal stresses

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-22
General Preprocessing Procedure
Maximum Shear Stress Training Manual

Maximum Shear Stress Theory:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Maximum Shear Stress Theory or the Tresca criterion can
be used for the Stress Tool. It is suitable for ductile
materials.
The criterion is as follows: f y
where y is the tensile yield (or ultimate) strength Fsafety
and f is a factor (default=0.5) max
The failure surface is plotted in two-dimensional principal
stress space below with the von Mises criterion superimposed
on in with a thin line. The two criteria are 2
quite similar, although the Tresca criterion
is slightly more conservative (maximum y
difference between the two does not
exceed 15%). y
1
y

ANSYS License Availability y


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A4-23
General Preprocessing Procedure
Results (ANSYS Details) Training Manual

Postprocessing calculations are performed in /POST1 after

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the solution as part of the ANSYS input file
All contour result plots in Simulation are the same as nodal
(averaged) solution with Full Graphics
Viewing Simulation contour plots would be similar to using
PLNSOL with /GRAPH,FULL commands in ANSYS
No plotting is actually done in input file this is to give an idea of
equivalent plotting commands in ANSYS
Reaction forces for supports as well as nodal result data is
sent to Simulation via XML files
XMLOPT and /XML commands are used
Contact (reaction) force calculations are performed by
selecting contact surfaces and performing FSUM about
centroid. This is repeated for target surfaces.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A4-24
Appendix Five

Modal Analysis
General Preprocessing Procedure
Basics of Free Vibration Analysis Training Manual

A free vibration analysis (a.k.a. modal or normal modes

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


analysis) is performed to obtain the natural frequencies and
mode shapes of a structure
Free Vibration analysis does not consider the response of the
structure under dynamic loads but just solves for the natural
frequencies. A free vibration analysis is usually the first step
before solving more complicated dynamic problems.

A free vibration analysis is a subset of the general equation


of motion:

M x C x K x F t
M x K x 0 March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A5-2
General Preprocessing Procedure
Basics of Free Vibration Analysis Training Manual

In free vibration analysis, the structure is assumed to be

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


linear, so the response is assumed to be harmonic:

x i cos it
where i is the mode shape (eigenvector) and i is the
natural circular frequency for mode i.
By substituting this value in the earlier equation, the
following is obtained:

M i cos i t K i cos i t 0
i
2

M K cos t 0
i
2
i i
Noting that the solution i =0 is trivial, i is solved for:

K M 0
i
2
i March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A5-3
General Preprocessing Procedure
Requesting Results Training Manual

The corresponding ANSYS commands for the Frequency

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Finder branch are as follows:
If Frequency Finder branch is present, ANTYPE,MODAL is set
The number of modes is set with the nmodes argument, and
the beginning and ending search frequencies are specified
with freqb and freqe of the MODOPT,,nmodes,freqb,freqe
command
All modes are expanded via the MXPAND command. To save
disk space and calculation times, the element solution option
of MXPAND is not turned on unless stress or strain results are
requested.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A5-4
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options Training Manual

For a regular modal analysis, none of the solution options

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


except for Solver Type have much effect
Large Deflection and Weak Springs are meant for static
analysis cases and should not be changed.
Solver Type can be set to Direct or Iterative
Program Controlled or Direct result in the Block Lanczos
eigenvalue extraction method with the sparse direct equation
solver (MODOPT,LANB and EQSLV,SPARSE). This is the most
robust eigensolver, as it handles small & large models and beam,
shell, or solid meshes, so it is the default option.
Iterative results in the PowerDynamics solution method, which is
a combination of the subspace eigenvalue extraction method with
the PCG equation solver (MODOPT,SUBSP and EQSLV,PCG). The
PowerDynamics eigensolver can be efficient for large models of
solid elements, when requesting only a few modes.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A5-5
General Preprocessing Procedure
Prestressed Modal Analysis Training Manual

For prestressed modal analysis, Simulation performs the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


two necessary iterations internally:
A linear static analysis with PSTRES,ON is run
A modal analysis is then run right afterwards with PSTRES,ON
to consider prestress effects

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A5-6
General Preprocessing Procedure
Prestressed Modal Analysis Training Manual

Other items useful for ANSYS users to keep in mind:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


No large-deflection prestress effects are currently supported
in Simulation, so enabling the Large Deflection: On in the
Solution branch is not permitted.
The equation solver for the static analysis and the eigensolver
for the modal analysis currently cannot be independently set.
Both will be affected by the Solver Type setting in the
Solution branch.
If a Point Mass is present, rigid-body modes may be
introduced in a prestressed modal analysis. This is due to the
fact that the RBE3-type of surface constraint defined with
CONTA174 and TARGE170 introduce 6 DOF but the MASS21
element has no rotary inertial terms (3 DOF).
The user can usually ignore these rigid-body modes, as they are
associated with the MASS21 elements (verify by checking
displacement scale of these mode shapes).
No such problems exist for a regular modal with Point Masses.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A5-7
Appendix Six

Thermal Analysis
General Preprocessing Procedure
Basics of Steady-State Heat Transfer Training Manual

A steady-state thermal analysis is performed to determine

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


the thermal response under applied steady-state loads
Temperatures and heat flow rate are usually the items of
interest, although heat fluxes can be reported as well.

The general thermal equation is as follows:

C T T K T T Qt , T
where t is time and {T} is temperature, [C] is the specific
heat (thermal capacitance) matrix, [K] is the conductivity
matrix, and {Q} is the heat flow rate load vector.
In a steady-state analysis, all time-dependent terms are
removed. However, nonlinearities can be present:

K T T QT March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A6-2
General Preprocessing Procedure
Elements Used Training Manual

In Simulation, the following elements are used:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Solid bodies are meshed with 10-node tetrahedral or 20-node
hexahedral elements
SOLID87 and SOLID90
Surface bodies are meshed with 4-node quad shell elements
SHELL57 using real constants
(SHELL131 or SHELL132 are currently not used.)
Line bodies are meshed with 2-node line elements
LINK33 using real constants
An equivalent cross-sectional area, as defined in DesignModeler, is
used for LINK33

For thermal-stress analyses, a coupled-field element is not


used. The thermal-stress analysis is performed sequentially,
so the above thermal elements are used, then the temperature
field is read into corresponding structural elements.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-3
General Preprocessing Procedure
Material Properties Training Manual

Thermal conductivity is input into ANSYS as MP

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


commands.
For temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, the
appropriate MPTEMP and MPDATA commands are issued

Although specific heat may be defined in the Engineering


Data branch, it is currently unused and not passed to
ANSYS
MP,C commands are not written for specific heat

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-4
General Preprocessing Procedure
Assemblies Solid Body Contact Training Manual

Internally, thermal contact for solid faces is defined with

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


CONTA174 and TARGE170 elements.
KEYOPT(1)=2 set for thermal DOF only
KEYOPT(12) is based on contact type used
For example, bonded type is KEYOPT(12)=5. KEYOPT(2),
KEYOPT(5), KEYOPT(9), and FKN are also set. These contact
settings are most critical for structural contact, so the various
default settings are outlined in Chapter 4.
Default thermal contact conductance (TCC) is based on
highest value of thermal conductivity of materials and overall
geometry size
TCC=KXX*10,000/ASMDIAG
KXX is of highest thermal conductivity value of used materials
ASMDIAG is diagonal of overall bounding box of assembly
TCC is not used for MPC (KEYOPT(2)=2 on CONTA174)
If Normal Lagrange formulation is set, KEYOPT(2) reset to 0.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-5
General Preprocessing Procedure
Assemblies Surface Body Contact Training Manual

Internally, any contact including an edge (solid body edge

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


or surface edge) results in asymmetric contact with
CONTA175 for the edge and TARGE170 for the edge/face
Undocumented KEYOPT(1)=2 is set for thermal contact
Contact involving solid edges default to pure penalty method
Contact involving surface edges use MPC formulation. Instead of
target normal, if search direction is pinball region,
KEYOPT(5)=4 set on companion TARGE170 element.
For bonded contact (default), both
use KEYOPT(12)=5 and
CONTA175 elements
KEYOPT(9)=1.

For surface faces in contact with


other faces, standard surface-to-
surface contact is used, namely
CONTA174 and TARGE170 TARGE170 elements

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-6
General Preprocessing Procedure
Assemblies Spot Weld Training Manual

Internally, spot welds are defined as a set of LINK33

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


elements. The spot weld is defined with one link element,
and the top and bottom of the spot weld is connected to the
shell or solid elements with a spider web of multiple links.
The LINK33 elements use
same thermal conductivity
as underlying materials but
with a circular cross-section
with radius=5*thickness of
underlying shells
Figure on right shows two
spot welds between two sets
of shell elements, which are
made translucent for clarity.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-7
General Preprocessing Procedure
Thermal Loads in ANSYS Training Manual

The internal representation of loads in ANSYS:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Heat flow for an edge or vertex is a heat flow rate (F,,HEAT)
Heat flux or heat flow for a surface is surface load (SF,,HFLUX)
Internal heat generation is applied as a body load (BFE,,HGEN)
Given temperature is applied as a constraint (D,,TEMP)
Perfectly insulated condition internally removes any loads
applied in Simulation on those surface(s).
Convection is defined by surface effect SURF152 elements
Bulk temperature and film coefficient is applied on the surface
effect elements (SF,,CONV,film,bulk)
If temperature-dependent film coefficients exist, these are defined
with a temperature-dependent HF material property (MPDATA,HF).
The film coefficient value applied will be HF_number, and
ANSYS knows to use the referenced HF material property number.
KEYOPT(8) is set to be consistent with temperature evaluation of
h(T), such as evaluate h(T) based on surface temperature.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-8
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options in ANSYS Training Manual

The solver selection for direct vs. iterative:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The solvers used are either the direct sparse solver
(EQSLV,SPARSE) or the PCG solver (EQSLV,PCG)
The JCG solver is not used in thermal analyses
A simplified discussion between the two solvers:
If given the linear static case of [K]{x} = {F}, Direct solvers factorize [K] to
solve for [K]-1. Then, {x} = [K]-1{F}.
This factorization is computationally expensive but is done once.
Iterative solvers use a preconditioner [Q] to solve the equation [Q][K]{x} =
[Q]{F}. Assume that [Q] = [K]-1. In this trivial case, [I]{x} = [K]-1{F}. However,
the preconditioner is not usually [K]-1. The closer [Q] is to [K]-1, the better the
preconditioning is, and this process is repeated - hence the name, iterative
solver.
For iterative solvers, matrix multiplication (not factorization) is performed. This is
much faster than matrix inversion if done entirely in RAM, so, as long as the number
of iterations is not very high (which happens for well-conditioned matrices), iterative
solvers can be more efficient than sparse solvers.
The main difference between the iterative solvers in ANSYS PCG, JCG, ICCG is
the type of pre-conditioner used.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-9
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options in ANSYS Training Manual

Solver working directory:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The ANSYS input file is written as ds.dat in the solver
directory. The output file is solve.out and can be viewed in
the Worksheet tab of the Solution Information branch.
ANSYS is executed in batch mode (-b) as a separate process.
During solution, the results file .rth is written. The results are
also read in and XML results files are generated in batch
mode. The XML files are then read into Simulation.
All associated ANSYS files have default jobname of file and
are deleted after solution, unless changed in Tools >
Options > Simulation: Solution > Save Ansys Files.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-10
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options in ANSYS Training Manual

Some solution options are also defined:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Solution control is used
This is different from structural analyses in Simulation where
Solution Control is turned off
ANSYS shape checking is turned off (SHPP,OFF)
If nonlinear, the number of substeps (NSUBST,1,10,1) and
number of equilibrium iterations (NEQIT,20) are defined
CNVTOL also set, where minimum reference heat flow rate is
defined as 1e-6 W
Only Simulation-supported results is output with OUTRES, not
everything by default
Results are later written to XML files in /POST1, which are then
read back into Simulation. Hence, Simulation does not directly
read the results from the .rth file

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A6-11
Appendix Seven

Linear Buckling Analysis


General Preprocessing Procedure
A. Basics of Linear Buckling Training Manual

The idea behind performing linear buckling is that a

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


bifurcation point is sought. The bifurcation point is where
two configurations the initial geometry and a buckled
mode are both possible, signifying the onset of buckling.
A linear static analysis can include the stress stiffness matrix
[S], which is a function of the stress state:

K S x F
If we consider the analysis to be linear, we can multiply the
load and the stress state by a constant :

K S x F
In a buckling mode, displacements can be large (x+) without
an increase in load, so the following is also true:

K S x F March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A7-2
General Preprocessing Procedure
Basics of Linear Buckling Training Manual

If the last two equations are subtracted from each other, the

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


following is the result:

K S 0
The above equation is what is solved for during a linear
buckling analysis.
The buckling load multiplier is multiplied to the applied loads to
get the critical load for buckling
The buckling mode shape expresses the shape of buckling.
However, the magnitude is not known since is indeterminate.
There are actually many buckling load multipliers and modes,
although the user is usually interested in the first few modes since
these would occur before any higher buckling modes.
Note the similarity of linear buckling equation with the free
vibration equation (Chapter 5). Both are known as eigenvalue
problems which are solved for with similar matrix methods.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A7-3
General Preprocessing Procedure
Basics of Linear Buckling Training Manual

For a linear buckling analysis, two solutions are

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


automatically performed internally:
A linear static analysis is performed first:

K xo F
Based on the stress state from the static analysis, a stress
stiffness matrix [S] is calculated:

o S
The aforementioned eigenvalue problem is then solved to get
the buckling load multiplier i and buckling modes i:

K i S i 0
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A7-4
General Preprocessing Procedure
Requesting Results Training Manual

The corresponding ANSYS commands for the Buckling tool

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


are as follows:
A static analysis with PSTRES,ON is performed first
A buckling analysis (ANTYPE,1) is then run with PSTRES,ON
The buckling modes is set with BUCOPT,LANB,nmodes
The eigenvalue extraction method is always set to Block Lanczos,
regardless of the Solver Type setting in the Solutions branch
Output requests are limited to what is requested
If any stress or strain results are requested for any modes, the
stress results are expanded with MXPAND,,,,YES. Otherwise,
MXPAND is not used.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A7-5
General Preprocessing Procedure
Solution Options Training Manual

For a linear buckling analysis, none of the solution options

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


have effect. These affect the initial static analysis only.
Solver Type can be set to Direct or Iterative, but it only
sets the equation solver for the static analysis (EQSLV), not
the buckling eigenvalue extraction method (BUCOPT)
Weak Springs are meant for the initial static analysis
One can use weak spring option to automatically add COMBIN14
elements for the initial static analysis, but keep in mind that these
elements will also be present for the buckling analysis.
Large Deflection is not supported for a linear buckling
analysis

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A7-6
Appendix Ten

Harmonic Analysis
General Preprocessing Procedure
Background on Harmonic Analysis Training Manual

Separation of real and imaginary terms can be performed

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


for not just the force loading but also the response:
F F1 jF2 e jt
x x1 jx2 e jt
x jx1 jx2 e jt
x 2 x1 jx2 e jt
If the harmonic loading and response are substituted back
in the equation of motion, the following is obtained:
M x C x K x F
2 M jC K x1 jx2 e jt F1 jF2 e jt
2 M jC K x1 jx2 F1 jF2 March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A10-2
General Preprocessing Procedure
Loads and Supports (ANSYS) Training Manual

Internally, loads are applied slightly differently than in an

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


equivalent static analysis:
Forces on vertices and edges are applied as real & imaginary
nodal loads via F,,FX/FY/FZ,REAL,IMAG
Pressures and Forces on surfaces are applied on surface
effect elements SURF154 with KEYOPT(11)=2
For Pressure Load, input is via SF,,PRES,REAL,IMAG
For Force Load on surface, input via SFE,,5,PRES,0 for real and
SFE,,5,PRES,2 for imaginary components
Given Displacement Support is via D,,UX/UY/UZ,REAL,IMAG
Acceleration, Bearing, and Moment Loads are used as normal:
Bearing loads are applied as SFE on face 5 of SURF154. Two sets
are created for axial and radial components of bearing load: Axial
uses KEYOPT(11)=2, Radial uses KEYOPT(11)=0
Moments on vertices or edges of shells are applied as nodal loads
via F,,MX/MY/MZ while moments on surfaces are applied via
CONTA174 surface-based constraint (see Ch. 4) March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A10-3
General Preprocessing Procedure
Mode Superposition Method Training Manual

The previous two equations can be combined and pre-

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


multiplied by the mode shape {i}T:

i T 2 M jC K y1i jy2i i i T F1 jF2


Although outside of the scope of the discussion, the above
equation reduces to the following:

2

2 i i j i2 y1i jy2i i F1 jF2
T

The resulting equation is uncoupled and is easier to solve


The total degrees of freedom are not dictated by the number of
nodes in the mesh. Instead, it is determined by the number of
modes n used in the equation.
The equation is simplified because of the following properties:
Normalization of [M]: i T M i 1
Natural frequency i for mode i: i K i i2
T

ANSYS License Availability
Damping ratio i for mode i: i T C i 2 i i
DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A10-4
General Preprocessing Procedure
Mode Superposition (ANSYS) Training Manual

The ANSYS mode superposition method is run internally:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A modal analysis is run first with Block Lanczos eigenvalue
extraction method (MODOPT,LANB,200,FREQB/2,2*FREQE)
A maximum of 200 modes between of the beginning frequency
FREQB to 2 times the ending frequency FREQE is solved for
A load vector is automatically created at this time
A harmonic analysis using mode superposition method
(HROPT,MSUP) is then performed
Frequency range specified with HARFRQ,FREQB,FREQE
If clustering is requested, HROUT,,ON is issued
All loads are step-applied in the frequency range (KBC,1)
Number of intervals (or cluster number) specified with NSUBST
Load vector of 1.0 is issued with LVSCALE,1
OUTRES with nodal and element components used
An expansion pass is also performed for contour results
EXPASS,ON and HREXP,ALL are used March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A10-5
General Preprocessing Procedure
Full Method (ANSYS) Training Manual

Internally, the Full method is used in ANSYS:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Frequency range specified with HARFRQ,FREQB,FREQE
HROPT,FULL is used
Number of intervals specified with NSUBST
Loads are step applied in frequency range with KBC,1
The equation solver is the default sparse solver. The Details
view of the Solution branch has no effect on full harmonic
analyses, as no solver command (EQSLV) is issued
OUTRES with nodal and element components used

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A10-6
Appendix Twelve

Fatigue Module
Fatigue Module
Chapter Overview Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In this chapter, the use of the Fatigue Module add-on will be
covered:
It is assumed that the user has already covered Chapter 4
Linear Static Structural Analysis prior to this chapter.

The following will be covered in this section:


Fatigue Overview
General Fatigue Procedure for Constant Amplitude,
Proportional Loading Case
Variable Amplitude, Proportional Loading
Constant Amplitude, Non-Proportional Loading

The capabilities described in this section are applicable to


ANSYS DesignSpace licenses and above with the Fatigue
Module add-on license.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-2
Fatigue Module
A. Fatigue Overview Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


A common cause of structural failure is fatigue, which is
damage associated with repeated loading
Fatigue is generally divided into two categories:
High-cycle fatigue is when the number of cycles (repetition) of
the load is high (e.g., 1e4 - 1e9). Because of this, the stresses
are usually low compared with the materials ultimate strength.
Stress-based approaches are used for high-cycle fatigue.
Low-cycle fatigue occurs when the number of cycles is
relatively low. Plastic deformation often accompanies low-
cycle fatigue, which explains the short fatigue life. Generally
speaking, strain-based approaches should be used for low-
cycle fatigue evaluation.

In Simulation, the Fatigue Module add-on license utilizes a


stress-based approach and is suitable for high-cycle
fatigue. Some pertinent aspects of the stress-based
approach will be discussed next. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-3
Fatigue Module
B. Constant Amplitude Loading Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


As noted earlier, fatigue is due to repetitive loading:
When minimum and maximum
stress levels are constant, this is
referred to as constant amplitude
loading. This is a much more
simple case and will be
discussed first.

Otherwise, the loading is known


as variable amplitude or non-
constant amplitude and requires
special treatment (discussed
later in Section C of this chapter).

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-4
Fatigue Module
C. Proportional Loading Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The loading may be proportional or non-proportional:
Proportional loading means that the ratio
of the principal stresses is constant, and
2
the principal stress axes do not change constant
over time. This essentially means that the 1
response with an increase or reversal of
load can easily be calculated.
Conversely, non-proportional
loading means that there is no
implied relationship between
the stress components. Typical
cases include the following:
Alternating between two different
load cases
An alternating load superimposed
on a static load
Nonlinear boundary conditions
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-5
Fatigue Module
D. Stress Definitions Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Consider the case of constant amplitude, proportional
loading, with min and max stress values min and max:
The stress range is defined as (max- min)
The mean stress m is defined as (max+ min)/2
The stress amplitude or alternating stress a is /2
The stress ratio R is min/max
Fully-reversed loading occurs when an equal and opposite
load is applied. This is a case of m = 0 and R = -1.
Zero-based loading occurs when a load is applied and
removed. This is a case of m = max/2 and R = 0.

max

min

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-6
Fatigue Module
E. Stress-Life Curves Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The relationship of loading to fatigue failure is captured
with a stress-life or S-N curve:
If a component is subjected to a cyclic loading, the component
may fail after a certain number of cycles because cracks or
other damage will develop
If the same component is subjected to a higher load, the
number of cycles to failure will be less
The stress-life curve or S-N curve shows the relationship of
stress amplitude to cycles to failure
Linear Plot Logarithmic Plot

March 29, 2005


The same data is shown here with both a linear and logarithmic plot. Because of the
Inventory #002215
nature of the data, it is often easier to use a logarithmic plot to view the S-N curve. A12-7
Fatigue Module
Stress-Life Curves Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The S-N curve is produced by performing fatigue testing on
a specimen
Bending or axial tests reflect a uniaxial state of stress

There are many factors affecting the S-N curve, some of


which are noted below:
Ductility of material, material processing
Geometry, including surface finish, residual stresses, and
existence of stress-raisers
Loading environment, including mean stress, temperature, and
chemical environment
For example, compressive mean stresses provide longer fatigue
lives than zero mean stress. Conversely, tensile mean stresses
result in shorter fatigue lives than zero mean stress.
The effect of mean stress raises or lowers the S-N curve for
compressive and tensile mean stresses, respectively.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-8
Fatigue Module
Stress-Life Curves Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Consequently, it is important to keep in mind the following:
A component usually experiences a multiaxial state of stress.
If the fatigue data (S-N curve) is from a test reflecting a
uniaxial state of stress, care must be taken in evaluating life
Simulation provides the user with a choice of how to relate results
with S-N curves, including multiaxial stress correction
Stress Biaxiality results aid in evaluating results at given locations
Mean stress affects fatigue life and is reflected in the shifting
of the S-N curve up or down (longer or shorter life at a given
stress amplitude)
Simulation allows for input of multiple S-N curves (experimental
data) for different mean stress or stress ratio values
Simulation also allows for different mean stress correction
theories if multiple S-N curves (experimental data) are not available
Other factors mentioned earlier which affect fatigue life can be
accounted for with a correction factor in Simulation
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-9
Fatigue Module
Summary Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Fatigue Module add-on allows users to perform stress-
based approach for high-cycle fatigue.
The following cases are handled by the Fatigue Module:
Constant amplitude, proportional loading (Section B)
Variable amplitude, proportional loading (Section C)
Constant amplitude, non-proportional loading (Section D)

The required input data is the material S-N curve:


The S-N curve is from a fatigue test and may be uniaxial in
nature while the actual component being analyzed may be in a
multiaxial state of stress
S-N curves are dependent on a number of factors, including
the mean stress. S-N curves at different mean stress values
can be input directly, or mean stress correction theories can
be implemented.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-10
Fatigue Module
F. Fatigue Procedure (Basic Case) Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Performing a fatigue analysis is based on a linear static
analysis, so not all steps will be covered in detail.
Fatigue analysis is automatically performed by Simulation
after a linear static solution.
It does not matter whether the Fatigue Tool is added prior to or
after a solution since fatigue calculations are performed
independently of the stress analysis calculations.
Although fatigue is related to cyclic or repetitive loading, the
results used are based on linear static, not harmonic analysis.
Also, although nonlinearities may be present in the model, this
must be handled with caution because a fatigue analysis assumes
linear behavior.
In this section, the case of constant amplitude, proportional
loading will be covered. Variable amplitude, proportional
loading and constant amplitude, non-proportional loading will
be covered later in Sections C and D, respectively.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-11
Fatigue Module
Fatigue Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Steps in yellow italics are specific to a stress analysis with
the inclusion of the Fatigue Tool:
Attach Geometry
Assign Material Properties, including S-N Curves
Define Contact Regions (if applicable)
Define Mesh Controls (optional)
Include Loads and Supports
Request Results, including the Fatigue Tool
Solve the Model
Review Results

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-12
Fatigue Module
Geometry Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Fatigue calculations support solid and surface bodies only
Line bodies currently do not output stress results, so line
bodies are ignored for fatigue calculations.
Line bodies can still be included in the model to provide
stiffness to the structure, although fatigue calculations will not
be performed on line bodies

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-13
Fatigue Module
Fatigue Material Properties Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


As with a linear static analysis, Youngs Modulus and
Poissons Ratio are required material properties
If inertial loads are present, mass density is required
If thermal loads are present, thermal expansion coefficient and
thermal conductivity are required
If a Stress Tool result is used, Stress Limits data is needed.
This data is also used for fatigue for mean stress correction.

The Fatigue Module also requires S-N curve data in the


material properties of the Engineering Data
The type of data is specified under Life Data (see next page)
The S-N curve data is input in Alternating Stress vs. Cycles
If S-N curve material data is available for different mean stresses
or stress ratios, these multiple S-N curves may also be input

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-14
Fatigue Module
Fatigue Material Properties Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


To add or modify fatigue material properties:

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-15
Fatigue Module
Fatigue Material Properties Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


From the Engineering Data tab, the type of display and
input of S-N curves can be specified
The Interpolation scheme can be Linear, Semi-Log (linear
for stress, log for cycles) or Log-Log

Recall that S-N curves are dependent on mean stress. If S-N


curves are available at different mean stresses, these multiple
S-N curves can be input
Each S-N curve at different mean stresses can be input directly
Each S-N curve at different stress ratios (R) can input instead

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-16
Fatigue Module
Fatigue Material Properties Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Multiple S-N curves may be added by right clicking in the
Mean Value field and adding new mean values.
Each new mean value will have its own alternating stress table

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-17
Fatigue Module
Fatigue Material Properties Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Material property information can be stored or retrieved
from an XML file
To save material data to file, right-click on material branch and
use Export to save to an external XML file
Fatigue material properties will automatically be written to the
XML file, along with all other material data

Some sample material property is available in the


Simulation installation directory:
C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v81\AISOL\CommonFiles\Language\en-us\EngineeringData\Materials

Aluminum and Structural Steel XML files contain sample


fatigue data which can be used as a reference
Fatigue data varies by material and by test, so it is important
that the user use fatigue data representative of his/her parts

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-18
Fatigue Module
Contact Regions Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Contact regions may be included in fatigue analyses
Note that only linear contact Bonded and No-Separation
should be included when dealing with fatigue for constant
amplitude, proportional loading cases
Although nonlinear contact Frictionless, Frictional, and
Rough can be included, this may no longer satisfy the
proportional loading requirement.
For example, changing the direction or magnitude of loading may
cause principal stress axes to change if separation can occur.
The user must use care and his/her own judgement if nonlinear
contact is present
For nonlinear contact, the method for constant amplitude, non-
proportional loading (Section D) may be used instead to evaluate
fatigue life

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-19
Fatigue Module
Loads and Supports Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Any load and support that results in proportional loading
may be used. Some types of loads and supports do not
result in proportional loading, however:
Bolt Load applies a distributed force on the compressive side
of the cylindrical surface. In reverse, the loading should
change to the reverse side of the cylinder (although it doesnt).
Pretension Bolt Load applies a preload first then external
loads, so it is a two-load step process.
Compression Only Support prevents movement in the
compressive normal direction only but does not restrain
movement in the opposite direction.

These type of loads should not be used for fatigue


calculations for constant amplitude, proportional loading

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-20
Fatigue Module
Request Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Any type of result for stress analysis may be requested:
Stresses, strains, and deformation
Contact Tool results (if supported by license)
Stress Tool may also be requested

Additionally, to perform fatigue calculations, the Fatigue


Tool needs to be inserted
Under the Solution branch, add Tools > Fatigue Tool from
the Context toolbar
The Details view of the Fatigue Tool control solution options for
fatigue calculations
A Fatigue Tool branch will appear, and fatigue contour or
graph results may be added
These are various fatigue results, such as life and damage, which
can be requested

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-21
Fatigue Module
Request Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


After the fatigue calculation has been specified, fatigue
results may be requested under the Fatigue Tool
Contour results include Life, Damage, Safety
Factor, Biaxiality Indication, and Equivalent
Alternating Stress

Graph results only involve Fatigue Sensitivity for


constant amplitude analyses

Details of these results will be discussed shortly

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-22
Fatigue Module
Loading Type Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


After the Fatigue Tool is inserted under the Solution branch,
fatigue specifications may be input in Details view
The Type of loading may be specified between Zero-Based,
Fully Reversed, and a given Ratio
A scale factor may also be input to scale all stress results
From Section A, recall that Ratio=0 is
the same as Zero-Based loading
and Ratio=-1 is equivalent to Fully
Reversed loading.
The type of loading specifies the min
and max amplitudes.
The History Data loading type will
be discussed in Section C, as it is
variable amplitude loading.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-23
Fatigue Module
Mean Stress Effects Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Recall that mean stresses affects the S-N curve. Analysis
Type specifies the treatment of mean stresses:
SN-None ignores mean stress effects
SN-Mean Stress Curves uses multiple S-N curves, if defined
SN-Goodman, SN-Soderberg, and SN-Gerber are mean
stress correction theories that can be used

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-24
Fatigue Module
Mean Stress Effects Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


It is advisable to use multiple S-N curves if the test data is
available (SN-Mean Stress Curves)
However, if multiple S-N curves are not available, one can
choose from three mean stress correction theories. The idea
here is that the single S-N curve defined will be shifted to
account for mean stress effects:
1. For a given number of cycles to failure, as the mean stress
increases, the stress amplitude should decrease
2. As the stress amplitude goes to zero, the mean stress should go
towards the ultimate (or yield) strength
3. Although compressive mean stress usually provide benefit, it is
conservative to assume that they do not (scaling=1=constant)
One can consider this graph to be a
multiplier to the single defined S-N
3 curve. The horizontal line is 1.0, but for
tensile mean stresses, the defined S-N
1 curve will shift down.

2 March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-25
Fatigue Module
Mean Stress Effects Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Goodman theory is suitable for
low-ductility metals. No correction is
done for compressive mean stresses.

The Soderberg theory tends to be more


conservative than Goodman and is
sometimes used for brittle materials.

The Gerber theory provides good fit


for ductile metals for tensile mean
stresses, although it incorrectly predicts
a harmful effect of compressive mean
stresses, as shown on the left side of the graph
The default mean stress correction theory can be changed from
Tools menu > Options > Simulation: Fatigue > Analysis Type
If multiple S-N curves exist but the user wishes to use a mean
stress correction theory, the S-N curve at m=0 or R=-1 will be
used. As noted earlier, this, however, is not recommended. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-26
Fatigue Module
Strength Factor Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Besides mean stress effects, there are other factors which
may affect the S-N curve
These other factors can be lumped together into the Fatigue
Strength [Reduction] Factor Kf, the value of which can be input
in the Details view of the Fatigue Tool
This value should be less than 1 to account for differences
between the actual part and the test specimen.
The calculated alternating stresses will be divided by this
modification factor Kf, but the mean stresses will remain
untouched.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-27
Fatigue Module
Stress Component Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


It was noted in Section A that fatigue testing is usually
performed on uniaxial states of stress
There must be some type of conversion of multiaxial state
of stress to a single, scalar value in order to determine the
cycles of failure for a stress amplitude (S-N curve)
The Stress Component item in the Details view of the
Fatigue Tool allows users to specify how stress results are
compared to the fatigue S-N curve
Any of the 6 components or max shear, max
principal stress, or equivalent stress may
also be used. A signed equivalent stress
takes the sign of the largest absolute
principal stress in order to account for
compressive mean stresses.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-28
Fatigue Module
Solving Fatigue Analyses Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Fatigue calculations are automatically done after the stress
analysis is performed. Fatigue calculations for constant
amplitude cases usually should be very quick compared
with the stress analysis calculations
If a stress analysis has already been performed, simply
select the Solution or Fatigue Tool branch and click on the
Solve icon to initiate fatigue calculations
There will be no output shown in the Worksheet tab of the
Solution branch.
Fatigue calculations are done within Workbench. The ANSYS
solver is not executed for the fatigue portion of an analysis.
The Fatigue Module does not use the ANSYS /POST1 fatigue
commands (FSxxxx, FTxxxx)

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-29
Fatigue Module
Reviewing Fatigue Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


There are several types of Fatigue results available for
constant amplitude, proportional loading cases:
Life
Contour results showing the number of
cycles until failure due to fatigue
If the alternating stress is lower than the
lowest alternating stress defined in the
S-N curves, that life (cycles) will be used
(in this example, max cycles to failure in
S-N curve is 1e6, so that is max life shown)
LifeDesign
Damage Damage
Life Available
Ratio of design life to available life
Design life is specified in Details view
Default value for design life can be
specified under Tools menu > Options
> Simulation: Fatigue > Design Life

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-30
Fatigue Module
Reviewing Fatigue Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Safety Factor @designlife
FS
@location
Contour result of factor of safety with
respect to failure at a given design life
Design life value input in Details view
Maximum reported SF value is 15

Biaxiality Indication B
i
Stress biaxiality contour plot helps to j
determine the state of stress at a location
Biaxiality indication is the ratio of the
smaller to larger principal stress (with
principal stress nearest to 0 ignored).
Hence, locations of uniaxial stress report 0,
pure shear report -1, and biaxial reports 1.
Recall that usually fatigue test data is reflective of a test specimen under
uniaxial stress (although torsional tests would be in pure shear).
The biaxiality indication helps to determine if a location of interest is in a
stress state similar to testing conditions. In this example, the location of March 29, 2005
interest (center) has a value of -1, so it is predominantly in shear. Inventory #002215
A12-31
Fatigue Module
Reviewing Fatigue Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Equivalent Alternating Stress
Contour plot of equivalent alternating stress
over the model. This is the stress used to
query the S-N curve after accounting for
loading type and mean stress effects, based
on the selected type of stress

Fatigue Sensitivity:
A fatigue sensitivity chart displays how life,
damage, or safety factor at the critical
location varies with respect to load
Load variation limits can be input (including
negative percentages)
Defaults for chart options available under
Tools menu > Options Simulation:
Fatigue > Sensitivity

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-32
Fatigue Module
Reviewing Fatigue Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Any of the fatigue items may be scoped to selected parts
and/or surfaces
Convergence may be used with contour results
Convergence and alerts not available with Fatigue Sensitivity
plots since these plots provide sensitivity information with
respect to loading (i.e., no scalar item can be referenced for
convergence purposes).

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-33
Fatigue Module
Reviewing Fatigue Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The fatigue tool may also be used in conjunction with a
Solution Combination branch
In the solution combination branch, multiple environments
may be combined. Fatigue calculations will be based on the
results of the linear combination of different environments.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-34
Fatigue Module
Summary Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Summary of steps in fatigue analysis:

Set up a stress analysis (linear, Define fatigue material properties, Specify loading type and
proportional loading) including S-N curve(s) treatment of mean stress effects

Solve and postprocess fatigue March 29, 2005


results Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Solid Edge part. A12-35
Fatigue Module
G. Fatigue: Variable Amplitude Case Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In the previous section, constant amplitude, proportional
loading was considered. This involved cyclic or repetitive
loading where the maximum and minimum amplitudes
remained constant.
In this section, variable amplitude, proportional loading
cases will be covered. Although loading is still
proportional, the stress amplitude and mean stress varies
over time.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-36
Fatigue Module
Irregular Load History and Cycles Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


For an irregular load history, special treatment is required:
Cycle counting for irregular load histories is done with a
method called rainflow cycle counting
Rainflow cycle counting is a technique
developed to convert an irregular stress
history (sample shown on right) to time

cycles used for fatigue calculations


Cycles of different mean stress (mean)
and stress amplitude (range) are counted. Then, fatigue
calculations are performed using this set of rainflow cycles.
Damage summation is performed via the Palmgren-Miner rule
The idea behind the Palmgren-Miner rule is that each
cycle at a given mean stress and stress amplitude Ni
uses up a fraction of the available life. For cycles Ni at
a given stress amplitude, with the cycles to failure Nfi,
N 1
fi
failure is expected when life is used up.
Both rainflow cycle counting and Palmgren-Miner damage
summation are used for variable amplitude cases. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
Detailed discussion of rainflow and Miners rule is beyond the scope of this course. Consult any fatigue textbook for details. A12-37
Fatigue Module
Irregular Load History and Cycles Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Hence, any arbitrary load history can be
divided into a matrix (bins) of different
cycles of various mean and range values
Shown on right is the rainflow matrix,
indicating for each value of mean and range
how many cycles have been counted
Higher values indicate that more of those
cycles are present in load history

After a fatigue analysis is performed, the


amount of damage each bin (cycle) caused
can be plotted
For each bin from the rainflow matrix, the
amount of life used up is shown (percentage)
In this example, even though low range/mean
cycles occur most frequently, the high range
values cause the most damage.
Per Miners rule, if the damage sums to 1 March 29, 2005
(100%), failure will occur. Inventory #002215
A12-38
Fatigue Module
Variable Amplitude Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Summary of steps for variable amplitude case:

Set up a stress analysis (linear, Define fatigue material properties, Specify loading history data and
proportional loading) including S-N curve(s) treatment of mean stress effects

Specify number of bins for Solve and review fatigue results, (e.g., damage matrix, damage contour, March 29, 2005
rainflow cycle counting life contour, etc.) Inventory #002215
A12-39
Fatigue Module
Variable Amplitude Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The procedure for setting up a fatigue analysis for the
variable amplitude, proportional loading case is very similar
to Section B, with two exceptions:
Specification of the loading type is different with variable
amplitude
Reviewing fatigue results include verifying the rainflow and
damage matrices

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-40
Fatigue Module
Specifying Load Type Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In the Details view of the Fatigue Tool branch, the load
Type will be History Data
An external file can then be specified under History Data
Location. This text file should contain points of the loading
history for one set of cycles (or period)
Since the values in the history data text file represent
multipliers on load, the Scale Factor can also be used to
scale the loading accordingly.
After specifying the external text file which
contains points of loading, its plot will be
displayed on the Worksheet tab.
Note that once the text file is read in, the
values are stored in Simulation. The data is
not dynamic (i.e., changing values in the
text file require re-reading them into
Simulation).
Sample history load data can be found in
the installation directory:
C:\Program Files\Ansys
Inc\v81\AISOL\CommonFiles\Language
\en-us\EngineeringData\Load
Histories

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-41
Fatigue Module
Specifying Infinite Life Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In constant amplitude loading, if stresses are lower than the
lowest limit defined on the S-N curve, recall that the last-
defined cycle will be used. However, in variable amplitude
loading, the load history will be divided into bins of various
mean stresses and stress amplitudes. Since damage is
cumulative, these small stresses may cause some
considerable effects, even if the number of cycles is high.
Hence, an Infinite Life value can also be input in the Details
view of the Fatigue Tool to define what value of number of
cycles will be used if the stress amplitude is lower than the
lowest point on the S-N curve.
Recall that damage is defined as the ratio of cycles/(cycles to
failure), so for small stresses with no number of cycles to failure
on the S-N curve, the Infinite Life provides this value.
By setting a larger value for Infinite Life, the effect of the cycles
with small stress amplitude (Range) will be less damaging since
the damage ratio will be smaller.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-42
Fatigue Module
Specifying Bin Size Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Bin Size can also be specified in the Details view of the
Fatigue Tool for the load history
The size of the rainflow matrix will be bin_size x bin_size.
The larger the bin size, the bigger the sorting matrix, so the mean
and range can be more accurately accounted for. Otherwise, more
cycles will be put together in a given bin (see graph on bottom).
However, the larger the bin size, the more memory and CPU cost
will be required for the fatigue analysis.
Bin Size=10 Bin Size=32 Bin Size=64

The bin size can range from 10 to 200. The default value is
32, and it can be changed in the Control Panel. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-43
Fatigue Module
Specifying Bin Size Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


As a side note, one can view that a single sawtooth or sine
wave for the load history data will produce similar results to
the constant amplitude case covered in Section B.
Note that such a load history will produce 1 count of the same
mean stress and stress amplitude as the constant amplitude case.
The results may differ slightly than the constant amplitude case,
depending on the bin size, since the way in which the range is
evenly divided may not correspond to the exact values, so it is
recommended to use the constant amplitude method if it applies.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-44
Fatigue Module
Quick Counting Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Based on the comments on the previous
slides, it is clear that the number of bins
affects the accuracy since alternating and
mean stresses are sorted into bins prior
to calculating partial damage. This is
called Quick Counting technique
This method is the default behavior
because of efficiency

Quick Rainflow Counting may be turned


off in the Details view. In this case, the
data is not sorted into bins until after
partial damages are found and thus the
number of bins will not affect the results.
Although this method is accurate, it can
be much more computationally expensive
and memory-intensive. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-45
Fatigue Module
Solving Variable Amplitude Case Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


After specifying the requested results, the variable
amplitude case can be solved in a similar manner as the
constant amplitude case, in conjunction with or after a
stress analysis has been performed.
Depending on the load history and bin size, the solution
may take much longer than the constant amplitude case,
although it should still be generally faster than a regular
FEA solution (e.g., stress analysis solution).

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-46
Fatigue Module
Reviewing Fatigue Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Results similar to constant amplitude cases are available:
Instead of the number of cycles to failure, Life results report
the number of loading blocks until failure. For example, if the
load history data represents a given block of time say, one
week and the minimum life reported is 50, then the life of the
part is 50 blocks or, in this case, 50 weeks.
Damage and Safety Factor are based on a Design Life input in
the Details view, but these are also blocks instead of cycles.
Biaxiality Indication is the same as the constant amplitude
case and is available for variable amplitude loading.
Equivalent Alternating Stress is not available as output for the
variable amplitude case. This is because a single value is not
used to determine cycles to failure. Instead, multiple values
are used, based on the loading history.
Fatigue Sensitivity is also available for the blocks of life.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-47
Fatigue Module
Reviewing Fatigue Results Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


There are also results specific to variable amplitude cases:
The Rainflow Matrix, although not really a result
per se, is available for output and was discussed
earlier. It provides information on how the
alternating and mean stresses have been
divided into bins from the load history.
The Damage Matrix shows the damage at the
critical location of the scoped entities. It reflects
the amount of damage per bin which occurs. Note that the
result is of the critical location of scoped part(s) or surface(s).
The two results shown here are
scoped results from different parts of
the same model, using the same load
history. The left shows that most of
the damage (though a small fraction
overall) occurs at lower stress
amplitudes while the right shows that
most of the damage (a large
percentage) occurs at the highest
stress amplitudes.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A12-48
Fatigue Module
H. Fatigue: Non-Proportional Case Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In Section B, the constant amplitude, proportional loading
case was discussed.
In this section, constant amplitude, non-proportional
loading will be covered.
The idea here is that instead of using a single loading
environment, two loading environments will be used for
fatigue calculations.
Instead of using a stress ratio, the stress values of the two
loading environments will determine the min and max values.
This is why this method is called non-proportional since one
set of stress results is not scaled, but two are used instead.
Because two solutions are required, the use of the Solution
Combination branch makes this possible.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-49
Fatigue Module
Non-Proportional Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The procedure for the constant amplitude, non-proportional
case is the same as the one for the constant amplitude,
proportional loading situation with the following
exceptions:
1. Set up two Environment branches with different loading
conditions
2. Add a Solution Combination branch and specify the two
Environments to use
3. Add the Fatigue Tool (and any other results) for the Solution
Combination branch, and specify Non-Proportional for the
loading Type.
4. Request fatigue results as normal and solve

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-50
Fatigue Module
Non-Proportional Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


1. Set up two loading environments:
These two loading environments can have two distinct sets of
loads (supports should be the same) to mimic alternating
between two loads
An example is having one bending load and one torsional load for
the two Environments. The resulting fatigue calculations will
assume an alternating load between the two.
An alternating load can be superimposed on a static load
An example is having a constant pressure and a moment load. For
one Environment, specify the constant pressure only. For the
other Environment, specify the constant pressure and the moment
load. This will mimic a constant pressure and alternating moment.
Use of nonlinear supports/contact or non-proportional loads
An example is having a Compression Only support. As long as
rigid-body motion is prevented, the two Environments should
reflect the loading in one and the opposite direction.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-51
Fatigue Module
Non-Proportional Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


2. Add a Solution Combination branch from the Model branch
In the Worksheet tab, add the two Environments to be
calculated upon. Note that the coefficient can be a value other
than one if one solution is to be scaled
Note that exactly two Environments will be used for non-
proportional loading. The stress results from the two
Environments will determine the stress range for a given
location.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-52
Fatigue Module
Non-Proportional Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


3. Add the Fatigue Tool under the Solution Combination
Non-Proportional must be specified as Type in the Details
view. Any other option will treat the two Environments as a
linear combination (see end of Section B)
Scale Factor, Fatigue Strength Factor, Analysis Type, and
Stress Component may be set accordingly

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-53
Fatigue Module
Non-Proportional Procedure Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


4. Request other results and solve
For non-proportional loading, the user may request the same
results as for proportional loading.
The only difference is for Biaxiality Indication. Since the
analysis is of non-proportional loading, no single stress
biaxiality exists for a given location. Average or standard
deviation of stress biaxiality may be requested in the Details
view.
The average stress biaxiality is straightforward to interpret. The
standard deviation shows how much the stress state changes at a
given location. Hence, a small standard deviation indicates
behavior close to proportional loading whereas a large value
indicates significant change in principal stress directions.
The fatigue solution will be solved for automatically after the
two Environments are solved for first.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-54
Fatigue Module
Example Model Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


To better understand the non-proportional situation,
consider the example below.
A given part has two loads applied to the
cylindrical surfaces in the center
The force distributes the load evenly on the
cylindrical surface (tension and compression)

On the other hand, the bolt load only distributes load on the
compressive side. Hence, to mimic the loading in reverse, the
bolt load needs to be applied in a separate Environment in the
opposite direction.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-55
Fatigue Module
Example Model Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The safety factor and equivalent alternating stresses are
shown below:

Force Load Bolt Load in Two Environments

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-56
Fatigue Module
Example Model Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


In this example, the Bolt Load case results in a lower safety
factor, as expected, since the same force is applied only on
one side of the cylinder rather than evenly, as in the case of
the Force Load.
If a model containing a Bolt Load were to be analyzed using
proportional loading, the reverse loading would represent the
compressive side of the bolt being pulled in tension.
Using non-proportional loading, the loading in reverse would
be a compressive load on the opposite side of the cylinder.

Note that, as with any other analysis, the engineer must


understand how the loading is applied and interpreted.
Then, he/she can make the best choice for the
representation of any load for stress analysis as well as
fatigue calculations.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-57
Fatigue Module
I. Workshop A12 Training Manual

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Workshop A12 Fatigue Module
Goal:
Perform a Fatigue analysis of the connecting rod model (ConRod.x_t)
shown here. Specifically, we will analyze two load environments: 1)
Constant Amplitude Load of 4500 N, Fully Reversed and 2) Random
Load of 4500N.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A12-58
Appendix Thirteen

Shape Finder
Shape Finder
Chapter Overview Training Manual

In this chapter, using the Shape Finder in Simulation will be

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


covered.
In Simulation, performing shape optimization is based on a
linear static structural analysis.
It is assumed that the user has already covered Chapter 4
Linear Static Structural Analysis prior to this section.

The capabilities described in this section are generally


applicable to ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and
above.
Some options discussed in this chapter may require more
advanced licenses, but these are noted accordingly.
Other type of analyses are covered in their respective
chapters.
March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A13-2
Shape Finder
Basics of Shape Optimization Training Manual

Requesting the Shape Finder performs shape or topological

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


optimization
Shape Finder is an optimization problem, where the energy of
structural compliance is minimized based on a volume
reduction constraint
Another way to view this is that the Shape Finder tries to
obtain the best stiffness to volume ratio. The Shape Finder
tries to find areas where material can be removed without
adversely affecting the strength of the overall structure.
The Shape Finder is based on a single static structural
environment
The Shape Finder cannot be used for multiple environments
The Shape Finder currently cannot be used for free vibration,
thermal, or other analyses
Although based on a single static structural analysis, because it is
an optimization, many iterations will be performed internally, so it
can be computationally expense. March 29, 2005
Inventory #002215
A13-3
Shape Finder
Basics of Shape Optimization Training Manual

In the example below, a simple assembly has supports and

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


a bolt load. The Shape Finder allows the user to determine
where material may be removed for the given loading
condition, if weight reduction was sought.
Shape optimization is useful for conceptual designs or
performing weight-reduction on existing designs

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Model shown is from a sample Inventor assembly. A13-4
Shape Finder
A. Shape Optimization Procedure Training Manual

The shape optimization procedure is very similar to

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


performing a linear static analysis, so not all steps will be
covered in detail. The steps in yellow italics are specific to
shape optimization analyses.
Attach Geometry
Assign Material Properties
Define Contact Regions (if applicable)
Define Mesh Controls (optional)
Insert Loads and Supports
Request Shape Finder Results
Set Shape Finder Options
Solve the Model
Review Results

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A13-5
Shape Finder
Geometry and Material Properties Training Manual

Unlike linear static analyses, only solid bodies can be used

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


for shape optimization
Line or surface bodies cannot be used with the Shape Finder

For material properties, Youngs Modulus and Poissons


Ratio are required
If acceleration (and other inertial loads) are present, mass
density is also required
If thermal loading is present, coefficient of thermal expansion
and thermal conductivity are also required

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-6
Shape Finder
Contact Regions Training Manual

Any type of face-to-face contact may be included with

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Shape Finder
Because shape optimization requires multiple iterations, if
nonlinear contact is present, the overall solution will take
longer

Since line and surface bodies are not supported in Shape


Finder, edge contact and spot welds cannot be used.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-7
Shape Finder
Mesh Controls Training Manual

The density of the mesh affects the fidelity of the solution

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


As with other analyses, this is also true for shape optimization.
A finer mesh will be computationally more expensive, but the
areas where material can be removed will be much more
clearly defined, as shown in the example below:

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x
Model shown is from a sample Unigraphics assembly. A13-8
Shape Finder
Loads and Supports Training Manual

Any loads and supports may be used with the Shape Finder

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Because the Shape Finder tries to minimize volume and
maximize stiffness based on the loads and supports, the loads
and supports are very important and will influence the results.
The Shape Finder will generally keep material where loads are
present and where supports are reacting to the load.
Different load and support conditions will create different load
paths, so the Shape Finder results will differ.
The Compression Only support is nonlinear. Because Shape
Finder is an optimization problem, a nonlinear support may
increase solution time considerably.
Thermal loads may also be used (if supported by license).
However, note that the Shape Finder results may be unintuitive in
cases where thermal strains are large. In these situations, it may
be advisable to run two environments, one with and another
without thermal loads to compare the differences.
ANSYS License Availability
DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural /
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-9
Shape Finder
Requesting Results Training Manual

For shape optimization, only the Shape

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Finder results are valid
Under the Solution branch, the Shape Finder result(s) can be
requested
No other type of result can be requested. If a stress analysis is
desired, duplicate the Environment branch, then request
displacement and stress/strain results.
For Shape Finder, simply specify the target reduction amount
(default is 20% reduction)
Note that too much reduction of material will result in a truss-like
structure

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-10
Shape Finder
Solution Options Training Manual

The solution branch provides details on the type of analysis

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


being performed
For a shape optimization, none of the options in the Details
view of the Solution branch usually need to be changed.
Solver Type or Weak Springs can be changed, if needed, per
the guidelines in Chapter 4 for static structural analyses.
Large Deflection is not applicable to shape optimization.
The Analysis Type will display
Shape for the case of shape
optimization. If thermal loads are
also present, then Thermal Shape
will be shown. Note that this refers
to a thermal-stress analysis, not a
purely thermal analysis.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-11
Shape Finder
Solution Options Training Manual

For the Shape Finder, the following is performed internally:

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


The Shape Finder procedure corresponds to topological
optimization in ANSYS.
In Simulation, only a single stress analysis is supported (whereas
in ANSYS, modal analysis and multiple load cases are supported)
If thermal loads are present, a thermal analysis is performed
first.
A thermal analysis is only performed once, at the start of the
simulation. This means that the thermal loading does not account
for redistribution of temperatures due to changes in shape

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A13-12
Shape Finder
Solution Options Training Manual

For bodies that results are scoped to (see next Chapter), these

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


elements will have element type 1 as SOLID95.
18x elements, such as SOLID186 and 187 are not used.
SOLID92 is not used. If only tetrahedral elements exist, SOLID95 is
used in degenerate tetrahedral form.
All other solid elements (as well as surface effect, contact, or
spring elements) will have element types greater than 1. In
topological optimization in ANSYS, only material for element type 1
is removed.
Support of other non-solid elements, such as SURF154,
CONTA174, TARGE170, and COMBIN14 in topological optimization
is undocumented.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A13-13
Shape Finder
Solution Options Training Manual

The TOxxxx family of topological optimization commands are

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


not used. Instead, the older, undocumented TOPxxx
commands are used, although the functionality is very similar
TOPDEF defines the problem statement
Similar to TOCOMP, TOVAR
TOPDEF,vol_reduction,load_case, accuracy:
where vol_reduction is percent volume reduction, based on
input in Details window. Other arguments are internally
specified
TOPEXE runs the topological solution
Similar to TOEXE
TOLOOP or TOPITER are not used. A *DO loop is used
internally loop through multiple topological iterations
Besides the output file (solve.out), a summary of the last
shape optimization run can be found in the compliance.out
ASCII file located in the Solver working directory.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
Advanced ANSYS Details A13-14
Shape Finder
Solving the Model Training Manual

After setting up the model, one can perform the shape

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


optimization just like any other analysis by selecting the
Solve button.
A shape optimization is several times more computationally
expensive than a single static analysis on the same model
because many iterations are required.
If a Solution Information branch is added to the Solution
branch, detailed solution output, including how many shape
optimization loops have been performed, will be provided:

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-15
Shape Finder
Reviewing Results Training Manual

After solution is complete, the Shape Finder results can be

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


viewed
As indicated in the legend, orange denotes material which can
be removed, and beige is marginal
The details view compares the original and final mass of the
structure (including the marginal material)

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-16
Shape Finder
Reviewing Results Training Manual

Animations are also quite helpful in visualizing where

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


material could be removed and what the resulting shape
may look like.

ANSYS License Availability


DesignSpace Entra x
DesignSpace x March 29, 2005
Professional x Inventory #002215
Structural x
Mechanical/Multiphysics x A13-17
Shape Finder
B. Workshop A13 Training Manual

Workshop A13 Shape Finder

ANSYS Workbench Simulation


Goal:
Use the shape optimization tool to indicate potential geometry
changes that will result in a 40% reduction in the mass of the
model shown below.

March 29, 2005


Inventory #002215
A13-18