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The Spoliarium (often misspelled Spolarium) is a painting by Filipino artist Juan Luna.

The painting was

submitted by Luna to the Exposicin Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884 in Madrid, where it garnered the first
gold medal (out of three).[1] In 1886, it was sold to the Diputacin Provincial de Barcelona for 20,000 pesetas.
It currently hangs in the main gallery at the ground floor of the National Museum of Fine Arts in Manila, and is
the first work of art that greets visitors upon entry into the museum. The picture recreates a despoiling scene
in a Roman circus where dead gladiators are stripped of weapons and garments.

Luna, working on canvas, spent eight months completing the painting which depicts dying gladiators. Ambeth
Ocampo wrote, "...the fact remains that when Luna and Flix Resurreccin Hidalgo won the top awards in the
Madrid Exposition of 1884, they proved to the world that indios could, despite their supposed barbarian race,
paint better than the Spaniards who colonized them."[2]

Jose Rizal & the Spoliarium

At a gathering of Filipino expatriates in Madrid, Jose Rizal enthusiastically toasted the triumphs his two
compatriots had achieved, the other being Flix Hidalgo who won a silver medal, calling it "fresh proof of racial

"Luna's Spoliarium with its bloody carcasses of slave gladiators being dragged away from the arena where they
had entertained their Roman oppressors with their lives... stripped to satisfy the lewd contempt of their
Roman persecutors with their honor...."[4] Rizal was footnoted in his speech that the Spoliarium, "embodied
the essence of our social, moral and political life: humanity in severe ordeal, humanity unredeemed, reason
and idealism in open struggle with prejudice, fanaticism and injustice."[4]

Rizal was inspired to carve a mark of his own to give glory to his country by writing his 'Spoliarium' since early
that year 1884 "he had been toying with the idea of a book" for he has seen and described the painting as "the
tumult of the crowd, the shouts of slaves, the metallic clatter of dead men's armor, the sobs of orphans, the
murmured prayers...." Rizal's book would be called Noli Me Tangere, "the Latin echo of the Spoliarium".[5]

"El Asesinato del Gobernador Bustamante y Su Hijo"

Flix Resurreccin Hidalgo's The Assassination of Governor Bustamante at the National Art Gallery of the
National Museum depicts the incident, showing a mob of Dominican friars dragging the governor down the
Palacio's staircase.

However, according to Spanish historian, theologian, and former archivist at the University of Santo Toms Fr
Fidel Villarroel, Ph.D., Hidalgo was misled by some advisers to wrongly portray the Spanish missionaries as the
promoters of the murder. Antonio Regidor, a Freemason noted for his anticlerical sentiments, was the
painter's adviser. Villarroel goes further by concluding that all the friars were far away from the scene at the
moment of the assassination, imprisoned together with the Archbishop.[8]

Whats often cited against the 18th century are grisly happenings like the killing of Governor Fernando Manuel
Bustamante happenings that seem to indicate a priest-ridden society still groping about in the Dark Ages.
Bustamante was a reform governor (1717-1719) with good intentions but a violent temper. He used the militia
to terrorize the public. He filled the jails to overflowing but his prisoners were not all government crooks he
had caught; some were people who merely disagreed with him. When he jailed the archbishop of Manila, it
provoked a demo.

Angry mobs marched to the palace waving banners and crucifixes and yelling: Church, religion, and king!
They were met on the palace stairway by Bustamante, who wielded a gun in one hand, a sword in the other.
Death to the tyrant! shouted his visitors, rushing up the stairs. The governor plunged his sword into the first
body to approach him and then could not pull out the sword fast enough to drive back those who were
surrounding him. He was cut down with dagger and spear. A son of his who came to his rescue was likewise
stabbed to death.

The mob then stored Fort Santiago and released the imprisoned archbishop. The prelate would assume the
governorship, as interim head of state. He decreed a pension of a thousand pesos for the family of
Bustamante but the widow rejected it.

The Blood Compact (Spanish: El Pacto de Sangre) is an award-winning 1886 historic and historical'[2][3]
painting by Filipino painter Juan Luna.

The Blood Compact portrays the 1565 Sandugo (blood compact ritual) between Datu Sikatuna of Bohol and
Miguel Lpez de Legazpi, surrounded by other conquistadors. Datu Sikatuna was described to be 'being
crowded out of the picture by Miguel Lpez de Legazpi and his fellow conquistadores'.

Juan Luna completed The Blood Compact in 1886, a year after he moved to Paris to open a studio. It was also
the year after Luna became a friend of Flix Resurreccin Hidalgo, another known Filipino painter.[1] In 1904,
the painting won the first prize in Paris, France and at the St. Louis Exposition in the United States.[6] The
masterpiece was painted by Luna[7] during his four-year pensionadoship from the Ayuntamiento de
Manila,[1][5] enabling him to continue studying painting in Rome.[8] It is one of the three paintings Luna gave
the Government of Spain, even though he was only obligated to paint just one canvas during the
pensionadoship.[9][8] The other paintings are Don Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, a painting that was burned during
the Philippine-Spanish war, and Governor Ramon Blanco, a work that became a part of the Lopez Museum
collection.[5] This is one of the last paintings created by Luna.[6]

Jos Rizal and Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera helped Luna in completing the painting by providing historical
advice and posing for the painter: Rizal posed as Sikatuna while Pardo de Tavera posed as Legazpi.[10]

The Blood Compact is currently displayed in Malacaan Palace, the official residence of the President, located
at the top of the Grand Staircase leading towards the Ceremonial Hall.

Las Virgenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho or The Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace is a famous
1884 history painting by Filipino painter, reformist, and propagandist[1] Flix Resurreccin Hidalgo.[2] The
painting is alternately known as The Christian Virgins Exposed to the Rabble,[1] Jovenes Cristianas Expuestas al
Populacho (Christian Maidens Exposed to the Populace),[3] Christian Virgins Presented to the Populace,[4][5]
The Christian Virgins Being Exposed to the Populace,[6] and Christian Virgins Exposed to the Mob.
The painting was a silver medalist (ninth silver medal award among forty-five[2][7][4][8]) during the 1884
Exposicion General de Bellas Artes in Madrid, Spain, also known as the Madrid Exposition.[3][9][10][11]
According to Raquel A.G. Reyes, Hidalgo's winning the silver medal for the painting was a landmark
achievement that proved the ability of Filipinos to match the work of Spaniards and laid claim to Filipino
participation in European culture.

Regarded as one of the national treasures of the Philippines,[13] a copy of the painting is part of the art
collection of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines).[6] The original was destroyed in
a fire at the University of Valladolid in Spain.[14] Since 2015, the painting is currently on a five-year loan to
National Gallery Singapore as part of its Southeast Asian art galleries.

Las Virgenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho is a "landmark painting" depicting the persecution of Christians
in Ancient Rome.[3] Described as a masterpiece remarkable in the aspects of quality, composition, and
historical context,[6] it portrays two scantily clothed Christian female slaves being mocked by a group of
boorish Roman male onlookers.[16] One of the women is posed seated naked at the foreground of the
painting with her "head bowed in misery".[16][17] The semi-nude women have been stripped not only of their
garments but also of their dignity.[6] Created in the academic style of Europe, the unfortunate women in the
artwork are considered by some indigenous Filipinos as virgins "being led out, stolen from, and ridiculed".[6]
The women are young virgins cornered by a mob of "sexually hungry" Roman men.[2] One of the men has his
hand over one semi-naked female whose eyes are "looking up to heaven" asking and begging for "help that
never comes".

Together with Juan Luna's Spoliarium, Hidalgos Las Virgenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho presents
"human spoliage and spoils", with human spoilage more related to Luna's Spoliarium and the human spoils
closer to Hidalgo's Las Virgenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho. Such themes were presented to the "juries
and audiences" of the Madrid exposition in order to satisfy the "erudition-quotient" essential to the
conservative scholarly Neoclassicism of Hidalgo and Luna while they were spending time in Europe.

Juan Novicio Luna (October 23, 1857 December 7, 1899) was a Filipino painter, sculptor and a political
activist of the Philippine Revolution during the late 19th century. He became one of the first recognized
Philippine artists.

His winning the gold medal in the 1884 Madrid Exposition of Fine Arts, along with the silver win of fellow
Filipino painter Flix Resurreccin Hidalgo, prompted a celebration which was a major highlight in the
memoirs of members of the Propaganda Movement, with the fellow Ilustrados toasting to the two painters'
good health and to the brotherhood between Spain and the Philippines.

Regarded for work done in the manner of the Spanish, Italian and French academies of his time, Luna painted
literary and historical scenes, some with an underscore of political commentary. His allegorical works were
inspired with classical balance, and often showed figures in theatrical poses. Born in the town of Badoc, Ilocos
Norte in the northern Philippines, Juan N. Luna was the third among the seven children of Joaqun Posadas
Luna and Laureana Ancheta Novicio-Luna. In 1861, the Luna family moved to Manila and he went to Ateneo
Municipal de Manila where he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree. He excelled in painting and drawing, and
was influenced by his brother, Manuel N. Luna, who, according to Filipino patriot Jos Rizal, was a better
painter than Juan himself.
Luna enrolled at Escuela Nautica de Manila (now Philippine Merchant Marine Academy) and became a sailor.
He took drawing lessons under the illustrious painting teacher Lorenzo Guerrero of Ermita, Manila. He also
enrolled in the Academy of Fine Arts (Academia de Dibujo y Pintura) in Manila where he was influenced and
taught how to draw by the Spanish artist Agustin Saez. Unfortunately, Luna's vigorous brush strokes
displeased his teacher and Luna was discharged from the academy. However, Guerrero was impressed by his
skill and urged Luna to travel to Cubao to further pursue his work.

Flix Resurreccin Hidalgo y Padilla (February 21, 1855 March 13, 1913) was a Filipino artist. He is
acknowledged as one of the great Filipino painters of the late 19th century, and is significant in Philippine
history for having been an acquaintance and inspiration for members of the Philippine reform movement
which included Jos Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar, Mariano Ponce and Graciano Lpez Jaena, although he neither
involved himself directly in that movement, nor later associate himself with the First Philippine Republic under
Emilio Aguinaldo.

His winning the silver medal in the 1884 Madrid Exposition of Fine Arts, along with the gold win of fellow
Filipino painter Juan Luna, prompted a celebration which was a major highlight in the memoirs of members of
the Philippine reform movement, with Rizal toasting to the two painters' good health and citing their win as
evidence that Filipinos and Spaniards were equals

Hidalgo was born in Binondo, Manila on February 21, 1855. He was the third of seven children of Eduardo
Resurreccin Hidalgo and Maria Barbara Padilla. He studied in the University of Santo Tomas. He studied law,
which he never finished, received a bacheller en filosifia in March 1871. He was simultaneously enrolled at the
Escuela de Dibujo y Pintura. In 1876, he previewed his La barca (The Native Boat), Vendedora de lanzones
(Lanzones Vendor) and other paintings at the Teatro Circo de Bilibid before they were sent to the Centennial
Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania of that year. In 1878, he painted the poignant and well-crafted Los
mendigos (The Beggars).