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Presentation on BITUMEN

By:-
Vinay Gautam
Suraj
Praveen
Narayana
Abhijeet
Bhupal
Kaushlendra
BITUMEN

A viscous liquid, or a solid, consisting essentially of


hydrocarbons and their derivatives, which is soluble in
trichloro - ethylene and is substantially nonvolatile and
softens gradually when heated.

It is black or
brown in colour
& possesses
waterproofing
and adhesive
properties.
PRODUCTION OF BITUMEN
Bitumen is manufactured from crude oil.
Bitumen is obtained as the last residue in fractional distillation of crude
petroleum.
The heaviest material obtained from the fractional distillation process is further
treated and blended to make different grades of paving grade bitumen
Types of Bituminous
Materials
Types of Bitumen

Tar and Pitch:


Most of the tar and pitch used in construction is made
by the distillation of coal.

Tar is used to saturate felt paper and coated kraft paper


to produce a waterproof membrane.

Coal tar pitch oxidizes quite rapidly when exposed


to ultra violet rays of the sun.
Types of Bitumens
Asphalt
A large percentage of the asphalt
used results from the refining of
crude oils

There are three main groups of


asphalt products produced from
straight run asphalts
Asphalt

Hot asphalt- those soften by heat


Hot asphalt can be used directly or it can be processed
further to produce a harder material

Hot asphalts have good resistance to the transmission of


water and water vapor when they are applied to dry surfaces
and the heating process is controlled

Hot asphalts bond poorly to damp or wet surfaces, have


relatively poor flexibility, oxidize under the suns rays and
are brittle at low temperatures
Asphalt

Cut back asphalts those dissolved in mineral


solvents
Cutback asphalts are of three types

Straight run asphalt and solvent

Heavily filled cutback made by adding a large amount


of filler and fiber to asphalt cut with solvent

Primer type cutback asphalt in solution with no filler or


fiber
Asphalt
Emulsion asphalts those dispensed
or suspended in a water base
Three types
Soap type in which soap is
used as the emulsifier

Clay modified soap type


clay and soap are used as
emulsifier

Clay based type

Advantages
Easy to handle
No heating is required
Good bonding to damp or
wet surfaces
BITUMINOUS TEST

PENETRATION TEST
DUCTLITY TEST
VISCOSITY TEST
SOFTNING POINT TEST
FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST
SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST
SOLUBILITY TEST
FLOAT TEST
BINDER CONTENT TEST
PENETRATION TEST
AIM OF THE PENETRATION TEST:
To find out the hardness or softness of bitumen.
To determine the consistency of bituminous material
Grade of bitumen.
Apparatus required are
a) penetrometer
b) water bath
c) thermometer
The test carried out with a standard penetrometer with a needle
loaded with 100 gms,
PENETRATION TEST
PENETRATION TEST contd

Procedure:
Soften the bitumen by heating (between 75 and 100oC). Stir it
thoroughly to remove air bubbles and water.
Pour it into a mould completely and level it.
Cool it at an atmospheric temperature of 15 to 30oC for 11/2 hours.
Maintain test temperature as 25 degree Celsius
Keep the container on the stand of the penetration apparatus
Clean the needle with benzene, &dry it
Adjust the needle to make contact with the surface of the sample
Adjust the dial reading to zero and note the initial reading
PENETRATION TEST

The needle is then released and allowed to penetrate into the sample
under the full action of the load.
The penetration at the end of time 5 seconds is measured .i.e final
reading
Difference of final &initial reading gives penetration value

Repeat the steps thrice.


Take the mean value & which becomes the penetration value of
bitumen.
PENETRATION TEST
PENETRATION TEST

The bitumen grade is specified in terms of penetration


value.
The bitumen of grade 80/100 means that the range of
penetration value of the material is between 80 and 100.
Depends upon the climatic conditions and type of
construction, bitumen are used.
IRC RECOMMANDATIONS
Bitumen grades
a) 30/40,
b) 60/70,and
c) 80/100
Hot climates -Lower penetration grades of
bitumen are preferred.
Cold climate - higher penetration grades of bitumen are
preferred.
RECOMMANDED VALUES As per IS 73-2006

GRADES VG 10 VG20 VG30 VG40

Penetration 80-100 60-80 50-70 40-60

at 25C,
DUCTILITY TEST
Aim:
To measure the ductility of a given sample of bitumen
To determine the suitability of bitumen for its use in road construction
The apparatus required for this test:
i) Standard mould (briquette mould)
ii) Water bath
iii) Testing machine
iv) Thermometer Range 0 to 44oC, Graduation 0.2oC
PROCEDURE:
(i) Melt the bituminous test material completely at a temperature of 75C
to 100 C above the approximate softening point until it becomes
thoroughly fluid.
DUCTILITY TEST
ii) Assemble the mould on a brass plate and in order to prevent
the material under test from sticking, thoroughly coat the
surface of the plate and the interior surfaces of the sides of the
mould with a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and dextrin.
iii) pour the sample of bitumen into the mould and level it using
straight hot knife
iv) After about 30-40 minutes, keep the plate assembly along with
the sample in a water bath. Maintain the temperature of the
water bath at 27 C for half an hour.
(v) Remove the sample and mould assembly from the water bath
and trim the specimen by leveling the surface using a hot
knife.
DUCTLITY TEST
DUCTILITY TEST
DUCTILITY TEST contd

vi)remove the sides of the mould.


vii) Hook the clips carefully on the machine without causing any
initial strain. Adjust the pointer to read zero.
viii) Start the machine and pull clips horizontally at a speed of 50
mm per minute.
ix) Note the distance at which the bitumen thread of specimen
breaks.
Mean of two observations rounded to nearest whole number is
ductility value.
Limiting values
bitumen grades ductility ( cm)
S45 &above 75
S35 50
A65-200 15
for viscosity graded bitumen
GRADES VG10 VG20 VG30 VG40

Ductility at 75 50 40 25

25C, cm
SOFTNING POINT TEST
Aim:
To determine the softening point of bitumen.
The apparatus required for this test :-
i)Steel balls-two numbers each of 9.5 mm diameter weighing 3.5
0.05 g.
ii) Brass rings-two numbers each having depth of 6.4 mm. The
inside diameter at bottom and top is 15.9mm and 17.5 mm
respectively.
iii) Bath-heat resistant glass beaker not less than 85 mm in
diameter &1220mm deep.
iii) Thermometer Low Range : -2 to 80oC, Graduation 0.2oC
SOFTNING POINT TEST contd..

Procedure
The sample should be just sufficient to fill the ring. The
excess sample should be cut off by a knife.
Heat the material to a temperature between 75o 100oC
above its softening point, stir until, it is completely fluid
and free from air bubbles and water
SOFTNING POINT TEST contd..
If necessary filter it through IS sieve 30.
Heat the rings and apply glycerin. Fill the material in
it and cool it for 30 minutes
Assemble the apparatus with the rings, thermometer
and ball guides in position.
After cooling for 30 minutes in air, level the material
in the ring by removing the excess with a warmed,
sharp knife.
SOFTNING POINT TEST contd..

Fill the container with distilled water to a height


of 50mm above the upper surface of the rings. The
starting temperature should be 5oC
With the help of a stirrer, stir the liquid and apply
heat to the beaker at a temperature of 5.0 0.5oC
per minute.
SOFTNING POINT TEST contd..

Apply heat to the bath and stir the liquid so that the
temperature rises at a uniform rate of 50.5oC per minute
Record the temperature at which the ball touches the
bottom, which is nothing but the softening point of that
material.
Significance of softening point test

Softening Point test is a very important test as it is a


fair indicator of melting properties of bitumen.
Bitumen with lower softening point tend to melt on
the road in summer and start flowing under the impact
of temperature and traffic
Therefore it can be concluded that bitumens with
higher softening point melt at higher temperatures and
have better rutting resistance
RECCOMMENDED VALUES

GRADES VG10 VG20 VG30 VG40

Softening 40 45 47 50

point
(degree
Celsius)
VISCOCITY TEST

Its defined as fluid property of the material as resistance to


flow
APPARATUS:
Tar viscometer, cup, valve, receiver, thermometer etc.
VISCOCITY TEST
RECOMMENDED VALUES:
Bitumen grades 1 2 3
SC.MC,RC

Orifice size (mm) 10 10 10

Test 25 40 40
Temperatures(C)

Viscosity Ranges 10-20 25-75 14-45


(SEC)
Significance of viscosity test

Too viscous bitumen would result in inadequate and non-


uniform coating of the aggregates.
Very low viscosity would again result in inadequate
coating as the bitumen will tend to bleed.
Therefore viscosity at 135*C is a true reflection of the
quality of bond that is likely to be formed with the
aggregate.
Flash and Fire point test

Flash point:-The flash point of a material is the lowest


temperature at which the application of test flame
causes the vapours from the material to momentarily
catch fire in the form of a flash under specified
conditions of the test.
Fire point:-The fire point is the lowest temperature at
which the application of test flame causes the material
to ignite and burn at least for 5 seconds under
specified conditions of the test.
Significance of flash and fire
point:-
for safety point of view this
tests are conducted, if bitumen is
heated beyond flash point it
catches fire ,therefore utmost care
is taken to see that heating is
limited to a temperature well
below the flash point and used
along the aggregates for the
construction of pavements.
Specific gravity test
This test is done to determine the specific gravity of semi-solid
bitumen road tars. The principle is that it is the ratio of mass of
a given volume of bitumen to the mass of an equal volume of
water, both taken at a specified temperature.
Apparatus :-
i) Specific gravity bottles of 50ml capacity
ii) Water bath
iii) Bath thermometer Range 0 to 44oC, Graduation 0.2oC

Solubility test

Pure bitumen is fully soluble in carbon disulphide and


carbon tetrachloride. If some quantity remains undissolved it
exhibits the quantity of inert mineral present in the bitumen.
Bitumen should be soluble in carbon disulphide at least
99%.
Float test

The Float Test is used as a measure of consistency for


distillation residues. Residue from the emulsion is cast in a
tapered collar, and then it is allowed to float in a testing bath at
a specified temperature. The time, in seconds, between placing
the apparatus on the water and the water breaking through the
material shall be taken as a measure of the consistency of the
material under examination.
Significance of float test:-
The float value is one of the prime characteristics for identifying
"high float" asphalt emulsions. This high float characteristics
enables softer asphalt materials to remain in place on the roadway
without running off.
Impact test on Aggregate
Aim:
To determine the aggregate impact value
of given aggregates.

Apparatus required:
Impact testing machine,
cylinder, tamping rod,
IS Sieve 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm,
Weight balance.
IMPACT TEST
Procedure

The test sample consists of aggregates passing 12.5mm


sieve and retained on 10mm sieve and dried in an oven for
4 hours at a temperature of 100oC to 110oC.
The aggregates are filled up to about 1/3 full in the
cylindrical measure and tamped 25 times with rounded end
of the tamping rod.
IMPACT TEST Contd.

The rest of the cylindrical measure is filled by two layers


and each layer being tamped 25 times.
The overflow of aggregates in cylindrically measure is cut
off by tamping rod using it has a straight edge.
Then the entire aggregate sample in a measuring cylinder
is weighed nearing to 0.01gm
IMPACT TEST contd..
The aggregates from the cylindrical measure are carefully
transferred into the cup which is firmly fixed in position on
the base plate of machine. Then it is tamped 25 times.
The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38cm above
the upper surface of aggregate in the cup and allowed to
fall freely on the aggregates.
The test sample is subjected to a total of 15 such blows
each being delivered at an interval of not less than one
second
IMPACT TEST contd..
The crushed aggregate is than removed from the cup and
the whole of it is sieved on 2.366mm sieve until no
significant amount passes.
The fraction passing the sieve is weighed accurate to
0.1gm. Repeat the above steps with other fresh sample.
Let the original weight of the oven dry sample be W1gm
and the weight of fraction passing 2.36mm IS sieve be
W2gm.
Then aggregate impact value is expressed as the % of fines
formed in terms of the total weight of the sample.
Aggregate impact value
S.N NATURE OF STONE AGGREGATE
O VALUE
1 Exceptionally Strong < 10%

2 Strong 10% to 20 %

3 Satisfactory 20% to 30%

4 Weak for Road Surfacing >30%


AGING OF BITUMEN

The physical and rheological properties of bitumen


change with time. It may become harder or less elastic.
Bitumen properties change over time on exposure to high
temperature and the atmosphere. This process is referred
to as ageing.
Based on hardening or stiffening of asphalt material
1. short-term ageing.
2. long-term ageing.
1. Short-term ageing
This occurs when bitumen is mixed with hot aggregates i.e.,
during production and construction .
2.Long-term ageing
This occurs after HMA pavement construction and is
generally due to environmental exposure and loading i.e.,
during the life of the pavement
Factors influencing bitumen Aging
1.Oxidation

2. Loss of volatiles

3. Steric or physical hardening

4. Exudative hardening
. Time, Heat, Oxygen,
Sunlight
OXIDATION: The degree of oxidation is highly dependent on
the temperature, time and the thickness of bitumen film. Ageing
produces polar species that can form singles or multiple
structures
LOSS OF VOLATILES :The evaporation of volatile
component depends mainly upon temperature and exposure
conditions.
PHYSICAL HARDENING: It is strongly influenced by
aggregate-bitumen interactions. Directly after cooling, asphalt
sometimes appears to be soft as if it was still warm and a few
days later, the asphalt seems to have matured. This phenomenon
is called setting and is caused by slow physical hardening.
EXUDATIVE HARDENING :Exudative hardening results
from the movement of oily components that exude from the
bitumen into the mineral aggregate
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGING ON BITUMEN
PERFORMANCE

EFFECT OF THERMAL AND


ULTRAVIOLET AGING
Consider three types of base bitumen from different sources
with the same penetration grade are taken as A ,B ,C.
DEGRADATION RATES OF PHYSICAL INDICES OF AGED
BITUMEN
TESTS ON AGING OF BITUMEN
Thin film oven test (ASTM D1754)
Simulates short-term ageing by heating a film of
bitumen in an oven for 5 hours at 1630C
Rolling thin film oven test(ASTM D2872)
Simulates short-term ageing by heating a moving film of
bitumen in an oven for 85 minutes at 1630C
Pressure aging vessel (ASTM D6521)
simulate the effects of long-term bitumen ageing
that occurs as a result of 5 to 10 years HMA
pavement service
REJUVENATION TREATMENT

Replace the oils lost and rebalance the bitumen


composition
The controlling factor in rejuvenation is diffusion, to
ensure a positive result, the level of diffusion must be
controlled by careful choice of rejuvenator and the delivery
method.
Asphalt Rejuvenation, Asphalt Rejuvenator -
Seal Coating, Large Parking Lots 00_00_32-
00_01_13.mp4
Modified bitumen

Modified Bitumen is a highly specialized blend of


bitumen with high quality polymer which is manufactured
under carefully controlled conditions in a State of Art
plant.
Modified Bitumen is an exceptionally versatile product
with enhanced properties that makes it suitable for wearing
course application under special conditions like high
rainfall and high traffic areas
Advantages of Modified Bitumen:
Lower susceptibility to temperature variations.

Higher resistance to deformation/wear and tear.

Better adhesion between aggregates and binder.

Increase in fatigue life.

Resistance in low temperature cracking.

Better age resistance properties.


Types of Modified Bitumen:

A variety of additives are used for modification of


Bitumen.
The degree of modification depends on type of
Modifier, its dose and nature of Bitumen.
The most commonly used Modifiers are:

Synthetic Polymers
Plastomeric Thermoplastics
Low Density Polyethylene(LDPE)
Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

Elastomeric Thermoplastics
Styrene Isoprene Styrene (SIS)
Styrene Butadiene Styrene Block Copolymer
Natural Rubber
Latex Powder
Rubber Powder

Crumb Rubber
Crumb Rubber without additives
Crumb Rubber with additives
Cost Benefit Analysis:

Since other components of the cost of construction


remains same except for the binder, the overall increase
in the cost of construction is approx. 15-25%.
However, the field trials have proved that frequency of
overlaying can be minimized and the maintenance cost
can be reduced to about 22-30% excluding the cost of
interest, safety and comfort to the road user.
Fatigue performance of bituminous mix

It is phenomenon of fracture under repeated cyclic or


fluctuating load
it is defined as no. of repetitions for which the initial
stress or strain changes by arbitrary factor.
Fatigue test
A rectangular sample of bituminous mix is placed on
simple support and repetitive load is applied to the
sample, and sample is monitored till failure.

Two cyclic loading is applied of equal magnitude P,


(separated by 1/3rd of the length of beam.)

Test is conducted under two types of controlled


loading , namely controlled stress amplitude and
controlled strain amplitude
Fatigue testing equipment

Pic source :- ASTM D7460-10


Fatigue performance of bituminous mix
The general expression for fatigue test result on bituminous mix is
given as
Nf=k1(1/t)k2(1/Ed)k3
Where ,
Nf =number of load applicable to failure
Ed = dynamic modulus of beam
K1 ,k2 , k3 = regression constant

Conclusion:-
The fatigue life of the mix for a given level of tensile strain is
higher if the stiffness modulus E of the mix is low. Thus ,
bituminous mixes with softer grade of bitumen, are expected to
have better fatigue life.
Laboratory fatigue curve on bituminous mix
References:
Influence of Bitumen Ageing on Asphalt Quality, Comparison Between
Bitumen and
asphalt aging ;research paper by Tahirou Moustapha

Aging of bitumen Tan yi-qiu, Wang Jia-Ni1, Feng Zhong-Liang2 and Zhou
Xing , (2005). Influence and mechanism of ultraviolet aging on bitumen
performance.

The Shell Bitumen Handbook ,By John Read, David Whiteoak