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# MODULE XI

## Approximate Methods For Multi-Dof And Continuous Systems

Lecture 1
Approximate methods
In exact method difficulties arises in
Solving roots of the characteristic equation. Except for very simple boundary
conditions, one has to go for numerical solution.
In determining the normal modes of the system

So for quick determination of the natural frequencies of a system, when a very accurate
result is not of much importance one should go for an approximate method.

Modeling
Approximation
Series solution
.
Approximate method where approximation error should be within acceptable limits one may
assume a series solution as

u ( x, t ) f n (t ) n ( x) (1)
n 1

where n ( x) is the normal modes and f n (t ) is the time function which depends upon initial
conditions and forcing function. There are certain difficulties that limit the application of
classical analysis of continua to a very simple geometry only.
The infinite series sometimes converge very slowly and it is difficult to estimate how
many terms are needed for engineering accuracy.
The formulation and computation efforts are prohibitive for systems of engineering
complexity.

The special methods (as approximate methods) treat the continuous systems, for vibration
analysis purpose, as discrete systems. This can be done with one of the following methods.
Taking only n natural modes and considering them as generalized coordinates
and then computing the n weighing functions fn(t) to best fit the initial
conditions or the forcing functions.
Considering n known functions n(x) that satisfy the geometric boundary
conditions of the system and then computing the functions fn(t) to best fit the
differential equation, the remaining boundary conditions, and the initial
conditions of the forcing functions.
Taking the physical coordinates of n number of points of the system q,
(q1, qn) as the generalized coordinates, considering them as functions of time,
and computing them to fit the differential equation; and the initial and boundary
conditions.
The main advantage of all theses methods is that instead of dealing with one or more
partial differential equations, one deals with a larger number of ordinary differential
equations usually liner with constant coefficients, which are particularly suitable for
solution in fast computing machines.

Rayleighs Method

-Rayleigh method gives a fast and rather accurate computation of the fundamental frequency
of the system.
-It applies for both discrete and continuous systems.
Consider a discrete, conservative system described by the matrix equation
Mx Kx 0 (2)
The equation above is satisfied by a set of n eigenvalues i2 and normalized eigenvectors i ,
which satisfy the equation
K i 22 M i i =1, 2----n (3)

Multiplying both sides of (3) by i and dividing by a scalar i M i , which is a quadratic form,
we have

i K i
i2 (4)
i M i
If we know the eigenvector i , we can obtain the corresponding eigenvalue i2 by eqn(4).
However in general, the eigenvectors are not known and one has to find it for the particular
system. Suppose that we consider an arbitrary vector Z in eqn (4). So eqn(4) can be written as
zKz
2 R( z ) . (5)
zMz
Here R(z) depends on the vector z and is called Rayleighs quotient . When the vector z
coincides with an eigenvector i , Rayleighs quotient coincides with the corresponding
eigenvalues.

From vector algebra it is known that vector z can be expressed as a linear combination of
independent vectors.
n
z c1 z1 c2 z2 cn zn ci zi Zc (6)
i 1

where Z is a square modal matrix [ z1 z2 zn ] and c [c1c2 cn ] . If the vector zi have been
normalized so that
Z T MZ I , then Z T KZ diag [12 , 22 ........2n ] P (7)
using (7) in (6) and using orthogonal Property
n

cZ KZc cPc c i
2
i
R( z ) i 1
(8)
cZ MZc cIc n

c
i 1
i
2

Equation (6) is similar to the free vibration response of a system which contains all the normal
modes. In the assumed function let the rth mode deviates from the actual mode. So the cr will

ci
be larger in comparison to the other ci s. Now taking i , i 1 , equation (8) can be
cr
written as
2
n
c
i i2 2r i 2i2
n
2
r
i 1 cr
Rr ( z ) 2
n
i 1
ir (9)
ci

n
i 2

i 1 cr
i 1

For r =1,
n
1 i 2i2
R1 ( z ) 12 i 2
n
(10)
1 i 2

i 1

From equation (9) it is apparent that the Rayleigh quotient differs from the eigenvalues 2r by
second order terms of the error of the eigenvector. In other words, if the error in selecting the
nonexact eigenvector is , then the error in the eigenvalues is . So a 20% error in the form of
eigen vector will yield a 4% error in the eigenvalues and a corresponding 10 % error in eigen
value will result in 1% error in eigenvector. From eqn(10), it may also be concluded that
R1 ( z ) 12 (11)
Hence the Rayleighs quotient is never lower than the smallest eigenvalues. Hence this method
gives the upper bound approximation of the fundamental frequency of the system.
Rayleighs principle can be stated as in a conservative system the frequency of vibration has a
stationary value in neighbourhood of a natural mode.

Example: Using Rayleigh quotient method, find the fundamental frequency for a cantilever
beam assuming the approximate function as the static deflection curve.

Static deflection of a cantilever beam can be found using bending equation as follows.
x d2y
M wx. EI 2 where w is the load per unit length.
2 dx
dy 1 wx 3
or, EI C1
dx 2 3
1 wx 4
EIy C1 x C 2
6 4
y0
1 3
BCs x l dy C1 wl
0 6
dx

1 wx 4
C 2 C1 x x l
6 4

wl 4 4 wl 4
wl
24 6 8

y
w
24 EI

x 4 4l 3 x 3l 4 (Deflection from free end)

## To measure x from fixed end

One may substitute x (l x' ) in the above equation.

y
w
24 ET

(l x ' ) 4 4l 3 (l x ' ) 3l 4

w
24 EI

l 3 x 3 3l 2 x 3lx 2 4l 3 replacing x by x

w
24 EI

3l 4 x 3l 3l 3 x 3l 2 x 2 3l 3 x x 4 3l 2 x 2 3lx 3 3l 4

w
24 EI

x 4 4lx 3 6l 2 x 2
Taking static deflection curve as ( x)
w
24 EI

x 4 4 x 3l 6l 2 x 2
d ( x) w
(4 x 3 12lx 2 12l 2 x) w = weight/unit length
dx 24 EI
d 2 ( x) w w
2
(12 x 2 24lx 12l 2 ) ( x 2 2lx l 2 )
dx 24 EI 2 EI

2
1 l 2 y
Potential energy EI 2 dx
2 0 x

1 l
Kinetic energy T 2 m( x) y 2 dx
2 o
1 l w
2 EI .
2 EI
( x l ) 4 dx
I1
2
0
2
1 l w dx I2

2 o
m( x 4 4lx3 6l 2 x 2 ) 2 2 2 2
24 E I

o
t x t dt dx
1
I1 t dt
EIw 4
x 0, t l
2 l 2 EI
xl t o
o
1 w t5
E
2 2 5 l

1 w
2 10
o l 5

wl 5
20

1 mw2 l
I2 (x 16l 2 x 6 36l 4 x 4 2 4lx 7 48l 2 x 5 12lx 6 )dx
8

2 (24 EI ) 2 0

l
1 x 9 16 36 8 lx 8 8 4 8 l 3 x 6 12l 2 x 7 w2
m l 2 x 7 l 4 x 5
2 9 7 5 8 6 7 o (24 EI ) 2

1 l 9 16l 9 36l 9 8 l 9 12 w 2
m 8l 9 l 9
2 9 7 5 8 7 (24 EI ) 2

1 l 9 1 16 36 12 w2
m 1 8
2
2 9 17 5 7 (24 EI )
0.96657 ml 9 w 2

2 (24 EI ) 2

I1 l 5 2 (24 EI )2
2
I 2 20 mw2 0.96657t 9

59.591963( EI )2
2 Ans
ml 5

## Rayleighs upper bound approximation for Lumped mass system

Rayleigh method can be used to determine the fundamental frequency of a beam or shaft
represented by a series of lumped masses. Let y1, y2 yn are the maximum static deflection
under the concentrated load m1 g , m2 g mn g as shown in figure 2.Here, the mass of the beam
is neglected.
Fig2

g g
The max potential energy (m1 y1 m1 y1 ......) my
2 2
1 1 1
Max Kinetic Energy. m1v12 m2v2 2 m3v32 ......
2 2 2
1 1 1
m1 ( y1 )2 m2 ( y2 )2 m3 ( y3 )2 ......
2 2 2
1
2 my 2
2
Now equating the maximum kinetic energy to the maximum potential energy

g 1

2
my 2 my 2
2

g my
n 2
my 2

Unlike Dunkerleys formula, which is valid for lateral vibration of shafts only, Rayleighs
method is valid for a system performing oscillatory motion in any manner i.e., bending,
torsional or longitudinal motions.

Example2: Find the fundamental frequency of the simply supported beam of length l carrying
three discs of mass m, 2m and m equidistantly placed from the left end.

Figure 3.
Solution
Consider the shaft carrying three discs as shown in the figure. The influence coefficients are,
3l 3 l3 3l 3
a11 , a22 , a33
256 EI 48EI 256 EI

Influence Coefficients:
Using Dunkerleys formula aij deflection at station i due to
1 3ml 3 1 2ml 3 1 3ml 3 unit load at station j
, 2 ,
1
2
256 EI 2 48EI 32 256 EI

## 1 3ml 3 2ml 3 3ml 3

n 2 256 EI 48EI 256 EI n 2 15.36
EI
Dunkerly
ml 3
(3+10.66+3)ml3 16.199EI
= = Exact
256EI ml 3
256 EI EI
n 2 3
15.36 3
16.66 ml ml

EI
n 3.9191
ml 3

Rayleigh method:
Flexibility influence coefficient
displacement at i due to unit load
9l 3 11l 3 7l 3 at j with all other forces equal to
a11 , a12 , a13 zero.
768EI 768EI 768EI
16l 3 11l 3 9l 3
a22 , a23 , a33
768EI 768EI 768EI

## By Maxwells reciprocal theorem the remaining influence coefficients can easily be

determined.
The static deflections are therefore given by,
X1 m1 ga11 m2 ga12 m3 ga13

## X 3 m1 ga31 m2 ga32 m3 ga33

m1 m3 m and m2 2m

## 38ml 3 g 54ml 3 g 38ml 3 g

X1 , X2 , X3
768EI 768EI 768EI
n
g mi X i
16.2055EI
n 2 i 1
n
=
ml 3
m Xi 1
i i

EI
( which is slightly higher than the exact value 16.199 )
ml3

Example:
A steam turbine blade of length l, can be considered as a uniform cantilever beam, mass
m per unit length with a tip mass M. The flexural rigidity of the blades is EI. Determine
fundamental bending frequency.(Use Rayleigh Method)

Sol: g
n
Assuming Y(x,t)=Y(x)cost
g g.256 EI 256 EI
x n 2
Y(x)=A(1-cos ) 3mgl 3 3mgl 3
2l
x
Y( x, t ) Y(x)sin t=-A(1-cos )sin t
2l
l
1 2
K .E. T m y dx
0
2
l
1 x
m 2 (1 cos )2 A2 dx
0
2 2l

mA2 2 x
l

2 0 (1 cos ) 2 dx
2l

x
l
l
x
2 2 2sin 2l sin 2( )
mA l
l

x
x
2l
2 0 20
2( )
2l 0 2 0

mA2 2 3 2l l
2 l .2(1 0) (0 0)
2
mA2 2 3 4l 2 2 3 2
l mA l ( )
2 2 4
1 1 1
M ( y(l )) M A M 2 A2
2
The K.E. of tipmass =
2 2 2
3 2 1
The K.E. of the system = mA 2 2l M 2 A2
4 2
2
1
l
d2y 4 EI 2
P.E. V= EI 2 dx A
2 0 dx 64 l 3

Strain Energy

3.0382 EI
2
( M 0.232ml )l 3
Lecture 2

## Dunkerleys Method (Semi empirical) approximate solution

Let W1, W2,.Wn be the concentrated loads on the shaft due to masses m1, m2, . mn and 1,
2, 3 are the static deflections of the shaft under each load. Also let the shaft carry a
uniformly distributed mass of m per unit length over its whole span and static deflection at the
mid span due to the load of this mass be s. Also
Let
n = Frequency of transverse vibration of the whole system.
ns = Frequency with distributed load acting alone
n1, n2 ...... = Frequency of transverse vibration when each of W1, W2,W3. act alone.
According to Dunkerleys empirical formula
1 1 1 1
..........
2
n
2
n1
2
n2 n2 s

1 1 1 1
2
2 2 .......... 2
fn f n1 f n2 f ns

## For a simply supported Euler Bernoullis beam

EI
n2 (n ) 2
L4

EI
n n 4
L4

for simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load, maximum deflection occur at
midpoint.
5WL3
W = total weight
384 EI
5 gL4 / 384EI
EI 5g
So,
L 384
4

5g
Hence, n2 n2 2
384
Similarly for a fixed-fixed beam with loading the maximum deflection can be given by
gl 4 EI g
=
384 EI l 4
384

EI
In this case for the first mode n2 22.4
L4

g g
So, n2 22.4 1.143
384 384
For Cantilever Beam
gl 4 EI g
=
8EI l 4
8

EI
In this case for the first mode n2 3.52
L4

g g
So, n2 3.52 1.2445
8
In case of concentrated loading the natural frequencies can be determined from the relation
g
n2 , where is the deflection under that load. One may note for the commonly used

cases.

a b
a b a b

Wa 2b 2 Wa 3
= 3 3
Wa b =
3EIl = 3EI
3EIl 3
Example2: Find the fundamental frequency of the simply supported beam of length l carrying
three discs of mass m, 2m and m equidistantly placed from the left end.

Figure 3.

Solution
Consider the shaft carrying three discs as shown in the figure. The influence coefficients are,
3l 3 l3 3l 3
a11 , a22 , a33
256 EI 48EI 256 EI

Influence Coefficients:
Using Dunkerleys formula aij deflection at station i due to
1 3ml 3 1 2ml 3 1 3ml 3 unit load at station j
, 2 ,
1
2
256 EI 2 48EI 32 256 EI

## 1 3ml 3 2ml 3 3ml 3

n 2 256 EI 48EI 256 EI n 2 15.36
EI
Dunkerly
ml 3
(3+10.66+3)ml3 16.199EI
= = Exact
256EI ml 3
256 EI EI
n 2 3
15.36 3
16.66 ml ml

EI
n 3.9191
ml 3

Example 3:

Beam m1
M
x
L

The natural frequency of a cantilever beam of negligible mass with a concentrated mass M
attached is
1
2 = 3EI
mL3
11
And
the natural frequency of a cantilever beam of mass m1 is
1
EI
2 = 12.7 m L3
22 1

## Therefore, fundamental frequency of the system, is

1
2 3EI + 12.7 EI mL3
mL3 0.412
1 m1 L3 EI

## This is considered as an extension of Rayleighs method. A closer approximation to the

natural mode can be obtained by superposing a number of assumed functions than using by a
single assume functions as in Rayleighs method.

## It gives the more accurate result than the previous method.

In the case of transverse vibration of beams, if n functions are chosen for approximating the
deflection W (x) , can be written as
w( x) c1w1 ( x) c2 w2 ( x) cn wn ( x)
Where, w1 ( x), w2 ( x), wn ( x) are linear independent functions of the spatial coordinate x which
satisfy the boundary condition of the problem, and c1 , c2 , cn are the coefficient to be found.

As the Rayleigh quotients have stationary value near the natural mode by differentient by
differentiating the Rayleigh quotient with respect to these coefficients will yield a set of
homogeneous algebraic equations, which can be solved to obtain the frequencies.
Example: Find the modal frequencies of a tapered cantilever beam of maximum height h,
length l with unity width.

Solution l

## Tapered cantilever beam

maximum height h, width =unity., length l
hx
Area of cross section A( x)
l
3
1 hx
Moment of inertia at any section I ( x)
12 l

## Assuming the deflection function w1 ( x), w2 ( x) as

2
x
w1 ( x) 1 ---------1(a)
l
2
x x
w2 ( x) 1 ------------------1(b)
l l

By using one term approximation, same result comes out as in case o f Rayleighs method

## We here using two term approximation,

2 2
x x x
w( x) c1 1 c2 1 -----------1(d)
l l l
Reyleigh quotient is given by
2
l
d 2 w( x)
0 EI ( x )
dx 2
dx
X
R
2
2
--------------1(e)
l Y

2
A ( x ) w ( x ) dx
0

## Substituting equation 1(d) into the equation 1(e), we obtain

Eh 3 c1 c1c 2 c1 2 c 2 2 2c1c 2
2 2
c2
X 3 And Y hl ----1(,f,g)
3l 4 10 5 30 280 105

The condition that makes 2 stationary are
X Y
Y X
( )2
c1 c1
0 -------------1(h)
c1 Y 2

and

X Y
Y X
( )2
c 2 c 2
0 --------------1(i)
c 2 Y 2

Substituting the equations 1(f,g) into the equations 1(h,i), can be written as

1 1 1 2
2 15
5 105 c1 0
--------------1(j)
1 2 1 1 c2 0

5 105 5 140

32l 4
Where
Eh 2

We have
1 13 3
2 0
8820 1400 50

## Therefore, the natural frequencies of the tapered beam are

1/ 2 1/ 2
Eh 2 Eh 2
1 1.537 4 and 2 4.994 4
l l

Exercise Problem : Find the first three mode frequencies of the tapered beamby using
Rayleigh-Ritz method considering the following approximate function.

2
x
w1 ( x) 1 ---------1(a)
l
2
x x
w2 ( x) 1 ------------------1(b)
l l
2 2
x x
w3 ( x) 1 --
l l
Lecture 3
4. Galerkins method

In Galerkins method the residue obtained by using the assumed mode in the governing
differential equation is minimized. Let the assumed shape function of the system be written as
n
( x) ci i ( x) (a)
i 1

where i (x) is the approximate solution of the differential equation. For example considering
the lateral vibration of a beam the differential equation of motion can be written as
d 4( x) m2
L( x ) ( x) 0 .(b)
dx 4 EI
Similarly for torsional vibration of rod, longitudinal vibration of rod and lateral vibration of
taut string one use the following equation.
d 2( x)
2

L( x ) ( x) 0 (c)
dx 2 c
Here ( x) is the eigenfunction of the system. When an approximate function i (x) is taken,
then it will not satisfy the above equation.
For each function, making the residual ( Ri ) equal to zero one may obtain the frequencies.
l
Ri ci i ( x)dx 0 (d)
0

## Now we have n linear and homogeneous equations coefficients c1 , c2 , cn . The following

example illustrates the application of Galerkins method.

Example

X=0 X=L

## Taking a function 1 ( x) x 2 (l x)2 which satisfy both the boundary conditions,

d 4( x) m2 d 4( x) 4
L( x ) ( x) ( x)
dx 4 EI dx 4
L( x) 4 x 4l 4 6 x6l 2 4 x5l 3 x8 4 x7l 48x3l 24x 4 24x 2l 2
l
1 49 4 5
So, residual R L( x)( x)dx l l 0
0
630 5

4l 4 504
l 4.738

EI EI
Hence 1 l
2
4
22.45
ml ml 4
2x 4x
Now taking two admissible functions as 1 ( x) 1 cos and 2 ( x) 1 cos , writing
L L
2x 4x
c11 ( x) c22 ( x) c1 1 cos c2 1 cos
L L
l
Ri L( x)i ( x)dx 0
0

## L( x) c1 (r 2 2 ) cos rx 4 c2 (16r 2 2 ) cos 2rx 4

where 4 m2 / EI and r 2 / L

2x

l
R1 c1 (r 2 2 ) cos rx 4 c2 (16r 2 2 ) cos 2rx 4 (1 cos )dx
0
L
4x

l
R2 c1 (r 2 2 ) cos rx 4 c2 (16r 2 2 ) cos 2rx 4 1 cos dx
0 L

By integration
r4
R1 1.54 c1 4c2
2
R2 4c1 (1.54 0.5r 4 )c2 0
4 3 4
8 4 4
c c1
L 2
1
0 A c 0
3 4 4 c2 2
4 128 4
2 L

## For frequency, Determinant of [A] =0

Taking 4 L4 , the above determinant can be written as
5r 2 8164 r 40968 0

Hence frequency equation are for L 4.741 and L 11.140 for both ends fixed beam
1/ 2
EI
1 22.48 4 , c1 23, c2 1 ,
ml
1/ 2
EI
and 2 124.1 4 , c1 0.69, c2 1 .
ml
The two modes are
2x 4x
1 ( x) 23(1 cos ) 1 cos
l l
2x 4x
2 ( x) 0.69(1 cos ) 1 cos
l l

## Matrix iteration method

This method is used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a multi
degree of freedom system. As it is known that for a multi degree of freedom system, the
governing equation can be reduced to the eigenvalue problem given by
A X X (1)

where A M K is known as the dynamic matrix, is the eigen value and X is the
1

mode shape. From this equation it may be noted that any normal mode when multiplied
with the dynamic matrix will reproduce itself. In matrix iteration method, assumed
displacement of the masses are used to get the calculated displacement. This is repeated till
equation (1) is satisfied.

## Steps used in the matrix iteration method.

Assume a value of the modal vector. (for example 3:2:1 for 3 dof system)
Substitute the assumed value in left hand side of equation (1) and simplify to obtain
a ratio (for example the obtained value is 4:3:1).
If the value obtained in step II is same as the assumed value, then it is accepted as
the correct modal value. Otherwise, the obtained value is substituted as the trial
value and the second step is repeated till the correct modal value is obtained.
After getting the modal values, from equation (1) the corresponding eigenvalue can
be obtained.
In general matrix iteration method would converge to the fundamental mode. If the
assumed system of displacements does not include the fundamental mode then the matrix
iteration will converge to the next higher mode contained in the assumed system of
displacements. Orthogonality principle is used to sweep out the unwanted modes from
assumed displacements.

In case of semi-definite systems, rigid body mode (zero frequency) is also present. For such
cases constraint matrices can be constructed to sweep out rigid body component of the
absolute motion.

## Estimation of higher mode frequencies

When the equations of motion are formulated in terms of the flexibility influence coefficients,
the iteration procedure converges to the lowest mode present in the assumed deflection. Hence
in the absence of the lowest mode of the assumed deflection the iteration process will converge
to the next lowest, or the second mode. Let the displacement X be written as the combination
of eigenfunctions X i as follows.
X c1 X1 c2 X 2 cn X n --------------------------------------------(a)
For example for a 3dof system X x1 , x2 , x3 ' and X i x1 , x2 , x3 i '
To remove the first mode, one has to impose the condition c1 0 . To do this, premultiplying
X 1M in both sides of equation (a) and applying orthogonality principles of normal modes
yields
X1MX c1 X1MX1 c2 X1MX 2 cn X1MX n c1 X1MX1 (b)
Hence for c1 to be zero X1MX 0 (c)
Using this condition a sweeping matrix S can be generated to sweep out the lowest mode from
the assume displacement and the resulting iteration will lead to the higher mode.

## In case of 3 dof system, expression (c)leads to

m1 0 0 x1

X 1MX x1 , x2 , x3 0 m2 0 x2 0
0 0 m2 x3
m1 x1 x1 m2 x2 x2 m3 x3 x3 0 .
So one may write the above equation as
m2 x2 m3 x3
x1 x2 x3
m1 x1 m1 x1
x2 x2
x3 x3
or in matrix form
m2 x2 m3 x3
0
x1 m1 x1 m1 x1 x1
x
x2 0 1 0
2
x 0 x3
3 0 1

or, X SX

m2 x2 m3 x3
0
m1 x1 m1 x1
where S 0 1 0

0 0 1

S is known as the sweeping matrix, which will eliminate the presence of the fundamental
mode. Similarly one should substitute c1 c2 0 to eliminate the first two normal modes
from the assumed vibration to determine the 3rd mode frequency.

Example
Consider a long beam with three masses as shown in figure 1. Determine the mode shapes
and natural frequencies of the system using matrix iteration method.
Solution
To Determine natural frequency and mode shape of multi degree of freedom system, the
influence coefficients are obtained as
1
a11 a21 a31
4k m x3
1
a11 a21 a31 a12 a13 k
4k
1 1 3
a22 2m x2
4k 2k 4k
3 2k
a22 a23 a32
4k
3m x1
1 1 1 7
a33 4k
4 k 2 k k 4k
The flexibility influence coefficient matrix can be written as
1 1 1
1
a 1 3 3 .
4k
3 3 7
3 0 0
The mass matrix can be written as 0 2 0
0 0 1
Hence the displacements at different position due to inertia forces are
x1 a11 3mx1 a12 2mx2 a13mx3
x2 a21 3mx1 a22 2mx2 a23mx3
x3 a31 3mx1 a32 2mx2 a33mx3
Now substituting xi w2 xi
x1 3 2 1 x1
m2 x
x2 3 6 3 2
x 4k 3 6 7 x
3 3

Now taking

x1 3 2 1 x1
m2 x
x2 3 6 3 2
x 4k 3 6 7 x
3 3

## Now taking any a trial vector X 1 2 3

1 3 2 1 1 11.7521
m2
3 6 3 2.4893
2
m
2.4893 29.2565
3.7735 4k 3 6 7 3.7735 4k 44.3503

1 1
11.7521m2
2.4893 2.4895
3.7735 4k 3.7738

Hence, it may be noted that the assumed mode shape matches with the obtained mode
shape upto 3rd decimal. So one can take the first normal mode X 1 as
1

X 1 2.4895
3.7738

11.7521m2
and 1
4k
k
or, 1 12 0.3404
m
To find the second mode, using the sweeping matrix
m2 x2 m3 x3
0
m1 x1 m1 x1 0 1.659 1.2579
S 0 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 1

So the new equation for second mode iteration is
x1 3 2 1 0 1.659 1.2579 x1
m2 0 x
x2 3 6 3 1 0 2
x 4 k 3 6 7 0 1 x3
3 0

x1 0 2.98 2.7740 x1
m2
or, x2 4k 0 1.02 0.7740 x2
x 3.226 x3
3 0 1.02

## Starting with a trial value of X 1 0 1 after several iteration

1.0 1.0
2.7756m2
0.8367 0.8361
1.8996 4k 1.8988

As the left hand side vector and right hand side vector are matching upto 3rd decimal we can
take the 2nd normal mode as
x1 1.0

x2 0.8361
x 1.8988
3

2.7756m2
1
4k
4 k k
Hence the 2nd eigenvalues is 2 22 1.4411
2.7756 m m

k
Or, the second mode frequency = 2 1.2
m
For the determination of third mode, one may impose the condition c1 c2 0 .

3
c1 mi xi 1 xi 0
i 1
3
c2 mi xi 2 xi 0
i 1

c1 m1 x1 1 x1 m2 x2 1 x2 m3 x3 1 x3
c2 m1 x1 2 x1 m2 x2 2 x2 m3 x3 2 x3
c1 3x1 4.979 x2 3.7738 x3
or
c2 3x1 1.6722 x2 1.8998 x3

x1 1.5896 x3
x2 1.7157 x3
x1 0 0 1.5896 x1

x2 0 0 1.7157 x2
x 0 0 1 x3
3

Hence one may use the following sweeping matrix to eliminate the first two modes

0 0 1.5896
S2 0 0 1.7157
0 0 1
So for third mode the matrix iteration equation will be

x1 3 2 1 0 0 1.5896 x1
m2
x2 3 6 3 0 0 1.7157 x2
x 4k 3 6 7 0 0 1 x3
3
x1 0 0 2.3374 x1
m2 0 0 2.5254 x
or, x2 2
x 4k 1 x3
3 0 0

It can immediately be observed that the third mode converges to the last column of the
sweeping matrix.
1.5896 1.5896
m2
1.7157 1.4746 1.7157
1 4k 1

1.5896

X 3 1.7157
1

1.5896
m2
1.4746 1.7157 1
4k 1

4 k k
3 32 2.7133
1.4742 m m

k
So, 3 1.6472 .
m

## So the normal mode frequencies are

k k k
1 0.5834 2 1.2 3 1.6472
m m m
1 1.0 1.5896

X 1 2.4895 X 2 0.8361 X 3 1.7157
3.7738 1.8988 1