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BE2E TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 28/4/10 13:27 Page 2

TYPE HISTORY with photos from Harry Woodman

B.E.2e he history of the B.E.2e really hostilities on the Western Front.


2

T begins in 1911 when Geoffrey de


Havilland and F. M. Green designed
the B.E. I, a two-seater tractor
biplane powered by a 60 h.p.
Wolseley engine. Later the B.E.I was much
improved and engined by a 70 h.p. Renault
and known as the B.E.2. In this form, its capa-
Further modifications were the sub-
stitution of a Vee undercarriage in
place of the twin skid type and the
installation of the 90 h.p. R.A.F. Ia
engine in place of the 70 h.p. Renault.
The B.E.2e, in principle an improved
B.E.2c, was produced for the Battle of
bilities were quickly recognised and many the Somme, 1916, but only one
notable flights were made in the two years machine was in the field in time to
before the Great War. participate in the opening stages of
Subsequent developments, the provision of the battle. This aeroplane was on the
ailerons on staggered mainplanes in place of strength of No. 21 Squadron at Fienvillers. Home Defence squadrons of the R.F.C. (as
the old warping wings, a fixed fin, and a Thereafter B.E.2es were used in increasing well as many units on the Western Front and
redesigned fuselage of improved aerodynam- numbers until the close of hostilities. elsewhere). Like the B.E.2c, the 2e often car-
ic form gave the Royal Flying Corps an aero- More B.E.2es were built than any other ried a single Lewis gun in the front cockpit,
plane which became immortal (or maybe variant in the B.E. series. From production for which assorted mountings were available.
notorious) as the B.E.2c, the standard recon- totalling 1,320 aircraft (plus some B.E.2c and An alternative armament tried by some of the
naissance machine in the first two years of 2d conversions), B.E.2es were issued to 11 Home Defence aircraft for anti-Zeppelin
1: BE2e serial A1329, one of a group built by Napier & Miller Ltd. of Old Kilpatrick, the entire group was transferred to the RNAS. 2: Among the several tasks allo-
cated to the BE2e was that of Home Defence. The aircraft could hardly match a Zeppelins speed, rate of climb or altitude. This sample carries swivelling brack-
ets for two Lewis guns, two carriers for 100/112lb bombs and a pair of rocket tubes mounted on the interplane struts. 3: An unidentified BE2e fitted with a sin-
gle Lewis on a Strange mounting. In service many BE2es flew without the underwing gravity fuel tank. 4: One of the most unlikely aircraft to be used as a night
bomber some BE2es were employed in this capacity in France. No. 5844 was built by Bristol and after several makeovers, is seen here with No. 100 Squadron.
Painted black or dark grey it carries a single 2301b RFC pattern bomb under the fuselage, a pair of Michelin flares to the rear and another pair of T.W.R. flares
under the wings. To complete the set, Holt flare brackets are fitted as well as navigation lamps to wingtips and tail. 5: An unfortunate landing for a pair of train-
ing BE2es most probably belonging to one of the Schools of Aerial Fighting in 1918. Note the aluminium skinning fitted to the centre section to provide a firm
base for the Lewis gun mounts (or fire hazard) and the shortened exhaust pipes. 6: One of the problems with the entire BE2 series was the difficulty of defend-
ing itself due to the arrangement of cockpits. Everything was done by the pilot in the rear seat whilst his gunner had little room for manoeuvre. In this case the
single Lewis is mounted on a Strange mount and demonstrates the only area in which he had a moderately unhindered field of fire. 7: A BE2e of No. 47
Squadron in Macedonia illustrates the cluttered assembly of the equipment carried on an operational BE2e. Apart from the top Lewis on the Strange mounting,
another Lewis is fixed to the fuselage arranged to fire at an angle to clear the propeller. Within reach of the pilot are two bomb release levers and a framework
to hold a camera. 8: After the war vast amounts of aviation stores and aircraft were scrapped or sold. Among the miscellany of aircraft were a few BE2es which
went to Russia. In this alien environment was this BE2e photographed with its well insulated crew at the Red Air Fleet base at Sarapul in 1920.

30 Flying Scale Models


BE2E TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 28/4/10 13:27 Page 3

3 4

5 6

patrols comprised a quartet of Le Prieur rock- lapse if the aeroplane was held at the top of a bomb the demoralised Turks. B.E.2es were
ets, the launching rails for which were loop. Many rumours circulated about the also employed on Home Defence duties, at
attached to the interplane struts, two each B.E.2es extensions. Unless properly rigged the training schools and a number were used
side and angled upwards. Little success was they would flap alarmingly and it was said by the Royal Naval Air Service. At least one
achieved by the B.E.2e as a fighter, its per- that if they did so in earnest, the aeroplane Zeppelin was intercepted by a B.E.2e.
formance being inadequate for aerial combat became an ornithopter, invested with miracu- Construction of the B.E.2e was quite ortho-
by 1916, and heavy losses were suffered by lous lifting powers! dox and consisted of mainplanes of two
the R.F.C. squadrons flying the type in France. Attempts were made to produce a single- spruce mainspars and ribs braced with wire.
Retroactively, the designations B.E.2f and seater scout using a standard B.E.2e airframe. The fuselage was a rectangular wooden
B.E.2g were applied to distinguish, respective- The 12-cylinder 150 h.p. R.A.F. 4A was fitted structure with four main wooden longerons
ly, between those B.E.2es converted from 2cs in place of the 90 h.p. eight-cylinder engine and intermediate struts, wire braced with a
and those built as 2es or converted from 2ds, and a fixed synchronised Vickers gun was semicircular turtle deck, stringered aft of the
as their fuel systems and capacities were sig- mounted on the port side of the fuselage. pilots cockpit and ply covered forward. Main
nificantly different. This version was known as the B.E.12Ae. fuel tanks were in the fuselage and a gravity
In design, the B.E.2e differed from the Even in this form the aeroplane was far too feed reserve tank was provided under the
B.E.2c in the construction of the mainplanes. unwieldy to prove of any real use as a fight- port upper wing. The engine was carried on
The 2c had two-bay wings, while those of the ing machine and it was quickly relegated to tubular steel bearers which were extensions
2e were of the single bay type. Upper wings bombing. of the upper longerons. The undercarriage
were of much greater span than the lower Apart from action in France, the B.E.2e saw struts and centre section struts were also of
and braced by a system of kingposts and service in the Middle East and in India. During tubular steel, faired with wood bound with
wires. The higher aspect ratio and simpler the attack on Jerusalem in General Allenbys fabric tape. The empennage was wood, wire
layout of the new mainplanes bestowed only Palestinian campaign, the aerodrome of No. braced, and the ash tail skid was mounted on
a meagre increase in performance, while the 14 Squadron became waterlogged, but by a tubular steel pylon. Shock absorbtion of
huge extensions of the upper wings were not manhandling the B.E.2es to the top of a small main landing wheels and tailskid was with
suited to aerobatics and were prone to col- steep hill, it was found possible to take off to elastic cord.

Dimensions
Wing span: 40 ft. 8 in. 8
Length: 27 ft. 3 in.
Height: 12 ft.
Wing chord: 5 ft. 6 in.
Wing area: 360 sq. ft.

Performance
82 m.p.h. at 6,500 ft.
75 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft.
Climb rates: 24 minutes to 6,500 ft;
53 minutes to 10,000 ft.
Service ceiling: 11,000 ft.
Endurance: 3.1/4 hours.

Weights:
Gross 2,100 lb. Empty 1,431 lb. Fuel and
oil 239 lb.
Military load and crew 430 lb.

Flying Scale Models 31


BE2E SCALE DRAWING Tony OK 28/4/10 13:22 Page 2

ROYAL AIRCRAFT
FACTORY

BE2e
Scale 1:40
BE2E SCALE DRAWING Tony OK 28/4/10 13:22 Page 3

1: PILOTS SEAT
2: OBSERVERS SEAT
3: CONTROL
COLUMNS
4: LEATHER PADDING
5: PETROL TANKS
6: OIL TANK
7: LOCKER
8: INSTRUMENT PAN-
ELS
9: ALTERNATIVE
EXHAUST MAINFOLD
10: RUDDER BARS
11: FILLER CAP
12: LEWIS GUN
BETWEEN REAR C/S
STRUTS

COLOUR
WING AND TAIL
UNDERSIDES: CLEAR
DOPED.

REMAINDER: BROWN-
ISH - KHAKI.

METAL COWLS: MID


GREY OR UNPAINTED.

U/C STRUTS/GRAVITY
TANK: MID GREY.
OTHER

STRUTS/AIRSCREW:
VARNISHED WOOD
BE2E MODEL Tony OK 28/4/10 13:15 Page 2
BE2E MODEL Tony OK 28/4/10 13:16 Page 3

CONSTRUCTION FEATURE

BE2E
the Model
Roy Scotts 1/6th scale masterpiece
for .60 size engines
oy Scott was one of lower wing - one for the ailerons

R those exceptional scale


modellers - the kind with
an enormous capacity
for scale model con-
struction, at a pace that few of us
can ever hope to match.
His talent for scale modelling
and one for the bomb-release if
youre going for this animation
option. Go on, give it a try! As an
alternative to one centre-mounted
aileron servo, two super-slim types
could be used, for port and star-
board controls, but if you go that
blossomed during the late 1960s to route, be sure to select servos that
early 70s, when 10cc (.60 cu. in.) will deliver the drive power neces-
engines were all that were allowed sary to reliably move the ailerons
(legally, anyway - or at least, with- on both upper and lower wings
out special insurance). Yet Roy, as which are linked by adjustable
a professional model-maker DID drive struts.
make some very big models to Dihedral on the upper wing is
order, at a time before the arrival set by the plywood dihedral
of the LMA and before so many of braces, while for the lower wing, 8
the aids to modelling that, nowa- s.w.g. piano wire braces are epoxy
days, we take entirely for granted. glued to the spars. These are not
One of Roys most successful man enough to withstand in-flight
creations for his own personal pur- loads on their own and it is vital to
poses was his B.E.2e of which he remember that this model is
was rightly proud. This one was designed so that the rigging wires
built down to the confines of the take the strain - theyre not just
power available from a normal there for the scale effect!
.60-size two-stroke - the ubiquitous The plan shows the wing tips in
O.S.60 (there were few nicer 3/16 balsa sheet, cambered to fol-
engines of that period). low the centre-line of the aerofoil
The B.E.2e here is to a nicely section. To get that curvature, it
manageable 1/6th scale. It spans might be a good idea to make the
79.75 (2025 mm) and with an wing tips in three laminations of
overall length of 54.5 will fit com- 1/16 sheet.
fortably into an average size car
for the journey to the flying field. Fuselage
The character of this rather
Construction quaint looking aeroplane lies in
To kick off the construction, its the fuselage with its twin open
never a bad idea to start with the cockpits, big engine cowl and
tailplane. Quite apart from giving external elevator control wire run-
the impression of being one-third ning along the sides of the fuse-
done, it gets you into the swing of lage. The undercarriage, particular-
the thing. Roys plan shows an ly the tailskid, also adds to that
open structure tailplane with defin- character.
itive trailing edge, but an alterna- As a preliminary to fuselage con-
tive would be the much-copied struction, it is a good idea to pre-
Eric Coates technique of a flat- pare and bend to shape the com-
plate core, with aerofoil ribbed bined piano wire main-undercar-
structure built up around it. That riage-cum-cabane-strut assembly.
way, you get a sharper trailing Given the boxy lines of the fuse-
edge that more closely replicates lage, its no surprise that fuselage
the full-size. construction starts with the basic
Wings can be built next, so its box based on spruce longerons,
out with the scalpel for a serious but with balsa spacers and cross
wing rib cutting session - or you pieces, plus 1/4 sheet balsa sides
can take advantage of our laser-cut back as far as the rear cockpit and
parts set. There are two servos 1/16 ply doublers. Beyond that, it
shown in the centre-section of the is a matter of adding the top deck

Flying Scale Models 35
BE2E MODEL Tony OK 28/4/10 13:16 Page 4

NB: Laser-cut components shown here are only representative examples


of the work - not specific to the BE2E offered.

PLANS N PARTS
For the

B.E.2e formers and 1mm ply deck- ing wires are not there just
FULL-SIZE COPIES of the two-sheet plan set for the B.E.2e are avail- ing to achieve a complete for decoration. They do the
able from Flying Scale Models Plans Service, Model Activity Press
basic fuselage. work, as per the full-size, in
Ltd., Unit 5, Chiltern Business Centre, 63-65 Woodside Road,
Amersham, Bucks, HP6 6AA, Great Britain. Once the airframe is com- preventing the wings from
Price 19.50 plus post & packing - UK 5.00; Europe 5.95; Rest of plete, and the radio and clapping hands above the
world 9.00. engine installation done, it cockpit! So be sure that all
is time to face the task of all wire terminations as fully
those rigging wires. The secure - and adjustable!
BE READY TO START BUILDING AS SOON AS plan shows the full layout Covering? Well Solartex,
YOU UNFOLD THE PLANS! and anchor points. Just or maybe Koverall are the
remember what has already standard for an open frame-
ALSO AVAILABLE is a set of laser-cut airframe components that
include wing ribs and leading edge riblets, fuselage formers, fuselage been said ... that the brac- work type like this.
sides and doublers, engine bulkhead, tailplane, fin & rudder centre
cores; tailplane/fin & rudder ribs and scalloped ply trailing edge strips.
Alltogether, a set of parts that eliminates much of the initial cutting
work so that the building task can commence immediately.

Prices 130.00 plus 9.50 UK postage.


(Overseas customers: postage charged on individual country basis -
please enquire).

36 Flying Scale Models


BE2E MODEL Tony OK 28/4/10 13:17 Page 5

Flying Scale Models 37


BE2E MODEL Tony OK 28/4/10 13:17 Page 6
BE2 RESTORATION Tony OK 28/4/10 12:56 Page 3

DETAIL STUDY with photos by Paul Butler

B.E.2f Resoration
Not quite a B.E.2e, but externally, the f version is near enough for Paul Butlers
collection of detail photos presented here, to be a good source of surface detail
he B.E. 2f is very similar to the It was believed to be part of a batch of had been made for it in the UK (not

T B.E.2e, and is basically a B.E.2c


with E wings, although there
are some other less apparent
carry-overs from the C. The
worlds only airworthy and genuine
example of the type flew again in New
Zealand in April last year after a very
delivered to Norway by the RFC in 1917.
How it made its way back to UK is not
know, but It was eventually donated to
the Mosquito Museum in the UK (the
type being an early De Havilland design),
and after several years, it found its way
into private ownership - and was put up
entirely accurately, as it turned out), and
it arrived in New Zealand with an original
RAF 1a engine in very poor condition.
April 2nd 2009 was a landmark day for
this painstaking restoration, when the air-
craft took to the air again. Since the F is
so similar to the E version, this collec-
lengthy 25-year restoration that spanned for sale. tion of close-up detail pictures taken by
the world, the project having previously It was acquired by the NZ-based 1914- Australian Paul Butler provide an excel-
been worked on by several different 18 Aviation Heritage Trust over ten years lent basis for piling on the detail to Roy
organisations both in the UK and in New ago. The fuselage was in great condition, Scotts 1/6th scale model feature in this
Zealand. Initially this project was thought with a lot of original timber in airworthy issue.
to be a B.E.2e. standard. A set of reproduction wings

Flying Scale Models 39
BE2 RESTORATION Tony OK 28/4/10 12:56 Page 4

40 Flying Scale Models


BE2 RESTORATION Tony OK 28/4/10 12:56 Page 5

Flying Scale Models 41


BE2 RESTORATION Tony OK 28/4/10 12:57 Page 6

42 Flying Scale Models


P43 29/4/10 10:57 Page 3

Flying Scale Models 43


EMERAUDE Tony OK 28/4/10 12:37 Page 2

SUBJECTS FOR SCALE

Piel CP-30 Eme


A really pleasing shape, plus airframe construction like an overcgrown model make this Fr

50 Flying Scale Models


EMERAUDE Tony OK 28/4/10 12:37 Page 3

mong the select names of air- WW2, Piel constructed the small, single- way or another became so commercially

A craft designers responsible for


the flow of popular home-built
designs emanating from France
since 1948, Claude Piel has per-
haps appeared under a dimmer spotlight
than some others like Gardan, Druine, Joly
and Delemontez.
seat Pinnochio for a Volkswagen engine,
the main feature of which was its appear-
ance as a mini-Spitfire with curved wing
outline. Although popular with the local
pilots, the design was not produced by
other constructors and Piel developed his
CP-30 Emeraude as a side-by-side two-
embarrassed that production ceased,
through no fault of the design at all. This
even extended to the Super version pro-
duced by Scintex with more powerful
engine, large blown transparent canopy
and full instrumentation.
The Emeraude was produced to a limited
Yet perhaps of all the French light aircraft seater using a similar wing planform. extent in Britain by Messrs. Garland-
that have been built from plans approved This was soon adopted by the home- Bianchi at Maidenhead, Berkshire, for the
by the R.S.A., those from Claude Piel have builders and a number of small companies (then) very competitive price of 2,200. The
been the most attractive in line and among became interested in serious production, name was changed to Linnet and reports
the most conventional in their forms of but it seems an unfortunate fact that every- of test-flights were glowing with approval.
control and proportion. Immediately after one connected with the Emeraude in some The aircraft was demonstrated during 1958

meraude
French light aircraft a compelling subject for scale modelling


Flying Scale Models 51
EMERAUDE Tony OK 28/4/10 12:37 Page 4

Scale 1:30

52 Flying Scale Models


EMERAUDE Tony OK 28/4/10 12:37 Page 5

Piel CP-30
EMERAUDE
Flying Scale Models 53
EMERAUDE Tony OK 28/4/10 12:37 Page 6

by Neville Duke, the well know test pilot


who will always be associated with the
development of the Hawker Hunter jet
fighter. But production and sales of the
Linnet only extended to three examples.
In every respect, the Linnet (Emeraude)
behaved as prettily as it looked. Reviews
have referred to it as a thoroughbred. lts
descendants have maintained the reputa-
tion, but it is the Emeraude which remains
the most favoured of the Piel designs for
home-builders. Many were produced by
home-builders in Canada and the U.S.A.,
where involved colour schemes added
extra glamour.
Construction was all wood and an empty
These two views of the basic Emeraude airframe graphi- weight of 802 Ib. is a good reason for the
cally illustrate just how closely the construction parallels sprightly performance on a 10 h.p.
that which would be basically used for a model of the Continental. Strictly a two-seater, it has a
type.
top speed of 130 m.p.h., cruises at 115
m.p.h., and a range of over 700 miles.
Span is 26 ft. 4 in., length 20 ft. 9 ins.

54 Flying Scale Models


EMERAUDE Tony OK 28/4/10 12:38 Page 7

Forerunner of the Emeraude, the


single place CP-20 Pinnochio.

Flying Scale Models 55


MORANE FREE PLAN PART 1 TONY OK 24/5/11 11:45 Page 2

FULL-SIZE FREE PLAN FEATURE by Peter Rake & Steve Perry

Moran

14 Flying Scale Models


MORANE FREE PLAN PART 1 TONY OK 24/5/11 11:45 Page 3

ne Saulnier Type N
PART 1: An electric scale model for three or four function control.
Designed by Peter Rake, with the prototype model built and described
by Steve Perry
esigned as a pre-war racer, the

D Morane Saulnier Type N sacrificed


nearly everything for speed, (just
over 100 mph was blisteringly fast
in 1913). Built for straight-line
speed, stability and manoeuvrability charac-
teristics suffered. The N were a handful to
fly, but was fast for its time. When war broke
out the following year, aircraft were used for
observation and proved invaluable in that
role. Shortly thereafter, the need yo deny the
enemy the benefits of aerial observation
became important.
The Germans soon introduced the Fokker
Eindecker with its single synchronized
machine gun firing straight ahead through
the propeller. While lacking a synchronized
gun of their own, the French began experi-
menting with armoured propellers designed
to deflect bullets fired through the propeller
arc. First tried on the parasol wing Morane
Saulnier Type L, bullet deflectors were soon
fitted to the propellers of the Type Ns, which
had been pressed into service as fast scouts.
The French used their Hotchkiss gun and
the British, also lacking a counter to the
German Fokkers with their synchronized gun,
adapted a Lewis gun to the Type Ns they had
bough from the French. The added weight of
a gun and extra ammunition only made the
already poor handling characteristics worse.
Pilots had plenty to do just to fly the airplane;
manoeuvring for a shot and operating an
often contrary machine gun made the Type N
nearly as deadly to its own pilots a they were
to the enemy. When the French Nieuport 11s
and British DH2s came into service with their
greater performance, manoeuvrability and
un-interrupted rates of fire, the Morane
TOP: Sheeting the shells while they are still attached to the board reduces the risk of pulling things out
Bullets as they had become known, were rel- of line. ABOVE: Once the top shell is finished, seen in the background, youll need a bottom shell to
egated to the role of squadron hacks and go with it.
quickly disappeared from combat.
Disliked by their pilots and not designed for While officially referred to as Morane and were roundly disliked by all who flew
aerial combat, the Morane Saulnier Type N Monocoques, the Type N had a traditional them.
remains an iconic aircraft of the First World wire braced girder fuselage. The rounded The wing panels were braced by wires run-
War, probably due to its design as a stream- sides were filled out by formers and stringers. ning from a kingpost on the top of the fuse-
lined monoplane which hinted at greater They had a shoulder mounted wing and later- lage, through hard points on the wing panels
things yet to come. al control was achieved by wing warping and down to the landing gear and a kingpost
The French were the first to remove their which required a fairly heavy hand on the on the bottom. The bottom kingpost support-
type Ns from combat service in 1915. The controls. The elevator was one piece and ed a bellcrank operated by rods from the con-
RFC used them, mostly in No. 60 Squadron rotated about the spar which ran through a trol stick in the cockpit. The bellcrank pulled
until October of 1916. These included a few bearing tube at the horizontal knife edge of the trailing edge of one wing panel down and
Type Is and Type Vs. The type I had a 110 Hp the rear fuselage. This made pitch control since the corresponding cables on top of the
Le Rhone engine and the Type V has a larger very sensitive. One can only imagine how wings ran through a pulley on the top king-
wing in addition to the larger engine. Some hard it was to fly an aeroplane requiring post, the opposite wing panels trailing edge
type Is and Type Vs were fitted with synchro- heavy side-to-side movements of the control was raised. One had to not only overcome
nized Vickers guns. The Russians operated stick while at the same time, the slightest fore the aerodynamic forces acting against the
some Type N and Type I machines, a few of and aft movement of the stick resulted in pro- warped wing panels; one also had to physi-
which survived the war and saw service in nounced changes in pitch. These airplanes cally bend the wood, wire and fabric struc-
the Russian Civil War following WWI. were a handful to fly for even the best pilots ture. Hence a heavy hand was required for

Flying Scale Models 15
MORANE FREE PLAN PART 1 TONY OK 24/5/11 11:45 Page 4

pleasant flying model to stooge around the


pattern with on a Sunday morning, then for-
get the wing warping and build this model as
rudder / elevator / throttle with reasonable
dihedral. Build it as a wing-warper only if
you are willing to sacrifice ease of flight for
scale looks and function.
I built mine as a wing-warper and while it is
a handful to fly without mixing rudder and
warp, I am thrilled with how it came out and
what making it a wing-warper has taught me
about the state of aerodynamics at the start
of WWI.
I received a set of plans from Pete as a .PDF
file attached to an e-mail. I transferred the file
to a little memory stick and took it to a local
print shop where they have a printer big
enough to print the whole plan full size on
Using laser cut parts, and building accurately should mean a good mate between the two halves. one page. If I recall correctly, the cost was
Note how Steve has removed some upper shell sheeting at the sides. about 2 or 3 Dollars a page, at that rate I had
two full sets made, one to work from and one
to keep. All the parts were drawn on the
plans and could be traced or cut out as tem-
plates for hand cutting the parts. However,
the formers with all their notches and the
need for some precisely cut and matched
parts makes a laser cut parts set a far more
attractive option for all but the most hope-
lessly masochistic of modellers. I was lucky
enough to have a set of laser cut parts from
which to build the prototype model and a set
is available from FSM Plans Service as
detailed in this issue. That is a major plus
these days when quality balsa is getting hard-
A close-up view showing how Steve created his Shaped and glassed foam form the spinner and
er to find. Speaking of balsa quality, it would
wing warping cranks. Other methods, including cowl. See the text about white foam spinners, be a good idea not to use soft or medium soft
that shown on the plan, will also work. not a great idea. balsa for the fuselage stringers. You will be
handling the fuselage a lot prior to covering it
what amounted to fairly poor lateral control. and its size and weight make gripping it with-
This is the primary reason for the machines The model out crushing stringers a challenge at times,
limited manoeuvrability in combat. Morane When Pete said he was designing a model of so do yourself a favour and use fairly hard
Saulnier designed improved wing panels and the Type N, I had been interested in building balsa for the fuselage stringers.
these were provided to the British, (Most a wing warping WWI model for some time in While on the subject of materials, the spin-
French Type Ns had been withdrawn from order to explore what wing warping was all ner and cowl are made from fibreglass cov-
combat service by this time.) The new wings about, so I jumped at the opportunity. Let me ered foam. I used a fairly dense commercial
were an improvement, but not a solution. be clear about this, if you are looking for a grade of beaded white foam. I strongly rec-

Now it starts to look like a Morane Saulnier. Note the wire


rigging loops on the pylon, more about this later.

16 Flying Scale Models


MORANE FREE PLAN PART 1 TONY OK 24/5/11 11:45 Page 5

An iconic type of the era, the


Morane Saulnier N has a very
purposeful appearance.

THE SPINNER - AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD


The most important point that Steve raises about his spinner was that he tried to use white, beaded foam; that was
what prevented him getting a good balance - beads pulled out and the gaps filled with resin, throwing the balance out.
Blue or pink foams don't cause the same problem. Using multiple layers of lightweight glass cloth, and just enough
resin to completely wet the cloth also helps. Pull the cloth tight, and avoid wrinkles like the plague.
To ensure the ability to balance a spinner, Pat uses two backplates (a solid one behind the prop and a ring attached to
the spinner) and multiple retaining screws between the two. Then, if one side is heavy, you just remove a screw from
that side, using whichever screw position results in a balanced spinner. Sounds crude, but works extremely well.
ommend you obtain the thickest possible tle shelf that is perfect. the two single arms with a section cut from a
sheets of pink or blue foam and laminate the If you are going the wing-warping route, multi-arm servo horn -PR).
blocks youll need from that material and you have two options. Pete has drawn a wire Once you have the bellcrank mechanism
leave the beaded foam to the beer coolers. (In loop soldered to the bottom kingpost through mounted on the kingpost, you can temporari-
fact, Steve had such trouble balancing his which the warping wires run directly up to ly slide the ends of the kingpost into the slots
spinner that I persuaded Pat Lynch to make the servo arms. For this option you will need formed during the construction of the lower
one for him. So, a truly international effort, a standard size servo as the abrupt angle fuselage shell. With the kingpost and bell
designed in the UK, built in the USA and fit- made as the wires run up to the servo will crank in position you can now determine
ted with a spinner made in Australia. PR) generate some friction and require some exactly how to mount the warp servo so its
pretty good pull to warp the wing. That servo arms are directly above the double arm of the
The build begins will need to be mounted so that the servo bell crank.
I began construction of the fuselage first. You arms are in line directly above the wire loop Pushrods with some means of length
need to get the rounded front sheeted to on the lower kingpost. This will require that adjustment need to be made up to fit at this
establish the exact diameter and curve for the you bend up the lower kingpost and solder point. Either Kwik Clips on threaded end rods
foam cowl. The fuselage is actually a tradi- on the loop at this time in order to temporari- or servo arm connectors and Z bends will
tional box and frame structure, though you ly install them so that the warping servo can work. Which ever method you use, mount the
have to look at it hard to see it. The fuselage be mounted in exactly the correct position. servo so that the pushrods will run as straight
consists of separate top and bottom horizon- I chose to indulge myself and make a bell- and vertical as possible between the bell
tal keel and former shells. crank mechanism like the original airplane crank on the bottom kingpost and the servo
The front box parts are actually built into used. My bellcrank is scale in design and arm. This is all vastly easier to do before you
each shell and form the complete front box function, though it is a bit over-scale in size. glue the upper and lower fuselage shells
only upon joining the top and bottom shells. The mechanism consists of three arms together. Use clamps or tape to hold the
Since the two shells need to match perfectly mounted on a shaft, which runs through a shells together as you work, this way you
when joined, it is best to build the two keels brass tube bearing which is bound and sol- ensure alignment, but can still separate the
first, one on top of the other with plastic wrap dered in the apex of the lower kingpost. The shells to get at the interior and add whatever
or wax paper between to prevent the two three arms are simply nylon servo arms, two wood pieces you will need to mount the warp
keels from sticking together. single arms and a central double arm. The servo exactly where you want it.
Adding the liteply front box parts as you central double arm is operated by pushrods You will also want to mount the rudder and
build the shells can be tricky. Carefully study running down from the wing-warping servo. elevator servos before gluing the fuselage
the plans and make sure you have the correct The single arms are angled slightly down and shells together. Do this after you have mount-
parts in the correct place and oriented cor- point in opposite directions. The arms are ed the warp servo, because you will need to
rectly. Remember, you are building the bot- fixed to the shaft by set-screws and epoxy. It ensure that the pull/pull cables for the rudder
tom shell upside down. If you have built the all assembles with one single arm, then the and elevator will run aft without interference
horizontal keels identically and added the double arm, then the shaft passes through from the warp servo and its moving arm,
front box pieces in the correct places and ori- the brass tube bearing and the final single pushrods and connectors. It is also a good
entations, the upper and lower fuselage shells arm attaches on the aft side of the brass bear- time to mount any Velcro or other means of
will fit together pretty closely. (Considering ing tube and pointing in the opposite direc- attachment for your Rx and ESC. Once you
the plan is CAD drawn, if you build accurately tion from the first single arm. When the dou- have done all the hard to get at things inside
I would hope theyll do more than just fit ble arm is horizontal, the two single arms the fuselage, glue the upper and lower shells
together pretty closely - PR). should point down at about a 30-35 degree together.
Before gluing them, it is time to make some angle and in opposite directions. The mecha- It is necessary to add the sheeting to the
final decisions on the placement of the ser- nism should rotate freely in the bearing tube front of the fuselage at this point. You need to
vos, ESC, Rx and battery. I can tell you from and have minimal slop. (To keep it a little define the exact surface of the front of the
my experience that the battery will need to be neater, and more scale, you could also make model in order to be able to match up the
as far forward as possible. The firewall and your own cranks from sheet brass. However, foam cowl as you shape it, so do the sheeting
the front landing gear support form a nice lit- another possibility might well be to replace and sand it up smooth and ready to cover.

Flying Scale Models 17


MORANE FREE PLAN PART 1 TONY OK 24/5/11 11:45 Page 6

If you employ wing warping,


dont expect bank and yank
type flying, it needs rudder
mixed with the warp control for
smooth turns.

NB: Laser-cut components shown here are only representative examples


of the work - not specific to the Ansoldo Balilla offered here.

CUT PARTS SET


for the The cowl
The foam cowl posed me some problems as working with foam and

MORANE
fibreglass was all new to me. Blue and pink foam is pretty scarce locally,
so I used some white beaded foam I was able to get. I made a plywood
disc the correct diameter of the front of the fuselage and attached it to a
drill motor by means of a bolt and lock washers through the centre. I

SAULNIER
glued a large chunk of foam the exact thickness of the cowl to the ply-
wood disc with four spots of epoxy so it would be secure, but fairly easy
to cut away when the time came. I used a hand saw to trim the foam
chunk to a rough, oversized cylinder.
Turning the foam and working it to shape is something best done out-

TYPE N side as it creates a Styrofoam blizzard. You also have to run the drill
motor backwards or you will unscrew the bolt and nuts holding the ply
plate. The beaded foam was hard to turn to shape with a flat metal sand-
ing stick, but when I used the edge of the flat metal sanding stick rather
than the flat side, I was able to turn the cowl to shape quickly. I stopped
BE READY TO START with just a little foam left past the edge of the ply disc. A hacksaw blade
slid between the foam and disc and easily cut the four epoxy dabs hold-
BUILDING AS SOON AS YOU ing them together.
I then tack glued the foam to the front of the fuselage and proceeded to
UNFOLD THE PLANS WITH A work the foam to final shape and an exact fit to the front of the fuselage.
LASER-CUT PARTS SET! What I ended up with was a slightly tapered cylinder of foam. This I
mounted on blocks attached to a piece of scrap wood. The blocks held
the cowl several inches above the wood. I used Zpoxy finishing epoxy
To get you started with the least possible delay we and painted the whole cylinder and then stretched 1/2 oz glass cloth over
have a set of laser-cut airframe components that it, pulling down hard to stretch out any wrinkles. I believe I used three
includes wing ribs and leading edge riblets, fuselage layers of cloth with a little epoxy added as needed between. It took a bit
formers, fuselage sides and doublers, engine bulk- of pullin, brushin and cussin to get it all smooth and keep it that way
head, fin and rudder centre cores, tailplane/fin and until the epoxy started to cure. I ended up with what looked like a plain
rudder ribs. Altogether, a set of parts that eliminates NY cheesecake after trimming the excess cloth away. I marked the U-
much of the initial cutting work so that the building shaped outline of the cowl front on the front of this piece and then used
task can commence immediately. a hacksaw blade to cut down through the glassed foam cylinder and
separate the cowl ring from the rest of the chunk of glassed foam. It all
came out just fine and gave a smooth finish which matched up nicely
Price: 70.00 plus 9.50 UK postage. with the fuselage. It required only a little filler in one place. (As Steve inti-
mated, blue or pink foam would be much better for this task, just as for
(Overseas customers: postage charged on individual country the spinner. The main reason being that there are no beads of foam to
basis - please enquire). pull out during the shaping, leaving pits that will fill with resin - PR).

FROM: FSM PLANS & PARTS SERVICE, The Morane Bullet takes off for another sortie. You have the choice of a three
Key Publishing Ltd, PO BOX 300, channel model, or one with wing warping.
Stamford. PE9 1NA. UK
Tel 01780 480404. Fax 01780 757812.
email: plans@keypublishing.com

18 Flying Scale Models


MORANE TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 24/5/11 11:47 Page 2

TYPE HISTORY With photos from the Harry Woodman Collection

Morane-Saulnier Ty
A neat little fighter of the early WW1 years that helped to define the essentials of
what a fighter aircraft should be
he Morane-Saulnier concern was quickly became one of, if not THE most pro- the type was first supplied to the French

T first formed in 1913, a year prior


to the commencement of WW1
and derived its name from the
founders, Raymond Saulnier and
the brothers, Robert and Leon Morane. In
the years that followed Morane-Saulnier
lific manufacturers of military aircraft at
least on the Allied side of that conflict.
Derived from a pre-WW1 prototype
designed specifically for speed as a racing
aircraft, its adaption as a single seat fighter
aircraft seemed a logical progression and
Aeronautique Militaire in April 1915 desig-
nated as the MS.5C.1.
It is important to remember that in the
period of the early WW1 years, aircraft were
hardly considered as war-winning weapons.
Those in ultimate command remained wed-

20 Flying Scale Models


MORANE TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 24/5/11 11:47 Page 3

Type N
ded to the notion that the well bread horse
was still the means of doing the trick.
Indeed, it has to be admitted that even
those responsible for direction of the air
war, such as it was, were themselves still
defining the role and the techniques of avia-
tion warfare.

ABOVE: This is MS A18


6 of No. 60 Squadron
metal portions of typ RFC flown by Lt. T.P.
e N airframes with H. Bayetto. Instructio
ing struts, wheel dis red paint (cowl, spinne ns to paint
cs) with effect from r, undercarriage, low
clearly distinguish the 20t h July 19 1916 were er wingwarp-
Type N from the Fok issued by RFC HQ in
the Moranes were bei ker E. series. Howeve an attempt to
ng withdrawn from r by then both the Fok
production Type N the Front, the French kers and
seen here at Vullaco never adopted this ide
L. Note the retentio ublay, the aircraft in the a. BELOW: A
n of the small central background are mainly
cone of the early pro MS type
duction type.


Flying Scale Models 21
MORANE TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 24/5/11 11:47 Page 4

ABOVE: A most revealing photo. showing French pilot Jules Vedrines casually smoking whils he sorts out his ammunition strips, one is already loaded
into the Hotchkiss. The steel deflector is clearly seen here as is the brass MS badge fitted which was retained on MS aircraft into the 1940s such as the MS
406. It was held on the the cowl with small screws. Note the various pulleys and cables connected with the wing-warping system. BELOW: A MS type N
serial no. MS 393 of the Aviation Militaire revealing the ultimate shape. Note the Hotchkiss gun and deflector propeller.

22 Flying Scale Models


MORANE TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 24/5/11 11:47 Page 5

Eugene Gilbert with


his MS type N Le Ven
captured by the Ger geur, so named by Gilb
mans. This may hav ert after Roland Garros
1914. It is seen here e been the original Wie had been
fitted with a Hotchk n-A
such as the rear fusela iss gun and differs from spern type N flown by Garros in
ge and tail assembly the production N in cer
. tain details
enable the pilot to
fire the gun only when the propeller was aircraft and
out of line with the target. But early versions utilised an advanced, aerodynamic design, it
did not work properly and the pilots found was not easy to fly due to its stiff controls. It
they were destroying their propellers rather was hardly a pilots aeroplane, largely due
than enemy aircraft with their machine-gun to the wing warping lateral control system
fire. that was stiff, required a strong hand on the
Having failed to make the mechanism control column for the rolling function,
work as intended, in the early months of which was in turn coupled, for longitudinal
1915, Garros, added metal deflector plates control, to an extremely sensitive elevator.
to the blades of the propeller of his Morane- The result tended to produce a kind of
Saulnier L. These small wedges of tough- kangaroo flight path as the pilot struggled
ened steel diverted the passage of those to roll the aircraft into a turn, whilst trying to
bullets which struck the blades. Over the hold the climb/dive attitude correctly.
next two weeks Garros shot down five The large metal front spinner designed to
enemy aircraft with his adapted Morane- streamline the aircraft caused the engines to
Saulnier L. However, the success was short- overheat because the spinner deflected air
lived because on 18th April, a away from the engine. In 1915, the spinner
German rifleman man- was removed from the design. No further
aged to fracture the overheating problems were experienced
petrol pipe of the and the removal of the spinner caused very
aircraft that little loss in performance.
Garros was The Type N was not particularly success-
flying forcing ful. Only 49 aircraft were built and it was
him to land quickly rendered obsolete by the pace of air-
behind the craft development.
German In addition to the French Aeronautique
front-line Militaire, the Type N also equipped four
where squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps, in
both he which it was designated the Bullet (but not
his to be confused with the Bristol M.1c, also
RIGHT: called Bullet). The RFC machines used a
Lt. Lillywhite of 0.303 Vickers gun in place of the Hotchkiss.
No.3 Squadron
RFC. note the non-
standard wind-
screen fitted to this
machine enclosing the
stripped Lewis Mk.l.

Thus, the Morane


Saulnier Type N, with its
monoplane layout and sin-
gle, fixed, forward firing
Hotchkiss machine gun became
one of the first recognisable fighter
aircraft, specifically for shooting down machine were cap-
enemy aircraft by means using the aircraft tured by the
as gun platform of aiming the aircraft at the Germans.
enemy. The Morane-
The problem was of course the propeller Saulnier Type N
in front of the gun and although the con- was certainly, for
temporary Fokker E1 Eindecker had the ben- its time, a neat and A rare photo. of the cockpit of the type N,
cab the control column is
efit of a mechanical interrupter mechanism attractive little air- Hotle. Note the map and few instruments and the retained by a
chkiss, spare ammuniti breech and stock of
to preclude prop blade damage, the Allied craft with an aes- on strips are loaded the
just above the map.
side had yet to crack the problem in a really thetic appeal far
scientific manner. removed from some of the doubtful aero- The type was also
Even so, at the time of the outbreak of nautical contraptions then filtering into the operated in limited numbers by the 19th
hostilities in 1914 Morane Saulnier worked squadrons of both the Aeronautique Squadron of the Imperial Russian Air Force
with leading French military pilot Roland Militaire and the Royal Flying Corps. and three aircraft were operated by Ukraine.
Garros, to develop a system that would While the Type N was a graceful-looking

Flying Scale Models 23


F4B SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/5/11 13:27 Page 2

SUBJECTS FOR SCALE

BOEING F4B & P-1


A classic fighter biplane series that served both the US Navy and US Army Air Corps

uring then 20th century, war had the fighter type aircraft (two wings and two isolationist approach to international affairs. In

D been the driving force in aviation


development. Both in the period
1914-1918 and again in 1939-1945,
huge advancements in aircraft per-
formance and task capability were achieved.
After 1918, aviation development kind of
went to sleep and what, at that time, defined
machine guns) remained the norm for almost
two decades. To an extent, that situation was
dictated buy the attitude of the time to war
itself, to financial restrictions and also engine
development.
Nowhere was this attitude more prevalent
than in USA, which had withdrawn into an
any case, where would the external threat
come from? With 3,000 miles of open water
both east and west, and friendly territory north
and south, military threat seemed very
remote. So military aircraft development
received a low priority.
The mainstay of American fighter strength in

42 Flying Scale Models


F4B SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/5/11 13:27 Page 3

Blunt, but tidy practicality was the hallmark of Boeings


F4B and P-12 series. This is a US Navy F4B-3. Note the
corrugated metal skinning to the fin and rudder.

-12


F4B SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/5/11 13:28 Page 4

Scale 1:40
F4B SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/5/11 13:28 Page 5
F4B SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/5/11 13:28 Page 6

EARLY VARIANTS. LEFT: an F4B-2 of Fighting Six assigned to USS Saratoga. RIGHT: a perfect arrestment as another F4B-2 hooks the wire on board USS Lexington.

the early 1930s was the Boeing P-12/F4B. Ibs. The last naval variant, the F4B-4 had a The first production models based on the
indeed, by comparison, orders for other gross weight of 3,124 Ibs and with the Pratt Model 218 were a batch of 135 P-12Es and
types of aircraft in that period approached and Whitney R-1340-16 Wasp engine of 550 21 F4B-3s built between September 1931
insignificance. In performance, the Boeings h.p. it had a maximum speed of 188.4 m.p.h. and March 1932, the last 25 army machines
were almost identical to their British contem- and a service ceiling of 25,200 feet. being converted to the improved (but exter-
porary, the Bristol Bulldog, but in appear- In the summer of 1929, 27 machines were nally identical) P-12F standard. All P-12Es
ance they were distinctly American with delivered to the U.S. Navy as type F4B-I, the were fitted at the factory with tailskids, but
their radial engines, straight upper wings, first going to the Red Rippers squadron VB- these were replaced when in service with tail
short fuselages and long main undercar- IB aboard the U.S.S. Lexington. In the same wheels.
riage, imparting a trim and perky air. This, year, five commercial versions were sold, The F4B-3 and P-12E were largely identical
with the flamboyant colour schemes of including a two-seat model for Howard airframe, identical that is except for special
those days, has made the Boeing Pursuit a Hughes. military equipment (e.g., the carrier arrester
lasting favourite with model builders. On the strength of the U.S. Navys testing hook) although the bulkhead behind the
It is probably true that success with this of the new machine, the U.S. Army Air pilots seat slopes more acutely on the P-12,
design, at a time when other companies Corps ordered a batch of 10 examples, des- giving a bigger cockpit opening.
were suffering the effects of the economic ignated P-12. One of these was modified, The last big order for the Boeing biplane
depression contributed as much as any and as the XP-12A had an N.A.C.A. cowling, fighters was for 92 F4B-4s, the last being
other to the solid foundation upon which the Frise ailerons and a shorter undercarriage. It delivered on February 28th, 1933. This final
Boeing complex achieved such a worldwide was destroyed shortly after delivery, but the model was substantially an F4B-3 with a
domination in the aviation field. last two distinguishing features were incor- larger fin and a larger headrest to accommo-
Built in 1928 as a private venture, the pro- porated in the next 90 machines for the date an inflatable life raft. Two similar
totypes bearing the factory type numbers 83 army which were delivered during the fol- machines were sold to Siam (Thailand)
and 89 were delivered to the U.S. Navy for lowing year as P-12B. under the factory designation 100E, and 23
evaluation as fighter-bombers and were des- It was in September 1930 that Boeings rad- more were sent to Brazil. Fourteen of the
ignated XF4B-I. The method of construction ically improved Model 218 first flew; this Brazilian machines were F4B-4s intended for
represented a logical step forward from the was, in proportions, virtually the same the U.S. Navy, but the remaining nine were
earlier F3B design, while incorporating some machine, but the fabric covered fuselage specially designed lightweight models.
of its features, including the corrugated was replaced by an all-metal semi-mono- There were further P-12 variations, but all
metal tail and ailerons. Radical for its time, coque type and an anti-drag ring was fitted beyond the F-type were experimental con-
however, was the fuselage structure of bolt- to the engine. The Type 218 was tested by versions to test new power plants. The XP-
ed square alloy tube instead of the then cur- the army as the XP-925, and then sold to 12G was the first P-12B with a supercharged
rently favoured welded steel. The wings China. engine, while the XP-12H was a P-12D with a
were of all-wood construction, each being 1931 saw the production of 131 P-12C and - geared Wasp and the rounded vertical tail
built in one piece around two mahogany and D machines which retained the fabric-cov- surfaces of the Type 218. This machine was
spruce box spars. ered fuselage of the P-12B, but which had reconverted to P-12E standard, as was the
All models were fitted either with two .303 the undercarraige and engine cowl of the XP- 121. Seven P-12Es were fitted with fuel
calibre machine guns or one .303 and one Type 218. The naval equivalent of the P- injectors and designated YP-12K but all
.50 calibre gun. A variety of bomb loads 12C and -D was the F4B-2, of which 46 were reverted to standard form.
could be carried, up to a maximum of 720 built in the same year.
BELOW LEFT: an F4B-4, overhangs the flight deck of the USS Saratoga, perched on an outrigger to keep the deck as clear as possible. BELOW RIGHT: An
Air Corps P-12E of 27th Pursuit Squadron. BOTTOM RIGHT: a restored P-12E now at the US Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

46 Flying Scale Models


F4B SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/5/11 13:28 Page 7

Scale 1:40
F4B FLYING COLOURS TONY OK 24/5/11 12:00 Page 2

B O E I N G F 4 B F

48 Flying Scale Models


F4B FLYING COLOURS TONY OK 24/5/11 12:00 Page 3

Flying Colours

Flying Scale Models 49


LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:42 Page 2

KIT REVIEW by Brian Brassey

Luscious Lavo
Brian Brassey builds Warbird Replicas new .90 size R
24 Flying Scale Models
LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:42 Page 3

suppose if our Wooden

I Wonder was the DeHavilland


Mosquito then the Russian
Wooden Wonder was the
Lavochkin La-5/La-7 aircraft.
The La-5 was one of those con-
versions from inline to radial
engines which were so success-
ful during the Second World
War. The Japanese Kawasaki Ki
100 and our own Hawker
Tempest Mk 2 being good exam-
ples.
The Lavochkin used Bakelite
ply construction which uses
phenol-formal dehyde resin, an
early form of plastic. It gave
great strength and allowed
high G manoeuvres at low to
medium altitude which suited the
low altitude air-war on the
Russian front, The Germans
could not out-turn them.

ochkin
e Russian WW2 fighter

Flying Scale Models 25
LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:43 Page 4

Wing cut-out for dihedral brace and retracts. Wings joined with epoxy.

Ply bearers for retracts and ply dihedral brace fitted. Wing tip glued on (White glue).
Now to the model
Richard Wills of Warbird Replicas produced a
.52 F.S. sized La-7 model some years ago,
which I built and gave me great pleasure,
until destroyed in a mid-air collision. When I
heard he was doing an enlarged version for a
.90 sized four-stroke I mae contact and he
sent me a pre-production kit to put together. If
you have built an A.R.T.F. warbird you will be
able to build this one and have the added
bonus of being able to choose your own
colour scheme. The other thing is, the kit is
British. Weve given enough to our Chinese
compatriots, so I think its time we model
builders suported our home-grown industry.
What do we get when we open the box?
The first thing which pleased me was a one-
piece fibreglass cowl, very well moulded and
not too thin like some of the A.R.T.F. cowls.
Obechi veneered foam wings with routed cut-
outs for aileron servos and retracts and a nice
hole through the centre for the servo leads.
Obechi veneered foam turtle decks and fin are
also included to make things easier, and all

26 Flying Scale Models


LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:45 Page 5

Leading edge glued on (White glue). Wing tip sanded with washout sanded in. Wheel wells lined with 1/64 ply, foam disc
holds in place while glue dries.

the plywood pieces are pre-cut. The Balsa no problem with the original undercarriage Aileron-only wing
fuselage sides have a wonderful joint so no system. Whatever installation you choose you Cut out the ailerons from the wing by cutting
mistakes. The wing tips, tail, elevators and will have to cut out the foam from within the with a sharp scalpel from the top and the bot-
rudder are also pre-cut but will need sanding wheel wells. Use a sharp blade and cut out a tom using a metal straight edge. The wing
to section. There is also a lite-ply former to bit at a time. cut-out has to be lined with 1/4 balsa to take
ensure the fuselage is kept straight during You have to cut out enough depth to allow the aileron hinges (Mylar strip in the kit) I use
assembly. your chosen wheels to retract properly. Bear the top-hinge method as the aileron has no
Two vac-formed items complete the main in mind the top covering is 1/64 Obechi. Trial gaps and whatever covering you use (Film or
contents, one in white styrene which has fit your retracts at this stage and check that Solartex) you can cover the joint as well as
wheel wells, front part of radiator intake and they work correctly. having hinges (belt and braces).
gun blisters. The second is in clear and is the Next, glue on the wing tips and leading
cockpit canopy. edges. When dry, sand the tips to section. Flap and aileron wing
I must stress at this point that my kit was a There is washout built into the wing (essential The flap and aileron are as shown on the pho-
pre-production one so any little difficulties I on a Warbird) so I like to maintain the tos and are cut out in one piece. The wing
encountered have been passed on to Richard washout through the wing tip. I couldnt get cut-out is then faced with 1/4 balsa. The
and he will be making modifications before the vac-formed wheel wells to fit to my satis- Lavochkin has split flaps like the Spitfire so
you get yours. faction so I elected to use 1/64 ply liners the top part of the flap has to be stuck back
I always start with the wing. Here I made life stuck in with white glue and held in place on the wing. I used a hot wire to cut through
hard for myself as I wanted flaps and air until completely dry with a foam disc. the centre of the foam on the flap and then
retracts on my model. I have altered the Now we come to the flap and aileron cut- lined it with lithoplate stuck on with five-
undercarriage bearers and put in a dihedral out. Flaps are not essential so I have minute epoxy resin (you could use 1/64 ply if
brace. These are all made from 1/8 ply. I described both with and without construction. you have no lithoplate). The trailing edge has
have heard from Richard that there has been a piece of 1/16 x 1/4 glued on. The flap is

Eurokit retract trial fitted. Flap and aileron cut-out.

Flap top construction (Split flaps). Top part of flap lined up with aileron and wing tip.

Flying Scale Models 27


LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:47 Page 6

should still have 0 degrees incidence.


However if you like sanding balsa the wood
is straight grained, soft and light enough to
make a good job.

Fuselage
I have put a 1/64ply doubler on the
tailplane seat to strengthen this critical
area. The fuselage sides have a 1/32 ply
doubler. N.B. make a left and right side. The
fuselage is constructed with the liteply for-
mer which ensures no bananas, I did how-
ever use 1/4X1/2 doublers and 1/4 soft
balsa sheet for the bottom of the fuselage
as the full size aircraft had a rounded bot-
Flap servo cut-out and flap. Aileron servo cut-out( N.B. string to pull wire tom section.
through.
There were two potential problems with
the two 1/8 ply bulkheads. They were
slightly too large. I reduced them in diame-
ter to fit the cowl. If you are using a .91
fourstroke engine, the rocker cover sticks
out by about 3/8, also the silencer has to
exit the cowl. The angle on the plan for the
motor mount is a good one as the head is
then in line with the cooling exit hole and
most of the silencer is inside the cowl.
However a piece of the front bulkhead on
the opposite side to the head must be cut
off to allow the cowl to be squeezed over
the rocker cover. The silencer has to swivel
inside the cowl and therefore it is necessary
to leave the pipe fitted to the engine loose.
Aileron construction (uses top hinge construction). Flap servo and flap fitted. A cut-out is also necessary at the bottom of
the front bulkhead. I did this by trial fitting,
but it would be better if the cut-outs were
done before assembly. The only holes in
the cowl were for the rocker cover and the
silencer exit.
Once the cowl is in the right position, the
silencer is swung down and the nut on the
pipe from the engine can be tightened from
the front of the cowl. Trust me, it works and
looks neat. I also added a 1/8 ply doubler
to the front bulkhead (belt and braces
again). The cowl is fixed by four screws nto
wooden blocks fitted to the rear bulkhead.
A S.L.E.C. square orange tank slides back-
wards into the tank bay, no hatch required.
Aileron and servo fitted. Tail cut-out on fuselage has 1/64 ply doubler. Simple construction is to either use push-
rods or snakes exiting under the tailplane to
1/16 balsa sheet faced with lithoplate and extensions need to be fitted to the servos (I activate external elevator and rudder horns
this sits inside the 1/16x 1/4 ply trailing solder these and cover in heat-shrink before with a fixed tailwheel.
edge. I used S.L.E.C. pinned hinges for the the wire is pulled through the pre-cut tube Before that, fix the wing to the fuselage.
flaps. You also have to cut out a box in the and Y-lead at the centre of the wing in the Ensure that the wing is central before
wing for the flap servos which are 10 kg. pull same way). drilling holes for the dowels at the front and
as there is a lot of pressure on them when bolts at the rear. I put balsa blocks in the
deployed in flight. N.B. flap servos work in Tailplane wing for the bolts to go through(see pho-
the same direction, aileron servos opposite. I elected to do a built-up tailplane as having tos).With the wing in position the tailplane
The servos are fitted to the bottom of the ply done many a Brian Taylor designed aircraft, can be pinned on and given a good eye-
closing plates by screwing onto wooden I find it easier and its also lighter. The cut- balling from the front and rear. Once satis-
blocks glued on with epoxy. Three wire out for the tail has to be modified, butit fied with the tailplane fit, unpin and glue

Fuselage sides and bulkheads (N.B. Make right and left hand sides. Fuselage constructed over plan.

28 Flying Scale Models


LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:48 Page 7

1/4 balsa doublers. 1/8 ply fitted to leading edge.

Ply bulkheads fitted. Engine mount fitted.

with 5 minute epoxy resin and eyeball The steerable tailwheel is made in a simi- has a balsa leading and trailing edge. On
again before setting aside to dry. lar way. The horn of piano wire is made the full size aircraft, this was built integrally
I now deviated from simple construction. integrally with the tailwheel wire and the with the fuselage so that the rear tuttledeck
If, like me, you want to do a steerable tail- same method is used for the pushrod. A and fin should blend into each other. Proper
wheel and internal elevator horn you need piece of threaded wire fitted with a metal vertical alignment is achieved by the string
to make an elevator joiner with horn quicklink and a Z-bend is attached to the method i.e. stretch the string over the fin
attached from piano wire soft-soldered horn on the pushrod to activate the rudder. from the tailplane, mark the centre of the
together (see photo). The elevators and Once the pushrods are installed the two string and line up the top of the fin with
attached pushrod, which is made from a turtledecks can be fitted and the wing fillet this. This ensures that the fin is central. 1/8
S.L.E.C. nylon horn cut down and spliced made. The front part of the fillet is from tri- balsa sheet completes the fuselage
into a piece of 3/16 square spruce pinned angular stock balsa nicked with a hack-saw between the two foam decks forming the
with apiece of cocktail stick and whipped blade to allow it to curve round the wing cockpit enclosure. Trial fit the cockpit
with cotton and cyano, have to be fitted seat the rear part of the fillet is 1/64 ply. canopy and mark the position in pencil on
before the rear foam turtledeck is fitted. The fin is Obechi veneered foam which the rear deck. Scribe a line 1/4 up from
LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:50 Page 8

this and cut away with a sharp scalpel. Line 1/32 ply and lithoplate glued with 5 minute the spinner (which is a Brian Taylor Mk 1
this with 1/16 soft balsa. epoxy. spinner) in white primer. Leave this for at
least twenty four hours to dry.
Elevators and rudder Finishing Star templates were made from Kellog
If you use the elevators and rudder in the The model is now sanded. Any bumps, boxes, positioned on the airframe and drawn
kit these will need to be sanded to section. dinks, imperfections are filled with a light- round with a red ink indelible pen. I then used
However the elevators and rudder on the weight filler and sanded. Finish sanding lining tape,1/4 on the fuselage and under-
fullsize aircraft were metal framed and fab- with wet or dry. wing and 3/16 on the fin and rudder. The lin-
ric covered. I elected to use the Eric I Balsaloced the whole airframe and then ing tape eliminates any creep when over-
Coates method. Eric was a marvellous covered in standard Solartex. The weave is spraying another colour. l masked off the
modeller who devised a method of making then filled with four coats of thinned cellulose stars and the white arrow motif on the fuse-
lightweight but strong fabric covered eleva- dope and talcum powder as a sandsealer. Flat lage. The white background to the emblem
tors and rudder. each coat of sandsealer with wet or dry. on the cowl (the diving bird is hand painted)
A 1/16 sheet balsa core has a solid 1/2 You could use a glass-epoxy finish, but I was done in the same way. The tape will
leading edge top and bottom with 1/16 stick to what I know. When happy with the stretch round a circle. Use ordinary masking
balsa riblets added top and bottom. Once finish clean the whole air frame with tac-rags. tape to infill. The lining tape was also used for
covered with Solartex it is extremely strong the demarcation line between the grey top
and the riblets can be seen as per full size. Painting and bottom blue on the fuselage.
When Richard Wills produced the smaller La- Spray with light blue first (leave to thor-
Underwing radiator 7 kit he advocated using Halfords spray cans oughly dry). Mask off blue and spray upper
I made this from block balsa and the vac- i.e. grey primer and Ford Bermuda blue, so a surfaces with grey primer. Again make sure
formed intake supplied with the kit. This trip to Halfords bought grey and white primer, this is completely dry before the next stage.
could be fitted directly to the model (glue to Ford Bermuda blue and Ford radiant red. Uncover the red star areas and front of cowl
the wing only). l vac formed the completed The aircraft I chose to do is White 24 of and spray red. Leave for twenty four hours.
radiator and moulded a glassfibre one from Major Sul No.56. The darker grey upper surface colour is
the vacform. I sprayed the wing undersurface, fuselage Humbrol enamel no. 27 Sea Grey which I
The undercarriage wheel covers are from sides and undersurface, fin and rudder and hand painted.

Steerable tailwheel with link for rudder. Top front deck fitted. Built up tail construction.

Position of wing bolts. Radiator construction {glassfibre from mould). Wing fitting to bulkhead.

30 Flying Scale Models


LA-7 Tony OK 24/8/11 09:52 Page 9

Wing fillet 1/64 ply. Elevator joiner and horn from piano wire (soft soldered.

Take off all the masking tape. Slowly peel


away the lining tape to reveal a nice neat
white outline to your stars. Use the red ink
pen to outline the white and the arrow motif.
The white 24 on the fuselage is inkjet vinyl.
Make card templates of the numbers, lay
onto the vinyl (small pieces of masking tape
eliminate movement) and draw round them
with the red ink pen. Cut out with a sharp
blade or scissors and stick on.
Because The La-7 was basically a wooden Elevator,1/16 balsa core, block at tips,1/16 balsa half ribs added.
aircraft there is a minimum of panel lines. I
use a pencil to draw these on and graphite
dust(scraped from the pencil) to add shading.
Rub the dust over the built up elevators and
rudder and the ribs appear.
Leave for two to three days to allow the
paint to dry thoroughly and spray with fuel
proofer. I used KlassKote.
The aluminium area behind the cowl is
plumbers self-adhesive aluminium tape. Care
has to be taken to position this correctly as
once stuck it aint coming off. 1 put this on
after fuel proofing.
I then installed the engine and radio and
checked everything was working correctly
especially the retractable undercarriage and Rudder and elevator pushrods. Fin fitted (string ensures fin is central).
then we wait for the fickle British weather.
location. By this time I had reduced power to to tip-stall. I could have done more of a three
Flying about two thirds throttle. point landing as when the wheels touched
Having checked the centre of gravity I had no the nose went down. I have since oiled the
need to add any extra weight (a 3300 sub c Time to check out the flaps wheels and raked the undercarriage forward
NiMh battery was installed on top of the fuel At a reasonable height I tentatively lowered by putting a 1/16 ply plate under the rear
tank). the flaps to maximum reducing power the retract bearer.
When we arrived at the flying site it was more flap went on. There was no trim The Lavochkin at the time of writing has
bright and sunny if a little breezy. I checked change at just under half throttle. had two flights and my grandson Dominic
the engine and all controls and range checked Loops, rolls, Immelmans, reversals, stall- was so impressed he wants to build one.
with the engine running. turns, the Lavochkin does all these The stall I thoroughly recommend The Warbirds
The take-off was an anti-climax, plenty of is gentle with no tendency to flick. Replicas La-7 and its a British kit, so get
power and no trim adjustment on ailerons- Landing, I lined up into a crosswind with building.
my building must be improving, a couple of full flap, as the power reduces there is a
clicks of up elevator which tells me I could be slight nose-down attitude, no bad thing. The
even more lenient with the centre of gravity landing is slow, controlled, with no tendency Specification
Wingspan: 62
Scale: 1:5.5
Engine: O.S. 91 Surpass four stroke
14 x 7 A.P.C. propeller
Retracts: Eurokit
Radio: Futaba 2.4
Weight: 9 1/2 lb.
Manufacturer: Warbird Replicas,
17 Curzon Way, Chelmsford,
CM2 6PF (tel: 01245 284791)

Foam deck cut out for cockpit canopy fit and Rudder construction, same as elevators. www.warbirdreplicas.co.uk
sheeted with 1/16 balsa.

Flying Scale Models 31


LAVOCHKIN SCALE DRAWING Tony OK 22/8/11 11:07 Page 2

Lavochk
LA-5FN
and LA-7
LAVOCHKIN SCALE DRAWING Tony OK

kin
-7
22/8/11 11:07 Page 3

Scale 1:60
LAVOCHKIN COLOURS Tony OK 22/8/11 11:11 Page 2
LAVOCHKIN COLOURS Tony OK 22/8/11 11:11 Page 3
PZL SFS & SD TONY OK 23/8/11 10:08 Page 2
PZL SFS & SD TONY OK 23/8/11 10:08 Page 3

he story of the PZL-11c begins in 1924 with

T Ing. Zygmunt Pulawski (born 1901) a grad-


uate of the Warsaw Technical University. In
that year the Aviation Department of the
Polish War Ministry invited proposals in a
contest for a new combat aircraft, and Pulawksi tied
for 3rd place. That achievement led to an opportunity
for further technical education in France.
When he returned to Poland, Pulawski entered the
Polish military pilots school and thereafter, joined
the Panstowe Zaklady Lotnicze State Aircraft Factory
(P.Z.L) in Warsaw. Here, he was able to develop his
own ideas, commencing with an in-line engined
fighter, the P-1 in 1929, using all-metal airframe con-
struction. Minimising airframe drag and the provi-
sion of good pilot visibility from the cockpit were
prime considerations. Tese led to the addoption of
the monoplane layout in which the high-set wing
was cranked into a gull shape from approximately
1/3rd span, from where the wing panels were strut-
braced to the lower fuselage. Thus devoid of inter-
plane struts and wire bracing as with the biplane lay-
out, the new design series, initially with in-line
engines offered an excellent all-round view for the
pilot compared to many fighter aircraft of the time.
Further development of the design progressed,
using both in-line and radial engines. The P-6 and P-
7 both employed radials, leading to production of
150 examples of the P-7, with Bristol Jupiter engine.
P-8, P-9 and P-10 all reverted to the use of inline
engines, but the final variant, the P-11, went radial
again, using the Bristol Mercury engine, commenc-
ing with P-11a.
Rumania built 50 examples of the P-11b export ver-
sion under licence, using the Rumanian-built 595 h.p.
Gnome-Rhone K.9.
When first introduced, the PZL fighters represented
very modern thinking in fighter design, certainly well
in advance of the biplanes that graced the squadrons
of the British, French, and American air forces. But
even further giant leaps forward were soon begin-
ning to take shape on the drawing boards of the
most forward thinking designers in those countries,
that would shortly lead to the first, fully cantilever,
retracting undercarriage monoplanes using more
powerful engines unavailable in Poland. Design stud-
ies there continued, but although a more advanced
development of the P-11, the P-24 appeared, the
Polish air arm, continued to rely of the P-11c as its
major fighter aircraft.

.11cOR SCALE

P S F
BJECT
SU

PZL desig
s
t
t
ime
a
e
inc

n at ing shap has a h


ft
eptio
n,
e
of its for scal roic
e
17 days in September
When Hitlers forces invaded Poland at dawn on
September 1st 1939, the weak and ill-equipped
Polish Air Force had to face alone the whole fury of
the Luftwaffe.
Outnumbered by its adversaries by 9:1 and

dvanced an intere ter aircr ry. equipped with aircraft that were by then obsolete,
ry a is figh isto units of the Polish Air Forces fought defiantly against
A ve ZL P-11 s Polish viation h enormous odds, losing 333 machines out of a total
i a
the P llers. Th nals of
first-line strength of 430 aeroplanes in 17 days of
hectic combat.
e n
mod in the a Mainstay of the Polish fighter force was the PZL P-
11c. It was, by 1939, completely obsolete, but this
place remarkably sturdy and aggressive little beast did sur-
prising damage to the Luftwaffe machines in this
opening WW2 campaign. Overdue for replacement,
well under-armed by 1939 standards, and slower
than most Luftwaffe aircraft included bombers,

PZL SFS & SD TONY OK 23/8/11 10:08 Page 5

1: Mirror
2: Fuel
3: Hand grip
4: Compass
5: Boost
6: Fuel pressure
7: Emergency fuel cut-off
8: Oil temperature
9: Brake drum and cable
10: Jacking point
11: Fuel gauge
12: Oil temperature
13: Oil pressure
14: Airspeed indicator and artificial horizon
15: Compass deviation table
16: Bank indicator
17: Engine r.p.m.
18: Altimeter
19: Rate of fuel flow control
20: Clock
21: Bomb release control
22: Harness tension control
23: Boost control
24: Throttle
25: Radio
READY FOR INSPECTION. A line-up of PZL P-11 fighters. The heavily clad garb of the pilots, standing
26: Fuselage guns trigger button
27: Wings guns trigger button
in front of their ground crews indicates climate protection against open cockpit cold in something of
28: Oil tank
a throw-back to the WW1 era. Note the twin engine bombers in the background.
29: Fuel header tank
30: Rudder pedals
31: Brake control
32: Amunition box
33: Dual purpose ailerons/flaps
34: Signal cartridges pack
35: Gun mountings
36: Elevator trim
37: Very pistol
38: Pilots locker
39: First aid
40: Gun serving hatch
41: Air intake control
42: Seat adjustment
43: Opening for Very pistol
The open cockpit of the PZL P-11 and its framed Rear fuselage and tail unit showing the winged 44: Elevator trim gear
windscreen. arrow insignia. 45: Foot rests
46: Fuel inlet
Polish pilots relied on the PZL-11s manoeu- but in turn, lost 37 of its own. 47: Bomb rack (12.5 kg.)
vrability and their own determination to com- Against such overwhelming odds though, 48: Air speed indicator pitot
pensate for performance shortcomings. and with continuous attrition of the limited 49: Venturi
Despite the great disparity and quality of number of fighters available to Polands air 50: Oil cooler
aircraft, the Polish Air Force put up an incredi- arm, the fate of Poland was sealed when, on 51: Exhaust
ble fight and the most spectacular aspect of September 17th, Soviet forces attached from 52: Exhaust collector
53: Corrugated duraluminium
its war activities was the destruction by the East as part of the pre-arranged Russo- 54: Rubber covering to prevent damage by
Polish fighters of 126 raiders, plus a further German carve-up of the country. shell cases and links
ten probables and 14 badly damaged, which Surviving Polish military aircraft including 55: Tan leather
constituted a third of the total losses of the spares where available, were evacuated to 56: Detachable panel over oil tank
Luftwaffe during the Polish Campaign. Rumanian. Also transferred, were workers 57: KM Wz 33 guns
The excellent flight characteristics of the P- and technicians from the P.Z.L. factory where 58: Camera
11 earned the aircraft great popularity among they formed teams assisting in aircraft pro- COLOUR SCHEME
the pilots who flew it, and combat proved duction at the Industria Aeronautica Romana Olive green overall except lower surfaces
that the little fighter was able to take an (I.A.R.), playing a key role in the production of of wings and tailplane which were light
extraordinary amount of punishment without the P-11s immediate successor, the similarly grey.
ill effect. Of 15 squadrons, each equipped configured P-24 and thereafter, the creation of
with 10 aircraft, that constituted the Polish Rumanias indigenous I.A.R. 80 cantilever low SPECIFICATION
fighter force at the outbreak of hostilities, 12 wing, radial engined, retracting undercarriage Wing Span: 35ft 2 in. (10.72m)
operated the P-11c, the remaining three oper- fighter which, interestingly, used the rear Length: 24 ft. 9.25 in. (7.55m)
ating the earlier P-7 type. fuselage/fin/ rudder of the P-11-cum-P-24. Height: 9 ft. 4 in.(2.85m)
Air hostilities opened on September 1st Today, a single example of the P-11c still Max. speed: 242 mph (387 kph) at 18,000
with an assault at dawn on Warsaw, when exists at the Polish Aviation Museum, ft. (4,530m)
100 Luftwaffe aircraft were substantially scat- Krakow. This machine was taken to Germany Climb rate: to 16,000 ft (4,000m) 6 min.;
tered by the determined efforts of pilots fly- after the `Polish capitulation in 1939. It sur- 13 min to 26,000 ft (6,550m)
ing P-11s of the Polish Pursuit Brigade. In the vived WW2 and later returned to its country Service ceiling: 36,000 ft. (9,050m)
first six days the Brigade, downed 42 raiders, of origin. Range: 500 miles

PZL P-11 fighters of 113 squadron warm up their engines at


Warsaw Okecie airport. The aircraft closest to the camera is
a four-gun armed P-11c, while the others are a mixture of
11a and 11c types.

Flying Scale Models 45


PZL SFS & SD TONY OK 23/8/11 10:08 Page 4

Scale 1:40
PZL SFS & SD TONY OK 23/8/11 10:09 Page 6

Scale 1:40
PZL COLOURS Tony OK 23/8/11 09:42 Page 2
PZL COLOURS Tony OK 23/8/11 09:42 Page 3
NIFTY NIEUPORT PART 2 Tony OK 27/9/11 16:20 Page 2

by Gary Sunderland
PLAN FEATURE wings, and the distan
ces to the stern post
dimensions. Then, the
attaches to the pyl on
two rear wing
we re drilled and
attach screws. Photo 22
Rigging (Photo 21). tapped for the 4-4-
tish aeroplanes, faces in place, it g of the tailplane
In contrast to early Bri With the rest of the sur also shows the seatin
had po sts that were at right t a ma tter of sighting down cked level, by sighting from the
which mostly was then jus being che
er, the Nieuport designs din g and trailing edges to
angles to each oth t step was to
from the top lea hecking all top wing.

u
firs do ub le-c
were the opposite. My the lower wing and

i e
k of the lower

N
hec k the sw eep bac
double-c

Nifty PART 2: Gary Sunde


span WW1 fighter fo
16 Flying Scale Models
NIFTY NIEUPORT PART 2 Tony OK 27/9/11 16:20 Page 3

uport
nder land concludes the construction of his
1/4-scale Nieupor t 27, neat and elegant 80.5

stroke engines
r for 2.00 cu.in four

Flying Scale Models 17
NIFTY NIEUPORT PART 2 Tony OK 27/9/11 16:20 Page 4

on to establish the centres for the com-


21 pass.
A variety of paints were used on the
models. The undersides were painted with
water based Jo Sontas Primrose, togeth-
er with the taiplane and the port wing
undersurfaces. To obtain the weathered
and darkened-with-age look, these were
then varnished with Wattyl urethane stain
and varnish Golden Oak using minimal
application, applied chordwise.
The camouflage was applied with a
brush, using Humbrol 120 Light green,
5026 Khaki, 105 mid-green and finally,
Wattyl paint mission brown. This last is
also available in a spray can, which was
used for the engine cowl. Wattyl pewter
and aluminium were also used on the
undercarriage struts. I have found that
these Wattyl paints are almost as good at
resisting glow fuel as two-part paints and a
lot less trouble and expense.
Finally, Humbrol was used to apply the
many roundels and the ruder stripes.
22
Rigging
I chose 100 lbs fishing trace for the under-
carriage wires, with Du-Bro quarter-scale
turnbuckles. These will stretch from a
heavy landing; so will occasionally require
tightening up.
The wing rigging is all 0.32 piano wire,
with copper tube sleeves and the ends bent
back. The 2-56 clevis ends at the top pro-
vide some fine adjustment, which should
produce a nice note from the wires when
these are plucked!
All the scale rigging is FUNCTIONAL,
including the tailplane/fin wire, which is
also 0.32. Note that, like most of my mod-
els, the 5/16 tube axle is re-inforced with a
1/4 steel piano wire insert. This makes a
tough model which, in the event of a minor
prang, will only require a few wires to be
straightened or adjusted for it to be flying
again.

Controls earlier. Engine installation


These are easier to install before the cover- The basic structural covering is my The model was designed around the
ing is applied. A removable hatch in the favourite Sig Koverall, applied with Stix-it O.S.200 which, as shown in Photos 27 &
belly fuselage provides access to the rud- adhesive. This is smoothed with an iron 28, is a tight fit. This engine has power to
der servo in the centre (Photo 23) operat- and two coats of nitrate dope (Photo 26). spare for contest flying, so any four-stroke
ing directly via pull-pull cables of 60 lbs The whole model was then covered with from 120 size upwards will be adequate for
fishing trace. The elevator servo shown left natural fine silk fabric, the job of which is a nice scale flying model. The O.S. 120 will
in the picture has the cables operating just to provide the surface for the paint. fit straight onto the same engine mount,
through nylon tube snakes. The throttle Once again, this is extra work, but I have but for other engines, you may have to
operates a standard push-pull cable. found it a worthwhile investment to make relocate the mount bulkhead. My model
The secret of success with the ailerons is for a nice finish, which will last several fly- balances nicely so, with a lighter engine,
to select perfectly straight and true hard- ing seasons. This time, I applied the silk you will probably require some lead in the
wood dowels running freely in the bear- dry, after ironing to remove creases, dop- nose.
ings (Photo 24). Shim or pack the outer ing carefully from the centre outward on
bearings with brass tube segments and/or each panel. Details
ply to line up. Previously, I have tried using the silk wet Talking of weight in the nose, a possibility
The aileron servo is mounted as required and then ironing the edges onto Balsaloc. for a dummy engine is a length of
to line up (Photo 25). A 3 (80mm) arm That way, you dont have to iron the creas- plumbers threaded brass tube. This can be
produces about 45mm up travel and 20mm es out first. The results are much the same sliced in half and brazed together to form
down throw. in the end. I think I prefer the dry method some realistic cylinders and is fairly heavy
for small models and the wet silk method (saves lead!).
Covering and painting on larger models like my Albatros C.III. However, for my N.27, I had to make a
The choices are almost endless, from vin- Before painting, I masked out the outlines relatively light dummy engine. I started
tage or silver Solartex, but I chose the 1917 of the camouflage and roundels with pen- with three Williams Bros Gnome cylinder
summer camouflage scheme as described cil, using a small piece of plywood, taped kits, which furnished six halves. Added to a

23 24 25

18 Flying Scale Models


NIFTY NIEUPORT PART 2 Tony OK 27/9/11 16:21 Page 5

spray-can lid, these formed part of a mas- which saves expensive resin and weight. the rear. Steel wire forms the pushrods
ter nine-cylinder quarter-scale engine. The major cost is the silicone mould, which and a drybrush of copper-over-steel grey
Photo 29 shows the master screwed to a has been put away for a future project (80 paint looks a bit like baked-on caster oil.
board and above it, a flexible silicone plas- hp. Renault). The final result in Photo 31 shows the nine-
tic mould cast from it. The next step was to build up the dummy cylinder engine in place and only the fat
From the mould, I then cast two epoxy on an aluminium back plate (Photo 30), push-rod covers of the O.S.200 are too
engines with balsa inserts at the back, with two extra cylinders screwed on from obvious.

26 27 28

Flying Scale Models 19


NIFTY NIEUPORT PART 2 Tony OK 27/9/11 16:21 Page 6

29 30

31

Something borrowed and something red, ers gun, straight from the Brisfit, before
white and blue in Photo 32. One advantage conversion.
of building for most of the time in one Re-styling to replicate the over-wing
scale can mean being able o re-cycle parts installation on a British N.27 involved cut-
from old models! In this case, the N.27 and ting off the flared nozzle and gas chamber
my old Halberstadt D.IV shared a rather and fitting a restored straight barrel. This
small mainwheel size, namely six inches was then covered by a 12 mm (0.5) diam-
o/d at quarter-scale. The old wheels were eter aluminium tube (Photo 33). My initial
cleaned up and repainted in roundels, idea was to make the Foster mount rail
ready for new tyres of 19 mm (3/4) diame- from brass, as for the original, but my French would probably have provided the
ter foam rubber. piece of brass was a bit short, so I finished tacho (rpm indicator) and pressure gauge
Being equipped for the RFC, this French- up laminating the rail from plywood and (petrol tank) built into the plywood corner
built Nieuport also had a very British pitot- painting it brass. The rear mount was sol- gussets.
static head installed on the starboard strut. dered from wire and tinned steel, while the Final items are the British-pattern wind-
This was salvaged from my Bristol F2B front mount is rivetted aluminium. screen (similar to that of the Avro 504) and
which, due to pilot error (mine), failed to Some other Bristol Fighter parts also the pilot, a deserter from my Pfalz, one
full out of a dive-bombing attack! Note the made it into the N.27 (Photo 34). Herman-the-German, standing (sitting) in
copper tube connector down to the lower Unfortunately, I could not find a photo- for Captain Kick of the RFC (Photo 35).
wing. This was a feature of both French graph of an N.27 instrument panel, let Note the air intake tube on the side is
and British-built Nieuports and would have alone one of an RFC Nieuport. However, I incorrectly shown cut-off square as on the
resulted in loss of instrument reading reasoned that the limited space would be N.17. For the 130 hp Clerget installation,
when the aircraft was flown in rain. occupied by an A.S.I., cross-level and this should be cut off at an angle, facing
The Lewis gun shown here is the observ- watch, plus an aneroid (altimeter). The forward, to provide ram air to the engine.

32 33 34

35 36 37

20 Flying Scale Models


NIFTY NIEUPORT PART 2 Tony OK 27/9/11 16:22 Page 7

NB: Laser-cut components shown here are only representative examples


of the work - not specific to the Nieuport 27 offered here.

PLANS AND CUT


PARTS SETS
for the
NIEUPORT
27
PLANS
The three-sheet plan set is available price
24.50 plus p&p (UK: 2.50;
The incidence of the lower wing on all the 1.1/2-wing Nieuports Overseas 6.50)
was readily adjustable via a clamp at the lower V-strut. This was Please quote plan no. 332 when ordering
covered by an aluminium fairing which is reasonably obvious
(Photo 36), but the trouser added on the top is usually not visible
in three-views and photographs (Photo 37), where it is covered by
the wing tip.
The completed model shown here came out at just under 7 kg.
which was lighter than I had hoped. With no added lead, it bal-
CUT PARTS SET
anced just forward of the aileron cranks in the centre section, which
I think is about right.
BE READY TO START
Flying BUILDING AS SOON AS YOU UNFOLD
At such a light weight and with excess power available, caution
needs to be exercised on take-off. Just hold in a little right rudder THE PLANS WITH A LASER-CUT PARTS
and very slowly increase revs while holding in full back stick. Once
moving, ease the stick forward to keep the model running along the SET!
ground and lift off with about 1/3rd throttle, keeping straight with
rudder. To get you started with the least possible delay we
Normal flying and sedate manoeuvres, such as a barrel roll are have a set of laser-cut airframe components that
execucted with 1/3rd to1/2 throttle. At low speeds, use a little rud- includes wing ribs and leading edge riblets, fuselage
der in turns to assist the ailerons. Full throttle is only used for verti- formers, fuselage sides and doublers, engine bulk-
cal manoeuvres, such as the Loop, Half-Cuban and the Immelmann
head, fin and rudder centre cores, tailplane/fin and
Turn. In fact, the N.27 is the only WW1 Scout model in my stable,
which will perform a regulation Immelmann Turn. The others will rudder ribs. Altogether, a set of parts that eliminates
usually run out of speed and fall out of the half roll - not surprising, much of the initial cutting work so that the building
given that most have wing incidences of about five degrees, task can commence immediately.
My model Nieuport 27 has the upper wing at a true-scale two
degrees and I have set the lower wing at zero. Thus, there is no Price: 150.00 plus 9.50 UK postage.
pitch-up hen the throttle is opened in the air. The two degrees right
thrust seems about right and the Loops are satisfyingly round, (Overseas customers: postage charged on individual country
straight and easy. basis - please enquire).
The elevator is set down two degrees for level flying.
Take-Offs and Landings MUST be initiated straight into-wind and
that short fuselage means that it has a steep nose-up attitude at FROM: FSM PLANS & PARTS SERVICE,
rest, so land level on the wheels, at minimum speed and use rud- Key Publishing Ltd, PO BOX 300,
der to keep it straight during the roll-out. For preference, operate Stamford. PE9 1NA. UK
off short grass strips, rather than hard runways. Tel 01780 480404. Fax 01780 757812.
Happy Landings! email: plans@keypublishing.com

Flying Scale Models 21


NIEUPORT TYPE HIST AND SD TONY OK 28/9/11 13:11 Page 2

TYPE HISTORY
With pictures from the HARRY WOODMAN Collection

22 Flying Scale Models


NIEUPORT TYPE HIST AND SD TONY OK 28/9/11 13:11 Page 3

BELOW: Caption We
ndell W. Rogers MCV
in his RFC Nieuport of No.1 Squadron
27. This good close-up
machine armed only shows the
with the Lewis Gun
mount. The fittings for on a Foster
a Vickers can be see
Aldis sight. n under the

RIGHT: Another RFC


N.27, also probably of
RFC, flown by 2nd Lt. No.1 Squadron
F.G.Baker, who becam
e a P.o.W.

T
he Nieuport 27 represent
ed the last of a
design configuration tha
t commenced with
the Nieuport 10 in 1915,
introducing the dis-
tinctive sesquiplane win
g configuration in
which the lower wing of
was no more than 50% this biplane layout
of the area of the upper
The most practical value wing.
of this layout was the
improved downward vie
w for the pilot, since the
ity to be able to spot and abil-
keep the enemy in view
during combat is crucial
. The layout also produc
the V-strut interplane ed
bracing, which was also
a prominent feature of such
this line of Nieuport figh
The Nieuport 27s shape ters.
closely followed the form
of the N.24 in which the
flat, slab sided fuselage,
cal of the Nieuport 11 and typi-
17 fighters was replace
a semi-rounded rear fus d by
elage and semi-rounded
tips and ailerons. This cur wing
ved outer fuselage surfac
was achieved by applyin e
g the necessary formers
down the rear fuselage
over the basic box structu
over which, stringers we re,
re run in the manner we
would do for our model
s.
In addition to the rounde
d rear fuselage section,
Nieuport 27 had an elegan the
t, curved tailplane shape
that further enhanced its
aesthetic appeal. First
applied to the Nieuport
24, this tailplane configu
tion initially produced som ra-
e intense flutter problems
that, eventually, were onl
y solved by applying
tailplane-to-fin bracing
wires
structure had been introdu that the new shape and
ced to eliminate. But tha
led to prolonged delays t
to service entry, the init
for which, on the N.24 wa ial fix
s the reversion to the
square-cut, braced tailpla
ne shape of the Nieupo
to produce the Nieuport rt 17
24bis.
Thus, the Nieuport 27 did
not come into service
with the French Aerona
utique Militaire or the Roy
Flying Corps until Decem al
ber 1917/January 1918.
Some Nieuport 27s were
used operationally, arm
either with a synchroni ed
zed, fuselage-mounted
machine gun (in French Vickers
service) or a Lewis Gun
mounted on a Foster mo
unting on the top wing
British service). Two gun (in
s were occasionally fitted,
but this had a severe effe
ct on performance, which
was, at best, little better
than that of earlier model
But by that time, more s.
advanced types, including
the SPAD XIII and SE5a
were well established am
front-line squadrons and ong
most Nieuport 24/27figh
ters


Flying Scale Models 23
NIEUPORT TYPE HIST AND SD TONY OK 28/9/11 13:11 Page 4

SCALE 1:40

LEFT: The captured


Nieuport 27 of 2nd Lt.
F.G.Baker of No.1
Squadron RFC, clearly
under new manage-
raft
ment! Since the airc
dition
appears in good con
throughout, the most
air-
likely cause of both
up
craft and pilot ending
in enemy hands was
.
probably engine failure

rt 27
BELOW: The Nieupo
was the last of the
V-Strutter Nieuports.
ner
This example is a trai
at an unknown French
unit.
NIEUPORT TYPE HIST AND SD TONY OK 28/9/11 13:12 Page 5

were actually used as advanced trainers, the


specified 130 hp Le Rhne Rotary engine of the
24bis. being often replaced by a 110 or 120 hp
version.
The type was supplied to Italy, and built there
by the Nieuport-Macchi Company at Varese, but
the Italians regarded it less favourably than the
Belgian Hanriot HD.1. Approximately 120
Nieuport 27 aircraft were bought for the United
States Army Air Service for use as trainers in
1918, while other operators of the type included
Japan, Russia/USSR, Uruguay and Poland, to
where a single example was supplied in 1919.

ABOVE: A nieuport 27.C1, iden


tified by
the plain tail skid, devoid of the
fuselage underside fairing, whic
h was a
feature on all except the late Nieu
port
24s (A pattern also applied to
the earlier
Nieuport 17.

SCALE 1:40

Flying Scale Models 25


NIEUPORT TYPE HIST AND SD TONY OK 28/9/11 13:12 Page 6

SCALE 1:40

SPECIFICATION
Length:
5.88 m (19 ft 31/2 in)

Wingspan:
8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)

Height:
2.44 m (8 ft)

Powerplant:
1 x Le Rhone Rotary,
90 kW (120 hp)

Maximum speed:
187 km/h (116 mph):
5,550 m
(18,200 ft)

Armament
(French/Italian servic
e): 1 x syn-
chronised Vickers ma
chine gun
(British service): 1 x
Lewis gun on
Foster mounting on
upper wing

An example of the Nieuport 27s of the


United States Air Service. Most of approxi-
mately 120 supplied were used as trainers.

26 Flying Scale Models


MORANE SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Revised Tony OK 28/9/11 16:44 Page 2

OR SCALE
UBJECTS F
S

Defender of France during the dark days of mid-1940,


this pugnacious little fighter is a worthy subject for
scale fans looking for something different
y the mid-1930s aircraft manufac- uid-cooled engines in a quest for all possible

B turers and air forces in general


were fully aware that there was
simply no further mileage in the
two/four-gun fighter biplane con-
figuration that had dominated air-power
thinking for a decade and a half.
Thoughts among all involved were, by
airframe drag reduction.
In France, both their Air Force (Armee de
lAir) and their fighter-orientated aircraft
designers and manufacturers were no differ-
ent. Among them, Aeroplanes Morane-
Saulnier had been at the forefront of combat
aircraft development and construction from
then, concentrated on the cantilever winged the very beginning and so, were well placed
monoplane coupled to a new generation of to take up the challenge of a new fighter air-
more powerful engines, with a clear leaning craft specification issued by their Air Force in
(though not exclusively) toward in-line, liq- 1934 for a modern interceptor that would
MORANE SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Revised Tony OK 28/9/11 16:44 Page 3

Specification
Length: 8.17 m (26 ft 9 in)
Wingspan: 10.62 m (34 ft 10 in)
Height: 2.71 m (8 ft 10 in)
Wing area: 17.10 m2 (184.06 ft2)
Powerplant: Hispano-Suiza 12Y 31 liquid-cooled V-12, 6
40 kW (860 hp)

Performance
Maximum speed: 486 km/h (303 mph) at 5,000 m (16,400 ft)
Range: 1,000 km (620 m)

Armament
1 x 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannon
2 x 7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns


MORANE SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Revised Tony OK 28/9/11 16:44 Page 4

replace the fixed-wing, fixed-spatted under- in level flight at 13,000 ft and capable of being boarder on May10th 1940. In the following six
carriage, open cockpit Dewoitine D.500, Loire dived at 450 mph. weeks, culminating in the Armistice that
150 and retracting U/C Nieuport 161. For all that, the 405 was no more that the came into effect on June 25th, the M.S. 406s
At stake was a 1,000-example production progenitor of the M.S.406. Only 15 examples of the Escadrille of the Armee de LAir gave
contract as France, along with other of the former were produced before giving battle where-ever and whenever they could
European nations prepared for the perceived way the M.S.406 in the Spring of 1938, using against a background of fall-back, disorgani-
inevitable confrontation with Nazi Germany. the Hispano Suiza HS 12Y 31 moteur-canon sation and lack of air raid early warning of the
The Morane-Saulnier response was their engine which incorporated a Hispano-Suiza kind newly installed (and still secret) in
M.S.405, powered by a Hispano-Suiza HS 12Y S9 or HS 404 20mm calibre canon firing Britain.
in-line engine, first test flown in August 1935 through the crankshaft. With 60 drum-fed
with fixed undercarriage, which was quickly explosive shells, this centre-line location Further service
replaced by a fully retracting system after ini- imparted a point-and-squirt aim devoid of In the aftermath of the German victory in
tial testing. the requirement for range harmonisation, France, in 1940, Germany scooped up what-
The new aircraft displayed excellent flying although this remained necessary for the ever M.S.406s became immediately available,
characteristics and test flying continued after twin, wing-mounted 7.5mm machine guns. for use as trainers in Luftwaffe service. One
installation of full military equipment, so that M.S.406s began reaching the squadrons of wonders how trainees transferring from the
in 1937, this pugnacious looking little fighter the Armee de LAir in December 38/January conveniently wide undercarriage of the
was selected from five competing designs for 1939, with a steady build-up during the fol- M.S.406 fared with the deadly narrow track of
production and service with the Armee de lowing months, so that just prior to the com- the Me 109?
LAir. mencement of WW2, 10 fighter groups were Under the
The M.S.405, the physical characteristics of so equipped in metropolitan France. terms of the
which therefore defined the M.S. 406 that During the phoney-war period from 1940
quickly followed was, by later WW2 stan- September 39 to May 40 the M.S.406 was
dards, a very small aircraft, the product of the mainstay of the French fighter arm as the
typical European thinking of the time with the service awaited delivery of Curtiss Hawk 75
emphasis on low air-time endurance, opti- (P-36) fighters from USA to supplement fight-
mised for metropolitan defence, in the same er strength. M.S.406 action during this period
manner as the British Hawker Hurricane, consisted largely of reconnaissance escort
Supermarine Spitfire and Messerschmitt Bf duties and reconnaissance interception as
109 D/E. The M.S. 405/6 was also, by compar- both sides probed opposing defensive lines
ison with these other three, seriously under- and a certain amount of mixing it with
armed. Messerschmitt Bf 109s took place with
Nevertheless, it offered what was, at the losses on either sides.
time, a good performance for a fighter air- All that changed with the thunderclap
craft, with 250 mph at ground level, 304 mph that descended across Frances eastern

30 Flying Scale Models


MORANE SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Revised Tony OK 28/9/11 16:44 Page 5

Franco-German armistice, southern France Thailand until, after French withdrawal, some Switzerland built a specifically developed
remained free under its Vichy administration wound up with the Thai Air Force. version under licence in a number a variants
and M.S.406s continued in Vichy service fur- Finland received 30 M.S.406s from France in of the type designated D-3800/3801/3803,
ther afield, in French overseas possessions in early 1940, plus a further 46 and 11 of the completing a total of 224, including 17 assem-
North Africa and in Syria. M.S.406s also later M.S.410s in 1943 from Germany. Turkey bled from spares during 1947/8, although by
found their way to French Indochina (now received 45; while Bulgaria took 20 and a few then, the type was only in service as a trainer
Vietnam) and were used in a frontier war with also went to Italy. type.

The aircraft depicted here


is actually a Morane
Saulnier D-3801, a Swiss
manufacured version
build under licence. The
most obvious differences
from the MS 406 are the
radiator air intake that
extends ahead of the
wing leading edge, and
the tailwheel unit, that
replaces the fixed skid of
the MS 406.
MS 406 SCALE DRAWING Tony OK 29/9/11 11:18 Page 2
MS 406 SCALE DRAWING Tony OK 29/9/11 11:18 Page 3
MORANE IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/11 16:02 Page 2

IN DETAIL

Morane
The subject of this
detail study is actually
a Swiss-made D-3803
variant rather than an

Saulnier M.S.406. Based in


Switzerland and
superbly restored to

MS406
flying condition, it is a
regular performer at
the annual Flying
Legends Air Show at
Duxford.

1: Panel line and sliding cockpit canopy rail detail.

2 & 3: Deep wing-to-fuselage fairing. Note tread panel both


sides.

4: Further close-up showing the enclosed cockpit canopy


guide rail.

5 & 7: Front and rear cockpit canopy sections. Note the crash
pylon added to aircraft after initial landing accidents.
MORANE IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/11 16:02 Page 3

4 5

6 7

8: Complete tailcone. note the rivet lining


and partial fabric fuselage covering.

9: Detail of the fairing over the upper


tailplane strut anchor point.

10: fairing over rudder control cable which


doubles as an access panel.

8 10


MORANE IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/11 16:03 Page 4

11 12

11: Detail of the metal surface fairing panel over fin-to-fuselage attachment. 12: Radio mast atop the rudder/fin hinge line.
13 & 14: Forward fuselage, showing panel detail and exhaust stack. 15: Front spinner - note the hole for the moteur-cannon apperture.
16: Front fuselage detail, revealing air scoops and vents, plus engine access panels.

13

14 15

16
MORANE IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/11 16:04 Page 5

17 18 19

20 17: View of lower half of the engine cowl.

18 & 19: Two views of the radiator air scoop. This is the
unit as applied to the Swiss-made D-3803 version in
which the intake extends ahead of the wing.

20: Main undercarriage door and wheel.

21: Main undercarriage locking strut - an unusual


arrangement.

22: Main undercarriage wheel well.

23 & 24: Main undercarriage wheel and wheel hub detail.

21

22

23 24


MORANE IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/11 16:04 Page 6

25 26

27 28

25: The tailplane-to-fin bracing strut. 26: Close-up of the tailplane-to-fin strut lower anchor point. Note also the elevator hinge bracket.
27: Tailplane tip, showing the aerodynamic balance.
28: The tailwheel unit. Note; French-built M.S.406s had tailskids, but this is a Swiss-built D-3803 variant.
29: A further view revealing panel lines along the fuselage centre section and the wing-to-fuselage fairing and landing flap internals.

29
MORANE IN DETAIL Tony OK 27/9/11 16:05 Page 7

33

30

30 & 31: Two views of the retractable landing light hinged on the underside of the left wing.

32: Close-up of the rear of the rear extremity of the wing-to-fuselage fairing.

33: Aileron on right wing panel. The flap is partially extended, which is why it looks as though
the aileron trailing edge extends aft of the wing trailing edge.

34: Wing leading edge showing the pitot head (in safety cover), gun port and leading edge
spoiler.
31 35: Another view of the wing flap, showing the internal rib formation.

34

32

35
MORANE FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 28/9/11 12:59 Page 2
MORANE FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 28/9/11 13:00 Page 3
DFW 1 TONY OK 26/10/11 09:06 Page 2

DFW FULL-SIZE FREE PLAN FEATURE by Peter Rake & Charles Sherman

PART 1

DFW C.V
An electric powered, 1/12 scale model of the German WW1 reconnaissance designed by
with the prototype model build and described by Charles Sherman
hen Peter was looking for volunteers to do the proto- end of the war. The plane was equipped with a single,

W type build for his 1/12th scale version of the German


DFW C.V, I jumped at the chance as I was considering
several other German WWI aircraft and the DFW C.V
is one of those planes that is rarely modelled. A quick
search on-line turned up no balsa kits and only a handful of R/C
scratch builds. Although this is a 1/12th scale plane, the wingspan is
43.5 and length of 25, putting the overall size closer to most 1/8 and
forward firing Spandau machine gun and a rear facing
Parabellum machine gun manned by the observer from
the rear cockpit. Despite its size the DFW C.V was not a
plane that was an easy mark for allied pilots. It had
excellent handling characteristics and was well pow-
ered. A skilled pilot could turn the tables on an attacker
and the observer could fend off attacks with the
1/9 scale WW1 biplanes I usually build. Parabellum.
Approximately 3,250 examples were built by Aviatik,
The aircraft LVG and Halberstadt, but only a handful survived the
The DFW CV was a two-seater plane capable of fulfilling multiple roles armistice.
- generally the workhorse of the German air force from late 1916 to the Because of its long service history and various

Just one of the possible colour schemes for this model. The green/mauve always looks good,
and avoids the dreaded lozenge fabric finish.

16 Flying Scale Models


DFW 1 TONY OK 26/10/11 09:06 Page 3

W C.V How inner and outer side frames assist with building a square fuselage. Dont forget to make left and
right sides.

d by Peter Rake,

Get this assembly square and it will go a long way With the sides glued to the alignment assembly,
towards ensuring the fuselage sides join accurate- the remaining formers can be added and the
ly. I would probably have included F1 at this stage. nose pulled in.

upgrades/modifications during the production for easy access to the aileron servos when
run, there are several minor variations to the mounted in the wings for those who wish to
basic design that make for a more interesting use that method.
model. This includes the possibility of a var- I selected 9gm servos for the ailerons to
ied selection of colour schemes. handle the added load of pulling the control
wires through the guide tubes. 5gm servos
Deviation from plan probably would have handled this just fine,
Peters plans call for 5g servos to be mounted but I had the room in the fuselage so I
in the upper wing to control the ailerons. I thought I would take advantage of that.
modified things slightly by moving the servos To create the space for aileron servos, I had
to the fuselage and rigging up more scale-like to position the rudder and elevator servos in
ailerons with control wires running through an upright position. The servos and servo
the lower wing, up to control horns in the arms are easily accessed through the front
upper wing. The plans are drawn up to allow cockpit while the plane is being assembled,
The obligatory almost naked model shot. There may be a lot of wing ribs, but assembly is quite
straightforward.


Flying Scale Models 17
DFW 1 TONY OK 26/10/11 09:06 Page 4

ABOVE LEFT: Charles struggled a little getting the nose shaped, but you could save some time by laminating thick sheet, rather than carving from solid
block. ABOVE RIGHT: The cut away area into which the cowling will fit, and the gun in its trough.

but once the top wing is mounted, accessing nique for putting the fuselage together for X, F2 and F4. F2 and F4 simply slide onto X at
these is difficult. For that reason, I choose not this plane, and it worked out very well. I start- each end. The way in which the components
to use the screw that secures the servo arm ed by putting the sides together. Each side are cut virtually guarantees they all line up
to the servo because getting a screwdriver in consists of the outer sheeting (FS2) and inner square. Once those are glued together, you
there would be very tricky. The servo arm fits frame. can join this section to the two side sections.
on snugly, but can still be removed if needed The inner frames were constructed by Before joining the sides, you may want to
without too much trouble. Just remember to assembling the parts over the plan. FS1 mark the positions for the placement of the
check those every few flights. forms the support for the forward section of rear formers - F5 to F10.
the plane and 1/16 x 1/8 balsa strips were FS1 - used in the inner frame, has pre-cut
The build used to frame in the aft section. slots, into which F2 and F4 will. I joined the
Although I had to spread the build out over a A word of caution - make sure that you support section to the left side by dropping it
few months, the actual number of hours glue the inner frame section to the inside of into the slots and then applying CA. Once that
required for the construction was not that the first FS2 and opposite side of the second was dry, I flipped it over and dropped it into
great. I started from a laser cut kit of parts FS2. You want to make sure the inner frame the slots in the right side section and glued
and was able to put most of the balsa togeth- is on the inside of both FS2 sections when everything together. Alignment of all the sec-
er into some semblance of a DFW C.V in you join them up later. Yours truly had both tions was dead on. The design of the parts
about 10 hours. The nose and rear cockpit FS2s laid out facing the same direction and took care of it.
took up another three or so hours. nearly glued the inner frame onto the same I positioned the fuselage over the top view
The plans are very straightforward - four side of each of them. You will have to cut the of the plan and joined the tail together, then
sheets showing parts and layouts for every- balsa strip that overlays the slot the horizontal glued in the rear formers - F5 to F10. Note
thing that needs to be built. stabiliser fits into. that F6 is used to form the rear cockpit open-
The next step is to create the structure that ing - this is glued into the slots in the top of
Fuselage will be the main support for the fuselage. This F5 and F7.
I believe Peter tried out a new design tech- section is comprised of 1/8 ply components F1, the firewall, was then fitted to part X -
DFW 1 TONY OK 26/10/11 09:07 Page 5

Making a low pass for the camera. All thats needed is


a crew for this to be quite convincing.

there are slots in each part that align to keep close, but when the two sides were connect- from two solid blocks of balsa, one for the
things square. At this point the front sides are ed at the top, the stress either broke the wire, front of the nose and the other for the battery
pulled in and glued to X and F1 to form the or the solder holding the two sides together. I hatch. Both pieces were cut into rough
first section of the nose. ended up cutting each section into two pieces shapes, and then glued together before any
Brass tubes are secured to the aft side of and joined all four together by using a 1/8 refining took place. The nose section will be
F2 and F4 to support the cabanes and another O/D aluminium tube into which all four pieces cut into two sections later on so that the
was secured to the aft side bottom of F2 for slide. If you choose this route, do not glue, or motor and battery can be accessed. The nose
the landing gear. Study the drawings before fix the cabane wire in the aluminium tube will have to be shaped so that it can accom-
fitting the brass tubes, and make sure you fit until the wings are aligned and fixed into modate the spinner after the two degrees of
them to the correct face of the formers. position. right thrust and two degrees of down thrust is
The top of the fuselage was sheeted with The front legs of the landing gear were set for the motor.
1/16 balsa. I started with the section between After a lot of marking, shaping and sand-
the cockpits, from F4 to F5. One piece of balsa ing, I had a shape I was satisfied with. I used
was used to sheet each of the following sec- a drill and Dremel tool to bore out the nose.
tions: F7 to F10; F3 to F4; F2 to F3 and F1 to Two bamboo dowels were used to hold the
F2. With the easy sections out of the way, I nose in alignment with the fuselage as the
moved on the rear cockpit. This is a tricky sec- shaping took place. A ply ring is provided
tion as there are a number of compound with the laser cut parts. This finishes off the
curves required to get the shape right. After a end of the nose nicely and also helps get the
few failed attempts at trying to shape a single shape of the nose right.
balsa sheet, I used three separate pieces of At this scale, things are a very tight fit, so I
balsa to form the skin around the rear cockpit. would not recommend trying to taper the
This new approach took 15 minutes to com- nose to make this look like a later model.
plete and the result looks good on the fin- The actual plane is shown with several
ished plane. styles of spinners, or none at all. I used an off-
At this point I also began to test-fit the ser- the-shelf spinner made by Dubro. Its a 1 3/4
vos and experiment with different arrange- unit that uses a single screw to fix the spinner
ments for the placement of the elevator to the built-in prop adapter. The overall size
servo. I ended up placing the elevator and and shape is very close to the spinner in the
rudder servos where the plan shows them plans.
and the aileron servos below them and slight-
ly forward in an upside-down orientation. CONCLUDES NEXT MONTH IN
I created the exit tubes for the control FSM JANUARY 2012 ISSUE,
wires using 1/8 O/D styrene tubes. I shaped ON SALE DECEMBER 8TH
each section using my fingers and used some
scrap balsa to create some supports on the
inside of the fuselage. Six holes are required
and are marked on the plan.
With that done, the tailskid block TS was With the hatches removed, you get a clear indica-
LASER-CUT
inserted and then the bottom of the fuselage
was sheeted from F4 all the way back.
The cabanes and landing gear were put
tion of how Charles installed his equipment. Note
the non-standard aileron servo arrangement.

split in half and slid into the brass tube


PARTS SET?
together and test-fitted. The cabanes are con- attached to F2. The rear legs are secured to a
A set of ready-cut parts
structed from two sections of 18-gauge wire. piece of ply that spans the width of the fuse- for Peter Rakes DFW C.V
The angle of the bend required to connect the lage just forward of F4. I glued the ply span in is available...
cabane to the fuselage was just a little to later on in the build and used some P-clips to
much for the wire I was using and the wire attach the rear leg of the landing gear. SEE PAGE 6 OF
would crack if I went that few extra number of Next came the biggest job of the build -
degrees to get it correct. I could get the bend creating the nose section. This was formed
THIS ISSUE

Flying Scale Models 19


DFW 1 TONY OK 26/10/11 09:07 Page 7

Scale 1:60
DFW TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:15 Page 2

ORY
TYPE HIST

DFW C.V the Great War period


rse of
German aerial workho
A notable
-
ere manufac
l of 2,000 w
War I. A tota Company, pl
us
parent
ment of
e commence tured by DFW 1,250 produced by the
a of Thus, with th FW had the experi- pr ox im ately v), and
, in every er ,D
WW1 in 1914 p their own line of
ap (DFW C.V (A ;
very air arm lo ng se rv- ve lo Avi atik concern viat ik C. VI

E
s its ence to de menced w ith ated as A
aviation, ha s - aircraft raft that com by the also design d Schtte-L
anz.
ing workhor
se
s combat airc fo llow ed al be rs tadt ; LV G an
a stur-
unglamorou B and C ty
pe s,
the front-
H
developmen
t w as
that provide ide-ranging hich ad op ted Th e C. VI ad de d to
but vital an d w DFW C.II, w plane ith balances
d, while the tw o- se ater tractor bi e dier aircraft w y a single example
a long perio engine d
tandem cock
pits for th
the ailerons
. Onl wed
service over perseded fa
r
layout with t it was follo
often are su was built, bu ent of three
star types pilot and ob
se rv er.
C.IV, C.V,
of th is
developm
more quickl
y. in the ed the DFW by a further ated F37 during the
e of aircraft, There follow wered by Benz Bz.III, de si gn
One such lin e during po airc ra ft
the war and VII.
may
man Air Se rvic C.VI and F37 C.III in-line liq
-
g stages of
Imperial Ger d came from Bz Bz.IV an d Co nr ad
nz
cl os in
en desi gn at ed as C.
rio
the WW1 pe zeug-Werke (DFW) first oled en gines. The Be mance. have also be
ui d co rfor
Duetsche Fl
ug
Meyer and superior pe ment
established
by Bernhard
al in 1910, to
engines gave for the C.V was
le ad er S e rv ice deploypr eceding vers r-
ions
at Linden th Design o- d
Erich Thiele de signs O eler ich, and it was pr y Th e DFW C.V an ti ro le co m bat ai
uce Farman Heinrich than an a mul
initially prod , but later er numbers were used as
from Fr an ce duced in larg aircraft during World
under licence e Etrich Taube and other Germ
an
to th
moving on gns.
its own desi
eventually to

22 Flying Scale Models


DFW TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:16 Page 3

DFW C.V serial C.799/17 listed as G.53 by the RFF. This machine was forced down by Lt. Rhys-Davies of
No.56 Squadron on July 17th 1917. The crew were unhurt and were interred.


Flying Scale Models 23
DFW TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:16 Page 4

Somewhare over Fra


nce in
1917, the irregular spr
ayed
camfouflage pattern
A jolly group of members of an unknown Flt. Abt. In front of C.3420/17. is
notable here.
craft, for reconnaissance, observation, and actually outmanoeuvre most allied fighters
bombing by Germany and Bulgaria during of the period and, given that superiority, it
World War I. An initial delivery of six air- is no surprise that it remained in first-line Under new flags
craft reached Bulgaria in 1917. Some of the service until early 1918, with as many as The C.VI development was a sturdier air-
success of this aircraft wrested in the fact 600 still in use by the time of the Armistice craft with balances added to the ailerons.
that, In the hands of a skilled pilot, it could of 11 November 1918. Only a single example of this was built, but
it was followed by three aircraft designated
F 37 during the closing stages of the war,
which may have also been designation
C.VII.
Most remaining DFW C.Vs were scrapped
at the end of WW1 in accordance with the
terms to the Treaty of Versailles of 1919,
but this was not the end of the DFW C.V.
Poland seized 11 aircraft in 1919 and man-
ufactured a further 13 in 1920 from seized
parts. Several other C.Vs were also bought
by Poland in1920 and used by the Polish
Air Force in the Polish-Soviet war of 1919-
1921.Two were used post-war in Finland,
four in the Netherlands, two in Switzerland
and a number in Estonia.
DFW C.V serial C.5264/16 photographed at Drama in Macedonia. The aircraft is about to take off in
order to drop the large wreath over Orjak where, on November 21sr 1917, the ace Lt. Rudolf von Civilian service
Eschwege attacked a balloon, the basket of which contained a massive explosive charge that was Eight DFW C.V aircraft were converted to
detonated from the ground, destroying his Halberstadt Scout.

SPECIFICATION
Crew: Two; pilot and observer
Length: 7.8 m (25.58 ft)
Wingspan: 13.27 m (43.54 ft)
Height: 3.25 m (10.67 ft)
Powerplant: 1 x 185 hp N.A.G. (National Automobil-Gesellschaft
AG, Berlin) C.III or Benz Bz.IV 6 cylinder, water cooled
in-line (185 hp or 200 hp)

PERFORMANCE
Maximum speed: 155 km/h (96 mph)
Range: 500 km (311 mi)
Service ceiling: 5,000 m (16,400 ft)
Endurance: 3.5 hours

ARMAMENT
1 x 7.92 mm MG-08/15 (Spandau) fixed machine gun with a
synchronizing gear C.V. In
an Aviatik-built DFW
1 x 7.92 mm Parabellum MG14 machine gun on a ring mounting A useful close-up of the Ben z. engine
los ing
100 kg of bombs service, the panels enc The
to improve cooling.
were often discarded ed to
and a generator is fitt
airscrew is an Axial
the undercarriage.

24 Flying Scale Models


DFW TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:16 Page 5

sonal album as this


A nice shot for the per to
ver of C.5 845 /16 employs a camera tied
Obser
er inte rplane stru t. Note the flare pistol
an out
llum IMG 14.
rounds and the Parabe

civilian usage and used by Deutsche Luft


Rederei. Seven copies were built by the
Darzhavna Aeroplane Robotilnitsa
(Bulgarian state aircraft workshops) in 1925
as the DAR Uzunov-1 (DAR U-1) and used
as a trainer for Bulgarias secret air force.
Following the war, the single DFW F 37
was fitted with a 300 hp BMW IV engine,
and in this configuration broke the world
altitude record in 1919, reaching a height
of 7,700 m (25,250 ft). However, since this
flight was in breach of the Armistice terms,
it was not recognised by the Federation
Aeronautique Internationale.
After this exploit, this F 37 had its original
Benz engine restored, and was converted
into a passenger limousine by the addi-
tion of a richly-upholstered interior and a
canopy to enclose it. Now designated the
P 1, it could carry three passengers. It was
demonstrated by DFW at the ELTA exhibi-
tion in Amsterdam in 1919, and was used
to give joyrides there.
An Aviatik-built DFW
C.V being sprayed, ind
ing how the camouf icat-
lage was applied.

Captured by the Russians prior to the Oct. 1917 Revolution, this


DFW C.V is seen in vertical stance. The Russians eagerly sought
captured German two-seaters and those captured were soon
repaired, re-marked and placed in service.
DFW 2 Tony OK 23/11/11 10:42 Page 2

DFW FULL-SIZE FREE PLAN FEATURE by Peter Rake & Charles Sherman

PART 2

DFW C.V
Concluding the build of this 1/12th scale electric powered model of the German WW1
reconnaissance two seater, designed by Peter Rake and built by Charles Sherman
he engine cowl was added next. traced an outline on the plane to mark where The basic structure was created using 1/8

T Three pre-cut pieces of soft balsa


are provided to shape the front of
the cowl and two pieces of light-
ply are used for the sides. I joined
the sides to the front by using some scrap
balsa as bracing. The top pieces will be cut,
shaped and glued on later.
I would need to cut. Make sure you leave
adequate room for the forward machine-
gun, which needs to be positioned on the
right side of the cowl. I cut through and did
some test fittings to ensure the placement
was good and the fit was snug.
The gun trough was cut next and sheeted
O.D. styrene tubes and shapes cut from
styrene sheet were used to form the sides.
The exhaust tubes were then bent 90
degrees. Holes were cut into the ply and two
1/8 sq. balsa strips were used on the rear
side to support the exhaust pipes.
If I were to do this over again, I would cut
The cowl needs to be recessed into the top with 1/16 balsa. I cut the slot right down to the six holes into the light-ply before assem-
of the nose sections. The actual position in the brass tube on F2. bling the cowl.
the real plane is offset to the left from the The exhaust stack is a prominent feature of I split the nose section into two pieces to
pilots perspective (facing forward). The this plane and there are several styles you create the access hatch to the motor and bat-
holes in the front of the cowl have been off- can go with. I drew up a design in a graphics tery. The top half was glued to the fuselage
set and these should line up over the centre- program, using a scan of the plan as a refer- and engine cowl. Four rare earth magnets
line of the plane. I positioned the cowl and ence for positioning the exhaust and for size. were used to secure the access hatch.

Pretty as a picture and just waiting for the crew to climb aboard before setting off for another sortie. The
DFW CV makes for a very pretty model with relatively clean lines.

18 Flying Scale Models


DFW 2 Tony OK 23/11/11 10:42 Page 3

W C.V
ABOVE LEFT: Apart from the laminated outlines there is nothing about the tail surfaces that
should cause problems. ABOVE RIGHT: With all the complicated shaping done, the model
awaits installation of the cabane trestle.

The hatch to cover the section that houses This is a very sharp angle because the rud- aileron and wing.
the servos was made from 0.101 styrene. der size is small. You will want to work with Slots were created in the aileron and wing.
Again, rare-earth magnets were used to balsa that has been really softened up and The arm will be glued into the aileron and
attach the hatch. work slowly. move clear through the wing.
Due to the dihedral, the top wing is formed I did a test fit of everything before moving
Wings and tail out of two halves and joined together after on the finishing stage. I also did a test of all
All of the flying and control surfaces were each half has been built. Included in the cut of the control surfaces and position of the
built over the plans and as building goes, parts are guides to help you set the angle of servos, ESC and battery.
things are pretty straightforward, so Ill focus the root ribs so when they are joined, the
on a few things that need to be highlighted, proper dihedral is set. Use the same guide to Paint and detail
or where I deviated from plan for my set the angle of the root ribs on the bottom I used Hangar 9s Parklite to cover the wings.
ailerons. wings. I thought that was one of those little This stuff is very light, easy to work with and
The curved sections of the rudder and ele- things that tells you, Peter has built a few took paint fairly well.
vator are built up using laminated balsa. The planes himself! The colour scheme I chose for this plane is
bend for the rudder took a couple of tries. Another nice little design feature is the way based on a combination of images Ive seen.
the interplane I just went with elements that I liked, that
struts and wing could have
join. The 1/8 been found
balsa ribs (in on a DFW
the cut-parts FINISHING & AS C.V.
set) come pre- ELECTRONIC SEMBLY To prepare
notched and
S AND SETUP the fuse-
the rib fits in MOTOR: Power lage, I
Up 400 1050Kv
nicely. More this motor after - I changed over rubbed a
the maiden flight to
support is PROP: 9x5 slofly thinned coat
and GWS 9050ep
added by glu- RX: six channel of wood
(used the 6th ch
ing balsa to aileron differen annel to set up filler over the
tial)
each side of BATTERY: 3s 13 balsa sheet-
00
the slot so SERVOS: 4 x 9g ing and filled
that the inter- ESC: 30 amp - 18 in all of the
amp ESC would
plane strut prop and motor be fine for this cracks. This
.
had more AUW: 25 oz - ~3 was sanded
.9 is battery
surface to BALANCE POIN down using
T: As marked in
adhere to. weight was adde plans - no extra 320 grit sand-
d - balance was
To set up spot on. paper. A coat
my aileron WATT METER DA of Krylon
controls, I GWS 9050: 11am TA: primer was
ps @ 90watts ~6
drew out a 9X5 SLOFLY: 13 0watts/pound sprayed on
amps @ 137watt
path for a FLIGHT TIME: 10 s ~85watts/pound and then sand-
minutes
cable guide ed down using
that runs CONTROL SURFA 320 and 400
through AILERONS: +10m CE THROWS: grit sandpaper
m / -4mm
the lower RUDDER: 20mm to get a nice
wing on ELEVATOR: 15m smooth surface.
m
my plans I used inex-
and the cut pensive acrylic
holes paints pur-
through the ribs. To get the chased from a
correct position for the holes, I matched a craft store, applied
pair of ribs up to the plan and cut the hole with an airbrush. The green is a mix: a paint
where the cable guide intersected the rib. I that was close to olive drab and another
repeated this step until all the ribs were green with a fair bit of a blue tone to it. The
drilled. I split the pairs between each wing purple was actually much lighter - in fact
and glued the ribs into place. more like pink when applied, but the clear
The control wires attach to a control arm coat darkened it up. A light blue was used
connected to the aileron. I fashioned the con- for the underside of the wings.
trol arms from 1/8 light-ply into a curved I created the decals in a graphics program
shape that would clear to spars between the and printed these out on some water slide

Flying Scale Models 19
DFW 2 Tony OK 23/11/11 10:42 Page 4

In its virtually uncovered state


the construction shows well.
Apart from the observers cockpit
surround there shouldnt be too
much head scratching required.

decal paper produced by Testors. I did this


on an inkjet printer and let the ink dry a few
hours before sealing them using Krylon
satin clearcoat. I used this method on my
SPAD and it works very well.
The two 1/12th scale machine-guns were
purchase from Wright Bros. RC, assembled,
painted and mounted.
I didnt have any suitable material on hand
to create the windscreen, but I do intend to
add this in later.
The radiators were attached after the fuse-
lage had been painted. The curved sections
were copied from the plan and formed to fit
over a solid balsa block that was painted
black.

Connecting the wings


Just like the fuselage, the wing alignment
pretty much took care of itself. I test-fitted
the lower wings to make sure they were

20 Flying Scale Models


DFW 2 Tony OK 23/11/11 10:42 Page 5

Sinking gently in for another smooth landing. The model is not difficult to
fly and allows you the option of mild aerobatics when the mood takes.

A good shot of the nose area, revealing how the That darned rear cockpit surround, the
radiators, machine-gun and commercial spinner Parabellum gun and how the control cables exit
aid realism. the fuselage.

swaying movement. Pete said the structure the fun and the feeling of being in control!
would be rigid and it was. Application of hard rudder almost spins the
plane 180 degrees, but the big wings keep
Rigging the plane quite level. Its not a manoeuvre I
Fully functional rigging isnt required as the can do with my other planes, so I had a lot
wings wont be under too much stress in of fun with that.
flight, but support is required for landing, as I did some stall tests and when the motor
the wings will flex a bit on a hard landing. is cut off in level flight the plane just glides,
Dont ask how I know this! losing altitude at a fairly low rate. When
snug against the fuselage. The root rib was I embedded some small eyehooks into the stalled from the top of a vertical climb, it
already set up with the correct amount of spar ribs and fuselage to act as anchors for only takes a small pull on the elevator to get
dihedral so all that needed to be done was the rigging. Monofilament was used for the her swung into a level position and in a nice
to set up something to brace the wing tip at rigging wire as this allows you to pull the glide. Ive pretty much stopped this plane
the correct angle. I used carpenters glue to wire snug but still has a little play in it to dead in the air doing hard turns with the
join the root rib to the fuselage, then used absorb forces from landing. rudder and all it takes is a couple of feet of
some heavy items to apply pressure on the lost altitude for it to generate enough lift to
wings tips to keep the wings tight against Flying the model recover.
the fuselage sides. I did a lot of checking to Well lets just start by saying that this model Peters DFW CV is a terrific plane to fly. It
make sure the wings were square. is extremely stable in flight. definitely has a different feel to it compared
Fortunately, the root ribs were aligned per- It took me a couple of test runs to get to the other biplanes Ive flown. I would
fectly, so there really wasnt any adjustment everything dialled in and although there characterise it as an easy plane to fly but has
required. were some control issues (due to too low room for pilots to learn to fly it well.
I let the glue dry overnight and when I test- throw settings on the ailerons and then a
ed the wings; the joint was good enough to motor problem) I just went with what the
support the weight of the wing.
I connected the top wing to the cabane and
model wanted to do - climb and circle - and
brought her down under control. LASER-CUT
did a test fit of all of the struts. The align-
ment was very good. I used five -minute
epoxy on the struts. Once these were all in
On the third flight, everything went well.
There is a little pull to the left at the start of
the take-off run, then she goes straight and
PARTS SET?
place, I held the top wing down for a minute is up. Take off speed is very low - it does not
and then checked to make sure things were take much air over the wings to generate lift. A set of ready-cut parts
still square before the glue set. Once again, Elevator and rudder response is good.
the parts pretty much aligned themselves. Turns do require a lot of rudder; ailerons
for Peter Rakes DFW C.V
The way the struts connect to the wings real- more or less roll the wings horizontally. I is available...
ly helps - doesnt leave much play. found that I really had to guide the plane
That dried overnight and when I checked into, and out of turns. So, although the DFW SEE PAGE 6 OF
the wings - things were pretty rigid. I had C.V is a stable, slow flier, you do have to THIS ISSUE
been worried that the way the top wing con- pilot the plane, as it doesnt change direction
nected to the fuselage would allow for some that quickly - but anyway, thats all part of

Flying Scale Models 21


ZERO revised Tony OK 25/10/11 16:43 Page 2

WALKAROUND by Simon Delaney

Simon Delaney reviews Dave Tilburys


masterful rendition of the Yellow
Aircraft 1/5th scale Mitsubishi A6M Zero

26 Flying Scale Models


ZERO revised Tony OK 25/10/11 16:43 Page 3

he bi-annual scale event at the Dave became engrossed in this particu- I have build several Yellow Aircraft kits,

T Norfolk Gliding Clubs WW2


airstrip in Norfolk yielded many
super scale models. Dave
Tilbury arrived with two of his
warbirds: a SIST Models Fw190 D9 and a
Yellow Aircraft Mitsubishi A6M Zero. This
famous Japanese fighter is the subject of
lar warbird after reading the Osprey
Modelling book on the A6M. These books,
although aimed primarily at plastic mod-
ellers, have a host of relevant information
for the R/C scale modeller too. Dave
decided to finish his 1:5 scale Zero on one
of the featured planes in the publication
and have also flown many more, and
their philosophy of high quality glass
mouldings and a general low parts count
means you quickly get to the fun part - of
finishing, with much of the hard work
already done for you. Building is speeded
up with the
this article and will doubtless enthuse which was a Kamikaze aircraft operating inclusion of tail
readers into discovering more about this with the Jinrai Sqn from land, not aircraft fairings, wing
interesting type. carrier, around 1944. tips and belly


Flying Scale Models 27
ZERO revised Tony OK 25/10/11 16:43 Page 4

1 3 4

2 5

1: Balsa skinned wing panel has all cut outs made at the factory. 2: New
scale flaps were made from 1/64" ply after consulting scale drawings.
3: Dave made a centre line drop tank which was characteristic of the A6M.
4: With the cowl removed, you can see the pretty simple installation. 5: The
complete model after spraying with aluminium colour. 6: Close up of
the wing panel in silver. 7: Next was a coat if red oxide primer,
exactly the same as the full size! 8: Close up of the landing leg
detail. Very realistic. 9: The glass cowl is big enough to lose
the Laser 300 twin. 10: A dummy engine was made to blend
in with the Laser's layout. 11: Yellow Aircraft supplied the
wheel leg and retract unit. Dave added all the detail! 12:
You can see how much effort Dave put into the surface
detail on this model. 13: The tailplane required fabric
covering for the flying surfaces with rib stitched pro-
duced with glue blobs.

9 10

28 Flying Scale Models


ZERO revised Tony OK 25/10/11 16:43 Page 5

12

13

11

pans, which only need gluing in place and scale drawings. This is a very tiny item on much more scale manner from 1/32 ply
then filling to blend them in. the A6M and would have been retractable and incorporate the neat internal detail.
At 80 span Dave could fit a Laser 300V on the full size. Dave kept his fixed but One of Daves specialities is the scratch
twin inside the capacious cowl and install you cant even see it tin the air! building of cockpits and this A6M got the
two fuel tanks without resorting to any The main wheels are foam on alumini- full treatment! Dave was fortunate to
modification. Adjustments like this are um hubs. The spinner that Yellow Aircraft work quite near to the imperial War
always going to slow a project down and supply is machined from solid, which Museum at Lambeth in London, so many
theres a definite advantage to building may seem excessive until you realise that lunchtimes were spend looking at the
models at this size. Wings and tail pieces this model also needs 1.5 lbs of lead in cockpit section that the museum has on
are balsa sheeted foam which have the nose to balance correctly! The only display. An Elite Force Japanese pilot fit-
aileron boxes and retract bays already cut thing that Dave changed in terms of con- ted straight in!
out. Dave used Yellows own scale retract struction was the flaps, which are sup- Dave glassed the flying surfaces with
units and oleos which, or course, fitted plied as thick sheet. A quick look at the Flairs glass cloth and the ailerons, eleva-
straight into the wings but he had to some scale drawings from a 1:32 plastic tors and rudder were covered with
make a scale tailwheel unit himself from kit showed that these could be make in a Solartex. White glue blobs dropped from

Flying Scale Models 29


ZERO revised Tony OK 25/10/11 16:44 Page 6

14 15

a pin were used to create the stitched panel edges, and a combination of litho had researched the type thoroughly and
effect. The coat of grey primer was plate and self-adhesive aluminium tape found that the full-size were primed using
sprayed over the entire model, then 1mm was used to provide panels. red oxide paint so this had to go on next
fine lining tape was applied down all the Next, the model was coated in Halfords as it would show through when the
panel lines. Spray filler was thereafter aluminium spray, which would normally weathering process was done. He used
added along all the tape to build the precede the final paint. However, Dave Phoenix enamel paints and made up the

14: Radio mast detail. 15:The fin featured some neat insignia and weathering.
16: Neat underwing bomb hanger detail. 17: The model's line flow so well.
The reward of consistant craftsmanship.

30 Flying Scale Models


ZERO revised Tony OK 25/10/11 16:44 Page 7

16 17

insignia on AutoCad, which was then sent ouflage, Navy Green. Colour chips provid- confirm that it really is very realistic in
to Simon Young for him to create a rub ed in the book were used to mix the flight! The sound of the Laser twin crack-
down set of decals. Information from the colours correctly. Lastly a coat of TufCote ling away definitely adds to the effect,
Osprey book provided the correct colours matt was sprayed on and the completed and the flying qualities are like all Yellow
for the cowl and camouflage. The cowl model was ready to test fly at 22lbs. Aircraft designs - they just groove
colour is called Blue Black and the cam- Having seen the model perform, I can around!

Flying Scale Models 31


ZERO TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:04 Page 2

The most widely known and most successful Japanese combat aicraft of all
time. Its layout and large wing makes it an attractive subject for Scale
irst produced in the Japanese cal- 32 the Hap after General Hap Arnold, the throughout, thus achieving considerable

F endar year 2600 (1940), the


Mitsubishi A6M became popularly
known as the Zero-Sen since
Japanese designations used the
last digits of the calendar year for the type
identification. However, very little was
known about this aircraft among opposing
Commanding General of the US Army Air
Force and this was altered, after objection
to Hamp, for a brief period.
Historically the Zero or Zeke dates back
to October 1937 when the Japanese Navy
issued a specification for a fighter aircraft
with a speed or more that 500 kph (312
weight saving and drag reduction. The
wing centre section was made in one piece
with the fuselage saddled over it to elimi-
nate heavy junction fittings.
Initially, the Zero was employed in com-
bat in China, where it was matched against
the American Volunteer Group (AVG) com-
forces. mph); 1.5 hours airborne endurance and manded by Claire Chennault, operating
When the Zero appeared with devastat- mixed cannon/machine gun armament. At early Curtis P-40Bs. The Generals warn-
ing surprise over Pearl Harbour in the the Mitsubishi Company, designer Jiro ings that a superior Japanese fighter exist-
Hawaiian Islands on December 7th 1941, Hirokoshi met the demands with a proto- ed went unheeded and it was not until an
it only served to provide brutal confir- type that flew in early 1940, powered by accidentally discovered Type 21 was locat-
mation that the aircraft did, in fact, the 875 hp Zue-sei 14-cylinder radial ed in the US held Aleutian Islands, in June
exist. Later, the South Pacific Allied engine. This did not, initially meet the per- 1943, that the full capabilities (and faults)
Forces code name system allocat- formance requirements and so the 3rd of the Zero came to be understood.
ed Zeke to the type and there- prototype received the Nakajima Sakae These early versions had folding wing
after all subsequent models (Prosperity), which, with its 925 hp output tips for Carrier operations. The tips were
adopted the name as far as made all the difference. removed and squared off for the Type 32
the Allied Forces were con- In order to achieve the specified perform- and subsequently, this short-span 36 ft
cerned. There was one ance, every effort was made to minimise wing was rounded off for the mass-pro-
exception, when the the bare airframe weight. ESD aluminium, duced Type 52.
clipped wing a blend of zinc and magnesium, was A total of 10,934 Zeros were made and of
(squared-off wing extensively employed in the wings and these, Nakajima produced the greater
tips) was first fuselage. Moreover, this was a relatively number of 6,215. The same Company also
named Type thin gauge with flush riveting employed built the Rufe floatplane conversion with
ZERO TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:05 Page 3

An
excellent
Subject
for Scale
a large single float mounted in a forward
position under the fuselage centreline and
an outrigger stabilising sponson mounted
under each wing.
The Zero played a part in every battle
where the Japanese Navy and Air Force
were engaged and during the final stages
of WW2, was used for Kamikaze attacks 3
on the US and British Pacific Fleets.

Searching out the Zeros secrets


Captured Zeros were subjected to full
evaluation at Wright and Eglin air bases in
USA. Matched against the Grumman F4F
Wildcat which was the Zeros initial adver-
sary, the American machine climbed faster
up to 8,000 ft, but beyond that, the Zeke
climbed faster up to 13,000 ft and merited
about equal beyond.
Turning circle radius was matched at all
altitudes, but the Zero was 10-15 knots

1: Out and about - and up to no good! A loose


gaggle of A6M3s (Model 22) over the Solomon
Islands in 1941. 2: Another A6M2 wih everything
down for a carrier landing. 3: A clipped,
squared-off wing tip A6M3 (Model 32) Hamp,
captured and tested at Wright Field, Ohio.
4: Based in the Solmon Islands in 1943,
the A6M3 is a Model 22a with longer 4
wingspan, rounded wing tips.


Flying Scale Models 33
ZERO TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:05 Page 4

5 6 7

faster, with a maximum speed of 344 mph cient firepower to claim many successes. ing in a region of high temperature and,
(550 kph) at 21,000 ft (6,400m). The wide track main undercarriage was for example, wheeled out of a cold hangar
However, the Zero had serious weak- excellent for rough field operation and for into sunlight. It is the sort of effect that
nesses, largely stemming from the design Carrier decks. Visibility from the teardrop happens when squeezing an oil can and
specifications pursuit of minimal airframe cockpit canopy gave the pilot excellent all- the metal re-assumes shape afterwards.
weight, dictated by the Japanese empha- round vision and the Zero was one of the Not until the A6M8 variant was intro-
sis on manoeuvrability. Deletion of protec- first enclosed cockpit types to employ this duced was any large change made to the
tive armour plate (for the pilot), self-seal- style. basic design, when Mitsubishis own
ing fuel tanks and general minimisation of Pilots reported that very little change of Kinsei 14-cylinder, 1,500 hp engine was fit-
airframe component strength made the trim was required with variation in air- ted. The forward section of the fuselage
type vulnerable to enemy gunfire, particu- speed or power setting and any type of required to be re-designed to accept the
larly when the newer generation of aerobatics could be performed below 200 increased power and larger diameter
American and British fighter types with knots. Ailerons were most effective and engine.
their devastating batteries of six or eight although it was possible to completely Prototypes were rushed through in 1945,
0.5 machine guns, or explosive ammo stall the tail controls, the ailerons would but by then, the sands of time were run-
cannons could quickly turn a nimble always roll the Zero into level position. ning out for Imperial Japan and although
Zero into a burning mass. Disadvantages were inferior dive charac- plans were made to produce over
Nevertheless, the armament teristics at high speeds and the noise of 6,000 machines of this type alone
of two 20mm cannon and the direct exhausts ejecting on either side in 1946, in fact, no produc-
two 7.7 mm machines of the cockpit. tion version was actu-
guns gave the One characteristic peculiar to the ally flown.
Zero suffi- Mitsubishi Zero was the popping of the
thin gauge surface skin on the wings; if
the aircraft was operat-

34 Flying Scale Models


ZERO TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 27/10/11 10:05 Page 5

5, 6 & 7: Three views of the


9 cockpit instrument layout. Note
that the breaches of the two
fuselage mounted guns are
accessible from the cockpit.

8: Days before imfamy; an


A6M2 spotted on the deck of
the carrier Akagi, steaming
in
toward the Hawaiian Islands
ck
December 1941 for the atta
on Pearl Harbour. The 330 litre
centreline mounted auxilliary
fuel tank is clearly revealed
here.

up
9: A6M3 Model 22As wining
in
for take-off on Bougainville
the Solomon Islands.

Flying Scale Models 35


ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:18 Page 2
ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:18 Page 3

CONSTRUCTION FEATURE by John Evans

A 63.4 (1610mm) wingspan. 1:7.5 scale warbird for


.45-.60 cu.in. engines, designed by John Evans
fter building various scale models from could be easily produced by perfectly feasible changes

A kits, including a Mick Reeves Hawker


Hurricane and then the Reeves Fournier
RF-4, I began to get a taste for the idea of
designing my own types and started at the
shallow end with a Citabria Decathlon. It had
Constant chord high-set wings, boxy fuselage and
fixed undercarriage, yet aerobatic performance was a
to the engine cowling and wing tips. The scale draw-
ings that appear on P32-33 in this issue of FSM were
used and scaled up to produce the outline for the
design.
The full size Zero was a very manoeuvrable design
and my model proved to be an excellent performer,
easy to fly yet very manoeuvrable.
scale feature of the full size and therefore it suited my The prototype model was built with foam wings,
needs and experience in R/C scale at the time. tailplane and fin. I selected this method simply to
Having thus acquired a taste for rolling my own, the speed the construction process. A built-up wing, tail-
next step was to advance toward a rather more dra- pane and fin are shown on the plans, but if you wish
matic scale subject. The WW2 era was the obvious to go the foam route then it is straightforward.
place to look, but I still wanted to keep the project as I took great care in producing fin/rudder and tailplane
simple as possible, consistent with the selection of a as light as possible, in order to ease the only negative
scale subject that really had an appeal for me. aspect of the Zero, which has a short nose length.
The choice finally settled on the Mitsubishi Zero. It When building the model, select materials as light as
offered reasonably simple lines, including straight- possible for the tail, fin and rear fuselage.
tapered wing, radial cowl which promised reason- My model was covered in glass cloth and finishing
able engine cooling and, finally, like so many resin, and finished with Humbrol enamel paint cov-
Japanese fighters of WW2, it featured a wide ered with a coat of eggshell varnish.
track main undercarriage that retracted straight It weighed 9 lbs ready to fly and needed 3 ozs. Of
up and down, without the rake-forward lead, mounted as far forward as possible on the
(extended) / rake back (retracted) geometry engine mount. The battery pack and servos should be
so often found among Allied types of the mounted as far forward as possible to minimise the
era, which dictate application of carefully need of nose weight to achieve the correct balance
set up compound angles on the retract point
mechanism installation.
The Focke Wulf Fw190 came a CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
close second, offering much the
same level of airframe simplicity, Fuselage
but the undercarriage was more The fuselage is of monocoque construction. The fuse-
complex. lage formers are cut from 3mm ply except for the fire-
I collected a wealth of infor- wall which is 6mm ply. The top part of each former is
mation on the Zero and my removed 50mm above the centre line. Add a piece of
model represents the scrap 3mm balsa to keep the width of the former cor-
later A6M5c variant. rect and measure and mark the centre of the former.
Other versions On a straight and true baseboard, rule a straight line.

ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:19 Page 4

Measure the distances between each former baseboard. Strips of balsa need to be used the rudder.
and mark these on the baseboard by drawing again, to profile the inner ribs as before. The The elevators and fin were covered with tis-
a line at right angles to the centre line. Pin the structure is then skinned with 1/16 (1.5mm) sue and then doped.
formers so these are mounted upside down balsa.
on the baseboard and in the correct positions. The tailplane is built is the same manner as Wing
Now, add the crutch pieces F11 and F12. the fin, except that one centre rib and two end The original had a foam core covered with
These are notched to match up with formers ribs need to be cut out. 1/16 (1.5mm) balsa, finished with glass cloth
F2, F4, 5 and 6. The firewall F1 is then added, and finishing resin. The plans show a built-up
followed by the 3mm ply above and below Rudder and elevators wing. For this, make templates for the root
F1, to make a strong box structure. The construction method is identical for these and tip ribs from 1/8 (3mm) ply. Between
The fuselage is now skinned with 1/8 parts. Cut out the shape of each part from these are then sandwiched strips of balsa, the
(3mm), either using soft balsa sheet, or plank- 1/16 (1.5mm) balsa and pin flat. Add the two end templates being held by two 1/
ing strips. leading edge to each, cut from 3/8 (9mm) (3mm) threaded rods. I place the sandwich in
When dry, the structure is removed from the balsa, followed by the 1/16 rib halves. The a vice and then, using my aluminium sanding
building board and turned the right way up. rib halves are made from triangular pieces of strip, I shape the sanwiched blanks to final
The tops of the formers are then glued back balsa, cut to the correct length and depth. rib shape. When the topsides had been
on and the fuselage repositioned over the When dry, remove, turn over and pin flat. shaped, turn over and complete the under-
centreline. By measuring the top of the sheet- Now add the other leading edge and rib sides. The two templates are, thereafter used
ing, one can block up the fuselage, so that it halves. Add scrap balsa to the rubber around to cut the balsa root and tip ribs.
is not twisted. The remainder of the surface the trim tab, which is made from block balsa. I normally build a wing in two halves and
skins now added. When dry, sand the leading edge to a round- then jig one half to obtain the correct dihedral
When the glue has set, the tailplane and fin ed shape and ensure the leading edge tapers before glue to the other half.
are added while the fuselage is still mounted to match the trailing edge of the fin or The main spars are cut out and the bottom
on the baseboard, to ensure they are correctly tailplane. spar(s) pinned to a baseboard. Using the root
aligned to each other and to the fuselage. Robart hinges were used for the elevators and tip ply templates, a jig strip of 1/4 (6mm)
and fin. Cut holes to take these before any sheet is then added behind the rear spar.
Tailplane and Fin covering is added. The elevator trim tab is The jig strip is positioned so that the centre-
These are built in the same manner. Two ribs made from thin aluminium sheet (old litho line of the root rib is parallel to the baseboard
are cut out for the fin, the top of the fin rib plate is ideal). and the tip rib has its trailing edge 1/4 (6mm)
and the base rib. These are pinned so that the The elevators is linked by U-shaped piano higher than its leading edge. This provides
centreline on each is at the same height from wire, pivoting inside two pieces to be tight washout and makes the model very stable at
the baseboard and parallel to it. The false enough to prevent slop. A piece of 1/8 low speed. The full size Zero also had
leading edge and trailing edges are placed (3mm) brass acts as the elevator horn and is washout.
and the two other ribs added as rectangular silver soldered onto the piano wire joiner. The balsa ribs are added and all are evenly
balsa strips. Several holes were drilled in the elevator horn spaced. The top main spar is then added, fol-
Glue some medium sandpaper to a U-chan- to enable the amount of movement of the ele- lowed by pieces of 1/16 (1.5mm) balsa with
nel aluminium strip about 12wmm wide vators to be changed if needed. grain vertical between each rib, glued to both
50cm long. This abrasive strip is used to sand A similar horn is made for the rudder. A the top and bottom main spars. The 3mm
down the two inner ribs to the correct profile. closed loop cable system was used for the balsa sub-leading edge is positioned and the
The structure is then sheeted with 1.5mm rudder control, for which, the rudder so the rear spar is then added.
balsa. When dry, turn over and pin to the horn must extend equally on either side of Aileron bellcranks are placed, and holes

24 Flying Scale Models


ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:19 Page 5

1 2 3

4 5 6

1, 2 & 3: Dummy exhaust stacks shaped from partially crushed metal tube and screwed in place on inside of cowl. 4 & 5: One of
the sheet metal cowl retainer brackets on the inner rear cowl edge that locate to self-tap screws positioned on the front of the
firewall with a twist-to-locate action. 6: Detail of the gun troughs on the top of the engine cowl.


Flying Scale Models 25
ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:19 Page 6

7 & 8: No excuse for a fixed tailwheel when the Zeros retracted! This one has a quite simple action
7 and is based on the commercial Robart unit. No door covers to worry about! 9: Prototype had correct-
ly shaped spinner turned from metal. Alternatively, hunt around the model shops with a template to
find something close! 10: Battery pack wrapped and mounted ahead of the engine firewall.

are cut in the ribs for the piano wire from the sheets out and ensure that the trailing edge
bellcrank to the servo. If a servo is installed in sheet has its grain running parallel to the
each wing for direct drive to the ailerons, trailing edge of the wing. The sheets are butt
the holes serve for the extended servo joined together using masking tape to hold
leads to the receiver in the fuselage. them in place. I normally use good old balsa
Bellcranks (if applied are mounted on cement to glue them together, but slow-dry-
1/8 (3mm ply) and the same mate- ing white glue is just as good. The wing
rial is used for mounting plates for halves are then sheeted and left overnight to
wing mounted servos if pre- dry.
ferred. Scrap 1/4 (6mm) strip is The wing halves are removed and turned
8 added to each rib to provide over. The root and tip rib templates are again
extra support for the ply used to position a jig strip behind the rear
plate. spar to ensure that the tip the trailing edge is
The control rod from the now 1/4 (6mm) lower that the leading edge -
bellcrank (or servo) con- remember the wing is now upside down. The
nects to the aileron horn rear spar is added and the two flap control
by metal clevis that rods installed. These are similar to the eleva-
exits through a small tor joiner (i.e. an L-shaped piece of piano wire
slot cut into the top inside a close fitting brass tube, with a brass
sheeting. The horn is control horn silver soldered to the piano
made from 1/16 wire). The brass tubes are epoxied in place,
(1.5mm) Tufnol or slots cut into the ribs so that the tube is flush
scrap printed cir- with the surface.
cuit board and is Air-driven retracts were used on the origi-
epoxy glued to nal. Each unit was mounted on a piece of
the aileron rib, 1/4 (6mm) ply. The ply mount was fitted into
with an addition- the wing at the position shown and 1/16
al balsa rib (1.5mm) ply false ribs added between the
added for leading edge and mainspar to provide extra
strength. support. The ply plates were epoxied into
The 1/16 position once the correct angle and depth
(1.5mm) top had been established for the plate.
sheeting is To find the correct angle, mount the retract
now applied. I unit on the ply plate, add the leg and a wheel
normally butt- of the correct diameter. Cut out the ribs ini-
9 join the balsa tially so that the ply plate lies flush wit the
sheets before ribs. Now, manually retract the wheel and cut
these are the ribs to allow it to fit in the wing. Check
added to the that it will fit fully into the wing and adjust
wing struc- the angle of the ply plate if the rear of the
ture. On a flat wheel protrudes above the wing surface.
board, I lay the Take your time and you will have few prob-

10
ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:19 Page 7

lems, as this is one of the simplest retracting blind nuts at the rear. When I was happy it should be mounted in a lathe or electric
undercarriages to model of any aircraft that all aligned correctly, two pieces of drill and the outside sanded.
because the legs just go straight up and 0.6mm ply were glued to the wing seat and
down! the wing was bolted on before the glue Undercarriage
Balsa sheet, grain vertical, is added around dried. I then added scrap balsa and sanded The main retract units used on the prototype
the wheel cutout and then the bottom of the this to shape. model were commercial air driven mecha-
wing is sheeted nisms. Spring loaded legs were made to sim-
Next stage concerns the ailerons and flaps, Cowling ulate the full size landing gear, the outer tube
which can now be separated from the main This was made from glass fibre. To pro- being made from aluminium, plugged at the
wing panels. This is done by carefully cutting duce the correct shape, pieces of expanded top with a small ali. Insert.
along the top and bottom of the rear spars polystyrene foam were glued together This plug was drilled for a piece of piano
for the aileron. A junior hacksaw blade is sand tacked to the fuselage. This was sand- wire to fit into the retract unit and held fast
excellent for cutting the ribs away to allow ed and progressively checked with tem- with a grub screw. A slot was milled along
the aileron to fall free free from the wing. plates to ensure the correct profiles were part of the legs length to act as a guide for
Each aileron then has 1/4 (6mm) cut away produced as the carving of the polystyrene the moving part. The lower leg was made
from its leading edge. This is sanded to the progressed. When the desired shape was from aluminium rod, turned down to fit inside
correct profile. Robart hinges were used and achieved, the polystyrene was coated with the tube and move smoothly.
holes are drilled parallel with the underside of PVA white glue, over which a sheet of The bottom of the lower leg was drilled to
the aileron to give the correct hinge position. newspaper was applied to protect the poly- receive the shaped piece of piano wire and
The flaps are cut from the underside sheet styrene from glass fibre resin. tapped in the moving part to take a small bolt
only. When cut out, the main wing ribs are When dry, the newspaper was brushed that acts as the guide and limits the travel.
cut away and a false bottom sheet is added with wax and then, strips of lightweight To assemble the leg, a strong compression
using 0.6mm ply. Scrap balsa ribs are then glass cloth, coated with resin, were added. spring is placed inside the tube and then the
added to the flap to achieve the necessary Several coats of resin, mixed with micro lower leg is pushed into the tube. The tapped
rigidity and a top sheet of 0.6mm ply is balloons, were then applied to produce a hole for the retaining bolt is lined up with the
applied making a triangular box section that smooth surface. The polystyrene core was slot and the bolt added.
imparts the necessary stiffness. Hinges then removed, leaving a one-piece cowl. Plastic card was used to make the landing
(Robarts on the prototype model) are then gear doors. On many Zeros, inner doors (cov-
added. Spinner ering the wheel wells) were fitted and I made
Finally, the two wing halves are joined. The You may be fortunate to find a suitable a simple mechanism, very similar to the full
root ribs are sanded with a large block to spinner off the shelf. I made mine from a size, actuated by the wheel, to close and open
ensure they mate together. One wing half is block of aluminium. I used a metalworking the door.
pinned down on the base board and the lathe to turn the spinner, first hollowing it
other is jigged up to ensure the correct dihe- inside. Retracting tail wheel
dral angle is produced. It is important to The hollowed block was mounted onto a This was based on a Robart mechanism, but I
ensure, by careful measuring, that the tips backplate also made from aluminium and needed a smaller unit. The main frames were
have the same washout. I added a glass fibre the outside shape turned to match the cor- made from aluminium angle. A long bellcrank
cloth and resin bandage around the wing rect external profile using a template made was cannibalised to provide the lifting force.
panel joint and a ply dihedral brace behind from card. I made the tailwheel steerable by connect-
the main spar to my foam wing. I would do If you dont have access to a lathe, then ing cables to the rudder cables. When in the
the same for the built-up one. an alternative method would be to make a down position, the cables are tight and allow
glass fibre spinner. A male mould could be the wheel to steer. In the retracted position,
Wing and tailplane fillets made from wood or from expanded poly- the steering cables are slack.
When the wing is finished, it should be styrene foam and then cloth and resin built
mated to the fuselage and aligned. I used a up in a similar manner to the method for Radio installation
dowel peg at the front and nylon bolts and producing the cowl. To true-up the spinner, The battery is mounted as far forward as pos-


Flying Scale Models 27
ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:20 Page 8

rd. With
s tra ig htforwa f about
e angle o
are quit
Landing own and a flap s down well,
lly d low
flaps fu s the model s d light touch-
ed fo r the 4 5 de gree s m o o th an
er. us es a very
body fill l enamels were on. The surfac allowing ted,
wling. bro ed t, is retrac
, in sid e th e co H u m
c oa t, all brush
-up tre a tm e n
d o w n .
u n d e rcarriage hange and
e ty e c
ove the
engin
d wrapp
ed it final top given the dir n overcoat of When th noticeable trim gear is
sible, ab ine in foam an r bag. Two thin e re then pplication of a h, sprayed on is no nding al
m w a is th e re n the la in neutr
I placed eavy-duty freeze re used to hold b efore the lyurethane varn sim ila rly, whe odel remains t pitch-up
inside a
h
strips w
e po
eggshell roofing. d, the m a sligh
m sheet deploye flaps do create en the model is
aluminiu in place. r fo rw ard r fu e lp . T he d w h and
ery ted as fa rud-
fo trim if lowe re ttle back
the batt o s a re moun le for elevator, e 3 0 % rear- of th e nose, it is best to thro r flaps-
Four s erv b st, so ing fo
selage a
s possib tailwheel/main Flying nce point needs in to
dge at th
e
flying fa aped before go
in the fu le and retractin
g
T h e bala wing le ad g e lbs (4 .1 le e d o ff ttle
tt
der, thro lve. erons m the ighed 9 er, b , the thro
v a o s fo r the ail ward fro My model we O.S.60 for pow d own. fla p s are down del to the
U/C a ir o se rv o t. n e o
g has tw wing ro to fly. I used a propelle
r. When th d to drag the m landing.
The win kg ) ready x 6 wooden el flew per- a y be use recision o builds the
and flap
s . a 12 mod m a for a p h
driving the prototype grass surface la n ding are that anyone w h its flying
ee ted sur- O n te st, fro m the o u n t o f am c e rtain lea se d wit
g ll s h ing off small am
I p
Finishinrototype model, isah of glass cloth fe ctly, tak b le - a ro w ill be very
On the p ived a base fin anding to the any trou Ze
ristics.
ce r s s without d. ery easy
to fly characte
fa ce s re in . A fte o at w a h elp e be v
hing res primer c d, flap proved
to
and finis urface finish, a tails were adde The Zero aerobatic.
e d s e l d e w n v ery
desir n pan (bro and is
and the , Fablon
applied ix of litho plate tive) and car
m a
using a uld be an altern
o
paper w
ZERO Tony OK 23/11/11 11:20 Page 9

o
with lith
applied
Panels
ce detail.
al surfa
tion. 13: Typic
lla
m insta
echanis
de rcarriage m nd body filler.
un aper a
: Main rown p
tion. 12 plate, b
the rib forma
g
showin
g flaps,
ne of the win
11: O

Copies of this
two-sheet plan for the
Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero
are available from FSM Plans
Service, Key Publishing Ltd.,
P.O.Box 100, Stamford,
Lincolnshire, PE9 1XQ, United
Kingdom. Plan pcie 17.50
plus post & packing
(UK 2.50;
Overseas 6.50)
ZERO FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 23/11/11 11:52 Page 2

The A6M2 (Navy Type 2 Fighter


Seaplane was a floatplane
addaption of the Mitsubishi A6M2
Zero undertaken by the Nakajima
Company to provide a fighter
type aircraft for service around
Pacific area islands where no
airfield existed for landplane
operation. This example was
operated by the 452nd Kokutai of
the Imperial Japanese Vaval
ZERO FLYING COLOURS Tony OK 23/11/11 11:52 Page 3
ZERO DRAWING Tony OK 23/11/11 11:48 Page 2
ZERO DRAWING Tony OK 23/11/11 11:48 Page 3

MITSUBISHI
A6M5 ZERO
SCALE 1:40
SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 23/11/11 16:37 Page 2

SUBJECTS FOR SCALE

Messerschmitt
For those who fancy a twin, but something outside the normal favour
Luftwaffes final destroyer heavy fighter that packed a powerful pun
he Messerschmitt Me 410 was the expectation - the 210 proved to be some- engine nacelles, which were slightly length-

T final expression of the Luftwaffes


Zestorer (destroyer) heavy fighter
concept that first found expres-
sion in the Me110. As applied, or
at least as it was used during that concepts
frist major test during the Battle of Britain
in the summer of 1940, the concept was not
thing of a disapointment, longitudinally
unstable, while the twist-and-fold-rear-
wards main undercarriage was prone to
collapse (a fault with which some scale
modellers will be quite familiar!).
Modifications to improve all this included a
rear fuselage stretch of close to 48 inches
ened to accommodate the Daimler-Benz DB
603 engines. The first prototypes were in
fact Me 210s modified to 410 standard.
Production of the Me 410 commenced in
late 1942, with work rapidly gathering pace
due to use of commonality of components
left over from its discontinued predecessor.
quite the success anticipated. and, later, the introduction of leading edge The initial variant was the Me 410A-1 light
But even before that major test, the first slots, retrospectively fitted to all Me 210, bomber that also carried two forward-firing
proposal for a successor to the Me 110 was production of which terminated after 20mm MG.151 cannon and a single rear-
tabled back in 1937 and found expression approximately 350 examples has been ward firing13mm MG.131 machine gun in
in the Messerschmitt Me 210, the prototype built. each of two rear, side fuselage mounted
of which first flew in September 1939, with A high altitude version, the Me 310 with a barbettes.
a twin rudder configuration similar to the pressurised crew compartment was pro- Bomb load was usually twelve 110 lbs
Me 110. On paper, the Me 210 showed posed but it was abandoned in favour of a bombs, eight carried internally and four
great promise and on the strength of this, less revised type - the Messerschmitt Me below the fuselage centre section.
an order was placed for 1,000 aircraft 410 Hornisse (Hornet). Alternatively, two 2,000 lbs bombs could be
before the prototype had even flown. In appearance, the Me 410 was almost carried as a maximum load.
Unfortunately, the reality defied the identical to late version 210s except of the The most interesting feature of the Me

34 Flying Scale Models


SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 23/11/11 16:37 Page 3

Me 410
ourites, consider the
punch
410 was the twin rearward firing guns in the bar-
bettes just after of the wing. This whole assembly
was like a large drum, mounted horizontally across
the fuselage, on the ends of which the two barbettes.
This assembly was electrically driven and controlled,
with interrupter gear arranged to prevent the guns
from firing when pointing in line-of-sight with the
tailplane.
Aiming was from pistol grip controlled sights
mounted in the rear cockpit just inside the flat glass
panels, which gave the bug eye appearance to the
cockpit canopy when viewed from the rear.
Construction was the conventional all-metal
stressed skin of the period, except for the control sur-
faces, which were fabric covered. The wings has a
single spar and slat type dive brakes, on upper and
lower surfaces were attached to the spar just in front
of the radiators
The main rearward retracting undercarriage, each
leg and wheel rotating through 90 degrees to fit flat

Flying Scale Models 35
SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 23/11/11 16:37 Page 4

1 2

1: The main undercarriage of the Me 410 retracted rearwards and the leg twisted
through 90 degrees for the wheel to lay flat in the rear engine nacelle. 2: Airborne inter- SPECIFICATION
ception radar aerial array on an Me 410 night fighter. 3: The first prototype Me 410 with
DB 603 engines. 4: Me 410A-3, photoreconnaissance version, based in Italy during the Wing span: 53ft 7.5 ins
winter of 1943/44. 5: A surrendered Me 410 in RAF markings on test from the RAE test Length: 40ft 11 in.
Benz
centre at Farborough, flies in formation with a DH Mosquito night fighter. Engines: Two 1,750 hp Daimler-
12 cylinder liquid
DB.603A
cooled engines

Performance
Maximum speed: 388 mph at 21,980 ft
Maximum range: 1,450 miles
Climb to 21,980ft: 10.7 mins
Service ceiling: 32,800 ft.

One of the most famous of all photos of a Messerschmitt Me 410 in


action, was taken by Sgt. Victor La Bruno from the radio compartment
of his Boeing B-17 whilst under attack from a 410 armed with the 50mm
BK.5 cannon during a daylight raid on synthetic oil plant at Brux near
the Czeck border.

36 Flying Scale Models


SUBJECTS FOR SCALE Tony OK 23/11/11 16:37 Page 5

3 4

within the rear wing/ engine nacelle, fairing escort formations began to follow the day- Isles, their speed being high enough to
doors that formed part of each lower light bombers deeper and deeper into make interception difficult for the defending
engine nacelle closing behind the undercar- Germany, such defence of German air De Havilland Mosquito night fighters.
riage leg/wheel at the completion of the space became more difficult particularly However, the relatively small bomb load
retraction sequence. with the introduction of the North American carried prevented the 410 from being really
Many variants followed the introduction P-51 Mustang which, on one such Raid, effective.
of the Me 410, with different armament and managed to damage or destroy no fewer Although in service from Norway to the
equipment to fill various operational needs that twelve Me 410s of the Luftwaffes II./ZG Balkans, the Me 410 was never really well
- light bomber; photoreconnaissance; night 26 unit sent up to intercept the bombers. known and by the end of WWII in Europe,
fighter; anti-shipping patrol; daylight The Me 410 was also used successfully as the type had been withdrawn from service
bomber destroyer. The latter of these a light bomber in raids over the British except in the reconnaissance role.
became a pressing operational requirement
as the USAAC daylight strategic bomber
campaign against the industrial heart of 5
Germany gathered pace during 1944.
Armament of as many as eight 20mm can-
non were applied, and many other mixes
including the large 50mm BK.5 cannon pro-
truding in front of the nose as applied to
the Me 410A-1/U4 variant. This was an
armoured car gun replacing the standard
forward firing armament.
The Me 410A-3 had the bomb bay
replaced by an extension of the fuselage to
accommodate cameras and equipment for
photoreconnaissance.
The Me 410 entered service with the
Luftwaffe during the spring of 1943.The first
units to be equipped were in the west and
in Sicily. Defence of the Reich became a pri-
ority due to the Allied bombing campaign,
during late 1943. Some success was
achieved in this role but, as Allied fighter

Flying Scale Models 37


ME SCALE DRAWING TONY OK 23/11/11 12:15 Page 2

SCALE 1:60
ME SCALE DRAWING TONY OK 23/11/11 12:15 Page 3
ME410 FLYING COLOURS copy Tony OK 23/11/11 11:59 Page 2
ME410 FLYING COLOURS copy Tony OK 23/11/11 11:59 Page 3
ME IN DETAIL Tony OK 23/11/11 17:03 Page 2

1 3

42 Flying Scale Models


ME IN DETAIL Tony OK 23/11/11 17:03 Page 3

O M
ZO THE
O N
IN TAIL
IN DETAIL
DE
Messerschmitt
Me 410
The example illustrated in this feature is an
Me 410A-1/U2 currently on open display at
the Royal Air Force Museum, Cosford, where it
can be viewed at any time during the Museums
opening hours.
(www.rafmuseum.org.uk/cosford/)

1: Tightly tailored cowl


around the DB 603
engine.

2: Over-wing engine cowl


rear fairing.

3: Main undercarriage
fairing doors viewed from
front.

4: The same
undercarriage doors
4 viewed from the rear. 6

5: Nacelle underside
air scoop.

6 & 7: Two views of the


air scoop on the side of
the engine nacelle, that
fairs into the wing root.

7
5


Flying Scale Models 43
ME IN DETAIL Tony OK 23/11/11 17:03 Page 4

8 9

8 & 9: Two views of the extensively braced cockpit canopy. Note the two rearward-facing flat, non-distortion visibilty panels. 10: The wing-to-fuse-
lage fairing and line of the landing flap. 11: One of the rearward firing guns in its faired gun barbette. 12: Wing root leading edge. 13: General view
of the tailcone. 14: Mass balance attached to the rudder. 15: Rudder trim tab. 16: Retractable tailwheel unit.

10 11

12

14

15
16

13
ME IN DETAIL Tony OK 23/11/11 17:04 Page 5

18

17: Main undercarriage leg with forward fairing.


18: Undercarriage main door. 19: View into the main
U/C wheel well, also reveals contoured shape of the
main doors. 20: Further view of the main U/C leg.
21: Forward fuselage, showing the forward firing gun
trough.

19

17 20

21
ME IN DETAIL Tony OK 23/11/11 17:04 Page 6

23

22

22: Tailplane unit detail,


showing thr elevator
trim tab.
23: Tailplane/elevator
tip. Note cuff fairing.
24: Aileron hinge line
and mass balance.
25: further view of the
rear engine nacelle.
26: Air outlet duct at the
24 25
rear of the engine
naceller. 27: Wing lead-
ing edge slat.
28: Hinge line of the
aileron, viewed from
under the wing.
29: Wing tip navigation
light.
30: Leading edge wing-
fuselage fairing.
31: Wing mounted radi-
ator.
32: Aileron trim tab.
33: Intake scoop of wing
underside mounted
radiator.

26 27
28

29 30

31

32

33
BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:16 Page 2

CONSTRUCTION FEATURE by Dr. Mike Hawkins FRAes


With photos by Kuhn Sukasom Hiranpahn,
Editor of RC Core magazine, Thailand.


 
  !
"#$ !%&' !&  &'  
ome time back I built a Bucker 180 90 or 120 motors, as were used in the a fairly major project such as the Kornett.

S Student to 1:4.5 scale, which flew


rather nicely and is still available
in the FSM plans range. I have
now made the rather smaller, sin-
gle seat Bucker Kornett using built up balsa
wings instead of foam. These work equally
well and do not flap quite so much when fly-
Student are used for the Kornett. They would
make a nice pair, if only the Student had not
succumbed to a radio failure sometime back,
during a visit to USA after I flew it at the
Quarter Scale Meeting in Las Vegas.
These days, airlines are not so tolerant
about taking large model crates as passen-
Options
The wings split in the middle into 38 in. sec-
tions for transport and it is necessary to
remove the undercarriage legs to do this. If
transport is no problem, then the wings
could be made in one piece (e.g: you drive a
ing through turbulence! ger-checked baggage. It was fun while it last- container truck). Practically any 90 or 120 four
The wings split for transport and the ed. stroke engine should be suitable to power
Kernett flies just as nicely as the Student. Incidentally, queries that I have received this model.
The original (full size) aircraft was designed regarding some other of my models in the Flaps are fitted, but were by no means nec-
for simple, cheap construction with minimum Flying Scale Models range, would suggest essary on the original aircraft. They could
of double curvature, which benefits the that some experience building scale models safely be omitted on the model. The model
model. Oh for the simple life! The same Enya from kits or plans is advisable before tackling balances as shown, but with batteries, wires

16 Flying Scale Models


BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:16 Page 3

TYPE HISTORY


THE BCKER 182
KORNETT
C
arl Clemens Bcker
was born on 11 Feb
With the rank of Obe ruary 1895.
rleutenant zur See,
served as a pilot he
with the Imperial Ger
in World War I. man Navy
and magic, could well use electric power. However, they The 1919 Treaty of
DONT sound right (mutters into his beard)! Versailles forbade
Germany, so he went aviation in
The model may be built with closed or open cockpit as to Sweden and fle
pilot. He founded Sve w as a test
you wish. Note, with an open cockpit your cockpit detail nska Aero AB and bui
floatplanes under lic lt Heinkel
has to be more carefully done! ence. He began to
own aircraft and in develop his
1932, sold the compan
Construction Railway Workshops whe y to Swedish
My way of doing it. Yours may be better. re it became known
still very much in as SAAB,
business today, sel
to the Royal Thai ling fighters
1. Fuselage. Air Force (amongst
With his Swedish chi others).
This is made in three sections, which are then joined ef designer, Anders
together. he moved back to Ger Andersson,
Old fashioned engine bearers are used in the nose, as many where aircraft
was starting and the con struction
these give strength and the right thrust and downthrust ir first production,
B 131 Jungmann was the two seat
can be built in. I use 6-32 x 1.25 in. truss-head bolts and an immediate succes
followed by the sin s. This was
gle seat B 133 Jun
set a world standard gme ister, which
for aerobatic flying
Incidentally, all Bc .
kers aircraft were
Naval Cadet ranks. named after
He died in 1976, age
The B 134 was a hig d 81.
h wing side-by-side
like an aerobatic Pip two seater,
er Cub, but was not
Thereafter, the B a success.
180 Student was a
aircraft that made two seat light
a number of long dis
tional flights, alt tance interna-
hough the newly eme
showed no intereste rge d Luftwaffe
d.
Next, Andersson cam
e up with the B 181
monoplane side-by-s Bestmann, a
ide trainer to supple
Jungmann. It was flo ment the
wn by General-Luftzeu
Ernst Udet and ordere gmeister
d as a standard tra
Luftwaffe. Productio ine r for the
n continued in France
Egypt after World War , Sweden and
II.
Meanwhile, Anders And
ersson designed a sin
version of the Studen gle seat
t , the B 182 Kor
cost fighter advanc nett as a low
ed trainer. Bckers
were develop-

Look no hands Mum!


The open-cockpit ver
the Kornett - clearly sion of
a nice stable aeroplane
but nevertheless ver to fly,
y aerobatic


Flying Scale Models 17
BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:16 Page 4

TYPE HISTORY CONT.,


ing their own 80 h.p
. motor for this air
as it was not ready, craft, but
a Czech 60 h.p.Walth
engine was fitted. er Minor
Four were built, but
is known, only the as far as
first one flew. It
was reported to hav
e
an excellent per-
formance and full
aerobatic capabili-
ty. Perhaps to make
it more resemble the
Bf 109, it was fit
-
ted with flaps and
possibly, as an
afterthought, a
poorly fitting and Nose section on
sideways hinged the wnclosed
cockpit canopy. cockpit version.
However, it was, by
later standards, an
ultralight with a
flying weight of 450
kg. (990 lbs)and onl
y 60 h.p. The Messer
which the pilots wou schmitt to
ld progress, had 5.6
loaded weight and 17. times the
5 times the power!
der the Lufwaffe dec Small won-
ided to stay with captive (T) nuts to mount the motor in the bearers. The
lent Jungmeister. the excel- tank box is ply, as are the side front fuselage panels
Perhaps the secret while the battery tucks in between the bearers.
of the performance The mid fuselage section is from 1/4 in. balsa sheet
Bckers was Andersson of the
s ability to design and allows for fabric covered side panels above the
imum strength for min for max-
imum weight, with cri wing.
positive control act sp and The rear section uses conventional formers and
ion. In addition, the
design of the monopl wing stringers, spliced together with the nose stringers,
anes features a bi-
tion at the root, convex sec- over F 4. 1/4 square spruce for stringers is very hard
changing to a mildly to find now. Do-it-yourself shops sell 1/4 x 2in. x 12 ft.
bered section at the undercam-
tip laths which can be cut down to 1/4 square with a
small (e.g. Dremel) circular saw. Not as strong as
together with 3
spruce, but stronger than balsa.
of washout. The Install polythene tubes as leaders for the rudder
trailing edge of cables and push-rod snakes for the elevator and tail-
the wing was wheel.
upswept at the Join the three parts together and the upper nose
and rear fuselage section can be planked with 3/32
fuselage junc- sheet balsa, but using ply panels to support the tail-
tion by a dihe- wheel.
dral break just The nose cone is fibreglass, about 1/8 thick, say
outboard of the four or five layers of 2 oz. cloth. I used the same
Plaster-of-Paris female mould as for my Student.
centre section.
This fitted the
wing to the
lower contour
of the fuselage
and provided a
more elegant
solution than
the inverted
gull arrange-
ment used by
the Klemm
Company.

Basic, unskinned wing panels, showing the landing flap panels. Fore, aft

18 Flying Scale Models


BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:16 Page 5

2. Tail are fitted between all ribs. The centre sec- 4. Undercarriage
The horizontal stabiliser is sheeted, top tion is planked and capping strips used on The undercarriage legs sit one behind the
and bottom with 1/16 balsa. The fin is open ribs. other in a slot in a hardwood bearer in each
fabric covered and the rudder and eleva- Jigging tags on each wing rib ensure that wing. These are held in by two aluminium
tors, fabric covered over a 3/32 balsa the wing, built on a flat board, will have cover plates screwed to the bearer. The best
core. Rectangular ribs are used, planed the correct degree of washout. Pack up the way to cut the slot to fit, is with a Dremel
down to section after construction. spars to fit. type circular saw.
With the Student, the tail was detachable The wing joining rods are 5/16 ground Brass plates are soldered to the legs to take
to allow the model to be packed into a dural rod, sold in 12 inch lengths by KS the upper leg fairing and the lower semi-
crate. I have not done this with the Kornett Engineering. 5/16 carbon fibre rod would spat. The fairing is built around the leg, stuck
as I see no prospect (under present airline do or 1/4 steel as available. to the tag with Evostick or similar glue. The
conditions) of transporting it in anything The flaps are made from 1/8 ply, with spat is bolted to the lower tag. The fairing
other than my Mitsu van. nylon hinges into scrap balsa. Because of and spat are not stuck together.
The stabiliser is mounted on 1/4 balsa the dihedral break at F4, the flaps are not I found a suitable fibreglass moulding for
strakes attached to the side stringers but quite in line with their pushrods. The horn the spat in an old ARTF kit, but you can carve
should not be glued in place until the wing moves in a 1/16 ply box to allow align- polystyrene waste moulds, (blue foam is
also can be lined up with the fuselage. ment. best), and mould your own with three layers
Ailerons are built on a 3/32 balsa core. of 2 oz. glass cloth. I used the same 4 in.
3. Wings Aileron servos are mounted on the remov- Dubro pneumatic wheels as on my Student.
With 1/2 balsa leading edge, 1/4 square able hatch on the lower surface so access Steel wire varies from fairly soft to as
mainspasr and 3/8 balsa rear spar, the is possible. (Build them in with no access tough as titanium. Using soft wire will mean
wings are strong. The leading edge is and you will need it, as sure as eggs have that the legs will tend to retract as the
planked with 3/32 balsa and spar webs little chickens in them.) model lands. Not good ! With harder wire, it

re, aft and centre section components of the basic fuselage frame. Here the fuselage components have been assembled and brought together with the fin and tailplane.

Flying Scale Models 19


BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:17 Page 6

Wheel spats for prototype model ENYA 90 four stroke installation.


were canibalised from ARTF kit. Note jack plug socket for ignition
Otherwise need to be moulded or connection.
carved from block balsa.

may be necessary to heat to so far all is well.


dull red in order to bend the
wire. After bending, the wire 5. Engine.
Fuselage mated to the wing, which is now fully skinned, with ailerons and ser- should then be tempered by As with the Student, the model
vos installed.
heating to brighter red and flies equally well with the Enya
plunging into cold water. At 90 with a 14 x 7 or the 120 with
first, I did not do this properly a 15 x 6 or 14 x 8 propeller.
and had to straighten each leg The cooling vent under the
after the first few landings. It front fuselage is non-scale, but
was necessary to remove the allows adequate cooling for
legs, cut off the fairings and re- either engine. A remote plug
temper the top leg bend. The connection is advisable and I
fairings were then rebuilt and use a mini-jack plug on the bat-

Its really beginning to look like an aeroplane now! The fuselage is fully skinned, Radio and fuel tank installion in Silencer exit and cooling vent
tail feathers all in place, engine cowl all doneand the main undercarriage fitted. the fuselage. Plenty of room there. under the nose.
BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:17 Page 7

tery and socket mounted in the cowl. The tank is a


10oz or 12 oz Sullivan, slid into its tank box from the
rear.

6. Radio.
I am using Futaba 2.4 GHz, six channel with five
standard Hitec servos and a retract servo on flap, set
to give 45 on down.

7. Details.
There is not a lot of surface detail on this aircraft. A
fuel sight gauge and filler cap from a toothpaste tube
TYPE HISTORY CONT.,
grace the nose cowling. The wing root fairings are dictable and vice-free
The tip section gave pre
single curvature and made from thin ply. whe n close to the stall
A walkway on the right wing root is made from handling under g-loads
why the postwar Zlin
wet-and-dry paper with a thin aluminium edge and and is perhaps a reason
ch used this feature,
some small screws. aerobatic airecraft, whi
1960s.
swept the board in the
8. Covering and finishing. es aerobatics in full
A friend of mine who fli
Balsa sheeting is used where the original aircraft is
cra ft tol d me that he had
ply and fabric where it is mit Stoff bespannt. size and model air
nn and that it was his
I used some old American Super Coverite fabric flown the Bucker Jungma se
ause the control respon
which has been in my stock for a while and turned favourite aircraft, bec
out to be a bit short on stickum when finally used. ve.
was so crisp and positi
In spite of a dab or two of Balsaloc, the wing cover- German Air Ministry
ing started to separate when I first tried a few aero- On March 16th, 1943, the
batics as is shown in Kuhn Sukasoms photo. It is
now stuck down again, but I would use Solartex if it
is available.

civiian
During Nazi era, even German
ica.
aircraft carried a prominent swat

an economy measure,
issued an order that, as
line aircraft should be
Male and female moulds with the glass fibre nose cone.
many captured and second
the Student and the
The sheeted areas were finished with 3/4 oz glass destroyed. This included
wel l kno wn service test pilot
cloth brushed on with two coats of either Kornett. However,
Polyurethane or Acrylic water based varnish. This flew a Student just
Capt Eric Winkle Brown
gives a good surface for paint with only a little sand- son used to fly the
ing and is reasonably ding proof. after the War and Anders
the cockpit canopy, for
There is not much choice of colour scheme since Kornett, having removed
only one aircraft of the type, flew. The model was his own enjoyment .
m the Bcker airfield
painted with spray-can acrylic paint. Mist Grey is One day, he took off fro
about the right colour for RLM 63 grey. ine cut as he crossed
at Rangsdorf and the eng
ime ter. The company test
Hold in some up-elevator and open up the railway at the per ,
the throttle slowly! Designer Mike pre- that, should this happen
pares for maiden flight. pilots had advised him on and
but go str aig ht
he should not turn back,
the bes t lan din g he could. This he did,
make
tre e and ended up in an
colliding with an apple
arriage and left wing
allotment with the underc
torn off.
ders offered him some
One of the allotment hol
ge he found that the main
coffee and at this sta

Final fate! Down and


out in an allotment
patch.

Flying Scale Models 21


BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:18 Page 8

TYPE HISTORY CONT.,


re
the Off position. The
fuel cock was still at get him
l in the line to
had been just enough fue
that far.
probably on a bicycle as
The Law then arrived, t
was possibly the fastes
Tail end detail. The rudder-to-servo link is via closed
t
it was war-time. In wha ark ed
loop cable.
on record, he rem
accident investigation
Thi s is bad . It is also stupid. You
Thank you. The swastika and registration letters were cut from
k !
are fined three Reichsmar adhesive vinyl sheet. See the photographs for letter-
the Kornett story!
And that is the end of ing positions.
Fuel proofer is not available in Thailand, but I use
Polyurethane furniture varnish thinned with lacquer
STATISTICS thinner and sprayed on with some commercial
SPAN: 8.6 m/28 ft. 3 ins. matting agent added to take off the hard gloss
LENGTH: 6.67 m/21 ft. 10 ins.
450 kg/990lbs. Flying
LOADED WEIGHT: Oddly enough, the Centre of Gravity came out just
TOP SPEED: 205 kph/127 mph.
where it ought to be without any ballast necessary.
NEVER EXCEED SPEED: 400 kph/250 mph. After all the usual and proper pre-flight checks I
LANDING SPEED: 90 kph/56 mph.
RANGE: 760 kms/460 miles.

CONSTRUCTION ,
over the front D box
WING: Plywood sheeting r the
ric covering ove
back to the mainspar. Fab
rear sectio n.
erons. Rotate to 45 for
Flaps inboard of the ail
landing.

ded steel tube struc-


FUSELAGE: The nose is wel ed
cockpit. This is covere
ture to the rear of the ng for
for fab ric cov eri
with metal panels except a
g. The rear fuselage is
the panel above the win
plywood monococque.

for the horizontal sta-


TAIL: Plywood covering
covering.
biliser, otherwise fabric

REFERENCES
Erwin Koenig. NARA-
1). Die Bcker Flugzeug.
Verlag 1987.
ptions in German and
Photos, drawings, descri
English.
r. 10 February 1944
2). The Aeroplane Spotte
F
(my copy !)
Sta

22 Flying Scale Models


BUCKER KORNETT AND TYPE HISTORY revised Tony OK 21/12/11 09:18 Page 9

Cockpit canopy easily made Only tricky part of the engine cowl is the nose-cap mould Detail of the main undercarriage, showing the shape of
from flat acetate sheet. from glass fibre. Remaining panels are single curvature. the spats and fairings.

opened the throttle - and the model tipped onto its nose. Anyone should be no problem.
need a 13 1/2 x 6 prop? I have flown the model at a Club Meeting where, apart from the
I tried again, opening the throttle gently with some up elevator fact that nobody knew what it was, it created favourable interest. If
to start with, at which point take off was brisk and straight. The any of you should decide to build a Kornett, please do not hesitate
model climbed out and was stable with no trim adjustments need- to contact me at mikeh@samart.co.th if you have any problems
ed. On the second flight I tried a roll and a loop but Kuhn and also to let me see a picture or two when all goes well.
Sukasoms photos showed that the wing covering was lifting.
Flap was selected for landing and caused a nose - up trim Have fun!
change. With flap down the landing was slow and short with a
high angle of attack using a lot of up elevator. Computer transmit- Acknowledgement: I would like to thank Kuhn Sukasom
ter gurus could dial in a little down elevator with flap. Hiranpahn, Editor of RC Core magazine for his patience and beau-
I have yet to try spins, but with the very large rudder there tifully clear photographs.

Nose air intake, slightly


enlarged from true scale,
is enough to keep the ENYA 90
four stroke engine cool.

Detail of the main


undercarriage retention
plates under the nose.
plan for the
ies of the three-sheet ailable from
Cop Kornett are av .Box 100,
Bucker Bu182, Key Publishing Ltd., P.O plus p&p;
er vi ce 22. 50
FSM Plans S olnshire, PE9 1XQ. Price 0.
nc .5
Stamford, Li U.K 2.50, overseas 6
KORNETT SD Tony OK 19/12/11 17:05 Page 1



 
 
WIDGEON TYPE HISTORY Revised Tony OK 20/12/11 15:20 Page 2

TYPE HISTORY

Ever popular with scale modellers, the Widgeon


might have been one of the mainstream
club/private aircraft of its era, had not the lure
of military contracts intervened
Westland Widgeon IIIa G-AAJF was first
reg-

I
istered to Miss C.R. Leathart of Cramlington n 1924, the UK Air Ministry spon
sored a com-
in `june 1929, subsequently crashed at Bad petition for a two seat ultralight
aircraft, that
Reichenhall, Germany, May 1931. had to be powered by an engine
of 1,100 cc
displacement or less and capable
Photo: The A J J Collection at Brooklands of carrying a
Museum (www.ajjcollection.co.uk) load of at least 340 lb (155 kg). The
was to encourage the developm objective
ent of cheap civil
aircraft suitable for use by priva
te owners and fly-
ing clubs.
Among the responses, Westland
Aircraft pro-
duced two designs, the Woodpig
eon biplane and
the Widgeon parasol monoplane,
and
built prototypes for both. Of thes
e, two
examples of the Woodpigeon were
the
first to fly, followed, eight days
later by G-EBRQ was an early Wig
the Widgeon on 22 September
1924. The early main undercarriage
fuselages of the two types were
very sim-
ilar, with of mixed steel tube and
wooden
construction, while the Widgeon
s wood-
en parasol wing, tapered in both
chord
and thickness, folded for easy stora
ge.
The Widgeon was powered by
a 1,090 cc
Blackburn Thrush three-cylinde
r radial
G-EBRL is engine, that delivered 35 hp.
another Widgeon The Air Ministry Light Aircraft com
peti-
IIIA with the revised tion commenced at Lympne aero
drome,
main undercarriage Kent on 27 September 1924. Both
struts. Westland types entered were badl
y
underpowered using the Thrush
engine
and the Widgeon crashed during Photo: The A J J Collection at Broo
the first
day of trials. Despite this setback,
it was

VARIANTS
Widgeon I h
hp Blackburn Thrus
Powered by one 35 ilt.
bu
radial engine. One

Widgeon II
n I with 60 hp
Rebuild of Widgeo
ng Siddeley Genet radial.
Armstro

Widgeon III
ction. Powered by
Redesign for produ II
rus II or III inline engine, Genet
ADC Cir de Havilland Gipsy.
Ho rne t or
radial, ABC
18 built

Widgeon IIIA e-
n III with metal fus
Variant of Widgeo rcarriage. Powered
d un de Heres a real rarity - a further view of Westland Widgeon III G-EBRL on floats.
lage and revise ilt.
engine. Seven bu The background of sailing barges indictates late 20s/early 30s period.
by Cirrus or Gipsy
Photo: The A J J Collection at Brooklands Museum (www.ajjcollection.co.uk)

26 Flying Scale Models


WIDGEON TYPE HISTORY Revised Tony OK 20/12/11 15:20 Page 3

IIA)
G-AUGI went to Australia as VH-U
SPECIFICATIONS (I
GI, where it remains today. Not
known if it is currently flyable. tics
clear that the Widgeon had decided to put the Widgeon General characteris
promise and was superior to year. The design was fur- Crew: Two
into production for private in (7.15 m)
the Woodpigeon, so the ther refined with a duralu- Length: 23 ft 51/4
owners, but not before : 36 ft 41 /2 in (11.09 m)
damaged prototype was
redesigning the wing with a
min tube fuselage and a Wingspan
in (2.57 m)
rebuilt with a more powerful
simpler, constant chord
new undercarriage to pro- Height: 8 ft 5
60 hp Armstrong Siddeley duce the Widgeon IIIA. Airfoil: RAF 34 n-
shape in order to ease pro- rus Hermes II 4-cyli
Genet engine as the The Widgeon proved Powerplant: 1 x Cir e, 120 hp (90
duction. The resulting engin
Widgeon II. Despite its much
Widgeon III was offered with
expensive compared to its der air-cooled inline
greater weight, the new competitors and a total of kW)
a choice of either a radial
engine transformed the only 26 of all types, includ-
engine like the Genet or an
Widgeon, the rebuilt aircraft ing the prototype, were Performance , 167
inline engine such as the 104 mph (90 knots
being almost 40 mph faster.
Cirrus and the first Widgeon
built and sold before pro- Maximum speed:
Based on this improved duction was stopped in 1930 km/h)
III flew in March 1927, with h (75 knots, 138
performance, Westland
production starting later that
in order to allow Westland to Cruise speed: 86 mp
concentrate of the Wapiti km/h)
(507 km)
general-purpose military Range: 315 miles
g: 15 ,000 ft (4,570 m)
y Wigeon III, here showing the aircraft and the Wessex Service ceilin
riage arrangement. airliner.

at Brooklands Museum (www.ajjco lands Museum


llection.co.uk) Photo: The A J J Collection at Brook
(www.ajjcollection.co.uk)

registered to
Widgeon G-AADE was originally
but survived only until
C.S.Napier in December 1928,
off after an accident.
July 1932 when it was written

Flying Scale Models 27


WESTLAND WIDGEON Tony OK 19/12/11 13:48 Page 2

FULL-SIZE FREE PLAN FEATURE by Peter Rake & Martin Crowder

An electric powered scale model designed by Peter


Rake, built and described by Marion Crowder

Just a little flare and this will be another perfect landing. The model is a bit fragile for a trainer, but not tha

28 Flying Scale Models


WESTLAND WIDGEON Tony OK 19/12/11 13:48 Page 3

Typical Rake construction fuselage and here we see the rear basic box.

Front and rear basic assemblies joined. Note where the centre section struts fill be fitted.

he Westland Widgeon started life in start there. The rudder outline is laminated

T 1924 as a two-seat parasol built for


the Lympne trials set for that year.
Built entirely of wood and fabric
covered, with a 35 hp Cherub twin
engine, this first version had highly tapered
wings that folded flush against the fuselage.
During a trial flight the lightly loaded and
from three pieces of 1/8x1/16 strip wood. I
make a cardboard outline of the surface using
the inside line of the drawing. That way,
when you add the laminations around it, the
outline will be the proper size. Use a crayon
or candle to cover the edge of the cardboard
so the glue wont stick.
underpowered aircraft was pushed into the As much as I love using Hot Stuff cyan glue
ground by a downdraft and totalled. for all my building, I dont on laminated out-
The remains were rebuilt into the Widgeon lines. I wet the strips and let these soak. I then
II with a 60 hp Armstrong Siddeley Genet brush on aliphatic glue. I call it yellow white
engine. This particular version proved to have glue. Pretty dumb huh? (Sounds a fair
a better performance than the Westland description to me, works like white glue, but
Woodpigeon biplane during testing so was is yellow. PR) All pieces are coated on one
selected for production, but before the first side, then stuck together and wrapped
production model was built, modifications around the form. They are pinned and left to
changed her into the Widgeon III. Constant dry. The rudder is the only laminated surface
chord folding wings and plywood fuselage on this model. Once it is dry, clean up the
sides were added. piece with sandpaper and build the rudder.
Prototype G-PEBW, powered by a Blackburn The fin is cut from sheet balsa. Be sure to
Cirrus II engine took to the sky in April of 1927 add the balsa in-fill at the bottom of the rud-
and was the version that went into produc- der. It is the mount for the horn.
tion. Construction stopped in 1929 because of The tailplane is straightforward and built
contracts for the Wapiti biplane for the Royal from strip wood. Just remember to add the
Air Force. (A military aircraft contract during horn mount (as with the rudder) and make
that lean between-the-Wars period was some- the wire joiner before you hinge things, other-
thing not to be passed up!). wise you will be rigging both elevators sepa-
About 30 Widgeons were produced, the last rately! Finish-sand both items, then set them
few being the IIIA model with metal fuselages aside for now and its off to the wing.
and the divided main undercarriage. In addi-
tion to UK, examples went to Australia Wing
Canada and Africa. I can only find one exam- The wing is built in three sections. You could
ple in Australia that is restored and still flying. make both panels removable from the centre
I like to think of the Widgeon as the grandfa- section, or you can build it on one piece as I
ther of the Lysander of WWII. The IIIA version chose to do. I drive a Pick-Up that can carry
is the one we have modelled here. models in one piece, so that is how I build
them. I am lazy and hate putting models
Construction begins together at the field. Yuck! So the choice is
I always start a model by building the things yours.
t that much harder to fly. that I least enjoy doing first. Tails and wings Nothing is shown to make removable pan-
are not my most favourite parts so we will els, but simple tubes and pins would be suffi-

Flying Scale Models 29
WESTLAND WIDGEON Tony OK 19/12/11 13:49 Page 4

There re
get stres
stuff.

The model will accept a variety of outrunner style motors, in this instance Rough shaped, and pinned in position, the bits and pieces that make up the
an E-flite 450. nose shape of our little Widgeon.

Front deckings in place and all ready for a bit of sanding smooth.

cient with the struts being used. These would sand and set aside. Do not forget the piece hood!
support the wing to a large degree. that the horn mounts in and note that the Anyway the fuselage is built in standard
The centre section which, on the full size air- leading edge is a thicker piece than the Rake-fashion. A plywood box front and a
craft housed the fuel tank, is built first. The wings trailing edge. (To allow for shaping. squared-up stick rear fuselage. Build the two
plywood dihedral brace is glued in behind the PR) rear side frames and square them up. Dont
spar and sticks out both sides of the centre Plywood plates for mounting the aileron forget the two laser cut pieces F10 and F11.
section when done. It will set the dihedral servos are cut from 132 ply. I like to add The front is squared up using both sides and
angle for you. If you go for the three-piece pieces and frame the plates so they sit flush F3 and F5. There is a balsa doubler that glues
arrangement, you would need to fashion a with the wing. Then I just tape the servo to to each side between these two formers. Part
box for it to plug into on the main panels. (Or the plate and tape the plate into the wing UC glues on the bottom between the
omit the brace altogether and use wire dow- after covering - but I am getting ahead of my notches.
els and brass tubes to mount the outer pan- self a little. Add the rear to the front and make yourself
els. PR). Add the centre top sheeting and sand the a fuselage. You can now glue in the two 1/16
The top is sheeted with 1/16 balsa. Note panels and ailerons. The R1 rib is notched balsa cockpit floors, as they will help to
that the 1/8x1/4 pieces up against the out- wider than the others to allow for the brace to square things up.
side ribs on the bottom are there to help sup- slide in behind the spar. Set the dihedral at Cut a scribe line on the fuselage at F3 and
port the centre section struts when you attach 1/2 inch under each wing tip and glue her crack the sides so you can pull them in and
the centre section to the fuselage. together. I brought the servo leads out by the add F2 and F1. (The marking and scoring is
On the main panels, the ailerons are full centre section struts and ran them down the probably more accurate if done before joining
length and are built separate from the wing. strut into the fuselage. You can use a Y- lead the sides to the formers. Its certainly easier.
Strip the proper size 1/8 sheet for the false in the wing or bring them out separately. The PR).
trailing edge. I like to put the spar down first choice is yours. (It is possible to disguise the Hold off on part M until you figure out what
and then use a couple of ribs to space the servo lead/s as fuel pipes, running from the motor you are going to use. I used an E-flight
leading and trailing edges. Once you have c/s tank into the fuselage. PR). 450, which seemed about right. Mount your
them correctly placed, you can add the ribs Sand everything again and make sure you motor and then install part M with some right
where they go. have shaped your leading edges and tip ribs and down thrust. You may have to add or
Note that the two inside ribs of each panel and set your wing aside until you are ready subtract a little from the sides of part M
are lower, for the sheeting to be added on for covering. If you use the laser cut parts I depending on the motor used. (Unless you
top. The pieces numbered Z and the wing must say that things just fall together. use a vastly different motor, the mount posi-
tips are 1/8 Liteply. The two tip ribs are just Everything is the right size and it fits. Takes all tion shown is suitable for quite a variety of
blanks that you add and then shape to obtain the work out of building and makes it fun! types. PR).
a smooth slope, down to the tip. I used light Add the F4 formers to the top and sheet it.
ply for the piece that glues to the inboard Fuselage This takes a little work, but stick with it and
edge of R4, which is the thick rib for the OK! Now we get to the part that I like. When you will get it. (Made a lot easier if the centre
struts. I like to use blind nuts and screws to my Dad would build a model, he wouldnt section struts are fitted after the decking is in
mount the struts. You can use the method stop until he had the fuselage up on the land- place. PR).
shown on the plans or come up with your ing gear. At that point he would consider it an Mark your cockpits and cut them out. F6, F7,
own way. aeroplane. Then he would sit and smoke and F8, and F9 are added to the top of the rear
Build the aileron as a separate piece, then look at it. I still remember that from my child- fuselage and sheeted as well. This task was

30 Flying Scale Models


WESTLAND WIDGEON Tony OK 19/12/11 13:49 Page 5

ere really is nothing about the tail surfaces to Yes, strip ailerons are scale on this model. How the tip rib blanks are sanded to follow the
stressed about - all very straightforward curve of the covering. Shape in-situ, so you can see
ff. when they look right.

You simply must have at least one naked model to an article, so here it is. Simple structure and nice lines make for a very pretty model.

tough for me but I managed to get the rear happy in the end. A speed control from Electrifly at 25 amps
deck sheeted in two pieces. Once every thing is covered, go ahead and is what I used, and I squeezed a 1300 mAh,
Add the block balsa to the front bottom and glue the tailplane and fin/rudder onto the three-cell pack in behind the firewall. My flight
the nose block and sand those to shape. fuselage. I use cyano type glue here because I test flights, at half throttle, were easily 15 min-
There are three air intake blocks to shape, one want them to pop off rather than break in a utes. So now we have a finished Widgeon
on each side and one on top. I made these crash. I have never had a tail come off by glu- and its time to go fly.
from balsa blocks and then fashioned an ing them this way. I used flex hinges that I
exhaust system as well. There are two hatch- purchased from Sig. These glue in with cyano Flying & dying
es on the bottom, one in front of the landing type glue. My Widgeon flew right off the board. I added
gear block and one behind it. These are made The elevator and rudder both operate from a half-ounce of nose weight because she was
from 1/32 ply and sized to fit. Add the centre pull-pull cables and I use an item called Fire just a shade tail heavy. Flight times were easi-
section struts and cut the sheet to fit around Wire that is used to make jewellery. (Tiger Tail ly 15 minutes. She would cruise around very
them. is a brand available in the UK. PR). Small cuts nicely at half throttle and take-off and land-
The landing gear is a bit tricky, so study it of aluminium tube are used to crimp the ings are non-issues. The Widgeon is not a
for awhile before you start wasting wire. ends. (I wont use aluminium crimps, I just beginners aeroplane, but I would recom-
Brass straps and screws may be used to hold think theyre too soft. Brass tube crimps and a mend her as a second model.
things, meaning the gear will be removable tiny spot of cyano works well for me. PR). Loops, Rolls, Split-s and other manoeuvres
for covering. Add balsa strips to the gear wire For the sake of realism in the air, I installed are no problem. The Widgeon is a complete
to simulate fairings and shocks, or you can pilots in both cockpits and made windshields joy to fly and looks good putting around and
leave them plain if you prefer. It doesnt really from clear acetate. My wing was permanently shooting touch and goes.
detract from the finished model if you decide glued onto the fuselage. I bolted my wing Now for the sad part. I had put probably ten
to just leave things bare. The landing gear struts at both ends using brass tabs and 2/56 flights or so on her and was just getting to
was by far the hardest part for me, but it screws and blind nuts - not the easiest way where I felt comfortable and was enjoying fly-
turned out fine - just took a little time. but one I am used to. Petes way of cotter ing my Widgeon. I was just cruising around
You need to fashion some sort of tailplane pins and loops would work very well Im sure the sky when this huge Extra 260 something
mounts from blocks. Sand the fuselage to - I just sort of get stuck in ruts sometimes. just flew right through me. My poor Widgeon
your satisfaction and decide what you are (Whilst Marions strut mounting are very was mortally wounded and she spun in with
going to use for covering. secure, and vital if you opt for removable a folded wing and quite a bit of damage
wing panels, the linked split-pin system works everywhere else. Hitting the ground didnt
Covering & finishing well when you leave things assembled, espe- help any either. The Extra fared better and he
I usually cover my models with Coverlight. It cially so on a model like this where the struts made it back, but also had quite a bit of dam-
is strong and light and simulates a fabric fin- are little more than cosmetic. PR). I forgot to age to one wing panel. (Plenty good enough.
ish. This time I chose to try a lightweight film mention the struts, which are cut and fash- PR). My poor Widgeon is put to one side and
finish and it turned out OK, but was very diffi- ioned from 3/16 thick Basswood. Rather than will be rebuilt at some point.
cult for me to use and I wont do it again. I cover them I chose to paint them and the If you want something a little different, I
covered my fuselage and rudder in red and intake blocks as well. would highly recommend the Widgeon for
the wing and tailplane silver. These came out My finished model weighed 22 ounces, your flying pleasure. After all she is almost a
very pretty and look good in the air. Choose which I felt was very light for me - everything Lysander and I love Lysanders. Thanks for lis-
what you will, do a good job and you will be I build tends to come out heavy. tening to me ramble-along.

Flying Scale Models 31


WIDGEON SD Tony OK REVISED 21/12/11 14:12 Page 2

Scale 1:50
WIDGEON SD Tony OK REVISED 21/12/11 14:13 Page 3

Westland Widgeon Mks II & III


WIDGEON REBORN Tony OK 19/12/11 17:47 Page 2

MAIN IMAGE: Phil Kimber as work


on the
fuselage, much of which is new-build
, based
arround the original cockpit area
floor.

O
ut at the back-of-beyond (a des
tination
that does not register on SatNav
!) at
Durley Airstrip near Southampton
, the
AeroAntiques Group led by Ron
and Mike
Souch, together with Phil Kimber
Probert and Phil Harris are all inv , Bill
olved in the restora-
tion of a Westland Widgeon IIIA
, which was brought
back from Australia two years ago
.
VH-UKS was exported, new, from
Westland Aircrafts
Yeovil factory in 1928 and registe
red to the Aeroclub of
New South Wales in July 1929.
This example of the Widgeon IIIA
last flew in 1946/7,
but remained in Australia until
AeroAntiques acquired
it from Nick Challenor of Brisban
e.
When it arrived at AeroAntiques,
the disassembled
airframe proved to be absolutely
complete, including
the ADC Cirrus engine. Nothing
was missing and the
airframe was re-registered for the
UK as G-EUKS, thus
preserving the three last letters
of the original
Australian registration.
Although, at the moment, the airf
rame is very much a
collection of sub assemblies tuc
ked into vari-
ous crannies of the AerAntiques
workshops 2
among several other current res 1
toration proj-
ects, progress is well advanced
toward an
anticipated post-restoration firs
t-flight in
Spring 2013, most likely with Ron
Souch at
the controls.
Meanwhile, the restoration effo
rt is currently
concentrated on the fuselage, for
which Phil
Kimber is responsible. The whole
structure is
very much that of an outsize mo
del aircraft.
G-EUKS is one of only three Wid
geons
known to survive and when fini
shed, may well
be the sole flyable example of the
type world-
wide.
Great stuff!

34 Flying Scale Models


WIDGEON REBORN Tony OK 19/12/11 17:48 Page 3

2 3

1: Another view of the fuselage, laid on its side, viewed from the front. 2: The original
cockpit instrument panel, sans instruments, together with replacement panel. 3: Close up
of the restored tailplane, much of it restored original.


Flying Scale Models 35
WIDGEON REBORN Tony OK 19/12/11 17:49 Page 4

4 5

11 12 13 14

36 Flying Scale Models


WIDGEON REBORN Tony OK 19/12/11 17:50 Page 5

8 4: Original wing
panel, tucked away
pending completion
of other work.

5: Fin and rudder


assembly; original,
after restoration.

6: The complete,
fully restored
tailplane unit, ready
for covering

7: Tailplane and
elevators are all the
originals, on which
restoration is
complete.

8: Awaiting
restortion, the wing
centre section,
showing the ribs
that cradle the grav-
ity-feed fuel tank.

9: Westland
works construction
number on one of
the spars.

10: One of the fully


restored full-span
ailerons.

11 & 12: Work-in-


progress on one of
9 10 the wing struts.

13: Original cockpit


instrument panel.

14: Straight from the


delivery con-
tainer - the basic
fuselage, as
delivered from
Australia.

15: Inside one of the


two cockpits.

16: Main undercar-


raige wheel and
legs.

17: Bare bones of the


rear cockpit position,
showing some of the
basic metal fuse-
lange construction.

15 16 17

Flying Scale Models 37


TIPSY S FOR S Tony OK 21/12/11 14:29 Page 2

SUBJECTS FOR SCALE

Tipsy B
As with cars of the period, light aircraft shapes of the 1930 displayed a
fine variety of individuality and elegance that make for excellent scale
modelling subjects. Try this one for a change!
n 1935, Mr. E.O.Tips of the iar sight at the airfields situated and was used as a demonstrator

I Societe Anonyme Avions


Fairey, in Belgium, designed
and built a diminutive single-
seat low wing monoplane. A
year later, the first example of the
Tipsy S.2 as it was called, was
brought into Britain. Registered
around the London Area.
Arrangements were then made for
the S.2 to be manufactured in UK
under licence by the Tipsy Light
Aircraft Co. of Hayes, Middlesex.
Following success with the S.2, a
side-by-side two-seat trainer aircraft
aircraft for the new type, flown at
many places around the country in
the hands of famous aviatrix Amy
Johnson.
Demonstrations raised sufficient
interest that, by 1938, production of
the Model B was well under way at
OO-TIP, it was fitted with a 750cc was laid down and in 1937, the Hanworth Park works of the
Douglas engine and, in the hands of OO-DOS was flown over from Tipsy Aircraft Co.Ltd. and from then,
C.S.Staniland, soon became a famil- Belgium, re-registered as G-AFCM until the outbreak of WW2, 15

40 Flying Scale Models


TIPSY S FOR S Tony OK 21/12/11 14:29 Page 3

SCALE : 1:40

a steel tubular fuselage, powered


by a De Havilland Gipsy Major
engine, but the only example of
this to appear in UK, G-AGBM,
was impressed into military serv-
ice as FO222 and employed as a
service hack by the associated
Fairey Aviation Co. Ltd during
the early war years.
The Tipsy B was a wooden
framed machine, covered with a
mixture of plywood and fabric.
The wing was built around an
I-section main spar at about one
quarter chord and an auxiliary
rear box spar. These spars were
linked by a rigid diagonal pyra-
mid bracing.
The fuselage was based on four
spruce longerons, flat sided and
plywood covered, apart from a
rounded top decking. The depth
of the decking behind the cockpit
depended on whether the seat-
ing was open or closed.
The Tipsy B had an open cock-
pit, with almost side-by-side
seating, the seats being slightly
staggered fore and aft to min-
imise fuselage width, with the
left hand seat 8 in (200 mm) fur-
ther forward. The Tipsy Bc had
examples fitted with the Czech- AFRT to V and G-AFVN-P inclu- the same seat arrangement, but
designed 62 hp. Walter Micron sive. enclosed under a Rhodoid (cellu-
engine, has been produced, But for the onset of WW2, work lose acetate) canopy, faired into
including examples registered as would have proceeded on a two- the fuselage rearwards by a
G-AFGF, G-AFGF, G-AFJR to T, G- seat tandem cockpit version with much deeper decking.
Some Tipsy Bs had an asym-
metric windscreen formed out of
G-AFGF was the first British-built Tipsy B. Colour appears to be silver overall, a single Rhodoid sheet, with its
with black or maybe red stripe and lettering. Destroyed by fire in 1952.
free edge further forward on the
left to match the displaced seat-
ing, but symmetric screens
became common. Both seats
were equipped with controls.
The control column was on the
mid-line between the seats, with
a horizontal extension that could
be rotated between either posi-
tion.
Photo: The A J J Collection at Brooklands Museum At the rear, the fin was almost
(www.ajjcollection.co.uk) triangular, and built as an inte-
gral part of the fuselage. The fab-

Flying Scale Models 41
TIPSY S FOR S Tony OK 21/12/11 14:30 Page 4

ric covered rudder was rounded, and


moved between the separate elevators,
cockpit.
G-AFWT in its early format, with enclosed which with the tail plane formed an ellipti-
cal shape As a result, the elevator hinges,
like those of the ailerons were strongly
forward swept. The tailplane was support-
ed from the fin near the rudder post with a
pair of external struts.
There was a long tailskid and the main
undercarriage had two cantilever forks
with rubber-in-compression springing, its
legs faired and the wheels spatted
The Tipsy seems to have been mostly
nice to fly but, as with other aircraft with
pointed wing tips, its low speed behaviour
could be unforgiving, dropping a wing at
the stall without much warning. During
at Brooklands Museum the British production run, some of these
Photo: The A J J Collection
(www.ajjcollection.co.uk) issues were addressed
The fourth British aircraft was the first to
lly opposed
losing a horizonta be modified. To improve the stalling
U Featured a revised nose profile enc
G-AES . behaviour, it had a strengthened wing
d cockpit windshield
engine and revise ands Museum with washout at the tips, so that this part
lection at Brookl
Photo: The A J J Col of the wing should not stall first, and cam-
.co.uk)
(www.ajjcollection
ber-changing flaps were added to the
straight centre section to delay the stall.
To meet British airworthiness concerns
about control surface flutter, all were
mass-balanced. The rudder balance was
external, projecting from its leading edge
just above the tip of the fin. The elevator
was also revised to a single unit with a

G-AFWT as seen at the


Shuttleworth Museum airfield
Old Warden in its current
livery of brown and cream.

G-AFRV was another British-built Tipsy B. Basic colour scheme is/was pale blue
fuselage and silver wings. Registration lettering was in black, with wite outline.

Photo: The A J J Collection at Brooklands Museum


(www.ajjcollection.co.uk)

42 Flying Scale Models


TIPSY S FOR S Tony OK 21/12/11 14:30 Page 5

SCALE : 1:40

straight hinge and trailing edge, and the Sweden, France and Switzerland. In 1937,
bottom of the rudder slightly cropped to the prototype had the rare distinction of
allow it to move. Subsequent British Tipsys serving as a tombola prize, but crashed
included these changes, and from the sixth soon afterwards. In 1940, the second
aircraft onwards also featured fixed letter- machine escaped to England, served with
box slots. the RAF in the war, and then became the
In August 1938, during the Certificate of Tipsy Belfair prototype.
Airworthiness tests at Martlesham Heath, A number were destroyed during WW2,
there were concerns about rudder authori- but at least six flew afterwards. The pattern
ty, so Tipsy Light Aircraft added 18% to the of ownership of the British-built aircraft
rudder area, leading to successful certifica- was similar; one went to India, and later
tion. At that point, the name of the aircraft served the RAF there. Twelve of the UK
changed from Tipsy B to Tipsy Trainer. pre-war machines survived the war,
although two did not fly again. One post-
Operational history war machine went to Finland, another to
Avions Fairey-built aircraft flew with pri- Belgium.
vate owners and club in Belgium, the UK,

SPECIFICATION
CREW: Two
LENGTH: 6.6 m (21 ft 8 in)
WINGSPAN: 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)
HEIGHT: 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in)
POWERPLANT: 1 x Walter Mikron four-cylinder inverted in-line,
air-cooled, 45 kW (60 hp)

PERFORMANCE
MAXIMUM SPEED: 195 km/h (121 mph)
RANGE: 800 km (497 miles)
SERVICE CEILING: 6,000 m (19,685 ft)

Flying Scale Models 43


TIPSY B IN DETAIL Tony OK 20/12/11 15:47 Page 2

IN DETAIL

TIPSY B O M
1
ZO THE
O N
IN TAIL
2
DE

1: Nose section showing air intakes. 2: Vacuum


generator for cockpit instruments, fuselage right
side. 3: Prop and spinner. 4: Stainlss steel exhaust
stack. 5: Panel line detail on the engine cowl, also
showing the carburettor intake scoop and position-
ing of the exhaust stack.

4 5
TIPSY B IN DETAIL Tony OK 20/12/11 15:47 Page 3

7 8

6: Wing tread-patch and wing-to-fuselage fairing.


7: Rudder control cable.
8: Complete tailcone showing the tailplane-to-fin strut brace.
9 &10: Two views of one undercarriage leg, with nicely shaped wheel spat.

9 10


Flying Scale Models 45
TIPSY B IN DETAIL Tony OK 20/12/11 15:48 Page 4

11

12

13 14

17

15 16

12 & 13: Two views of the cockpit windscreen. There is no double curvature requiring a mould plug. 13: Cockpit instrument panel - nothing complicated
here. 14: View of the cockpit rim. 15-17: The substantial coil sprung tail skid. 18: Detail of fin-to-rudder hinge. 19: Mass ballance applied to fin. 20: Close-
up of the rudder control horn and control cable. 21: Wing underside showingcontrl link to wing flap. 22: Removable access dimple on the win centre
section underside.

18

19 20

22

21

46 Flying Scale Models


TIPSY B IN DETAIL Tony OK 20/12/11 15:48 Page 5

23

24 25

23: Wing tip detail showing aileron hinge-line 24: The ailerons on the Tipsy B are of quite narrow chord. 25: Aileron drive link and control horn on the
underside of the wing/aileron. 26: Close-up of thetailplane strut. 27: Tailplane strut anchor point. 28: The centrally located elevetor control horn.

27 28

29: Further view of


the rudder control
horn, together with
elevator access disk.

30 & 31: Fuel tank


cap on the wing top
surface

26
29
32: Wing leading
edge slots.

31

33: The wing flaps


on the Tipsy B are
quite small.

34: Wing root fairing


at the wing leading
edge.
32

30

33 34

Flying Scale Models 47


GOSHAWK REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 11:31 Page 2

MASTER MODELS by Alex Whittaker

GLORIOUS GO
Paul Dunkleys T-45 Goshawk is in a class of her own

odellers the world over love ly than that!) of the U.S. military purchasing the giant Boeing organization, so its a good

M the hunky good looks of the


B.Ae. Hawk. There is some-
thing appealing and work-
manlike about its chunky but
capable shape. The Hawk is current military
equipment in air forces worldwide, but it
takes a really outstanding aircraft to break
agencies.
But the US Navy did like what was on
offer when they decided to upgrade the
original design for aircraft carrier trainer
operations, with arrestor hook, to became
the T-45 Goshawk tailored to the Navys
requirements by McDonnell Douglas.
question as whether the type is now the
Boeing T-45 Goshawk. Its all a bit like the
incident when green-behind-the ears-no-
sense-of-heritage morons in the British
Aerospace public relations organisa-
tion, referred (in a publicity
hand out) to the De
into the preferences (well put it no strong- That name has now been absorbed into Havilland Mosquito,

, this COULD
n th is early on f the year
Eve
sc ale m odel o
be the s the Editor!
- so say

20 Flying Scale Models


GOSHAWK REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 11:31 Page 3

GOSHAWK
as the British Aerospace Mosquito! External differences include a T-bar twin close confines of an aircraft carrier deck.
nose-wheel assembly for catapult launches Although not armed, the Goshawk is fitted
Carrier operations from the carrier deck, and the new and with a single pylon capable of carrying
The T-45A/C Goshawk two-seat trainer vari- highly visible arrestor hook. This is termed bomb-racks, rocket pods, or auxiliary fuel
ant of the BAe Systems Hawk is jointly Arresting Hook by our US cousins. tanks.
manufactured by Boeing in The original Hawk speed brakes have
the USA and BAe been relocated while a revised and versatile The model
Systems in dual nose-wheel assembly imparts maxi- Paul Dunkley is full-size commercial pilot,
England. mum flight deck manoeuvrability in the so attention to detail comes as second

Its elements may be simple, but the US Navy red


and white scheme is very appealing.

Flying Scale Models 21
GOSHAWK REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 11:32 Page 4

1: The panel nature to him. Consequently Paul researched


work is indistin- and built his all-moulded model Goshawk
guishable from entirely from scratch. It is not a bought-in air-
the full-size. frame, or a commercial all-moulded kit. He
began by immersing himself in all the docu-
2: Much of the
cockpit detail-
mentary resources he could find on the whole
ing is made Hawk family of aircraft. He searched books,
from foam. magazines, and the internet, picking up details
as he went. The model is built from original
3: You are look- photographs and scale drawings. Paul had to
ing at a make all his own plugs for this epoxy-compos-
Goshawk on ite airframe. All the panel and rivet detailing
active service, comes from the plug, and is thus part of the
1 with all the sur-
face patina of a
epoxy moulding. The fuselage comprises a
front-line air- single skin lay up, over epoxy glass plywood
craft. frames. The wings and tail are epoxy glass
laminates, bonded in the mould.
4: Riverty and
panel fasten- Turbine power
ings are utterly The Goshawk is powered by an off-the-shelf
convincing. Graupner G-Booster 160 gas turbine which
5: Complex jets
have complex
systems - there
is a lot going on
Well established on th
in this tail area. flaps down; wheels do

5
GOSHAWK REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 11:33 Page 5

develops approximately 38lbs / 16kgs of Finishing sive paint-spray masks.


thrust. The turbine is fitted with a stock Paul finished the Goshawk with two-pack
Kero start, though the exhausts are certain- Standox Epoxy car paint, using professional New kit
ly exotica: twin-walled titanium! Paul says spraying equipment. You will not see a Paul is currently working with Marin Pettix,
that the model weighs just 20 kgs dry, but whiter white. of Scale Jets Netherlands, to develop a full
50 lbs with fuel. commercial kit, with a target date of mid-
Scale details 2012. FSM will keep you informed of any
Undercarriage The Goshawk has fully functioning slats, new developments.
The Goshawks undercarriage is a work of flaps, wheel brakes, speed brakes, and a
art. Naturally, this incredibly detailed under- fully articulated arrestor hook. The cockpit Flying notes
carriage was not a bought-in commercial detail was made up by Paul from Depron Most of us became aware of this new
item, but was made especially for the foam. model Goshawk at last years BMFA
model. All the complex levers, doors, joints, Nationals Display Line. I was actually cover-
springs, shocks, and castings are faithfully Legending decals ing the Scale Contest Line action when I
reproduced. You could not distinguish it Surface detail legending makes up a major saw this white Hawk flying in the distance.
from the real thing, beyond its size. These part of the final impression on any aircraft, I quickly jumped in the ragtop and sped the
bespoke CNC-machined units are Air-Up especially military American types. All the quarter mile over to the other flight line. I
and Air-Down, complete with air springing. legends are bespoke items made up for hugely impressed by the Goshawkss over-
The wheels also have their own air-operat- Paul by a local company called Image all performance, but particularly when she
ed brakes. Works. They are mostly self-adhesive, but came in over the boundary hedge in a
the larger decals were built-up with succes- fully-dirty configuration. It is hard to

the glide slope down to the carrier:


down, hook down ... all down!

Flying Scale Models 23


GOSHAWK REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 11:34 Page 6

6: Complex levers, describe, but she had that indefinable


doors, joints, heavy metal feel. She seemed to be pow-
springs, shocks, ering in amazingly slowly. She came in
and castings on the
truly magnificent
over my shoulder, only about five yards
Goshawk nose distant, on short finals. Trust me, she
wheel assembly. looked and sounded utterly real.
When you think about it, since Pauls day-
7: Crisp legending job is flying commercial jets, so he knows
sets off the model. how a fully-featured scale jet should fly.
Paul is a modest chap, but he did tell me
8: Cockpit and that the Goshawk flies excellently. He
canopy are faithful-
ly executed.
describes the low speed handling as
superb, due in part to the full-span flaps.
6 9: The whole model The G-Booster 160 turbine delivers scale
looks like a well- speeds and handling. In Pauls own words
serviced, but well the Goshawk is : An absolute joy to fly...
used, military asset.
10: Full deployment
of slotted flap.

ely a
Definit s of Hawk!
specie

10
GOSHAWK REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 11:35 Page 7

Authentic fuselage slotted speed brake Arresting hook in deployed position. This part of the top rear fuselage is often incor-
deployed. rectly modelled: this Goshawk is spot on!

Model Specification
Goshawk T-45
STRUCTURE: All moulded
SPAN: 7.75 feet / 2.4 metres
WEIGHT: 19-98 kgs dry
TURBINE: G-Booster 160
Kero start / 38lbs thrust
EXHAUST: Thin walled titanium
UNDERCARRIAGE: Bespoke retractable units
Working Flaps
WorkingWheel Brakes
Working Speed Brakes
Working Arrestor Hook

Nice s
confighot of cle
fast, h uration onan
Note s igh, fly pas a
tores t
pylon .
.

Air brakes deployed, and hook down.

Flying Scale Models 25


MILES HAWK SPEED 6 Tony OK 24/1/12 14:06 Page 2

CONSTRUCTION FEATURE by Ken Burke

Build this 1/4-scale


99 (2515mm)
wingspan replica of the
super-sleek 1930s air
racer, for .120 size
four stroke engines
and 4-5 function radio.
Designed by
Ken Burke.

3
2
1

26 Flying Scale Models


MILES HAWK SPEED 6 Tony OK 24/1/12 14:06 Page 3

had been interested in the Miles Hawk Speed Six series, The fuselage is a conventional box; with a rounded ply top

I particularly G-ADOD for many years and when I decided


to build a scale model that would be competitive in scale
competition, the DOD was the logical choice.

When I searched for a plan and documentation, I found


there was really nothing suitable available, so I spent the
next year or so finding out all I could about the Speed Sixes
deck.
The wing centre section is the usual balsa rib-and-spar
construction, while the outer panels utilise balsa sheeted
foam cores. As anyone likely to build this model will be con-
versant with this type of construction, I wont go into the
general building, but instead concentrate on the areas where
I think some explanation will help to clarify the plans.
and then converting my findings into a practical plan and
three-view. The model presented here is the result. General
All the plywood used, with the exception of the 0.4 and
Construction 0.6mm Finish Birch is Liteply and all the balsa is contest-
There is nothing difficult in building the Miles Hawk Speed grade unless some other type is specifically mentioned. It is
Six. The basic airframe is a very standard built-up structure. essential that the weight of the structure be kept to a mini-
mum. The prototype had every possible part lightened so
use your imagination and cut holes in every-
thing that you can, without compro-
mising structural integrity.
If you build it to the specified
weight, which is not difficult, you
will be rewarded with the best
flying scale model that you will
ever fly.

Fuselage
The fuselage is built in two sec-
tions. The front section compris-
es the engine mount, tank com-

6
5
4

sided box of the basic


ed at per text. 2: The three
basic box stru ctur e. Note that the engine mount is cant engo ne cow l box. 5: The complete engine
1: Front fuselage ed to the
nose -cone, mou lded in glass fibre. 4: Nose-cone mat on the fuselage , show ing the concave air-exit
engine cowl. 3: The engine cowl, moulted l either side).
ied. 6: The rear end of the scallop and side vent (indenta
cowl, with surface detail appl


Flying Scale Models 27
MILES HAWK SPEED 6 Tony OK 24/1/12 14:06 Page 4

7 8

partment and receiver/battery box (C2, C2a, F1 dont complete the top sheeting above the and is positioned so that the top surface is
- F5) and the rear section is the remainder, wing mounting screws until the wing centre flush with the top surface of the 0.4mm front
from F6 back to the tailpost. section is finished. This is because it is easier section. The mask is shaped to the fillet out-
The front section is built with F5 flat on the and more accurate to drill the wing mount line, about 50mm wide and is tack glued to the
bench, with the engine mount vertical. That through the blocks on the fuselage sides from fuselage side where it does two things. One: it
way, it is quite easy to get everything square. the top. provides the sharp edge to the fillet, which
The rear lower fuselage is built over the plan in approximates the appearance of the original
the conventional manner. Once both sections Cooling ducts (full size) sheet metal fillets, and two: it pre-
are dry, they are joined at F5/F6, with slow-cure There are three main areas for the air entering vents damage to the fuselage side when sand-
epoxy. the front of the cowling to escape. The two ing. The base pieces are epoxied to the fuse-
The top formers, 0.6mm ply cowling top scoops on the upper cowling, the ducts on lage wing seat and held in place by the wing
sheeting between C2a and F5, and the rear either side of the fuselage below the scoops centre section.
foam deck can now be fitted. The wedge and the duct at the end of the oil tray. It may be necessary to tape the outer edges
shaped spacer for setting the engine right The scoops are formed from styrene and of the ply to the centre section to maintain
thrust can also be fitted at this point, but dont do all that much, but the fuselage good contact until the balsa sheet is fitted.
ducts do most of the work. The tool I The fillet is laminated with aliphatic glue
used for forming the ducts was a from very soft 1/2 balsa sheet directly onto
sanding bat made from a 12 length the fuselage after first making a wedge to fill
9 of 1/8 x 1 aluminium, to which were the taper at the rear section. A few days are
glued 120 and 80 grit garnet paper on needed to ensure thorough drying before
either face. shaping. I used a 2 drum sander in an electric
Start by drawing the fillet outline drill to rough out the shape and finished with a
onto the fuselage and a vertical from series of round sanding belts. The section of
the back of F5a. Next, sand the the fillet at the leading edge is made separately
chamfer between F6 and the line at and fitted to the cowling side panel.
F7a, but leaving the wing fillet area
unmolested. The duct continues Engine
around F6a to the lower edge of the I chose an O.S.120 four-stroke, mainly to pro-
conical vent. Use 3/32 balsa to fill duce the kind of sound that some scale event
the area between F6a and F7a fol- judges interpret as more scale-like, and also to
lowing the chamfer you have just reduce the overall noise level to below the
sanded in the fuselage side. 98dB requirement. The engine is canted anti-
clockwise about five degrees from vertical to
Wing Fillet make room for the flexible header tube that I
The fillets are structural and need used to connect the engine exhaust to a cus-
to be carefully made. Commence tom muffler.
by making a safety mask and two The prototype model had two degrees of
fillet bases from 0.4mm plywood. right side thrust, which is about the maximum
The section of the fillet base that can be incorporated without becoming
behind the wing is 1/8 plywood visually obvious. Some rudder input is still

7 & 8: After initial work in Litho plate, the author remade the wheel spats, moulded in
glass fibre with carbon fibre reinforcement. Clamp brackets were originally fixed to the
struts for securing to U/C legs, but layet changed to a silver soldered strap arrangement
as per plan. 9: One of the telescopic shock absorbing main undercarruage legs made by
the author for the prototype model. 10: Scale tail skid with metal shoe attached.
11: Installation of theO.S.120 four-stroke engine, canted to s slight angle from vertical
and with 2 degrees right side thrust. 12 & 13: The fully furnished cock[it on the proto-
type model.

28 Flying Scale Models


MILES HAWK SPEED 6 Tony OK 24/1/12 14:06 Page 5

12 13

necessary to achieve a straight take-off run. Next, epoxy the pre-shaped and drilled oil can be painted and grooved to give a pretty
The engine was fitted to a standard alloy pan to C3. With a razor saw, cut C2 from C2a at fair approximation.
engine mount and attached to the 1/4 Liteply the datum line. Undo the two 4-40 bolts from
bulkhead with 6/32 cap screws and blind nuts. I the attachment blocks and remove the cowling. Scoops, blisters and windscreen
used an onboard glow system so that I did not The attachment blocks can now be epoxied I made balsa moulds for all those small-scale
need to carry anything out to the flight line at to the cowling sides using the small wood details and vacuum formed them from styrene
competitions. screws, to correctly relocate the blocks. The sheet. There is no logical reason for this, other
nose cone and the 0.4mm (C4) side panels can than where there are identical parts on both
Cowling now be fitted to complete the cowling struc- sides of the fuselage, in which case it gives a
It is important that the cutout for the engine in ture. better chance of symmetry. These items could
C2 is fairly neat, so that as much of the air as be much more easily shaped from balsa.
possible entering the nose cone cools the Muffler The windscreen on the full size prototype
powerplant. The muffler for the prototype model was fabri- was moulded from 1/4 Perspex and attached
The nose cone aperture can be shaped from cated from light gauge mild steel as per what to the fuselage with 2BA bolts and a 16 swg
balsa and given a layer of 0.75 oz. glass cloth is shown on the plan. I had the main chamber aluminium frame - and I could see no reason
and epoxy or, as I did on the prototype, mould folded and tig-welded by a sheet metal worker. tochange the layout on the model.
a glass nose cone from four layers of 6 oz, The two exhaust pipes are not silver soldered Commence by shaping a balsa plug 1/16
Glass cloth and then shape C1 to fit inside. The in place until after the cowling is finally fitted, smaller than the screen outline. The finish does
removable lower section of the cowling is built so their positions can be exactly marked not have to be pristine. Now, heat a 12 sq of
as part of the fuselage. The front bulkhead C2 through the scale stubs attached to the cowl- 1/16 clear Perspex in the oven until it sags;
and C2a are left in one piece until the cowling ing. then, with a good pair of leather gloves, pull it
is finished. Because the muffler gets very hot, I have over the plug and hold in place until the sheet
Start building the cowling by fitting the 3/8 found it necessary to mount it on long straps has cooled. Cut out the screen with a hacksaw
sq. attachment blocks to F5/6 with 4-40 bolts, and Teflon stand-offs. It is in fact too effective and finish it to the correct size and shape.
so that these are 1/8 inside the edge of the as it is very hard to hear the engine in the air, Crude, but quick!
bulkhead. Now, fit the cowling sides C3, then except at full throttle. Ive also tried vac-forming 0.060 acetate, but
epoxy C3 to C2 and attach C3 to the attach- could not get is as clear as Perspex
ment blocks with a couple of small wood Spinner The frame is formed from lithoplate and
screws in each. These will be removed later. This is anther of the items that is not attached with 12BA bolts and nuts to both the
available from a local model shop! fuselage and the screen.
Because the scale shape spinner has a
rounded rear section and a straight Rudder and elevator
10 conical front part, there is little choice The rudder and fin are built together around a
but to spend an hour or so on the lathe 1/16 balsa core cut to the outline and to which
if you want absolute accuracy and 1/8 rib strips are glued either side. The leading
maximum static points. edge of the fin is reinforced with 3/16 x 1/4
Some commercially available types balsa strips and the trailing edge of the rudder

11

Flying Scale Models 29


MILES HAWK SPEED 6 Tony OK 24/1/12 14:07 Page 6

with 1/16 x 1/4 balsa either side. The hinge- these very advantageous on calm days, or threaded into one end of the inner tube and
line posts are made from 1/4 balsa. where a short landing approach has been nec- the head machined to slide freely inside the
Rudder horns (either side) were modified essary. 3/8 tube until it meets the K&S tube, thus lim-
DuBro mini-T horns with two extra mounting If the flap option is preferred, then add 1/8 x iting the travel of the inner tube.
holes to simulate the four-bolt mounting on the 1/4 bass or spruce spars in both the centre The springs have a rate of 9 lbs per inch and
full size. section and the foam outer panels. These take are pre-loaded to one inch. After a further trav-
Tailplane and elevator are also built together, the screws that will attach the piano hinges. el of 1.1/4, that becomes coil-bound, thus lim-
around a 1/16 balsa core outline. The elevator The flaps are made from 3/64 GRP sheet. A iting the travel of the inner tube.
hinge spar is 1/4 balsa, with a Bass or Spruce bass trailing edge stiffener and 1/8 balsa ribs
joiner in the centre. For the elevator horn, I are fitted to achieve a scale appearance. Wheels pants
used a 4M x 20mm bolt with flats filed at one One 5kg servo mounted in the centre section The wheel pants are cut from lithoplate and
end and a 1/16 hole drilled to take the quick operates all the flap panels. The three in the hand shaped to conform to the plan. If you
link from the control rod. centre section are directly driven via bellcranks have any skill as a panel-beater, you will have
This bolt is then tapped directly into the and pushrods, while the outers are connected no problem in flaring the edge at the wing joint
spruce elevator joiner and glued with cyano. via wire rods, to the inners. and shaping the front.
The elevator push-rod is 0.25 x 0.062 carbon The single centre flap under the fuselage Because I do not possess any such skill, I
tube. Threaded rod, with only 1 of thread pro- operates in opposition to the other four and built up the fillet around the wing seat with
truding from the kwik-link, provides the servo balances the load. It is hinged at the rear edge. epoxy auto body filler, which I then shaped
connection, while a similar length of 16 swg with a Dremel tool. I shaped the front by cut-
piano wire with a Z-bend connects to the eleva- Wing outer panels ting a V in the lower edge and hammered it
tor horn. Robart large Hinge Points approxi- The outer wing panels use foam cores, sheeted closed. Then I glassed the inside and filed the
mate very closely the original pin-and-gudgeon with 1/16 balsa. It is desirable to keep this sec- outside to shape.10BA cheese head bolts and
type hinges. tion of the wing as light as possible. The photo- nuts along the flange completed the job. The
graph shows one method of lightening the result is a very light and easily repairable wheel
Wing centre section cores, although the cutting of holes with a cir- pant.
The centre section of the wing is a normal rib- cle cutter is nearly as effective. If this is too The pants are mounted to the struts with 4-40
and-spar structure with just one small differ- much trouble, then remember, the weight-sav- screws. A 16 swg aluminium disc provides a
ence; to enable the 1/8 Liteply spar webs to ing in foam removed is not great, but the clamp plate that prevents damage to the thin
carry though in one piece, holes need to be cut reduced area of foam substantially limits the material of the wheel pant. Whilst the lithoplate
in the web to allow the ribs to pass through amount of epoxy glue that can be applied to pants are very practical, I could never get the
and then turn to lock in place. This makes it attach the surface skins. curve at the front exactly right and eventually
necessary for the centre section to be assem- moulded a pair of pants in glass fibre, which
bled without support, before it can be pinned Undercarriage are more accurate, but almost twice the
down over the plan and the spars added. The The main undercarriage is of the double-strut, weight.
whole is then glued with thick cyano. It sounds sprung but undamped type that was used on
a bit Heath Robinson, but it works! the full size. The struts are fabricated from 3/8 Tail skid
x 0.032 and 1/4 x 0.049 chrome molybde- The tail skid follows the full size design. It com-
Flaps num tube. prises a pivoted tube with a wear-shoe fitted to
These are an option, in the sense that, on the The outer tubes have 1 of K&S 5/16 brass the outer end, while the inner is connected to
full size aircraft, the flaps were usually taped tube soldered into the inside at one end. This the captive spring arrangement. The other end
over for air racing, in order to minimise surface acts as both a stop and a bearing for the 1/4 of the spring is anchored to a length of 10 swg
drag. Nonetheless, I fitted flaps and have found sliding member. A 3/16 cheese head bolt is piano wire at the rear of the fuselage.
14: The basic, structure of
the constant chord centre
section prior to surface
skinning. The outer, tapered
panels are based on
expamded polystryrene
foam cores.

15: The centre section,


mated to the fuselage in
preparation for the con-
struction and shaping of the
wing-to-fuselage fairing.
14 15

30 Flying Scale Models


MILES HAWK SPEED 6 Tony OK 24/1/12 14:07 Page 7

16 17

16: Components of the tailskid


unit built true-to-scale for the pro- 18 19
totype model. 17: The three-spart
custom-made scale spinner. 18:
Some of the wooden patterns
used for moulding surace detail
items. 19: Some of the small detail
fittings including fule tank filler
cap, pitot head, fuel gauges and
rudder mass balance.

Instrument panel
1/16 Honduras Mahogany veneer is ideal for
the panel. Simply cut to shape and drill holes
to suit the instrument bezels before sanding
and French polishing.
Next, glue the panel to the 1/8 balsa support achieved the same result with one coat, which speed had been set a little high as insurance
under pressure to ensure it stays flat. The is really two. against engine flame-out during the landing
instruments are made individually, then epox- I applied the first colour coat fairly dry and approach but at that setting and with full up
ied into the holes in the panel. The bezels are heavy enough so that the undercoat is no elevator, the Speed Six continued to float,
short pieces of aluminium tube with recesses longer visible. I the added 20% retarder thinner albeit very slowly along the landing strip
turned in each end to accept the dial and glass to the pain and after about ten minutes, before I opened up the engine for a couple of
- then painted semi-matt black. applied the final coat. further circuits before setting up for a second
The dials, as shown on the plan need revers- landing attempt.
ing out, black-to-white, to achieve white figures Flying With an into-wind breeze of about 20 knots, I
on a black background. Any copy-shop will do I was a bit apprehensive when I started the decided not to use the landing flaps, making
it for you. motor in preparation for the first flight. I have the turn onto finals at about 20 ft. and 450 ft.
The dials are then attached to styrene sheet added about six ounces of lead in the nose to from the threshold. The Hawk came over the
and cut out. The pointers are made from get the fore/aft balance point to 31% of the threshold still at about 10 ft high, so I chopped
0.010 brass and soldered to pins before paint- wing chord position, although I would have the throttle completely and nudged in a little
ing. Once the dial and pointer are finished. The been happier with it a bit further forward for bit of down elevator to achieve a touch-down
pointer is fitted to the dial and glue in place the first flight. at about 30-40 ft from the end of the landing
with cyano. The elevator throw was set at 25mm in either area.
Both the dial assembly and the 0.015 clear direction, while the ailerons and rudder move- For the following test flight, the nose weight
acetate front glass can now be fitted to the ments were set to give as much as was physi- was removed, with no discernable effect and
body. I cut the front glass on a lathe, so that it cally possible. The rates were then set at 60% after adjusting the throttle idle speed to about
is an accurate press-fit in the front recess of the just in case. 2,400 rpm, and with the trims centred, I was
body tube. Once all the instruments are com- The O.S. 120FS, which had about an hours able to land the Hawk a bit closer to where I
pleted, they can be carefully epoxied into the bench running was turning a Bolly 16 x 7 wanted.
instrument panel. prop at a little under 9,000 rpm and producing The Speed Six was subsequently flown in all
6kg of static pull. At this point, I must have sorts of conditions in both Scale competitions
Finishing and painting nodded or something because my son Marcus and as a Sunday hack. It has been subjected to
The fuselage was silk covered and doped and released the model and before I had a con- some really heavy landings and has also
all scale surface detailing applied, prior to scious thought, it was airborne. clipped a tree with the undercarriage, almost
undercoating with a high-build polyurethane A couple of clicks of right aileron and three or destroying one of the wheel pants. But it has
primer. The wing and tail surfaces were cov- four of down elevator had the Hawk flying not needed any repairs beyond wgat was
ered with iron-on film and washed down with straight and level, so that after a few circuits I required for that particular piece of pilot error,
solvent prior to applying urethane enamel. For felt confident enough to try a roll. No problems plus the replacement of a worn out tail skid
the final finish I used a two-part high glass ensued and so, after a few more circuits, there shoe - the latter proof positive that my Miles
polyurethane enamel, mixed to the BS stan- followed a loop and then some tight, slow Hawk Speed Six has put in the hours.
dard. turns to check for any tendency to snap. A Hope yours rewards you just as much!
The Miles racers in the 1935 race were hand check of stalling characteristics was then
rubbed to a mirror finish. Over fifty coats of explored before landing.
Ltd,
Titanine lacquer were applied. With urethane, I The idle rvice, Key Publishing
effectively eed Six are available from FSM Plans Se Overseas 6.50)
Hawk Sp inland 2.50;
et plan for the Miles post and packing (UK
Copies of the three-she Q, UK. Price 19 .50 plus
, Lincolnshire, PE9 1X
P.O.Box 100, Stamford
HAWK SCALE DRAWINGS Tony OK 25/1/12 17:29 Page 2

This box depicts G-ADGP in its


current configuration, restoRed
to its 1937 appearance

M
S
(A

These three scrap views show G-ADPG in its initial post-


WW2 configuration with the more rounded and more bul-
bous cockpit canopy and revised rear fuselage top deck
HAWK SCALE DRAWINGS Tony OK 25/1/12 17:29 Page 3

MILES HAWK
SPEED SIX
(All images scale 1:50)

This box shows G-ADOD, the last


Speed Six built and the only one to
feature the open cockpit. It also
shows the aircraft with the ini-
tially applied 36 span wing
HAWK HISTORY Tony OK 25/1/12 11:59 Page 2

TYPE HISTORY

A true classic, from that Golden Age of aviation, only three examples
of the Speed Six were ever built, but the shape is one to savour

34 Flying Scale Models


HAWK HISTORY Tony OK 25/1/12 11:59 Page 3

Exquisitely
finished and
restored to
its 1937 con-
figuration the
sole surviving
Miles Hawk
Speed Six is
posed for air-
to-photogra-
phy by owner
Caption
Roger Mills.
Photos by
CLIFF KNOX.

esigned purely as a racing aero- G-ACTE was first entered in the 1934

D plane, the Miles Hawk Speed Six


was a contemporary of two
other Miles designs, the Hawk
Major and the Falcon. Whilst this
illustrious line of designs carried the Miles
name they were manufactured by Phillips &
Powis, but designed by partner F.G. Miles.
Kings Cup air race by Sir Charles Rose, but
was eliminated in the 3rd qualifying heat.
For the following year, all three examples
of the Speed Six aircraft produced; G-ACTE,
G-ADGP and G-ADOD were entered and
flown, respectively, by Bill Humble (later to
become a prominent post-WW2 test pilot
Basically, the Speed Six consisted of a for the aircraft industry), and Brazilians Luis
Hawk Major airframe modified with a single and Ruth Fontes.
seat cockpit. Only three Speed Sixes were The Kings Cup was a Handicap race, in
ever made and the first, G-ACTE was in fact which the handicap for each aircraft was
officially titled the M2E Gipsy Six Hawk. Of based on its established performance, the
the three, G-ACTE and M2L G-ADGP initially relative performances graded to achieve a
featured fully enclosed cockpit canopies, handicap of delayed start time. Thus the
while M2U G-ADOD had only a forward lowest performance aircraft went first so
windscreen. All three started life with a 36ft that, theoretically, all aircraft arrived at the
span wing, comprising constant chord finish line together. Thus, pilot skill in best
centre section and tapered outer usage of the aircraft became a factor in who
panels. crossed the line first.
Mr Tommy Rose placed 2nd at the 1936
race, recording an average speed of 184.5
mph over the course in DOD, but gener-
ally, none of the Speed Sixes quite
managed to beat the Handicappers
To achieve the in any of the pre-WW2 races.
new shape, the Hawk Majors forward During 1936, G-ADOD was entered
cockpit was deleted to provide the neces- and flown by A.E. Clouston in the UK-
sary space for the installation of a 200 hp Johannesburg Race, but was severely dam-
D.H. Gipsy VI engine. G-ADOD was aged during a forced landing at Gwelo, near
equipped with the 220 hp Gipsy VI.R, a spe- Salisbury (Harare), Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
cial racing version of the Gipsy VI, originally and written off. This crash resulted from an
produced for the twin engined DH 88 oil pressure problem.
Comets used for the 1934 MacRobertson G-ACTE was sold in 1937 to the Spanish
UK-to-Australia air race. Republican army and nothing further is
known of it.
Meanwhile, in the quest for air racing per-
formance, by 1938 the wings on G-
ADGP were revised. The original wing cen-
tre section was replaced by a Miles M.5
Sparrowhawk type with the wings attached
directly to the fuselage resulting in a wing
span reduction to 28 ft.
The track of the main undercarriage on G-
ADGP had been widened in 1937 during the
latter stages of its original long wing peri-
od, but when the wing was shortened the
following year, the main undercarriage was
repositioned further out on the outer wing
panels to maintain the same track width.


Flying Scale Models 35
HAWK HISTORY Tony OK 25/1/12 11:59 Page 4

G-ADGP had better success in air races post


1 WW2. In 1946, the aircraft was recovered
from a Mews in London where it had been
stored and was refurbished to flying condi-
tion by Miles Aircraft at Reading. At that
point, the rear decking was re-styled, before
re-fitting the existing 1939 bubble cockpit
canopy. Air racing began again for G-ADGP in
June 1947 at the Isle of Man Air Races, where
Tommy Rose won the Manx Air Derby at 181
mph. After the collapse of Miles Aircraft, G-
ADGP was acquired by Mr. R.R.Paine,
Technical Director of Wolverhampton Aviation
Ltd., who again took the aircraft air racing,
taking 2nd place in the 1949 Kings Cup Air
Race at a speed of 184 mph and even faster
at 188.75 mph at Thruxton on August 21st
that year. Ron Paine then raced the aircraft
throughout the 1950s and 1960s.
2 Ron Paine sold the aircraft in 1965 and it
then passed through a number of owners,
spending much of its time with the
Shuttleworth Trust at Old Warden. In 1985 it
was sold and passed to the United States
1: The first example to fly was G-ACTE in 1934
and originally style the M2E Gipsy Six. Note
that the shape of the undercarriage trousers in
this picture differs from the others.

2: G-ADOD was the only one with an open cock-


pit. Colouring was cream overall, with red lettering.

3: G-ADGP showing the interim cockpit style


with which it was flown during its 1947 - 1972
period. Registration and fuselage stripe were
3 maroon, racing number white on black. Basic
finish was cream overall.

4: DGP posed pretilly in the winter morning


sunshine at home field, White Waltham,
Berkshire, home of the West London Aero Club.

5: Another post-WW2 study of G-ADGP, carrying


the racing number it used for the 1949 Kings
Cup Air Race.

6: DGP was also raced with the number 1 on


the rudder.

7: Cockpit instrument panel of G-ADGP.

36 Flying Scale Models


HAWK HISTORY Tony OK 25/1/12 12:00 Page 5

until purchased by American enthusiast Tom as Tom had decided to keep it in the UK. In in 1948. British Airways Concorde Captain
Buffaloe, who returned it the UK and had it 1999 Tom decide to sell G-ADGP, but find- Roger Mills stepped in and was fortunate
restored by Ron Souch of Aero Antiques to ing no buyer, he had it dismantled and put enough, with Ron Souchs help, to have the
its 1937 Kings Cup configuration albeit with on a ship bound for the USA aeroplane off loaded in Rotterdam and
the shortened wings of 1938. But at the eleventh hour G-ADGP passed returned to the UK.
It first flew after restoration in 1989 and to a man whose hankering for the aircraft And thats the story so far, of a truly ele-
again spent much of its time at Old Warden went way back to when he first saw it back gant historic racing aircraft.

6 7

Airframe construction
Like so many light aircraft of its era, the Miles Hawk Speed Six was of all-wood construc-
tion. The fuselage was based on four Spruce longerons, with spruce cross members and
plywood skinning.
The wings were typical of the Miles style with two-spar construction with spruce and ply-
wood ribs and ply covering. Miles type split trailing edge flaps were applied and wings
were equipped with two 20 Imperial gallon fuel tanks, one in each wing, close to the root.

Flying Scale Models 37


HAWK IN DETAIL REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 12:32 Page 2

2 3 5

38 Flying Scale Models


HAWK IN DETAIL REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 12:33 Page 3

O M
ZO THE
O N
IN TAIL
IN DETAIL
DE
MILES HAWK
SPEED 6
G-ADGP is the sole remaining Speed Six, bu the
detail shown here applies to the other two to a
greater or lesser extent.
Our grateful thanks to Caption Roger Miles for
making his pride and joy available for this photo
study.

1-5: The cockpit of G-AGDP


is a tight fit around the
pilot and even tighter,
when the cockpit canopy is
closed! The layout of the
instrument panel can be
found with the scale three-
views shown elsewhere in
this issue.

6: Although all of the


Speed Six series originally
had only tailskids, G-ADGP
was long ago modified to
take an alternative castor-
ing tailwheel to aid ground
handling. Tailskid can still
be substituted on DPG.

5 6


Flying Scale Models 39
HAWK IN DETAIL REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 12:34 Page 4

7 8 9

7-9: The engine cowl nose cap, showing the shape of the the air inlets. 10: The sliding ockpit canopy, viewed from the rear. Note the bubble fairing at the
rear of the canopy guide-rail. 11, 12 & 13: The cockpit windshield, showing the fuselage attachment points and the windshield rail. 14: A further view of
the cockpit canopy, emphasizing the slightly pointy top. The post-WW2 interim shape, prior to restoration, back to original, was more rounded and bul-
bous.

10
13

12

15

11

14

40 Flying Scale Models


HAWK IN DETAIL REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 12:35 Page 5

18

16 17

19 20

21

15 & 26: Two views of the wing flaps. showing


the torque rod drive. G-ADPG no longer has cen- 22 23
tre section flaps.

16: Nose section profile.

17 & 18: Engine cowl underside, showing the


exhaust stacks.

19: Air scoop on the engine cowl


side.
.
20: Air venturi,
right of fuselage
underside behind
the cowl rear.

21-23: One of the


wheel trousers,
also showing the shape
of the wheel hub.

24: The shape of


the thin metalpropeller.

26: The ailerons are mass-ballanced.


At neutral, the balance weight, on its stalk, is
inside the wing and protrudes only on the wing
underside when the ailerons are deflected.
Note the shaped orifice in the wing skin 24
underside.

25 26

Flying Scale Models 41


HAWK IN DETAIL REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 12:36 Page 6

28 29
27

30 31

27: Close-up of the instrument venture slung on the fuselage centre section underside. 28: One of the concave air exits just behind the engine cowl. 29: The
rear of the wing-to-fuselage fairing. 30: Anther view of the shallow wing-to-fuselage fairing. 31: Rear of the engine cowl, again revealing the concave air
exit vent. 32: Metal sheel fairing over the fin and tailplane junction, alao showing the elevator joiner. 33: Rudder mass balance. 34: Rudder horn and control
lead. 35: The complete tailcone showing the rudder control wire, tailwheel unit. Note that the shaped sheet metal runs round the tailplane underside too.

32 33 34

35
HAWK IN DETAIL REVISED Tony OK 25/1/12 12:37 Page 7

36 37

36: Tailplane/elevator hinge-line. Note that the gap is covered over with fabric. 37: More detail of the fuselage below the tailplane, showing the rudder
cable. 38: Fuel tank filler cap. 39 & 40: Two views of the fuel tank access panel at the left hand wing root leading edge. Right side similar. 41: Aileron hinge
line. Ailerons are top-surface hinged, with door-style hinges. 42: The pitot head, mounted on the right wing panel underside. 43: Rubber tread panel ont
he right hand wing panel next to the cockpit. 44: This wing sub-panel is actually a permanently fixed part of the wing and is a left-over from the time
when G-ADGP used the foldable wing panels from the twin seat Miles Hawk Major. 45: Fuel gauge, set in the upper wing skin, left hand wing.

38

39 40

42 43

41 44 45

Flying Scale Models 43


PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:10 Page 2

MASTER MODELS FEATURE by Mike Trew and Simon Delaney

PERCIVAL VEG
Just occasionally, a scale model comes along that defies superlatives. Mike Tre
those, here presented in this feature compiled and presented by Simon Delane
8 Flying Scale Models
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:10 Page 3

Background
I first came across the Vega Gull whilst visit-
ing the Vintage Aircraft Flying Weekend in
Mat 2003, at Kemble, the ex-RAF base that
once was home to the Red Arrows display
team when they flew Folland Gnats, and I
was immediately captivated by its clean
attractive lines.
I took numerous photographs and I
returned home to read up on the types his-
tory. I discovered that it was built by the
Percival Aircraft Company based at
Maidstone in Kent and it first appeared in
the air in 1935. It was one of the final ver-
sions of Percivals Gull series of civil aircraft
for private owners, developed from their first
aircraft in 1932. I also discovered that the
Vega Gull was named after a bird that
inhabits the north-eastern area of Asia and
is the equivalent to our herring gull.
Percivals aircraft were sturdy and robust,
but nevertheless economical and reliable,
powered the de Havilland Gypsy series of
engines. In 1934, one of their Gull series of
aircraft was piloted by Jean Batten and
reached Australia in less than five days.
Subsequently, a Mew Gull, piloted by Alex
Henshaw, made a record breaking return
flight to South Africa in 1939 in four and a
half days.
Researching the historical background is a
great part of scale modelling so, fired up
with this information, I contacted the owner
of the Vega i had photographed, who
advised me that it was the sole remaining
example of the ninety examples that had
been built. The Vega Gull design was subse-
quently adapted and developed to pro-
duce the more well-known Percival Proctor
which was used extensively for communica-
tions work during the war years, and of
which 154 examples were built.

GA GULL
Trews Vega Gull is certainly one of
aney Looking totally convincing on final approach.

Flying Scale Models 9
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:11 Page 4

Three-View
drawing
Spurred on by all this infor-
mation, I commenced to draw
up the plan in AutoCAD,
based on a simple three-view
drawing I had found in a mag-
azine and by analysing the
detail on the photographs. As
I wished to fly the model at
competition level, I ultimately
submitted the scale drawing
to the BMFA Scale Technical
Committee for their approval.
Bill Dennis kindly did the hon-
ours and after a few minor
tweaks, the three-view was in
a form were I could start on
the construction plan.
In recent years, wherever
possible, I have produced my
own scale drawing for
approval prior to commence-
ment of construction, which
provides reassurance that the
model will hopefully be con-
structed to as accurate a rep-
resentation as possible. I also
would add that I always pro-
duce my scale drawing to full
size and then I am easily able
to scale it down within the
AutoCAD programme to meet
several parameters. The first
question is: will it fit in my
car? It is no good building
your pride and joy if you are
unable to get it to the flying
site!
I decided the model needed
to be at a scale of 30% of full
size to enable it to have some
standing against other models
entered in the BMFA competi-
tions, that are increasingly
becoming larger and larger.
A close second requirement:
will the engine fit in the cowl?
This is where I hit a snag. I
was unable to find an engine
powerful enough to pull this
model around the sky that
could be totally enclosed. I
refused to contemplate any-
thing that left bits of non-scale
machinery visible on the out-
side.
At this point I abandoned the
development of the Vega Gull
and went off to build quarter
scale Focke-Wulf Stieglitz!
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:11 Page 5

PERCIVAL K.1
VEGA GULL
Scale 1:50
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:11 Page 6

1
2 3

O.S to the rescue discovered to my delight that it just fitted method that I have used for decades.
The drawing lay archived on my computer totally within the cowl of the model at the Primarily using balsa, with limited amount of
until the summer of 2007 when, browsing scale that I had chosen. Unfortunately there plywood and hardwood in high stress
the adverts in a model magazine, I noted was quite a considerable waiting list for this points, I also use spruce for wing spars and
that O.S. Engines had recently produced a engine, and not many were going to be pro- fibreglass mouldings for the cowl and spats.
30cc four cylinder. There were lots of tests duced. However, having been given a firm For ease of design, internal access and trans-
and positive discussion about this engine delivery date by the local model shop, I went portation of the model it was made in five
and it seemed that although a very expen- ahead with the construction drawing. separate components: the fuselage and cen-
sive purchase, it would probably be ideal for tre section of the wing - the centre section
the Vega Gull. I downloaded the technical Construction overview being permanently fixed to the fuselage; the
details of the engine from the internet and The model was to be built in the traditional two outer wing panels and the tailplane, fin
1: Wing tip under construction. 2: Wing panels ready for covering. 3: General view of the fuselage with the O.S four cylinder and custom mount in place.
4: Plenty of space for cockpit detail! 5:Although the model is big, you can see how lightly Mike builds. 6: The front end of the Vega under construction.
Balsa, ply, brass strip and fibreglass materials all in evidence. 7: Nice set of moulds made by Mike for the cowling parts. 8: Cowling pieces straight out
of the moulds. 9: Fibreglass parts ready to be fitted to the model. 10: One of the criteria Mike set was that the Vega must fit in his car for easy trans-
portation. 11: This is neat scale modelling! A scale exhaust system made up to the full-size design and location.

What a glorious colour scheme the Vega


Gull has. So evocative of the era!

12 Flying Scale Models


PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:12 Page 7

8
7

5
6

and rudder, which was fixed a composite wood facing to the inside face, back to the the remainder of the surfaces with the rear
unit. This method of assembly only required rear of the cabin, all other components of the spar set below the surface of the wing.
the connection of four servo leads and three fuselage were made from medium balsa. All the ribs were in balsa, with the excep-
small bolts on arrival at the flying site. The fuselage surface was constructed in the tion of those either side of the undercarriage
manner of the full-size which was typical for legs which were constructed in 1/8 ply-
Wings and fuselage the period, with sheeted external faces back wood. These were spanned by a pair of
The primary concern was designing the fuse- to the trailing edge of the wing and a sheet- beech spars to mount the proprietary offset
lage strong enough to take such a physically ed turtle deck aft of the cabin to the tailplane, oleo legs. These were secured, with a pair of
big and heavy engine. However, O.S provid- with the remainder open fabric covered. grub screws in a short length of steel tube
ed a bespoke mount with the engine so all The wings incorporated a main and rear which was then fixed to the additional beech
that was necessary was to make the Former spar in spruce with the spars to the aileron spars with brackets silver soldered on. These
F1 from 1/4 plywood and secure this to 1/4 hinge line in balsa. The surface features were oleo legs are very robust and have sufficient
x 1/4 spruce longerons, incorporating ply- represented in the model with balsa sheeting material to enable the fibreglass spats, which
wood gussets at the high stress points. The back to the main spar and fabric covering to were in two parts, back and front, to be fitted
longerons ran the entire length of the fuse-
lage and with the exception of 1/64 ply-
10

11
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:12 Page 8

12 13 14

15 16 17

12: The detail on the cabin frames is unbelievable! 13: Plenty of wiring to find a home for during test runs. 14: Beautiful work on the wing panels where these locate
to the centre section. 15: Super foot step detail. 16: The outer wing panel slides in on a single metal blade spar. 17: Inboard flap panel arrangement. 18: Rudder
servo just visible through the tailplane opening. 19: The elevator servo is set in the tailplane for short linkage and easy dismantling. 20: The tailplane and
fin/rudder are removable as a unit for transportation.

with self-tapping screws. The fin, rudder and made out of short lengths of brass tube sol- The full-size subject features a four-seat
tailplane were constructed in a similar man- dered alternately to a brass T-extrusion top almost fully glazed cabin and therefore it was
ner as the wings and Kavan style flap hinges and bottom and held together with a length necessary to represent all these features to
were used on all the moving flying surfaces. of 18 gauge piano wire to give the scale make the model look as lifelike as possible.
The model features flaps, as per the full size, affect. The piano wire could be easily 1mm acetate was used for the glazing, with
fitted to both the centre section and the outer removed to enable the side panel to be the curved panels very carefully curved using
wing panels. A servo was used for each pair, removed completely if necessary. a heat gun over a mould. The cabin glazing
linked by a 10 gauge brass tube with a 1/4 Home-made scale spring loaded fasteners was held in place with aluminium strips and
square brass tube end in the centre section. were fitted to secure the side panels and an shaped components all secured with screws
The latter connected to a 7/32 brass tube in arm was fitted to hold the side panel open and all replicated in the same material.
the outer panel with which to transmit the during access for filling and starting. The fuel The seat covers and head restraints, which
movement to the outer panel when the wing tank was fixed behind former F1 and the larg- were made by my wife Angela, were made
panels are connected. er-than-normal amount of wiring was neces- from cushion fabric with parallel rib stitching
sary in the engine bay to provide on-board to provide an air of realism. The interior also
Cowling and cabin construction glow to all four glow plugs, using a pair of included the multi-dialled and switch instru-
The cowl was gigantic to accept such a large Telco twin glow units, each with a 4.5Ah ment panel which was made using dial
engine, (a Gypsy six cylinder on the full size), Cyclon battery to provide the heat. The idea images downloaded from the manufacturers
and ideal to take the O.S. four-cylinder model was to start the engine using these glow units advertisements found on the internet. These
engine. This made it necessary to make the as used on single cylinder engines. However, were recessed in the panel behind a thin
cowl in five pieces: the front, top, bottom and but it was quickly established that this would piece of acetate to provide depth and realism
two sides, the latter which were hinged to not be sufficient and an external battery set- and the whole face finished in matt black. The
open, to gain access to the engine compart- up and jack plugged into the glow units was inside of the cabin was lined with felt to
ment. Unfortunately I could not find any needed to avoid unnecessary current loss match the seats and secured with contact
piano hinges of the scale size so these were during starting. adhesive to the plywood liner and a 1:3 scale

19

20

18

14 Flying Scale Models


PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:12 Page 9

Fantastic airshow pass showing exactly


what scale modelling as all about!

pilot to complete the effect. Air test zon. The flying judging is undertaken on
As always, I was somewhat apprehensive relaxed basis with six models in the air at
Paintwork with a new model, but I should not have any one time with none of the rigorous dis-
The model was covered in a layer of light- been concerned as it flew straight off the cipline of flying and scoring as carried out at
weight tissue, doped on and finished with a board with minimal adjustment necessary a BMFA event.
layer of silk which was applied over the tissue to the control surface throws and no adjust- The field adjacent is used by a syndicate
with wallpaper paste and doped to the final ment to the centre of gravity. I was very that operate a red and silver Miles Hawk
finish. In true scale manner, the rib and junc- pleased with the Gull, which had the correct two seat trainer and at the point of take-off
tion tapes were added using strips of gift sit in the air. The model took up a very slow and return all models have to be on the
wrapping paper, cut to shape using childrens scale speed and appeared satisfyingly real- ground for obvious safety reasons.
pinking scissors, secured with Balsaloc and a istic. Individual members of the club are tasked
final coat of dope to seal the tape edges. The I was intending to enter the Vega Gull in during the day with the responsibility to
model was decorated in cellulose car paint the F4C section of the National watch for the return of the full-size aircraft
and sealed with a coat of gloss fuel proofer. Championships at Barkston heath in 2008, and request all models to land.
The colour scheme was an attractive but unfortunately I broke one of the under- A call to land was requested whilst I was
maroon-and-silver for flying surfaces with carriage legs in a heavy landing at a compe- flying, and we all proceeded to descend and
white lettering edged in black on the fuselage tition immediately prior to the Nats event land. At this point the caller stated that the
and maroon lettering edged in white on the and I took another model instead. However full-size aircraft had promptly disappeared
wings. The only potentially difficult part of the the most pleasing footnote to this model from view. It was quickly established that
decoration was the manufacturers logo on was when I took it to the North Berks event the Vega Gull had been mistaken for the
the fin, but fortunately a photo had been in June of the following year. The North returning aircraft! It was this occurrence that
taken of this to enable a transfer to be made Berks flying site is one of the best around surely must have persuaded the judges to
on the computer. and offers a virtually 360 degree flat hori- award me with the trophy for first place!

The Classic 30s lines of the Vega are well


demonstrated in this shot.
Flying Scale Models 15
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:13 Page 10

FULL SIZE IN DETAIL

PERCIVAL VEGA
Pure 1930s elegance of line - no wonder Mike Trew selected it as a
subject for scale modelling
1 2 3

1: Tailcone, showing
the metal fairing bet
2: View from the rea ween fin an tailplane.
r shows the line of the
3: Rear fuselage, sho fus
wing access panels and elage.
4 & 5: The wheel spa tailwheel.
ts are closely tailore
wide wheels. 6: A vie d around the
w of the cockpit win
section. 7: Cockpit ins dow frame rear
trument panel showin
control columns. 8: Hea g the dual
d-on of the nose, sho
intake. 9: Panel detail wing air
of the engine cowl.
10: Nose underside,
showing the exhaus
11 -14: More details t pip es.
of the polished metal
frame. 15: Left side coc cockpit
kpit access door - full
upholstered on the ins y
ide. 16: Upper surfac
panel detail. 17: The e wing
shape of the wing-to
fairing. 18: Landing ligh -fus elage
t set into the wing lea
edge. 19: Wing leadin ding
g edge detail, showin
to-fuselage fairing and g wing-
fuel tank access pan
20: Outer wing flap pan el.
5 el on wing undersurfa
ce.
4

1
PERCIVAL VEGA GULL Tony OK 22/2/12 17:14 Page 11

A GULL
9 10 11

12 13

14 15

1 1 1 1

Flying Scale Models 17


HANRIOT SUB FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/2/12 10:19 Page 2

SUBJECTS FOR SCALE

Hanriot
Dupont H.D.1
One of the lesser known allied fighters of WW1, but
one that has strong appeal for modellers due to its
pleasing appearance and uncomplicated shape
lthough one of the drive their new toys! gun armament was somewhat

A lesser-known pio-
neer producers of
aeroplanes, the
Hanriot organisation
can be traced back to 1910. But
even before then, founder
Frenchman Rene Hanriot was a
Rene Hanriot must have very
quickly gained a good reputation
for, by 1911 the Hanriot
Monoplane Ltd company had
been established in London,
together with a flying school at
the Brooklands aviation and rac-
of a throw-back to the Nieuport
11 which was, by then,
superceded by such Germany
types as the Albatross D.II now
packing twin-gun firepower,
so that the Hanriot
design was
celebrated racer of Darracq cars ing car centre. bypassed in
and designed his first aircraft as Hanriot withdrew from the avi- favour of the
early as 1907. Others followed, ation scene in 1913, but by 1916, SPAD VII.
notable for super-slender fuse- re-established himself with a Yet the
lages and by 1912, Hanroit had new factory at Billancourt, for Hanriot
established a factory at Reims license production, in France of H.D.1 did
together with a flying school - Sopwith 1.1/2 Strutters. find favour
remember, most customers were Hanriot recruited the services with
well healed individuals attracted of aircraft designer Pierre Belgian
to aviation, but who need to be Dupont in early 1916, leading to pilots and
shown how the creation of the Hanriot H.D.1 the first
to - a neat and attractively shaped Belgian unit to
biplane fighter characterised by receive the type
distinct upper wing dihedral and was, fittingly,
substantially staggered lower No.1 Squadron,
wings. which began taking
French military pilots who delivery of examples in
tested the H.D.1 were August 1917. Top Belgian fight-
enthusiastic about its er pilot Willy Coppens, then a
exceptional maneuverabili- Warrant Officer, was immediate-
ty, but its single machine ly impressed by the excellent

This is the Hanriot H.D.1 on display in the Graham White Factory annex at the RAF Museum Hendon. It is known to have seen serv-
ice with the 1e Escrille de Chasse of the Belgian Aviation Militaire from 1917 during WW1. At one time, just prior to WW2, it was
briefly owned by Richard Shuttleworth of the Shuttleworth Collection, before the wrecked remains were restored in USA. The
(then) owner eventually donated it to the Hendon museum. (See full story on side panel overleaf.

28 Flying Scale Models


HANRIOT SUB FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/2/12 10:20 Page 3


Flying Scale Models 29
HANRIOT SUB FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/2/12 10:20 Page 4

This is the H.D.1 that French ace Charles


Nungesser took to USA for a Barnstoring
A PRESERVATION tour in 1924. It was afterwards used in the
Hollywood aviation movie Hells Angels
SAGA and eventually, post WW2, wound up
wirth Ed Maloneys Museum of Flight in
California.
ost really early aircraft survivors

M have a fascinating tale to tell -


perhaps not at all surprising in
view of their longevity and FSM is
indebted to Kevin Panter of the
Shuttleworth Collection for the following
story, and also to Andy Sephton who
made the enquiries.

H anriot HD1, serial number 75, was


built in 1917 by Societ Anonyme des
Appareils dAviation Hanriot at
Neuilly-Sur-Seine, Paris. It was deliv-
ered to the 1e Escadrille de Chasse
as HD-75. handling qualities and airframe strength, ,with 26 victories, flew the H.D.1 extensive-
This was the Belgian Air Forces as compared to the French Nieuport, ly, using non-standard two-gun armament
famous thistle squadron and it is which the H.D.1was intended to replace. in place of the standard single gun installa-
believed to have been flown for a Then, following an Italian Military tion. Probably the greatest exponent of this
time at the Western front. It was Mission to Paris, in November that year, aircraft was Frenchman Charles
retired by the Belgian Air Force as a the Italian Nieuport-Macchi Co. com- Nungesser, credited with a total of 45 vic-
front line fighter in 1928, but continued menced production of the type, supplying tories - and almost as many broken bones,
as a training machine until the 1930s. sufficient numbers that, by the end of the due to his numerous crashes!
It was sold as surplus to brothers, conflict in November 1918, some 130 His various personal aircraft were embla-
Andr, Paul and Jules Drossaert and examples of the H.D.1 were in service with zoned his coffin-and-candles identity
registered as OO-APJ; the registration the Italian squadrons. device on the fuselage sides. Whether he
reflecting the initials of the broth- Silvio Scaroni, one of flew the H.D.1 operationally cannot
ers. It subsequently passed on to Italys leading pilots be certain, but after WW1, he
Jaques Ledure who based the aircraft The Hanroit H.D.1
at Brussels, vre aerodrome and at presently on
one point the aircraft was used out- show in the Air
side a cinema to promote the WW1 Museum at
film Wings. There, it was seen by Dubendorf,
Richard Shuttleworth, who pur- Switzerland.
chased the aircraft in 1938.
Richard flew it back to UK but, after
arriving at Lympne Aerodrome, the Le
Rhne engine stopped and refused to
start again. It took two days to
resolve the problems before Richard
was able to fly the Hanriot to Old Hanroit
Warden. H.D.1 at the
A British civil registration was Italian Air Force
applied for and the registration G- Museum, Vign di
Valle, Rome.
AFDX was allocated to enable
Richard to take part in a
RoyalAeronautical Society Garden
Party at Heathrow. After this dis-
play, the Hanriot was overhauled at
Old Warden before taking part in fur-
ther garden parties.
In 1939, Richard Shuttleworth
displayed the Hanriot at a
Brooklands Garden Party; unfortu-
nately, during his return from the dis-
play, a wheel fell off the aircraft
after taking off from Brooklands.
Despite a warning telephone call to
Old Warden and Richards family try-
ing to warn him of the danger by
spelling out words on the aero-
drome with tablecloths, Richard
attempted to land the Hanriot nor-
mally and it was very badly damaged
in the ensuing crash. The wings needed
extensive repairs and Richard sent
these to Brooklands to be repaired.
WW2 broke out before the work was
completed and the wings were
destroyed during an air raid on
Brooklands.
After the war, the aircraft was
sold to a collector, Marvin Hand, in
America who completed the restora-
tion and presented the Hanriot to the
RAF Museum at Hendon where it can
still be seen today. It has since been
completely restored to its original
1e Escadrille colours. One of the Swiss Hanroit H.D.1s during its military
service days, post 1921.

30 Flying Scale Models


HANRIOT SUB FOR SCALE Tony OK 24/2/12 10:20 Page 5

One of the 12 Hanriot


H.D.1s that entered
miltary service with
Switzerland from
1921.

An example of the Hanriot H.D.1 built by


the Nieuport-Macchi Co. in Italy, for serv-
ice with the Italian Air Service. Post WW1,
when the Regia Aeronautica was formed
in 1925, a few H.D.1s were still on charge.

took one example to U.S.A. (no. 5934) in 1924 Sopwith incorporated - not surprisingly, in one at the Museo del Volo, in Turin, Italy .
for a barnstorming exhibition tour, still bear- view of Hanriots license production of
ing his notorious fuselage insignia. Sopwith Strutters. Colour schemes
Later, after Nungesser (and Collis) unsuc- Wings were heavily staggered, built on two Belgian aircraft were camouflaged on the top
cessful non-stop trans-Atlantic crossing, the spars, internally braced with cross-wires and and vertical surfaces (Including the engine
aircraft passed through several ownerships, steel tube compression members. cowl and metal access panels in large shad-
appeared in several aviation movies, includ- The basic fuselage was of box girder con- ow shading patches of dark green and khaki,
ing the celebrated Silent epic Hells Angels. struction with curved upper deck plywood with cream or very pale blue undersurfaces.
Despite all this, the machine survived, to skin over rounded formers - typical of the Roundels of near to full chord in red, yellow
wind up in the ownership of Californian air- period. Curved metal side panels faired the and black were applied to wing upper sur-
craft restorer and air museum operator Ed. radial cowl into the flat fuselage sides faces, while none were applied to the fuse-
Maloney. Post WW1, the Hanriot H.D.1 soldiered on lage; the rudder was equally divided, vertical-
Although, during its time in service, the with both Belgian and Italian Air Arms and ly, in red, yellow and black portions with the
H.D.1 was quite a useful fighter, it was nor- was still on the strength of both in 1926. red next to the rudder post.
mally armed with only a single machine-gun, A floatplane version was designated H.D.2, Italian Hanriots were uncamouflaged, the
at a time when most of its contemparies and and operated by U.S.Navy forces at a few finish being a creamy shade of clear-doped
opponents had adopted the classic, twin-gun coastal stations in France after USA entered linen fabric; metal panels and cowling were
armament. Initially at least, the gun was WW1. Subsequently, some of these found usually polished. Green, white and red
offset from centre while the gun- their was back Stateside, to be converted to roundels were carried on the wing tips and
sight was positioned on the fuse- landplane configuration and used for training fuselage sides; the rudder was divided (verti-
lage centre-line and was thus purposes, while one at least was used to fly cally) into equal-width red, white and green
not completely harmonised off from a gun turret mounted platform on divisions, with re foremost.
with the gun line-of-fire. the battleship USS Mississippi during 1919. U.S.A built examples has battleship grey
Later, this gun installation Switzerland acquired sixteen H.D.1s in 1921, fuselages, aluminum wings and tail. Red
was repositioned on the while one example found its way to Ecuador (outer)/blue (inner)/white (centre) roundels
centerline, although the and three to Paraguay. were applied to the wings only, placed
standard armament of one inboard of the ailerons. Rudder stripes of
gun remained. Where to see one now? equal width were applied with red foremost,
Twin-gun armament was As featured In Detail elsewhere in this issue, the white and blue. A large serial was carried
applied to some examples of the Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon has a on the fuselage sides.
the H.D.1, but these were the ini- superbly restored example, eminently view-
tiative by individual pilots, to aug- able at ground level (NOT hung up like a plas-
ment firepower, but sacrificing service tic kit!). It can be seen any day of the week. SPECIFICATION
ceiling and climb rate - a debatable trade-off! The Belgian Musee Royal de lArmee et Wing span (upper): 28 ft. 6.5ins
The H.D.1 was a typical fighter product of its Histoire militaire in Brussels MAY still have Wing span (Lower): 24 ft. 3.5 ins.
time with a wooden airframe with conven- H.D.1 no.78 hung up.
Length: 19 ft. 1.875 ins
tional fabric covering. Good structural design In Switzerland, the Dubendorf Air Museum
Upper wing dihedral: 4.45 degrees.
imparted a strong and reasonably light struc- definitely have one on show and illustrated
ture, with much of the airframe style of on their excellent web site, while there is also

Want to build one?


The only decent model weve ever seen of the
Hanriot H.D.1 was the one designed by the late
Peter Neate, who flew it in competition with
considerable success during the early 1970s.
Petes model was built to a scale of 1:4.75. It
had a wingspan of 72 (1829mm) and used a
.60 size engine since, back then, such was the
maximum engine capacity allowed for National
and International Scale competitions.
The design was published in Radio Modeller
April 1972 issue and the plans are still avail-
able in the X-List range of myHobbystore
(www.myhobbystore.co.uk), plan no. RM95
price 17.50.
It was a good, accurate model and flew
extremely well.

Flying Scale Models 31


HANRIOT SCALE DRAWING TONY OK 22/2/12 09:44 Page 2

Scale 1:40
HANRIOT SCALE DRAWING TONY OK 22/2/12 09:45 Page 3
HANRIOT COLOURS Tony OK 22/2/12 09:32 Page 2
HANRIOT COLOURS Tony OK 22/2/12 09:32 Page 3
HANRIOT IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/2/12 10:23 Page 2

1 2

36 Flying Scale Models


HANRIOT IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/2/12 10:23 Page 3

O M
ZO THE
O N
IN TAIL
DE
IN DETAIL

HANRIOT
HD 1
A close-up study of the Hanriot H.D.1 on dis-
play in the R.A.F Museum, Hendons Graham
White Hangar annex.
With much thanks for their kind co-operation.

1: View of the lower engine


3 cowl showing the shape of 5
the air intake holes.

2: Detail of the propeller


boss.

3: This view reveals the lip


at the rear edge of the
4 engine cowl. Opposite side
similar.

4: The slightly scimitar


shape of the propeller.

5: Interplane struts and


rigging.


Flying Scale Models 37
HANRIOT IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/2/12 10:24 Page 4

6: Wing upper surface, showing the aileron control


horn, with brace wire to the trailing edge and con-
trol wire forward.

7: Upper wing underside showing the aileron con-


trol wire.

8: Aileron control cable exits upwards from lower


wing access panel.

9 & 10: Two views showing the metal braced cock-


pit windshield.

11: Another view of the cockpit area.

12: The single machine gun that was standard


armament of the Hanriot H.D.1. This one is centre-
lime mounted. On early examples, it was offset to
the left.
6

7 8

9 10

11

12

38 Flying Scale Models


HANRIOT IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/2/12 10:26 Page 5

13

14 15 16

13: General view of the


forward fuselage. 17 18
14: Fuselage access panel,
just behind the engine
cowl.
15: Wing root detail,
showing the anchor point
for bracing wires that run
from the top outer wing
strut.
16: Rear fuselage lifting
handle, positioned
forward of the tailplane.
17 & 18: Two views of the
cabane assembly, viewed
from front three-quarter.
19: Cabane again, viewed
from rear.
20: Cabane assembly, also
revealing the lip on the
cowl rear edge and the
narrow space between the
wing halves on the
centre-line.

19 20

Flying Scale Models 39


HANRIOT IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/2/12 10:26 Page 6

21 22 23

21 & 22: Two views


24 25 showing one of the
pressed metal shoes
that seat and locate the
interplane strut.

23: Lower anchor points


for the outer wing
interplane struts, also
showing the bracing
wires and turnbuckles.

24: Outside face of main


undercarriage wheel.

25: Bungee cord shock


absorber, bound
around the
undercarriage axle.

26: Anchor points for


the main undercarriage
struts.

27: Inside face of the


undercarriage
26 27 mainwheel, also
showing the bungee
card shock absorber.

28: Configuration of the


complete main
undercarriage.

28
HANRIOT IN DETAIL Tony OK 22/2/12 10:28 Page 7

29 30 31

32 33 34

35 36

29: The complete tailcone. Note the space between the fin and tailplane. 30: Bracing wire anchor point on the tailplane upper surface. 31: Rudder, showing
the bracing wire from the control horn to the rudder trailing edge. 32: Rudder control horn close-up. 33: Tailplane underside bracing strut. 34: Tailplane
underside bracing wire. 35: Detail of one of the interplane strut locating shoes. 36: Same view, showing the access panel in the upper wing lower surface.
37: Detail of the instrument venturi (upper left outer wing) close to the leading edge. 38: Another view of the control wire run to the upper wing aileron.
39: Lower wing/ fuselage. 40: Another view showing the centre-line cap between the upper wing panels

37 40

38 39

Flying Scale Models 41


BOXKITE 1 REVISED Tony OK 24/4/12 12:11 Page 2

The French Military

A SCALE CHALLENGE by Gary Sunderland


were quick to latch on
to the likely eventual
value of aviation in
warfare. Here one of
the first Farman IIIs
with the extended-
span upper wing is
being readied for flight.

because the French pronunciation

The Boxkite of both is ON-REE as distinct from


the English EN-ER-REE.
The boys raced bicycles, then
automobiles until Henry had a bad
accident. He and Maurice then

Project
turned their attention to flying
machines

The pilot
Henry ordered a Deleagrange type
Voisin with a 50 HP Antoinette
engine on June 1st 1907 and on
September 30th managed a short
hop, followed on 7th October 1907
Gary Sunderland commences a multi-part feature on by a 30 metre flight, thus making
him the first British Subject in the
the project that culminated in an R/C Scale Bristol British Empire to fly a powered,
heavier-than-air aircraft ... or aero-
Boxkite - but not before thorough study and research plane.
This Voisin was then subject to a
into those early, turn-of-the-century flying machines number of modifications, to fit a
monoplane elevator in place of the
that are, today ,as much a challenge to scale original biplane unit, plus other
changes until it resembled what
modellers as the originals were, way back then! became the standard 1908 type
Voisin.
PART 1: mother. With his two brothers, From the beginning, this proto-
Henry and his Boxkites Maurice and Dick (Richard?) he was type aeroplane bore a tail fin
Recent First Flight commemora- brought up in Paris, where his marked HENRI FARMAN No.1, sig-
tions in Europe seem to have neg- father was the Paris correspondent nifying not only that the Voisin
lected or ignored the most signifi- for the `Tribune. brothers thought him to be French,
cant and, at the time, the most He spoke French like a native and but that the machine was built to
famous British pioneer pilot and English with a distinct French his specification - or ideas (Note
constructor. Henry Harman set fly- accent. However, he was a British 1).
ing records in France and UK and subject and finished his education Finally, the machine was altered
his boxkite design was widely in England. He remained a British to remove the side-curtains from
copied and manufactured in France, Subject until 1937, when he became the wings, which were rigged to
Britain and Russia, a French Citizen (Ref.1). His grave- provide some dihedral, but still
stone in Paris is inscribed Henry without ailerons or any effective
The man Farman. (Ref.2). Many references means of roll control.
Henry Farman was born 26th May record his name with the French On January 13th 1908, Henry
1874 to a British father and a French spelling of Henrii, possibly coaxed No.1 into the air to fly

16 Flying Scale Models


BOXKITE 1 REVISED Tony OK 24/4/12 12:11 Page 3

around two markers or flags set one kilome- in 3 hours and 15 minutes. This, and later design standards.
tre apart for the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize. examples of the FARMAN III had dispensed Another advantage of the cell structure was
This entailed a very wide circuit of flat turns, with the tail fins and they now had one, two that if one or even two wires broke, which
with a landing back at the start - an actual dis- and sometimes three rudders. The emphasis often occurred for all sorts of reasons, the cell
tance flown of many kilometres, and received now was on control rather than stability. would still remain intact, with the load re-dis-
the 50,000 francs prize. This was the first com- The next flying meeting was at Blackpool in tributed among the remaining wires. So the
pleted circuit flown in Europe, although there England in windy conditions and Henry won Voisin/Farman structure was rigid and redun-
were reports from USA that the Wright broth- most of the major prizes, with a flight of 47 dant, unlike that of the Wrights and
ers were already flying circuits. miles in 1 Hour and 32 minutes (Ref.3). Other Antoinettes that were disconcertingly flexible.
During this period, brother Maurice was FARMAN III pilots were also doing well and at (Ref.4).
also flying Voisins and the Brothers were Doncaster, Roger Sommer won the cup with Farman discarded the side curtains, but
awarded French Aero Club Certificates num- a distance of 30 miles in 45 minutes. retained the single fabric covering on the
bers 16 and 17. (Note 2). Henry Farman then Toward the end of 1909, Henry Farman set UNDERSIDE of the wings only, indicating that
established a factory to manufacture aero- two more World Records at Charlons in neither Voisin nor Farman knew how lift was
planes to his own ideas. The first two were France, with a distance of 234 km (145 miles) generated. The fabric was nailed on under-
curious tractor machines that did not fly. in 4 hours and 17 minutes, being records for neath the ribs and spars and then fabric pock-
This all changed when, on August 8th 1908, distance and duration, set in a standard Henry ets were sewn over the top. Thus, the under-
Wilbur Wright catapulted into the air at the Le Farman III aeroplane powered by a 50 HP sides of the wings were smooth and the ribs,
Mans racetrack, flew a quick circuit in 1 Gnome engine. particularly the large compression ribs at the
minute, 45 seconds and landed. He flew again By now, just watching aeroplanes fly was no strut locations protruded above. (Note 3).
at Hunaudiers for 50 minutes, then from the longer a novelty and the emphasis changed The engine, usually a 50 HP Gnome rotary
military ground at Camp dAuvours for a to distance flying. The first off once again, was bolted to the rear of the lower wing cen-
world record duration of 1 hour, 31 minutes was Henry Farman with a flight from Bony to tre section, with the copper fuel and oil tanks
and then two passenger flights of an hour. Reims for a distance 0f 27 km. This had been in the centre and the pilots seat at the leading
Finally, on December 30th that year, Wilbur back in October 1909 and the next day Bleriot edge. The controls were relatively modern
flew a closed circuit distance around markers managed to fly from Toury to Artenay and in featuring a rudder bar and a very long sin-
2.2 km apart for 56 laps completjng a nominal return, with several forced landings along the gle control column or joystick as it came to
distance of 123 km, although the actual dis- way for a total distance of 28 km. be known later in WW1.
tance flown was much greater. The Daily Mail newspaper offered a 10,000 Unfortunately, there was no balance cable
This won Wilbur the Michelin Cup. A 10,000 prize for the first pilot to fly between London to the ailerons and the four hung down when
Francs prize and the admiration of all France and Manchester. In April 1910 this was turned the machine was at rest. This would have
and Europe. into a spectacular race between Frenchman made lateral control impossible at low
It was back to the drawing board for Henry Louis Paulham and Briton Claude Grahame- speeds, but none of the pilots seem to have
Farman and the result the famous Farman III White, both flying Farman III aeroplanes. complained, including the modern-day test
aeroplane. This retained the rugged Voisin During this aerial contest, Henry Farman pro- and film pilots flying the replica.
structure of the wings, but Henry deleted the vided technical support and advice, following Perhaps control in roll was so bad that they
heavy nacelle and undercarriage. The pilot the contestants by train. hardly noticed! Rudder control was probably
now sat exposed upon the lower wing lead- The gallant Grahame-Whites take-off in the the main means of turning and various
ing edge and the Wright type front elevator dark is often reported as the first night flight, arrangements are evident in photographs of
was mounted on a light frame, with landing but Henry Farman had previously flown at Henry Farmans. Some were fitted with 100
skid undercarriage underneath, to which night during one of his duration records. The HP Gnomes, which might explain why some
wheels were applied. French pilot won, with a time of 12 hours and had three rudders.
Henry added four ailerons, with twin rud- the Henry Farman III was firmly established Actually, low speed is a relative term, given
ders and an additional rear elevator. This, first as the preferred aeroplane for duration flying. that the Boxkites slowest speed was 30 mph,
of the new Farmans was fitted with a 50 HP while the best climb speed was 42 mph. With
Vivinus V-8 engine, and the Voisin-like tail fins The Farman III aeroplane the 50 HP Gnome engine, it tends to swing to
were clearly marked HENRY FARMAN No. III, Farman copied the Voisin wing box structure, the right, the opposite of tractor configuration
H. FARMAN CONSTRUCTEUR. Four Henry with the biplane wings formed of wood spars, aeroplanes such as the Bleriot with the same
Farman IIIs were entered in the August 1909 struts and ribs cross-braced with piano wire. engine. In the air, the Boxkite would just climb
Great International Aviation Week at Rheims, This cell structure was light, strong and rigid. in straight flight, but any turn would decrease
Henry flying his machine with the prototype When Miles Aircraft built a replica for the film this climb to zero or cause the aeroplane to
50 HP Gnome engine. This proved a winning Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying sink. Circuits were usually flown at 300 feet
combination and Henry won both the dis- Machines, the engineers found that the struc- above ground, or less. Turns to the right were
tance and duration vents, with 180 km flown ture met most of the current, post-WW2 normal, but left turns sometimes resulted in

These two views show one of the very earliest Farman IIIs
with the equi-span upper and lower wings in action at one
of the early aviation meetings in Europe, where Henry
Farman achieved considerable success.


Flying Scale Models 17
BOXKITE 1 REVISED Tony OK 24/4/12 12:12 Page 4

A Farman III undergoing Military Trials. Note the annotion


H.FARMAN CONSTRUCTEUR on the rudder.

much loss of height. Often, it was better


to fly a 270-degree right turn rather than
to attempt a 90-degree left!
The centre of gravity, or balance point
of the Boxkite was about mid-chord. The
Miles replica was flown at a C of G about
51 percent wing chord. With such an aft
leading edge and with the large forward
elevator, the aeroplane was very unsta-
ble in pitch (Note 4). To control the aero-
plane, the pilot concentrated on main-
taining attitude in pitch by reference to
the foreplane position on the horizon. A
piece of string nearby was used to indi-
cate any slip, or sideways airflow.
By accurate flying, the pilot could keep
the aeroplane attitude within safe limits,
but accurate flying within safe limits,

HENRY but accurate flying was also necessary


to obtain any sort of climb perform-

FARMAN
ance.
Instruments were usually not fitted,
except for the oil pulsator, a glass
III tube that enabled the pilot to see that
the castor oil was flowing to the rotary
engine. The lubrication was a total-loss
system, where a large percentage of
caster oil was injected into the
crankcase petrol-and-air mixture and
passed through the cylinders and into

Scale
1:100

The fragile nature of the airframe of this Farman is well illustrated here. Note the drooping ailerons.

18 Flying Scale Models


BOXKITE 1 REVISED Tony OK 24/4/12 12:12 Page 5

the exhaust. design. Among these there were the Voisin


The main undercarriage consisted of four Brothers and their 1911 Type Militaire.
carriage wheels, mounted in pairs on two Roger Sommer, who set a new World record NOTES:
short axles, sprung with rubber shock cords of 2 hrs, 27 mins. In a Henry Farman III on
to the main skids. In the event of a wheel August 7th 1909 went on to develop and NOTE 1: John T.C. Moore-Brabazon
failure, a reasonably common occurrence manufacture his own boxkite design. In the became the second British Subject to fly
when, on December 1908, he flew a stan-
from a number of causes, the landing loads spring of 1910, there were 50 Sommer aero- dard Voisin at Issy-les-Moulineaux in Frame.
would transfer to the main skids, usually planes on order. Brabazon subsequently made the first flight
without any damage to the basic airframe. In UK, the Short Brothers abandoned their in UK with his second Voisin, name Bird of
This workmanlike compromise, between the development of the Wright design and Passage on May 1st 1909. Afterwards,
skids of the Wright machine and the wheeled copied the Farman as their Type C.27. This Brabazon became Secretary of the Royal
undercarriage favoured by the French pio- was subsequently modified to increase the Aero Club and awarded himself the R Ae C
neers, was suited to training schools and wingspan, but with the extensions braced Certificate No.1, thereafter advertising the
explains why the Farman III aeroplanes were with struts and several were built for the event with his Rolls Royce number plate
bearing the registration FLY 1!
very soon widely adopted by the many clubs Admiralty (Ref.7). Henry Farman seems to have been written
and commercial schools being set up all over The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd out of British aviation history on the basis
Europe. (Bristol) built their first Boxkite in July 1910. that he became a French citizen. This
This development led, in turn, to another This appears to be a close copy of the Henry change of nationality came well after the
modification to the Henry Harman III, with a Farman III, right down to bad features such events described.
lightweight seat being installed immediately as drooping ailerons and fabric covering only
behind the pilots seat. Here a pupil or on the underside of the wings. The only NOTE 2: These early Certificates were
instructor could sit behind the pilot, with one noticeable variation occurred with the Bristol awarded in the period before tests were
required by the Aeroclub de France. Not to
leg either side. This arrangement only made Military Boxkite of 1911, where the wing be confused with civilian pilot licences,
up to some extent for the lack of any dual extensions were strut-braced, as on the which were later only introduced after the
controls. Seat belts were not usually avail- Short S.27 development. Chicago Convention on Civil Aviation in
able or installed at the time. The Bristol Boxkite was a relative success 1919.
and 76 were built, mainly for civilian flying
Military developments schools (Ref.8). Of these, the Russian Military NOTE 3: Miles Aircraft reversed this
French military observers attended the Great purchased a total of nine, while six went to arrangement slightly and covered the tops of
Rheims Air Meeting and in September 1909 the British Army, six to the Admiralty and the wings with fabric, so that only the main
compression ribs protruded. Even so, the
the French Parliament voted funds for the one to the Australian Army (Note 6). drag of the Magnificent Men replica was
purchase of two Henry Farman IIIs, two The Dux Factory in Russia obtained enormous and a 90 HP engine was required
Wright Model As and one Bleriot XI for the licences for the manufacture of Farman aero- to drive is through the air.
Sapper Corps (Balloon Unit). Soon after, the planes and the Henry Harman III was in serv-
Artillery ordered six two seat Antoinettes and ice as an ab-initio trainer as late as 1918 NOTE 4: Greg McLure has a radio con-
two Farmans. (Ref.6). (Reg.9). trolled scale model of a Boxkite flying in
This latter led to the development of anoth- Western Australia and reports that he experi-
er variation to the basic Henry Farman III, the Aftermath enced many problems flying it, with the
model balanced at 30% chord, but by adding
upper wing span being extended with a Despite this initial success, the Boxkites were lead to the front, the stability is much
removable section of the wing and aileron soon superseded by better aeroplanes. improved and the model is now more con-
on each side, the extra span and wing area Maurice Farman joined his brother is design- trollable in pitch.
being sufficient to restore the aeroplanes ing new types and the Maurice Farman MF 7
rate of climb with an artillery observer on Longhorn set new records for duration, 13 NOTE 5: These upper wing extensions
board. The span extensions were cabane hrs, 22 mins. And distance (350 miles) in were cabane braced with wires to a triangu-
braced from upper wing pylons that was 1912,. It became the standard military trainer lar pylon above. Cabane bracing-wire struc-
also removable (Note 5). in the early WW1 period, although obsolete. tures are named from the Spanish word for
cabin, or an A-frame, typical of mono-
In September 1910, aeroplanes took part in Even the Wright Brothers had abandoned the planes or biplane tip extensions; nothing to
the Army manoeuvres and their use was canard surface with their Model B of 1911. do with biplane centre section struts as com-
proved a great success. A substantial new The next generation of military aeroplanes monly, and incorrectly, used nowadays!
order for twenty Bleriots and an equal num- were the nacelle pusher types, as established
ber of the Henry Farman III resulted, with by the Henry Farman HF 20 and the Maurice NOTE 6: The Russian Military order, ini-
seven of the Farmans being two-seaters. Farman MF 11 Shorthorn. tially for eight Bristol Boxkites, has been
This large order and the subsequent organi- Both types played an important part in the claimed to be the the first .....placed by any
sation of the Air Service, the Aeronautique early years of WW1 and saw active service government for a quantity of aeroplanes.
The larger French orders for Farmans and
Militaire, founded on October 22nd 1910, led with all the Allied nations. In Britain, G. Holt Bleriots occurred the year before, so the
other Nations to consider the formation of Thomas form the Aircraft Manufacturing Russian purchase could only have been the
similar air forces. Company in 1912 and built Farman trainers first such British order.
during the War until these were superseded
Copies and clones by De Havilland designs. REFERENCES:
The remarkable success of Henry Farman In Australia, the CFS at Point Cook used the
and the simple boxkite soon led other indi- Boxkites and Farman MF 11 Shorthorns 1. Charles Gibbs-Smith; Early Fling
viduals and manufacturers to copy the throughout WW1 as ab-initio trainers. Machines 1799-1909. Eyre Methuen, London
1975. ISBN 413 33020 6
2. Leonard E. Opdycke; French Aeroplanes
Before the Great War. Schiffer Publishing
Ltd, 1999. ISBN 0 904811 14 X
3. R.Dallas Brett; History of British Aviation.
Air Research Publications 1988. ISBN 0
904811 14 X
4. Allen H.Wheeler; Building aeroplanes for
Those Magnificent Men. G.T.Foulis & Co.
Ltd. 1964
5. Neil Williams; The Bristol Boxkite; Ed.
David Ogilvy - From Bleriot to Spitfire. Airlife
Publishing Ltd, 1991. ISBN 1 85310 231 8
6. Andre Van Haute; Pictorial History of the
French Air Force - Vol 1, 1909-1940. Ian Allan
Ltd, 1974. ISBN 0 7110 0473 0
7. Peter Lewis; British Aircraft 1809-1914.
Putnam 1962
8. J.M.Bruce; British Aeroplanes 1914-18.
Putnam 1957. ISBN 370 00038 2
9. H J Nowarra & G.R.Duval; Russian Civil
and Military Aircraft 1884-1969. Fountain
Press 1971. ISBN 0852 42460 4
10. Grover Leoning; Monoplanes and
Biplanes. Munn & Co., N.Y. 1911

Flying Scale Models 19


BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK 23/4/12 09:19 Page 2

INDOOR FREE FLIGHT SCALE

Brewsters
Flying Barrel
THE FINAL BUILD OF RICHARD CROSSLEYS
1/18TH SCALE RUBBER DRIVEN FREE FLIGHT
PART 2
Undercarriage Make the wheels from foam or all three together. You should now
If you intend to fly your model out- laminated balsa discs and sand to be able to wrap the wood around
doors, you may wish to ignore this shape. Note that the retainer is the former, using pins to hold it in
section and build it with the gear recessed and a balsa cover gives a place. Repeat for the left and right
retracted. streamlined invisible fixing. Drill tail outlines and once dry, build up
Using thin-nose pliers, bend the and bush with aluminium tube. the structure as noted on the plan.
1mm dia. wire components to shape The wheels are held in place with On my model I thickened the sec-
using the plan as a guide. The inner plastic coating striped from thin tion of the fin and tailplane, using
legs are made up from one piece of electrical flex before the stream- taper shaped ribs and spars.
wire; start bending from the wheel lined cover is fixed in place (see Before building, I packed up the
end and work your way up - you will plan sheet 3 for details). laminated outlines clear of the
need to slip the two sections of alu- plan to ensure a symmetrical sec-
minium torque tube on the wire as Tail surfaces tion - see plan. Once complete,
you progress. This design uses laminated balsa carefully sand the tails. Cover the
Next, bend the outer sections, slip- outlines. The main benefit of lami- tails, making sure that the grain of
ping into place the tube before you nated parts is strength with light the tissue runs spanwise.
make the final bend at the top. weight. Surprisingly, these are
Ensure that you make a left hand and also quicker and easier to make Cockpit canopy
a right hand leg. Bind and solder the than using cut sheet outlines. You can either choose to mould
three sections together. Lets build the fin first: cut three the canopy, or make it up from flat
Mount the undercarriage into the strips, 1/16 wide from a piece of acetate. A moulded one looks bet-
model, epoxying the aluminium 1/32 sheet balsa (these need to be ter, but is more difficult. I moulded
tubes to the wing plates (you will long enough to go around the my canopy using the plunge
have to remove a section of tissue entire fin outline excluding the method: make a balsa mould using ca
from below the wing, and patch in base). Whilst these are soaking in the top, side and front views on th
later). Note that the assembly also water for 10 minutes, cut out the the plan and sand to a very st
epoxies to the rear of F1A. Thicken former from balsa or mount board, smooth finish. Cut the plug up into ty
the gear legs with sanded scrap which needs to be the same size canopy sections, and mount the so
balsa and use thin strips of paper as the inner line of the fin outline. plugs on sticks, then plunge ho
around the balsa to replicate the Wax the edges of the former and through some preheated acetate pa
oleos etc. Use soft balsa block for the pin it to the building board. Dab that has been stapled across a cut eg
square sectioned outer legs and the strips of wood dry and apply out aperture about 1/8 bigger all un
fashion the doors from thin card. white glue between them, sticking round than the top view of the I

The Royal Nvay Fleet Air Arm received Buffaloes. This one operated by 711 Squadron for trials in early 1941.

28 Flying Scale Models


BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK 23/4/12 09:19 Page 3

canopy. You must make sure acetate version, make up two


that the material you have will laminated formers (see sections square.
stretch well with heat - some A and B); these formers will be Any gaps
types of clear plastics will not unobtrusive, and you can glue must be faired
soften enough. If in doubt, get the clear sheet to them. over with doped-on
hold of some clear vac-form tissue strips. Add cockpit
packaging i.e. the stuff Easter Final assembly details such as the roll cage
eggs come in and heat it up Fix the tailcone components to and seat backrest from scrap
until it melts back to flat. your model, taking extra care balsa and card. Paint the inside
If you try a simpler sheet that everything is true and of the cockpit with cockpit Make
green paint. up the nose
A dummy engine will make a plug as shown
big difference to the realism of on the plan. Use a
your model and details are wire shaft that matches
shown on the plan. Note also perfectly the hole in the bear-
the exhaust stubs, cowl panels, ing. I bend an S hook on my
gun troughs etc - there are shafts as this stops the rubber
colour schemes presented with motor wobbling on the hook.
this feature, but If you can get a The front of the prop-shaft
copy of the Squadron/Signal should be bent over at 90
book F2A Buffalo in action, it degrees so that it engages in
also has good colour refer- the freewheel at the front of the
ences, three-views and photo- propeller (I used an 8 Peck
graphs. The aerial is cut from prop on my model). The nose
1/64 ply and mounted off-cen- plug should be a tight fit into its
tre to starboard on the cowl aperture. Drill out the hole in
top. the peg support to take the alu-
RAAF No.453 Squadron Buffalo 1 based at Singapore December 1941.

Flying Scale Models 29
BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK 23/4/12 09:19 Page 8

minium tube that retains the


rubber motor. Make up a
rubber motor from 1/8 or
3/16 flat rubber forming
two loops, 22 long.
The ventral window was
often painted over on the
Buffalo. You can cut the
frame from paper and paste
to the underside of the
model. Once doped, you can
cut out wrinkles and add tis-
sue panels - these will not
notice if you intend to paint
your model.
Brewster B-239 variant of the Finish Air Force, 1943. Aircraft of Lt. Hans Wind, top scorer with 38 1/2 victories.
Colour schemes
The RAF Buffalo Mk1 (or
Model 339E) was camou-
flaged with Dark Earth and
Dark Green on top with
Sky undersides at the
Brewster factory. These
colours varied slightly from
the official RAF colours, in
particular the Sky tone was
more like a pale blue, closer
to the German Hellblau.
When the Buffaloes arrived
at Singapore in mid-1941,
the port half of the under-
sides were painted matt
black and a sky band (cor-
Brewster B-239 variant of the Finish Air Force, 1944. rect RAF colour) was applied
to the rear fuselage.
References to National
insignia are shown on the
plan. The British model 339E
was very similar to the US
Navy F2A-2, the Dutch 339D
and the Belgian 339B, so
there are plenty of other
colour schemes to choose
from. My model was air-
brushed with Humbrol
enamel paints, using cellu-
lose spirit to thin them. I
find a cheap external mix
airbrush best for these larg-
er models.
Another Brewster B-239 variant of the Finish Air Force, late 1941 -personal aircraft of Lt. Jorma Sarvanto. Flying
Balance the model before
you attempt to fly it. Due to
the forward position of the
rear motor peg you should
not need to add too much
weight to the nose.

U.S. Navy Brewster F2A-1 of VF-3, aboard USS Lexington late 1940.

U.S. Navy Brewster F2A-2 of VF-2, also aboard USS Lexington late 1940.

30 Flying Scale Models


BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK
23/4/12
09:19
Page 7

or readers looking to building Richard Crossleys Brewster Buffalo (for which Part 1 and accompanying 1st two sheet s of the plan appeared in the May issue),
we have a laser-cut component pack available. As emphasised before, these cut-part sets provide ready-cut pieces of all the bits that you would otherwise have
F to trace out onto the balsa or plywood sheets before knifing them out, thus saving a fair bit of tedious time, so that the airframe assembly process can start
immediately. The parts sets do NOT include strip and sheet wood that you can get from your friendly model shop.

The parts set costs 80.00 plus 9.50 for carriage in UK. Sets can be supplied to overseas customers, with carriage costs quoted on an individual destination basis.
Order direct from Key Publishing Ltd, PO Box 100, Stamford, Lincolnshire, PE9 1XQ, U.K. (Tel: 0178 480404)
BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK 23/4/12 09:19 Page 4
BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK 23/4/12 09:19 Page 5
BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK 23/4/12 09:19 Page 6
BREWSTER BUFFALO PART 2 TONY OK 23/4/12 09:20 Page 9

The tailplane has a slight section. Note the hollowed light balsa block tail I used blue Floormate foam for the prominent tailwheel. The core is thin
cone. wire and details are from card and balsa.

Here is the bent and soldered undercarriage wire. note the alluminium tube Here is the gear wire temporarily in place. I have not yet installed the gear
slid into place that acts as torque tubes. Use thin fuse wire to bind the join- mount plates in the wings. Note also on my model the ply reinforcement
ing parts. plate on the rear of former F1A is not deep enough. Use epoxy resin to glue
the tubes in place.

Lubricate the motor, wind find that as the power adding some right-thrust. Full descent on the glide.
on a few turns by hand and increases, the model tries to power can only be achieved The Buffalo makes up into a
launch into any breeze. The loop or stall in the climb. If by stretch-winding the motor lovely looking model, one of
model should achieve a sta- this happens try a little down- using a geared winder. Aim my all-time favourites, I hope
ble powered-glide. If all looks thrust. Any tendency to spiral for a climbing left hand turn, you enjoy building and flying
good, then gradually increase to the left under the torque of after which, the model may yours.
the amount of turns. You may the motor can be offset by well reverse into a right hand

U.S. Marine Corps Brewster F2A-3 of VMF-221, based at Eastern Island, Midway, Central Pacitic, June 1942.

Flying Scale Models 35


FOKKER DVIII PARTS BOX 23/4/12 09:27 Page 2

FULL SIZE FREE PLAN by Peter Rake & Simon Uglow

Low passes for the camera are simple with this stable, predictable little model.

36 Flying Scale Models


FOKKER DVIII PARTS BOX 23/4/12 09:27 Page 3

Fokker D.VIII
A 1/8 scale electric powered model designed by Peter Rake with the prototype
model built and described by Simon Uglow
he Reinhold Platz designed cation - the Idflieg (German Air Command) of your average family car. With excellent

T Flying Razor, as it was nick-


named by allied pilots, arrived
too late to have much impact
on the outcome of the air bat-
tles of World War One. Originally designat-
ed E.V (thats E.5), a series of fatal wing
failures saw the parasol monoplane fighter
ordered resumed production. Redesignated
the D.VIII the Flying Razor went on to
claim the last aerial victory of the Great
War. A total of 289 E.Vs were manufactured
from an initial order of 400 machines.

The model
flying characteristics, this may just be the
perfect electric scale park flyer.
Designed to use either three or four func-
tion controls, depending on which wing
you build, I obtained a set of laser cut parts
and construction was commenced on the
three function version.
temporarily withdrawn from service. After Peters model is to 1/8th scale, giving a (Since this model was designed some
the problem was rectified - main spars hav- wingspan of 42. At this size, the fully time ago, I have updated the plan to show
ing been found not to be to design specifi- assembled model fits nicely into the back the option of a brushless, bell style out-


Flying Scale Models 37
FOKKER DVIII PARTS BOX 23/4/12 09:27 Page 4

runner motor in addition to the original


brushed set-up. It simply requires a rectan-
gular 1/8 ply firewall and spacers. This
more closely resembles the arrangement
Simon used. PR)

Tail surfaces
The tail feathers are quickly built over the
plan from strip, the rudder receiving a lami-
nated outline, of three strips of 1/16 x 1/8
balsa, formed around a foam board tem-
plate. Laminating in this way produces a
very strong but also light structure.
Eminently suited to curves, the rudder as
here, or wing and tail plane tips are easy to
produce, so dont be afraid at giving this
technique a go. Foam board is ideal for
producing the template. Take care to not
cut to the full rudder size, but 3/16 under
to allow for the balsa thickness.
Protect the edges of the template with 1 2
Sellotape and pin securely to your building
board with cling film beneath. Pre-cut your piece of brass tube, securely boxed in on Returning to the fuselage: take the oppor-
balsa strips and allow to soak thoroughly. F1b. With the fuselage attachment points tunity to paint the false cockpit floor (not
You may use ammonia (purchased as fixed, the wing attachment point can be sol- shown on the plan) and detail the cockpit
Cloudy Ammonia from the cleaning section dered in situ. to taste whilst you still have ready access.
of your local supermarket) added to the Whilst youre in the swing of things, you The top decking is now added in two
water if you wish, but beware the smell and may as well shape the rear wing strut and pieces: from the firewall to the rear of the
the irritant effect to eyes and nose. This is undercarriage. These items are each sewn cockpit (foremost D1 to rearmost D1) and
especially noticeable if you use hot water to further ply plates in the fuselage bottom, from here to the front of the tailplane seat
for the soaking. but only after covering. Using measure- (D2 to the 1/8 square at the front of the
Once nicely pliable, run each strip ments taken from the plan, a simple jig was tailplane).
through a saucer of PVA glue to coat thor- constructed at one end of the building When dry, the cockpit aperture can be
oughly. Now take your three strips, stack board and the undercarriage legs soft sol- marked and cut. Simplified gun troughs
them and then, starting at one end, work dered together. This same jig was used to were also cut to later accept a pair of 1/8th
your way around the template pinning as hold the undercarriage legs for mounting scale Spandau guns, purchased from
you go. The laminates will slide over one the undercarriage wing and piano wire Wright Brothers Aviation. These are
another at this stage allowing for their dif- axle. delightful additions to this model. A combi-
ferent curve radii. I like to use a small strip
of shim brass as a fence outside the lami-
nates to help apply even pressure and pre-
vent the pin indentations otherwise caused.
This detaches easily once all is dry.
Several days are best here. Ply control
horns are let into the control surfaces after
covering, to allow hooking up to the closed
loop controls. (The plan shows pushrod
operation, but closed loop is a simple
upgrade. PR)

Fuselage
The fuselage follows Peters preferred and
well proven construction method: a forward
fuselage box, mated to a stick built rear
fuselage.
The rear fuselage is the standard build;
two sides over the plan joined with these
sides pinned directly over the plan. Cut the
uprights for both sides when building the
first and you are almost guaranteed two
identical sides. Similarly so the cross
pieces. Cut two of each, fitting the lower
(pinned and therefore fixed) stations using
the second between the top longerons for
absolute squareness.
With the forward fuselage largely self-jig-
ging using the precision of the laser cut
parts, a few strategically placed supports
allow this to be glued in one sitting. This is
again accomplished over the plan view, on
the building board, to ensure accuracy.
Once joined to the rear fuselage, a series of
sub formers are added to accept the rolled
balsa top decking and develop the fuselage
shape.
Prior to adding the top sheeting, the cen-
tre section struts need forming. All the strut
lengths are accurately shown and using
1/16 piano wire the bending work isnt too
arduous. The two upper struts are sewn
and epoxied to 1/8 ply mounting plates.
The lower strut is made a free fit into a

Pretty as a picture, the model shows off the intricately applied finish and vinyl graphics.

38 Flying Scale Models


FOKKER DVIII PARTS BOX 23/4/12 09:27 Page 5

3 4

nation of laser cut balsa, thin card for the The cowl fixing was addressed at this constructed from three pieces, sets the
perforated cooling jackets and plastic rod, time using the now commonplace dihedral and wing taper. As such, the wing
they assemble quickly and paint up well neodymium magnets. These are recessed spars are different for the aileron equipped
into light, but convincing facsimiles. into the rear of C2 and the front of F1B. and non-aileron wings. The laser cut parts
A separate cowl, formed from laser cut Glue all magnets at the same time with a include the necessary pieces for either
laminations of 1/8 balsa and ply with piece of waxed paper between. This spar. The wing centre section is construct-
1/32 ply wrapping, is next. Use balsa ensures both correct polarity and accurate ed first, followed sequentially by the outer
stand-offs to set the distance between C1 alignment. This completes the basic fuse- panels, packing the unsupported structure
and C2 before adding the ply wrap. To aid lage as required.
this last step I soaked my ply overnight in a No washout is included, so each section
water/ammonia mix and then taped and Wing is built flat over the plan making for a quick
rubber banded the ply to an appropriate The last major assembly to tackle is the and easy assembly. All the ribs are delight-
sized coffee tin to pre-form the curve. This wing. Here you are offered a choice, for fully cut with the option of cutting lighten-
was left to dry for about ten days, (Easter three and four function models are shown. ing holes. These double as servo wire runs
intervened) and made the job of attaching Both are built as a single piece, albeit as for the aileron-equipped wing. You will be
the ply so much easier! three distinct panels. The single spar, itself required to construct the ailerons, modify-

1: Probably the hardest part of building the tail surfaces involves laminating the rudder outline.
2: The totally traditional rear fuselage begins with building side frames over the plan. 3: Once
joined with cross braces the sides make a strong, but lightweight box structure. 4: The forward
box structure that ties together all the heavy items the model will require.

CUT PARTS SET AVAILABLE


or readers wishing to build Peter Rakes Fokker D.VIII, we

F have a laser-cut component pack available. We empha-


sise that these cut-part sets provide ready-cut pieces of
all the bits that you would otherwise have to trace out onto the
balsa or plywood sheets before knifing them out, thus saving a fair
bit of tedious time, so that the airframe assembly process can start
immediately. The parts sets do NOT include strip and sheet wood
that you can get from your friendly model shop.
The parts set costs 75.00 plus 9.50 for carriage in UK. Sets can
be supplied to overseas customers, with carriage costs quoted
on an individual destination basis.
Order direct from Key Publishing Ltd, PO Box 100,
Stamford, Lincolnshire, PE9 1XQ, U.K.
(Tel: 0178 480404)

Flying Scale Models 39


FOKKER DVIII PARTS BOX 23/4/12 09:27 Page 6

The simple ing the appropriate wing ribs, as a com-


modifica- mon set of ribs is used for either wing. My
tion Simon version is the three-function model.
made to fit
a brushless
motor. Installation & assembly
With all the basic structure completed, now
is a good time to start the radio installation
and mount the motor. My chosen power
plant was an AXI 2212/34 running an 11x5.5
inch APC-E prop from a 2s 2150mAh LiPo. A
Jeti 18 amp speed control and two Topaz
9gm servos completed the electronics. The
plan itself doesnt show any details for
mounting, but shows the location of a simi-
lar power motor.
As stated, I chose to add a false floor onto
which I glued my pilot. The floor underside
doubled as a mount for the receiver and
speed control and acted to support the bot-
tom of the servos. The servos themselves
are mounted to conventional spruce rails.
Silicon sealant was used to attach all these
items. Two hatches in the fuselage under-
side achieve access to the radio. The for-
ward hatch is used for battery changes.
Despite the undercarriage appearing to be
in the way, battery changes are fuss-free
with the model supported inverted.
Drilling of the wing mounting blocks is
now required. To accomplish this, support
the wing inverted on a flat surface. I used
some foam wedges that accommodated the
wing profile and dihedral. Now lower the
fuselage onto the wing, again supporting as
necessary. Check and double-check the
key alignments before marking
where the strut attachment
points locate. Allow any
RIGHT: slight discrepancy here
Despite the when comparing one
compact side to the other as
size of the long as the wing-to-
model, fuselage and wing-to-
there is
ample space
alignments are accu-
in the rate.
avionics Once satisfied that
bay. all is well, remove

Although seen here with the aileron wing option (Simon built both wings) the little DVIII shows off the uncomplicated structure.

40 Flying Scale Models


FOKKER DVIII PARTS BOX 23/4/12 09:28 Page 7

Although seen drifting sedately overhead, the model is capable of far more spirited flight
performance - even on just three channels.
the fuselage and drill the stripes, with Tamiyas excellent kabuki Flying
mounting blocks slightly out- masking tape, then spraying semi-gloss Balanced as per the plan, 1/8 in front of
board of the strut positions. black enamel. the spar, the morning of the maiden
Use your choice of screw Now for the tricky bits: The fuselage dawned calm and generally bright. Taking
to cut a thread, remove received a base covering of cream litespan off is a thing of beauty! The model lifts its
and reinforce the hole for all but the dark green (Litespan) forward tail early, then holds that configuration
with thin cyano. Thin panel. Each fuselage side requires three until you actively ease back on the eleva-
brass straps were fabri- panels to accommodate the centre section tor. In flight the model is stable and per-
cated to clamp the struts (c/s) struts. Aerodrome RC kindly provide a fectly controllable with the three func-
to the mounting blocks series of downloadable lozenge patterns in tions. Some control authority was lost
at final assembly. various scales. The appropriate 1/8th scale with reduced throttle, but this was with
pattern was glued to a piece of thin ply low rates. Power was adequate for
Covering & finishing and the individual lozenges cut gentle flying and for the close-
I had always intended to out as templates. Each in slow passes required for
depict one of the naval lozenge on the model is the photos, which show
bumblebee schemes on this actually a piece of doped the model off to its best
model. After being suitably tissue, cut using these advantage.
chastised on RC Groups: with templates; definitely a On landing, use
accusations of wimping out and case of it taking throttle to control
tongue-in-cheek comments of lozenge longer to do than to the descent rate.
was the only scheme used on the full size, describe - twenty Touch down with a
I succumbed to pressure and chose a five hours plus, for little power on,
scheme with just enough lozenge to satisfy. the fuselage and hold up elevator
As a bonus though, the scheme sported a undercarriage wing. and roll out to a
very attractive yellow cowl, yellow wheel A few customised full stop.
covers and a striped horizontal tail. The lozenges were The power draw
deciding factor for this scheme was required to account for with the listed setup
undoubtedly the snake motif. This ran slight errors in cutting is very modest. There
almost the full length of the fuselage sides. and positioning, but is room to experiment
With a picture of the finished model now overall the fit was excel- (up to an 11x8 pro-
forming in my mind, I just had to find a lent. Graphics were custom peller on 3s) if you desire a
way of reproducing the scheme. cut by Callie Graphics. more spirited flight envelope.
Easy parts first: The cowl is simply Scale detailing proceeded, with the fit- Indeed later flights with a 1500mAh
sprayed using chrome silver as a base coat. ting of the Spandau guns and a dummy 3s, pack, but sticking with the original
This enables some rubbing back of the yel- motor, scratch built from items to hand: propeller have proven this point with no
low topcoat to simulate wear. Canopy glue 5ml syringes, suture material (guess the apparent loss in duration. Loops, stall
rivets, applied with the hypodermic-like day job!) tape, piano wire and the bottom turns and barrel rolls are now easily
nozzle from a bottle of Superphatic and of a small bottle. An acetate windscreen accomplished. (Unfortunately, Simons
syringe prior to painting add to the effect. with piano wire frame and a real leather flying proved a little too spirited for the
The scored card wheel covers are also cockpit combing applied over a spilt length relatively soft balsa spar supplied with
painted. One wheel inspection panel was of vinyl tube were added. The tubing here the laser cut parts - it failed mid-flight.
left open with false piano wire spokes glued creates depth to the combing and simulates Since I thought you probably wouldnt
behind to add a little interest. The wing is the padding of the full size machine. want to include this scale feature on
covered with dark green Litespan and brush The undercarriage legs and struts were your model, I have upgraded the parts to
painted with thinned olive green oil paint. faired with a strip of 1/16 balsa, tissue cov- bass. PR)
Both the horizontal and vertical tails are ered and painted. Weathering followed with If you only build one model this year,
covered with white Litespan. The tail strip- a combination of oil paint washes and make sure its this Fokker DVIII, shes a
ing is achieved by masking off the white powdered pigments. honey!

Flying Scale Models 41


FOKKER TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 24/4/12 12:26 Page 2

Lt. Theo Osterkamp, the Commanding Officer of


Marinefeldjagdstaffel 2 in relaxed mode with his
Fokker E.V serial 156/18.
(Photo from the Harry Woodman Collection)
FOKKER TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 24/4/12 12:26 Page 3

TYPE HISTORY

Fokker E.V &


D.VIII
Did the entirely avoidabl
e
with this late WW1 fight problems initially experienced
er
development by more th set back monoplane fighter
an a decade?

B
ack in 1914-18, his day, an extraordi
the active in- nary pilots had been killed
aircraft designer. Alt due to
service lifetime hough wing failures.
he had no knowledg
of WW1 combat e of Initial official investiga
aerodynamics, no res
aircraft could facilities to fall back
earch tions blamed these fail -
often be measured in on at ures
Fokkers Schwerin hea on deformation under
months only, before d- heavy
obso- quarters and not eve in-flight wing loads,
lescence set in as mi n made but fur-
litary aware of the existence ther more practical exa
hierarchy, aircraft des of mi-
igners official technical public nat ion rev ealed appallingly
and manufacturers on a- po
bo or standards of construc-
sides of the conflict str th tions, he was in many
of his tion that included the
ove ideas ahead of his tim use of
to achieve or maintain e. He unseasoned wood and
supe- was a welder by trade, per-
riority of combat per ish
form- skilled in metalwork ed glu e. But even more
ance over the aircraft but dam
of the nevertheless achieved ning discoveries were
enemy. Lives depend out- found. To expand his
ed standing success as manu-
upon it! a facturing capability,
On the German side, designer of wooden Fokker
the wings. had , In 191
latest in a succession Yet he worked in the 6, acquired the
of shad- former Perina Pianofor
competitions for the ow of Antony Fokker te
supply and Fabrik Company where
of fighters, in early 191 seems to have tolera the
8, led ted his facilities were turned
to the selection of the employers explicit cla over
ims of to air fra me
Fokker D.VII, the bes all credit for the aircra construction,
t of a ft that including wings for the
number of machines Platz had designed.
, all of When the January 191 Fokker E.V. Examinat
which were required 8 ion of
to use competition was run E.V wings off that pro
the 160/180 hp Merce off, it duc-
des was leading pilots fro tio n line rev ealed that these
engine. m the had
Jagdstaffeln in the wa no t been made with
The D.VII went into r proper jigs; that that
immediate productio zones who did the com pins to
n, but par a- hold the surface win
the German High Co tive testing and who g skins
mmand were had bee n
were fully aware of ho the arbiters of which so carelessly ham-
w design mered in that the pin
quickly the performa would be selected as s
nce of the missed the rib cap str
a new aircraft could follow-on fighter. Th ips
be eir underneath; that the
eclipsed and immedia short-list whittled do depths
tely wn the of the spa
decided to float a fur choice to the Dornier r flanges had been
ther D1, planed down from the
fighter design compet Seimens Schuckert and des-
ition, Fokker V26/V28. Finally ign ated 13mm to just
the requirements of , the 7.5mm in order to slo
which Fokker design was sel t spars
were circularised am ected, into the structure.
ong the receiving the official
manufacturers, includ desig- No
ing nation E.V (E for t surprisingly, Fokker
Albatros, Dornier, Ko received the rocket
ndor, Eindecker). of his
LVG, Pfalz, Roland, Ru life from the
mp
Seimens-Schuckert and ler, The production order
Flu
required 400 machines gze ug me isterei responsi-
Fokker. , the ble for the investigatio
At the latter compan first 20 being delivered n,
y, in wh ich even recommend
Designer Reinhold Pla July 1918. Jagdstaffel
tz had 6 wa s criminal proceedings
in hand a number of the first unit to get the
experi- ir against him.
mental parasol mono hands on the new fig
plane hter, With Reinhold Platz
configuration design receiving six in early now
s, V26. Au gu st, responsible for manag
V27 and V28. Platz wa but before the end e-
s, in of the month, three of ment of the Perzina Wo
their rks,
Immediate improvem
ent in
FOKKER TYPE HISTORY Tony OK 24/4/12 12:26 Page 4

quality control and adherence to