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Apply hazard identification and risk

assessment procedures in the workplace


US 17602

Training and Assessment Resource

Level 3
Credits 4

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Electricity Supply Industry Training Organisation www.esito.org.nz
Contents
Introduction to Training Assessment Resource 3
Glossary 4
Introduction to Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Procedures in the Workplace 6

1.0 Workplace Sources of Harm........................................................................................................... 7


1.1 The primary objective of the H&SE Act............................................................................................... 7
1.2 Duties of employers .......................................................................................................................... 8
1.3 Duties of employees ......................................................................................................................... 9
1.4 Employee participation ..................................................................................................................... 9

2. 0 Hazard Management ...................................................................................................................... 10


2.1 Employer duties to hazard control...................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Employee duties to hazard control...................................................................................................... 10
2.3 New Hazard....................................................................................................................................... 11

3.0 Hazard Management ...................................................................................................................... 12

4.0 The Hazard Control Process ........................................................................................................... 17


4.1 Methods of hazard control................................................................................................................. 17
4.2 Hazard control hierarchy..................................................................................................................... 17

5.0 Hazard Review / Monitoring........................................................................................................... 19


5.1 Hazard monitoring tools..................................................................................................................... 19

6.0 Hazard Reporting............................................................................................................................ 20


6.1 Hazard recording............................................................................................................................... 20
6.2 Accident registers and hazard registers............................................................................................. 21
6.3 Five steps of hazard assessment........................................................................................................ 23
6.4 Risk assessment rating tables............................................................................................................ 24

7.0 Workplace Sources of Harm................................................................................................................... 26


7.1 Machinery........................................................................................................................................... 26
7.2 Manual handling................................................................................................................................. 26
7.3 Workplace conditions......................................................................................................................... 27
7.4 Chemical hazards............................................................................................................................... 27

8.0 Environmental Sources of Harm....................................................................................................... 28


8.1 Physical damage................................................................................................................................. 28
8.2 Air pollution......................................................................................................................................... 29
8.3 Water pollution.................................................................................................................................... 30
8.4 Land pollution..................................................................................................................................... 31
8.5 Noise pollution.................................................................................................................................... 32
8.6 Overuse of resources.......................................................................................................................... 33

Answers to Activities 34

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Getting started on the ESITO Training
& Assessment Resources

Activity: A written or spoken exercise or assignment.

Keypoint: Important information to remember.

Introduction to Training Assessment


Resource
This Training Assessment Resource (TAR) contains the information that you require to complete the written assignment
in the assessment pack for this unit standard.

Purpose

People who obtain credit for this unit standard are able to:

Describe hazards that may harm workers, the work environment, and organisations

Explain health and safety requirements for hazard control

Describe hazard control methods and identify hazards and apply risk assessment procedures

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 3 of 41


Glossary
This glossary is a list of common terms used in Health and Safety in Employment legislation. It relates to the Health and
Safety in Employment Act 1992.

When I see this word It means

Accident An event that causes any person to be harmed, or in different circumstances might
have caused any person to be harmed.

Acute pain Short term severe pain, rapid onset.

All Practical Steps All steps to achieve a result that is reasonably practicable, in the circumstances
and having regard to:

Consequence: the nature and severity of harm that may be suffered

Risk: current knowledge about the likelihood of harm that will be suffered

Research and Development available, taking into consideration the current


state of knowledge about harm that could be suffered

Technology and current means available to achieve a desired effect

Cost benefits and availability of those means

What a person ought to reasonably know

Chronic Long lasting and recurrent; characterised by long suffering.

Contractor A person engaged not as an employee; to do any work for gain or reward.

Employee A person employed by any other person to do any work for hire or reward; other
than residential work.

Employer A person who employs any other person to do any work for hire or reward.

Harm Illness, injury or both; includes physical or mental harm caused by work
related stress.

Hazard Means an activity, arrangement, circumstance, event, occurrence, phenomenon,


process, situation, or substance (whether arising or caused, within or outside a
place of work) that is an actual or potential cause or source of harm.
Includes where a persons behaviour may be an actual or potential cause or
source of harm.

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Serious Harm Death or severe injuries:

Any condition that amounts to or results in permanent loss of bodily function,
or temporary severe loss of bodily function.

Amputation of body part.



Burns requiring referral to a specialist registered medical practitioner or
specialist outpatient clinic.

Loss of consciousness through the lack of oxygen. Loss of consciousness, or


acute illness requiring treatment by a registered medical practitioner, from
absorption, inhalation or ingestion of any substance.

Any harm that causes the person harmed to be hospitalised for a period of 48
hours commencing within 7 days of the harms occurrence.

Significant Hazard Means a hazard that is an actual or potential cause or source of serious harm.
Harm (more than trivial harm) that depends on the extent or frequency
of exposure. Harm that does not usually occur, or usually is not easily detectable,
until a significant time after exposure to the hazard.

Abbreviations

PPE Personal Protective Equipment



OOS Occupational Overuse Syndrome

RSI Repetitive Stress Injury

SOP Standard Operating Procedure

SDS Safety Data Sheets

VDU Visual Display Unit

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 5 of 41


Introduction to Hazard Identification
and Risk Assessment Procedures in
the Workplace
Employers are required by law to have an effective hazard management system in place (sections 7 10, Health and
Safety in Employment Act 1992). Employers in every workplace have a General Duty of Care responsibility under
the Act.

Employees are required by law to ensure that no action or inaction causes harm to any other person while at work.
Employees have a duty to ensure that safety procedures are carried out to company requirements. Employees must
also actively identify and report hazards within their workplace.

Hazard management must be applied to existing and new work areas, equipment, plant and tasks.
Hazard management includes:

Identification of hazards in the workplace

Assessment to determine the level of significance

Implementation of appropriate control strategies

Ongoing monitoring of controls to ensure controls remain appropriate and that they are being implemented

Regular reviews of hazard registers and the hazard management process

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1.0 The Act
1.1 The primary objective of the Health & Safety in
Employment Act 1992
The main aim of the Health and Safety in Employment Act is to promote the prevention of harm to employees and others
in a place of work, or in the vicinity of a workplace. This is achieved by a range of principles which include:

Promoting systematic management of hazards

Defining hazards and harm comprehensively

Imposing duties on persons

Taking All Practicable Steps to ensure health and safety

The employer has the responsibility to control, influence and ensure the objectives of the Act are met. Employers and
Employees have a responsibility to comply with the Acts requirements including:

Regulations

Codes of Practice

Employers safety policies and procedures

Employees and those engaged by employers (e.g.contractors) must ensure that their actions or inactions
at work do not harm others including members of the public.

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1.2 Duties of employers
Employers have a general duty to take all practicable steps to ensure the safety of employees at work. They must
ensure that effective hazard management systems are in place to protect the health, safety and wellbeing of staff,
visitors and contractors.

In particular, they are required to take all practicable steps to:

Provide and maintain a safe working environment; and

Provide and maintain facilities for the safety and health of employees at work; and

Ensure that machinery and equipment in the place of work is designed, made, set up and maintained to be safe
for employees; and

Ensure that employees are not exposed to hazards in the course of their work; and

Develop procedures to deal with emergencies that may arise while employees are at work

Employers have a responsibility to employees for providing information on:

Emergency situations and procedures (e.g. fire, chemical spill, gas leaks, live electricity and accidents)

Identified hazards in the workplace and controls to minimise likelihood of harm from the hazards

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), safety equipment and materials

Using plant correctly and safely to reduce the risk of creating hazards

Working with chemical or hazardous substances safely

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1.3 Duties of employees
The Act requires every employee to take all practicable steps to ensure:

Their own safety at work including using suitable protective clothing and suitable protective equipment
provided by the employer or, suitable protective clothing supplied by the employee himself or herself; and

That no action or inaction of their own while at work, causes harm to any other person

1.4 Employee participation


Employees are often in the best position to identify hazards in the workplace. The Act provides for participation
of employees in processes relating to Health and Safety in the workplace. Employers making decisions that affect
employees, their work and workplace health and safety must consult with employees.

Employee safety representatives are charged with fostering positive health and safety management practices and
encouraging identification and reporting of hazards. Employee safety representatives, after receiving approved training,
may issue an employer a hazard notice. When a hazard notice is issued by a trained Health and Safety Representative,
(done in consultation with the Department of Labour Workplace Safety Inspectors) it can be seen as the written warning
required prior to issuing an infringement notice to the employer.

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2.0 Hazard Management
Workplace safety requires effective identification, assessment and control of significant workplace hazards.
The Hazard Management steps are:

1. Identification of hazards

2. Determination of their significance

3. Control of significant hazards by Elimination, Isolation or Minimisation

4. Training and advising staff of the control measures in place

A Hazard Management system contains:

1. A systematic process for identifying existing hazards in the workplace

2. A systematic process for identifying new hazards in the workplace

3. A process to review hazards to determine their significance and adequacy of control

4. A systematic process to ensure that the selected controls in place are not only adequate but the controls are in
keeping with industry standards

2.1 Employer duties to hazard control


Employers have a duty to identify and control hazards and ensuring that there are effective methods for:

Systematically identifying existing hazards to employees at work

Identifying new hazards (if possible, before they arise) to employees while they are at work

Regularly assessing each hazard identified, and determining whether or not it is a significant hazard

2.2 Employee duties to hazard control


New hazards identified by an employee should be reported to their workmates and supervisor immediately

Employees should be involved in implementing new controls, and ensuring that new hazards are entered into the
hazard register

Employees should be involved when decisions that affect their workplace safety are made

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2.3 New hazards
The identification of new hazards is an ongoing function and is the responsibility of all managers and staff. New hazards
should be reported as they occur or are identified, and they should be controlled without delay.
New hazards arise:

With the introduction or employment of new equipment, chemicals or materials within the workplace

When a change is made to the structure or design of the workplace

When a change is made to work processes and functions



When first establishing a hazard management system or register

When taking up residence in new premises

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 11 of 41


3.0 Hazard Identification Procedures
Several procedures are used to identify hazards. You will be familiar with some of these by being involved in tail gate
meetings and other hazard management processes within your workplace.

Some of the procedures used to identify hazards and the method of control are explained below. Several procedures
may be used in any one hazard identification situation. For example when performing a Task Analysis, What If might also
be used. Questions such as What if the pole is not stable? might be asked when analysing the task of working on a
power supply structure. Each of the procedures listed below may be used one with another; however each is a valid
procedure (method) in the identification of hazards.

Documentation and Reporting An employee has a responsibility to report unsafe acts or conditions to their supervisor
e.g. workers not following correct procedures or not using correct tools/equipment for the task. Employees must ensure
that company processes are followed so that new hazards may be recorded and controlled and potential hazards are
managed.

Task Analysis Also known as Job Safety Analysis (JSA) Job Hazard Analysis (JHA). This procedure involves
identifying each basic step of a job and the potential hazards involved to recommend the safest way to do the job
and control the hazards.

What if Analyses A review of a process and analysis of what could possibly go wrong and the consequences
of the hazards.

Accident and Incident Investigations These are used to review trends and to identify possible regular
occurrences or events. Near miss, incident reporting and investigation allows identification and control of hazards
before they cause a more serious incident. As a general rule, investigations should be conducted for:

All injuries (even the very minor ones)

All accidents with potential for injury

Property and/or product damage situations

All Near Misses where there was potential for serious injury

Fault Tree Analysis The fault tree method involves creation of a fault tree diagram comprised of basic events
that represent the logical description of a system failure. They start with one basic event and follows possible
events through to an end consequence. For example: the basic event may be that a driver lost control of a vehicle
in traffic. If this was followed through to its conclusion the consequence might be serious injury or death.

Behaviour Analysis - Focuses specifically on the analysis and modification of work environments to reduce
injuries and promote the safe behaviour of employees. Behaviour-based safety focuses on changing the behaviour
of employees so that injuries are reduced and safe performance becomes more common.

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Environment Analysis - Environmental Analysis includes many things e.g:

Regulatory compliance - is there a statute or by law that covers the work?

Resource management - is there a requirement for resource management consent?

Environmental protection - what precautions should be taken to protect water ways, air, etc?

Workplace safety - what are the specifics of the work environment? Is it a confined space or working at
heights etc?

Physical Inspections / Audits - These are carried out on a regular basis to monitor the work place for new
hazards and to ensure that:

Health and safety policies are being practised

The policies are still relevant

You will find examples of forms at the back of this resource. Each form uses at least one procedure. Note the
Task Analysis (Job Hazard Analysis) has a What If section. Check each one to become familiar with the way
procedures are used in hazard management.

Example forms:

Accident Investigation

Tasks Analysis (JSA Job Safety Analysis JHA Job Hazard Analysis)

Fault Tree Analysis

Area Analysis

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Identify three hazards in your workplace and the consequence and significance of the hazard if these are
not controlled.

Hazard What if? Consequence if not controlled Is it significant?

Fill in the Hazard Identification form that follows to identify the danger for workers. You may use an incident of
your own or any one of the scenarios below.

Scenario 1. A man is assisting a crane operator to steady a load when unloading poles from a truck. The crane operator
lifted the load, connecting with power arcing from an 11,000 volt power line. The man holding the portal frame is
killed instantly.

Scenario 2. A lines crew employee climbs a pole to cut away conductors. He secures himself to the pole with his belt.
As he cuts the last conductor, the pole breaks and falls to the ground, landing on top of him and fracturing his leg.

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Hazard Identification Form
Hazard Identification Form
The purpose of this procedure is to inspect the work site for hazards and to plan procedures to Eliminate, Isolate or
Minimise any potential hazards.
Work Party Supervisor Signature
Location Date
Job Description
All hazards must be recorded in the hazard identification & control section.
The list below is supplied as a guide only.
Record any hazards present for the work you are doing and update as work progresses.
Is there any risk of electrical shock? Is there any risk of chemical contact?
Is there any heavy lifting required? Is the equipment being worked on clearly identified?
Is there any risk to production? Are there any hazards in gaining access to the site?
Is there any risk of foreign body in eyes? Is there any stored energy involved?
Is there any stored energy involved? Are there any other persons involved or on site?
Is there any risk of drowning/flooding? Is there any risk of inflammable gases?
Hazard Identification and Control
Hazard Is the hazard Method of Control

Eliminate

Isolate

Minimise
significant?
(cause serious harm)

Work Party Details


Work Part Member Name Task/Responsibility Signature

Daily Hazard Assessment by Work Party (supervisor initials)


Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Date
Intial

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 15 of 41


Worksite Emergency Plan

Emergency Phone Numbers

Internal......................................................

External.....................................................

Identify the nearest location of the items relevant for the tasks you are performing
General:
Means of communication
Phone/Radio
Evacuation Assembly Point
First Aid Kit
Fire Alarm
Fire Fighting Equipment
Other

Job Specific:
Eye Wash Station
Decontamination Shower
Oil Spill Kit
Rescue Tripod
Other

Rescue Plan

Supervisor signature:

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4.0 The Hazard Control Process
The purpose of hazard controls is to reduce the level of risk to as low as reasonably practicable. Hazard controls should
be introduced to safeguard people in the most practical and effective way.

4.1 Methods of hazard control


Review accidents/incidents

Reports, minutes of meetings etc.

Review health and safety performance

Induction programmes

Regular inspections

Physical inspections

4.2 Hazard control hierarchy


Where the hazard is significant, the Act requires employers to take All Practicable Steps in order as follows:

1. Eliminate: Eliminate the hazard at its source i.e. remove the hazard, e.g. organising work so that the hazard
is removed from the work area. The Act states the next step in the hierarchy of control if elimination is not
practicable is isolation.

2. Isolate: Isolate the hazard from the public and workforce. Examples of ways to isolate hazards: guards, barriers,
electrical interlocks, lock out and tag out systems, light curtains and fences. If isolation is not an option, the next
step is to minimise and protect employees and the public from the risk of injury.

3. Minimise: Minimisation is the last step in the hierarchy of control and should be considered only after the first two
steps have been worked through. Examples of ways to minimise hazards: SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures),
signs, labels, SDS (Safety Data Sheets), training, education, PPE (Personal Protective Equipment).

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 17 of 41


For each hazard, suggest a control and identify the appropriate method from the hierarchy of control
i.e. Eliminate, Isolate or Minimise.

Hazard Control Hierarchy

PPE worn unsuitable

Hand tools unsafe

Work party on road

Work party on side walk

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5.0 Hazard Review / Monitoring
Hazards are reviewed for two main reasons:
1. To ensure the significance of the hazard is still relevant
2. To ensure the controls in place are still effective

5.1 Hazard monitoring tools


There are several ways an organisation can manage hazard monitoring to ensure that workers are aware of hazards
and that they are being controlled.

Inspections - Regular inspections of plant, machinery and or practice ensures that recognised and new hazards
are being documented and managed. Inspections are written into the Health and Safety policy for an organisation
and are performed at specific intervals by specified personnel. Documentation requires dates and progress of the
management of a particular work area or hazard. Inspections also identify new hazards in the workplace.
Inspection reports are an important tool for managing workplace safety. Inspections highlight actual hazards and
enable the organisation to control a potential hazard.

Passport to Work - Passport to work is a tool used by organisations to ensure that specific health and safety
requirements of the organisation are identified and training is given. To be granted a passport to work,
organisations stipulate the training and/or experience required to enter the work environment. This is a way to
monitor, manage and control entry to a hazardous work environment. To enter the workplace, the passport
to work will need to be current and be presented to supervisory personnel prior to entry and work commencing.
Passport to Work minimises the hazard by ensuring workers are trained, the training is to the organisations
standards and that it is current.

Incident reports - Reporting incidents enables an organisation to monitor potential hazards and take action to
control the hazards if required. Incident reports will be collated by the organisation. They will show trends and
indicate the need for control i.e. eliminate, isolate, minimise.

Ongoing review of Health and Safety performance - This process enables an organisation to monitor the
hazards, controls and performance. This is done by keeping accurate records, performing safety audits, holding
regular health and safety meetings and documenting any new hazards that arise. It is important to review the
Health and Safety Plan within an organisation to ensure that protocols are being managed, new hazards are
identified and controls put into action.

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6.0 Hazard Reporting
Hazards need to be reported and documented. This is a safeguard for all concerned should there be an accident or
incident. Information required on the hazard reporting form is:

Date hazard was reported

The person reporting the hazard

Location of the hazard

Description of the hazard

Risk assessment to determine the significance

Control recommendations. i.e. how the control measure can be implemented e.g. training, guarding, protection

Once a hazard has been identified and reported, it should be recorded in an active Hazard Management Register.
All efforts must then be made to control if not eliminate the hazard.

6.1 Hazard recording


Each hazard recorded should identify:

What the hazard is

The type of injury that could be associated with the hazard

Risk assessment to determine the level of significance

Control measures for the hazard (eliminate, isolate, minimise)

Who is responsible for ensuring that the hazard has been controlled and by what date

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6.2 Accident registers and hazard registers
An accident register is a tool to assist hazard identification. It is a summary of identified incidents/accidents in
a workplace.

A hazard register will show where hazards occurred, the tasks, machinery or situations associated with the hazard, what
control is required and the review process required.

When a work-related accident occurs that harms (or might have harmed) any person, the details must be recorded in
the accident register. The accident (or near accident) must be investigated to determine if it is a significant hazard that
may cause someone to be harmed in future. The contents of the accident register should be checked to see if similar
accidents have happened in the past. As part of the accident investigation, the hazard register should be updated with
any additional or new controls that may be required.

Hazard registers provide a way of maintaining a log of hazards in the workplace to assist planning, budgeting, risk
minimising, and planning hazard audit reviews. The register may be as simple as a file of hazard reports or may be a
dedicated register for the specific purpose. An example of a Hazard Register follows.

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 21 of 41


Hazard register example
Significant Training Hazard Control Review

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Hazards Potential Hazard E I M Hazard Controls required
Identified Harm Yes No Date Date Date
Checked Checked Checked
Visual Discomfort Ensure (Approved Code of Practice for Safe Use of
Display Units Pain and VDUs) is being complied with
(computers) Injury Individual workstation assessments completed at
commencement of employment and after reports
OOS of discomfort, pain and or injury
Stress Training and Information about gradual process
Fatigue injuries and their prevention
Rotate tasks, alternate administration and
computer workloads to vary tasks
Monitor workload, support employees to manage
their workload to minimise stress and fatigue
Pain & discomfort surveys on employment, then
six monthly and when pain and discomfort arises
Fatigue risk management systems are in place
Follow up of employees by health professionals as
necessary for persistent workstation issues, after
obtaining employees informed consent
Manual Handling Sprains Identify high risk activities
i.e. Strains Use trolleys or manual handling aids
Lifting Pain Reduce /split loads into manageable weight
Bending Discomfort and/or size
Stretching Two person or team lifting
Moving Mechanical handling equipment
heavy objects Training in correct manual handling

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


techniques/aids
6.3 Five steps of hazard assessment

Identify Use hazard identification worksheet.


Use thinking prompts what if.
Consult manufacturers and suppliers of equipment, plant and machinery.
Consult operators/employees.
Check accident and other records.
Use appropriate specialists for complex situations.

Assess Is it a significant hazard?


Follow company risk assessment procedures to determine the significance of the hazard.
Choose a priority for action.

Control These are actions to reduce a persons exposure to the hazard. All significant hazards must be:
Eliminated, Isolated or Minimised.
Refer to:

Relevant Codes of Practice/Guidelines

Operator manuals

Safety Data Sheets

Appropriate specialists

Monitor Peoples exposures to the hazard how often are they exposed?
The employees health in relation to the exposure to the hazard health monitoring.
Workplace or work environment monitoring to ensure hazard controls are still effective.

Review All hazards.


All hazard controls.
Hazard registers and safe work procedures.
Training, education and information programmes.

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 23 of 41


6.4 Risk Assessment Rating Tables
1. Likelihood of an Occurrence

Level Descriptor Description

A Almost certain The event is expected to occur in most circumstances.

B Likely The event will probably occur in most circumstances.

C Moderate The event should occur at some time.

D Unlikely The event could occur at some time.

E Rare The event may occur only in exceptional circumstances.

2. Consequence of an Occurrence

Level Descriptor Description

5 Catastrophic Death, toxic release off-site with detrimental effects

4 Major Extensive injuries, off-site release with no detrimental effects

3 Moderate Medical treatment required, on-site release contained with outside assistance

2 Minor First aid treatment, on-site release immediately contained

1 Insignificant No injuries

3. Risk Analysis Matrix Level of Risk

Likelihood Consequence
Catastrophic Major Moderate Minor Insignificant
5 4 3 2 1

A (Almost certain) H H H S S

B (Likely) H H S S M

C (Moderate) H H S M L

D (Unlikely) H S M L L

E (Rare) S S M L L

H = High risk detailed research management planning required at senior levels


S = Significant risk senior management attention needed
M = Moderate risk management responsibility must be specified
L = Low risk manage by routine procedures

Page 24 of 41 TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Using the risk rating tables on page 24, rate the following hazards.

Hazard Likelihood of Consequence of Level of risk


occurrence occurrence

Using a crane to unload


a vehicle near a 11,000
volt power line

Pulling cables through


a wall from an
adjoining room

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 25 of 41


7.0 Workplace Sources of Harm
7.1 Machinery
Hazards associated with machinery are crush injuries, lacerations, amputations, entrapment of body parts, being hit by
flying objects, noise and vibration.

Controls used with machinery include:

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Planned preventative maintenance for machinery

Adequate guarding of plant

General housekeeping

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Training to ensure the correct use of PPE

Training to ensure operator competency in using machinery

7.2 Manual handling


Strain and sprain injuries have become a major concern to NZ industry. Many thousands of hours are lost every year due
to back strain and other injuries like Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS), Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI). These injuries
are commonly caused by incorrect lifting techniques in the areas of lifting postures, repetitive work, seating, weights,
work patterns and work station design.

Controls used with manual handling include:

Engineering aids

Work area design

Task rotation

Use of mechanical lifting devices

Training to ensure correct lifting techniques

Training to encourage micro pauses and personal fitness

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7.3 Workplace conditions
Workplaces can have a wide range of hazards eg. general slips, trips, falls, dust, noise, working at heights, in confined
spaces, extreme temperatures, levels of light, energy sources such as electricity, stairs and ladders are all hazardous
working conditions.

Controls used with workplace conditions include:

Health monitoring

Ventilation

Good housekeeping

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Training

Permits restricting general access and requiring specific procedures to be followed

Signage

7.4 Chemical hazards


Chemicals have an accumulative impact. Chemicals can be corrosive, irritating, sensitising, flammable, explosive and
toxic. They may come in the form of gases, fumes, liquids, solids, particulates or powders. Chemicals enter the body
through inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion, which can have effects such as acid and alkali burns, blindness,
damage to internal organs, miscarriage and birth defects.

Examples of chemical hazards include acids, aerosols, alkalis, by-products, corrosive dust, explosives, flammable fumes
and gases, metal mist paints, pesticides, resins, smoke, solvent sprays and vapour wastes.

Controls used with chemical hazards include:

Comply with Safety Data Sheet (SDS) information

Follow Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Good housekeeping

Training in the areas of:

Correct use and storage of PPE



Knowledge of company requirements for handling chemicals

Knowledge of the nearest chemical shower/eye bath or solution

Log on to the web www.osh.govt.nz. This is the official site for Workplace Health and Safety within
New Zealand. You will find information on legislation, management of hazards, rights and responsibilities of
workers and employers on this site.

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 27 of 41


8.0 Environmental Sources of Harm
8.1 Physical damage
Physical damage is caused when the natural environment is purposefully or accidently manipulated on a macroscopic
level i.e. measurable or observable by the naked eye.

Examples of physical damage include damming streams and rivers, deforestation and land clearing, mineral and resource
extraction, roads and development of untouched environmental areas.

Sustainable management - Redevelopment of previously developed, but unused or under used areas, reduces
the need to develop pristine or untouched areas. Undeveloped areas can be developed in a manner that minimises
physical changes to the environment and their environmental impact. Reuse and recycling, as well as efficient use
of products, minimises the need to extract virgin resources through mining and forest harvesting.

Potential to harm organisations - Organisations that try to develop pristine environments are likely to run
into public and legal opposition. Responding to opposition can be costly and lead to the cancellation of projects.
Companies that continue to cause physical harm to the environment can be labelled as bad actors and can
receive bad publicity. Companies are sometimes required to remediate sites where they have caused
physical damage.

Sources of further information include the:

Resource Management Act

NZ Environment Act 1986

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8.2 Air pollution
Air pollution is caused when contaminates such as chemicals or particulates are released into the air.
Air pollution has many causes such as combustion of coal for power generation, combustion of petroleum products in
vehicles and equipment, combustion of wood, bulk storage of chemicals and petroleum, industrial manufacturing including
refining, forest fires and volcanic activity.

Typical air pollutants are:

Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide - also referred to as Sulphur Oxides and are responsible for acid rain

Nitrogen Dioxide and Nitrate - also referred to as Nitrogen Oxides and are responsible for brown hazes typically
over big cities or industrial areas

Carbon Monoxide - a poisonous gas

Carbon Dioxide - a greenhouse gas

Particulate Matter - of concern are particles which are harmful to peoples lungs. Visible dust and particulates
from sites can be a visual nuisance

Volatile Organic Compounds - these are carcinogens such as Benzene as well as greenhouse gases such
a Methane

Toxic metals from combustion such as Mercury

Sustainable management - Large industrial facilities such as the Huntly Power Station, Glenbrook Steel Mill,
and Tasman Pulp and Paper will have an air discharge permit issued by the Ministry for the Environment. Adherence
to the requirements of the permit is mandatory.

Reduction in energy use at a facility will also result in a reduction of fuel being burnt. This will result in less air
pollution. Saving energy reduces pollution. Some companies will have environment improvement plans or
environmental management systems in place to improve their performance, and reduce their environmental impact.

Potential harm to organisations - Visual discharges such as dust or other particulates from a site can be a
nuisance to neighbouring communities, homes and businesses. Emitters of greenhouse gasses will be faced with
financial penalties in the future. Emitters of odourous compounds must ensure that odours do not cause a nuisance.
Noncompliance with permits or failure to minimise discharges can result in financial penalties and bad publicity.

Sources of further Information include the:

NZ Environment Act 1986


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/environment.html

Resource Management Act


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/air

National Environmental Standards for Air Quality


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/standards/index.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 29 of 41


8.3 Water pollution
Water pollution is caused when contaminates are released into surface and groundwater bodies. Surface bodies
are lakes, rivers and oceans. Groundwater pollution has many causes such as industrial effluent, agricultural runoff
containing fertilizers, pesticides, animal effluent, untreated or improperly treated sewage, stormwater runoff from paved
areas, industrial areas, and high density feed lots, trash and refuse, dumping of chemicals in storm water drains, spills
and releases of chemicals, petroleum products, biodegradable products and leaching of chemicals and toxins into
surface and groundwater.

Typical water pollutants include:

Oxygen depleting substances these are naturally occurring organic matter as well as chemicals that reduce
the oxygen available to aquatic organisms such as fish.

Toxic substances such as chemicals and metals

pH altering substances

Nutrients which cause the rapid growth of unwanted organisms

Pathogens such as salmonella, giardia, and faecal coliforms

Chemical disinfectants, chemical wastes, and petroleum products

Silts and sediments from construction sites, logging areas, and land clearing sites

Sustainable management - Industries will generally need a Trade Waste Discharge agreement with the local
water authority in order to discharge industrial wastewaters to the water treatment plant or system. This ensures
that the treatment systems are able to effectively treat industrial waste effluents.

Facilities that discharge non-hazardous or treated effluent to surface waters will need a discharge permit.
Sampling of discharges is generally required to ensure the discharge limits are not exceeded. Sites should ensure
that chemicals are properly bunded, stored, and managed. Some sites will have chemical and dangerous goods
handling and management plans. Contaminated water runoff from sites should be collected and not allowed to be
discharged freely from sites.

Land application of pesticides, effluents and nutrients including chemical fertilizers as well as abattoir and
dairy effluents, should be applied in a proper manner that prevents runoff. Some companies will have environment
improvement plans or environmental management systems in place to improve environmental performance and
reduce their environmental impacts.

Page 30 of 41 TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Potential harm to organisations - Improper and over application of pesticides and nutrients to the land results in
wastage and increased costs. Failure to comply with permits or to minimise discharges can result in negative
publicity and regulatory fines.

Spills and releases to surface and groundwater bodies will require remediation and mitigation actions, which are
quite costly. Regulatory fines can be levied for environmental damage caused by spills and mismanagement of
chemicals and materials.

Sources for further information include the:

Resource Management Act


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/water/

National Environmental Standards for Drinking Water


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/standards/drinking-water-source-standard.htm
http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/soil.html

Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Act 1941


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/soil.html
www.marlborough.govt.nz/content/docs/.../DischargeBrochure.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pollution

8.4 Land pollution


Land pollution is caused when contaminates are released to the land. Land pollution has many causes such as spills
and releases of chemicals and petroleum products, improper application of fertilisers and pesticides and improper
disposal of industrial and commercial wastes.

Typical land pollutants include:

Herbicides and pesticides

Chemicals and petroleum products

Trash, refuse, and litter

Improper management of landfills and tips

Sustainable management - Sites should ensure that chemicals are properly bunded, stored, and managed.
Some sites will have chemical and dangerous goods handling and management plans. Land application of
pesticides, effluents and nutrients including chemical fertilizers as well as abattoir and dairy effluents should be
applied in a proper manner that prevents over application and saturation. Some companies will have environment
improvement plans or environmental management systems in place to improve environmental performance, and
reduce their environmental impacts. Sites should ensure their wastes are properly disposed of and are sent to
reputable waste disposal facilities.

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 31 of 41


Potential harm to organisations - Spills and releases of chemicals and products lead to undue wastage and
increased expenses. Companies are liable for their wastes even after disposal. Therefore companies must ensure
that wastes are properly disposed of. Spills and releases to land will require remediation and mitigation actions.
Regulatory fines can be levied for environmental damage caused by spills and mismanagement of chemicals
and materials.

Sources of further information include the:

Resource Management Act


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/land/

Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Act 1941
http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/soil.html

8.5 Noise pollution


Noise pollution is caused when displeasing sounds disrupt normal activity. Causes of noise pollution include
industrial plant equipment, traffic, alarms and sirens, machinery and animals such as barking dogs.

Sustainable management - Sites should ensure that they are not causing undue noise that disrupts the local
fauna and their neighbours. Some sites may have noise management plans to reduce noise generation on site.
Informing neighbours of planned noises such as special works or sirens can help to reduce neighbour complaints.
Sites should consider noise impacts before purchasing new equipment or planning upgrades to plant.

Potential harm to organisations - Loud noises can cause hearing damage to individuals. Continual disruption of
neighbours can create hostile relationships. This alone can cause neighbouring facilities and residents to attempt
to block future facility upgrades and activities.

A source of further information is the Resource Management Act.

Page 32 of 41 TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


8.6 Overuse of resources
Overuse of resources is caused when the Earths naturally occurring raw materials such water, vegetation, minerals and
fossil fuels are used or made un-usable at a rate faster than they can be replenished.

Examples of resource overuse include:

Current rates of use of fossil fuels known as non-renewable resources

Deforestation and land clearing

Overpopulation which leads to water and food scarcities

Over grazing

Pollution of water resources which decreases their benefits

Sustainable management - Some companies have sustainable management plans to help ensure that raw
materials going into their products are sourced in a way that ensures the raw materials will be available in the
future and for a long term. Sourcing power from renewable resources such as wind and some hydro, reduces the
amount of fossil fuels mined for energy. Some farms employ sustainable agriculture practices that ensure soils
remain fertile.

Potential harm to organisations - Overuse of resources results in the diminishment of raw materials available
for production. This increases resource costs and increases a facilitys operating costs. Industry can collapse if
resources are no longer available or are too expensive for use. In some cases overuse of resources leads to mass
famine, potable water scarcity and fuel shortages. The collapse of some ancient civilisations has also been
attributed to overuse of resources.

Sources of further information include the:

Resource Management Act


http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/sus-dev/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_agriculture

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 33 of 41


Answers to Activities

Activity (Page 14)

Identify three hazards in your workplace and the consequence and significance of the hazard if these are not
controlled.

Hazard What if? Consequence if not controlled Is it significant?

e.g Leads lying across the floor e.g Tripping and breaking an arm or leg Yes

e.g Using machinery without e.g. Being caught in machinery and losing a finger Yes
appropriate guards

e.g Working in the sun e.g Heat stroke or cancer Yes

Activity (Page 14)

Scenario 1
Risk: electrocution, Hazard: serious, Harm: death, Safety actions required: MAD (minimum approach distance should be
established and adhered to, a safety observer should have been provided: PPE : gloves should be worn.

Scenario 2
Risk: fall physical harm, Hazard: serious broken limbs, Safety actions required: Inspection of the pole below and
above ground level prior to climbing, PPE: hard hat, safety belt.

Page 34 of 41 TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Activity (Page 18)

For each hazard, suggest a control and identify the appropriate hierarchy i.e. Eliminate, Isolate or Minimise.

Hazard Control Hierarchy

PPE worn unsuitable Regular PPE checks and replacement policy Eliminate

Hand tools unsafe Regular maintenance and replacement policy Eliminate

Work part on road Signage and traffic management Minimise

Work party on side walk Barriers and signage Isolate

Activity (Page 25)

Using the risk rating tables, rate the following hazards.

Hazard Likelihood of Consequence of Level of Risk


occurrence occurrence

Using a crane to unload a vehicle near a 11, 000 volt D (Unlikely) 5 (Catastrophic) High Risk
power line

Pulling cables through wall from adjoining room B (Likely) 3 (Moderate) Significant Risk

(Note: Answers may vary depending on tasks. The level of risk should be correct for Likelihood and Consequence
values used.)

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 35 of 41


Accident Investigation Form
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION FORM
PARTICULARS OF ACCIDENT
Date of accident Time Location Date reported

MTWTFSS
THE INJURED PERSON
Name Address
Age Ph
Date of accident Length of employment - at plant on job
TYPE OF INJURY: Bruising Dislocation Other (specify) Injured part of body
Strain/sprain Scratch/abrasion Internal
Fracture Amputation Foreign body Remarks
Laceration/cut Burn scald Chemical
reaction
DAMAGED PROPERTY
Property/ material damaged Nature of damage

Object/substance inflicting damage

THE ACCIDENT
Description - Describe what happened (space overleaf for diagram essential for all vehicle accidents)

Analysis - What were the causes of the accident?

HOW BAD COULD IT HAVE BEEN? WHAT IS THE CHANCE OF IT HAPPENING AGAIN?
Very serious Serious Minor Minor Occasional Rare

Prevention
What action has or will be taken to prevent a recurrence? Actioned By whom When
Tick items already actioned

TREATMENT AND INVESTIGATION OF ACCIDENT


Type of treatment given Name of person giving first aid Doctor/Hospital

Accident investigated by Date Date

Page 36 of 41 TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Task Analysis Form - (Jsa) Job Safety Analysis Or (Jha) Job Hazard Analysis
W/O Number SAMPLE ACTIVITY:
Area of Work
Work supervisor Training Required

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Review Date Specialist PPE
Associated Procedures / Work Instructions:
Reviewed by PIC Signature: Name
Step Description of Step Hazard/s Who/What could be harmed, Control E Person Responsible

Risk
# Potential consequence,
I

Severity
Why the event would occur

Likelihood
(Due to) M

Page 37 of 41
RECOVERY PLAN. What If? ACTION AND CONTROLS REQUIRED TO BE IN PLACE PRIOR TO STARTING ACTIVITY
Emergency Contacts and Numbers
Emergency Equipment Required

Page 38 of 41
Emergency Action Plan
Who/What could be harmed, E Person

Risk
HAZARDS OF THE DAY Hazard/s Potential consequence, Control Responsible

Severity
Why the event would occur I

Likelihood
(Due to)
M

I have been involved in the toolbox talk that discussed and agreed the JHA, Procedures and Emergency Response Plan to safely and efficiently conduct this activity and
I have reviewed the use of TAKE 2.

Team Member Team Member


Date Print Name Signature Date Print Name Signature

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Area Analysis Form

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

Names of those involved: _________________________________________________________________

Area Analysis conducted in: ________________ Date of job: _____________________________________

Description of Item Reason it is Perceived as Hazardous Potential Harm Risk


Score

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011 Page 39 of 41


Fault Tree

Page 40 of 41
Fault tree Event tree
(Why the main event happened) (What could happen next)

Main event
(First thing to happen)

Controls Recoveries

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Fault Tree - Example

Fault tree Event tree


(Why the main event happened) (What could happen next)

TAR 17602 | Rev. 1, 2011


Injury Face, neck, Serious harm
Travelling chest Death
too fast skidded Main event
Vehicle accident rear ended Police Fines
car in front Imprisonment
conviction
Service Job loss
Brake
overdue
failure fuel leak
fire

Eating vehicle
Distracted
while behind cost
vehicle
driving hits insurance claim
damage
loss of no claim

Controls
* Ignore distractions Recoveries
* Stop, make safe, deal with distractions
* Safe vehicle design - air bags
* Regular vehicle maintence
* Insurance
* Drive to conditions
* Fire extinguisher in vehicle
* Defensive driving training
* Emergency response training

Page 41 of 41